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1

Assessment of genetic variability in a traditional cassava (Manihot esculenta  

E-print Network

Assessment of genetic variability in a traditional cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) farming `on farm' strategies of conservation, the impact of traditional farming practices of cassava (M. esculenta Crantz) traditionally grown by Makushi Amerindians from Guyana, using AFLP markers

2

Household utilization of Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Northern Mozambique.  

PubMed

Mozambique is ranked ninth of top manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) producing countries in the world. Manioc roots are a staple to people living in the northern part of the country. Despite this, information on production, utilization, postharvest handling, and marketing is scarce. The purpose of this baseline study was to document selected information on manioc, from the production to marketing stage. To gather this information, 70 focus groups consisting of 1,724 participants purposely sampled from 10 districts were engaged in discussions using a questionnaire. The results show that manioc is the most important crop in terms of contribution to household food security and income in the region. Both men and women participate in the delivery of manioc production chain. Typically, 5 to 15 varieties identified by local language can be found on most farms in the study area. Manioc leaves and roots are the parts of the plant used as human food. Sun dried manioc roots are principally marketed within the locality of production by individual farmers. This baseline study suggests the need for location-targeted interventions as the farmers reported varied challenges along the manioc production chain. PMID:21888575

Muoki, Penina N; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie

2010-01-01

3

Reproductive Biology of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Isolation of Experimental Field Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vitally important food source for many people in devel- oping tropical countries. There are signifi cant opportunities for improving the compositional qualities and pest resistance of cassava, and modern biotechnology is expected to play an important role in these improvements. The test- ing and development of genetically modifi ed cassava will of course be

Mark E. Halsey; Kenneth M. Olsen; Nigel J. Taylor; Paul Chavarriaga-Aguirre

2008-01-01

4

Novel characteristics of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, a reputed C 3 -C 4 intermediate photosynthesis species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cassava plant, Manihot esculenta, grows exceptionally well in low fertility and drought prone environments, but the mechanisms that allow this growth are unknown. Earlier, and sometimes contradictory, work speculated about the presence of a C4-type photosynthesis in cassava leaves. In the present work we found no evidence for a C4 metabolism in mature attached cassava leaves as indicated i)

Mitko N. Angelov; Jindong Sun; R. Harold Brown; Clanton C. Black

1993-01-01

5

Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.  

PubMed

Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in cassava. This is the first ever detailed report of microspore reprogramming at the tetrad stage and the first report of microspore embryogenesis induction in cassava with detailed evidence. PMID:24887001

Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

2014-01-01

6

Acetone cyanohydrin lyase from Manihot esculenta (cassava) is serologically distinct from other hydroxynitrile lyases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-flavoprotein hydroxynitrile lyase clearly different from other hydroxynitrile lyases was isolated from Manihot esculenta (cassava) by combined application of anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The purified protein was resolved, upon SDS-PAGE, as a single band of 30 kDa, while the molecular mass of the native enzyme, determined by gel filtration on Superdex 200 was 124 kDa. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate

Harald Wajant; Siegfried Förster; Heiner Böttinger; Franz Effenberger; Klaus Pfizenmaier

1995-01-01

7

Genomic Organization and Structure of ?-Hydroxynitrile Lyase in Cassava ( Manihot esculentaCrantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two clones with homology to the ?-hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) cDNA clone,MeHNL10, were isolatedfrom a ?EMBL3 cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz) genomic library. Analysis of the sequences showed that both genomic clones contain HNL genes (MeHNL4, MeHNL24) which are interrupted by two introns. RT–PCR analysis of MeHNL4 shows that it is expressed at high levels in seedling roots and at lower levels in

Jane Hughes; Zsolt Keresztessy; Kate Brown; Sony Suhandono; Monica A. Hughes

1998-01-01

8

Enzymatic enantioselective transcyanation of silicon-containing aliphatic ketone with ( S )-hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

( S)-Hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) was shown for the first time to be able to catalyze the enantioselective transcyanation of acetyltrimethylsilane (ATMS) with acetone cyanohydrin to form ( S)-2-trimethylsilyl-2-hydroxyl-propionitrile in an aqueous\\/organic biphasic system. To better understand the reaction, various influential variables were examined. The most suitable organic phase, optimal buffer pH, aqueous phase content, shaking rate, temperature,

Ruo Xu; Min-Hua Zong; Yu-Ying Liu; Jun He; Yuan-Yuan Zhang; Wen-Yong Lou

2004-01-01

9

Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.  

PubMed

Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant. PMID:22519123

Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

2012-01-01

10

A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus’ native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

Vasquez-Ordonez, Aymer Andres; Parsa, Soroush

2014-01-01

11

Inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers for germplasm characterization in Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae).  

PubMed

Manioc, Manihot esculenta, is economically important in many tropical and subtropical countries. The genetic variability of the species has not been fully explored, and new information may help expand its use. Molecular markers based on retrotransposons have good potential for analysis of genetic diversity given their abundance in the genome. Eight long terminal repeat retrotransposons were selected for the development of inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers. To test these primers, we analyzed 32 varieties from Anori, 30 from Manicoré and 10 Mandiocabas from the Manioc Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Western Amazonia. The six informative primer pairs yielded 20- 60 polymorphic bands, averaging 92% polymorphism (51.7-98.4) and 0.37 heterozygosity (0.17 to 0.40), with a Shannon information index of 0.54 (0.26-0.59). These markers can be used to explore the genetic diversity of manioc. PMID:24938466

Oliveira-Silva, A M; Silva, G F; Dias, M C; Clement, C R; Sousa, N R

2014-01-01

12

A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

PubMed

The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus' native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

2014-01-01

13

Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility  

PubMed Central

Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8%) displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita) whereas 13 (15.3%) amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6%) amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for cultivar identification, taxonomic studies, and genetic mapping. The study further shows that mining ESTs is a highly efficient strategy for polymorphism detection within the cultivated cassava gene pool. PMID:19747391

Raji, Adebola AJ; Anderson, James V; Kolade, Olufisayo A; Ugwu, Chike D; Dixon, Alfred GO; Ingelbrecht, Ivan L

2009-01-01

14

Neurotoxic effect of linamarin in rats associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) consumption.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a plant widely used for food consumption in different processed products in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Cassava is a good source of carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, if it is not adequately processed or the consumer has nutritional deficiencies, then its cyanogenic glycoside (i.e., linamarin and lotaustralin) content makes it potentially neurotoxic. In the present study, the neurotoxic effects of different concentrations of linamarin (0.075, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mg/kg) contained in cassava juice were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor alterations in adult male Wistar rats. The linamarin concentration in cassava juice was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the juice was administered intraesophageally for 28 days. The results suggested that the consumption of linamarin in cassava juice increased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field test and caused behavioral deficiency, reflected by lateral swimming, in the swim test on days 21 and 28 of treatment. These alterations are possibly related to neuronal damage caused by linamarin in cassava juice in structures of the central nervous system involved in motor processing. PMID:23778051

Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

2013-09-01

15

Transgenic Biofortification of the Starchy Staple Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Generates a Novel Sink for Protein  

PubMed Central

Although calorie dense, the starchy, tuberous roots of cassava provide the lowest sources of dietary protein within the major staple food crops (Manihot esculenta Crantz). (Montagnac JA, Davis CR, Tanumihardjo SA. (2009) Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 8:181–194). Cassava was genetically modified to express zeolin, a nutritionally balanced storage protein under control of the patatin promoter. Transgenic plants accumulated zeolin within de novo protein bodies localized within the root storage tissues, resulting in total protein levels of 12.5% dry weight within this tissue, a fourfold increase compared to non-transgenic controls. No significant differences were seen for morphological or agronomic characteristics of transgenic and wild type plants in the greenhouse and field trials, but relative to controls, levels of cyanogenic compounds were reduced by up to 55% in both leaf and root tissues of transgenic plants. Data described here represent a proof of concept towards the potential transformation of cassava from a starchy staple, devoid of storage protein, to one capable of supplying inexpensive, plant-based proteins for food, feed and industrial applications. PMID:21283593

Abhary, Mohammad; Siritunga, Dimuth; Stevens, Gene; Taylor, Nigel J.; Fauquet, Claude M.

2011-01-01

16

Substrate specificity of mutants of the hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta.  

PubMed

Several tryptophan128-substituted mutants of the hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) are constructed and applied in the MeHNL-catalyzed addition of HCN to various aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes as well as to methyl and ethyl ketones to yield the corresponding cyanohydrins. The mutants (especially MeHNL-W128A) are in most cases superior to the wild-type (wt) enzyme when diisopropyl ether is used as the solvent. Substitution of tryptophan128 by an alanine residue enlarges the entrance channel to the active site of MeHNL and thus facilitates access of sterically demanding substrates to the active site, as clearly demonstrated for aromatic aldehydes, especially 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde. These experimental results are in accordance with the X-ray crystal structure of MeHNL-W128A. Aliphatic aldehydes, surprisingly, do not demonstrate this reactivity dependence of mutants on substrate bulkiness. Comparative reactions of 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde with wtMeHNL and MeHNL-W128A in both aqueous citrate buffer and a two-phase system of water/methyl tert-butyl ether again reveal the superiority of the mutant enzyme: 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde was converted quantitatively into a cyanohydrin nearly independently of the amount of enzyme present, with a space-time yield of 57 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:12616635

Bühler, Holger; Effenberger, Franz; Förster, Siegfried; Roos, Jürgen; Wajant, Harald

2003-03-01

17

Structure determinants of substrate specificity of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta  

PubMed Central

Tryptophan 128 of hydroxynitrile lyase of Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) covers a significant part of a hydrophobic channel that gives access to the active site of the enzyme. This residue was therefore substituted in the mutant MeHNL-W128A by alanine to study its importance for the substrate specificity of the enzyme. Wild-type MeHNL and MeHNL-W128A showed comparable activity on the natural substrate acetone cyanohydrin (53 and 40 U/mg, respectively). However, the specific activities of MeHNL-W128A for the unnatural substrates mandelonitrile and 4-hydroxymandelonitrile are increased 9-fold and ?450-fold, respectively, compared with the wild-type MeHNL. The crystal structure of the MeHNL-W128A substrate-free form at 2.1 ? resolution indicates that the W128A substitution has significantly enlarged the active-site channel entrance, and thereby explains the observed changes in substrate specificity for bulky substrates. Surprisingly, the MeHNL-W128A–4-hydroxybenzaldehyde complex structure at 2.1 ? resolution shows the presence of two hydroxybenzaldehyde molecules in a sandwich type arrangement in the active site with an additional hydrogen bridge to the reacting center. PMID:11742123

Lauble, Hanspeter; Miehlich, Burkhard; Forster, Siegfried; Kobler, Christoph; Wajant, Harald; Effenberger, Franz

2002-01-01

18

Structure determinants of substrate specificity of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta.  

PubMed

Tryptophan 128 of hydroxynitrile lyase of Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) covers a significant part of a hydrophobic channel that gives access to the active site of the enzyme. This residue was therefore substituted in the mutant MeHNL-W128A by alanine to study its importance for the substrate specificity of the enzyme. Wild-type MeHNL and MeHNL-W128A showed comparable activity on the natural substrate acetone cyanohydrin (53 and 40 U/mg, respectively). However, the specific activities of MeHNL-W128A for the unnatural substrates mandelonitrile and 4-hydroxymandelonitrile are increased 9-fold and approximately 450-fold, respectively, compared with the wild-type MeHNL. The crystal structure of the MeHNL-W128A substrate-free form at 2.1 A resolution indicates that the W128A substitution has significantly enlarged the active-site channel entrance, and thereby explains the observed changes in substrate specificity for bulky substrates. Surprisingly, the MeHNL-W128A--4-hydroxybenzaldehyde complex structure at 2.1 A resolution shows the presence of two hydroxybenzaldehyde molecules in a sandwich type arrangement in the active site with an additional hydrogen bridge to the reacting center. PMID:11742123

Lauble, Hanspeter; Miehlich, Burkhard; Förster, Siegfried; Kobler, Christoph; Wajant, Harald; Effenberger, Franz

2002-01-01

19

Genomic organization and structure of alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Two clones with homology to the alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) cDNA clone, MeHNL10, were isolatedfrom a lambdaEMBL3 cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genomic library. Analysis of the sequences showed that both genomic clones contain HNL genes (MeHNL4, MeHNL24) which are interrupted by two introns. RT-PCR analysis of MeHNL4 shows that it is expressed at high levels in seedling roots and at lower levels in cotyledons and young leaves. The deduced amino acid sequences of MeHNL4, MeHNL10, and MeHNL24 show high sequence identity and homology to the HNL from Hevea brasiliensis whose tertiary structure has been solved at 1.9-A resolution by X-ray crystallography. This high homology allowed the construction of model structures for all of the cassava proteins using the MODELLER program. Homology modeling indicates that the short variable exon 2 encodes the "cap" region which is thought to influence the substrate specificity of the protein. Two hybrid proteins were modeled using the core alpha/beta domain of MeHNL10 and the cap region of either the Hevea HNL or a structurally related Zea protein of unknown function. This analysis suggests that changes in the active site can be engineered by swapping exons. PMID:9705200

Hughes, J; Keresztessy, Z; Brown, K; Suhandono, S; Hughes, M A

1998-08-15

20

Structure of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in complex with substrates acetone and chloroacetone: implications for the mechanism of cyanogenesis.  

PubMed

The crystal structures of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) complexed with the native substrate acetone and substrate analogue chloroacetone have been determined and refined at 2.2 A resolution. The substrates are positioned in the active site by hydrogen-bond interactions of the carbonyl O atom with Thr11 OG, Ser80 OG and, to a lesser extent, Cys81 SG. These studies support a mechanism for cyanogenesis as well as for the stereospecific MeHNL-catalyzed formation of (S)-cyanohydrins, which closely resembles the base-catalyzed chemical reaction of HCN with carbonyl compounds. PMID:11173464

Lauble, H; Förster, S; Miehlich, B; Wajant, H; Effenberger, F

2001-02-01

21

Novel characteristics of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, a reputed C3-C 4 intermediate photosynthesis species.  

PubMed

The cassava plant, Manihot esculenta, grows exceptionally well in low fertility and drought prone environments, but the mechanisms that allow this growth are unknown. Earlier, and sometimes contradictory, work speculated about the presence of a C4-type photosynthesis in cassava leaves. In the present work we found no evidence for a C4 metabolism in mature attached cassava leaves as indicated i) by the low, 2 to 8%, incorporation of (14)CO2 into C4 organic acids in short time periods, 10 s, and the lack of (14)C transfer from C4 acids to other compounds in (12)CO2, ii) by the lack of C4 enzyme activity changes during leaf development and the inability to detect C4 acid decarboxylases, and iii) by leaf CO2 compensation values between 49 and 65 ?l of CO2 1(-1) and by other infrared gas exchange photosynthetic measurements. It is concluded that the leaf biochemistry of cassava follows the C3 pathway of photosynthesis with no indication of a C3-C4 mechanism.However, cassava leaves exhibit several novel characteristics. Attached leaves have the ability to effectively partition carbon into sucrose with nearly 45% of the label in sucrose in about one min of (14)CO2 photosynthesis, contrasting with 34% in soybean (C3) and 25% in pigweed (C4). Cassava leaves displayed a strong preference for the synthesis of sucrose versus starch. Field grown cassava leaves exhibited high rates of photosynthesis and curvilinear responses to increasing sunlight irradiances with a tendency to saturate only at high irradiances, above 1500 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). Morphologically, the cassava leaf has papillose epidermal cells on its lower mesophyll surface that form 'fence-like' arrangements encircling guard cells. It is proposed that the active synthesis of sugars has osmotic functions in the cassava plant and that the papillose epidermal cells function to maintain a healthy leaf water status in various environments. PMID:24317831

Angelov, M N; Sun, J; Byrd, G T; Brown, R H; Black, C C

1993-10-01

22

Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly. PMID:19559583

Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

2010-07-01

23

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

24

An EST-derived SNP and SSR genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food security crops in the tropics and increasingly being adopted for agro-industrial processing. Genetic improvement of cassava can be enhanced through marker-assisted breeding. For this, appropriate genomic tools are required to dissect the genetic architecture of economically important traits. Here, a genome-wide SNP-based genetic map of cassava anchored in SSRs is presented. An outbreeder full-sib (F1) family was genotyped on two independent SNP assay platforms: an array of 1,536 SNPs on Illumina's GoldenGate platform was used to genotype a first batch of 60 F1. Of the 1,358 successfully converted SNPs, 600 which were polymorphic in at least one of the parents and was subsequently converted to KBiosciences' KASPar assay platform for genotyping 70 additional F1. High-precision genotyping of 163 informative SSRs using capillary electrophoresis was also carried out. Linkage analysis resulted in a final linkage map of 1,837 centi-Morgans (cM) containing 568 markers (434 SNPs and 134 SSRs) distributed across 19 linkage groups. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.4 cM. About 94.2% of the mapped SNPs and SSRs have also been localized on scaffolds of version 4.1 assembly of the cassava draft genome sequence. This more saturated genetic linkage map of cassava that combines SSR and SNP markers should find several applications in the improvement of cassava including aligning scaffolds of the cassava genome sequence, genetic analyses of important agro-morphological traits, studying the linkage disequilibrium landscape and comparative genomics. PMID:22419105

Rabbi, Ismail Yusuf; Kulembeka, Heneriko Philbert; Masumba, Esther; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Ferguson, Morag

2012-07-01

25

Inversion of stereoselectivity by applying mutants of the hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta.  

