Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive cassava research programme was started at CIAT (Colombia). One of its aims was
H. J. Veltkamp
Presented here are the three volumes of the 1986 edition of CIAT's journal of analytical abstracts on cassava 'Manihot esculenta' Crantz. A total of 654 abstracts are included providing condensed information from journal articles, booklets, mimeographed r...
M. Vargas de West
Methodology, based on starch and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was developed for determining isozyme electrophoregrams (patterns) of 16 enzymes of cassava (Manihot esculentaGrantz) varieties as potential genotype markers. Extracts of five different tissues (root, stem, leaf, petiole and bud) were examined. In general, the nodal portions of the shoots gave isozyme patterns with the largest number of bands. Petiole extracts gave
H. Ramirez; A. Hussain; W. Roca; W. Bushuk
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vitally important food source for many people in devel- oping tropical countries. There are signifi cant opportunities for improving the compositional qualities and pest resistance of cassava, and modern biotechnology is expected to play an important role in these improvements. The test- ing and development of genetically modifi ed cassava will of course be
Mark E. Halsey; Kenneth M. Olsen; Nigel J. Taylor; Paul Chavarriaga-Aguirre
BACKGROUND: Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them
Kaimian Li; Wenli Zhu; Kang Zeng; Zhenwen Zhang; Jianqiu Ye; Wenjun Ou; Samrina Rehman; Bruria Heuer; Songbi Chen
As a potential source of biomass supplies, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) has been studied for bioethanol production, but not for the production of biodiesel. In this study, we used cassava\\u000a hydrolysate as an alternative carbon source for the growth of microalgae (Chlorella protothecoides) which accumulated oil in vivo, with high oil content up to 53% by dry mass under a
Yue Lu; Yan Zhai; Minsheng Liu; Qingyu Wu
Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu2+ and Fe2+) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in cassava. This is the first ever detailed report of microspore reprogramming at the tetrad stage and the first report of microspore embryogenesis induction in cassava with detailed evidence.
Perera, P. I. P.; Ordonez, C. A.; Dedicova, B.; Ortega, P. E. M.
Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in cassava. This is the first ever detailed report of microspore reprogramming at the tetrad stage and the first report of microspore embryogenesis induction in cassava with detailed evidence. PMID:24887001
Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M
\\u000a Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the major starchy staple root crops for over 800 million people living throughout the tropics including\\u000a Africa. This crop is considered as one of the most important staples of sub-Saharan Africa accounting for the highest cassava\\u000a harvest worldwide, followed by Asia and South America, and the demand for its cultivation in the next
Satya S. Narina; Madhuri Jasti; Ramesh Buyyarapu; Ranjana Bhattacharjee
Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), is a major disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Africa and South America. Planting resistant varieties is the preferred method of disease control. Recent genetic\\u000a mapping of an F1 cross (TMS 30572 ? CM 2177–2) led to the construction of the first molecular genetic map of cassava. To
V. Jorge; M. A. Fregene; M. C. Duque; M. W. Bonierbale; J. Tohme; V. Verdier
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a very important staple and industrial crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The paucity of markers\\u000a is a serious limitation in marker-assisted breeding. A total of 35,992 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cassava, which\\u000a were clustered in 13,173 unigenes, were used in this study. A total of 1,889 microsatellites were identified, with
Meiling Zou; Zhiqiang Xia; Peng Ling; Yang Zhang; Xin Chen; Zusheng Wei; Weiping Bo; Wenquan Wang
Current methods for molecular fingerprinting of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) have limited throughput or are costly, thus preventing the characterization of large germplasm collections such as\\u000a those held by the International Agricultural Research Centers or National Research Institutions, which comprise hundreds to\\u000a thousands of accessions. Here, we report the development of a fluorescence-based multiplex simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker\\u000a kit
Thomas C. de Bang; Adebola A. Raji; Ivan L. Ingelbrecht
Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant. PMID:22519123
Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K
Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus’ native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).
Vasquez-Ordonez, Aymer Andres; Parsa, Soroush
Biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Jatropha gossypiifolia, commercial (Manihot esculenta) and wild cassava (Manihot flabellifolia and M. carthaginensis) (Euphorbiaceae).
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most important pests of cassava in Africa and several countries of Asia due to the damage caused by direct feeding, the excretion of honeydew, and its capacity as a vector of cassava mosaic geminivirus. There is a general consensus that B. tabaci is a complex of morphologically indistinguishable populations with different biotypes. In the Americas, the polyphagous biotype B does not appear to feed on cassava. Recent studies indicate that it is possible, however, for biotype B to gradually adapt to cassava using phylogenetically related hosts. Therefore, the possibility that some wild species of cassava constitute intermediate hosts in the adaptation process may lead to the establishment of biotype B on commercial varieties of Manihot esculenta. In here, we evaluated Jatropha gossypiifolia, two wild species of cassava (Manihot flabellifolia and M. carthaginensis) and a commercial cassava variety (MCol 2063) as hosts of biotype B. The highest oviposition rate (2.7 eggs /two days) occurred on M. esculenta, although the development time (44 d) was the longest when compared to M. carthaginensis and J. gossypiifolia. About 60% of the population could reproduce on the wild cassava species vs. 55% on J. gossypiifolia and 27.5% on the commercial variety. Our data suggest that J. gossypiifolia is a suitable host and the wild species M. carthaginensis can constitute a potential intermediate host in the adaptation of biotype B to commercial varieties of cassava. PMID:20877992
Carabalí, Arturo; Belloti, Anthony C; Montoya-Lerma, James
Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions.
Yusuf, U.F., Fakhru'l-Razi, A., Rosli, R., Iyuke, S.E., Billa, N., Abdullah, N. and Umar-Tsafe, N. An in vitro inhibition of human malignant cell growth of crude water extract of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and commercial linamarin
Umar F. Yusuf; Fakhru' l-Razi Ahmadun; Rozita Rosli; Sunny E. Iyuke; Nashiru Billa; Nasir Umar-Tsafe
This study examined the A and B horizons of deep, developed and moderately unsaturated sandy ferrallitic soils amended with cattle and poultry manures under cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation. Therefore, a plot experiment was carried out by using a randomized complete blocks design in 4 replications and fields treatments which included unfertilized (control) and one dose (10 t\\/ha) of both
S. Bakayoko; D. Soro; C. Nindjin; D. Dao; A. Tschannen; O. Girardin; A. Assa; Côte d'Ivoire
The cassava plant, Manihot esculenta, grows exceptionally well in low fertility and drought prone environments, but the mechanisms that allow this growth are unknown. Earlier, and sometimes contradictory, work speculated about the presence of a C4-type photosynthesis in cassava leaves. In the present work we found no evidence for a C4 metabolism in mature attached cassava leaves as indicated i) by the low, 2 to 8%, incorporation of (14)CO2 into C4 organic acids in short time periods, 10 s, and the lack of (14)C transfer from C4 acids to other compounds in (12)CO2, ii) by the lack of C4 enzyme activity changes during leaf development and the inability to detect C4 acid decarboxylases, and iii) by leaf CO2 compensation values between 49 and 65 ?l of CO2 1(-1) and by other infrared gas exchange photosynthetic measurements. It is concluded that the leaf biochemistry of cassava follows the C3 pathway of photosynthesis with no indication of a C3-C4 mechanism.However, cassava leaves exhibit several novel characteristics. Attached leaves have the ability to effectively partition carbon into sucrose with nearly 45% of the label in sucrose in about one min of (14)CO2 photosynthesis, contrasting with 34% in soybean (C3) and 25% in pigweed (C4). Cassava leaves displayed a strong preference for the synthesis of sucrose versus starch. Field grown cassava leaves exhibited high rates of photosynthesis and curvilinear responses to increasing sunlight irradiances with a tendency to saturate only at high irradiances, above 1500 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). Morphologically, the cassava leaf has papillose epidermal cells on its lower mesophyll surface that form 'fence-like' arrangements encircling guard cells. It is proposed that the active synthesis of sugars has osmotic functions in the cassava plant and that the papillose epidermal cells function to maintain a healthy leaf water status in various environments. PMID:24317831
Angelov, M N; Sun, J; Byrd, G T; Brown, R H; Black, C C
Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil.
Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.
Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability. PMID:24178017
Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M
Background and Aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Methods Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Key Results Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0·54 ?m 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0·44 ?m 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly influenced by hormone treatments. Conclusions The storage root formation system reported here is a first approach to develop a tuberization model, and additional efforts are required to improve it. Although it was not possible to achieve root secondary growth, after this work it will be feasible to advance in some aspects of in vitro cassava tuberization.
Medina, Ricardo D.; Faloci, Mirta M.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Mroginski, Luis A.
Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) Activated Monocytes
Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N?-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.
Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange
Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered as one of the main limiting factors causing significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry. The anthelmintic properties of some plants are among the suggested alternative solutions to control these parasitic worms. The present study investigated the anthelmintic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts against the susceptible and resistant strains of one of the most important nematodes in small ruminants, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta. Three different in vitro tests: egg hatch test, larval development assay, and larval paralysis assay were used to determine the efficiency of neem and cassava extracts on three pre-parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The LC(50) was determined for the most potent extract in each plant as well as the phytochemical tests, total tannin quantification and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats. The results revealed a high anthelmintic activity of neem methanol extract (NME) and cassava methanol extract (CME) on both strains of T. circumcincta without significant differences between the strains. The first stage larvae were more sensitive with the lowest LC(50) at 7.15 mg/ml and 10.72 mg/ml for NME and CME, respectively, compared with 44.20mg/ml and 56.68 mg/ml on eggs and 24.91 mg/ml and 71.96 mg/ml on infective stage larvae. PMID:22455724
Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important staple crop, especially in the arid tropics. Because roots of commercial cassava cultivars contain a limited amount of provitamin A carotenoids, both conventional breeding and genetic modification are being applied to increase their production and accumulation to fight vitamin A deficiency disorders. We show here that an allelic polymorphism in one of the two expressed phytoene synthase (PSY) genes is capable of enhancing the flux of carbon through carotenogenesis, thus leading to the accumulation of colored provitamin A carotenoids in storage roots. A single nucleotide polymorphism present only in yellow-rooted cultivars cosegregates with colored roots in a breeding pedigree. The resulting amino acid exchange in a highly conserved region of PSY provides increased catalytic activity in vitro and is able to increase carotenoid production in recombinant yeast and Escherichia coli cells. Consequently, cassava plants overexpressing a PSY transgene produce yellow-fleshed, high-carotenoid roots. This newly characterized PSY allele provides means to improve cassava provitamin A content in cassava roots through both breeding and genetic modification.
Welsch, Ralf; Arango, Jacobo; Bar, Cornelia; Salazar, Bertha; Al-Babili, Salim; Beltran, Jesus; Chavarriaga, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Tohme, Joe; Beyer, Peter
A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.
This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava. PMID:24026343
Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B
The complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae) has been determined. The genome is 161,453 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 26,954 bp. The genome includes 128 genes; 96 are single copy and 16 are duplicated in the IR. There are four rRNA genes and 30 distinct tRNAs, seven of which are duplicated in the IR. The infA gene is absent; expansion of IRb has duplicated 62 amino acids at the 3? end of rps19 and a number of coding regions have large insertions or deletions, including insertions within the 23S rRNA gene. There are 17 intron-containing genes in cassava, 15 of which have a single intron while two (clpP, ycf3) have two introns. The usually conserved atpF group II intron is absent and this is the first report of its loss from land plant chloroplast genomes. The phylogenetic distribution of the atpF intron loss was determined by a PCR survey of 251 taxa representing 34 families of Malpighiales and 16 taxa from closely related rosids. The atpF intron is not only missing in cassava but also from closely related Euphorbiaceae and other Malpighiales, suggesting that there have been at least seven independent losses. In cassava and all other sequenced Malphigiales, atpF gene sequences showed a strong association between C-to-T substitutions at nucleotide position 92 and the loss of the intron, suggesting that recombination between an edited mRNA and the atpF gene may be a possible mechanism for the intron loss.
Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Lee, Seung-Bum; Saski, Christopher; Jansen, Robert K.
Cross incompatibility of wild Manihot species with cassava (M. esculenta) can impede their utilization for improving this cultigen. We tested whether compatibility could be determined based on electrophoresis results. Manihot pilosa, M. glaziovii, M. reptans, and M. cearulescens were tested. These species were allowed to hybridize with cassava to determine whether hybridization coincides with the similarity index based on electrophoresis analysis. Gene markers of leaf shape, stem surface, disk color, and fruit shape were used to confirm hybridization. Manihot pilosa and M. glaziovii successfully hybridized with cassava, while the others failed to do so under natural conditions. This result coincided with the similarity index from electrophoresis. PMID:20092040
Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N; Chaib, A; Abreu, L F A; Gomes, P T C
SUMMARY The performance of some elite materials of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was evaluated through the agromorphological and biochemical characterization, so as to generate information on the potential of these clones. Experiments were conducted both in vitro and field conditions. In vitro multiplication was possible in all the 19 clones studied, which showed differences in some morphological characteristics, both in
Arelys Marín; José Gerardo Albarrán; Francia Fuenmayor; Dinaba Perdomo; Cristela Zambrano
SUMMARY Plant tissue culture methodologies were developed five dec- ades ago. However, expensive reagents and faulty technology transfer have prevented farmers in developing countries to ben- efit from these techniques. In Venezuela, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a neglected crop harvested by poor farmers in marginal areas. Several constraints plot against large scale cassava cultivation, but the most important ones
Gustavo Romay; Juan Matehus; Armando Gerstl; Rodrigo Rueda; María A. Santana
The tripartite 1988 volume of is a collection of analytical abstracts which provides a specialized guide to the world's literature on cassava. In addition to journal articles, theses, and other conventional sources of information, the collection also cove...
From a phylogenetic perspective, the genus Manihot can be considered as an orphan group of plants, and the scientific knowledge acquired has been mainly related to cassava, one of the most important crops in poor tropical countries. The goal of the majority of evolutionary studies in the genus has been to decipher the domestication process and identify the closest relatives of cassava. Few investigations have focused on wild Manihot species, and the phylogeny of the genus is still unclear. In this study the DNA sequence variation from two chloroplast regions, the nuclear DNA gene G3pdh and two nuclear sequences derived from the 3'-end of two cassava ESTs, were used in order to infer the phylogenetic relationships among a subset of wild Manihot species, including two species from Cnidoscolus as out-groups. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses were conducted for each data set and for a combined matrix due to the low variation of each region when analyzed independently. A penalized likelihood analysis of the chloroplast region trnL-trnF, calibrated with various age estimates for genera in the Euphorbiaceae extracted from the literature was used to determine the ages of origin and diversification of the genus. The two Mesoamerican species sampled form a well-defined clade. The South American species can be grouped into clades of varying size, but the relationships amongst them cannot be established with the data available. The age of the crown node of Manihot was estimated at 6.6 million years ago. Manihot esculenta varieties do not form a monophyletic group that is consistent with the possibility of multiple introgressions of genes from other wild species. The low levels of variation observed in the DNA regions sampled suggest a recent and explosive diversification of the genus, which is confirmed by our age estimates. PMID:18706508
Chacón, Juliana; Madriñán, Santiago; Debouck, Daniel; Rodriguez, Fausto; Tohme, Joe
Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics.
Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Marcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M
Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041
Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M
A cDNA library was constructed from the root tissues of cassava variety Huanan 124 at the root bulking stage. A total of 9,600\\u000a cDNA clones from the library were sequenced with single-pass from the 5?-terminus to establish a catalogue of expressed sequence\\u000a tags (ESTs). Assembly of the resulting EST sequences resulted in 2,878 putative unigenes. Blastn analysis showed that 62.6%
You-Zhi Li; Ying-Hua Pan; Chang-Bin Sun; Hai-Tao Dong; Xing-Lu Luo; Zhi-Qiang Wang; Ji-Liang Tang; Baoshan Chen
The gas exchange characteristics of cassava were compared with one C3 species, common bean, and two C4 species, maize and amaranthus. Cassava leaf photorespiration, about 12% of maximum net photosynthesis in normal air, and the CO2 release in CO2-free air under intense light were lower than the values typically reported for C3 species. The CO2 compensation point of whole leaves (25 cm(3) CO2m(-3)) was intermediate between C3 and C4 species values.Gas exchange was restricted to either the upper or lower surface of amphistomatous leaves by covering one side of the leaf with silicone grease. The CO2 compensation point of the upper leaf surface was less than 6 cm(3) CO2m(-3) and the CO2 release into CO2-free air in the light was essentially zero. On the lower leaf surface considerable CO2 release occurred in both the light and the dark.The hypothesis presented to explain these results is the existence of an efficient CO2 recycling mechanism in the palisade layer in the upper half of the leaf. In the light of recent data (presented in the second paper of this series) indicating that cassava produces C4 acids as primary products of photosynthesis, it is proposed that this hypothesis is consistent with the possible existence of the C4 photosynthetic pathway in the palisade layer of cassava leaves.The results and hypothesis are discussed in relation to the crop's adaptation to the environmental conditions where it is normally grown. The implications of variation in anatomical features such as stomatal distribution on both surfaces of the leaf are analyzed with a view to enhancing the potential productivity of cassava under stress conditions. PMID:24435689
El-Sharkawy, M A; Cock, J H
Maximum photosynthetic CO2 exchange rates (Pn) of single attached leaves were determined for several cassava cultivars selected from different habitats and grown in pots outdoors at CIAT, Colombia, S.A. Pn rates were in a narrow range of 22 to 26 ?mol CO2 m(-2)s(-1) for all cultivars tested when measured at high photon flux density, normal air, optimum temperature and with low leaf-air vapor pressure differences. For all tested cultivars (9 cvs.), there was a broad optimum temperature for Pn between 25 to 35°C. At temperatures below and above this range Pn declined in all cultivars with Pn rates reaching 80% of maximum at 20 and 40°C. Pn temperature coefficient (Q10) from 15-25°C was 1.6±0.2 across cultivars. No consistent relation existed between Pn, optimum temperature, and the original habitat. PMID:24458700
El-Sharkawy, M A; Cock, J H; Held, A A
One of the objectives of the cassava-breeding project at CIAT is the identification of clones with special root quality characteristics. A large number of self-pollinations have been made in search of useful recessive traits. During 2006 harvests an S1 plant produced roots that stained brownish-red when treated with an iodine solution, suggesting that it had lower-than-normal levels of amylose in its starch. Colorimetric and DSC measurements indicated low levels (3.4%) and an absence of amylose in the starch, respectively. SDS-PAGE demonstrated the absence of GBSS enzyme in the starch from these roots. Pasting behavior was analyzed with a rapid visco-analyzer and resulted in larger values for peak viscosity, gel breakdown, and setback in the mutant compared with normal cassava starch. Solubility was considerably reduced, while the swelling index and volume fraction of the dispersed phase were higher in the mutant. No change in starch granule size or shape was observed. This is the first report of a natural mutation in cassava that drastically reduces amylose content in root starch. PMID:17696358
Ceballos, Hernán; Sánchez, Teresa; Morante, Nelson; Fregene, Martin; Dufour, Dominique; Smith, Alison M; Denyer, Kay; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Calle, Fernando; Mestres, Christian
Background Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, ?-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-?-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention after three boiling cooking methods. Design The total carotenoid, ?-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-?-carotene isomers in yellow sweet cassava samples were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, before and after applying the cooking methods. All analyses were performed in triplicate. Results The total carotenoid in raw roots varied from 2.64 to 14.15 µg/g and total ?-carotene from 1.99 to 10.32 µg/g. The ?-carotene predominated in all the roots. The Híbrido 2003 14 08 cultivar presented the highest ?-carotene content after cooking methods 1 and 3. The 1153 – Klainasik cultivar presented the highest 9-Z-?-carotene content after cooking by method 3. The highest total carotenoid retention was observed in cultivar 1456 – Vermelhinha and that of ?-carotene for the Híbrido 2003 14 11 cultivar, both after cooking method 1. Evaluating the real retention percentage (RR%) in sweet yellow cassava after home cooking methods showed differences that can be attributed to the total initial carotenoid contents. However, no cooking method uniformly provided a higher total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention in all the cultivars. Conclusion Differences were found in the cooking methods among the samples regarding total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention, suggesting that the different behaviors of the cultivars need to be further analyzed. However, high percentages of total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention were observed and can minimize vitamin A deficiency in low-income populations.
Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Oliveira, Alcides R. G.; Godoy, Ronoel L. O.; Pacheco, Sidney; Nutti, Marilia R.; de Carvalho, Jose L. V.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Fukuda, Wania G.
In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. PMID:24374265
Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J
In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava. PMID:23132522
Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F
Cassava peel is a prospective cheap biosorbent for metal ions sequestration. In this research, the ability of cassava peel to remove Cu(II) from aqueous solution was evaluated. Its physical characteristics were probed by nitrogen adsorption measurements and scanning electron microscopy while its biosorption mechanism was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive using X-ray analysis-(SEM/EDX), X-ray mapping and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Biosorption experiments were carried out isothermally at three different temperatures (30 degrees C, 45 degrees C and 60 degrees C) in a static mode. The maximum adsorption capacity (41.77 mg g(-1)) was attained at the highest temperature. The pH and particle size effects in relation to biosorption capacity were also discussed. In addition, Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Toth equations were tested for data correlation. Langmuir and Freundlich models were the best choices since they contained less parameter with equally good fitting performance in comparison to the other three parameters equations. For kinetic studies, sorption rates were better represented using a pseudo second-order expression in comparison to a more commonly used pseudo first-order equation. Also, thermodynamic variables showed that the process was spontaneous (DeltaG<0), endothermic (DeltaH>0) and irreversible (DeltaS>0). PMID:20471169
Kosasih, Aline Natasia; Febrianto, Jonathan; Sunarso, Jaka; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Indraswati, Nani; Ismadji, Suryadi
Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.
An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X.; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Chen, Songbi
The levels of resistance in the wild species of cassava, Manihot tristis Muell-Arg. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar (Hemiptera: Alelyrodidae), the most important economic pest in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) crops in South America, were estimated under glasshouse conditions. The parameters of the life history of A. socialis were studied on TST-26 and TST-18 accessions of the wild parent and compared with the susceptible (CMC-40) and resistant (MEcu-72) cultivars. The average longevity on the wild accessions (TST-26, 4.1; TST-18, 4.6 days) and oviposition rates (TST-26, 2.0; TST-18, 1.6 eggs/female/2 days) of the A. socialis females were not significantly different from those of MEcu-72 (5.1 days and 3.4 eggs/female/2days). The longevity and oviposition rates on CMC-40 were highest (11 days and 8.6 eggs/female/2days). Analyses of the demographic parameters (Ro, rm; DT) showed a significant impact of the M. tristis accessions on the potential growth of A. socialis. The average survival time of adults that fed on TST-26, TST-18, and MEcu-72 were significantly different from those recorded on the susceptible genotype. Results from this study revealed important levels of resistance to the whitefly A. socialis on the TST-26 and TST-18 accessions due to the marked differences found for longevity and reproduction, which influenced and were consistent with the differences found in the net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic growth rate (rm) and population doubling time (DT). The combined effect of these parameters indicated that M. tristis accessions were inappropriate hosts for A. socialis.
Carabali, A.; Bellotti, A. C.; Montoya-Lerma, J.; Fregene, Martin
Cross-cultural, village-level, and farmer surveys have been used with a geographical information system to describe the distribution and relative importance of cassava (manioc, yuca, Manihot esculenta) in its cultural, economic, and ecological contexts. It presents examples of data management for mapping, sample selection, cross-tabulation of characteristics, combination of data types for indices and hypothesis testing. The methods used are reviewed, and some of the main conclusions of the study are presented.
Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse. PMID:24226709
Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J
Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (?-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed ?-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a ?-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the ?-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, ? and ? groups, in which ? group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while ? group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development. PMID:24838076
Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun
Cassava, bean and maize leaves were fed with(14)CO2 in light and the primary products of photosynthesis identified 5 and 10 seconds after assimilation. In maize, approximately three quarters of the labelled carbon was incorporated in C4 acids, in beans about two thirds in PGA, and in cassava approximately 40-60% in C4 acids with 30-50% in PGA. These data indicate that cassava possesses the C4 photosynthetic cycle, however due to the lack of typical Kranz anatomy appreciable carbon assimilation takes place directly through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. PMID:24435690
Cock, J H; Riaño, N M; El-Sharkawy, M A; Yamel, L F; Bastidas, G
Only two mutations have been described in the literature, so far, regarding starch and root quality traits in cassava. This article reports on an induced mutation in this crop, first identified in 2006. Botanical seed from five different cassava families were irradiated with gamma rays. Seed was germinated, transplanted to the field (M1 plants), and self-pollinated to produce the M2 generation. Abnormal types regarding starch granule morphology were identified during the single plant evaluation of M2 genotypes. To confirm these characteristics, selected genotypes were cloned and a second evaluation, based on cloned plants obtained from vegetative multiplication, was completed in September 2007. Two M2 genotypes presented small starch granules, but only one could be fully characterized, presenting a granule size of 5.80 +/- 0.33 microm compared with three commercial clones with granule sizes ranging from 13.97 +/- 0.12 to 18.73 +/- 0.10 microm and higher-than-normal amylose content (up to 30.1% in cloned plants harvested in 2007, as compared with the typical values for "normal" cassava starch of around 19.8%). The gels produced by the starch of these plants did not show any viscosity when analyzed with the rapid viscoanalyzers (5% suspension), and the gels had low clarity. Low viscosity could be observed at higher concentrations (8 or 10% suspensions). Preliminary results suggest that the mutation may be due to a lesion in a gene encoding one of the isoforms of isoamylase (probably isa1 or isa2). PMID:18656938
Ceballos, Hernán; Sánchez, Teresa; Denyer, Kay; Tofiño, Adriana P; Rosero, Elvia A; Dufour, Dominique; Smith, Alison; Morante, Nelson; Pérez, Juan C; Fahy, Brendan
A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. PMID:23721067
Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of cassava flour in bread making, and the sensory acceptability of the final product. Different baking trials were carried out by using egg white and extra-virgin olive oil, in consideration of their high nutritional value with respect to other food additives (i.e., hydrocolloids). Significant (p < 0.05)
Antonella Pasqualone; Francesco Caponio; Carmine Summo; Vito Michele Paradiso; Gabriella Bottega; Maria Ambrogina Pagani
Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 ?m) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak. PMID:23215529
Kouadio, Olivier Kouadio; N'dri, Denis Yao; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Marti, Alessandra; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Faoro, Franco; Erba, Daniela; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Amani, N'guessan Georges
Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603
Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M
Sperm displacement behavior of cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) was observed in a tank. Before ejaculation, male cuttlefish used their arms III to scrape out sperm masses attached to the buccal membranes of females. The removed sperm mass debris was directly visible and countable. Active sperm were present within the removed sperm debris, implying that the aim of this behavior is to
Toshifumi Wada; Takeshi Takegaki; Tohru Mori; Yutaka Natsukari
The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids. PMID:17995692
Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M
To explore the mechanism of the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, in situ intestinal recirculation was performed to study the effect of the absorption at different concentrations and different intestinal regions. To evaluate the conditions of the absorption of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, the concentrations of Abelmoschus manihot in the perfusion solution were determined by HPLC at predesigned time. And we have investigated the inhibitory effect of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. The results demonstrated that the absorption rates of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers are not significantly different (P > 0.05) at various drug concentrations, the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers is a first-order process with the passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption rates of each of flavonoids are significantly different. The absorption rate of flavonoid glycoside was lower than that of aglycone; the flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers could be absorbed in all of the intestinal segments. The best parts of intestine to absorb hyperoside and myricetin are jejunum and duodenum, separately. Verapamil could enhance the absorption of isoquercitrin, hyperoside, myricetin and quercetin-3'-O-glucoside by inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. PMID:21751500
Xue, Cai-fu; Guo, Jian-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shu, Yan
We followed testis weight, seminiferous tubule diameter, spermatogenetic activity, pituitary gonadotropin secretory activity and spermiation response in Rana esculenta, under day length 12:12. On this lighting schedule, groups of frogs were studied at 4°C, 15°C and 24°C. A group of frogs reared in the laboratory under natural temperature and lighting conditions served as captive controls, whereas freshly captured frogs were
Rakesh K. Rastogi; Luigi Tammaro; Maria Di Meglio; Luisa Iela; Loredana Di Matteo; Giovanni Chieffi
Hydrolytic enzymes responsible for laminarin degradation were found to be secreted during growth of Ustilago esculenta on laminarin. An enzyme involved in laminarin degradation was purified by assaying release of glucose from laminaribiose. Ion-exchange chromatography of the culture filtrate followed by size-exclusion chromatography yielded a 110-kDa protein associated with laminaribiose hydrolysis. LC/MS/MS analysis of the 110-kDa protein identified three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity with a putative glucoside hydrolase family (GH) 3 ?-glucosidase in Ustilago maydis. Based on the DNA sequence of the U. maydis GH3 ?-glucosidase, a gene encoding a putative GH3 ?-glucosidase in U. esculenta (Uebgl3A) was cloned by PCR. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the protein encoded by Uebgl3A has a molecular mass of 91 kDa and shares 90% identity with U. maydis GH3 ?-glucosidase. Recombinant UeBgl3A expressed in Aspergillus oryzae released glucose from ?-1,3-, ?-1,4-, and ?-1,6-linked oligosaccharides, and from 1,3-1,4-?-glucan and laminarin polysaccharides, indicating that UeBgl3A is a ?-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis showed that UeBgl3A preferentially hydrolyzed laminaritriose and laminaritetraose. These results suggest that UeBgl3A is a key enzyme that produces glucose from laminarioligosaccharides during growth of U. esculenta on laminarin. PMID:21850431
Nakajima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Machiko; Nakano, Yuki; Takeda, Takumi
The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a ?-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a ?-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker.
Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun
Carotenoid-protein complex (CPC) was isolated from chromoplast-enriched suspensions of cassava storage root (CSR) using size exclusion chromatography and characterized. Peptide sequences (LC_MS/MS spectrum) obtained from CPC and their corresponding proteins were obtained using publically available databases. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) were the most abundant proteins identified in the CPC. Western blot analysis showed that Fribrillin and Or-protein were present in chromoplast-enriched suspensions of yellow root but not in the complex or white root. Results from qRT-PCR helped identify an isoform of HSP21 possessing four single point mutations in the intense yellow CSR that may be responsible for increased sequestration of b-carotene.
Carvalho, Luiz Joaquim Castelo Branco; Lippolis, John; Chen, Songbi; Batista de Souza, Claudia Regina; Vieira, Eduardo A; Anderson, James V
The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a ?-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a ?-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker. PMID:24786092
Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun
Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics. PMID:20109125
Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy
Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521
Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz
Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions. PMID:24837923
Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo
Occurrence of intervarietal or interspecific natural crosses has been reported for many crop plants in traditional farming systems, underlining the potential importance of this source of genetic exchange for the dynamics of genetic diversity of crop plants. In this study, we use microsatellite loci to investigate the role of volunteer seedlings (plants originating from unmanaged sexual reproduction) in the dynamics
M. Elias; L. Penet; P. Vindry; D. McKey; O. Panaud; T. Robert
Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with ?-carotene (?C), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher ?C than white cassava, and the additional complement of ?C was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of ?C per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of ?C during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-?C from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with ?C has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking. PMID:24970565
Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L
The objective of this work was to compare different phenotypic stability methods by using yield and st orage root dry matter content data of eight cassava genotypes, ass essed in eight environments in northwest of Paraná State, Brazil. All the methodologies applied showed to be able to study the stability of cassava genotypes, but each with its peculiarities. The methodologies
Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal; Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Maria Celeste Gonçalves-Vidigal; Edvaldo Sagrilo; Manoel Genildo Pequeno; Fabrício Rimoldi
Umbilicaria esculenta as a traditional food is known to have many pharmacological activities, such as cholesterol synthesis inhibition, anti-inflammation and anti-tumor. The antithrombotic activities of UEP isolated from the lichen were examined in vitro and in vivo for the first time. The in vitro anticoagulant activity of UEP was tested by its PT, APTT and TT. The more prolongation of APTT suggested a more obvious inhibition of the intrinsic coagulation systems than the extrinsic. Its antithrombotic properties were evaluated using an arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats, and its inhibition of thrombus formation increased in a dose-dependent manner. It also caused a dose-dependent increase in tail transection bleeding time. Oral administration of UEP also showed a significant dose dependent preventive effect against thrombotic death or paralysis. UEP has a potent antithrombotic effect in vitro and in vivo, which may be used as a novel, effective and promising antithrombotic agent. PMID:24708975
Wang, Yufeng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Yao, Shulin; Zhang, Shengsheng; Yan, Jingfan; Wang, Huiqin; Chen, Yangyang
The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of the indigenous antidiabetic medicinal plant Casearia esculenta on glycoprotein components in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in plasma, liver, kidney and cardiac tissues. Streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg body weight) caused massive elevation of glycoprotein components such as hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose in plasma and tissues of diabetic control and experimental animals. Oral administration of C. esculenta root extract (200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 45 days significantly reverted the hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose levels to near normal values. These results suggest a normalizing effect of C. esculenta on glycoprotein components in STZ diabetic rats. PMID:15801680
Prakasam, A; Sethupathy, S; Pugalendi, K V
?3-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) have been recently identified in mammalian hearts where, unlike ?1- and ?2-ARs, induce cardio-suppressive effects. The aim of this study was to describe ?3-AR role in the frog (Rana esculenta) heart and to examine its signal transduction pathway. The presence of ?3-AR, by using Western blotting analysis, has been also identified. BRL(37344), a selective ?3-AR agonist, induced a dose-dependent negative inotropic effect at concentrations from 10(-12) to 10(-6)M. This effect was not modified by nadolol (?1/?2-AR antagonist) and by phentolamine (?-AR antagonist), but it was suppressed by the ?3-AR-specific antagonist SR(59230) and by exposure to the Gi/o proteins inhibitor Pertussis Toxin. In addition, the involvement of EE-NOS-cGMP-PKG/PDE2 pathway in the negative inotropism of BRL(37344) has been assessed. BRL(37344) treatment induced eNOS and Akt phosphorylation as well as an increase of cGMP levels. ?3-ARs activation induce a non-competitive antagonism against ISO stimulation which disappeared in presence of PKG and PDE2 inhibition. Taken together our findings provide, for the first time in the frog, a role for ?3-ARs in the cardiac performance modulation which involves Gi/o protein and occurs via an EE-NO-cGMP-PKG/PDE2 cascade. PMID:20709064
Mazza, Rosa; Angelone, Tommaso; Pasqua, Teresa; Gattuso, Alfonsina
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the infected leaf samples of Colocasia esculenta plants showing severe whitish feathery symptoms were carried out using Potyvirus group specific primers, resulting in an amplicon of 327 bp, encoding the core region of the coat protein gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis showed that the virus is distinct, closely related to Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV). Sequence analysis revealed 86 and 96% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level respectively with the DsMV isolate SY1(accession Number AJ628756). This is the first molecular level characterisation of the DsMV infecting C. esculenta in India. PMID:23637503
Babu, Binoy; Hegde, Vinayaka; Makeshkumar, T; Jeeva, M L
A high-performance liquid chromatography method is developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven flavonols, namely quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, and quercetin, in the flower of Abelmoschus manihot. These seven flavonols are selected as chemical markers because they are the major pharmacologically active constituents in the flower. The method involves the use of a Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL reversed-phase column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) at 25 degrees C with a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous H(3)PO(4) as the mobile phase and detection at 370 nm. The recovery of the method is 94.31-107.08% with an RSD < or = 3.14% and the linearity (r(2) > 0.9996) is obtained for all the flavonoids. The current assay method can be readily utilized for the determination of the flavonols present in the flower and is considered to be suitable for the quality control of A. manihot samples. The comparison of flowers collected from nine locations shows that flavonoid glucoside is more stable than aglycon in the flower. This is the first study that analyzes the stability of flavonoids in the flower of A. manihot. This research also provides important evidence that the flower is a potentially abundant resource for obtaining hibifolin. PMID:19298707
Lai, Xianyin; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin
This study investigated the involvement of ?-aspartic acid (?-Asp) in testicular steroidogenesis of the green frog Rana esculenta and its effect on stimulation of thumb pad morphology and glandular activity, a typical testosterone- dependent secondary sexual characteristic in this amphibian species. In the testis, ?-Asp concentrations vary significantly during the reproductive cycle: they are low in pre- and post-reproductive periods,
F Raucci; L Assisi; S D'Aniello; P Spinelli; V Botte; M M Di Fiore
Three species of mushroom mycelia are commercially available in Taiwan, namely Grifola frondosa (maitake), Morchella esculenta (morel), and Termitomyces albuminosus (termite mushroom), and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. All mycelia were high in contents of carbohydrate, crude fat and protein but low in contents of crude ash and fiber. Arabitol, glucose, mannitol and trehalose were detected in these three
Shu-Yao Tsai; Chien-Ching Weng; Shih-Jeng Huang; Chin-Chu Chen; Jeng-Leun Mau
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly known as taro, is an essential food for millions of people. The leaves are consumed in sauces, purees, stews, and soups, being also used in wound healing treatment. Nowadays, the consumers' demand for bioactive compounds from the diet led to the development of new agricultural strategies for the production of health-promoting constituents in vegetables. In this work, two strategies (variety choice and irrigation conditions) were considered in the cultivation of C. esculenta. The effect on the phenolic composition of the leaves was evaluated. Furthermore, a correlation between the biological activity of the different varieties and their chemical composition was established. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the phenolic composition were observed between varieties; furthermore, the irrigation conditions also influenced the composition. C. esculenta varieties were able to scavenge several oxidant species and to inhibit hyaluronidase, but data suggest that metabolites other than phenolics are involved. The results show that cultivation strategies can effectively modulate the accumulation of these types of bioactive compounds. Furthermore C. esculenta wound healing potential can be attributed, at least in part, to the protection of the wound site against oxidative/nitrosative damage and prevention of hyaluronic acid degradation. PMID:23993510
Gonçalves, Rui F; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Ana Margarida; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B
The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals. PMID:21554124
Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J
Starch residue, pollen and phytolith analysis was carried out on coralline deposits from a c. 3050–2500cal.yrBP Lapita site at Bourewa, Viti Levu, Fiji. Starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and xylem cells of introduced Colocasia esculenta and Dioscorea esculenta were identified, involving a process of elimination of possible taxa by cross-correlation of microfossil types. The data provide an eastward extension of
Mark Horrocks; Patrick D. Nunn
Twenty-four microsatellite DNA markers were isolated and characterized for golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) from a (GT)13—enriched genomic library. Loci were tested in 48 individuals from Jiaozhou bay of China. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 25 with an average of 10.3. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.896 and from 0.137 to 0.953, with averages of 0.519 and 0.633, respectively. Six loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni’s correction and no significant linkage disequilibrium between loci pairs was detected. These microsatellite markers would be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure to make conservation and management decisions for S. esculenta.
Yuan, Yanjiao; Liu, Shufang; Bai, Cuicui; Liu, Hongbo; Zhuang, Zhimeng
Three species of mushroom mycelia are commercially available in Taiwan, namely Grifola frondosa (maitake), Morchella esculenta (morel), and Termitomyces albuminosus (termite mushroom). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these three mycelia and their antioxidant properties were studied. Methanolic extracts from the three mycelia showed high antioxidant activities (85.4–94.7%) at 25 mg ml?1. Reducing powers of the three methanolic extracts were 0.97–1.02
Jeng-Leun Mau; Chieh-No Chang; Shih-Jeng Huang; Chin-Chu Chen
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly called taro, is an ancient species selected for its edible tuber. Its huge "elephant ear" like leaves are also consumed in sauces and stews or as soups. Forty-one phenolic metabolites (11 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and 30 glycosylated flavonoids) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) in the leaves of two C. esculenta varieties cultivated in Azores Islands. To our knowledge, 34 of the 41 phenolic compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. Phenolics quantification was achieved by an HPLC-DAD accurate and sensitive validated method. Although the qualitative profile of the two varieties is quite similar, quantitative differences were observed between them. "Giant white" and "red" varieties (local denomination) contain, respectively, ca. 14 and 21% of phenolic acids, 37 and 28% of flavones mono-C-glycosides, 42 and 43% of flavones di-C-glycosides, 3 and 4% of flavones mono-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides, and both of them ca. 2% of flavones di-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides and 2% of flavones-O-glycosides. Luteolin-6-C-hexoside was the compound present in higher amounts in both varieties. The established phenolic profile is an added value for the authenticity and quality control of C. esculenta and may be useful in the discrimination of its varieties. PMID:22724554
Ferreres, Federico; Gonçalves, Rui F; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B
The primary objective of this study was to assess the in vitro melanogenesis inhibitory effects of methanolic extracts of the edible and medicinal lichens, Umbilicaria (Gyrophora) esculenta and Usnea longissima. The quantities of the total phenolic compounds of methanolic extract of the two lichen extracts were determined to be 1.46% and 2.62%, respectively. In order to evaluate the antioxidative effects of the extracts, we also measured electron donating abilities (EDA) and lipid peroxidation rates. The EDA values measured by the reduction of 1.1''-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were 72.8% and 80.7% for the extracts, with SC50 (median scavenging concentration) values of 1.29+/-0.05 mg/ml and 1.03+/-0.06 mg/ml, respectively. The rates of inhibition of lipid peroxidation using linoleic acid were 92.1% and 97.3% for the extracts, with IC50 (median inhibitory concentration) values of 0.57+/-0.05 mg/ml and 0.53+/-0.06 mg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory rates of the extracts against tyrosinase were 67.4% and 84.8%, respectively. The extracts were shown to reduce melanin formation in human melanoma cells. Melanin contents in the samples treated with 0.01% and 0.1% U. esculenta were 47.1% and 31.2%, respectively, and those treated with 0.01% and 0.1% Usnea longissima were 51.1% and 34.9%, respectively, whereas a value of 54.0% was registered when ascorbic acid was utilized as a positive control. In addition to direct tyrosinase inhibition, it was determined that the lichen extracts affected the activity of tyrosinase via the inhibition of tyrosinase glycosylation. As a result, the methanolic extracts of U. esculenta and Usnea longissima evidenced melanogenesis inhibitory effects, which occurred via multiple routes. PMID:18176544
Kim, Moo-Sung; Cho, Hong-Bum
Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Searching for antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and antidepressant-like medicines from natural products is very important for the treatment of this disease. The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been reported to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury. In order to further explore the activity of Abelmoschus manihot on the central nervous system, the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like effects of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract (AMEE) as well as its potential active components in vivo was investigated in the present study. It was found that AMEE could protect mice against PTZ-induced clonic convulsions and mortality. AMEE could also decrease immobility time in the FST in mice. Furthermore, the potential active components of AMEE in rat brain were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS). Five parent components including isoquercitrin, hyperoside, hibifolin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin and three metabolites were detected in rat brain after administration of AMEE. In conclusion, eight flavonoids were identified in rat brain after administration of AMEE; meanwhile, these flavonoids might represent the potential bioactive components of AMEE and contribute to its anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activity in vivo. PMID:21784623
Guo, Jianming; Xue, Caifu; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; You, Yi
Plants synthesize a variety of molecules to defend themselves against an attack by insects. Talisin is a reserve protein from Talisia esculenta seeds, the first to be characterized from the family Sapindaceae. In this study, the insecticidal activity of Talisin was tested by incorporating the reserve protein into an artificial diet fed to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, the major
Maria Lígia R. Macedo; Maria das Graças M. Freire; Carlos Eduardo G. Kubo; José Roberto P. Parra
Recent studies on climate responses in ectothermic (cold-blooded) vertebrates have been few in number and focussed on phenology rather than morphology. According to Bergmann’s rule, endothermic (warm-blooded) vertebrates from cooler climates tend to be larger than congeners from warmer regions. Although amphibians are ectothermic vertebrates, weather and climatic conditions may also impact on their morphology, and thereby affect their survival rates and population dynamics. In this paper, we show, in a unique long-term study during the period 1963-2003 in an agricultural landscape in western Poland, that the body length of two water frog parental species (males of both Rana ridibunda and R. lessonae) increased significantly. However, their hybridogenetic hybrid R. esculenta did not show similar changes. A significant relationship with a large-scale climatic factor, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index, was found positive for R. ridibunda males and R. lessonae females, and negative for R. esculenta females. Our findings, the first for amphibians, are consistent with other studies reporting that recent climate change has affected the morphology of animals. However, we also show that changes in amphibian phenotype linked to climate may vary independently between (even very similar) species.
Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim; Rybacki, Mariusz; Berger, Leszek
The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804
Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder
Ferritin was isolated from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and lentil (Lens esculenta). The homogeneity of the phytoferritins was established by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The subunit molecular weights were respectively 20 300 and 21 400 for hte pea and lentil proteins. A neutron low-angle scattering study established the molecular weight of the oligomer as 480 000 for pea apoferritin and 510 000 for lentil apoferritin. Although the quaternary structure of 24 polypeptide chains is preserved, the phytoferritins have a larger cavity in the interior than mammalian ferritins and can thus potentially store 1.2-1.4 times as much iron. The amino acid composition of the phytoferritins show some similarities to those of mammalian apoferritins; tryptic 'fingerprinting' reveals that there are many differences in the amino acid sequence of plant and mammalian apoferritins. Images Fig. 1.