PubMed

The influence of Trp128-substituted mutants of the hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) on the stereoselectivity of MeHNL-catalyzed HCN additions to aldehydes with stereogenic centers, which yield the corresponding cyanohydrins, is described. In rac-2-phenylpropionaldehyde (rac-1) reactions, wild-type (wtMeHNL) and all MeHNL Trp128 mutants are highly (S)-selective toward the (R) enantiomer of rac-1; this results exclusively in (2S,3R)-cyanohydrin ((2S,3R)-2) with > or =96 % de. The (S) enantiomer of rac-1, however, only reacts (S)-selectively with wtMeHNL to give (2S,3S)-2 with 80 % de, whereas with Trp128 mutants, (R) selectivity increases with decreasing size of the amino acids exchanged. The MeHNL W128A mutant is exclusively (R)-selective, resulting in (2R,3S)-2 with 86 % de. The reaction behavior of rac-phenylbutyraldehyde (rac-5) is comparable with rac-1, which also inverts the stereoselectivity from (S) to (R) when the enzyme is exchanged from wtMeHNL to the W128A mutant. Stereogenic centers not adjacent to the aldehyde group, as in 7 and 9, do not influence the stereoselectivity of MeHNL catalysis, and (S) selectivity is observed in all cases. Stereoselectivity and inversion of stereoselectivity of MeHNL Trp128 mutant-catalyzed cyanohydrin formation can be explained and rationalized with crystal-structure-based molecular modeling. PMID:15812786

Bühler, Holger; Miehlich, Burkhard; Effenberger, Franz

2005-04-01

26

Post Fermentation Quality Changes in Bobozi Produced from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) and the Effects of Sodium Metabisulphite Soaking in Combination with Refrigeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptic quality of bobozi (African snack) produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) during processing and the effects of sodiu m metabisulphite or in combination with refrigeration at 10 C were investigated results shows that the bioload o increased from 0.3 x 10 cfu\\/g to 1.04 x 10 at the 96 hours of fermentation and

2004-01-01

27

Comparative morphology, biology and histology of reproductive development in three lines of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae: Crotonoideae)  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major food staple in the tropics and subtropics, thrives even in environments undergoing threatening climate change. To satisfy the increasing demand for crop improvement and overcome the limitations of conventional breeding, the introduction of inbreeding techniques such as the production of doubled haploid lines via androgenesis or gynogenesis offers advantages. However, comprehensive studies on cassava flower bud biology or structural development are lacking and precise structural and biological information is a prerequisite to enhance the efficiency of these techniques. Methodology The floral biology of three selected cassava lines was studied, focusing on morphology, phenology and pollen biology (quantity, viability and dimorphism). Histological studies were also conducted on microsporogenesis/microgametogenesis and megasporogenesis/megagameto-genesis to generate precise developmental data for these lines. Principal results Male and female cyathia have distinct developmental phases. Pollen viability was high during immature stages of plant development; however, pollen mortality was common at later stages. Pollen trimorphism in male gametophytes towards the larger or smaller pollen size, as compared with normal size, was observed. Ten characteristic events were identified in male gametogenesis and six in female gametogenesis that were correlated with flower bud diameter. Male gametophyte diameter at different developmental stages was also determined. Conclusions Results indicate that the three lines did not differ significantly, except regarding a few morphological aspects such as plant height, flower colour and number of male cyathia. Pollen grains were initially viable, but viability decreased drastically at later stages of growth. Abnormal meiosis or mitosis triggered pollen trimorphism. The demonstrated sequential events of reproductive development generated valuable information at the cellular level, which will help close the current information gap for cassava improvement via breeding programmes and doubled haploid plant production. PMID:23346343

Perera, P. I. P.; Quintero, M.; Dedicova, B.; Kularatne, J. D. J. S.; Ceballos, H.

2013-01-01

28

Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with starch pasting viscosity characteristics in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits. PMID:23614826

Thanyasiriwat, T; Sraphet, S; Whankaew, S; Boonseng, O; Bao, J; Lightfoot, D A; Tangphatsornruang, S; Triwitayakorn, K

2013-04-24

29

Enzymatic enantioselective transcyanation of silicon-containing aliphatic ketone with (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta.  

PubMed

(S)-Hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) was shown for the first time to be able to catalyze the enantioselective transcyanation of acetyltrimethylsilane (ATMS) with acetone cyanohydrin to form (S)-2-trimethylsilyl-2-hydroxyl-propionitrile in an aqueous/organic biphasic system. To better understand the reaction, various influential variables were examined. The most suitable organic phase, optimal buffer pH, aqueous phase content, shaking rate, temperature, concentration of ATMS, acetone cyanohydrin and crude enzyme were diisopropyl ether (DIPE), 5.4, 13% (v/v), 190 rpm, 40 degrees C, 10 mM, 20 mM, and 35 U/ml, respectively, under which the initial reaction rate, substrate conversion and product enantiomeric excess (e.e.) were 19.5 mM/h, 99.0% and 93.5%, respectively. A comparative study demonstrated that silicon atoms in the substrate had a great effect on the reaction, and that ATMS was a much better substrate for MeHNL than its carbon analogue 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone (DMBO) with respect to the initial reaction rate, substrate conversion and product e.e. MeHNL has greater affinity towards ATMS than its carbon analogue as indicated by the much lower K(m). The activation energy of MeHNL-catalyzed transcyanation of ATMS was also markedly lower than that of DMBO. The silicon effect on the reaction was rationalized on the basis of the special characteristics of silicon atoms and the catalytic mechanism of MeHNL. PMID:15309340

Xu, Ruo; Zong, Min-Hua; Liu, Yu-Ying; He, Jun; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Lou, Wen-Yong

2004-11-01

30

Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of hydroxynitrile lyase from cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

PubMed

Hydroxynitrile lyase from M. esculenta (cassava) was crystallized in two different crystal forms by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of form I were obtained from a mixture of polyethylene glycol 8000 and 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, and belong to the tetragonal space group P41212 or its enantiomorph P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 105.9, c = 188.9 A and with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. These crystals diffract to 2.9 A with conventional X-ray sources and beyond 2.1 A resolution with synchrotron radiation. The crystals are relatively sensitive to radiation damage and conditions for flash-cooling the crystals have been established. A complete native data set has been collected up to 2.2 A resolution. Crystal form II has been obtained at pH 5.6 using lithium sulfate as a precipitant. The crystals apparently belong to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 117.52, b = 127.09 and c = 78.08 A, have two molecules in the asymmetric unit and diffract to beyond 2.0 A resolution. A complete native data set has been collected to 2.2 A resolution. PMID:10089330

Lauble, H; Decanniere, K; Wajant, H; Förster, S; Effenberger, F

1999-04-01

31

Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lipoperoxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes.  

PubMed

Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

2011-09-01

32

Provitamin A Accumulation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Roots Driven by a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in a Phytoene Synthase Gene[W  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important staple crop, especially in the arid tropics. Because roots of commercial cassava cultivars contain a limited amount of provitamin A carotenoids, both conventional breeding and genetic modification are being applied to increase their production and accumulation to fight vitamin A deficiency disorders. We show here that an allelic polymorphism in one of the two expressed phytoene synthase (PSY) genes is capable of enhancing the flux of carbon through carotenogenesis, thus leading to the accumulation of colored provitamin A carotenoids in storage roots. A single nucleotide polymorphism present only in yellow-rooted cultivars cosegregates with colored roots in a breeding pedigree. The resulting amino acid exchange in a highly conserved region of PSY provides increased catalytic activity in vitro and is able to increase carotenoid production in recombinant yeast and Escherichia coli cells. Consequently, cassava plants overexpressing a PSY transgene produce yellow-fleshed, high-carotenoid roots. This newly characterized PSY allele provides means to improve cassava provitamin A content in cassava roots through both breeding and genetic modification. PMID:20889914

Welsch, Ralf; Arango, Jacobo; Bar, Cornelia; Salazar, Bertha; Al-Babili, Salim; Beltran, Jesus; Chavarriaga, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Tohme, Joe; Beyer, Peter

2010-01-01

33

In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) on three pre-parasitic stages of susceptible and resistant strains of Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered as one of the main limiting factors causing significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry. The anthelmintic properties of some plants are among the suggested alternative solutions to control these parasitic worms. The present study investigated the anthelmintic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts against the susceptible and resistant strains of one of the most important nematodes in small ruminants, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta. Three different in vitro tests: egg hatch test, larval development assay, and larval paralysis assay were used to determine the efficiency of neem and cassava extracts on three pre-parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The LC(50) was determined for the most potent extract in each plant as well as the phytochemical tests, total tannin quantification and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats. The results revealed a high anthelmintic activity of neem methanol extract (NME) and cassava methanol extract (CME) on both strains of T. circumcincta without significant differences between the strains. The first stage larvae were more sensitive with the lowest LC(50) at 7.15 mg/ml and 10.72 mg/ml for NME and CME, respectively, compared with 44.20mg/ml and 56.68 mg/ml on eggs and 24.91 mg/ml and 71.96 mg/ml on infective stage larvae. PMID:22455724

Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

2012-08-13

34

Mechanistic aspects of cyanogenesis from active-site mutant Ser80Ala of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in complex with acetone cyanohydrin  

PubMed Central

The structure and function of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) have been analyzed by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis. The crystal structure of the MeHNL–S80A mutant enzyme has been refined to an R-factor of 18.0% against diffraction data to 2.1-? resolution. The three-dimensional structure of the MeHNL–S80A–acetone cyanohydrin complex was determined at 2.2-? resolution and refined to an R-factor of 18.7%. Thr11 and Cys81 involved in substrate binding have been substituted by Ala in site-directed mutagenesis. The kinetic measurements of these mutant enzymes are presented. Combined with structural data, the results support a mechanism for cyanogenesis in which His236 as a general base abstracts a proton from Ser80, thereby allowing proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of acetone cyanohydrin to Ser80. The His236 imidazolium cation then facilitates the leaving of the nitrile group by proton donating. PMID:11316882

Lauble, Hanspeter; Miehlich, Burkhard; Forster, Siegfried; Wajant, Harald; Effenberger, Franz

2001-01-01

35

Comparative expression of wild-type and highly soluble mutant His103Leu of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.  

PubMed

Low protein solubility and inclusion body formation represent big challenges in production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We have recently reported functional expression of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta, MeHNL, in E. coli with high in vivo solubility and activity using directed evolution. As a part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, we have described the possibility of expression of the highly active and soluble mutant MeHNL-His103Leu as well as wild-type enzyme in several expression systems. Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae and two cell-free translations, including an E. coli lysate (WakoPURE system) and wheat germ translation system were used to compare expression profiles of the genes. Two distinguishable protein expression patterns were observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic-based systems. The wild-type and mutant enzyme showed high activity for both genes (up to 10 U/ml) in eukaryotic hosts P. pastoris and L. tarentolae, while those of E. coli exhibited about 1 and 15 U/ml, respectively. The different activity level in prokaryotic systems but the same level among the eukaryotic hosts indicate the phenomenon is specific to the E. coli system. Both the wild-type and mutant enzymes were functionally expressed in eukaryotic systems, probably using the folding assistants such as chaperones. Properties of expression systems used in this study were precisely compared, too. PMID:21185385

Dadashipour, Mohammad; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Asano, Yasuhisa

2011-05-01

36

Mechanistic aspects of cyanogenesis from active-site mutant Ser80Ala of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in complex with acetone cyanohydrin.  

PubMed

The structure and function of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) have been analyzed by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis. The crystal structure of the MeHNL-S80A mutant enzyme has been refined to an R-factor of 18.0% against diffraction data to 2.1-A resolution. The three-dimensional structure of the MeHNL-S80A-acetone cyanohydrin complex was determined at 2.2-A resolution and refined to an R-factor of 18.7%. Thr11 and Cys81 involved in substrate binding have been substituted by Ala in site-directed mutagenesis. The kinetic measurements of these mutant enzymes are presented. Combined with structural data, the results support a mechanism for cyanogenesis in which His236 as a general base abstracts a proton from Ser80, thereby allowing proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of acetone cyanohydrin to Ser80. The His236 imidazolium cation then facilitates the leaving of the nitrile group by proton donating. PMID:11316882

Lauble, H; Miehlich, B; Förster, S; Wajant, H; Effenberger, F

2001-05-01

37

Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.  

PubMed

Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples. PMID:24634228

Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

2014-01-01

38

Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

PubMed Central

Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Results Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 ?M ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H2O2, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H2O2 synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. Conclusions These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress. PMID:25091029

2014-01-01

39

In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) on susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to represent the first report of the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) against eggs and larvae of susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. As well as, to determine the total tannin compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity of the extract. The egg hatch test was used to evaluate ovicidal activity against unembryonated eggs, whereas larval feeding inhibition assay and MTT-formazan assay were used to evaluate larvicidal activity against first (L(1)) and infective (L(3)) larvae, respectively. The results showed no significant differences were detected between the sensitivities of susceptible and resistant strains of T. colubriformis to the extract. Eggs, L(1) and L(3) were significantly affected (P<0.001) compared with negative control, and L(1) were more sensitive than the eggs and L(3). The total tannin compounds were investigated using tannin quantification assay and determined by 254.44 TAE/mg. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and the median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was determined by 2.638 mg/ml. Acute oral toxicity at dose of 5,000 mg/kg, and sub-chronic oral toxicity at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg of the extract were observed in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The acute oral toxicity revealed that the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of methanolic extract of cassava leaves on SD rats was greater than 5,000 mg/kg, whereas the sub-chronic oral toxicity did not show observed adverse effects at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of cassava leaves has direct ovicidal and larvicidal activity against T. colubriformis strains with a safety margin for animals, and it may be potentially utilized as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22749290

Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

2012-11-23

40

Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

K?íbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevi?, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

2014-11-01

41

A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava. PMID:24026343

Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

2014-01-01

42

The complete nucleotide sequence of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) chloroplast genome and the evolution of atpF in Malpighiales: RNA editing and multiple losses of a group II intron  

PubMed Central

The complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae) has been determined. The genome is 161,453 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 26,954 bp. The genome includes 128 genes; 96 are single copy and 16 are duplicated in the IR. There are four rRNA genes and 30 distinct tRNAs, seven of which are duplicated in the IR. The infA gene is absent; expansion of IRb has duplicated 62 amino acids at the 3? end of rps19 and a number of coding regions have large insertions or deletions, including insertions within the 23S rRNA gene. There are 17 intron-containing genes in cassava, 15 of which have a single intron while two (clpP, ycf3) have two introns. The usually conserved atpF group II intron is absent and this is the first report of its loss from land plant chloroplast genomes. The phylogenetic distribution of the atpF intron loss was determined by a PCR survey of 251 taxa representing 34 families of Malpighiales and 16 taxa from closely related rosids. The atpF intron is not only missing in cassava but also from closely related Euphorbiaceae and other Malpighiales, suggesting that there have been at least seven independent losses. In cassava and all other sequenced Malphigiales, atpF gene sequences showed a strong association between C-to-T substitutions at nucleotide position 92 and the loss of the intron, suggesting that recombination between an edited mRNA and the atpF gene may be a possible mechanism for the intron loss. PMID:18214421

Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Lee, Seung-Bum; Saski, Christopher; Jansen, Robert K.