Crichton, R R; Ponce-Ortiz, Y; Koch, M H; Parfait, R; Stuhrmann, H B
Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12049788
Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio
Plant lectins have insecticidal activity that is probably mediated through their ability to bind carbohydrates. To examine the influence of sugars on the insecticidal activity of a lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds (TEL), the lectin was mixed with mannose, glucose, or mannose plus glucose. Mannose abolished the insecticidal activity. Affinity chromatography showed that TEL bound to midgut proteins of the insect Callosobruchus maculatus. Immunoblotting showed that TEL recognized some proteins, probably glycoproteins, present in the midgut membrane of this insect. The principal proteases responsible for digestive proteolysis in fourth instar larvae of C. maculatus were purified by chromatography on activated thiol-Sepharose. These purified proteases were unable to digest TEL after a 15-h incubation. These results suggest that the insecticidal activity of TEL involves a specific carbohydrate-lectin interaction with glycoconjugates on the surface of digestive tract epithelial cells, as well as binding to assimilatory glycoproteins present in midgut extracts and resistance to enzymatic digestion by cysteine proteinases. PMID:15146543
Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Castro, Márcia Mota; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado
The topography and nature of granulopoietic tissues appearing during the larval period of Rana esculenta have been investigated using light and electron microscopy. The formation of eosinophils and heterophils occurred in the interstices of the pronephros and opisthonephros, in the mesenchymal sheath surrounding the pronephric duct, as well as in the mesentery and mesenchymal coat of the bile duct and hepatic ducts. Developing basophils were very rare, being detectable only in the stroma of the trunk kidneys. The pronephric interstices additionally contained differentiating lymphocytes, the opisthonephric interstices differentiating lymphocytes and erythrocytes. In contrast, the mesenchymal sheath of the pronephric duct as well as the mesentery and the mesenchymatous coat of the bile duct and hepatic ducts were solely granulopoietic. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 2-3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12
Diurnal cycle of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters was done in Colocasia esculenta L. (swamp taro) grown in marshy land under sun or under shade. The sun leaves maintained higher electron transport rate (ETR)\\u000a and steady state to initial fluorescence ratio (Fs\\/F0) than shade leaves. In spite of lower ETR, higher photochemical quenching (PQ), and effective quantum yield of photosystem\\u000a 2 (?PS2)
S. Roy Chowdhury; Ashwani Kumar; N. Sahoo
Young sporophytes of Saccorhiza dermatodea and Alaria esculenta cultured from Spitsbergen isolates were exposed in the laboratory to either only photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) or to a spectrum including UV-radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) by use of cutoff glass filters. The plants were grown at 8±2°C and 16:8 h light–dark cycles with 6 h additional UV exposure in the middle of the light period. Growth
Michael Y. Roleda; Dieter Hanelt; Christian Wiencke
Dry matter (DM) content, nutrient composition and palatability\\/acridity test on eight exotic cocoyams–taro (Colocassia esculenta) cultivars in Samoa were carried out. The exotic taro cultivars investigated were Pwetepweta and Palau 3a (Saliemoa), Pwetepwetb, Pastora and Palau 1, 3b 10, and 20 (Safaatoa). These taro cultivars were obtained from two farms (Saliemoa and Safaatoa) in Samoa and similar cultivars from the
E. M. Aregheore; D. Perera
Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487
Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash
The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for the rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality. Chemical analyses were conducted on 315 accessions for major constituents (starch, total sugars, cellulose, proteins, and minerals). NIRS calibration equations, developed on a calibration set composed of 243 accessions, showed high explained variances in cross-validation (r(2)(cv)) for starch (0.89), sugars (0.90), proteins (0.89), and minerals (0.90) but poor response for amylose (0.44) and cellulose (0.61). The predictions were tested on an independent set of 58 randomly selected accessions. The r(2)(pred) values for starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals were, respectively, of 0.76, 0.74, 0.85, and 0.85 with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of 3.41, 4.01, 3.78, and 3.64. New calibration equations developed on 303 accessions confirmed good RPD values for starch (3.30), sugars (4.13), proteins (3.61), and minerals (3.74). NIRS could be used to predict starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals contents in taro corms with reasonably high confidence. PMID:21806061
Lebot, Vincent; Malapa, Roger; Bourrieau, Marion
Contrary to extensive researches on the roles of metallothioneins (MTs) in metal tolerance of animals, the roles of plant MTs in metal tolerance are largely under investigation. In this study, we evaluated the functional role of type 2 MT from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. Under Zn-stress conditions, transgenic tobacco overexpressing CeMT2b displayed much better seedling growth, a significant decrease in the levels of H(2)O(2) and an increase in Zn accumulation compared with the wild type. Overexpression of CeMT2b in E. coli greatly enhanced Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation under Zn stresses compared with control cells. CeMT2b bound 5.38 ± 0.29 atoms of Zn per protein. To identify a structural domain of CeMT2b for Zn binding, we investigated the growth of E. coli expressing each of the N-terminal, C-terminal, and central linker domains or a CNC motif deletion from the C-terminus of full-length CeMT2b. The results showed that the CNC motif is required for Zn tolerance, and the N-terminal domain is more effective in Zn tolerance than the C-terminal domain. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence for functional contributions of CeMT2b in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. PMID:22610130
Kim, Yeon-Ok; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Patel, Darshan H; Kim, Ho Myeong; Ahn, Sung-Ju; Bae, Hyeun-Jong
The composition and nutritive value were determined in navy bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil meal (Lens esculenta), and in their respective protein concentrates obtained through extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation. Sulfur amino acids per gram of nitrogen were lower in the concentrates than in the meals, while there was no difference for lysine and threonine. The white bean protein concentrate had a lower biological value than the meal but better digestibility, although trypsin inhibitor concentration was unchanged. Digestibility greatly improved with heating but it did not increase beyond 81% even after autoclaving. Autoclaved samples supplemented with methionine reached a biological value of 83. The lentil protein concentrate also had a lower biological value than the meal but digestibility was high for both samples (91%) and remained unchanged after heating. Trypsin inhibitors were absent. After supplementing with methionine, a biological value of only 63 was obtained, due to the low level of tryptophan, the second limiting amino acid. In spite of the concentrates' lower biological value, it was proved that they equalled the meals' potential for complementing cereal, as their content in lysine and threonine is high. The concentrates have the additional advantage of allowing effective supplementation without increasing the legume-cereal ratio. PMID:753176
Kaba, H; Sanahuja, J C
Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r?=?-0.87; p?0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable. PMID:24803696
Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F
A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761
Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo
A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms (Colocasia esculenta) using both degenerated primers\\/RT-PCR amplification and 5'-\\/3'-RACE extension. The full-length cDNA gene is 1,008 bp in size, encodes 206 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kDa. It contains a conserved reactive site motif Gln-Val-Val-Ser-Gly of cysteine protease inhibitors, and another consensus ARFAV
A. H. Yang; K. W. Yeh
This study was conducted to determine the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in the cormels of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum) immediately after harvest and in storage under anaerobiosis for one and three weeks, respectively. During stress condition in plants, hydrogen peroxide is released and mechanisms to detoxify it must be maintained. The cocoyam tubers that were neither damaged nor affected by disease were harvested from a local farm in Ugbogui, Ovia North Local Government Area in Edo State, Nigeria. The selected cocoyam tubers were peeled manually, washed with ice cold water and cut into pieces. The root tissues (50 g) were homogenised with 100 mL of ice cold 0.05 M phosphate buffer. The extract obtained was clarified by centrifugation for 15 min at 8000 g at 4 degrees C. Ascorbate-peroxidising activity was assayed using the initial rate of decrease in ascorbate concentration as measured by its absorbance at 290 nm using Milton Roy Spectron 21D. Results showed the weight of the cormels decreased all through during storage. Immediately after harvest the activity of ascorbate peroxidase was 15.49 unit mL(-1) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) after one week to 73.05 U mL(-1). Thereafter there was a significant decrease in activity of the enzyme after three weeks of storage to 33.33 U mL(-1). This increase in activity of ascorbate peroxidase after three weeks of storage may be related to increase in response to various biotic stresses. Therefore, manipulation of the capacity of cocoyam to tolerate anaerobiosis is a function of its ability to modulate the antioxidant enzymes' armory in case of need. PMID:24783794
In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4?C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.3±4.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 µg/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector?to?target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 µg/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 µg/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 µg/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 µg/mouse Taro-4-I. PMID:23292184
Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon
In many species, males and females mate with multiple partners, which gives rise to sperm competition and multiple paternity. The experiments on water frogs presented here demonstrate that such sperm competition can affect the structure and dynamics of mixed-species communities. The hybrid frog Rana esculenta ( LR) mates with one of its parental species, usually R. lessonae ( LL), although
Heinz-Ulrich Reyer; Bettina Niederer; Attila Hettyey
This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 ?m×12.2 ?m. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 ?m2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 ?m×12.1 ?m. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 ?m×5.5 ?m. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231
Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick
Metallothioneins (MTs) play a major role in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification in plants. In this study, a novel gene, pCeMT, was isolated from Colocasia esculenta and characterized. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli cells expressing pCeMT exhibited enhanced Cd, Cu, and Zn tolerance and accumulation compared with control cells. Furthermore, pCeMT-overexpressing tobacco seedlings displayed better growth under Cd, Cu, and Zn stresses and accumulated more Cd and Zn compared with the wild type. Interestingly, transgenic tobacco displayed markedly decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation levels under Cd, Cu, and Zn treatments. These results suggest that pCeMT could play an important role in the protection of plant cells from oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and in the detoxification of free metals by metal binding, leading to improved plant metal tolerance. PMID:23344478
Kim, Yeon-Ok; Jung, Sera; Kim, Kyounghyoun; Bae, Hyeun-Jong
The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the changes of melanin content/distribution we had previously discovered in the liver parenchyma of Rana esculenta during natural hibernation. Melanomacrophagic component response was analysed using morphocytochemical methods. The results demonstrated that during the prehibernation period (October–November) the melanomacrophages reach the highest proliferative activity (BrdU, PCNA labelling) which is accompanied by an evident melanosynthesis (dopa-oxidase activity). In contrast, after hibernation, the decrease of liver pigmentation was the consequence of a partial cell loss by apoptotic mechanisms (TUNEL labelling, pyknosis-karyorhexis) accompanied by a decrease of melanosome content by autophagy and low melanosynthetic activity. On the basis of these findings, there is evidence that liver melanomacrophages represent a metabolically (melanin synthesis/degradation) and cytokinetically (proliferation/death) active cell population during the annual cycle of the frog. The results are also discussed in relation to the functional synergism between hepatocytes and pigment cells in the adaptation to environmental changes.
Barni, Sergio; Vaccarone, Rita; Bertone, Vittorio; Fraschini, Annunzia; Bernini, Franco; Fenoglio, Carla
The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.
Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo
The fatty acid profile and mineral composition (calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc, manganese, silicon, boron, cadmium, chromium, nickel, aluminium, copper, and lead) by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectometry (ICP-AES) and the proximate composition of the body and legs of edible frog (Rana esculenta) were investigated. The fatty acids occurring in the highest proportions in both the body and leg of frogs were mystiric acid (C14:0, 1.13-2.30%), palmitic acid (C16:0, 19.76-23.23%), stearic acid (C18:0, 3.61-6.29%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 7.06-13.08%), oleic acid (C18:1n-9 cis, 10.83-16.71%), linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, 6.44-6.71%), gamma-linolenic (C18:3n-6, 0.13-0.27%), linolenic (C18:3n-3, 2.32-3.37%), cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n-3, 4.71-7.72%), cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, 3.96-6.05%) and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-, 2.77-6.67%). Among the minerals determined, potassium was found to be highest, followed by phosphorus. Calcium, aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead, chromium, nickel, boron, silicon and zinc are found to be lower than the potential toxicity levels. PMID:19382332
Ozogul, Fatih; Ozogul, Yesim; Olgunoglu, A Ilkan; Boga, Esmeray Kuley
Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic loci. The primers have been tested in a range of intra-specific to intergeneric comparisons, including ten taro samples (Colocasia esculenta) from diverse geographical locations, four other Colocasia species (C. affinis, C. fallax, C. formosana, C. gigantea) and three other aroid genera (represented by Remusatia vivipara, Alocasia brisbanensis and Amorphophallus konjac). Multiple sequence alignments for the intra-specific comparison revealed nucleotide substitutions (point mutations) at all 30 loci and microsatellite polymorphisms at 14 loci. The primer pairs reported here reveal levels of genetic variation suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of taro and other closely related aroids. Our results confirm that information on repeat distribution can be used to identify loci suitable for such studies, and we expect that this approach can be used in other plant groups. PMID:23718317
Ahmed, Ibrar; Matthews, Peter J; Biggs, Patrick J; Naeem, Muhammad; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J
This study was performed to investigate the usability of chicken feather hydrolysate (Chicken feather peptone (CFP)) as substrate for mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production from edible mushroom Morchella esculenta. The ability of CFP to support biomass and EPS production in edible mushroom M. esculenta was compared to those of two commercial peptones (Tryptone peptone (TP) and Fish peptone (FP)). The maximum biomass (16.3 g/l) and EPS (4.8 g/l) concentrations were achieved with TP. Second, high biomass (15.9 g/l) and EPS (4.6 g/l) concentrations were obtained with CFP. Also, biomass and EPS concentrations in CFP medium were statistically near to those in the TP medium. CFP and TP resulted in not only uniform pellets with smaller size (5 mm) but also faster mycelial growth compared to FP. This study showed for the first time that CFP could be effectively used as a novel EPS production substrate. PMID:22136136
Taskin, Mesut; Ozkan, Behzat; Atici, Okkes; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri
The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively. PMID:22939332
Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir
The physicochemical and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour were investigated and compared with flours from other botanical sources. Proximate composition, color parameters, water and oil absorption, foaming characteristics and pasting properties (measured using Rapid visco analyzer) of flours were related to each other using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Taro flour was significantly (P?0.05) different from other flours in exhibiting highest carbohydrate, water absorption, and lower protein, foaming capacity and setback viscosity. Peak viscosity of taro flour was lower in comparison to potato flour but higher than that of soya and corn flours. Several significant correlations between functional and pasting properties were revealed both by PCA and Pearson correlation. PCA showed that taro and potato flours were located at the left of the score plot with a negative score, while soybean and corn flours had a large positive score in the first principal component. PMID:24425892
Kaur, Maninder; Kaushal, Pragati; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh
Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235
Mahmud, Za; Bachar, Sc; Qais, N
Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders.
Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N
Abstract Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important diabetic complication, and podocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in the development of DN. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot (TFA) on urinary microalbumin and glomerular podocyte apoptosis in experimental DN rats. The preliminary oral administration of TFA (200?mg/kg/day) for 24 weeks significantly decreased the urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio and 24-h urinary total protein in streptozotocin-induced DN rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay indicated glomerular cell apoptosis in DN rats was significantly improved by pretreatment with TFA. Furthermore, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and Hoechst 33342 staining suggested preincubation with hyperoside (50 and 200??g/mL), the major active constituent of TFA, could significantly mitigate cultured podocyte apoptosis induced by the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Western blot analysis showed that increased caspase-3 and caspase-8 expressions induced by AGEs were also inhibited by pretreatment with hyperoside at both doses. Our results demonstrate that TFA pretreatment can decrease urinary albumin excretion in early-stage DN, which might be accomplished by preventing renal damage and podocyte apoptosis.
Zhou, Lei; Teng, Shi-Chao; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shang, Wen-Bin; Yuan, Yang-Gang; Yu, Jiang-Yi
A SPE-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of flavonols, isoquercitrin (1), hibifolin (2), myricetin (3), quercetin-3'-O-d-glucoside (4) and quercetin (5) in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of the total flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot (TFA). The astragalin (6) and kaempferol (7) were used as internal standards (IS). Plasma and urine samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction using Winchem C(18) reversed-phase cartridges. Analysis of the plasma and urinary extract was performed on YMC-Pack ODS-A C(18) and Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL C(18) reversed-phase column, respectively and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid was employed. HPLC analysis was conducted with different elution gradients. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 370 nm. Calibration ranges in plasma for flavonols 2-5 were at 0.011-2.220, 0.014-2.856, 0.022-4.320, and 0.028-5.600 microg/mL, respectively. In urine calibration ranges for flavonols 1, 2, 4 and 5 were at 2.00-16.00, 8.56-102.72, 2.70-21.60, and 3.00-24.00 microg/mL, respectively. The RSD of intra- and inter-day was less than 5.40% and 4.89% in plasma, and less than 3.96% and 6.85% in urine for all the analyses. A preliminary experiment to investigate the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of the flavonols after oral administration of TFA to rats demonstrated that the present method was suitable for determining the flavonols in rat plasma and urine. PMID:17258944
Lai, Xianyin; Zhao, Yuying; Liang, Hong; Bai, Yanjing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Dean
Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P?0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p?0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p?0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component. PMID:24803691
Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice
Anti-ageing products are of a great importance in cosmetic fields. However, even if numerous strategies have been proposed to fight against skin ageing or to minimize its aesthetic impact since the beginning of the 'scientific cosmetology' era, the products basing their efficacy on the observation of pathological situations are rare. The most obvious pathology linked to the ageing of skin (notably) consists in the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), a rare disorder characterized by accelerated ageing and early death. In this disease the lamin A, a protein participating (with others lamins) in the formation of the nuclear lamina and implicated in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression, is present in a truncated version called progerin. In this study, we have examined the lactate and the progerin production of human normal cutaneous cells issued from subjects of different ages. Using a sensitive and specific progerin ELISA assay developed in house, we so provide the first quantitative demonstration of an increased progerin expression and lactate production in skin during ageing. Moreover, we have also demonstrated that in the selected experimental conditions, it was possible to down-regulate the progerin production of aged cells by using an algae extract. As this extract, an Alaria esculenta extract, could be used in cosmetic formulations, we suggest that a better understanding of the skin pathologies could be a useful tool in developing efficient active compounds, attractive for but not limited to cosmetic purposes. PMID:21535442
Verdy, C; Branka, J-E; Mekideche, N
The insecticidal potential of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins against hemipterans has been experimentally proven. However, the basis behind the toxicity of these lectins against hemipterans remains elusive. The present study elucidates the molecular basis behind insecticidal efficacy of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) against Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi. Confocal microscopic analyses highlighted the binding of 25 kDa stable homodimeric lectin to insect midgut. Ligand blots followed by LC MS/MS analyses identified binding partners of CEA as vacuolar ATP synthase and sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum type Ca(2+) ATPase from B. tabaci, and ATP synthase, heat shock protein 70 and clathrin heavy chain assembly protein from L. erysimi. Internalization of CEA into hemolymph was confirmed by Western blotting. Glycoprotein nature of the receptors was identified through glycospecific staining. Deglycosylation assay indicated the interaction of CEA with its receptors to be probably glycan mediated. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed the interaction kinetics between ATP synthase of B. tabaci with CEA. Pathway prediction study based on Drosophila homologs suggested the interaction of CEA with insect receptors that probably led to disruption of cellular processes causing growth retardation and loss of fecundity of target insects. Thus, the present findings strengthen our current understanding of the entomotoxic potentiality of CEA, which will facilitate its future biotechnological applications. PMID:24753494
Roy, Amit; Gupta, Sumanti; Hess, Daniel; Das, Kali Pada; Das, Sampa
Lectins are proteins found in a wide range of organisms, with the ability to bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates. They can display important biological activities, such as the activation of the cell cycle in lymphocytes. Storage proteins with lectin activity have been reported in tuberous plant species, such as Colocasia esculenta, popularly known as taro. A simple strategy based on Cibacron Blue chromatography was used to purify a 12 kDa polypeptide 1.3-fold, with a recovery of 30 %. The purified protein was identified as tarin by mass spectrometry, which indicated that it was present in G1a/G1d isoforms. Tarin exhibited both agglutinating activity against hamster erythrocytes and mitogenic activity in vitro and in vivo toward mouse splenocytes. Optimum cellular proliferation in vitro was achieved by 625 ng of the crude extract or 500 ng of the purified tarin. Total mouse splenocyte proliferation measured after 5 days of intraperitoneal inoculation of purified tarin was increased 3.3-fold in comparison to the control group. Half of the proliferating cells were identified as B lymphocytes by flow cytometry. These results show that this is an efficient and simple strategy to purify tarin and aid in establishing this protein as a new therapeutic drug, able to promote cell proliferation in a murine model. PMID:24395119
Pereira, Patrícia Ribeiro; Del Aguila, Eduardo Mere; Verícimo, Maurício Afonso; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Silva, Joab Trajano
Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65?mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.
Eleazu, C. O.; Iroaganachi, M.; Eleazu, K. C.
The rising cost of food for non-ruminant animals in the tropics makes it desirable to exploit agro-based industrial by-products as animal feed. One such by-product is cassava leaf (Manihot utilissima Pohl---Manihot esculenta Crantz). The crude protein of cassava leaf is reported to range between 23 and 37.3 ~o and the amino acid profile indicates that the protein is of a
W. S. Alhassan; F. Odoi
Tapioca is produced by the tubers of Manihot esculenta Crantz which grow in tropical areas. It is high in starch and very low in protein content, and cheaper than grains. The replacement of grain by tapioca in diets for cattle was studied in an in vivo digestibility trial and two feeding trials. The source of supplemental protein was soya bean
Z. Holzer; Y. Aharoni; V. Lubimov; A. Brosh
One-year simple NPK trials were conducted in 22 locations in four regions of Colombia to determine the response of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to N, P and K and to relate this response to the available P and K contents of the soil, as well as to the N, P, and K concentrations in youngest fully expanded leaf (YFEL) blades
R. H. Howeler; L. F. Cadavid
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is often cultivated in sandy soils that are very low in nutrients and organic matter. Under such conditions, yields often decline when the crop is grown successively without fertilizer application. An 8-year on-farm trial was conducted on sandy soils in northern Colombia to study effects of (1) surface mulching with residues of the grass Panicum maximum,
L. F Cadavid; M. A El-Sharkawy; A Acosta; T Sánchez
In order to improve the efficiency of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation, two different selection systems were assessed, a positive one based on the use of mannose as the selective agent, and a negative one based on hygromycin resistance encoded by an intron-containing hph gene. Transgenic plants selected on mannose or hygromycin were regenerated for the first time from embryogenic
Peng Zhang; Ingo Potrykus; Johanna Puonti-Kaerlas
One of the greatest challenges faced by Neotropical archaeobotanists is to document the origins and history of crops like manioc (Manihot esculentaCrantz), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), which were grown for their starch-rich underground organs. The records left by early Europeans make it clear that such plants provided a staple food source for numerous indigenous populations in
D. R. Piperno; I. Holst
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the third most important food crop in southeast Asia and the most important upland crop in the northeast of Thailand. The crop is usually grown by small holders in marginal areas of sloping or undulating land. Most farmers realize, however, that cassava production on slopes can cause severe erosion, while production without fertilizers or manure
Reinhardt Howeler; Watana Watananonta; Wilawan Vongkasem; Kaival Klakhaeng; Somjate Jantawat; Supha Randaway; Banyat Vankaew
Identification of the potential active components of Abelmoschus manihot in rat blood and kidney tissue by microdialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
In this paper, microdialysis combining with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify components in blood and kidney dialysis after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract. Microdialysis probe was implanted in the jugular vein and the kidney medulla, respectively; microdialysis samples were collected continuously, transferred to microtubes and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The components in microdialysis samples were separated by an UPLC HSS T3 column and eluted with acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The results showed that unbound constituents in blood circulation of the rat include hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin, myricetin, and hibifolin while unbound constituents in kidney are hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, which might be the potential active components in vivo. The developed method was simple and reliable, and could be adopted to rapidly screen and identify potential active components contributing to pharmacological effects of TCM and to better clarify its action mechanism. PMID:21247814
Xue, Caifu; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shang, Erxin; Shu, Yan; Lu, Yuwei
Tubers of Cassava (Manihot esculenta), yams (Dioscorea esculenta), aroids (Amorphophallus campanulatus, Colocasia esculenta, Xanthosoma sagittfolium) and Coleus (Solenostemon rotundifolius) were screened for inhibitory activities against amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Coleus tuber possessed the highest anti-amylase activity, whereas Colocasia tuber was the most potent source of anti-tryptic and anti-chymotryptic activity. Xanthosoma tubers exhibited amylase inhibitory activity and Amorphophallus tubers antiprotease activity. Dioscorea esculenta had low levels of amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitors, while Cassava tubers were totally free of inhibitors. When tubers were processed by pressure cooking, there was significant reduction/complete elimination in inhibitory activity. Partial retention of inhibition was observed in the case of amylase inhibitor in Dioscorea, chymotrypsin inhibitor in Colocasia and trypsin inhibitor in Colocasia, Coleus and Amorphophallus. In vitro experiments on heat stability of the different inhibitors revealed almost similar pattern of inactivation. PMID:8833431
Prathibha, S; Nambisan, B; Leelamma, S
Throughout the Amazon of Brazil, manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a staple crop produced through slash-and-burn agriculture. Nutrient losses during slash-and-burn can be large and nutrient\\u000a demand by food crops so great that fields are often abandoned after two years. In recent decades, farmers have reduced the\\u000a fallow phase from 20 to ~5 years, limiting plant nutrient accumulation to sustain crop yields.
Aaron H. Joslin; Daniel Markewitz; Lawrence A. Morris; Francisco DeAssis Oliveira; Ricardo O. Figueiredo; Oswaldo R. Kato
Cassava starch ( Manihot esculenta ) was soaked in 1% lactic acid solution and distilled water at 30°C for 16 hours. The suspensio ns then were drained, divided into 5 portions and treated for 6 hours under following co nditions: a 60°C hot air oven, artificial ultraviolet (UV, lamda = 254 nm), sun-drying, sun-d rying with double-layer glasses, and a
Suthaya Phimphilai; Oratai Chumnan; Kajorndaj Phimphilai; A. Sansai
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was grown in the greenhouse and in the field at different levels of phosphorus applied, with or without inoculation\\u000a with VA mycorrhiza in sterilized or unsterilized soil. When grown in a sterilized soil to which eight levels of P had been\\u000a applied the non-inoculated plants required the application of 3200 kg P ha?1 to reach near-maximum
R. H. Howeler; L. F. Cadavid; E. Burckhardt
A major constraint to the development of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a crop to both farmers and processors is its starchy storage roots' rapid post-harvest deterioration, which can render it unpalatable and unmarketable within 24–72 h. An oxidative burst occurs within 15 min of the root being injured, that is followed by the altered regulation of genes, notably for catalase
Kim Reilly; Rocío Gómez-Vásquez; Holger Buschmann; Joe Tohme; John R. Beeching
Summary Field inoculation trials with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were conducted in Quilichao (typic Dystropept soil) and Carimagua (Haplustox soil). In Quilichao, with a large and\\u000a effective native VA-mycorrhizal (VAM) population, inoculation withGlomus manihotis did not increase cassava yields significantly, neither when different sources and levels of inoculum material were used,\\u000a nor with different cassava cultivars, or after stabilizing soil temperature
R. H. Howeler; E. Sieverding
A field trial was conducted at two sites in the savanna ecosystem of eastern Colombia to compare the effects of inoculation\\u000a with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) ofBrachiaria dictyoneura (a tropical grass), cassava (Manihot esculenta), the tropical forage legume kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) andSorghum sp., and two phosphate sources. The second stage of the trial studied the effect of these pre-crop treatments
J. C. Dodd; I. Arias; I. Koomen; D. S. Hayman
A five-year field experiment evaluated the effects of growing okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] in inter-row spaces of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and at three sowing dates on yield of both crops. Two contrasting cassava cultivars (TMS 30572-early maturing, short with full-branch and dense canopy and Odongbo-late maturing, tall with less-branch and sparse canopy) were evaluated. In the first experiment,
F. O. Olasantan
A novel protocol, based on biolistics and regeneration via organogenesis, was developed for genetic transformation of cassava\\u000a (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The in vitro performance of cassava cultivars CMC40, MPer183 and MCol22 was evaluated, and the regeneration protocol was modified to improve\\u000a shoot production from explants for transformation experiments. Somatic cotyledons were used as a target tissue in the transformation\\u000a experiments
P. Zhang; G. Legris; P. Coulin; J. Puonti-Kaerlas
Ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose was functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine. The modified polymer was easily transformed in a film, which could be used as a highly selective chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water, with detection limits of 1.9 × 10(-5) and 1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The film was successfully applied to the detection of cyanide in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots, which are a well-known source of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:24805864
Nandi, Leandro G; Nicoleti, Celso R; Bellettini, Ismael C; Machado, Vanderlei G
The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus deserticola, and leaf mulch from Gliricidia sepium and Senna siamea on the yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in a degraded alfisol of southwestern Nigeria was investigated. Inoculation in conjunction with mulching increased cassava tuber yield by 40-278% over the control. The highest yield was obtained with G. sepium and S. siamea mulch applied together in equal proportions. The results are explained in the light of the growth-enhancing effects of AMF, encouraged by the ameliorating effects of mulch on the soil structure and nutrient contents. PMID:20364236
Okon, Iniobong E; Solomon, Marian G; Osonubi, Oluwole
The objective of this research was to examine how much polyploidy may affect seed and root formation in cassava interspecific hybrids Manihot esculenta Crantz xM. oligantha Pax. A polyploid type was induced by colchicine treatment to lateral buds followed by propagating vegetatively arising stems. Cytogenetic and anatomical analyses were made on both polyploid and diploid types. The polyploid type showed extensive chromosome pairing and pollen viability. Multiembryonic ovule frequency increased in polyploid plants. Stalks became woody and propagation through roots difficult, the edible roots increased, however, in size. PMID:20536543
Nassar, Nagib M A; Graciano-Ribeiro, Dalva; Gomes, Paula F; Hashimoto, Danielle Y C
Integrating information about the glycaemic index (GI) of foods into the Caribbean diet is limited by the lack of data. Therefore, we determined the GI of eight staple foods eaten in the Caribbean and the effect on GI of crushing selected tubers. Groups of eight to ten healthy volunteers participated in three studies at two sites. GI was determined using a standard method with white bread and adjusted relative to glucose. The mean area under the glucose response curve elicited by white bread was similar for the different groups of subjects. In study 1, the GI of cassava (Manihot esculenta; 94 (sem 11)) was significantly higher than those of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis; 60 (sem 9)), cooking 'green' banana (Musa spp.; 65 (sem 11)) and sadha roti (65 (sem 9)) (P=0.018). There was no significant difference in the GI of the foods in study 2: dasheen (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta; 77 (sem 10)), eddoes (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum; 61 (sem 10)), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum; 71 (sem 8)), tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium; 60 (sem 5)) and white yam (Dioscorea alata; 62 (sem 6)), and, in study 3, crushing did not significantly affect the GI of dasheen, tannia or Irish potato. However, when the results from studies 2 and 3 were pooled, the GI of dasheen (76 (sem 7)) was significantly greater than that of tannia (55 (sem 5); P=0.015) with potato being intermediate (69 (sem 6)). We conclude that dasheen and cassava are high-GI foods, whereas the other tubers studied and sadha roti are intermediate-GI foods. Given the regular usage of cassava and dasheen in Caribbean diets we speculate that these diets would tend to be high GI, although this could be reduced by foods such as sadha roti and white yam. The range of GI between the staples is sufficiently large that health benefits may be accrued by replacing high-GI staples with intermediate-GI staples in the Caribbean diet. PMID:15182400
Ramdath, D Dan; Isaacs, Renée L C; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Wolever, Thomas M S
Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its own (as opposed to castor bean) and, among prospective crops that could be used as a trap crop, has foliage more persistent than an annual trap crop such as corn.