2008-01-01

43

Wild Manihot Species Do Not Possess C4 Photosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta) has a higher rate of photosynthesis than is usual for C3 plants and photosynthesis is not light saturated. For these reasons it has been suggested that cultivated cassava could be derived from wild species possessing C4 photosynthesis. The natural abundance of 13C and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoglycolate phosphatase were measured in leaves of 20 wild cassava species to test this hypothesis. All the species studied, including M. flabellifolia the potential wild progenitor of cultivated cassava, clearly exhibited C3 not C4 characteristics. PMID:12096814

CALATAYUD, P.?A.; BARÓN, C. H.; VELÁSQUEZ, H.; ARROYAVE, J. A.; LAMAZE, T.

2002-01-01

44

Thermodynamic analysis of sorption isotherms of cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

PubMed

Sorption isotherms of cassava were determined experimentally using a static gravimetric method at 30, 45 and 60 °C and within the range of 0.10-0.90 water activity. At a constant water activity, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature. The experimental results were modelled using seven sorption models using non-linear regression technique. Results demonstrated that the GAB model adequately predicted equilibrium moisture content of cassava for the range of temperatures and water activities studied. The thermodynamic functions such as net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy of sorption, net integral enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to provide an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behaviour. Net isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The net integral enthalpy decreased while net integral entropy increased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Net integral entropy was negative in value. All thermodynamic functions were adequately characterised by a power law model. The point of maximum stability was found between 0.053 and 0.154 kg water/kg db for cassava. PMID:25190827

Koua, Blaise Kamenan; Koffi, Paul Magloire Ekoun; Gbaha, Prosper; Toure, Siaka

2014-09-01

45

Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

PubMed

Cassava is the major root crop for a quarter billion subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. It is valued for its ability to grow in adverse environments and the food security it provides. Cassava contains potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin) which protect the plant from herbivory and theft. The cyanogens, including linamarin and its deglycosylated product, acetone cyanohydrin, can be efficiently removed from the root by various processing procedures. Short-cuts in processing, which may occur during famines, can result in only partial removal of cyanogens. Residual cyanogens in cassava foods may cause neurological disorders or paralysis, particularly in nutritionally compromised individuals. To address this problem and to further understand the function of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava, we have generated transgenic cassava in which cyanogenic glycoside synthesis has been selectively inhibited in leaves and roots by antisense expression of CYP79D1/D2 gene fragments. The CYP79D1/D2 genes encode two highly similar cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first-dedicated step in cyanogenic glycoside synthesis. Transgenic plants in which the expression of these genes was selectively inhibited in leaves had substantially reduced (60- 94% reduction) linamarin leaf levels. Surprisingly, these plants also had a greater than a 99% reduction in root linamarin content. In contrast, transgenic plants in which the CYP79D1/D2 transcripts were reduced to non-detectable levels in roots had normal root linamarin levels. These results demonstrate that linamarin synthesized in leaves is transported to the roots and accounts for nearly all of the root linamarin content. Importantly, transgenic plants having reduced leaf and root linamarin content were unable to grow in the absence of reduced nitrogen (NH3) . Cassava roots have previously been demonstrated to have an active cyanide assimilation pathway leading to the synthesis of amino acids. We propose that cyanide derived from linamarin is a major source of reduced nitrogen for cassava root protein synthesis. Disruption of linamarin transport from leaves in CYP79D1/D2 anti-sense plants prevents the growth of cassava roots in the absence of an alternate source of reduced nitrogen. An alternative strategy for reducing cyanogen toxicity in cassava foods is to accelerate cyanogenesis and cyanide volatilization during food processing. To achieve this objective, we have expressed the leaf-specific enzyme hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) in roots. HNL catalyzes the breakdown of acetone cyanohydrin to cyanide. Expression of HNL in roots accelerated cyanogenesis by more than three-fold substantially reducing the accumulation of acetone cyanohydrin during processing relative to wild-type roots. PMID:15630626

Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

2004-11-01

46

Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta)  

E-print Network

: cyanogenesis, cyanogenic glycoside, cytochrome P450, hydroxynitrile lyase, linamarin Abstract Cassava processing. To achieve this objective, we have expressed the leaf-specific enzyme hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL

Meier, Iris

47

ALTERAÇÕES NA QUALIDADE DE RAÍZES DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADAS Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) minimally processed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from

Andreia Alves; Rogério Luis Cansian; Giane Stuart; Eunice Valduga

48

Nutrient Composition and Processing Effects on Cassava Leaf (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) Antinutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of 3 genetically improved varieties of cassava plants were harvested and subjected to different processing methods including sun-drying (SND), oven-drying (OVD), steaming (STM), shredding (SHD) and steeping (STP) and a combination of these methods to deliberately reduce the high level of cyanogenic glucosides present in the leaves. A combination of SHD and SND (SHD+SND) seemed to be the most

2005-01-01

49

Diallel inheritance of relevant traits in cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) adapted to acid-soil savannas  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a limited knowledge on the inheritance of traits with agronomic relevance in cassava. A diallel study among 10 parental clones was conducted in the acid-soils environment in the eastern savannas of Colombia. Thirty clones were obtained for each F1 cross. Each clone was represented by six plants, which were distributed in three replications at two locations. Therefore, the

F. Calle; J. C. Perez; W. Gaitán; N. Morante; H. Ceballos; G. Llano; E. Alvarez

2005-01-01

50

Les maladies bactriennes du manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) en Rpublique Populaire du Congo et en Rpu-  

E-print Network

.O. M., BP A5, NC Nouméa R�SUM� Manioc, Bactérioses, Xanthomonas manihotis, Erwinia carotovora Jones var-Berthet & Bondar) Starr et Erwinia carotovora Jones var. carotovora Dye. Le dépérissement bactérien du manioc, qui Cassava, Bacteriosis, Xanthomonas manihotis, Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora, People's Republic

Boyer, Edmond

51

A simple and low-cost strategy for micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of transferring micropropagation techniques to cassava seed producers, a simple and low- cost medium for in vitro micropropagation was developed. CM6740-7 cassava cultivar from CIAT was used as planting material. Commercially available nutrients were used in order to substitute the propagation media components. A Hydro Agris fertilizer (12-11-18\\/3 (MgO-EDTA)) was used as a substitute for Murashige and

M. A. Santana; G. Romay; J. Matehus; J. L. Vicente-Villardón; J. R. Demey

2009-01-01

52

Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement. PMID:22388699

Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

2013-03-01

53

Molecular evolution and functional divergence of soluble starch synthase genes in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz).  

PubMed

Soluble starch synthases (SSs) are major enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, which should be influenced by the evolution of SS genes in this starchy root crop. In this work, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of the soluble starch synthases in cassava. Genome-wide identification showed that there are 9 genes encoding soluble starch synthases in cassava. All of the soluble starch synthases encoded by these genes contain both Glyco_transf_5 and Glycos_transf_1 domains, and a correlation analysis showed evidence of coevolution between these 2 domains in cassava SS genes. The SS genes in land plants can be divided into 6 subfamilies that were formed before the origin of seed plants, and species-specific expansion has contributed to the evolution of this family in cassava. A functional divergence analysis for this family provided statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rates between the subfamilies of land plant soluble starch synthases. Although the main selective pressure acting on land plant SS genes was purifying selection, our results also revealed that point mutation with positive selection contributed to the evolution of 2 SS genes in cassava. The remarkable cassava starch characteristics might be the result of both the duplication and adaptive selection of SS genes. PMID:23888108

Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Shuhui; Xu, Chenwu; Yan, Changjie

2013-01-01

54

Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava. PMID:23132522

Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

2012-12-01

55

Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.  

PubMed

Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

2014-01-01

56

Molecular and supra-molecular structure of waxy starches developed from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to characterize the amylopectin of low amylose content cassava starches obtained from transgenesis comparatively with a natural waxy cassava starch (WXN) discovered recently in CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). Macromolecular features, starch granule morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of these starches were determined. M¯(w) of amylopectin from the transgenic varieties are lower than WXN. Branched and debranched chain distributions analyses revealed slight differences in the branching degree and structure of these amylopectins, principally on DP 6-9 and DP>37. For the first time, a deep structural characterization of a series of transgenic lines of waxy cassava was carried out and the link between structural features and the mutated gene expression approached. The transgenesis allows to silenced partially or totally the GBSSI, without changing deeply the starch granule ultrastructure and allows to produce clones with similar amylopectin as parental cassava clone. PMID:23399176

Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Sanchez, Teresa; Buléon, Alain; Colonna, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Peng; Dufour, Dominique

2013-02-15

57

Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ? 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel. PMID:22535425

Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

2012-05-01

58

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.  

PubMed

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

2013-09-01

59

Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.  

PubMed

In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. PMID:24374265

Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

2014-06-24

60

Epistasis in the expression of relevant traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for subhumid conditions.  

PubMed

There is limited knowledge on the inheritance of agronomic traits in cassava and the importance of epistasis for most crops. A nine-parent diallel study was conducted in subhumid environments. Thirty clones were obtained from each F1 cross. Each clone was represented by six plants, which were distributed in three replications at two locations. Therefore the same 30 genotypes of each F1 cross were planted in the three replications at the two locations. Analysis of variance suggested significant genetic effects for all variables analyzed (reaction to thrips, fresh root and foliage yields, harvest index, dry matter content, and root dry matter yield). Significant epistatic effects were observed for all variables, except harvest index. Dominance variance was always significant, except for dry matter content and dry matter yield. Additive variance was significant only for reaction to thrips. Results suggested that dominance plays an important role in complex traits such as root yield. The significance of epistasis can help us understand the difficulties of quantitative genetics models and QTLs in satisfactorily explaining phenotypic variation in traits with complex inheritance. Significant epistasis would justify the production of inbred parental lines to fix favorable allele combinations in the production of hybrid cassava cultivars. PMID:16014808

Cach, N T; Perez, J C; Lenis, J I; Calle, F; Morante, N; Ceballos, H

2005-01-01

61

Comparison of Leaf Proteomes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivar NZ199 Diploid and Autotetraploid Genotypes  

PubMed Central

Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X.; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Chen, Songbi

2014-01-01

62

Starch granule size and the domestication of manioc ( Manihot esculenta ) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological studies of plant remains have indicated that an increase in seed size is frequently correlated with both intensive\\u000a cultivation and domestication of seed crop plants. To test if starch granules of domesticated root crops are significantly\\u000a larger than those of wild or less intensively cultivated plants, archaeological and modern specimens of manioc and sweet potato\\u000a were sampled for starch

Linda Perry; Economu Botany

2002-01-01

63

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves  

PubMed Central

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Marcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

2013-01-01

64

Retention of total carotenoid and ?-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after domestic cooking  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, ?-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-?-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention after three boiling cooking methods. Design The total carotenoid, ?-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-?-carotene isomers in yellow sweet cassava samples were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, before and after applying the cooking methods. All analyses were performed in triplicate. Results The total carotenoid in raw roots varied from 2.64 to 14.15 µg/g and total ?-carotene from 1.99 to 10.32 µg/g. The ?-carotene predominated in all the roots. The Híbrido 2003 14 08 cultivar presented the highest ?-carotene content after cooking methods 1 and 3. The 1153 – Klainasik cultivar presented the highest 9-Z-?-carotene content after cooking by method 3. The highest total carotenoid retention was observed in cultivar 1456 – Vermelhinha and that of ?-carotene for the Híbrido 2003 14 11 cultivar, both after cooking method 1. Evaluating the real retention percentage (RR%) in sweet yellow cassava after home cooking methods showed differences that can be attributed to the total initial carotenoid contents. However, no cooking method uniformly provided a higher total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention in all the cultivars. Conclusion Differences were found in the cooking methods among the samples regarding total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention, suggesting that the different behaviors of the cultivars need to be further analyzed. However, high percentages of total carotenoid or ?-carotene retention were observed and can minimize vitamin A deficiency in low-income populations. PMID:22468142

Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Oliveira, Alcides R. G.; Godoy, Ronoel L. O.; Pacheco, Sidney; Nutti, Marilia R.; de Carvalho, Jose L. V.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Fukuda, Wania G.

2012-01-01

65

Characterization and genetic distance analysis of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm from Mozambique using RAPD fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight cassava genotypes from Mozambique, along with seven genotypes from Angola, Madagascar, Nigeria, Togo, Columbia,\\u000a and Thailand for comparison, were fingerprinted using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The Mozambican material\\u000a represented a wide range of landraces. A total of 311 scored RAPD loci were used to calculate genetic distances between the\\u000a genotypes. This revealed an average genetic distance of

A. M. Zacarias; A.-M. Botha; M. T. Labuschagne; I. R. M. Benesi

2004-01-01

66

Traditional anthropology and geographical information systems in the collaborative study of Cassava in Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cross-cultural, village-level, and farmer surveys have been used with a geographical information system to describe the distribution and relative importance of cassava (manioc, yuca, Manihot esculenta) in its cultural, economic, and ecological contexts. It presents examples of data management for mapping, sample selection, cross-tabulation of characteristics, combination of data types for indices and hypothesis testing. The methods used are reviewed, and some of the main conclusions of the study are presented.

Romanoff, Steven

1991-01-01

67

Molecular differentiation, diversity, and folk classification of “sweet” and “bitter” cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Caiçara and Caboclo management systems (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses the inter-relationships among the men, the use, and the intra-specific cassava diversity, under the perspective\\u000a of this crop evolutionary dynamics. The origin, the use and the current local management of varieties with high and low cyanogenic\\u000a potential are important questions around cassava domestication. We collected 169 local varieties identified as “sweet” or\\u000a “bitter” cassava by traditional farmers

Nivaldo Peroni; Paulo Yoshio Kageyama; Alpina Begossi

2007-01-01

68

Phenylpropanoids, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase and Peroxidases in Elicitor?challenged Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Suspension Cells and Leaves  

PubMed Central

• Background and aims Control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components. • Methods Phenylalanine ammonia?lyase (PAL), phenylpropanoids and peroxidases (POD) were investigated in elicited cassava suspension cells and leaves. Yeast elicitor was the most effective of several microbial and endogenous elicitors. Fungitoxicity was determined against the cassava pathogens Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and the saprotroph Trichoderma harzianum. • Key results A single and rapid (?2–3 min) oxidative burst, measured as hydrogen peroxide, occurred in elicited cells. PAL activity was induced maximally at 15 h and was preceded by PAL mRNA accumulation, which peaked at 9 h. Symplasmic POD activity increased four?fold in cells, 48 h post?elicitation. POD isoforms (2–7 isoforms, pI 3·1–8·8) were detected in elicited and unelicited cells, extracellular medium and leaves but two extracellular isoforms were enhanced post?elicitation. Also expression of a cassava peroxidase gene MecPOD1 increased in elicited cells. Only anionic forms oxidized scopoletin, with highest activity by isoform pI 3·6, present in all samples. Unidentified phenolics and possibly scopolin increased post?elicitation, but there was no enhancement of scopoletin, rutin or kaempferol?3?O?rutinoside concentration. Fungal germ tube elongation was inhibited more than germination by esculetin, ferulic acid, quercetin and scopoletin. T. harzianum was generally more sensitive than the pathogens and was inhibited by ?50 µg mL–1 of ferulic acid and quercetin and ?10 µg mL–1 of scopoletin. • Conclusions Phenolic levels in cells were not enhanced and were, theoretically, too low to be inhibitory. However, in combination and when oxidized they may contribute to defence, because oxidation of esculetin and scopoletin by peroxidase and of esculetin by tyrosinase enhanced their fungitoxicity up to 20?fold. PMID:15145789

GÓMEZ?VÁSQUEZ, ROCÍO; DAY, ROBERT; BUSCHMANN, HOLGER; RANDLES, SOPHIE; BEECHING, JOHN R.; COOPER, RICHARD M.