McQuate, Grant T.
The cleavage of mandelonitrile catalysed by hydroxynitrile lyases (HNL) from Prunus amygdalus (PaHNL) and Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) proceeded more rapidly in monophasic aqueous media containing 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C4MIm][BF4] than in media containing acetonitrile or THF. Both HNLs were much more thermostable in [C4MIm][BF4] than in acetonitrile or THF. The addition of each of the four ionic liquids 1-butyl-, 1-pentyl- and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborates at 2-6% (v/v in the aqueous phase) increased both the enzyme activity and the product e.e. in the PaHNL-catalysed transcyanation in an aqueous/DIPE biphasic system. However, MeHNL was inactivated by the ionic liquids, as indicated by the decreased reaction rate, substrate conversion and product e.e. PMID:16215854
Lou, Wen-Yong; Xu, Ruo; Zong, Min-Hua
By screening a genomic library of Burkholderia gladioli (formerly Pseudomonas marginata) for clones exhibiting esterolytic activity, the gene for a novel-type esterase (EstC) showing significant homology to plant enzymes could be isolated. High homology was found to two hydroxynitrile lyases originating from Hevea brasiliensis (tropical rubber tree) and Manihot esculenta (cassava), and to two proteins from Oryza sativa (rice) that are specifically induced upon infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. The sequenced ORF encodes for a protein of 298 amino acids. The enzyme was efficiently overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized with respect to enzymatic capabilities. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze a variety of esterase substrates of low to medium carbonic acid chain length, but no triglycerides were hydrolyzed. Despite the high sequence homology, no hydroxynitrile lyase activity could be recognized. PMID:11152069
Reiter, B; Glieder, A; Talker, D; Schwab, H
Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.
Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle
. In the present work the coupling under short-circuited conditions between the net Na+-influx across isolated frog skin and the transepithelial transport of water was examined i.e., the short-circuit current\\u000a (I\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a sc\\u000a \\u000a ) and the transepithelial water movement (TEWM) were measured simultaneously. It has been shown repeatedly that the I\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a sc\\u000a \\u000a across isolated frog skin is equal to the net
Taro corms were cooked in four different mediums (water, tamarind solution, lemon solution, or steam) during 25min. Changes in hardness, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, degree of gelatinisation (iodine index), degree of cell separation (VICS), resistant starch, total oxalate, absorbance at 280nm (A280) and 450nm (A450) were evaluated. The results showed that irrespective of the cooking medium, the hardness, soluble proteins,
Aboubakar; Nicolas Y. Njintang; Joel Scher; Carl M. F. Mbofung
Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin) were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health.
Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frederich, Michel; Kohnen, Stephane; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry
Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin) were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health. PMID:22312276
Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frederich, Michel; Kohnen, Stephane; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry
Cassava is an important subsidiary food and industrial raw material in the tropics. Root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, poses a serious threat to cassava cultivation in Tamil Nadu, India. Field experiments (2008–09) were conducted to study the effect of biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and biofertilizers (Azospirillum, vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) on root rot,
A. C. Hridya; G. Byju; Raj Sekhar Misra
We previously demonstrated that the quantity of beta-carotene (BC) partitioning in mixed micelles during simulated small intestinal digestion, i.e., the bioaccessibility, of boiled cassava is highly correlated with the BC content of different cultivars. However, cassava is also traditionally prepared by fermentation and roasting. These different methods of preparation have the potential to affect both the retention and bioaccessibility of BC. Here, we first compared retention of BC in boiled cassava, gari (fermentation followed by roasting), and fufu (fermentation followed by sieving and cooking into a paste) prepared from roots of three cultivars. BC content in unprocessed cultivars ranged from 6-8 microg/g wet weight, with cis isomers accounting for approximately one-third of total BC. Apparent retention of BC was approximately 90% for boiled cassava and fufu. In contrast, roasting fermented cassava at 195 degrees C for 20 min to prepare gari decreased BC content by 90%. Retention was increased to 63% when temperature was decreased to 165 degrees C and roasting was limited to 10 min. Processing was also associated with a decline in all-trans-BC and concomitant increase in 13-cis-BC. The efficiency of micellarization of all-trans and cis isomers of BC during simulated digestion was 25-30% for boiled cassava and gari and independent of cultivar. However, micellarization of BC isomers during digestion of fufu was only 12-15% (P < 0.05). These differences in retention and bioaccessibility of BC from cassava products prepared according to traditional processing methods suggest that gari and fufu may provide less retinol activity equivalents than isocaloric intake of boiled cassava. PMID:19199597
Thakkar, Sagar K; Huo, Tianyao; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Failla, Mark L
The coding sequence of the cyanogenic alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase gene of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) was cloned in the plasmid vector pMal-c2 and expressed in Escherichia coli strain JM105. DNA sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmid contained the same sequence as the cDNA clone pHNL10. Peptide sequencing of the recombinant protein showed that the N-terminus was heterogeneous, with either four or six additional amino acid residues compared with the native protein. Circular dichroism spectra indicated similar secondary structure contents for both proteins. Enzyme assays showed that specific activity of native and recombinant proteins were 0.24 and 0.26 mmol CN(-)/mg/min, respectively; that both proteins had optimal activity at 40 degrees C and pH 5.5; and that both proteins were inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane sulfonyl flouride (PMSF). Isoelectric focusing of native and recombinant protein revealed multiple isoforms for both proteins; the recombinant protein had a more basic mean isoelectric point (pl) (5.1) than the native protein (4.5). PMID:18633988
Hughes, J; Lakey, J H; Hughes, M A
The determination of growth constants of Aspergillus niger were obtained for semisolid cultures on cassava flour, Manihot esculenta, as a sole carbon source. As a consequence, a technique was developed that consisted of the use of a packed-bed microfermentor with a working volume of 16 cubic centimetres. The bed consisted of gelatinized and granulated cassava flour containing material nutrients and mold spores. The carbon dioxide produced during the respiration was drawn off with a current of air and then absorbed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The absorption of CO/sub 2/, P, was correlated with the specific growth rate mu by means of the equation P equals Kemut, where t is time and K is a constant. Ammonium nitrogen was used as a limiting substrate and its concentration was varied from 0.039 to 2.5% in dry base. The maximum growth rate, mu maximum, and the saturation constant, Ks, were 0.31/hour and 0.065 mmol (N/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4//g total dry solids. The proposed method is highly recommended for the evaluation of the semisolid fermentation of molds and for strictly aerobic bacteria and yeasts. It can be used especially in the evaluation of the growth of microorganisms on peanut shells, coffee residues, sugar cane bagasse, and other agricultural wastes.
Carrizalez, V.; Rodriguez, H.; Sardina, I.
Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 ?Sv y(-1)). PMID:24814722
Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves contained a high level of crude protein (29.3-32.4% dry weight) compared to a conventional vegetable, Amaranthus (19.6%). Ash was 4.6-6.4% in cassava leaf samples but 13.1% dry weight in Amaranthus. Dietary fibre was very high in all samples (26.9-39% dry weight) while HCN-potential was low (5.1-12.6 mg/100 g dry weight). Tannin was the highest in IITA red cassava leaves (29.7 mg/g) and the lowest in Amaranthus vegetable. In vitro digestibility was very low in oven dried samples (15.6-22.7%). Blanching increased protein content (except Amaranthus) and in vitro protein digestibility but decreased ash, minerals, dietary fibre and tannin, while HCN-potential was unchanged. Grinding reduced both HCN-potential and tannin by 84 and 71% respectively while oven drying only reduced the HCN content marginally. Preference studies showed that the highest percentage of respondents (25.3%) preferred Amaranthus vegetable, followed by Celosia (17.5%), Talinum (12.4%), garden egg (11.5%), with cassava leaves as the least (0.5%). Organoleptic evaluation rated cassava leaf soup inferior to Amaranthus in terms of appearance, colour and texture but equal in terms of taste and flavour and overall acceptability. PMID:7784394
Awoyinka, A F; Abegunde, V O; Adewusi, S R
In the cyanogenic crop cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), the final step in cyanide production is the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin, the deglycosylation product of linamarin, to cyanide plus acetone. This process occurs spontaneously at pH greater than 5.0 or enzymatically and is catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL). Recently, it has been demonstrated that acetone cyanohydrin is present in poorly processed cassava root food products. Since it has generally been assumed that HNL is present in all cassava tissues, we reinvestigated the enzymatic properties and tissue-specific distribution of HNL in cassava. We report the development of a rapid two-step purification protocol for cassava HNL, which yields an enzyme that is catalytically more efficient than previously reported (Hughes, J., Carvalho, F., and Hughes, M.  Arch Biochem Biophys 311: 496–502). Analyses of the distribution of HNL activity and protein indicate that the accumulation of acetone cyanohydrin in roots is due to the absence of HNL, not to inhibition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the absence of HNL in roots and stems is associated with very low steady-state HNL transcript levels. It is proposed that the lack of HNL in cassava roots accounts for the high acetone cyanohydrin levels in poorly processed cassava food products.
White, Wanda L.B.; Arias-Garzon, Diana I.; McMahon, Jennifer M.; Sayre, Richard T.
Molecular cloning of the full-length cDNA of (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis. Functional expression in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of an active site residue.
The full-length cDNA of (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase (Hnl) from leaves of Hevea brasiliensis (tropical rubber tree) was cloned by an immunoscreening and sequenced. Hnl from H. brasiliensis is involved in the biodegradation of cyanogenic glycosides and also catalyzes the stereospecific synthesis of aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic cyanohydrins, which are important as precursors for pharmaceutical compounds. The open reading frame identified in a 1. 1-kilobase cDNA fragment codes for a protein of 257 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 29.2 kDa. The derived protein sequence is closely related to the (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (Cassava) and also shows significant homology to two proteins of Oryza sativa with as yet unknown enzymatic function. The H. brasiliensis protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolated in an active form from the respective soluble fractions. Replacement of cysteine 81 by serine drastically reduced activity of the heterologous enzyme, suggesting a role for this amino acid residue in the catalytic action of Hnl. PMID:8621461
Hasslacher, M; Schall, M; Hayn, M; Griengl, H; Kohlwein, S D; Schwab, H
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/.
Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD.
Maruthi, M. N.; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A.; Mohammed, Ibrahim U.; Hillocks, Rory J.
This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat.
Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:24040164
Sakurai, Tetsuya; Mochida, Keiichi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo
A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067
Shewry, Peter R
The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants.
Ballen-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, German; Ayling, Sarah; Rodriguez-Zapata, Fausto; Tohme, Joe
Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms. PMID:23144242
Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin
Acquired resistance of rice to Pyricularia oryzae, the causing agent of rice blast, can be induced by inoculation with the non-host pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. We have previously cloned a cDNA and a corresponding gene (Pir7b) whose transcripts accumulate upon infiltration with the resistance-inducing bacteria. The putative encoded product Pir7b exhibits significant sequence similarity to two recently cloned hydroxynitrile lyases from Manihot esculenta (cassava) and Hevea brasisliensis, enzymes involved in the release of hydrogen cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides. As rice does not contain cyanogenic glycosides, a similar function of Pir7b appears unplausible. In order to functionally characterize the protein, recombinant Pir7b was produced in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that recombinant Pir7b does not have hydroxynitrile lyase activity, but exhibits esterase activity towards naphthol AS-acetate. Using Pir7b-specific antibodies, we show that the protein accumulates in rice leaves inoculated with P. syringae pv. syringae. Both the recombinant and the authentic proteins have an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa (28.8 kDa calculated) and seem to be active as monomers. Pir7b esterase also exhibits sequence similarity to several expressed sequence tags of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that it belongs to a family of proteins widely occuring in plants. PMID:9652390
Wäspi, U; Misteli, B; Hasslacher, M; Jandrositz, A; Kohlwein, S D; Schwab, H; Dudler, R
This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039
Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We established a reliable method for image-based PPD symptom quantification and used label-free quantitative proteomics to generate an extensive cassava root and PPD proteome. Over 2600 unique proteins were identified in the cassava root, and nearly 300 proteins showed significant abundance regulation during PPD. We identified protein abundance modulation in pathways associated with oxidative stress, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (including scopoletin), the glutathione cycle, fatty acid ?-oxidation, folate transformation, and the sulfate reduction II pathway. Increasing protein abundances and enzymatic activities of glutathione-associated enzymes, including glutathione reductases, glutaredoxins, and glutathione S-transferases, indicated a key role for ascorbate/glutathione cycles. Based on combined proteomics data, enzymatic activities, and lipid peroxidation assays, we identified glutathione peroxidase as a candidate for reducing PPD. Transgenic cassava overexpressing a cytosolic glutathione peroxidase in storage roots showed delayed PPD and reduced lipid peroxidation as well as decreased H2O2 accumulation. Quantitative proteomics data from ethene and phenylpropanoid pathways indicate additional gene candidates to further delay PPD. Cassava root proteomics data are available at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch for easy access and comparison with other proteomics data.
Vanderschuren, Herve; Nyaboga, Evans; Poon, Jacquelyne S.; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Nanni, Paolo; Gruissem, Wilhelm
Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824
Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G
Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.
Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Cepon-Robins, Tara J.; Gildner, Theresa E.; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.
The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS) fed ad libitum, 0.87 kg concentrate and 0.22 kg molasses on dry matter (DM) basis. The treatments were four supplements: soybean meal, cassava foliage, stylosanthes foliage or a mix of stylosanthes foliage and cassava foliage all giving the same nitrogen intake. The consumption of tannins and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were significantly higher in groups fed a mixture of foliages compared with only cassava foliage, respectively. There were 30% and 19%, respectively, higher live weight gain in the group fed a mixture of foliages as compared to the groups fed only cassava or stylosanthes. The factors of low organic matter and high level of HCN in the diet when feeding only cassava foliage might explain the negative effects on intake, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and nitrogen retention, and resulted in lower growth rates. PMID:19521793
Thang, C M; Ledin, I; Bertilsson, J
When cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root was cut into blocks and incubated under laboratory conditions, the blocks showed more widespread and more even symptoms of physiological deterioration than those under natural conditions. Thus, the tissue block system has potential for biochemical studies of natural deterioration of cassava root. The changes in cyanide content and linamarase (linamarin ?-d-glucoside glucohydrolase; EC 220.127.116.11) activity in various tissues during physiological deterioration were investigated. Total cyanide content increased in all parts of block tissue after 3-day incubation. The degree of increase in cyanide was most pronounced in white parenchymal tissue, 2 to 3 millimeters thick, next to the cortex (A-part tissue), where no physiological symptoms appeared. On the other hand, linamarase activity was decreased in all parts of block tissue after a 3-day incubation. A time course analysis of A-part tissue indicated a clear reciprocal relationship between changes in total cyanide and linamarase activity; total cyanide increased, while linamarase activity decreased. Free cyanide constituted a very small portion of the total cyanide and did not change markedly. Images Fig. 2
Kojima, Mineo; Iwatsuki, Norio; Data, Emma S.; Villegas, Cynthia Dolores V.; Uritani, Ikuzo
We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36?ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500?g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.
Ihemere, Uzoma E.; Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Sayre, Richard T.
The coupling between net transepithelial Cl- influx and net water flow was investigated. Experiments were performed on isolated frog skin bathed in isotonic Cl- Ringer's solution in the presence of the Na+ channel blocking agent amiloride in the mucosal solution. The skins were voltage-clamped at -80 or -100 mV (with the serosal solution as reference). Under these conditions the current across the skin is carried by an influx of Cl-. In the absence of antidiuretic hormone the correlation between current and net water flow was low, but in the presence of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasotocin, there was a highly significant correlation between current and net water flow. The data presented here indicate that under steady state conditions about 70 molecules of water follow each Cl- ion across the skin. If the water influx is driven by electroosmosis one would expect that a change in current should result in an immediate change in the water flow. There was, however, a considerable time delay between the change in current and water flow. This indicates that the observed coupling between Cl- flux and water flow is caused by current-induced local osmosis and not electroosmosis. PMID:8719255
The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.
Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.
Cassava Plants with a Depleted Cyanogenic Glucoside Content in Leaves and Tubers. Distribution of Cyanogenic Glucosides, Their Site of Synthesis and Transport, and Blockage of the Biosynthesis by RNA Interference Technology1
Transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, cv MCol22) plants with a 92% reduction in cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers and acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained by RNA interference to block expression of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2, the two paralogous genes encoding the first committed enzymes in linamarin and lotaustralin synthesis. About 180 independent lines with acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained. Only a few of these were depleted with respect to cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers. In agreement with this observation, girdling experiments demonstrated that cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the shoot apex and transported to the root, resulting in a negative concentration gradient basipetal in the plant with the concentration of cyanogenic glucosides being highest in the shoot apex and the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Supply of nitrogen increased the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the shoot apex. In situ polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that CYP79D1 and CYP79D2 were preferentially expressed in leaf mesophyll cells positioned adjacent to the epidermis. In young petioles, preferential expression was observed in the epidermis, in the two first cortex cell layers, and in the endodermis together with pericycle cells and specific parenchymatic cells around the laticifers. These data demonstrate that it is possible to drastically reduce the linamarin and lotaustralin content in cassava tubers by blockage of cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in leaves and petioles. The reduced flux to the roots of reduced nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides did not prevent tuber formation.
J?rgensen, Kirsten; Bak, S?ren; Busk, Peter Kamp; S?rensen, Charlotte; Olsen, Carl Erik; Puonti-Kaerlas, Johanna; M?ller, Birger Lindberg
Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.
Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko
Tapping causes the loss of large amounts of latex from laticifers and subsequently enhances latex regeneration, a high carbon- and nitrogen-cost activity in rubber tree. It is suggested that a 67 kDa protein associated with protein-storing cells in the inner bark tissues of rubber tree plays an important role in meeting the nitrogen demand for latex regeneration. Here, the 67 kDa protein was further characterized by a combination of cell biological, molecular biological and biochemical techniques. Immunogold labeling showed that the 67 kDa protein was specifically localized in the central vacuole of protein-storing cells. A full-length cDNA, referred to as HbVSP1, was cloned. The HbVSP1 contained a 1584 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 527 amino acids. The putative protein HbVSP1 shared high identity with the P66 protein from rubber tree and proteins of the linamarase, and bg1A from cassava (Manihot esculenta). HbVSP1 contained the active site sequences of ?-glucosidase, TFNEP and I/VTENG. In vitro analysis showed that the 67 kDa protein exhibited the activity of both ?-glucosidase and linamarase and was thus characterized as a cyanogenic ?-glucosidase. Proteins immuno-related to the 67 kDa protein were present in leaves and lutoids of laticifers. Tapping down-regulated the expression of HbVSP1, but up-regulated the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes for rubber biosynthesis, while the effect of resting from tapping was the reverse. Taken together, the results suggest that the 67 kDa protein is a vacuole-localized cyanogenic ?-glucosidase encoded by HbVSP1 and may have a role in nitrogen storage in inner bark tissues of trunk during the leafless periods when rubber tree is rested from tapping. PMID:23510639
Tian, Wei-Min; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Shu-Guang; Shi, Min-Jing; Wang, Xu-Chu; Dai, Long-Jun; Chen, Yue-Yi
Our ability to manage gene flow within traditional agroecosystems and their repercussions requires understanding the biology of crops, including farming practices' role in crop ecology. That these practices' effects on crop population genetics have not been quantified bespeaks lack of an appropriate analytical framework. We use a model that construes seed-management practices as part of a crop's demography to describe the dynamics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Cauca, Colombia. We quantify several management practices for cassava—the first estimates of their kind for a vegetatively-propagated crop—describe their demographic repercussions, and compare them to those of maize, a sexually-reproduced grain crop. We discuss the implications for gene flow, the conservation of cassava diversity, and the biosafety of vegetatively-propagated crops in centers of diversity. Cassava populations are surprisingly open and dynamic: farmers exchange germplasm across localities, particularly improved varieties, and distribute it among neighbors at extremely high rates vis-à-vis maize. This implies that a large portion of cassava populations consists of non-local germplasm, often grown in mixed stands with local varieties. Gene flow from this germplasm into local seed banks and gene pools via pollen has been documented, but its extent remains uncertain. In sum, cassava's biology and vegetative propagation might facilitate pre-release confinement of genetically-modified varieties, as expected, but simultaneously contribute to their diffusion across traditional agroecosystems if released. Genetically-modified cassava is unlikely to displace landraces or compromise their diversity; but rapid diffusion of improved germplasm and subsequent incorporation into cassava landraces, seed banks or wild populations could obstruct the tracking and eradication of deleterious transgenes. Attempts to regulate traditional farming practices to reduce the risks could compromise cassava populations' adaptive potential and ultimately prove ineffectual.
Dyer, George A.; Gonzalez, Carolina; Lopera, Diana Carolina
Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.
Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely consumed food in the tropics that naturally contains cyanogenic glycosides (cyanogens, mainly composed of linamarin, acetone cyanohydrin, and hydrocyanic acid). If cassava is not adequately processed to reduce the level of cyanogens prior to consumption, these compounds can lead to the formation of hydrocyanic acid in the gut. Exposure to hydrocyanic acid can cause symptoms ranging from vomiting and abdominal pain to coma and death. In 2008, a survey of ready-to-eat (RTE) cassava-based snack foods was undertaken to determine levels of cyanogens measured as total hydrocyanic acid. This survey was undertaken in response to the New South Wales Food Authority being alerted to the detection of elevated levels of cyanogens in an RTE cassava-based snack food. This survey took 374 samples of RTE cassava chips available in the Australian marketplace. Significant variation in the levels of total hydrocyanic acid were observed in the 317 samples testing positive for cyanogens, with levels ranging from 13 to 165 mg of HCN equivalents per kg (mean value, 64.2 mg of HCN eq/kg for positive samples). The results from this survey serve as a timely warning for manufacturers of RTE cassava chips and other cassava-based snack foods to ensure there is tight control over the levels of cyanogens in the cassava ingredient. Evidence from this survey contributed to an amendment to the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, which now prescribes a maximum level for hydrocyanic acid in RTE cassava chips of 10 mg of HCN eq/kg, which aligns with the Codex Alimentarius Commission international standard for edible cassava flour. PMID:21669076
Miles, David; Jansson, Edward; Mai, My Chi; Azer, Mounir; Day, Peter; Shadbolt, Craig; Stitt, Victoria; Kiermeier, Andreas; Szabo, Elizabeth
Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava.
Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R.; Zhang, Peng
The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile, which contains a quaternary carbon atom in the ?-position toward the nitrile group, and also similar sterically demanding substrates, such as 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionitrile (acetophenone cyanohydrin) or 2-acetyloxy-2-methylphenylacetonitrile. 2-Methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile was hydrolyzed to almost stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding acid. Acetophenone cyanohydrin was transformed to the corresponding acid (atrolactate) and amide (atrolactamide) at a ratio of about 3.4:1. The (R)-acid and the (S)-amide were formed preferentially from acetophenone cyanohydrin. A homology model of the nitrilase suggested that steric hindrance with amino acid residue Tyr54 could impair the binding or conversion of sterically demanding substrates. Therefore, several enzyme variants that carried mutations in the respective residues were generated and subsequently analyzed for the substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of the reactions. Enzyme variants that demonstrated increased relative activities for the conversion of acetophenone cyanohydrin were identified. The chiral analysis of these reactions demonstrated peculiar reaction kinetics, which suggested that the enzyme variants converted the nonpreferred (S)-enantiomer of acetophenone cyanohydrin with a higher reaction rate than that of the (preferred) (R)-enantiomer. Recombinant whole-cell catalysts that simultaneously produced the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191 and a plant-derived (S)-oxynitrilase from cassava (Manihot esculenta) converted acetophenone plus cyanide at pH 4.5 to (S)-atrolactate and (S)-atrolactamide. These recombinant cells are promising catalysts for the synthesis of stable chiral quaternary carbon centers from ketones.
Baum, Stefanie; Williamson, Dael S.; Sewell, Trevor
Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed. PMID:16672076
Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W
Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava. PMID:23344905
Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R; Zhang, Peng
Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW).
Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.
This work aims to contribute to the understanding of how the properties of the material being dried affect air-borne ultrasonic application. To this end, the experimental drying kinetics (40°C and 1m/s) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and apple (Malus domestica var. Granny Smith) were carried out applying different ultrasonic powers (0, 6, 12, 19, 25 and 31 kW/m(3)). Furthermore, the power ultrasound-assisted drying kinetics of different fruits and vegetables (potato, eggplant, carrot, orange and lemon peel) already reported in previous studies were also analyzed. The structural, textural and acoustic properties of all these products were assessed, and the drying kinetics modeled by means of the diffusion theory. A significant linear correlation (r>0.95) was established between the identified effective diffusivity (DW) and the applied ultrasonic power for the different products. The slope of this relationship (SDUP) was used as an index of the effectiveness of the ultrasonic application; thus the higher the SDUP, the more effective the ultrasound application. SDUP was well correlated (r ? 0.95) with the porosity and hardness. In addition, SDUP was largely affected by the acoustic impedance of the material being dried, showing a similar pattern with the impedance than the transmission coefficient of the acoustic energy on the interface. Thus, soft and open-porous product structures exhibited a better transmission of acoustic energy and were more prone to the mechanical effects of ultrasound. However, materials with a hard and closed-compact structure were less affected by acoustic energy due to the fact that the significant impedance differences between the product and the air cause high energy losses on the interface. PMID:24411471
Ozuna, César; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás; Riera, Enrique; Cárcel, Juan A; Garcia-Perez, Jose V
After administration of DL-noradrenaline H3 and autoradiography on electron microscope, one of the 5 types of fibres which terminate at the median eminence is strongly labeled. The terminals of these fibres (type 1) contain fine granules (800 to 1000 Å) and clear synaptic vesicles. This fixation of DL-noradrenaline H3 demonstrates the aminergic fibres which are in the median eminence corresponding
Jeannine Doerr-Schott; E. Follenius
This study evaluated the nutrient composition of blends of malted maize, African yam bean and fermented cocoyam. Maize and African yam bean were separately germinated for 48 h. Cocoyam was fermented for the same period. The samples were separately dried and milled to fine flours. Ratios of 70:28:2, 60:38:2 and 50:48:2 (protein basis) of maize (M), African yam bean (AYB)
N. M. Nnam
The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits. PMID:22610600
Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik
The feeding of tadpoles with thymus was found to have no significant effect on the size of the animals, the development of the saccus endolymphaticus, its Ca salt content or bone calcification. Experiments on exposure to thyroxine seem to indicate that th...
Background The location specific motor pattern generation properties of the spinal cord along its rostro-caudal axis have been demonstrated. However, it is still unclear that these differences are due to the different spinal interneuronal networks underlying locomotions or there are also segmental differences in motoneurons innervating different limbs. Frogs use their fore- and hindlimbs differently during jumping and swimming. Therefore we hypothesized that limb innervating motoneurons, located in the cervical and lumbar spinal cord, are different in their morphology and dendritic signal transfer properties. The test of this hypothesis what we report here. Results Discriminant analysis classified segmental origin of the intracellularly labeled and three-dimensionally reconstructed motoneurons 100% correctly based on twelve morphological variables. Somata of lumbar motoneurons were rounder; the dendrites had bigger total length, more branches with higher branching orders and different spatial distributions of branch points. The ventro-medial extent of cervical dendrites was bigger than in lumbar motoneurons. Computational models of the motoneurons showed that dendritic signal transfer properties were also different in the two groups of motoneurons. Whether log attenuations were higher or lower in cervical than in lumbar motoneurons depended on the proximity of dendritic input to the soma. To investigate dendritic voltage and current transfer properties imposed by dendritic architecture rather than by neuronal size we used standardized distributions of transfer variables. We introduced a novel combination of cluster analysis and homogeneity indexes to quantify segmental segregation tendencies of motoneurons based on their dendritic transfer properties. A segregation tendency of cervical and lumbar motoneurons was detected by the rates of steady-state and transient voltage-amplitude transfers from dendrites to soma at all levels of synaptic background activities, modeled by varying the specific dendritic membrane resistance. On the other hand no segregation was observed by the steady-state current transfer except under high background activity. Conclusions We found size-dependent and size-independent differences in morphology and electrical structure of the limb moving motoneurons based on their spinal segmental location in frogs. Location specificity of locomotor networks is therefore partly due to segmental differences in motoneurons driving fore-, and hindlimbs.
In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family. Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A4 and MeEF1A5 were successfully isolated. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5'UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183
Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa
Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food source for over 200 million sub-Saharan Africans. Unfortunately, its cultivation is severely hampered by cassava mosaic disease (CMD). Caused by a complex of bipartite cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMG) species (Family: Geminivirideae; Genus: Begomovirus) CMD has been widely described throughout Africa and it is apparent that CMG's are expanding their geographical distribution. Determining where and when CMG movements have occurred could help curtail its spread and reveal the ecological and anthropic factors associated with similar viral invasions. We applied Bayesian phylogeographic inference and recombination analyses to available and newly described CMG sequences to reconstruct a plausible history of CMG diversification and migration between Africa and South West Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. Results The isolation and analysis of 114 DNA-A and 41 DNA-B sequences demonstrated the presence of three CMG species circulating in the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos (East African cassava mosaic virus, EACMV; East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, EACMKV; and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, EACMCV). Phylogeographic analyses suggest that CMG’s presence on these SWIO islands is probably the result of at least four independent introduction events from mainland Africa occurring between 1988 and 2009. Amongst the islands of the Comoros archipelago, two major migration pathways were inferred: One from Grande Comore to Mohéli and the second from Mayotte to Anjouan. While only two recombination events characteristic of SWIO islands isolates were identified, numerous re-assortments events were detected between EACMV and EACMKV, which seem to almost freely interchange their genome components. Conclusions Rapid and extensive virus spread within the SWIO islands was demonstrated for three CMG complex species. Strong evolutionary or ecological interaction between CMG species may explain both their propensity to exchange components and the absence of recombination with non-CMG begomoviruses. Our results suggest an important role of anthropic factors in CMGs spread as the principal axes of viral migration correspond with major routes of human movement and commercial trade. Finer-scale temporal analyses of CMGs to precisely scale the relative contributions of human and insect transmission to their movement dynamics will require further extensive sampling in the SWIO region.
In mammals and birds the characteristics of ?1adrenergic receptors and their biological role in liver metabolism have been clearly described, although the predominance of receptor subtypes varies with species. In contrast, the actual presence of hepatic ?1adrenergic receptors in fish, amphibians, and reptiles has been questioned. Only recently has their existence been demonstrated in some fish species and also in
Elena Fabbri; Laura Barbin; Antonio Capuzzo
By means of metal-filled micropipettes the action potentials of 4 different classes of optic nerve fibers were recorded in Rana esculenta. The relationship between the angular velocity of the stimuli and the neuronal response was determined. (Author)
O. J. Gruesser D. Finkelstein U. Gruesser-Cornehls
In present study, 10 preferred traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, were analysed for nutritional profiles. Moisture content in their edible parts ranged from 83.43 to 94.78%. Maximum ash content was recorded in Portulaca oleracea, crude protein in Colocasia esculenta, crude fibre in Eryngium foetidum and fat in E. foetidum. Phosphorus was maximum in Ipomea aquatica, potassium in C. esculenta, zinc, calcium and manganese in Centella asiatica, copper in Sauropus androgynous, sodium and iron in P. oleracea, magnesium in Amaranthus viridi and cobalt in C. esculenta. Maximum polyphenol was recorded in Hibiscus sabdariffa, carotenoids in A. viridi, ascorbic acid in Saursops androgynus, anthocyanin in C. esculenta and chlorophyll in S. androgynus. Antioxidant activity was maximum in P. oleracea. Positive correlation was observed between polyphenol and tannin content and also between antioxidant activity and photochemicals. The developed nutritional profiles is being used in health and nutrition related schemes in Islands. PMID:21615278
Singh, Shrawan; Singh, D R; Salim, K M; Srivastava, Amit; Singh, L B; Srivastava, R C
The biological value of 5 mushroomsChlorophyllum molybditis, Psathyrella atroumbonata, Termitomyces robustus, Termitomyces striatus andVolvariella esculenta from our collection of wild edible mushrooms were determined using weanling rats.C. molybditis supported rapid growth with PER (2.63) higher than the casein control (2.50).P. atroumbonata was average in biological performance (PER 1.50) whileT. robustus andV. esculenta did not support growth at all. Rats onT.
S. R. A. Adewusi; F. V. Alofe; O. Odeyemi; O. A. Afolabi; O. L. Oke
The wild strain and the astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strain 25–2 of Phaffia rhodozyma were analyzed in order to assess their ability to grow and synthesize astaxanthin in a minimal medium composed of g L?1: KH2PO4 2.0; MgSO4 0.5; CaCl2 0.1; urea 1.0 and supplemented with date juice of Yucca fillifera as a carbon source (yuca medium). The highest astaxanthin production (6170??g
J Ramírez; M L Nuñez; R Valdivia
Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) infecting three major edible aroids namely Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Colocasia esculenta, and Xanthosoma sagittifolium cultivated in India was characterized. Infected plants showing typical DsMV symptoms were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and an amplification of a 963 bp fragment which encoded the coat protein (CP) gene was obtained. BLAST analysis of the cloned DNA amplicon revealed the identity of the virus to be that of DsMV. Sequence identity matrix of the nucleotide sequences among the three isolates showed that the DsMV isolate infecting A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta shared an identity as high as 93%, while the DsMV isolate from X. sagittifolium shared an identity of only 73% and 76% with the DsMV isolates from A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta, respectively. Comparative analysis of the coat protein of the three DsMV isolates showed the presence of DVG motif (A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta) and DTG motif in X. sagittifolium and several varying potential threonine and asparagine rich N-glycosylation motifs. Single amino acid substitution of the several conserved motifs occurs in all the three DsMV isolates. This is the first characterization of DsMV isolates infecting A. paeoniifolius, C. esculenta, and X. sagittifolium plants in India. PMID:24717027
Babu, B; Hegde, V
The peels of bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima) root, a major source of food carbohydrate in the tropics, though rich in nutrients, form toxic wastes lethal to soil invertebrates and can inhibit root growth. Recent investigations highlighted the ability of the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae (Eug) to partially detoxify the toxic wastes, and transform the cassava peels into valuable vermicompost. Vermicomposting and
The evolution-optimized leaves of Colocasia esculenta (taro) and Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) are the best optimized self-cleaning surfaces known to date. Using an atomic force microscope device equipped with a piezodriven sample stage which enables a z-range of 100 ?m we measured the surface morphology of dried and undried leaves of Colocasia esculenta. Thermodynamic calculations were done to investigate the interaction strength of a water droplet with the surfaces of the morphology shown in the images. The results show that the hierarchical structure produces a stable superhydrophobic state with optimal self-cleaning properties.
Hüger, E.; Rothe, H.; Frant, M.; Grohmann, S.; Hildebrand, G.; Liefeith, K.
Toxicological studies were carried out on seven Nigerian mushrooms, namely, Chlorophyllum molybditis (Mayer ex. fr.) Masse, Cortinarius melliolens Fries, Lentinus subnudus Berk, Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer, Termitomyces robustus (Beeli) Heim, Tricholoma lobayensis Heim and Volvariella esculenta (Mass) Singer. Amatoxin spot test and Chromatographic screening of the mushrooms revealed the absence of amatoxins and phallotoxins. None of the mushroom extracts tested
Isola O. Fasidi; Mukaila Kadiri
In this study, the antioxidant activity of mycelia from 21 wild mushrooms – Agaricus bresadolanus, Auricularia auricula-judae, Chroogomphus rutilus, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Inocybe flocculosa var. crocifolia, Inocybe catalaunica, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus sajor-caju, Lycoperdon excipuliforme, Macrolepiota excoriata, Morchella esculenta var. rigida, Morchella intermedia, Omphalotus olearius, Pleurotus djamor, Postia stiptica, Rhizopogon roseolus and Stropharia inuncta
Fatih Kalyoncu; Mustafa Oskay; Hüsniye Kayalar
In central Europe, the hybridogenetic waterfrog Rana esculenta, a hybrid between Rana ridibunda and Rana lessonae, lives in sympatry with one of its parental species, the poolfrog Rana lessonae. As R. esculenta has to backcross constantly with R. lessonae in order to produce viable offspring, this coexistence is obligatory for R. esculenta. Since R. esculenta has a higher primary fitness than R. lessonae, a mechanism is required that prevents the hybrid from driving the parental species, and hence itself, to extinction. Here, we present an analytical model and a computer simulation that investigate whether assortative mating can operate as a such a control mechanism. Our results show that assortative mating is very effective in regulating coexistence in such a hybrid-host system. This is particularly true when choice is affected by the proportion of the two male types in the population. Furthermore, we could show that even if the species composition in a mixed hybrid-host population may be largely influenced by differences in life-history parameters, assortative mating still plays a very important role by stabilizing coexistence. Thus, mating behavior turns out to be more important for the populations dynamics of hybridogenetic waterfrog systems than previously assumed. PMID:10824019
Som; Anholt; Reyer
Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity potentials were tested using Ames' test in crude distilled water and absolute ethanol extracts from the stems and leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) Kunth, Eichhornia crassipes Solms, Colocasia esculenta Schott and Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf, and the stems of Musa sapientum Linn. No mutagenic effect was found in any of the 10 mg\\/plate crude extracts of these
Apanchanid Thepouyporn; Karunee Kwanbunjan; Somchai Pooudong; Supranee Changbumrung
Gut analyses of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O. F. Müller) demonstrated that perennial phaeophytes, mostly fucoids and Alaria esculenta, were predominant in the diet. Ephemeral species, coralline algae and animals, were consumed in smaller amounts when available. Grazing by the urchins is evidently responsible for the dearth of non-coralline sublittoral algae in Newfoundland waters. Lobsters, rock crabs, purple
J. H. Himmelman; D. H. Steele
The neurohypophysial nonapeptides vasotocin (VT) and mesotocin (MT) are the amphibian counterparts of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT). We have here reported the cloning and functional characterization of the receptors for vasotocin (VTR) and mesotocin (MTR) in two species of frog, Rana catesbeiana and Rana esculenta. The frog VTR and MTR cDNAs encode proteins of 419 and 384 amino
S Acharjee; J-L Do-Rego; D Y Oh; R S Ahn; K Lee; D G Bai; H Vaudry; H B Kwon; J Y Seong
Complete nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the “living fossil” cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Vampyromorpha) and the cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Sepiida) were determined. The V. infernalis mt genome structure is identical to the incirrate octopod Octopus vulgaris mt genome structure, and is therefore more similar to that of the polyplacophoran Katharina tunicata, than to that of the other “living fossil”
Shin-ichi Yokobori; Dhugal J. Lindsay; Mari Yoshida; Kotaro Tsuchiya; Akihiko Yamagishi; Tadashi Maruyama; Tairo Oshima
Summary Olfactory receptor cells were isolated from the nasal mucosa ofRana esculenta and patch clamped. Best results were obtained with free-floating cells showing ciliary movement. 1)On-cell mode: Current records were obtained for up to 50 min. Under control conditions they showed only occasional action potentials. The odorants cineole, amyl acetate and isobutyl methoxypyrazine were applied in saline by prolonged superfusion.
Stephan Frings; Bernd Lindemann
1.Single myelinated nerve fibres of the frog,Rana esculenta, were voltage clamped in a fast-exchange chamber in the presence of 10 mM TEA to block potassium channels.2.After treatment with 0.6 mM chloramine-T for 1–4 min a sizeable INa component persisted even during a 14-s depolarizing impulse. Changing the perfusate to Ringer solution +1 mM benzocaine resulted in a fast reduction (half
Werner Ulbricht; Mechthild Stoye-Herzog
(1) Single myelinated nerve fibres of the frogRana esculenta were voltage clamped in solutions containing 10 mM TEA to block potassium channels. (2) Reduction of peakINa was measured after equilibrating the membrane in solution containing benzocaine between 0.025 and 2.0 mM. A Hill plot of this effect revealed a slopenH˜1 between 0.25 and 1.0 mM but showed deviations for the
T. Meeder; W. Ulbricht
Crude aqueous extracts from the peripheral rot zone of cocoyam tubers infected by Sclerotium rolfsii sacc were shown to be inhibitory to dialysed in vivo polygalacturonase (PG) of the pathogen. The PG inhibitory action, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were higher in cocoyam tubers of the Xanthosoma sagittifolium varieties than in those of the Coolocasia esculenta varieties. The levels of phenol oxidase, peroxidase and PG inhibitory activities also decreased as the postharvest age of the tubers increased. PMID:8975142
Ohazurike, N C; Arinze, A E
. ?Changes in physiological parameters related to photosynthesis were studied in five macroalgal species from Spitsbergen (Monostroma arcticum, Laminaria solidungula, Alaria esculenta, Palmaria palmata, Phycodrys rubens) during a 72-h exposure to UV radiation. Maximal quantum yield of photochemistry (Fv\\/Fm) and maximal electron transport rate\\u000a (ETRmax) were measured with a pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometer; the activity of the Calvin cycle enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate\\u000a carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco)
Kai Bischof; Dieter Hanelt; Christian Wiencke
The mantle muscles of five cephalopod species, Todarodes pacificus, Photololigo edulis, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Sepia esculenta, and Sepia longipes, were extracted with 0.1 M NaOH to prepare crude collagen fiber, called ‘residue after alkali extraction’ (RS-AL). Solubility\\u000a of the collagens in water was examined in the temperature range 20–90°C. The collagens showed a similar tendency in solubility,\\u000a which gradually increased depending on
Shoshi Mizuta; Takahide Tanaka; Yoshihiro Yokoyama; Reiji Yoshinaka
Voltage clamped single nerve fibres of the frogPanta esculenta were treated with the amino groups specific reagents ethyl acetimidate and isethionyl acetimidate. Ethyl acetimidate is lipid soluble, relatively non-polar and can penetrate a membrane. Isethionyl acetimidate is lipid-insoluble, polar and membrane-impermeant. Treatment with ethyl acetimidate caused an irreversible reduction of Na currents and a shift of the voltage dependence of
Several parameters of sodium transport were analyzed on the isolated skin of R. esculenta under the influence of ouabain (10-4 M\\/l):1.The sodium pool involved in transepithelial transport is not affected by ouabain;2.The sodium pool exchangeable from the corium side increases to a new steady state value within 100 min, which is appr. 40 meq\\/kg cell water above the control value;3.The
Wolfram Nagel; Adolf Dörge
Summary 1.Voltage clamp experiments were done on single myelinated nerve fibres of the frog,Rana esculenta.2.The time course of procaine action (1.0 mM at pH 7.2) was obtained from changes inINa on changing solutions during repetitive (1 Hz) depolarizing pulses of constant amplitude following hyperpolarizing prepulses. The mean half times of onset and offset of procaine block were 3.7 and 28
H. H. Wagner; W. Ulbricht
1.Voltage clamp experiments were done on single nodes of Ranvier ofRana esculenta. Equilibrium effects were obtained fromINa-V curves, the rates of action from changes inINa on changing solutions during repetitive depolarizing pulses.2.Saxitoxin (STX) exclusively and reversibly blocked Na channels, the effect being fully described by a one-to-one reaction between STX and a receptor at the channel with an equilibrium dissociation
H.-H. Wagner; W. Ulbricht
BACKGROUND: We report the expression pattern of 5S rDNA in the eggs of water frogs Rana lessonae, Rana ridibunda and Rana esculenta using the quantitative real-time PCR. This kind of research had never been performed before. RESULTS: 5S rDNA relative expression of the Rana ridibunda oocytes is approximately six times higher in comparison to the Rana lessonae oocytes. The oocytes
El?bieta Czarniewska; Robert Plewa
Reproductive marine algae with complex life histories may respond differently to water motion depending upon whether the spore-producing or gamete-producing phase is considered. Two such species, the kelp Alaria esculenta (L.) Greville (Phaeophyceae) and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta), were examined experimentally in the laboratory. The kelp was collected in April–June 2000 and U. lactuca was collected in July–August 2000, from
R. Gordon; S. H. Brawley
Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity potentials were tested using Ames' test in crude distilled water and absolute ethanol extracts from the stems and leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) Kunth, Eichhornia crassipes Solms, Colocasia esculenta Schott and Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf, and the stems of Musa sapientum Linn. No mutagenic effect was found in any of the 10 mg/plate crude extracts of these plants for either TA98 or TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium, in a direct test and a mutagenic induced test by S-9 mix. Both distilled water and absolute ethanol extract of 0.5-10 mg/plate B. mutica showed strong antimutagenicity to AFB1, B(a)P and 4NQO in two tester strains. Ethanol extract of 0.1-0.5 mg/plate C. esculenta also showed antimutagenicity to AFB1, B(a)P and 4NQO in two tester strains, but the 0.5-10 mg/plate water extract had an antimutagenic effect only for B(a)P in TA98. The ethanol extracts of 5 mg/plate B. mutica and 0.5 mg/plate C. esculenta are cytotoxic, as indicated by their partial killing effect. PMID:17547080
Thepouyporn, Apanchanid; Kwanbunjan, Karunee; Pooudong, Somchai; Changbumrung, Supranee
Furanocoumarins (FCs) in the human diet irreversibly inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) and are responsible for the "grapefruit/drug"interaction phenomenon. Previously, we reported that FCs in grapefruit juice (GFJ) bind to autoclaved Aspergillus niger, and this binding reduced the GFJ inhibition of CYP 3A4. However, A. niger is not an edible fungus, and thus, potentially similar binding by edible fungi was also characterized. In this study, autoclaved Morchella esculenta, an edible ascomycete, removed much of the FC content in GFJ, resulting in decreased inhibition of CYP 3A4 activity by the GFJ. Three other edible fungi, Monascus purpureus, Pleurotus sapidus, and Agaricus bisporus, were evaluated for their binding with two of the major FCs in GFJ, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) and bergamottin (BM). These autoclaved edible fungi removed these FCs from GFJ, similar to M. esculenta, indicating that binding is a general, passive interaction between FCs and fungal hyphae. The removal of FCs was independent of pH in GFJ. Dried fungal material of M. esculenta was also effective in removing FCs from GFJ and occurred with GFJ samples prepared from both fresh grapefruit and GFJ concentrate. PMID:19012403
Myung, Kyung; Narciso, Jan A; Manthey, John A
Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi. PMID:23095488
Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Akbar Khalil, Shahid; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider
ABSTRACT Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many cryptic, host-specialized species that causes wilt and canker of woody species and rot diseases of storage roots and corms of many economically important plants worldwide. With the exception of the family Araceae, all confirmed hosts of C. fimbriata are dicotyledonous plants. We hypothesized that the isolates from members of the family Araceae would form a monophyletic lineage specialized to infect these unique hosts. Analyses of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear rDNA indicate that isolates and herbarium specimens of C. fimbriata from the family Araceae represent three different groups: an Xanthosoma/Syngonium group on corms of Xanthosoma spp. from the Caribbean region and on ornamental S. podophyllum from greenhouses in Florida, Hawaii, Australia, and Brazil; an inhame group on corms of Colocasia esculenta in Brazil; and a distantly related taro group on Colocasia esculenta in Hawaii and China and on X. sagittifolium in Fiji. Inoculations of three species of Araceae (Caladium bicolor, S. podophyllum, and Colocasia esculenta) showed that isolates from all three groups are pathogenic to these three hosts. Brazilian isolates from Mangifera indica and Ficus carica were only weakly pathogenic to Caladium and Syngonium sp. and were not pathogenic to Colocasia sp. Syngonium plants appeared to be most susceptible to isolates of the Xanthosoma/Syngonium group, and Colocasia plants were least susceptible to isolates from Syngonium spp. Thus, it appears that adaptations to the family Araceae have evolved more than once in the C. fimbriata complex. It is hypothesized that the three groups of C. fimbriata on the family Araceae are native to the Caribbean, Brazil, and Asia, respectively, but they have been spread elsewhere by humans. PMID:18943126
Thorpe, Daniel J; Harrington, Thomas C; Uchida, Janice Y
Hippophae salicifolia, Elaeagnus pyriformis, Myrica esculenta and M. nagi are actinorhizal plants growing in the sacred forests of Northeast India with multipurpose uses. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the phenol, flavonoid and flavonol contents of the fresh fruit juice of these plant species including the antioxidant potential by means of DPPH, H2O2 and NO scavenging activity and FRP. The total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of fruit juice ranged from 321.68+/-0.06 to 76.67+/-0.01 mg/g GAE, 272.92+/-0.07 to 20.12+/-0.02 mg/g QE and 258.92+/-0.08 to 18.72+/-0.02 mg/g QE, respectively. At 2.0 mg/mL concentration, DPPH scavenging activity was found to be the highest in M. esculenta (89.62 percent) and the lowest in E. pyriformis (17.58 percent). The reducing power activity was found significantly higher in H. salicifolia juice, which increased with increase in concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of H. salicifolia juice was found to be as high as 98.78 percent, while Elaeagnus juice was found to be less effective with just 48.90 percent. Juice of H. salicifolia showed the greatest NO scavenging effect of 75.24 percent as compared to juice of E. pyriformis, where only 37.54 percent scavenging was observed at the same concentration. Taking into account all the experimental data, it can be said that the fruits of H. salicifolia and both M. nagi and M. esculenta have good antioxidant activity compared to fruits of E. pyriformis. PMID:24287659
Goyal, Arvind K; Mishra, Tanmayee; Bhattacharya, Malay; Kar, Pallab; Sen, Arnab
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens esculenta) and lupin (Lupinus albus) responded to inoculation with their respective symbiotants:Rhizobium loti, Rhizobium leguminosarum biovarviceae andBradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) alone or with (NH4)2SO4 at 30 ppm N. Soil application of Na2MoO4.2H2O at 3 ppm Mo, CoCl2.6H2O at 2 ppm Co2+ or Na2B4O7.10H2O at 1 ppm B with 0 and 30 ppm N increased nodule weight
Y. G. Yanni
A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported. We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:23204304
Ahmed, Ibrar; Biggs, Patrick J; Matthews, Peter J; Collins, Lesley J; Hendy, Michael D; Lockhart, Peter J
Reproductive functions are regulated both at central (brain) and gonadal levels. In this respect, the endocannabinoid system (eCS) has a very influential role. Interestingly, the characterization of eCS has taken many advantages from the usage of animal models different from mammals. Therefore, this review is oriented to summarize the main pieces of evidence regarding eCS coming from the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, with particular interest to the morphofunctional relationship between eCS and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Furthermore, a novel role for endovanilloids in the regulation of a testicular GnRH system will be also discussed.