2004-01-01

69

Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. PMID:23721067

Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

2014-06-01

70

Mercury in the surface soil and cassava, Manihot esculenta (flesh, leaves and peel) near goldmines at Bogoso and Prestea, Ghana.  

PubMed

Mercury amalgamation is used indiscriminately in the recovery of gold by small-scale native gem winners in Ghana. Mercury is released into the environment in the form of wastewater, tailing and vapor from the roasting of amalgam to separate gold. The study looked at the levels of total mercury concentration in surface soil and cassava crop from farms located within the vicinities of Bogoso and Prestea Goldmines. The surface soil total mercury concentrations ranged between 125.29 and 352.52 ?g/kg whiles cassava had between 66.60 and 195.47 ?g/kg. The results showed proportionately more deposits at higher distances in 15-30 cm soil zone and less deposits at higher distances on leaves with relatively high uptake of the metal occurred at higher distances from the mines into the peels. These results suggest serious mercury pollution to the surface soil and the cassava crop but the speciation exercise showed that mercury is not in the free state, rather bound to hydroxides and organic compounds as complexes. PMID:23052587

Adjorlolo-Gasokpoh, A; Golow, A A; Kambo-Dorsa, J

2012-12-01

71

Variations in the chemical composition of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves and roots as affected by genotypic and environmental variation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of cassava cultivars, in terms of cyanogenic potential and composition of macro- and micronutrients, sampled from different locations in rural Mozambique. Total cyanide concentrations in fresh cassava tissues were measured using portable cyanide testing kits, and elemental nutrients were later analyzed from dried plant tissue. Variation in cyanogenic potential and nutrient composition occurred both among cultivars and across locations. The majority of cultivars contained >100 ppm total cyanide, fresh weight, and are therefore considered to be dangerously poisonous unless adequately processed before consumption. Leaf cyanogenic and nutrient content varied with plant water status, estimated using carbon isotope discrimination (?(13)C). The colonization of roots of all cultivars by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was also quantified and found to be high, indicating that mycorrhizas could play a key role in plant nutrient acquisition in these low-input farming systems. PMID:22515684

Burns, Anna Elizabeth; Gleadow, Roslyn Margaret; Zacarias, Anabela M; Cuambe, Constantino Estevão; Miller, Rebecca Elizabeth; Cavagnaro, Timothy Richard

2012-05-16

72

Effect of Medium Salt Concentration on Differentiation and Maturation of Somatic Embryos of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

PubMed Central

Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro? and micro?nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter?, half?, full? or double?strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half? or full?strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full?strength MS medium. Developed somatic embryos were then desiccated above a saturated K2SO4 solution for 10 d. After transfer to germination medium, embryos that had developed on half? and full?strength MS medium yielded 8·3 and 8·6 germinants g–1 NEC tissue, respectively. For this important but often disregarded culture factor, either half? or full?strength MS medium is recommended for both the differentiation and development of cassava somatic embryos that are capable of germination. PMID:12099540

GROLL, J.; MYCOCK, D. J.; GRAY, V. M.

2002-01-01

73

Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?

Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

2014-10-01

74

Cloning, 3D modeling and expression analysis of three vacuolar invertase genes from cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (?-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed ?-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a ?-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the ?-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, ? and ? groups, in which ? group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while ? group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development. PMID:24838076

Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

2014-01-01

75

Effect of resistant starch on the cooking quality of yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) based paste products.  

PubMed

Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 ?m) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak. PMID:23215529

Kouadio, Olivier Kouadio; N'dri, Denis Yao; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Marti, Alessandra; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Faoro, Franco; Erba, Daniela; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Amani, N'guessan Georges

2013-06-01

76

Makomotindoline from Makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta.  

PubMed

Makomotindoline (1) was isolated from Makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta. The structure was determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data and synthesis. Makomotindoline (1), its l-Glc isomer (2) and its aglycon (3) were synthesized and their effects on rat glioma cells showed adverse effects on the cell growth. PMID:22672800

Suzuki, Tomohiro; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Yamashita, Kimiko; Morita, Akio; Hirai, Hirofumi; Nagai, Kaoru; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Omura, Satoshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

2012-07-01

77

[Absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot extract by in situ intestinal perfusion].  

PubMed

To explore the mechanism of the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, in situ intestinal recirculation was performed to study the effect of the absorption at different concentrations and different intestinal regions. To evaluate the conditions of the absorption of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers, the concentrations of Abelmoschus manihot in the perfusion solution were determined by HPLC at predesigned time. And we have investigated the inhibitory effect of six flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. The results demonstrated that the absorption rates of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers are not significantly different (P > 0.05) at various drug concentrations, the absorption of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers is a first-order process with the passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption rates of each of flavonoids are significantly different. The absorption rate of flavonoid glycoside was lower than that of aglycone; the flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers could be absorbed in all of the intestinal segments. The best parts of intestine to absorb hyperoside and myricetin are jejunum and duodenum, separately. Verapamil could enhance the absorption of isoquercitrin, hyperoside, myricetin and quercetin-3'-O-glucoside by inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. PMID:21751500

Xue, Cai-fu; Guo, Jian-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shu, Yan

2011-04-01

78

Identification, cloning, and characterization of ?-glucosidase from Ustilago esculenta.  

PubMed

Hydrolytic enzymes responsible for laminarin degradation were found to be secreted during growth of Ustilago esculenta on laminarin. An enzyme involved in laminarin degradation was purified by assaying release of glucose from laminaribiose. Ion-exchange chromatography of the culture filtrate followed by size-exclusion chromatography yielded a 110-kDa protein associated with laminaribiose hydrolysis. LC/MS/MS analysis of the 110-kDa protein identified three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity with a putative glucoside hydrolase family (GH) 3 ?-glucosidase in Ustilago maydis. Based on the DNA sequence of the U. maydis GH3 ?-glucosidase, a gene encoding a putative GH3 ?-glucosidase in U. esculenta (Uebgl3A) was cloned by PCR. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the protein encoded by Uebgl3A has a molecular mass of 91 kDa and shares 90% identity with U. maydis GH3 ?-glucosidase. Recombinant UeBgl3A expressed in Aspergillus oryzae released glucose from ?-1,3-, ?-1,4-, and ?-1,6-linked oligosaccharides, and from 1,3-1,4-?-glucan and laminarin polysaccharides, indicating that UeBgl3A is a ?-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis showed that UeBgl3A preferentially hydrolyzed laminaritriose and laminaritetraose. These results suggest that UeBgl3A is a key enzyme that produces glucose from laminarioligosaccharides during growth of U. esculenta on laminarin. PMID:21850431

Nakajima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Machiko; Nakano, Yuki; Takeda, Takumi

2012-03-01

79

Morphological and molecular differences in two strains of Ustilago esculenta.  

PubMed

Ustilago esculenta is a fungal endophyte of Zizania latifolia that plays an important agricultural role in this vegetable crop. The purpose of this study was to characterize sporidial (T) and mycelial (M-T) strains of U. esculenta isolated from sporulating and non-sporulating galls on plants growing in Zhejiang province, China. Morphological comparisons of the T strain and M-T strain were made by optical and scanning electron microscope observation. Genetic differences were examined by sequencing the ITS region of the fungus and examining differential protein expression by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. The sporidial (T) and mycelial (M-T) strains differed in morphological characteristics of their in vitro single colony formations and in cell shape. Alignment of ITS sequences of the T strain and M-T strain revealed a single mutation between the T strain and M-T strain, but the sequences were the same within strains. A total of 146 proteins were only expressed in the M-T strain, and 242 proteins were only expressed in the T strain isolated from infected plants. A total of 222 proteins were up-regulated or down-regulated in the T strain when compared with the M-T strain. Of these, 18 proteins were identified and eight were associated with processes involving energy metabolism and the cytoskeleton. Two morphology-related proteins, MAP kinase kinase and actin, were differentially expressed. The differences noted in the T strain and M-T strain may lead to a better understanding of the life cycle and morphogenesis in U. esculenta. PMID:20495805

You, Wenyu; Liu, Qian; Zou, Keqin; Yu, Xiaoping; Cui, Haifeng; Ye, Zihong

2011-01-01

80

Genome-wide identification, 3D modeling, expression and enzymatic activity analysis of cell wall invertase gene family from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a ?-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a ?-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker. PMID:24786092

Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

2014-01-01

81

Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of ?-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil.  

PubMed

Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with ?-carotene (?C), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher ?C than white cassava, and the additional complement of ?C was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of ?C per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of ?C during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-?C from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with ?C has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking. PMID:24970565

Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

2014-07-16

82

Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.  

PubMed

Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

2013-08-01

83

Genome-Wide Identification, 3D Modeling, Expression and Enzymatic Activity Analysis of Cell Wall Invertase Gene Family from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

PubMed Central

The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a ?-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a ?-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker. PMID:24786092

Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

2014-01-01

84

Characterization of Carotenoid-protein Complexes and Gene Expression Analysis Associated with Carotenoid Sequestration in Pigmented Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Storage Root  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid-protein complex (CPC) was isolated from chromoplast-enriched suspensions of cassava storage root (CSR) using size exclusion chromatography and characterized. Peptide sequences (LC_MS/MS spectrum) obtained from CPC and their corresponding proteins were obtained using publically available databases. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) were the most abundant proteins identified in the CPC. Western blot analysis showed that Fribrillin and Or-protein were present in chromoplast-enriched suspensions of yellow root but not in the complex or white root. Results from qRT-PCR helped identify an isoform of HSP21 possessing four single point mutations in the intense yellow CSR that may be responsible for increased sequestration of b-carotene. PMID:23230451

Carvalho, Luiz Joaquim Castelo Branco; Lippolis, John; Chen, Songbi; Batista de Souza, Claudia Regina; Vieira, Eduardo A; Anderson, James V

2012-01-01

85

Dendritic Cell Activation by Glucan Isolated from Umbilicaria Esculenta  

PubMed Central

Background Lichen-derived glucans have been known to stimulate the functions of immune cells. However, immunostimulatory activity of glucan obtained from edible lichen, Umbilicaria esculenta, has not been reported. Thus we evaluated the phenotype and functional maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) following treatment of extracted glucan (PUE). Methods The phenotypic and functional maturation of PUE-treated DCs was assessed by flow cytometric analysis and cytokine production, respectively. PUE-treated DCs was also used for mixed leukocyte reaction to evaluate T cell-priming capacity. Finally we detected the activation of MAPK and NF-?B by immunoblot. Results Phenotypic maturation of DCs was shown by the elevated expressions of CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II molecules. Functional activation of DCs was proved by increased cytokine production of IL-12, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IFN-?/?, decreased endocytosis, and enhanced proliferation of allogenic T cells. Polymyxin B, specific inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), did not affect PUE activity, which suggested that PUE was free of LPS contamination. As a mechanism of action, PUE increased phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs, and enhanced nuclear translocation of NF-?B p50/p65 in DCs. Conclusion These results indicate that PUE induced DC maturation via MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:21286379

Kim, Hyung Sook; Kim, Jee Youn; Lee, Hong Kyung; Kim, Moo Sung; Lee, Sang Rin; Kang, Jong Soon; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kyung-Ae; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo

2010-01-01

86

[Mechanisms and effects of Abelmoschus manihot preparations in treating chronic kidney disease].  

PubMed

Abelmoschus manihot (AM) is a medicinal plant rich in twenty kinds of separated active bio-components including flavones, polysaccharides, trannic acid, and long chain hydrocarbons. Among these, total flavones of A. manihot (TFA) are the major active component. In this review, the mechanisms of Huangkui capsule will be discussed as a preparation of AM to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) by improving immunological reaction, inflammation, renal fibrosis, and renal tubular epithelial injury. Additionally, it has been reported that Huangkui capsule can ameliorate some clinical symptoms, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal function in patients with common CKD, such as nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis, IgA nephropathy, and membranous nephropathy. PMID:23189729

Chen, Ping; Wan, Yigang; Wang, Chaojun; Zhao, Qing; Wei, Qingxue; Tu, Yue; Yin, Xuejiao

2012-08-01

87

Simultaneous determination of seven active flavonols in the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot by HPLC.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatography method is developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven flavonols, namely quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, and quercetin, in the flower of Abelmoschus manihot. These seven flavonols are selected as chemical markers because they are the major pharmacologically active constituents in the flower. The method involves the use of a Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL reversed-phase column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) at 25 degrees C with a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous H(3)PO(4) as the mobile phase and detection at 370 nm. The recovery of the method is 94.31-107.08% with an RSD < or = 3.14% and the linearity (r(2) > 0.9996) is obtained for all the flavonoids. The current assay method can be readily utilized for the determination of the flavonols present in the flower and is considered to be suitable for the quality control of A. manihot samples. The comparison of flowers collected from nine locations shows that flavonoid glucoside is more stable than aglycon in the flower. This is the first study that analyzes the stability of flavonoids in the flower of A. manihot. This research also provides important evidence that the flower is a potentially abundant resource for obtaining hibifolin. PMID:19298707

Lai, Xianyin; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin

2009-03-01

88

Variations of intestinal calcium absorption in adult frogs (Rana esculenta). Effect of lysine  

E-print Network

with calcium absorption. The absorbed calcium is deposited as carbonate in the « chalky» and endolymphatic sacs as phosphates and carbonate. In the present paper we studied the intestinal calcium permeability with or withoutVariations of intestinal calcium absorption in adult frogs (Rana esculenta). Effect of lysine

Boyer, Edmond

89

The Isolation and some Properties of a Virus-Inhibiting Protein from Phytolacca esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: An inhibitor of plant viruses can be isolated from the sap of Phytolacca esculenta by differential precipitation with ethanol followed by adsorption on celite and elution with 10% NaC1. Purified preparations contain 141-15% nitrogen and 8-12 yo carbohydrate and the inhibitor is probably a glycoprotein. Denaturation leads to loss of inhibiting power. The protein, unless denatured, !s unaffected by

B. Kassanis; A. Kleczkowski

1948-01-01

90

Volatile Compounds From Fruits of Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile compounds from fruits of Talisia esculenta harvested in northeastern Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC-FID and GC\\/MS. Nineteen compounds were identified and pyrazines were the major compounds (representing 64.8–70.4% of the oil), mainly 2,5-diethylpyrazine (64.2–69.1%). Oxygenated monoterpenes also predominated (6.6–6.8% of the oil) besides high abundance of furfural (18.0–22.8%).

Tatiana Kubota; Paulo C. L. Nogueira; Péricles B. Alves; Samísia M. F. Machado; Valéria R. S. Moraes

2009-01-01

91

Immunocytochemical localization of Vitamin A in the retina and pineal organ of the frog, Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin A immunoreactive sites were studied in the retina and pincal organ of the frog,Rana esculenta, by the peroxidase antiperoxidase, avidin-biotinperoxidase and immunogold methods. Indark-adapted material, strong immunoreaction was found in the outer and inner segments of the photoreceptor cells of both retina and pineal organ, as well as in the pigment epithelium, retinal Müller cells and pineal ependymal cells.

I. Vigh-Teichmann; B. Vigh; A. Szél; P. Röhlich; G. H. Wirtz

1988-01-01

92

Immunoreactive mammalian and chicken-II GnRHs in Rana esculenta brain during development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mammalian, mGnRH and chicken-II, cGnRH-II) were measured by radioimmunoassay in the nasal area (containing peripheral terminal nerve), brain and pituitary of Rana esculenta during larval development, metamorphosis, and until prior to becoming reproductively active. Small amounts of both forms of GnRH were first detected in the brain extract of early tadpoles (stage 26–27, when hindlimbs

Maria M. Di Fiore; Judy A. King; Biagio D'Aniello; Rakesh K. Rastogi

1996-01-01

93

Inhibitory effects of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott constituents on aldose reductase.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the rat lens aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of 95% ethanol extracts from the leaves of C. esculenta and, its organic solvent soluble fractions, including the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) layers, using dl-glyceraldehyde as a substrate. Ten compounds, namely tryptophan (1), orientin (2), isoorientin (3), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (7), rosmarinic acid (8), 1-O-feruloyl-d-glucoside (9) and 1-O-caffeoyl-d-glucoside (10) were isolated from the EtOAc and BuOH fractions of C. esculenta. The structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previous reports. All the isolates were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. Among tested compounds, compounds 2 and 3 significantly inhibited rat lens aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 1.65 and 1.92 ?M, respectively. Notably, the inhibitory activity of orientin was 3.9 times greater than that of the positive control, quercetin (4.12 ?M). However, the isolated compounds showed only moderate ABTS+ [2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] activity. These results suggest that flavonoid derivatives from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott represent potential compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25255750

Li, Hong Mei; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Beom Goo; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon Sung

2014-01-01

94

Anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like activity of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract and its potential active components in vivo.  

PubMed

Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Searching for antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and antidepressant-like medicines from natural products is very important for the treatment of this disease. The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been reported to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury. In order to further explore the activity of Abelmoschus manihot on the central nervous system, the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like effects of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract (AMEE) as well as its potential active components in vivo was investigated in the present study. It was found that AMEE could protect mice against PTZ-induced clonic convulsions and mortality. AMEE could also decrease immobility time in the FST in mice. Furthermore, the potential active components of AMEE in rat brain were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS). Five parent components including isoquercitrin, hyperoside, hibifolin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin and three metabolites were detected in rat brain after administration of AMEE. In conclusion, eight flavonoids were identified in rat brain after administration of AMEE; meanwhile, these flavonoids might represent the potential bioactive components of AMEE and contribute to its anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activity in vivo. PMID:21784623

Guo, Jianming; Xue, Caifu; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; You, Yi

2011-11-15

95

Expression of H+,K+-ATPase and Glycopattern Analysis in the Gastric Glands of Rana esculenta  

PubMed Central

A multidisciplinary study involving lectin histochemistry, IHC, immuno-lectin blotting, and immunogold was carried out to determine the distribution of sugar residues in the glycoproteins of Rana esculenta oxynticopeptic cells. We considered animals in two experimental conditions, fasting and fed. It is known that, in mammals, the tubulovesicular membranes are rich in proteins with several functions. The proton pump H+,K+-ATPase, a heterodimeric complex with a catalytic ?-subunit and a heavily glycosylated ?-subunit, responsible for acid secretion, is the most abundant. No data have been published regarding the localization and the structures of H+,K+-ATPase in amphibians. In the water frog, the luminal membrane and tubulovesicular system of oxynticopeptic cells, which differ in morphology according to their functional stage, reacted with the primary gold-conjugated antibody against the H+,K+-ATPase ?-subunit. By lectin histochemistry and immunoblotting, in the oxynticopeptic cells of R. esculenta we detected the presence of N-linked glycans having fucosylated (poly)lactosamine chains, which could correspond to the oligosaccharide chains of the ? subunit. The latter are somewhat different from those described in mammals, and this is probably because of an adaptation to the different microenvironmental conditions in which the oxynticopeptic cells find themselves, in terms of their different habits and phylogeny. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:215–225, 2009) PMID:19001639

Mastrodonato, Maria; Calamita, Giuseppe; Rossi, Roberta; Scillitani, Giovanni; Liquori, Giuseppa Esterina; Ferri, Domenico

2009-01-01

96

Neurodistribution of Androgen Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Male Frog, Rana esculenta  

PubMed Central

Sexual behavior in vertebrates depends on the cyclic release of steroids and their binding to the brain receptors. Previously, we demonstrated the presence of specific binding of 3H-testosterone and staining with PG-21 in the brain of the adult male frog, Rana esculenta. Here, we report our further receptor characterization using an anti–androgen receptor antiserum, PG-21, and the androgen site of action in frog brain. Nuclei, which contained cells labeled for the androgen receptor (AR), were mainly identified in the olfactory bulbs, preoptic-septal region, infundibulum, amygdala, thalamus, tectum, torus semicircularis, and medulla. The neuroanatomical AR staining appears similar to that in other lower vertebrates. PMID:15891054

Guerriero, G.; Prins, G. S.; Birch, L.; Ciarcia, G.

2010-01-01

97

Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn). PMID:25306315

Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

2015-03-01

98

Decontamination of water polluted by heavy metals with Taro ( Colocasia esculenta ) cultured in a hydroponic NFT system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity and bioaccumulation of two heavy metals—lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)—in a semi-aquatic plant, Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott), from a synthetic heavy metal solution were studied. Young plants of equal size were grown hydroponically in\\u000a shallow raceways containing Hoagland medium amended with 20, 40, and 60 mg l?1 of Pb and 2, 4, and 6 mg l?1 of Cd. The medium containing heavy

T. Bindu; M. M. Sumi; E. V. Ramasamy

2010-01-01

99

Distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptides in the brain during development of juvenile male Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and density of cell bodies and fibers immunoreactive to GnRH-like peptides were investigated in the brain of male juvenile frogs (Rana esculenta) during postmetamorphic development. An immunohistochemical technique was used, involving antisera raised against 4 variants of GnRH: mammalian GnRH, chicken GnRH-I, chicken GnRH-II and salmon GnRH. A comparison of the immunohistochemical distribution at 8 different developmental stages

B. D'Aniello; M. Masucci; M. di Meglio; G. Ciarcia; R. K. Rastogi

1991-01-01

100

A comparative study of melatonin production in the retina, pineal gland and harderian gland of Bufo viridis and Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

1. The circadian patterns of melatonin and of its synthesizing enzyme N-acetyltransferase (NAT) were investigated in the serum, retina, pineal gland and Harderian gland (HG) of two amphibian species, Bufo viridis and Rana esculenta. 2. Serum melatonin levels showed no diurnal fluctuations in Bufo viridis, whereas, in Rana esculenta, they exhibited a circadian rhythm, with the highest values occurring during the night. Retina melatonin exhibited characteristic circadian patterns in both species, with the highest values occurring during the day, in Bufo, and the highest concentrations occurring at night in Rana. 3. In the retina, NAT activity peaked at night in both amphibians, but in Bufo the levels were up to 30 times higher than in Rana. In the HG and in the pineal gland, NAT activity showed different patterns in the two species with no diurnal variations in Bufo, and characteristic circadian rhythms in Rana. 4. In the HG and pineal gland of both species, melatonin was only occasionally detectable over the 24-hr period. 5. This is the first report exploring melatonin production in Bufo viridis and Rana esculenta. In our experimental conditions, marked differences emerged between the two species. PMID:7903612

Serino, I; d'Istria, M; Monteleone, P

1993-09-01

101

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

102

High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.  

PubMed

A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

2014-03-01

103

Molecular cloning, recombinant gene expression, and antifungal activity of cystatin from taro ( Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaosiung no. 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms (Colocasia esculenta) using both degenerated primers\\/RT-PCR amplification and 5'-\\/3'-RACE extension. The full-length cDNA gene is 1,008 bp in size, encodes 206 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kDa. It contains a conserved reactive site motif Gln-Val-Val-Ser-Gly of cysteine protease inhibitors, and another consensus ARFAV

A. H. Yang; K. W. Yeh

2005-01-01

104

D-Asp: a new player in reproductive endocrinology of the amphibian Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

We investigated the involvement of D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) on ovarian and testicular morphology of the green frog, Rana esculenta, and its effect on the testosterone production. The study has been performed throughout the reproductive cycle. In both ovary and testis a substantial amount of D-Asp is endogenously present and its concentration varies as function of reproduction. In the frog, D-Asp content is differently correlated with gonadal and plasmatic levels of testosterone, depending on the sex. In fact, the amount of the D-Asp is inversely linked with that of the testosterone in the ovary, while this correlation directly matched in the testis. In vivo short-term experiments, consisting of a single intra-peritoneal injection of D-Asp (2.0 ?mol/g body weight), demonstrated that the enantiomer is significantly accumulated by both the ovary and testis, reaching after 3 h the highest uptake and thereafter decreasing to baseline values within 24 h. Furthermore, D-Asp influences the synthesis and/or the release of testosterone, causing a decrease of its level in the female, and an increase in the male, respectively. In vivo long-term experiments, D-Asp, chronically administered to the frogs of both sexes, enhances the maturation of both gonads, determining in the oocytes an higher accumulation of carbohydrate yolk plates in the ooplasm, and stimulating the spermatogenesis in the testis. Taken altogether, our results show that D-Asp operates differently in female and male frog gonads, indicating that it has different targets in the reproductive machinery depending on the sex. PMID:21531634

Raucci, Franca; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena

2011-11-01

105

Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 ?m×12.2 ?m. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 ?m2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 ?m×12.1 ?m. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 ?m×5.5 ?m. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231

Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

2014-03-01

106

Larvicidal efficacy of seed oils of Pterocarpus santalinoides and tropical Manihot species against Aedes aegypti and effects on aquatic fauna.  

PubMed

Botanical larvicides have featured prominently as alternative to synthetic chemical insecticides which are less degradable and toxic to non-target organisms. The larvicidal potentials of the seed oils of Pterocarpus santalinoides and Tropical Manihot species (TMS 30572) were investigated in the laboratory against larvae of Aedes aegypti. The seed oil of each plant was extracted using n-hexane and was graded into different concentrations; 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm. The toxicity of each of the concentrations was evaluated against 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti and tadpoles (Buffo spp) as non target aquatic fauna. Both oils were toxic to the larvae though at higher concentrations (120 ppm and 150 ppm) after 24 hours of exposure. The oil of P. santalinoides was more toxic to the larvae (LC50 104.0 ppm and LC90 184.5 ppm) than oil of TMS (LC50 113.5 and LC90 201.2) but the difference in the lethal doses was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, mortality was not recorded at any of the graded concentrations in both oils against tadpoles. The results therefore suggest that the seed oils of both plants could be incorporated as botanical insecticides against mosquito vectors with high safety to non-target organisms. PMID:20734705

Adeleke, M A; Popoola, S A; Agbaje, W B; Adewale, B; Adeoye, M D; Jimoh, W A

2009-10-01

107

A Novel Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Glycoside Hydrolase from Ustilago esculenta Functions in ?-1,3-Glucan Degradation  

PubMed Central

A glycoside hydrolase responsible for laminarin degradation was partially purified to homogeneity from a Ustilago esculenta culture filtrate by weak-cation-exchange, strong-cation-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Three proteins in enzymatically active fractions were digested with chymotrypsin followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis, resulting in the identification of three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity to a putative ?-1,3-glucanase, a member of glucoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) from Sporisorium reilianum SRZ2. A gene encoding a laminarin-degrading enzyme from U. esculenta, lam16A, was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the S. reilianum SRZ2 ?-1,3-glucanase gene. Lam16A possesses a GH16 catalytic domain with an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor peptide. Recombinant Lam16A fused to an N-terminal FLAG peptide (Lam16A-FLAG) overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae exhibited hydrolytic activity toward ?-1,3-glucan specifically and was localized both in the extracellular and in the membrane fractions but not in the cell wall fraction. Lam16A without a GPI anchor signal peptide was secreted extracellularly and was not detected in the membrane fraction. Membrane-anchored Lam16A-FLAG was released completely by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These results suggest that Lam16A is anchored in the plasma membrane in order to modify ?-1,3-glucan associated with the inner cell wall and that Lam16A is also used for the catabolism of ?-1,3-glucan after its release in the extracellular medium. PMID:22685137

Nakajima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Machiko; Nakano, Yuki

2012-01-01

108

A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta  

PubMed Central

Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%). All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid clade (including echiurans and pogonophorans). Hence annelid "key-characters" including segmentation may be more labile than previously assumed. PMID:19327168

Shen, Xin; Ma, Xiaoyin; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

2009-01-01

109

Kisspeptin receptor, GPR54, as a candidate for the regulation of testicular activity in the frog Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins, acting via GPR54, are new players in the control of reproductive axis. They have the ability to communicate with GnRH neurons sending environmental, metabolic, and gonadal signals, with the induction of GnRH and LH secretion as final effect. At present, the physiological significance of kisspeptin signaling in the gonad is poorly investigated. We cloned GPR54 receptor from the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta testis and investigated its expression in several tissues (brain, spinal cord, ovary, muscle, and kidney). In particular, the expression analysis was carried out in pituitary and testis during the annual sexual cycle. Pituitary and testicular GPR54 mRNA increased at the end of the winter stasis (February) and reached high levels during the breeding season (April). The analysis of GPR54 expression in testis was reinforced by in situ hybridization that revealed GPR54 presence in the interstitial compartment and in proliferating germ cells. Testicular GPR54 expression in February and in June was indicated to be estradiol dependent. Furthermore, in February, kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) induced the testicular expression of both GPR54 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, in March, Kp-10 had a biphasic effect on the expression of ERalpha, being inhibitory at short (1 h) and stimulatory at longer (4 h) incubation time. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that frog testis expresses GPR54 in an estradiol-dependent manner and that Kp-10 modulates the testicular expression of ERalpha; thus, the kisspeptin/GPR54 system might be locally involved in the regulation of estrogen-dependent testicular functions such as germ cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. PMID:23365413

Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

2013-03-01

110

A phorbol ester and calcium ionophore regulate sex steroid and prostaglandin release by follicles of the anuran Rana esculenta and the urodele Triturus carnifex.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the relationships among protein kinase C (PKC), calcium, prostaglandins (PGs), and sex steroids in follicles of Rana esculenta and Triturus carnifex. Follicles, oocytes, and wall cells of follicle (theca and granulosa cells) were incubated in vitro with an activator of PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a calcium ionophore (A23187), an antagonist of calcium channel, verapamil, PMA + A23187, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Progesterone, androgens, and 17 beta-estradiol were assessed in incubation media of follicles and wall cells and PGs in incubation media of follicles, oocytes, and wall cells. In both species, PMA increased progesterone; A23187 increased progesterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and PGs; verapamil decreased progesterone and PGs; PMA + A23187 increased progesterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and PGs; PGF2 alpha increased 17 beta-estradiol; PGE2 increased progesterone. These data suggest that PKC and calcium intervene in the regulation of steroidogenesis and PG synthesis by follicles of both R. esculenta and T. carnifex; in particular, calcium seems to regulate PGs synthesis, activating an enzymatic pathway which does not include PKC. PMID:8138111

Gobbetti, A; Zerani, M

1994-01-01

111

Pretreatment with the Total Flavone Glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot and Hyperoside Prevents Glomerular Podocyte Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important diabetic complication, and podocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in the development of DN. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot (TFA) on urinary microalbumin and glomerular podocyte apoptosis in experimental DN rats. The preliminary oral administration of TFA (200?mg/kg/day) for 24 weeks significantly decreased the urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio and 24-h urinary total protein in streptozotocin-induced DN rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay indicated glomerular cell apoptosis in DN rats was significantly improved by pretreatment with TFA. Furthermore, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and Hoechst 33342 staining suggested preincubation with hyperoside (50 and 200??g/mL), the major active constituent of TFA, could significantly mitigate cultured podocyte apoptosis induced by the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Western blot analysis showed that increased caspase-3 and caspase-8 expressions induced by AGEs were also inhibited by pretreatment with hyperoside at both doses. Our results demonstrate that TFA pretreatment can decrease urinary albumin excretion in early-stage DN, which might be accomplished by preventing renal damage and podocyte apoptosis. PMID:22439874

Zhou, Lei; Teng, Shi-Chao; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shang, Wen-Bin; Yuan, Yang-Gang; Yu, Jiang-Yi

2012-01-01

112

On the evolution of erythrocyte programmed cell death: apoptosis of Rana esculenta nucleated red blood cells involves cysteine proteinase activation and mitochondrion permeabilization.  