Ciaramella, Vincenza; Scarpa, Donatella; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo
The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of ?-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.
Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.
The biological value of 5 mushrooms Chlorophyllum molybditis, Psathyrella atroumbonata, Termitomyces robustus, Termitomyces striatus and Volvariella esculenta from our collection of wild edible mushrooms were determined using weanling rats. C. molybditis supported rapid growth with PER (2.63) higher than the casein control (2.50). P. atroumbonata was average in biological performance (PER 1.50) while T. robustus and V. esculenta did not support growth at all. Rats on T. striatus dried at 60 degrees C for 48 h lost weight rapidly and showed pathological signs of toxicity by the second day. All rats on this diet died by the fourth day of the experiment. When the diet of T. striatus dried at 90 degrees C for about 8 h was fed, the rats gained weight marginally but all survived. Prolonged storage of T. striatus at 60 degrees C for 5-8 weeks also seemed to detoxify the poisonous component such that PER and NPR values were 0.8 and 2.0 respectively. 2 pairs each of adult rats fed C. molybditis and Tricholoma lobayensis diets for 10 days were mated. Rats of C. molybditis diet gave 5 and 6 litters each and only one of these litters seemed to have retarded growth. Rats on T. lobayensis diet did not produce any litters for 14 weeks but the female produced off-spring when mated with control male rats. PMID:8474999
Adewusi, S R; Alofe, F V; Odeyemi, O; Afolabi, O A; Oke, O L
Arsenic-contaminated mountain tap water supply in Ron Phibun District, Nakorn Si Thammarat Province, Thailand poses a health hazard. Arsenic was removed using a constructed wetland (CW) system, in which the treated contaminated tap water was sedimented in 3 consecutive ponds before entering into the CW ponds, containing either Cyperus spp. or Colocasia esculenta. Following 1 year of operation both plants had similar ability to remove arsenic from mountain tap water. Arsenic was mostly concentrated at the roots of both plants. Arsenic in C. esculenta leaves was allowed to leach out in freshwater for 149 days, but the level (0.05 mg L(-1)) was much lower than standard guidelines for industrial discharge. For Cyperus spp., young shoots were utilized as ornamental plants. As the sediments contained high arsenic levels, they were converted by a solidification/stabilization (S/S) system into cement-containing blocks, which after curing for 21 days produced arsenic leaching at levels that did not require a secure landfill for storage. The success of this study demonstrated that CW combined with appropriate S/S system is a suitable approach for Thailand in removing arsenic from contaminated water. PMID:21036470
Nakwanit, Sannop; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Sangchoom, Wantana
Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded.
Agarwala, B.K.; Choudhury, Parichita Ray
Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554
Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray
The present study, for the first time, comparatively investigated the enzymatic activities (proteases and hyaluronidases) in the venoms of four Scyphozoan jellyfish species, including Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculenta, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. For this, various zymographic analyses were performed using assay specific substrates. Interestingly, all the four jellyfish venoms showed gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, each of which contains a multitude of enzyme components with molecular weights between 17 and 130 kDa. These four jellyfish venoms demonstrated a huge variation in their proteolytic activities in quantitative and qualitative manner depending on the species. Most of these enzymatic activities were disappeared by the treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting they might be belonged to metalloproteinases. Toxicological significance of these venom proteases was examined by comparing their proteolytic activity and the cytotoxicity in NIH 3T3 cells. The relative cytotoxic potency was C. nozakii > N. nomurai > A. aurita > R. esculenta. The cytotoxicity of jellyfish venom shows a positive correlation with its overall proteolytic activity. The metalloproteinases appear to play an important role in the induction of jellyfish venom toxicities. In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity. PMID:21718715
Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-sun; Kang, Changkeun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung
Complete nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the "living fossil" cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Vampyromorpha) and the cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Sepiida) were determined. The V. infernalis mt genome structure is identical to the incirrate octopod Octopus vulgaris mt genome structure, and is therefore more similar to that of the polyplacophoran Katharina tunicata, than to that of the other "living fossil" cephalopod Nautilus macromphalus. The mt genome structure of S. esculenta is identical to that of Sepia officinalis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the mt protein genes from the completely sequenced cephalopod mt genomes suggested the monophyletic relationship of two myopsid squids Loligo bleekeri and Sepiotheuthis lessoniana, and the monophyletic relationship of two oegopsid squids Watasenia scintillans, and Todarodes pacificus. Sepiida appeared as the sister group of Teuthida (Myopsida + Oegopsida). The phylogenetic position of Vampyromorpha appeared as the sister group of Octopoda, although the monophyly of Vampyromorpha and Decapodiformes cannot be rejected outright by our phylogenetic analyses. The hypothesis that Vampyromorpha is basal among the coleoid cephalopods can be rejected because of low statistical support. Therefore, it is reasonable to recognize three major groups in Coleoidea--Vampyromorpha, Octopoda, and Decapodiformes. PMID:17596970
Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Yoshida, Mari; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Maruyama, Tadashi; Oshima, Tairo
Hibifolin, the highest-content bioactive flavonoid of the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot, was incubated with human intestinal bacteria, and four metabolites (1-4) were obtained from the incubated solution by chromatographic methods. The structures of the four metabolites were elucidated as gossypetin 8-O-beta-D-4''-deoxy- Delta(4'')-glucuropyranoside (1), gossypetin (2), quercetin (3), and 8-methoxy-quercetin (4), respectively, on the basis of UV, NMR, and MS data. Metabolite 1 was obtained as a new compound with a specific beta-D-4''-deoxy-Delta(4'')-glucuropyranosyl moiety, which was formed through a unique and novel metabolic pathway that has not been reported previously. PMID:19235125
Xu, Tong-Tong; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Bin; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Qing-Ying
Esculentoside A (EsA) is a saponin isolated from the roots of Phytolacca esculenta. Previous experiments showed that it had strong anti-inflammatory effects. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is an important inflammatory mediator. In order to study the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of EsA, it was determined whether TNF production from macrophages was altered by EsA under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated conditions. EsA was found to decrease both extracellular and cell associated TNF production in a dose dependent manner at concentrations higher than 1 ?mol/l EsA. Previous studies have showed that EsA reduced the releasing of platelet activating factor (PAF) from rat macrophages. The reducing effects of EsA on the release of TNF and PAF may explain its anti-inflammatory effect.
Yue, Zheng Qin; Bin, Wang Hong; Wen, Ju Dian; Hua, Yi Yang
The search for drought-resistant crops has energy-saving as well as water-saving goals. The agricultural potential of morama beans (Bauhinea esculenta, also known as Tylosema esculentum), a plant that grows extensively across southern Africa was investigated. The beans are usually eaten roasted, like peanuts. Morama tubers, which store water to assure the plant's survival in drought years, may be uprooted and eaten as a source of moisture and some other nutrients. The goals of the morama project were specifically to discover the tolerance of morama for Texas agronomic conditions, to discover the ideal conditions and methods of cultivation, to demonstrate the productivity and forage potential of the plants grown at various sites in Texas, and to measure the nutritional quality of the edible parts of this plant.
The amount/distribution of liver melanin in 3 amphibian species (Rana esculenta, Triturus a. apuanus, Triturus carnifex) was studied during 2 periods of the annual cycle (summer activity–winter hibernation) by light and electron microscopy, image analysis and microspectrofluorometry. The increase in liver pigmentation (melanin content) during winter appeared to be correlated with morphological and functional modifications in the hepatocytes, which at this period were characterised by a decrease in metabolic activity. These findings were interpreted according to the functional role (e.g. phagocytosis, cytotoxic substance inactivation) played by the pigment cell component in the general physiology of the heterothermic vertebrate liver and, in particular, in relation to a compensatory engagement of these cells against hepatocellular hypoactivity during the winter period.
BARNI, SERGIO; BERTONE, VITTORIO; CROCE, ANNA CLETA; BOTTIROLI, GIOVANNI; BERNINI, FRANCO; GERZELI, GIUSEPPE
The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).
Wolverton, B. C.
This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157
Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R
Free monosaccharides can be used for direct glycosylation of Spheron, a spherical macroporous hydroxyalkyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate copolymer, in a reaction that proceeds at room temperature in dioxane medium under catalysis of dry HCl or BF3. Derivatives of L-fucose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-mannose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine thus prepared from Spheron beads have been shown to be efficient affinity carriers in isolation of lectins from seeds of Canavalia ensiformis D.C. (concanavalin A), Dolichos biflorus L., Glycine soja (L.) Sieb. et Zucc., Lens esculenta Moench, Ricinus communis L., Ulex europaeus L. and from albumin glands of the garden snail Helix pomatia L. PMID:638203
Filka, K; Coupek, J; Kocourek, J
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398
Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah
With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality. PMID:24080292
Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S
The antifouling and self-cleaning properties of plants such as Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and Colocasia esculenta (taro) have been attributed to the superhydrophobicity resulting from the hierarchical surface structure of the leaf and the air trapped between the nanosized epicuticular wax crystals. The reported study showed that the nanostructures on the taro leaf surfaces were also highly resistant to particle and bacterial adhesion under completely wetted conditions. Adhesion force measurements using atomic force microscopy revealed that the adhesion force on top of the papilla as well as the area around it was markedly lower than that on the edge of an epidermal cell. The decreased adhesion force and the resistance to particle and bacterial adhesion were attributed to the dense nanostructures found on the epidermal papilla and the area surrounding it. These results suggest that engineered surfaces with properly designed nanoscale topographic structures could potentially reduce or prevent particle/bacterial fouling under submerged conditions. PMID:21736298
Ma, Jianwei; Sun, Yuekai; Gleichauf, Karla; Lou, Jun; Li, Qilin
To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-?1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723
Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji
The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117
Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar
1. The lower molecular weight, heterogeneous acid phosphatase (AcPase) from the frog liver (Rana esculenta) containing AcPase I, II, III and IV was separated into enzymatically active components by isoelectric focusing in an immobilized pH gradient. 2. The blotted enzyme bands were characterized by their different binding patterns obtained with the lectins concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Lens culinaris hemagglutinin (LcH) and peanut agglutinin (PNA). 3. In situ neuraminidase treatment reduced the staining intensity of some WGA-bands and increased that of PNA-bands. 4. The finding that AcPases I, II, III and IV differ in their carbohydrate chain composition, together with previous results showing different bioactivities of AcPases III and IV, indicates a correlation between the glycosylation state of enzyme forms and their physiological action. PMID:2015951
Kubicz, A; Szalewicz, A; Chrambach, A
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants.
Jones, Ryan T.; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M.; Fierer, Noah
Background and Aims Floral thermogenesis occurs in at least 12 families of ancient seed plants. Some species show very high rates of respiration through the alternative pathway, and some are thermoregulatory, with increasing respiration at decreasing ambient temperature. This study assesses the intensity and regulation of respiration in three species of African Hydnora that represent the Hydnoraceae, an unusual family of holoparasitic plants from arid environments. Methods Long-term respirometry (CO2 production) and thermometry were carried out on intact flowers of H. africana, H. abyssinica and H. esculenta in the field, and short-term measurements were made on floral parts during the protogynous flowering sequence. Key Results For H. africana, there was no temperature elevation in either the osmophores or the gynoecial chamber in any phase, and mass-specific respiration rates of the flower parts were low (maximum 8·3 nmol CO2 g?1 s?1 in osmophore tissue). Respiration tracked ambient and floral temperatures, eliminating the possibility of the inverse relationship expected in thermoregulatory flowers. Hydnora abyssinica flowers had higher respiration (maximum 27·5 nmol g?1 s?1 in the osmophores) and a slight elevation of osmophore temperature (maximum 2·8 °C) in the female stage. Respiration by gynoecial tissue was similar to that of osmophores in both species, but there was no measurable elevation of gynoecial chamber temperature. Gynoecial chamber temperature of H. esculenta could reach 3·8 °C above ambient, but there are no respiration data available. Antheral tissue respiration was maximal in the male phase (4·8 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. africana and 10·3 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. abyssinica), but it did not raise the antheral ring temperature, which showed that thermogenesis is not a by-product of pollen maturation or release. Conclusions The exceptionally low thermogenesis in Hydnora appears to be associated with scent production and possibly gynoecial development, but has little direct benefit to beetle pollinators.
Seymour, Roger S.; Maass, Erika; Bolin, Jay F.
Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659
Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn
Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response.
Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn
As a clinical entity, sickle cell anemia (SCA) is known to be relatively rarer in Africans than in the African-American population of the United States. Paradoxically, sickle cell trait (SCT), the non-anemic, heterozygous condition, is about three times more common among indigenous Africans than in African-Americans. The ratio of SCA to SCT is 1:50 for African-Americans, and less than 1:1,000 for tropical Africans. This etiological disparity is attributed to an anti-sickling agent, thiocyanate, (SCN-) found abundantly in staple African foods, such as the African yam (Dioscorea sp) and cassava (Manihot utilissima). Staple American foods have negligible SCN-concentrations. Nonstaple foods in the American diet, such as carrots, cabbage, and radishes, have SCN- levels far below the African yam and cassava. This finding explains the high incidence of SCA among African-Americans and its rarity in Africans. The author concludes that SCA is a congenital deficiency anemia, ameliorable by prophylactic diets of foods with high SCN- contents. Thus, “thiocyanate deficiency anemia” is nutritionally a more correct clinical status for those born with the homozygous sickle hemoglobin genome. Just as any iron undernourished person can suffer from iron deficiency anemia, sickle hemoglobin homozygotes suffer from “thiocyanate deficiency anemia” when they subsist on SCN-deficient foods. This article reviews the role of dietary SCN- in SCA control.
Although cassava is a major food crop, its scientific breeding began only recently compared with other crops. Significant progress has been achieved, particularly in Asia where cassava is used mainly for industrial processes and no major biotic constraints affect its productivity. Cassava breeding faces several limitations that need to be addressed. The heterozygous nature of the crop and parental lines used to generate new segregating progenies makes it difficult to identify parents with good breeding values. Breeding so far has been mainly based on a mass phenotypic recurrent selection. There is very little knowledge on the inheritance of traits of agronomic relevance. Several approaches have been taken to overcome the constraints in the current methodologies for the genetic improvement of cassava. Evaluations at early stages of selection allow for estimates of general combining ability effect or breeding values of parental lines. Inbreeding by sequential self-pollination facilitates the identification of useful recessive traits, either already present in the Manihot gene pool or induced by mutagenesis. PMID:15630615
Ceballos, Hernán; Iglesias, Carlos A; Pérez, Juan C; Dixon, Alfred G O
Babassu (Orbignya phalerata), a palm-tree coconut fruit, mixed with mandioca (Manihot utilissima) is the staple food of people living in the endemic goiter area of Maranhao in Brazil, where goiter prevalence among schoolchildren was still 38% in 1986 despite an adequate iodine intake in most of the population. Therefore, the question arose as to whether or not the ingestion of babassu alone or mixed with mandioca contributed to the persistence of endemic goiter in this area of Brazil. In this investigation we examined the potential antithyroid effects of babassu and mandioca by means of in vivo studies in Sprague-Dawley rats, in vitro studies in porcine thyroid slices and using a purified porcine thyroid peroxidase (TPO) system. Samples of various edible parts of babassu and mandioca flour were homogenized and extracted in goitrogen-free water (GFW) for in vivo experiments, and in methanol (100 g/l), GFW or 0.06 mol/l phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) for in vitro experiments. The edible parts of babassu produced significant in vivo antithyroid effects (p < 0.05- < 0.001) in rats on a high iodine intake (14 micrograms I- day-1.rat-1), as well as distinct and reproducible antithyroid and anti-TPO activities in both in vitro systems, their action being similar to that of the thionamide-like antithyroid drugs propylthiouracil and methimazole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075782
Gaitan, E; Cooksey, R C; Legan, J; Lindsay, R H; Ingbar, S H; Medeiros-Neto, G
Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600–700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources.
Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Perez-Negron, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso
Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-? and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-? production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-? and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-? levels and high-level production of IFN-? in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator.
Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi
A quantitative method was developed to measure the binding of fluorescent-labeled lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis L., DC.) lectins to various Rhizobium strains. Lentil lectin bound to three of the five Rhizobium leguminosarum strains tested. The number of lentil lectin molecules bound per R. leguminosarum 128C53 cell was 2.1 × 104. Lentil lectin also bound to R. japonicum 61A133. Pea and broad bean lectins bound to only two of the five strains of R. leguminosarum, whereas concanavalin A (jackbean lectin) bound to all strains of R. leguminosarum, R. phaseoli, R. japonicum, and R. sp. tested. Since these four lectins have similar sugarbinding properties but different physical properties, the variation in bindings of these lectins to various Rhizobium strains indicates that binding of lectin to Rhizobium is determined not only by the sugar specificity of the lectin but also by its physical characteristics. The binding of lentil lectin and concanavalin A to R. leguminosarum 128C53 could be inhibited by glucose, fructose, and mannose. However, even at 150 millimolar glucose, about 15% of the binding remained. The binding of lentil lectin to R. japonicum 61A133 could be inhibited by glucose but not by galactose. It is concluded that the binding site of lentil lectin to R. japonicum is different from the binding site of soybean lectin to R. japonicum.
Wong, Peter P.
Esculentoside A (EsA) is a saponin isolated from the roots of Phytolacca esculenta. Previous experiments have shown that it has strong anti-inflammatory effects. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a very important inflammatory mediator. It is known that there are two types of TNF—TNF? is from macrophages/monocytes and TNF? is from activated lymphocytes. In order to study the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of EsA, it was determined whether TNF? production from human peripheral monocytes was altered by EsA under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated conditions. EsA was found to decrease TNF? production in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations higher than 1 ?mol/l EsA. Recent studies have shown that EsA has a curative effect on chocolate cyst and other inflammatory diseases. Our previous studies have shown that EsA could reduce the release of platelet activating factor (PAF) from rat macrophages, and inhibit interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 production from routine macrophages. The reducing effects of EsA on the release of TNF?, IL-1, IL-6 and PAF may explain its anti-inflammatory effect.
Fang, J.; Zheng, Q-Y.
Tropical wetlands have been shown to exhibit high rates of net primary productivity and may therefore play an important role in global climate change mitigation through carbon assimilation and sequestration. Many permanently flooded areas of tropical East Africa are dominated by the highly productive C4 emergent macrophyte sedge, Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus). However, increasing population densities around wetland margins in East Africa are reducing the extent of papyrus coverage due to the planting of subsistence crops such as Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). We have assessed the impact of this land use change on the carbon cycle in theis wetland environment. Eddy covariance techniques were used, on a campaign basis, to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide over both papyrus and cocoyam dominated wetlands located on the Ugandan shore of Lake Victoria. The integration of flux data over the annual cycle shows that papyrus wetlands have the potential to act as a sink for significant amounts of carbon, in the region of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The cocoyam vegetation was found to assimilate ~7 t C ha-1 yr-1 but when carbon exports from crop biomass removal were taken into account these wetlands represent a significant net loss of carbon of similar magnitude. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required in order to promote the dual wetland function of crop production and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions especially under future climate change scenarios.
Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.; Kansiime, F.
Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were processed by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods processed by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet. PMID:16925852
Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N
A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639
Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele
Ranaviruses are considered a serious threat to lower vertebrates, including fish, amphibians and reptiles. However, epidemiological data on these agents are lacking, and further investigations are needed to understand the role of carriers and to update the list of susceptible hosts. We carried out various experimental infections under controlled conditions to contribute to the current knowledge on the susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to European catfish virus (ECV) and other ranaviruses. A panel of 7 ranavirus isolates was used to challenge duplicate groups of A. melas juveniles maintained in aquaria supplied with running dechlorinated tap water. The experiments were performed at 15 and 25 degrees C. The results confirmed the high susceptibility of A. melas to ECV infection. Furthermore, a significant mortality associated with the typical signs of systemic viral infections was observed in groups challenged with Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) at 25 degrees C, and to a lesser extent, at 15 degrees C. No significant mortality was recorded in fish challenged with European sheatfish virus (ESV), Frog virus 3 (FV3), Rana esculenta virus-like (REV-like), Bohle iridovirus (BIV) or short-finned eel virus (SERV). PMID:20815324
Gobbo, F; Cappellozza, E; Pastore, M R; Bovo, G
Prey-catching behavior (PCB) of the frog consists of a sequence of coordinated activity of muscles which is modified by various sensory signals. The aim of the present study was, for the first time, to examine the involvement of the trigeminal afferents in the swallowing phase of PCB. Experiments were performed on Rana esculenta, where the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal (IX)-vagus (X) nerves were labeled simultaneously with different fluorescent dyes. Using confocal laser scanning microscope, close appositions were detected between the trigeminal afferent fibers and somatodendritic components of the IX-X motoneurons of the ambiguus nucleus (NA). Neurolucida reconstruction revealed spatial distribution of the trigeminal afferents in the functionally different parts of the NA. Thus, the visceromotor neurons supplying the stomach, the heart and the lung received about two third of the trigeminal contacts followed by the pharyngomotor and then by the laryngomotor neurons. On the other hand, individual motoneurons responsible for innervation of the viscera received less trigeminal terminals than the neurons supplying the muscles of the pharynx. The results suggest that the direct contacts between the trigeminal afferents and IX-X motoneurons presented here may be one of the morphological substrate of a very quick response during the swallowing phase of PCB. Combination of direct and indirect trigeminal inputs may contribute to optimize the ongoing motor execution. PMID:24076270
Kecskes, Szilvia; Matesz, Clara; Birinyi, András
The biosynthetic potential of four basidiomycetes (Agrocybe aegerita, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum and Pleurotus pulmonarius) and one ascomycete (Morchella esculenta) was examined in regard to biomass, intracellular (endopolysaccharides and lipids) and extracellular (exopolysaccharides) compounds' production in liquid media with glucose as substrate, in static and agitated cultures. Exopolysaccharides' production presented significant negative correlation with biomass, endopolysaccharides and lipids, while biomass was positively related to the production of endopolysaccharides and lipids. Maximum values of biomass, endo- and exo-polysaccharides obtained were quite impressive: P. pulmonarius produced 22.5 g/L of biomass, A. aegerita 60.4 % (w/w) of endopolysaccharides and F. velutipes 1.2 g/L of exopolysaccharides. Polysaccharides and lipids synthesized at the early growth stages were subjected to degradation as the fermentation proceeded. Mycelial lipids of all strains were highly unsaturated, dominated by linoleic acid, whereas glucose was the main building block of endopolysaccharides. The ability of the examined mushroom fungi to synthesize in high quantities biomass and polysaccharides, products with biotechnological and medicinal interest, renders these fungi as potential candidates in sugar-based bio-refineries. PMID:24366161
Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios
Vacuoles from beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta Gurke) isolated by a mechanical procedure were osmotically lysed to separate the membrane and sap components for analysis. Approximately 62% of the vacuole proteins, 70% of the nondialyzable carbohydrates and almost all of the phospholipids and sterols were recovered in the membrane fraction. The vacuole membrane had a phospholipid protein ratio of 0.68 and a sterol:phospholipid ratio of 0.21. 17 complex polar lipids including phosphatides and glycolipids have been tentatively identified. Phosphatidylcholine (54%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (24%) were the most prominent phosphoglycerides besides phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid (1, 4, 5, and 12%, respectively). A putative sulfoglycoside and two major ceramide glycoside-like lipids, resembling those of animal lysosomes, were identified by thin-layer chromatography. High-resolution SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the polypeptides from the vacuole revealed 15 major bands with apparent molecular weights ranging from 91,000 to 12,000. Selective elution experiments delineated those polypeptides that were peripheral membrane proteins or sap proteins adsorbed to the membrane, and those that exhibited hydrophobic interactions with the lipid core. Lectin labeling results indicated that most of the polypeptides from the membrane and from the sap were glycoproteins probably of the high-mannose type characteristic of lysosomal enzymes that have undergone several stages of posttranslational modification.