PubMed

Batracian Rana esculenta erythrocytes cell death induced by either calcium influx, or staurosporine, involves typical apoptotic phenotype. Our data reveal: (i) a drastic modification of the cell morphology with loss of the ellipsoidal form as assessed by phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; (ii) an exposure of the phosphatidylserine residues in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane; (iii) a caspase-3-like activity; (iv) a mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) loss; and (v) a chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Erythrocyte chromatin condensation and fragmentation are prevented by caspase and calpain peptide inhibitors. These inhibitors also prevent Delta Psi m loss supporting the idea that mitochondria is a central sensor for Rana erythrocytes cell death. Our observations highlight the conservation of the programmed cell death machinery in erythrocytes across kingdom. PMID:15134833

Bratosin, Daniela; Estaquier, Jérôme; Slomianny, Christian; Tissier, Jean-Pierre; Quatannens, Brigitte; Bulai, Tatiana; Mitrofan, Laura; Marinescu, Alexandru; Trandaburu, Ioana; Ameisen, Jean-Claude; Montreuil, Jean

2004-03-01

113

SPE-HPLC method for the determination of four flavonols in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract.  

PubMed

A SPE-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of flavonols, isoquercitrin (1), hibifolin (2), myricetin (3), quercetin-3'-O-d-glucoside (4) and quercetin (5) in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of the total flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot (TFA). The astragalin (6) and kaempferol (7) were used as internal standards (IS). Plasma and urine samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction using Winchem C(18) reversed-phase cartridges. Analysis of the plasma and urinary extract was performed on YMC-Pack ODS-A C(18) and Thermo ODS-2HYEPRSIL C(18) reversed-phase column, respectively and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid was employed. HPLC analysis was conducted with different elution gradients. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 370 nm. Calibration ranges in plasma for flavonols 2-5 were at 0.011-2.220, 0.014-2.856, 0.022-4.320, and 0.028-5.600 microg/mL, respectively. In urine calibration ranges for flavonols 1, 2, 4 and 5 were at 2.00-16.00, 8.56-102.72, 2.70-21.60, and 3.00-24.00 microg/mL, respectively. The RSD of intra- and inter-day was less than 5.40% and 4.89% in plasma, and less than 3.96% and 6.85% in urine for all the analyses. A preliminary experiment to investigate the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of the flavonols after oral administration of TFA to rats demonstrated that the present method was suitable for determining the flavonols in rat plasma and urine. PMID:17258944

Lai, Xianyin; Zhao, Yuying; Liang, Hong; Bai, Yanjing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Dean

2007-06-01

114

Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65?mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23971053

Eleazu, C. O.; Iroaganachi, M.; Eleazu, K. C.

2013-01-01

115

Morphofunctional evidence of changes in principal and mitochondria-rich cells in the epidermis of the frog Rana kl. esculenta living in a polluted habitat.  

PubMed

The epidermis of vertebrates is the body's principal barrier against environment and its possible contaminants. The presence of keratins, as well as specific detoxifying molecules or enzyme activities, in the various epidermis layers is believed to be involved in providing protection from harmful environmental influences. Anuran integument is poorly hornified and thus permeable to some endogenous and exogenous compounds and thus serves as a good bioindicator of overall environmental conditions. In the present investigation, we studied the epidermis of Rana kl. esculenta adult specimens collected at two different rice fields, relatively unpolluted and heavily polluted, respectively. Environmental pollution was assayed by chemical analysis performed on both sediments and animals. We evaluated the structural aspects of the epidermis at both light and electron microscopy levels and the pattern of keratinization by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we studied the activities of some enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatase, nitric oxide synthase-related nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, nonspecific esterases, and succinic dehydrogenase) involved mainly in membrane transport, xenobiotics, and oxidative metabolism. Compared with controls, in polluted animals we found the following results: (1) an increase in pollutant levels (i.e., cadmium, mercury, and lead); (2) less keratinized superficial cells in the epidermis; and (3) changes in most enzyme activities in keratinocytes and mitochondria-rich cells (particularly glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and esterases, both important to counteract oxidative and toxic stress). Taken as a whole, the present data indicate the morphofunctional plasticity of the frog epidermis in response to environmental contamination. PMID:16998633

Fenoglio, C; Grosso, A; Boncompagni, E; Milanesi, G; Gandini, C; Barni, S

2006-11-01

116

Binding of insecticidal lectin Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) to midgut receptors of Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi provides clues to its insecticidal potential.  

PubMed

The insecticidal potential of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins against hemipterans has been experimentally proven. However, the basis behind the toxicity of these lectins against hemipterans remains elusive. The present study elucidates the molecular basis behind insecticidal efficacy of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) against Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi. Confocal microscopic analyses highlighted the binding of 25 kDa stable homodimeric lectin to insect midgut. Ligand blots followed by LC MS/MS analyses identified binding partners of CEA as vacuolar ATP synthase and sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum type Ca(2+) ATPase from B. tabaci, and ATP synthase, heat shock protein 70 and clathrin heavy chain assembly protein from L. erysimi. Internalization of CEA into hemolymph was confirmed by Western blotting. Glycoprotein nature of the receptors was identified through glycospecific staining. Deglycosylation assay indicated the interaction of CEA with its receptors to be probably glycan mediated. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed the interaction kinetics between ATP synthase of B. tabaci with CEA. Pathway prediction study based on Drosophila homologs suggested the interaction of CEA with insect receptors that probably led to disruption of cellular processes causing growth retardation and loss of fecundity of target insects. Thus, the present findings strengthen our current understanding of the entomotoxic potentiality of CEA, which will facilitate its future biotechnological applications. PMID:24753494

Roy, Amit; Gupta, Sumanti; Hess, Daniel; Das, Kali Pada; Das, Sampa

2014-07-01

117

Purification and molecular cloning of SE-cephalotoxin, a novel proteinaceous toxin from the posterior salivary gland of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta.  

PubMed

Cephalopods contain toxins in their salivary glands, presumably to paralyze prey animals such as crabs and bivalves. Proteinaceous toxins (called cephalotoxins) with crab lethality have previously been purified from three species of octopodiform cephalopods (octopuses) but their detailed properties and primary structures have remained unknown. In this study, salivary glands of six species of decapodiform cephalopods were newly found to be toxic; three species of cuttlefish were lethal only to crabs and three species of squid to both mice and crabs. A proteinaceous toxin (named SE-cephalotoxin) in the salivary gland of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was soluble only in high-salt solvents. This unique solubility enabled us to purify SE-cephalotoxin by gel filtration HPLC and hydroxyapatite HPLC. SE-cephalotoxin was shown to be a 100 kDa monomeric glycoprotein with an LD(50) (against crabs) of 2 microg/kg. Based on the determined partial amino acid sequence, a full-length cDNA (3402 bp) coding for SE-cephalotoxin was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE. The SE-cephalotoxin precursor protein (1052 amino acid residues) is composed of a signal peptide (region 1-21), propeptide (region 22-29) and mature protein (region 30-1052). A database search failed to find any proteins sharing homology with SE-cephalotoxin. PMID:18694775

Ueda, Atsushi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Ishida, Masami; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

2008-09-15

118

Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P?

Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

2014-05-01

119

Characterization of microsatellite markers in cassava based on microsatellite-AFLP technique.  

PubMed

We developed molecular markers for cassava based on the microsatellite-amplified fragment length polymorphism (M-AFLP) technique. Twenty primer pairs were developed and used for the analysis of 48 samples of Manihot species, consisting of M. esculenta (33), M. esculenta ssp flabellifolia (3), M. chlorosticta (3), M. carthaginensis (3), M. filamentosa (3), and M. tristis (3). Nine microsatellite loci that were polymorphic among these Manihot species were identified, giving 32 polymorphic alleles and from two to seven alleles per locus. Unbiased and direct count heterozygosity varied from 0.0233 to 0.7924 and 0.0000 to 0.7083, respectively. There was significant deviation (P < 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at five loci. Genotypic data from the Manihot species were subjected to genetic diversity analysis. We found that M. chlorosticta and M. esculenta ssp flabellifolia were the closest populations, while M. filamentosa and M. esculenta ssp flabellifolia were the most divergent. Considering within M. esculenta, the samples from Nigeria and Fiji were the most closely related, while those from Venezuela and of unknown origin were the most divergent. We conclude that the M-AFLP technique is an effective method for generating microsatellite markers that are useful for genetic diversity analysis in Manihot species. PMID:22653578

Whankaew, S; Sraphet, S; Thaikert, R; Smith, D R; Triwitayakorn, K

2012-01-01

120

Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta  

PubMed Central

Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P < 0.0001). It also increased with acidosis, but in postmetamorphic tadpoles only (P < 0.05). The noise-titration technique evidenced low-dimensional nonlinearities in all the postmetamorphic brainstems, at both pH. Chaos-like complexity, assessed through the noise limit, increased from pH 7.8 to pH 7.4 (P < 0.01). In contrast, linear models best fitted the ventilatory rhythm in all but one of the premetamorphic preparations at pH 7.8 (P < 0.005 vs. postmetamorphic) and in four at pH 7.4 (not significant vs. postmetamorphic). Therefore, in a lower vertebrate model, the brainstem respiratory central rhythm generator accounts for ventilatory chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals. PMID:21325645

Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noelle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darre, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

2011-01-01

121

The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and fecundity of Zonocerus variegatus (L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L) fed on different food plants namely cassava (Manihot esculenta), pawpaw (Carica papaya) and acalypha (Acalypha wilkesiana) and a mixture of these plants (mixed diets) from 5th nymphal instar to adult was investigated. Survivor and longevity of nymphs and as well as the reproductive performance of adult Zonocerus was greater and better

122

Cassava biology and physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or

Mabrouk A. El-Sharkawy

2004-01-01

123

Cassava green mites: A challenge for experts in biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portuguese traders introduced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from South America to Africa in the 16th century. Since then, it has become an increasingly important food source in an area ranging from 15 ° N to 20 ° S, the so-called cassava belt. Nowadays, its storage roots form an important source of carbohydrates for over 200 million people (Herren and Bennett,

A. Janssen; J. S. Yaninek

1993-01-01

124

Comparative evaluation of the contributions of soil physicochemical properties to variations in the yields of four major staple food crops in eastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of soil variables to the variations in the yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta), yam (Dioscorea rotundata), maize (Zea mays) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were evaluated over 2 years in this study. The data were from three replicates of two randomized complete block design experiments sited in a newly cleared forest and on previously cultivated land both in

C. L. A Asadu; A. G. O Dixon; R Okechukwu

2002-01-01

125

Working with Farmers: The Key to Adoption of Vetiver Grass Hedgerows to Control Erosion in Cassava Fields in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the third most important food crop in southeast Asia and the most important upland crop in the northeast of Thailand. The crop is usually grown by small holders in marginal areas of sloping or undulating land. Most farmers realize, however, that cassava production on slopes can cause severe erosion, while production without fertilizers or manure

Reinhardt Howeler; Watana Watananonta; Wilawan Vongkasem; Kaival Klakhaeng; Somjate Jantawat; Supha Randaway; Banyat Vankaew

126

Fallow management for soil fertility recovery in tropical Andean agroecosystems in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andean hillsides dominate the landscape of a considerable proportion of Cauca Department in Colombia. The typical cropping cycle in the region includes monocrops or intercrops of maize (Zea mays L.), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and\\/or cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is usually the last crop before local farmers leave plots to natural fallow until soil fertility is recovered and a

Edmundo Barrios; Juan G. Cobo; Idupulapati M. Rao; Richard J. Thomas; Edgar Amézquita; Juan J. Jiménez; Marco A. Rondón

2005-01-01

127

Identification of the potential active components of Abelmoschus manihot in rat blood and kidney tissue by microdialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this paper, microdialysis combining with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify components in blood and kidney dialysis after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract. Microdialysis probe was implanted in the jugular vein and the kidney medulla, respectively; microdialysis samples were collected continuously, transferred to microtubes and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The components in microdialysis samples were separated by an UPLC HSS T3 column and eluted with acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The results showed that unbound constituents in blood circulation of the rat include hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin, myricetin, and hibifolin while unbound constituents in kidney are hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin monoglucuronide, which might be the potential active components in vivo. The developed method was simple and reliable, and could be adopted to rapidly screen and identify potential active components contributing to pharmacological effects of TCM and to better clarify its action mechanism. PMID:21247814

Xue, Caifu; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shang, Erxin; Shu, Yan; Lu, Yuwei

2011-02-15

128

Synthesis of periclinal chimera in cassava.  

PubMed

We provide the first report on the synthesis of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera of cassava, with large and edible roots. The epidermal tissue of the chimera was formed by the cultivated species Manihot esculenta (E), and the subepidermis and internal tissue were formed by the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis (F). We used cytogenetics and morphological analyses to determine the origins of all tissues. These results may offer potential for the development of new lines for crop improvement based on the use of chimera composed of different combinations of wild species and cultivars. PMID:23512678

Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N

2013-01-01

129

Production of bread from blends of sorghum flour and gelatinized cassava starch  

E-print Network

gluten. Gluten is the viscoelastic component of dough essential for gas retention and production of light leavened wheat baked products (He and Hoseney, 1991). Wheat with suitable breadmaking properties cannot be grown in most hot, tropical..., 1988). The proteins of sorghum do not form gluten. Sorghum does not easily produce light leavened breads, unless a gluten substitute is incorporated (Defloor et al. , 1991). Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the highest yielding plant...

Hugo, Leda Florinda

2012-06-07

130

The effects of gas flaring on crops in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flaring of associated gas from oil exploitation has several consequences on the environment. This study explores the spatial\\u000a variability effects of gas flaring on the growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta), waterleaf (Talinum triangulare), and pepper (Piper spp.) crops commonly cultivated in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Data was collected on soil and atmospheric temperature and moisture\\u000a at a 20-m

Elisha Jasper Dung; Leonard S. Bombom; Tano D. Agusomu

2008-01-01

131

The response of cassava cultivars to root-knot nematode infestation: An in vitro method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to obtain information on the response of cassava(Manihot esculenta Crantz) to root-knot nematode infestation. To achieve this aim, a novel in vitro dual root\\/nematode culture method was used, where root cultures of several cassava cultivars were inoculated with axenic\\u000a Meloidogyne javanica eggs. Following an incubation period,cassava roots were stained, weighed and dissected to determine

Rosan Jansen van Vuuren; Barbara Woodward

2001-01-01

132

Occurrence of lace bug Vatiga illudens and Vatiga manihotae (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.  

PubMed

Nymphs and adults of the lace bug (Hemiptera: Tingidae) have been found in cassava crops (Manihot esculenta) in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The insects were collected in the field and taken to the laboratory where they were identified based on some morphological traits of the species Vatiga manihotae (Drake) and V. illudens (Drake), which are first reported in the aforementioned state. PMID:22886161

Bellon, Patrícia P; Wengrat, Ana P G S; Kassab, Samir O; Pietrowski, Vanda; Loureiro, Elisângela S

2012-09-01

133

Effect of feeding cassava and\\/or Stylosanthes foliage on the performance of crossbred growing cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and\\/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow\\u000a cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS)

C. M. Thang; I. Ledin; J. Bertilsson

2010-01-01

134

Evaluation of trace elements contents in staple foodstuffs from the gold mining areas in southwestern part of Ghana using neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies in gold mining areas in Ghana have been concentrated on soil, sediment and atmospheric pollution, very limited\\u000a work has been conducted on consumed crops. This work therefore aims at shedding more light on the effects of gold mining activities\\u000a on selected consumed food crops (“Xanthosoma sagittifolium”, “Colocasia esculenta”, “Musa paradisiacal” and “Manihot Esculentus” in Ghana using Neutron Activation

H. Ahiamadjie; Y. Serfor-Armah; J. B. Tandoh; O. Gyampo; F. G. Ofosu; S. B. Dampare; D. K. Adotey; B. J. B. Nyarko

2011-01-01

135

Soil properties and crop performance on a kaolinitic Alfisol after 15 years of fallow and continuous cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term field experiment was established on a kaolinitic Alfisol in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 1972. The land was cleared manually from secondary forest and used for (i) continuous no-till cropping with maize (Zea mays L.) and maize\\/cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) intercropping, (ii) planted fallow of guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala de Wit), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan

Anthony S. R. Juo; Kathrin Franzluebbers; Adenike Dabiri; Benson Ikhile

1996-01-01

136

Changes in soil properties during long-term fallow and continuous cultivation after forest clearing in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in soil chemical properties under natural bush regrowth, planted fallows (i.e. Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Leucaena leucocephala, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)) and under continuous cropping with minimum tillage (i.e. maize (Zea mays L.)\\/cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) intercrop and maize monoculture with residue returned or removed), were monitored for 13 years after clearing of secondary forest on a kaolinitic

Anthony SR Juo; Kathrin Franzluebbers; Adenike Dabiri; Benson Ikhile

1995-01-01

137

A single residual replacement improves the folding and stability of recombinant cassava hydroxynitrile lyase in E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substitution of Ser113 for Gly113 in the cap domain of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) was performed by site-directed mutagenesis to improve its self-generated folding and stability under denaturation conditions. The yield of the recombinant mutant HNL1 (mut-HNL1), which had higher specific activity than the wild type HNL0 (wt-HNL0), was increased by 2 to 3-fold. Thermostability of MeHNL was

Gonghong Yan; Shuhua Cheng; Guogang Zhao; Sheng Wu; Yanbing Liu; Wanru Sun

2003-01-01

138

Efficient production of active form of recombinant cassava hydroxynitrile lyase using Escherichia coli in low-temperature culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression and production of the high concentration of hydroxynitrile lyase from cassava (Manihot esculenta (MeHNL, EC 4.1.2.39)) were investigated. Hydroxynitrile lyase is a useful enzyme for the production of optically active cyanohydrin\\u000a compounds. The production of MeHNL was increased by changing the rare codons of the original sequence of cassava MeHNL. However,\\u000a most of the produced MeHNL was in the

Hisashi Semba; Eita Ichige; Tadayuki Imanaka; Haruyuki Atomi; Hideki Aoyagi

2008-01-01

139

Cross-linked crystals of hydroxynitrile lyase as catalyst for the synthesis of optically active cyanohydrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) from Manihot esculenta was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The bipyramidal crystals formed (10–20 ?m) were cross-linked with different amounts of glutaraldehyde and used as biocatalyst for the synthesis of optically active cyanohydrins. The cross-linked crystals were more stable than Celite-immobilized enzymes when incubated in organic solvents, especially in polar solvents. After six consecutive batch

David Costes; Ernst Wehtje; Patrick Adlercreutz

2001-01-01

140

Uneven twins: Comparison of two enantiocomplementary hydroxynitrile lyases with ?\\/?-hydrolase fold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) are applied in technical processes for the synthesis of chiral cyanohydrins. Here we describe the thorough characterization of the recently discovered R-hydroxynitrile lyase from Arabidopsis thaliana and its S-selective counterpart from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) concerning their properties relevant for technical applications. The results are compared to available data of the structurally related S-HNL from Hevea brasiliensis (HbHNL),

Jan-Karl Guterl; Jennifer N. Andexer; Torsten Sehl; Jan von Langermann; Ilona Frindi-Wosch; Tobias Rosenkranz; Jörg Fitter; Karl Gruber; Udo Kragl; Thorsten Eggert; Martina Pohl

2009-01-01

141

Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru  

PubMed Central

In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ?2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

2009-01-01

142

Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.  

PubMed

In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

2009-08-11

143

Optical chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water based on ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine.  

PubMed

Ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose was functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine. The modified polymer was easily transformed in a film, which could be used as a highly selective chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water, with detection limits of 1.9 × 10(-5) and 1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The film was successfully applied to the detection of cyanide in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots, which are a well-known source of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:24805864

Nandi, Leandro G; Nicoleti, Celso R; Bellettini, Ismael C; Machado, Vanderlei G

2014-05-20

144

Hydroxynitrile lyase catalyzed cyanohydrin synthesis at high pH-values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of unusual high pH-values within enzymatic cyanohydrin synthesis has been investigated. Usually enzymatic\\u000a cyanohydrin synthesis in two-phase systems requires low pH-values within the aqueous phase to suppress the non-enzymatic side\\u000a reaction. In contrast, we investigated the usage of pH-values above pH 6 by using the highly enantioselective (S)-selective hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta. With these unusual reaction conditions

Jan von Langermann; Jan-Karl Guterl; Martina Pohl; Harald Wajant; Udo Kragl

2008-01-01

145

Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis.  

PubMed

Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its own (as opposed to castor bean) and, among prospective crops that could be used as a trap crop, has foliage more persistent than an annual trap crop such as corn. PMID:21526935

McQuate, Grant T

2011-01-01

146

Cassava genetic transformation and its application in breeding.  

PubMed

As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones. Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality, building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide. PMID:21564542

Liu, Jia; Zheng, Qijie; Ma, Qiuxiang; Gadidasu, Kranthi Kumar; Zhang, Peng

2011-07-01

147

Development and sensory acceptability of crackers made from the big-eye fish (Brachydeuterus auritus).  

PubMed

The big-eye (Brachydeuterus auritus), which is present in a large biomass in the Gulf of Guinea, is generally considered an underutilized fish species. In an attempt to add value, it was used to complement cassava starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to produce fish crackers. Three levels of fish (40%, 50%, and 60%) and three levels of starch (60%, 50%, and 40%) were used in the formulations. Proximate analyses and sensory evaluations were carried out. The protein, fat, and ash contents increased with an increase in the proportion of fish. The sensory evaluation tests showed that the most acceptable formulations for the crackers were obtained using 50% fish/50% starch and 40% fish/60% starch combinations. The linear expansion of the fried crackers increased with the increased proportion of fish. Production of fish crackers, apart from its appeal for increasing protein intake, has the potential to support a small regional snack factory in a developing economy. PMID:12362597

King, Modupe Abimbola

2002-09-01

148

Unexpected Outcomes of Thai Cassava Trade: A Case of Global Complexity and Local Unsustainability  

PubMed Central

Tracing the Thai cassava (Manihot esculenta) trade network, between 1960 and 2000, offers a compelling example of global complexity at work. The emergence of Thailand’s dominance of world export markets caught the world by surprise. The opening up of a European market for cassava was supposed to be met by Brazilian and Indonesian producers. Instead, Thailand took over the market by 1975. Several factors facilitated this emergence including: entrepreneurial diasporic networks of Thai-Chinese traders, local political economy conditions in both Europe and Thailand, and ecological conditions in Thailand. These same factors also shaped the subsequent timing of the closing of the European market, the emergence of a new industry association, the creation of new cassava products, and the expansion to other markets. Furthermore, the dynamic nature of cassava market yielded equivocal outcomes for both Europe and Thai farmers.

CURRAN, SARA R.; COOKE, ABIGAIL M.

2014-01-01

149

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca Dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Erica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

150

Cloning and characterization of EstC from Burkholderia gladioli, a novel-type esterase related to plant enzymes.  

PubMed

By screening a genomic library of Burkholderia gladioli (formerly Pseudomonas marginata) for clones exhibiting esterolytic activity, the gene for a novel-type esterase (EstC) showing significant homology to plant enzymes could be isolated. High homology was found to two hydroxynitrile lyases originating from Hevea brasiliensis (tropical rubber tree) and Manihot esculenta (cassava), and to two proteins from Oryza sativa (rice) that are specifically induced upon infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. The sequenced ORF encodes for a protein of 298 amino acids. The enzyme was efficiently overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized with respect to enzymatic capabilities. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze a variety of esterase substrates of low to medium carbonic acid chain length, but no triglycerides were hydrolyzed. Despite the high sequence homology, no hydroxynitrile lyase activity could be recognized. PMID:11152069

Reiter, B; Glieder, A; Talker, D; Schwab, H

2000-12-01

151

A single residual replacement improves the folding and stability of recombinant cassava hydroxynitrile lyase in E. coil.  

PubMed

Substitution of Ser113 for Gly113 in the cap domain of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) was performed by site-directed mutagenesis to improve its self-generated folding and stability under denaturation conditions. The yield of the recombinant mutant HNL1 (mut-HNL1), which had higher specific activity than the wild type HNL0 (wt-HNL0), was increased by 2 to 3-fold. Thermostability of MeHNL was also enhanced, probably due to an increase in content of the beta-strand secondary structure according to CD analysis. Our data in this report suggest that Ser113 significantly contributes to the in vivo folding and stability of MeHNL and demonstrates an economic advantage of mut-HNL1 over the wt-HNL0. PMID:12889812

Yan, Gonghong; Cheng, Shuhua; Zhao, Guogang; Wu, Sheng; Liu, Yanbing; Sun, Wanru

2003-07-01

152

Hydroxynitrile lyase catalysis in ionic liquid-containing systems.  

PubMed

The cleavage of mandelonitrile catalysed by hydroxynitrile lyases (HNL) from Prunus amygdalus (PaHNL) and Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) proceeded more rapidly in monophasic aqueous media containing 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C4MIm][BF4] than in media containing acetonitrile or THF. Both HNLs were much more thermostable in [C4MIm][BF4] than in acetonitrile or THF. The addition of each of the four ionic liquids 1-butyl-, 1-pentyl- and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborates at 2-6% (v/v in the aqueous phase) increased both the enzyme activity and the product e.e. in the PaHNL-catalysed transcyanation in an aqueous/DIPE biphasic system. However, MeHNL was inactivated by the ionic liquids, as indicated by the decreased reaction rate, substrate conversion and product e.e. PMID:16215854

Lou, Wen-Yong; Xu, Ruo; Zong, Min-Hua

2005-09-01

153

Hydroxynitrile lyase catalyzed cyanohydrin synthesis at high pH-values.  

PubMed

The application of unusual high pH-values within enzymatic cyanohydrin synthesis has been investigated. Usually enzymatic cyanohydrin synthesis in two-phase systems requires low pH-values within the aqueous phase to suppress the non-enzymatic side reaction. In contrast, we investigated the usage of pH-values above pH 6 by using the highly enantioselective (S)-selective hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta. With these unusual reaction conditions also the unfavorable substrate 3-phenoxy-benzaldehyde can be converted by the wild type enzyme with excellent conversion and enantiomeric excess yielding pure (S)-3-phenoxy-benzaldehyde cyanohydrin with an enantiomeric excess of 97%. Although the variant MeHNL-W128A shows a higher activity with respect to this reaction, the enantioselectivity was reduced (85% e.e.(S)). Additionally, a new continuous spectroscopic cyanohydrin assay monitoring the formation of 3-phenoxy-benzaldehyde cyanohydrin was developed. PMID:18204865

von Langermann, Jan; Guterl, Jan-Karl; Pohl, Martina; Wajant, Harald; Kragl, Udo

2008-04-01

154

Development of cassava periclinal chimera may boost production.  

PubMed

Plant periclinal chimeras are genotypic mosaics arranged concentrically. Trials to produce them to combine different species have been done, but pratical results have not been achieved. We report for the second time the development of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera in cassava. It has very large edible roots up to 14 kg per plant at one year old compared to 2-3 kg in common varieties. The epidermal tissue formed was from Manihot esculenta cultivar UnB 032, and the subepidermal and internal tissue from the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis. We determined the origin of tissues by meiotic and mitotic chromosome counts, plant anatomy and morphology. Epidermal features displayed useful traits to deduce tissue origin: cell shape and size, trichome density and stomatal length. Chimera roots had a wholly tuberous and edible constitution with smaller starch granule size and similar distribution compared to cassava. Root size enlargement might have been due to an epigenetic effect. These results suggest a new line of improved crop based on the development of interspecific chimeras composed of different combinations of wild and cultivated species. It promises boosting cassava production through exceptional root enlargement. PMID:24615046

Bomfim, N; Nassar, N M A

2014-01-01

155

Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

2008-09-01

156

Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava. PMID:23661446

Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

2013-01-01

157

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel RING zinc-finger protein gene up-regulated under in vitro salt stress in cassava.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the world's most important food crops. It is cultivated mainly in developing countries of tropics, since its root is a major source of calories for low-income people due to its high productivity and resistance to many abiotic and biotic factors. A previous study has identified a partial cDNA sequence coding for a putative RING zinc finger in cassava storage root. The RING zinc finger protein is a specialized type of zinc finger protein found in many organisms. Here, we isolated the full-length cDNA sequence coding for M. esculenta RZF (MeRZF) protein by a combination of 5' and 3' RACE assays. BLAST analysis showed that its deduced amino acid sequence has a high level of similarity to plant proteins of RZF family. MeRZF protein contains a signature sequence motif for a RING zinc finger at its C-terminal region. In addition, this protein showed a histidine residue at the fifth coordination site, likely belonging to the RING-H2 subgroup, as confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis. There is also a transmembrane domain in its N-terminal region. Finally, semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeRZF expression is increased in detached leaves treated with sodium chloride. Here, we report the first evidence of a RING zinc finger gene of cassava showing potential role in response to salt stress. PMID:22307786

dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Tavares, Liliane de Souza Conceição; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteiro; Brígida, Aílton Borges Santa; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

2012-06-01

158

A study on some physico-chemical properties of Turkey okra ( Hibiscus esculenta L.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical properties of mature okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) seeds from Mersin (Büyükeceli–Gülnar) in Turkey were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, crude energy, water-soluble extract, ether-soluble extract and non-soluble HCl acid ash. The physical properties were evaluated at three moisture content levels of 6.35%, 9.87% and 15.22% d.b. In

Sedat Çal???r; Musa Özcan; Haydar Hac?sefero?ullar?; M. U?ur Y?ld?z

2005-01-01

159

Growth promotion and protection of lentil ( Lens esculenta ) against herbicide stress by Rhizobium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to recover lentil-specific rhizobial strains tolerant to herbicides (quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop)\\u000a and synthesizing plant growth regulators even in the presence of herbicide stress. Furthermore, the impact of rhizobial strain\\u000a was assessed on lentil plants grown in herbicide-treated soils. Quizalafop-p-ethyl- and clodinafop-tolerant Rhizobium sp. isolate MRL3 recovered from the nodules of lentil produced plant growth-promoting substances in

Munees Ahemad; Mohammad Saghir Khan

2010-01-01

160

Production of endolymph in the semicircular canal of the frog Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of secretion of endolymph were studied in vitro in the isolated inner ear of the frog. Prior to in vitro experiments, the composition of perilymph was evaluated in vivo and compared to that of plasma. Composition of perilymph resembled that of an extracellular fluid, although Na and Cl concentrations were higher and K concentration was lower in perilymph than in plasma water. No difference in Ca and Mg concentrations was observed between these two fluids. Osmolality averaged 227 mosmol/kg H2O in perilymph and 183 mosmol/kg H2O in plasma. Endolymph in frog inner ear corresponded in chemical pattern to mammalian endolymph. K and Na concentrations in endolymph collected from the ampulla of the posterior vertical semicircular canal averaged 121.1 mM and 2.5 mM, respectively. Osmolality of endolymph was 237 mosmol/kg H2O. K and Na concentrations were unaltered when inner ears were incubated for 24 h either at 15 degrees C or at 4 degrees C. Addition of ouabain (10(-4) M) to the perilymph-like bathing solution altered greatly Na and K composition of endolymph after incubation for 3 h at 15 degrees C. The Na and K concentration gradients between endolymph and the bath were abolished after incubation for 24 h. Ligatures of the posterior vertical semicircular canal were performed at different sites to isolate some parts of the canal, i.e. the ampulla and the non-ampullar duct. K concentration in the ampulla after incubation for 24 h remained as high as 20 times that in the bath. This K gradient was abolished in the presence of ouabain (10(-4) M). High K concentration could be maintained in the non-ampullar part of the semicircular canal only if the latter communicated with the ampulla. It is concluded that endolymph is actively secreted into the ampulla of the semicircular canal. Na+-K+-activated ATPase in the ampullar dark cells may energize the ouabain sensitive ionic transports that are involved in the production of endolymph. Endolymph secreted into the ampulla would spread intraluminally to account for the high K and low Na concentrations of the fluid which fills the non-secretory part of the semicircular canal. PMID:3486270

Bernard, C; Ferrary, E; Sterkers, O

1986-02-01

161

Dissipation of flubendiamide in/on okra [Abelmoschus esculenta (L.) Moench] fruits.  