Twenty-two cover crops were evaluated for their ability to reduce damage by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, to taro, Colocastia esculenta, in a tropical cropping system. Cover crops were grown and incorporated into the soil before taro was planted. Barley, greenpanic, glycine, marigold, sesame, sunn hemp, and sorghum x sudangrass DeKalb ST6E were poor or nonhosts to the nematode as measured by low population changes of nematodes in soil between cover crop planting and taro planting. Alfalfa, buckwheat, cowpea, lablab, Lana vetch, mustard, oat, okra, rhodes grass, ryegrain, ryegrass, siratro, sweet corn, and wheat allowed nematode populations to increase dramatically. Taro yields were greatest in the marigold plots and lowest in the ryegrain plots. Taro corm weight decreased with increasing initial nematode population (Pi) (r = 0.22, P = 0.056). Siratro, ryegrass, and Blizzard wheat plots had higher taro yield than plots with similar Pi's but planted to other cover crops. These cover crops may have antagonism to other soil microorganisms or their decomposition products may be toxic or adversely affect the nematodes. Cover crops can be an effective and valuable nematode management tactic for use in minor tropical cropping systems such as taro. PMID:19274275
Sipes, B S; Arakaki, A S
Dramatic declines in amphibian populations have been described all over the world since the 1980s. The evidence that the sensitivity to environmental threats is greater in amphibians than in mammals has been generally linked to the observation that amphibians are characterized by a rather permeable skin. Nevertheless, a numerical comparison of data of percutaneous (through the skin) passage between amphibians and mammals is lacking. Therefore, in this investigation we have measured the percutaneous passage of two test molecules (mannitol and antipyrine) and three heavily used herbicides (atrazine, paraquat and glyphosate) in the skin of the frog Rana esculenta (amphibians) and of the pig ear (mammals), by using the same experimental protocol and a simple apparatus which minimizes the edge effect, occurring when the tissue is clamped in the usually used experimental device.The percutaneous passage (P) of each substance is much greater in frog than in pig. LogP is linearly related to logKow (logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient). The measured P value of atrazine was about 134 times larger than that of glyphosate in frog skin, but only 12 times in pig ear skin. The FoD value (Pfrog/Ppig) was 302 for atrazine, 120 for antipyrine, 66 for mannitol, 29 for paraquat, and 26 for glyphosate.The differences in structure and composition of the skin between amphibians and mammals are discussed. PMID:19888346
Quaranta, Angelo; Bellantuono, Vito; Cassano, Giuseppe; Lippe, Claudio
An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25?°C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30?°C (optimum 25?°C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem. PMID:23564225
Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita
A new lectin was purified from tubers of Arum maculatum L. by affinity chromatography on immobilized asialofetuin. Although this lectin is also retained on mannose-Sepharose 4B, under the appropriate conditions free mannose is a poor inhibitor of its agglutination activity. Pure preparations of the Arum lectin apparently yielded a single polypeptide band of approximately 12 kD upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein combined with molecular cloning of the lectin have shown that the lectin is composed of two different 12-kD lectin subunits that are synthesized on a single large precursor translated from an mRNA of approximately 1400 nucleotides. Lectins with similar properties were also isolated from the Araceae species Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, and Dieffenbachia sequina Schott. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of the different Araceae lectins have shown that they are tetrameric proteins composed of lectin subunits of 12 to 14 kD. Interestingly, these lectins are the most prominent proteins in the tuber tissue. Evidence is presented that a previously described major storage protein of Colocasia tubers corresponds to the lectin.
Van Damme, E J; Goossens, K; Smeets, K; Van Leuven, F; Verhaert, P; Peumans, W J
A new lectin was purified from tubers of Arum maculatum L. by affinity chromatography on immobilized asialofetuin. Although this lectin is also retained on mannose-Sepharose 4B, under the appropriate conditions free mannose is a poor inhibitor of its agglutination activity. Pure preparations of the Arum lectin apparently yielded a single polypeptide band of approximately 12 kD upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein combined with molecular cloning of the lectin have shown that the lectin is composed of two different 12-kD lectin subunits that are synthesized on a single large precursor translated from an mRNA of approximately 1400 nucleotides. Lectins with similar properties were also isolated from the Araceae species Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, and Dieffenbachia sequina Schott. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of the different Araceae lectins have shown that they are tetrameric proteins composed of lectin subunits of 12 to 14 kD. Interestingly, these lectins are the most prominent proteins in the tuber tissue. Evidence is presented that a previously described major storage protein of Colocasia tubers corresponds to the lectin. PMID:7770523
Van Damme, E J; Goossens, K; Smeets, K; Van Leuven, F; Verhaert, P; Peumans, W J
By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians). PMID:23789398
Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Va?shnora?te, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N
Poi is a pasty starch made from the cooked, mashed corm of the taro plant (Colocasia esculenta L.). Originating in Asia, this root crop is now found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions and was a major dietary staple in the Pacific islands. We hypothesize that poi has potential use as a probiotic—defined by FAO/WHO as, “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host.” No scientific studies have explored the possibility of poi being used as a probiotic in medical nutrition therapy, however, an investigator determined that the predominant bacteria in poi are Lactococcus lactis (95%) and Lactobacilli (5%), both of which are lactic acid-producing bacteria. This investigator also reported that poi contains significantly more of these bacteria per gram than yogurt. To determine if poi is beneficial for certain health conditions, a literature search was conducted to find all available research studies in which poi was used as a complementary treatment. Documented evidence suggests that poi shows promise for use in infants with allergies or failure-to-thrive. However, to support previous findings, more research needs to be conducted with poi and its potential use as a probiotic.
Brown, Amy C.; Valiere, Ana
The mineral composition of taro ( Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) was analyzed to develop a method to distinguish taro produced in Japan and China. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Zn) were assayed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), malate, and oxalate were measured by ion chromatography. The mean concentrations of H(2)PO(4)(-), Co, Cr, and Na significantly differed (P < 0.01) between taro grown in Japan and that grown in China. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most efficient combination of elements and compounds to discriminate the taro geographic origin. The highest percentage of correct classification was achieved with a two-variable model including H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co (100% for Japanese, 93.75% for Chinese). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using all of the assayed elements and compounds were also conducted to determine which elements significantly accounted for the variation of the taro mineral composition. We report on the potential of H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co concentrations to differentiate taro grown in China and Japan and discuss the sources of variability in the taro mineral composition of our samples. PMID:21425858
Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Noda, Akihiko; Iwata, Naoko; Nakano, Akimasa; Nakamura, Satoru; Nakanishi, Tomoko M
A sedimentological and plant microfossil history of the Late Quaternary is preserved in two sediment cores from early Polynesian ditch systems on southern Aupouri Peninsula. The study places human activities into a geomorphological and ecological context and allows comparison of natural and anthropogenic effects on two different geological settings: a floodplain and a relatively closed peat swamp. The data fill part of the current gap in the environmental record from northern New Zealand, namely MIS 3 (57k-26k yr BP). There is evidence for an increase in fire frequency in the region after 40k 14C yr BP, suggesting a shift to drier (and cooler) conditions. Pollen records show that conifer-hardwood forest dominated by podocarps (especially Dacrydium) prevailed prior to Polynesian arrival and deforestation within the last millennium, with Fuscopsora insignificant throughout. Both cores show sections with gaps in deposition or preservation, possible flood-stripping of peat during the pre-Holocene and mechanical disturbance by early Polynesians. The identification of prehistoric starch grains and other microremains of introduced Colocasia esculenta (taro) in both cores supports indirect evidence that the ditch systems of far northern New Zealand were used for the extensive cultivation of this crop. Copyright
Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S. L.; Augustinus, P. C.; Barber, I. G.
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241
Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto
Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423
Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C
Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila.
Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas
In Palau and everywhere in the world, coastal coral reefs are threatened by sedimentation resulting from land clearing in the watersheds. Palau's largest island of Babeldaob is particularly susceptible to significant erosion due to its steep topography, high rainfall, and highly erodible volcanic soil. Previous studies have shown the damaging impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. Related studies conducted in Micronesia have also documented that mangroves can trap about 30% of the fine eroded sediment from land. This paper examines the sediment trapping capability of cultivated wetlands, in particular taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields, which are natural wetlands used to grow taro, a main staple crop for the population. A 7-months long field study was undertaken to quantify the sediment accumulation rate for taro fields and to determine their sediment trapping efficiency. The results showed that the taro fields were able to trap on average 90% of sediment, therefore sheltering coastal coral reefs and their fisheries from the negative impacts of terrestrial runoff. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the combined sediment trapping capacity of taro fields and mangroves helped reduce sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. This enabled human settlement for over 2000 years on a small Pacific Island with the main staple food being taro for starch and reef fish for protein.
Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang
Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173
Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun
The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20–30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage.
Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu
The study investigated whether evaporative water loss (EWL) in frogs stems from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by mucous glands. Osmolality of cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) of Rana esculenta (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) subjected to isoproterenol or 30°C-34°C was 191±9.3 and 181±7.5 mosm/kg, respectively, as compared to lymph osmolality of, 249±10 mosm/kg. Cation concentrations of CSF were likewise independent of pre-treatment with averages of, [Na(+)]=65.5±5.1 and [K(+)]=14.9±1.6 mmol/L, and lymph concentrations of 116 mmol Na(+)/L and 5.1 mmol K(+)/L. The relatively high [K(+)] confirms that CSF is produced by submucosal glands. Since the chemical energy of water of CSF was always higher than that of body fluids, diffusion of water would be from CSF to the interstitial fluid and not in the opposite direction. It is concluded that volume and composition of CSF are regulated by subepidermal exocrine gland secretion balanced by EWL into the atmosphere and ion reuptake by the epidermal epithelium. Previously discovered regulatory mechanisms of epithelial ion absorption, hitherto not ascribed a body function, fit well with a role in regulating turnover of CSF. As a regulated external physiological compartment, CSF would be of importance for the immune defenses that amphibians employ in protecting their skin. PMID:23587876
Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ramløv, Hans
Alternating current resistance and capacity measurements have been made from 1.08 103 to 2.32 106 cycles per second on suspensions of unfertilized, fertilized, and swollen unfertilized eggs of the echinoderm Hipponoë esculenta. A simple method has been developed for measuring the volume concentration of eggs in a suspension. The membrane of the unfertilized egg is practically non-conducting at low frequencies and shows a static capacity of 0.87 µf/cm.2 except perhaps at the highest frequencies. The equivalent specific resistance of the egg interior is 11 times that of sea water. The membrane of the fertilized egg is practically non-conducting at low frequencies and shows a static capacity 2.5 times that of the unfertilized egg except at the higher frequencies where another reactive element produces a marked effect. The internal resistance is apparently higher than that of the unfertilized egg. The static capacity per unit area of the membrane decreases as a linear function of the surface area when the eggs are swollen in dilute sea water. In 40 per cent sea water, the capacity falls to about 75 per cent of normal.
Cole, Kenneth S.
Dramatic declines in amphibian populations have been described all over the world since the 1980s. The evidence that the sensitivity to environmental threats is greater in amphibians than in mammals has been generally linked to the observation that amphibians are characterized by a rather permeable skin. Nevertheless, a numerical comparison of data of percutaneous (through the skin) passage between amphibians and mammals is lacking. Therefore, in this investigation we have measured the percutaneous passage of two test molecules (mannitol and antipyrine) and three heavily used herbicides (atrazine, paraquat and glyphosate) in the skin of the frog Rana esculenta (amphibians) and of the pig ear (mammals), by using the same experimental protocol and a simple apparatus which minimizes the edge effect, occurring when the tissue is clamped in the usually used experimental device. The percutaneous passage (P) of each substance is much greater in frog than in pig. LogP is linearly related to logKow (logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient). The measured P value of atrazine was about 134 times larger than that of glyphosate in frog skin, but only 12 times in pig ear skin. The FoD value (Pfrog/Ppig) was 302 for atrazine, 120 for antipyrine, 66 for mannitol, 29 for paraquat, and 26 for glyphosate. The differences in structure and composition of the skin between amphibians and mammals are discussed.
Quaranta, Angelo; Bellantuono, Vito; Cassano, Giuseppe; Lippe, Claudio
Six non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed largely by the rural populace of Nigeria were analyzed for mineral composition. Mineral contents appeared to be dependent on the type of vegetables. Amaranthus spinosus and Adansonia digitata leaves contained the highest level of iron (38.4 mg/100 g and 30.6 mg/100 g dw, respectively). These values are low compared to those for common Nigerian vegetables but higher than those for other food sources. All the vegetables contained high levels of calcium compared to common vegetables, thus they could be a rich source of this mineral. Microelement content of the leaves varied appreciably. Zinc content was highest in Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata and Cassia tora leaves (25.5 mg/100 g, 22.4 mg/100 g and 20.9 mg/100 g dw, respectively) while the manganese content was comparatively higher in Colocasia esculenta. The concentrations of the mineral elements in the vegetables per serving portion are presented and these values indicate that the local vegetables could be valuable and important contributors in the diets of the rural and urban people of Nigeria. The mean daily intake of P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn were lower than their recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). However, the manganese daily intake was found not to differ significantly (p = 0.05) from the RDA value. PMID:10890755
Barminas, J T; Charles, M; Emmanuel, D
The pathogen of frogs Amphibiocystidium ranae was recently described as a new genus. Due to its spherical shape, containing hundred of endospores, it was thought to be closely related to the pathogens of fish, mammals, and birds known as Dermocystidium spp., Rhinosporidium seeberi, and Sphaerothecum destruens in the Mesomycetozoea, but further studies were not conducted to confirm this relationship. To investigate its phylogenetic affinities, total genomic DNA was extracted from samples collected from infected frogs containing multiple cysts (sporangia) and endospores. The universal primers NS1 and NS8, used to amplify the 18S small-subunit rRNA by PCR, yielded ?1,770-bp amplicons. Sequencing and basic local alignment search tool analyses indicated that the 18S small-subunit rRNA of A. ranae from both Rana esculenta and Rana lessonae was closely related to all of the above organisms. Our phylogenetic analysis placed this pathogen of frogs as the sister group to the genus Dermocystidium and closely related to Rhinosporidium. These data strongly supported the placement of the genus Amphibiocystidium within the mesomycetozoeans, which is in agreement with the phenotypic features that A. ranae shares with the other members of this class. Interestingly, during this study Dermocystidium percae did not group within the Dermocystidium spp. from fish; rather, it was found to be the sister group to Sphaerothecum destruens. This finding suggests that D. percae could well be a member of the genus Sphaerothecum or perhaps represents a new genus.
Pereira, Cristiane N.; Di Rosa, Ines; Fagotti, Anna; Simoncelli, Francesca; Pascolini, Rita; Mendoza, Leonel
Genes encoding proteins that contain the universal stress protein (USP) domain are known to provide bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and plants with the ability to respond to a plethora of environmental stresses. Specifically in plants, drought tolerance is a desirable phenotype. However, limited focused and organized functional genomic datasets exist on drought-responsive plant USP genes to facilitate their characterization. The overall objective of the investigation was to identify diverse plant universal stress proteins and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) responsive to water-deficit stress. We hypothesize that cross-database mining of functional annotations in protein and gene transcript bioinformatics resources would help identify candidate drought-responsive universal stress proteins and transcripts from multiple plant species. Our bioinformatics approach retrieved, mined and integrated comprehensive functional annotation data on 511 protein and 1561 ESTs sequences from 161 viridiplantae taxa. A total of 32 drought-responsive ESTs from 7 plant genera Glycine, Hordeum, Manihot, Medicago, Oryza, Pinus and Triticum were identified. Two Arabidopsis USP genes At3g62550 and At3g53990 that encode ATP-binding motif were up-regulated in a drought microarray dataset. Further, a dataset of 80 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) linked to 20 singletons and 47 transcript assembles was constructed. Integrating the datasets on SSRs and drought-responsive ESTs identified three drought-responsive ESTs from bread wheat (BE604157), soybean (BM887317) and maritime pine (BX682209). The SSR sequence types were CAG, ATA and AT respectively. The datasets from cross-database mining provide organized resources for the characterization of USP genes as useful targets for engineering plant varieties tolerant to unfavorable environmental conditions.
Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Simmons, Shaneka S.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Ekunwe, Stephen I.N.; Begonia, Gregorio B.; Ayensu, Wellington K.
Na+ transport across abdominal skins of the frog species Rana esculenta and Rana pipiens was analyzed by recording short-circuit current (Isc), transepithelial conductance (Gt), and the current noise generated by the random blockage of apical Na+ channels by the diuretic, amiloride. Specific Na+ current (INa) and conductance (GNa), as reflected by the amiloride-sensitive part of Isc and Gt, respectively, were markedly depressed after addition of some osmotically active substances, like sugars or alcohols to the mucosal Na+-Ringer solution. These hypertonicity-induced reactions were fast and fully reversible, even at mucosal osmolarities of 1 Osmol. With mucosal solutions of moderate hyperosmolarity a recovery of INa and GNa was observed in presence of the osmotic gradient. This "regulatory" current showed to be carried by Na+ through the Na+-specific apical channels. Contrary to the fast current drop during the initial phase of hyperosmotic shocks, the "osmoregulation" was considerably slower. The recovery of INa was only complete at smaller osmotic gradients but became more and more suppressed at higher osmolarities. Steady-state analysis of the kinetics of the Na+-specific current revealed that the current depression by osmotic shocks obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics. This current depression at high osmolarities, as well as during the initial phase before "osmoregulation" with small osmotic gradients, can be described in terms of a non-competitive inhibition. This was also suggested by Na+-concentration jump experiments indicating a reduction of the maximal, apical Na+ permeability as mechanism of the hypertonicity-induced drop in INa. The INa kinetics after complete "osmoregulation" were, however, indistinguishable from the isotonic control condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6326045
Zeiske, W; Van Driessche, W
Halothane has many effects on the resting membrane potential (Vm) of excitable cells and exerts numerous effects on skeletal muscle one of which is the enhancement of Ca2+ release by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) resulting in a sustained contracture. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of clinical doses of halothane on Vm, recorded using intracellular microelectrodes on cleaned and non stimulated sartorius muscle which was freshly isolated from the leg of the frog Rana esculenta.We assessed the mechanism of effects of superfused halothane on Vm by the administration of selective antagonists of membrane bound Na+, K+ and Cl? channels and by inhibition of SR Ca2+ release.Halothane (3%) induced an early and transient depolarization (4.5?mV within 7?min) and a delayed and sustained hyperpolarization (about 11?mV within 15?min) of Vm.The halothane-induced transient depolarization was sensitive to ryanodine (10??M) and to 4-acetamido-4?-isothiocyanatostilbene 2,2? disulphonic acid (SITS, 1?mM).The hyperpolarization of Vm induced by halothane (0.1–3%) was dose-dependent and reversible. It was insensitive to SITS (1?mM), tetrodotoxin (0.6??M), and tetraethylammonium (10?mM) but was blocked and/or prevented by ryanodine (10??M), charybdotoxin (CTX, 1??M), and glibenclamide (10?nM).Our observations revealed that the effects of halothane on Vm may be related to the increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration produced by the ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release from the SR induced by the anaesthetic. The depolarization may be attributed to the activation of Ca2+-dependent Cl? (blocked by SITS) channels and the hyperpolarization to the activation of large conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels, blocked by CTX, and to the opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, inhibited by glibenclamide.
Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Frizelle, Henry P; Descorps-Declere, Adrien; Mazoit, Jean-Xavier
In this study, we developed new methods for differentiation of ranaviruses based on polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis of DNA polymerase and neurofilament triplet H1-like (NF-H1) protein gene. Using these methods, we were able to differentiate the 6 known ranaviruses--Bohle iridovirus (BIV), European catfish virus (ECV), epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), frog virus 3 (FV3) and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV)--with 3 less characterised virus isolates: short-finned eel ranavirus (SERV), Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02 (REV 282/I02) and pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV). Doctor fish virus (DFV) and guppy virus 6 (GV6) were distinguished as a group from the other viruses. In addition, all 11 isolates were analysed and compared based on nucleotide sequences from 3 different genomic regions: major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase and NF-H1. The partial DNA polymerase gene was sequenced from all analysed viruses. The complete sequence of the MCP and a fragment of the NF-H1 gene were obtained from BIV, ECV, EHNV, ESV, FV3, PPIV, REV 282/I02 and SERV. With the exception of GV6, DFV and SGIV, the sequence analyses showed only a few variations within the analysed viruses. The sequence data suggest that PPIV, REV 282/I02 and SERV are new members of the genus Ranavirus. The methods developed in this study provide tools to differentiate between closely related ranaviruses of different host and geographical origin. PMID:19694168
Holopainen, R; Ohlemeyer, S; Schütze, H; Bergmann, S M; Tapiovaara, H
Ranaviruses are an emerging group of viruses and have been implicated in an increase of epidemics in susceptible species. They have a wide host range, infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles, with some isolates able to infect multiple species from different animal classes. Whilst some information exists on the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to novel hosts, there is none on the pathogenicity of fish ranaviruses to amphibians; this information is needed to develop measures to prevent the further spread of ranaviral disease in the aquatic environment. We undertook bath infection trials to assess the susceptibility of the European common frog Rana temporaria to 9 ranavirus isolates comprising doctor fish virus (DFV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), guppy virus 6 (GV6), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV) and short-finned eel ranavirus (SERV) from fish hosts, and Bohle iridovirus (BIV), frog virus 3 (FV3) and Rana esculenta virus 282/I02 (REV) from amphibians. Animals were challenged as tadpoles at 15 and 20°C and as recent metamorphs at room temperature (20 ± 1°C) to investigate the effect of temperature and amphibian developmental stage on virus pathogenicity. Tadpoles were susceptible to FV3, PPIV and REV, but refractory to the other ranaviruses. Post-metamorphs were susceptible to FV3 and REV but refractory to BIV (the other ranaviruses were not tested). Significant mortality occurred in post-metamorphs and in tadpoles challenged at 20°C but was low in tadpoles challenged at 15°C. This study presents the first evidence of mortality in an amphibian species after challenge with ranavirus originally isolated from fish. PMID:23574703
Bayley, Amanda E; Hill, Barry J; Feist, Stephen W
1. Differences in Na transport between skins from Rana temporaria and R. esculenta maintained for up to several weeks in water or 0·7% saline (0·7 g NaCl in 100 ml. H2O), with and without daily injections of 4% saline (4 g NaCl in 100 ml. H2O), were measured, in vitro. 2. In saline-treated skins, the following changes were found: (a) An increased Na content. (b) A consistent decrease in short-circuit current (Isc). (c) An increased d.c. resistance, R, the consistency of which varied with the anion content of the Ringer solution. (d) A highly significant fall in Na influx, accounting for the reduced Isc; a small reduction in Na efflux was not significant, statistically. (e) The Pitressin-induced increment in Isc was usually considerably lower compared with that in water-exposed skins; considered relative to the pre-Pitressin values, however, there were no clear differences. (f) By calculation from the changes in resistance (R) caused by replacement of outer Na2SO4 Ringer by K2SO4 Ringer solution, I. E0, the electromotive force of the active sodium transport system, was moderately, but significantly, reduced, II. R shunt, the shunt path resistance, was moderately, but significantly, increased, and III. Rser, the series path resistance, was considerably, and highly significantly, increased. (g) K influx from outer K2SO4 Ringer solution was reduced. 3. Differences between skins from water-exposed and saline-treated frogs persisted, in vitro, despite the occurrence of anionic-dependent acute changes after mounting in Ringer solution. 4. There were seasonal changes in Isc, and in the effects of saline treatment. 5. The findings are discussed in terms of decreased permeability of outer barriers to ion-diffusion, and reduced activity of a Na pump.
Hornby, R.; Thomas, S.
Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of agricultural plants on the proliferation of seven ATL-related human leukaemia cells, using three ATL cell lines (ED, Su9T01 and S1T), two human T-cell lines transformed by HTLV-I infection (HUT-102 and MT-2) and two HTLV-I-negative human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines (Jurkat and MOLT-4). A total of 52 samples of 80% ethanol extracts obtained from 30 types of agricultural plants were examined. On the basis of IC(50) values, we selected samples with greater activity than genistein, which was used as a positive control. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with extracts from leaves of Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (blueberry) on four cell lines (ED, Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat); seeds of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) exhibited the second highest activity. The bitter gourd seeds suppressed the proliferation of three cell lines (Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat). The extracts from edible parts of Ipomea batatas LAM. (sweet potato), edible parts of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (taro), skin of taro and seeds of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (mume) showed markedly greater inhibitory effects on Su9T01 than genistein. These findings suggest that ATL-preventative bioactive compounds may exist in these agricultural plants, which are considered to be functional foods. PMID:21293936
Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji
A novel actinomycete, strain 44EHW(T), was isolated from rhizospheric soil under an Elephant ear plant (Colocasia esculenta) in Bangkok, Thailand. Strain 44EHW(T) produced long branching hyphae and abundant aerial mycelia with chains of rod-shaped spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained galactose, glucose, arabinose, ribose, mannose and rhamnose as diagnostic sugars. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was the diamino acid and glycine, alanine and glutamic acid were present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan with the acyl type of the peptidoglycan being acetyl. Phospholipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine with hydroxy fatty acids and diphosphatidylglycerol, as well as other unknown phospholipids; however, no mycolic acids were detected. The predominant menaquinone observed was MK-9(H4) and major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and 2-OH iso-C16 : 0. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 74 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this isolate was most similar to Actinokineospora enzanensis NBRC 16517(T). However, DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low relatedness between this isolate and A. enzanensis NBRC 16517(T), indicating that this isolate represented a novel species in the genus Actinokineospora. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data, we propose that strain 44EHW(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actinokineospora, Actinokineospora bangkokensis. The type strain is 44EHW(T) ( = BCC 53155(T) = NBRC 108932(T)). PMID:23291892
Intra, Bungonsiri; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko; Panbangred, Watanalai
In 2004 a field fertilization experiment showed that approximately 80% of the fertilizer nitrogen (N) added to flooded Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields could not be accounted for using classic N balance calculations. To quantify N loss through denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathways in these taro systems we utilized a slurry-based isotope pairing technique (IPT). Measured nitrification rates and porewater N profiles were also used to model ammonium and nitrate fluxes through the top 10 cm of soil. Quantitative PCR of nitrogen cycling functional genes was used to correlate porewater N dynamics with potential microbial activity. Rates of denitrification calculated using porewater profiles were compared to those obtained using the slurry method. Potential denitrification rates of surficial sediments obtained with the slurry method were found to drastically overestimate the calculated in-situ rates. The largest discrepancies were present in fields greater than one month after initial fertilization, reflecting a microbial community poised to denitrify the initial N pulse. Potential surficial nitrification rates varied between 1.3% of the slurry-measured denitrification potential in a heavily-fertilized site to 100% in an unfertilized site. Compared to the use of urea, fish bone meal fertilizer use resulted in decreased N loss through denitrification in the surface sediment, according to both porewater modeling and IPT measurements. In addition, sub-surface porewater profiles point to root-mediated coupled nitrification/denitrification as a potential N loss pathway that is not captured in surface-based incubations. Profile-based surface plus subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification estimates were between 1.1 and 12.7 times denitrification estimates from the surface only. These results suggest that the use of a ‘classic’ isotope pairing technique that employs 15NO3- in fertilized agricultural systems can lead to a drastic overestimation of in-situ denitrification rates and that root-associated subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification may be a major N loss pathway in these flooded agricultural systems.
Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Bruland, G. L.; Popp, B. N.; Engstrom, P.; Mueller, J. A.; Tiedje, J.
Tarocystatin (CeCPI) from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaohsiung no. 1), a group-2 phytocystatin, shares a conserved N-terminal cystatin domain (NtD) with other phytocystatins but contains a C-terminal cystatin-like extension (CtE). The structure of the tarocystatin-papain complex and the domain interaction between NtD and CtE in tarocystatin have not been determined. We resolved the crystal structure of the phytocystatin-papain complex at resolution 2.03 Å. Surprisingly, the structure of the NtD-papain complex in a stoichiometry of 1:1 could be built, with no CtE observed. Only two remnant residues of CtE could be built in the structure of the CtE-papain complex. Therefore, CtE is easily digested by papain. To further characterize the interaction between NtD and CtE, three segments of tarocystatin, including the full-length (FL), NtD and CtE, were used to analyze the domain-domain interaction and the inhibition ability. The results from glutaraldehyde cross-linking and yeast two-hybrid assay indicated the existence of an intrinsic flexibility in the region linking NtD and CtE for most tarocystatin molecules. In the inhibition activity assay, the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused FL showed the highest inhibition ability without residual peptidase activity, and GST-NtD and FL showed almost the same inhibition ability, which was higher than with NtD alone. On the basis of the structures, the linker flexibility and inhibition activity of tarocystatins, we propose that the overhangs from the cystatin domain may enhance the inhibition ability of the cystatin domain against papain. PMID:21416241
Chu, Ming-Hung; Liu, Kai-Lun; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Cheng, Yi-Sheng
Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150 000 recruits kg-1 D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability to better understand the factors and processes that shape marine communities. PMID:24859311
Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick
Functional properties of four thermally treated decorticated legume flours namely, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), black gram (Phaseolus f1p4o Roxb.), green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and lentils (Lens esculenta) were studied. Samples with moisture levels of 3.2, 3.3, 1.3 and 5.0% for all four were subjected to dry heat treatment in a covered vessel in pressure cooker. (Untreated flours served as controls. Thermal treatment lowered nitrogen solubility profiles of all flours and increased water absorption capacities in bengal gram (146) black gram (451) and lentil (206) over control values of 138, 441 and 180 ml/100 g of flour respectively. Fat absorption capacities decreased in thermally treated bengal gram and black gram (242 and 292) as against 298 and 303 ml/100 g for untreated samples respectively. Foaming capacity also showed a decrease in thermally treated bengal gram and black gram by 28 and 53% respectively over controls. Two deep fat fried Indian products namely, 'Seviya' and 'Chakli' were prepared using two of the legumes. Proximate compositional analysis revealed that products prepared with thermally treated flours absorbed less fat. The sensory scores for appearance, texture, flavour and overall quality obtained by Seviya were 6.04, 6.20, 5.98 and 6.40 for products prepared with untreated flour and 5.74, 5.78, 5.70 and 5.68 for product prepared with treated flour respectively. Chakli prepared with thermally treated flour obtained significantly lower scores of 6.08, 5.2, 5.42, and 5.88 as against 6.78, 6.68, 6.68 and 6.88 obtained by products prepared with untreated flour for similar attributes. PMID:9205596
Nagmani, B; Prakash, J
The stiffness of myosin heads attached to actin is a crucial parameter in determining the kinetics and mechanics of the crossbridge cycle. It has been claimed that the stiffness of myosin heads in the anterior tibialis muscle of the common frog (Rana temporaria) is as high as 3.3 pN/nm, substantially higher than its value in rabbit muscle (~1.7 pN/nm). However, the crossbridge stiffness measurement has a large error since the contribution of crossbridges to half-sarcomere compliance is obtained by subtracting from the half-sarcomere compliance the contributions of the thick and thin filaments, each with a substantial error. Calculation of its value for isometric contraction also depends on the fraction of heads that are attached, for which there is no consensus. Surprisingly, the stiffness of the myosin head from the edible frog, Rana esculenta, determined in the same manner, is only 60% of that in Rana temporaria. In our view it is unlikely that the value of such a crucial parameter could differ so substantially between two frog species. Since the means of the myosin head stiffness in these two species are not significantly different, we suggest that the best estimate of the stiffness of the myosin heads for frog muscle is the average of these data, a value similar to that for rabbit muscle. This would allow both frog and rabbit muscles to operate the same low-cooperativity mechanism for the crossbridge cycle with only one or two tension-generating steps. We review evidence that much of the compliance of the myosin head is located in the pliant region where the lever arm emerges from the converter and propose that tension generation ("tensing") caused by the rotation and movement of the converter is a separate event from the passive swinging of the lever arm in its working stroke in which the strain energy stored in the pliant region is used to do work. PMID:21132353
Offer, Gerald; Ranatunga, K W
Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed “Desmarestia bed”. The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150 000 recruits kg?1 D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability to better understand the factors and processes that shape marine communities.
Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick
Phylogenetic relationships among 11 species of sepiids from Japanese waters and Sepia officinalis from Mediterranean were studied using partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes. These three genes had been analyzed in an Atlantic species S. elagans and was obtained from database. In the two-gene set analysis (16S+COI), sequence data of another 4 species were added from database. We also studied morphological characters of radulae, tentacular clubs, and cuttlebones. The molecular phylogeny was not congruent with relationships detected by the number of rows in radulae and the arrangement of suckers on the tentacular club. As to the cuttlebone shape, the molecular phylogeny suggests the separation of two groups, Doratosepion species with a lanceolate cuttlebone and the others with a broad cuttlebone. Our molecular phylogenetic study revealed these sepiids are separated into four clades. The first clade includes Sepia officinalis, S. hierrendda, S. bertheloti, S. pharaonis and Sepiella japonica. The second clade consists of S. latimanus and Metasepia tullbergi from sub-tropical waters. The third clade includes Sepia esculenta, S. madokai, S. aculeata and S. lycidas, which have a cuttlebone with a prominent spine. The fourth clade consists of Doratosepion species complex, S. kobiensis, S. lorigera, S. pardex, S. peterseni, and S. sp., which are characterized by a narrow cuttlebone with a distinct outer cone at the posterior end. The lack of membranous structures in the cuttlebone is a synapomorphy for this clade. S. elegans did not clearly belong to any of these clades and might represent the fifth clade. PMID:16702767
Yoshida, Masa-aki; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko; Furuya, Hidetaka
Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot glaziovii and a dominant monogenic type of resistance, named CMD2, discovered in African landraces. The ability of the monogenic resistance to confer high levels of resistance in different genetic backgrounds has led recently to its extensive usage in breeding across Africa as well as pre-emptive breeding in Latin America. However, most of the landraces carrying the monogenic resistance are morphologically very similar and come from a geographically restricted area of West Africa, raising the possibility that the diversity of the single-gene resistance could be very limited, or even located at a single locus. Several mapping studies, employing bulk segregant analysis, in different genetic backgrounds have reported additional molecular markers linked to supposedly new resistance genes. However, it is not possible to tell if these are indeed new genes in the absence adequate genetic map framework or allelism tests. To address this important question, a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of cassava was developed through genotyping-by-sequencing a bi-parental mapping population (N=180) that segregates for the dominant monogenic resistance to CMD. Virus screening using PCR showed that CMD symptoms and presence of virus were strongly correlated (r=0.98). Genome-wide scan and high-resolution composite interval mapping using 6756 SNPs uncovered a single locus with large effect (R(2)=0.74). Projection of the previously published resistance-linked microsatellite markers showed that they co-occurred in the same chromosomal location surrounding the presently mapped resistance locus. Moreover, their relative distance to the mapped resistance locus correlated with the reported degree of linkage with the resistance phenotype. Cluster analysis of the landraces first shown to have this type of resistance revealed that they are very closely related, if not identical. These findings suggest that there is a single source of monogenic resistance in the crop's genepool tracing back to a common ancestral clone. In the absence of further resistance diversification, the long-term effectiveness of the single gene resistance is known to be precarious, given the potential to be overcome by CMGs due to their fast-paced evolutionary rate. However, combining the quantitative with the qualitative type of resistance may ensure that this resistance gene continues to offer protection to cassava, a crop that is depended upon by millions of people in Africa against the devastating onslaught of CMGs. PMID:24389096
Rabbi, Ismail Y; Hamblin, Martha T; Kumar, P Lava; Gedil, Melaku A; Ikpan, Andrew S; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Kulakow, Peter A
Early quantitative analyses of conduction velocities in unmyelinated nerve studied in a constantly iso-osmotic volume conductor were extended to an analysis of the effects of varying extracellular osmolarities on conduction velocities of surface membrane action potentials in Rana esculenta skeletal muscle fibres. Previous papers had reported that skeletal muscle fibres exposed to a wide range of extracellular sucrose concentrations resemble perfect osmometers with increased extracellular osmolarity proportionally decreasing fibre volume and therefore diminishing fibre radius, a. However, classical electrolyte theory (Robinson and Stokes 1959, Electrolyte solutions 2nd edn. Butterworth & Co. pp 41-42) would then predict that the consequent increases in intracellular ionic strength would correspondingly decrease sarcoplasmic resistivity, R(i). An extension of the original cable analysis then demonstrated that the latter would precisely offset its expected effect of alterations in a on the fibre axial resistance, r(i), and leave action potential conduction velocity constant. In contrast, other reports (Hodgkin and Nakajima J Physiol 221:105-120, 1972) had suggested that R(i) increased with extracellular osmolarity, owing to alterations in cytosolic viscosity. This led to a prediction of a decreased conduction velocity. These opposing hypotheses were then tested in muscle fibres subject to just-suprathreshold stimulation at a Vaseline seal at one end and measuring action potentials and their first order derivatives, dV/dt, using 5-20 MOmega, 3 M KCl glass microelectrodes at defined distances away from the stimulus sites. Exposures to hyperosmotic, sucrose-containing, Ringer solutions then reversibly reduced both conduction velocity and maximum values of dV/dt. This was compatible with an increase in R(i) in the event that conduction depended upon a discharge of membrane capacitance by propagating local circuit currents through initially passive electrical elements. Conduction velocity then showed graded decreases with increasing extracellular osmolarity from 250-750 mOsm. Action potential waveforms through these osmolarity changes remained similar, including both early surface and the late after-depolarisation events reflecting transverse tubular activation. Quantitative comparisons of reduced-chi(2) values derived from a comparison of these results and the differing predictions from the two hypotheses strongly favoured the hypothesis in which R(i) increased rather than decreased with hyperosmolarity. PMID:17891463
Chen, Zhongbo; Hothi, Sandeep S; Xu, Wei; Huang, Christopher L-H
Nakivubo wetland, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, separates the city of Kampala from the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (the sole raw water supply for Kampala). It provides tertiary treatment for the secondary effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, and heavily polluted wastewater (run-off, domestic and industrial effluents) from the Nakivubo channel. However, more than half of the wetland has been drained for agriculture and the natural papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus) has been progressively replaced by cocoyams ( Colocasia esculenta). In order to provide information that could be used in the restoration of Nakivubo wetland, a pilot study was carried out to assess the ecological characteristics (nutrient retention and growth characteristics) of the two plants. The plants were grown in wastewater effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, in experimental buckets under floating and rooted conditions. The wastewater was replaced every seven days. Papyrus plants were more efficient at removing NH 4-N while growing floating in wastewater or rooted in gravel (maximum values being 89.4% and 79%, respectively) than were cocoyams (67.7% and 68.3%) or the controls without plants (11% and 9%, respectively). The removal of orthophosphate by papyrus was also greater under the two growing conditions (values being 80% and 73%) than by cocoyams (66% and 63%) or the controls (11% and 14%). Biomass densities of papyrus were also higher (16.9 kg Dw/m 2 for the floating plants and 18.7 kg Dw/m 2 for the rooted ones) than of yams (5.9 kg DW/m 2 and 6.8 kg DW/m 2, respectively). It was also observed that the rhizomes of yams did not develop well under the floating conditions and were often rotten. It is concluded that, since papyrus has better wastewater treatment efficiency and superior growth characteristics, it should be encouraged to grow again in the wetland. It was also noted that if encroachment of the wetland by agricultural activities is halted, papyrus would eventually out-compete the yams. Keeping Nakivubo wetland inundated would offer papyrus a competitive advantage, since yams grow poorly when floating in water.
Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Rukwago, S.
Single myelinated nerve fibres of Rana esculenta were investigated under voltage clamp conditions at 13 degrees C. Fluctuations of steady-state membrane current were measured during the last 152 msec of 190-225 msec pulses depolarizing the membrane by 8-48 mV. Noise power spectral densities were calculated in the frequency range of 6-6-6757 Hz. 2. External application of 150 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or 10 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) ion reduced the current fluctuations. The difference of current noise spectra measured in the presence and absence of TTX (TEA) was not changed by the presence of TEA (TTX) during both measurements, and was taken as the spectrum of the Na (K) current fluctuations. 3. Residual current noise during application of both TTX and TEA was, except for some excess noise at the low and high frequency ends of the spectrum, similar to the noise measured from a passive nerve model and could be understood in terms of Nyquist noise of the known resistances and the amplifier noise. 4. Na current fluctuation spectra were interpreted as the sum N/f+SNa(f) where SNa(F) represents the spectrum expected for a set of equal, independent Na channels with only two conductance states (open or closed) which follow Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. With values of hinfinity, tauh and minfinity measured from macroscopic Na currents, the measured spectra were fitted well by optimizing N, SNa(0) and taum. Values of taum obtained by this method were in fair agreement with values found from macroscopic currents. 5. The 1/f component of Na current noise was roughly proportional to the square of the steady-state Na current, I2. The mean value of N/I2 was (1-1 +/- 0-3) X 10(-4). 6. The current carried by a single Na channel was calculated from fitted spectra and steady-state Na currents measured simultaneously with the current fluctuations. The single channel conductance gamma normalized to zero absolute membrane potential was calculated. The average gamma from twelve measurements at depolarizations of 8-40 mV was 7-9 +/- 0-9 pS (S.E. of mean). The apparent value of gamma was smallest with small depolarizations. Variations of the assumed kinetic properties of the model did not drastically affect the single channel conductance. 7. External application of 0-1 mM-Ni ion lengthened taum in the macroscopic currents and in the fluctuation spectra and enhanced both the steady-state Na current and the current fluctuations. In Ni-treated nodes gamma was smaller than in normal nodes.
Conti, F; Hille, B; Neumcke, B; Nonner, W; Stampfli, R
‘Binomial’ cell proliferation and cell death have been studied in only a few non-mammalian vertebrates, such as fish. We thought it of interest to map cell proliferation/apoptosis in the brain of the frog (Rana esculenta L.) as this animal species undergoes, during the annual cycle, physiological events that could be associated with central nervous system damage. Therefore, we compared the active period and the deep underground hibernation of the frog. Using western blot analysis for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), we revealed a positive 36 kDa band in all samples and found higher optical density values in the hibernating frogs than in active frogs. In both active and hibernating frogs, we found regional differences in PCNA-immunoreactive cells and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labelling apoptotic cells in the ventricular zones and parenchyma areas of the main encephalon subdivisions. During the active period of the frogs, the highest concentration of PCNA-immunoreactive cells was found in the ventricle dorsal zone of the cerebral hemispheres but only some of the cells were apoptotic. By contrast, the tectal and cerebellar ventricular zones had a small or medium amount of PCNA-immunoreactive cells, respectively, and a higher number of apoptotic cells. During hibernation, an increased PCNA-immunoreactive cell number was observed in both the brain ventricles and parenchyma compared with active frogs. This increase was primarily evident in the lateral ventricles, a region known to be a proliferation ‘hot spot’. Although differences existed among the brain areas, a general increase of apoptotic cell death was found in hibernating frogs, with the highest number of apoptotic cells being detected in the parenchyma of the cerebral hemispheres and optic tectum. In particular, the increased number of apoptotic cells in the hibernating frogs compared with active frogs in the parenchyma of these brain areas occurred when cell proliferation was higher in the corresponding ventricular zones. We suggest that the high number of dying cells found in the parenchymal regions of hibernating frogs might provide the stimulus for the ventricular zones to proliferate. Hibernating frogs could utilize an increased cell proliferation in the brain areas as a neuroprotective strategy to face cell death and the onset of neurological damages. Therefore, the hibernator promises to be a valuable model for studying the mechanisms naturally carried out by the central nervous system in order to adapt itself or survive adverse conditions.
Cerri, Silvia; Bottiroli, Giovanni; Bottone, Maria Grazia; Barni, Sergio; Bernocchi, Graziella
We developed a new whole-core perfusion technique for tracking the fate of 15NH4+ added to intact vegetated cores. Taro plants (Colocasia esculenta) were field-grown in (20 cm diameter) cores for three months, which allowed exchange with natural porewater, then harvested. Following core extraction, surface and porewater were removed and 15NH4+ labeled porewater was slowly re-introduced to the core through a perfusion cap in the laboratory. Mini porewater equilibrators were placed in 1 cm increments through the sediment profile for porewater extraction during incubation. We also independently tested the ability of taro roots to oxygenate the subsurface by growing plants in nutrient agar and measuring O2 flux with a microelectrode. In the agar experiment, diurnal O2 transport was monitored and the application of wind across the taro leaves was found necessary to develop an oxygenated zone at the root tips. Using this information, the harvested taro were incubated in growth chambers after perfusion using three treatments: Vegetated without wind, vegetated with wind, and a non-vegetated control. Porewater was analyzed for 29+30N2, 15NH4+, 15NO3-, and unlabeled nitrate and ammonium species. Plant uptake of 15NH4+ was also determined. Quantitative PCR was performed on the sediment profiles of functional genes involved in nitrogen cycling for correlation to N transformations. The major pathway of N loss was root-mediated nitrification/denitrification followed by a flow of 29+30N2 through the aerenchyma. The vegetated wind treatment exhibited the highest concentrations of labeled N2 in the subsurface during all time periods. In contrast, the vegetated no wind treatment had much higher aerenchyma 29+30N2 concentration, accounting for ~100% of the subsurface N2 accumulation by day three of the incubation. Surface water N2 concentrations were also highest in the no wind treatment. After nine days the 29+30N2 concentrations dropped by ~70%, with little difference remaining among the treatments, indicating limitation by 15NH4+ diffusion. These results indicate that N2 is preferentially transported through the aerenchyma in taro and probably other plants grown in flooded agricultural fields. However, increased wind stress reduced transport through the aerenchyma and resulted in greater N2 accumulation in the subsurface, which indicates the importance of mass flow transport of air and its effect on oxygenation at the root tips. The results indicate that the complexity of N cycling in flooded agricultural systems may confound attempts to estimate in-situ N losses through porewater modeling, ‘classic’ isotope pairing techniques, or N flux chambers. The whole-core technique presented here allows for the measurement of multiple N pools and fates while minimizing system disturbance and more accurately representing field conditions.
Penton, C. R.; Bruland, G. L.; Popp, B. N.; Engstrom, P.; Tiedje, J.; Brown, G. A.; Deenik, J. L.
Single myelinated nerve fibres of Rana esculenta were investigated under voltage clamp conditions at 13 degrees C. Fluctuations of steady-state membrane current were measured during the last 152 msec of 190-225 msec pulses depolarizing the membrane by 8-48 mV. Noise power spectral densities were calculated in the frequency range of 6-6-6757 Hz. 2. External application of 150 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or 10 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) ion reduced the current fluctuations. The difference of current noise spectra measured in the presence and absence of TTX (TEA) was not changed by the presence of TEA (TTX) during both measurements, and was taken as the spectrum of the Na (K) current fluctuations. 3. Residual current noise during application of both TTX and TEA was, except for some excess noise at the low and high frequency ends of the spectrum, similar to the noise measured from a passive nerve model and could be understood in terms of Nyquist noise of the known resistances and the amplifier noise. 4. Na current fluctuation spectra were interpreted as the sum N/f+SNa(f) where SNa(F) represents the spectrum expected for a set of equal, independent Na channels with only two conductance states (open or closed) which follow Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. With values of hinfinity, tauh and minfinity measured from macroscopic Na currents, the measured spectra were fitted well by optimizing N, SNa(0) and taum. Values of taum obtained by this method were in fair agreement with values found from macroscopic currents. 5. The 1/f component of Na current noise was roughly proportional to the square of the steady-state Na current, I2. The mean value of N/I2 was (1-1 +/- 0-3) X 10(-4). 6. The current carried by a single Na channel was calculated from fitted spectra and steady-state Na currents measured simultaneously with the current fluctuations. The single channel conductance gamma normalized to zero absolute membrane potential was calculated. The average gamma from twelve measurements at depolarizations of 8-40 mV was 7-9 +/- 0-9 pS (S.E. of mean). The apparent value of gamma was smallest with small depolarizations. Variations of the assumed kinetic properties of the model did not drastically affect the single channel conductance. 7. External application of 0-1 mM-Ni ion lengthened taum in the macroscopic currents and in the fluctuation spectra and enhanced both the steady-state Na current and the current fluctuations. In Ni-treated nodes gamma was smaller than in normal nodes. PMID:1087643
Conti, F; Hille, B; Neumcke, B; Nonner, W; Stämpfli, R