PubMed

A field experiment was undertaken at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif (rainy season) in the year 2010 to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits following foliar application of Belt 39.35% SC formulation at 24 (standard dose) and 48 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1). After HPLC analysis study revealed that residues of flubendiamide in/on okra persisted till 5th and 7th day after the last spray at standard and double dose, respectively. The residues of flubendiamide were reported as parent compound, and des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite (photo product) of flubendiamide, was not detected in/on okra at any time during the study period. The initial deposits of 0.28 and 0.53 ?g g(-1) in/on okra fruits reached below determination level of 0.01 ?g g(-1) on the 7th and 10th day at standard and double dose, respectively. The half life of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits ranged from 4.7 to 5.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Soil sample collected from the treated field on the 15th day after the last spray revealed residues of flubendiamide or its metabolite below determination level (0.01 ?g g(-1)) at single and double dose. PMID:22147083

Das, Shaon Kumar; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Suvo Kumar

2012-03-01

162

CHARACTERIZATION OF LEGHEMOGLOBIN FROM A MIMOSOID LEGUME, Leucaena esculenta, ROOT NODULES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leghemoglobin (Lb) is a hemeprotein that reversibly binds oxygen and that is abundant in nodules of nitrogen-fixi ng plants. Lb has been studied with detail in legumes of the Papilionoideae subfamily, but nothing is known about the properties of Lb in legumes of the Mimosoideae subfamily. In this work a Lb was purified and characterized from nodules of a mimosoid

KATERINA LIRA-RUAN; GAUTAM SARATH; ROBERT V. KLUCAS

163

Distribution of extracellular matrix macromolecules in the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum of the frog, Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

The axons of transected and re-apposed vestibulocochlear nerve of the frog, in contrast to mammalian species, regenerate and establish functional contacts within their original termination areas of the vestibular nuclear complex and the cerebellum. The lack of regenerative capability of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is partially attributed to various extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) and tenascin-R (TN-R), which exert inhibition on axon regeneration. In contrast to these molecules, hyaluronan (HA) was reported to be permissive for CNS regeneration. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, we investigated the distribution pattern of these molecules in the medial (MVN), lateral (LVN), superior and descending vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum of the frog and detected regional differences in the organization of the ECM. In the vestibular nuclear complex, pericellular condensation of the ECM, the perineuronal nets (PNNs) were recognizable in the LVN and MVN and were positive only for HA. The neuropil of the vestibular nuclei showed either a diffuse appearance with varying intensity of reactions, or dots and ring-like structures, which may represent the perinodal ECM of the vestibular fibers. In the cerebellum, indistinct PNNs that were only labeled for HA were present in the granular layer. Our findings suggest that the HA-rich, but CSPG and TN-R-free PNNs may be associated with the high degree of plasticity and regenerative potential of the amphibian vestibular system. PMID:24269935

Gaál, B; Rácz, É; Juhász, T; Holló, K; Matesz, C

2014-01-31

164

Incidence and distribution of viruses of Taro ( Colocasia esculenta ) in Pacific Island countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four viruses have been reported from taro; Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV), Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV) and two putative rhabdoviruses, Colocasia bobone disease virus (CBDV) and Taro vein chlorosis virus (TaVCV). A fifth virus, tentatively named Taro reovirus (TaRV),\\u000a has also been recently identified. The distribution of these viruses throughout the Pacific Islands, and the symptoms associated\\u000a with their infection, are

P. A. Revill; G. V. H. Jackson; G. J. Hafnerc; I. Yang; M. K. Maino; M. L. Dowling; L. C. Devitt; J. L. Dale; R. M. Harding

2005-01-01

165

Polyphenol content and modulatory activities of some tropical dietary plant extracts on the oxidant activities of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase.  

PubMed

Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin) were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health. PMID:22312276

Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frederich, Michel; Kohnen, Stephane; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry

2012-01-01

166

Cassava biology and physiology.  

PubMed

Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4 species, pointing to the need for further research on cultivated and wild Manihot to further improve its photosynthetic potential and yield,particularly under stressful environments. Moreover, a wide range in values of Km (CO2) for the C3 photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco was found among cassava cultivars indicating the possibility of selection for higher affinity to CO2, and consequently higher leaf photosynthesis. Several plant traits that may be of value in crop breeding and improvement have been identified, such as an extensive fine root system, long leaf life, strong root sink and high leaf photosynthesis. Selection of parental materials for tolerance to drought and infertile soils under representative field conditions have resulted in developing improved cultivars that have high yields in favorable environments while producing reasonable and stable yields under stress. PMID:15669146

El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

2004-11-01

167

Tuber Storage Proteins  

PubMed Central

A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose?binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

SHEWRY, PETER R.

2003-01-01

168

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-01-01

169

Spatial distribution of mercury and arsenic levels in water, soil and cassava plants in a community with long history of gold mining in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study examined the spatial distribution of total mercury (THg) and total arsenic (TAs) in water, soil and cassava (Manihot esculenta) (leaves and roots) samples taken from areas in Rwamagasa village in northwestern Tanzania where daily living activities occur in close proximity to extensive artisanal and small scale gold mining. Results indicated that 33.3 % of the water sources had THg levels above the WHO guideline of 1.0 µg/L for safe drinking water, and 12.5 % had TAs levels above 10 µg/L. Cassava leaves were found to have higher THg (ranging from 8.3 to 167 µg/kg) and TAs (ranging from 60 to 1,120 µg/kg) levels than cassava roots, which ranged between 1.2-8.3 µg/kg for THg and 25-310 µg/kg for TAs. Concentrations of THg and TAs in soil samples ranged between 5.8-1,759 and 183-20,298 µg/kg, respectively. Both THg and TAs were found to be distributed throughout Rwamagasa village. PMID:24923470

Nyanza, Elias C; Dewey, Deborah; Thomas, Deborah S K; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

2014-12-01

170

Determination of the specific growth of molds on semi-solid cultures  

SciTech Connect

The determination of growth constants of Aspergillus niger were obtained for semisolid cultures on cassava flour, Manihot esculenta, as a sole carbon source. As a consequence, a technique was developed that consisted of the use of a packed-bed microfermentor with a working volume of 16 cubic centimetres. The bed consisted of gelatinized and granulated cassava flour containing material nutrients and mold spores. The carbon dioxide produced during the respiration was drawn off with a current of air and then absorbed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The absorption of CO/sub 2/, P, was correlated with the specific growth rate mu by means of the equation P equals Kemut, where t is time and K is a constant. Ammonium nitrogen was used as a limiting substrate and its concentration was varied from 0.039 to 2.5% in dry base. The maximum growth rate, mu maximum, and the saturation constant, Ks, were 0.31/hour and 0.065 mmol (N/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4//g total dry solids. The proposed method is highly recommended for the evaluation of the semisolid fermentation of molds and for strictly aerobic bacteria and yeasts. It can be used especially in the evaluation of the growth of microorganisms on peanut shells, coffee residues, sugar cane bagasse, and other agricultural wastes.

Carrizalez, V.; Rodriguez, H.; Sardina, I.

1981-02-01

171

Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1  

PubMed Central

We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36?ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500?g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

Ihemere, Uzoma E.; Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Sayre, Richard T.

2012-01-01

172

Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities. PMID:23417702

Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

2013-08-01

173

Acromyrmex octospinosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) management: effects of TRAMILs fungicidal plant extracts.  

PubMed

Leaf-cutting ants, Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich), are considering among the most important pest species of the New World. Until now, the main insecticides used for controlling these ants were synthetic chemicals. Leaf-cutting ants live in obligate symbiosis with abasidiomycete fungus, Leucocoprinus gongylophorus (Heim) Moeller. The crucial role of this symbiotic partner in the nest of leaf-cutting ants has prompted us to focus on A. octospinosus management through the use of fungicides in our study. Five parts of plants identified for their antifungal potential through TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys were tested: 1) bulbs of Allium cepa L.; 2) seed pods of Allium sativum L.; 3) green fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum L.; 4) leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz; and 5) leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxburgh. One plant extract with strong fungicidal activity (S. alata) against L. gongylophorus was found. The other extracts had lesser fungistatic or fungicidal effects depending on the concentrations used. The data presented in this study showed that TRAMILs fungicidal plant extracts have potential to control the symbiotic fungus of leaf cutting ants, in particular a foliage extract of S. alata. PMID:22928301

Boulogne, Isabelle; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry; Germosén-Robineau, Lionel; Desfontaines, Lucienne; Loranger-Merciris, Gladys

2012-08-01

174

Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.  

PubMed

The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

2013-01-01

175

Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME in copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR) in growing pigs. Eight boars with an initial BW of 67.3 ± 5.8 kg were individually housed in metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design was used with 4 dietary treatments, 4 periods, and 8 animals. A basal diet mainly contained corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 30% of CM, PKM, and CR. All diets contained the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 4.14:1. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was 89.5, 84.1, 82.4, and 87.9% (P < 0.001) in the basal, CM, PKM, and CR diets, respectively. The DE in CM and PKM were greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3440 and 3238 vs. 2966 kcal/kg as-fed). The ME in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3340 vs. 2935 kcal/kg as-fed) but not different from the ME in PKM (3168 kcal/kg as-fed). In conclusion, CM and PKM have a higher DE value than CR, and CM has a higher ME value than CR. PMID:23365309

Son, A R; Ji, S Y; Kim, B G

2012-12-01

176

Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.  

PubMed

Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms. PMID:23144242

Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

2012-10-01

177

Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.  

PubMed

Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

2014-01-01

178

Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

2014-01-01

179

Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 ?Sv y(-1)). PMID:24814722

Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M

2014-09-01

180

Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1.  

PubMed

We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36?ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500?g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

Ihemere, Uzoma E; Narayanan, Narayanan N; Sayre, Richard T

2012-01-01

181

Large-Scale Proteomics of the Cassava Storage Root and Identification of a Target Gene to Reduce Postharvest Deterioration[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We established a reliable method for image-based PPD symptom quantification and used label-free quantitative proteomics to generate an extensive cassava root and PPD proteome. Over 2600 unique proteins were identified in the cassava root, and nearly 300 proteins showed significant abundance regulation during PPD. We identified protein abundance modulation in pathways associated with oxidative stress, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (including scopoletin), the glutathione cycle, fatty acid ?-oxidation, folate transformation, and the sulfate reduction II pathway. Increasing protein abundances and enzymatic activities of glutathione-associated enzymes, including glutathione reductases, glutaredoxins, and glutathione S-transferases, indicated a key role for ascorbate/glutathione cycles. Based on combined proteomics data, enzymatic activities, and lipid peroxidation assays, we identified glutathione peroxidase as a candidate for reducing PPD. Transgenic cassava overexpressing a cytosolic glutathione peroxidase in storage roots showed delayed PPD and reduced lipid peroxidation as well as decreased H2O2 accumulation. Quantitative proteomics data from ethene and phenylpropanoid pathways indicate additional gene candidates to further delay PPD. Cassava root proteomics data are available at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch for easy access and comparison with other proteomics data. PMID:24876255

Vanderschuren, Hervé; Nyaboga, Evans; Poon, Jacquelyne S.; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Nanni, Paolo; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2014-01-01

182

Transcriptional Response of Virus-Infected Cassava and Identification of Putative Sources of Resistance for Cassava Brown Streak Disease  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

Maruthi, M. N.; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A.; Mohammed, Ibrahim U.; Hillocks, Rory J.

2014-01-01

183

[Identification and characterization of a flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase gene from Saussurea involucrata].  

PubMed

The flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferas (3GT) is one of the most important enzymes for biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. In this paper, the homology analysis and gene special primers design were used. With the methods of modern molecular biology, the full-length gene of 3GT (GenBank Accession No. JN092127) which was cloned from Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir by RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA sequence of 3GT consisted of 1548 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 516 amino acid, the deduced 3GT protein shared 91% and 89% identities with that of Fragaria x ananassa GT6, Manihot esculenta anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase. Homology analysis showed that deduced 3GT protein has a glycosyltransferase signature domain PSPG-box. The transcripts of 3GT members were found mainly in leaves and callus. 3GT gene of S. involucrata was under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, homologous transformation used an Agrobacterium rihizogenes-mediated transformation system. The results on UV spectrophotometry showed S. involucrata callus after suspension culture that an average of total flavonoids on transgenic callus was 2.06 times higher than non-transgenic callus. PMID:23016307

Tang, Yaping; Yuan, Hui; Qin, Jianbing

2012-06-01

184

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-07-01

185

Iron and protein biofortification of cassava: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Over two hundred and fifty million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their primary source of calories. Cassava roots, however, have the lowest protein:energy ratio of all the world's major staple crops. Furthermore, a typical cassava-based diet provides less than 10-20% of the required amounts of iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin E. The BioCassava Plus program employed modern biotechnologies to improve the health of Africans through development and delivery of novel cassava germplasm with increased nutrient levels. Here we describe the development of molecular strategies and their outcomes to meet minimum daily allowances for protein and iron in cassava based diets. We demonstrate that cyanogens play a central role in cassava nitrogen metabolism and that strategies employed to increase root protein levels result in reduced cyanogen levels in roots. We also demonstrate that enhancing root iron uptake has an impact on the expression of genes that regulate iron homeostasis in multiple tissues. These observations demonstrate the complex metabolic interactions involved in enhancing targeted nutrient levels in plants and identify potential new strategies for further enhancing nutrient levels in cassava. PMID:22226461

Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Sayre, Richard T

2012-04-01

186

Genome-wide discovery and information resource development of DNA polymorphisms in cassava.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:24040164

Sakurai, Tetsuya; Mochida, Keiichi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2013-01-01

187

Genome-Wide Discovery and Information Resource Development of DNA Polymorphisms in Cassava  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:24040164

Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2013-01-01

188

Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a novel cystatin from Hevea rubber latex.  

PubMed

A novel cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase inhibitor or phytocystatin was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis RRIM600 rubber latex cDNA library. The full-length HbCPI obtained from rapid amplification of cDNA ends contains 588 bp. An open reading frame of 306 bp encodes for a protein of 101 amino acids with the typical inhibitory motifs of phytocystatin superfamily, namely the central signature motif QXVXG, a GG doublet and LARFAV-like motifs in the N-terminal part, and conserved A/PW residues in the C-terminal region. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acid sequence was similar to that of cysteine protease inhibitor from Manihot esculenta (84% identity). The HbCPI was subcloned into expression vector pQE-40 and then overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 strain (pREP4) as a His-tagged recombinant protein with molecular mass approximately 13 kDa. The purified HbCPI showed thermal stable property and efficiently inhibited the protease activity of papain by non-competitive inhibition with K(i) value of 15.4 nM. Beside latex, HbCPI also transcripted in leaf and young seed. The HbCPI message accumulation was induced by phytopathogenic fungi Phytophthora palmivora infection. These data suggest that HbCPI might play crucial roles in defense mechanism against biotic stimuli. PMID:21247772

Bangrak, Phuwadol; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

2011-03-01

189

Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama  

PubMed Central

The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800–7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400–5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J.; Cooke, Richard G.

2007-01-01

190

Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content1  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the expression and localization of linamarase in roots of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars of low and high cyanide. Two different patterns of linamarase activity were observed. In the low-cyanide type, young leaves displayed very high enzyme activity during the early plant growing stage (3 months), whereas in root peel, the activity increased progressively to reach a peak in 11-month-old plants. Conversely, in the high-cyanide cultivar (HCV), root peel linamarase activity decreased during the growth cycle, whereas in expanded leaves linamarase activity peaked in 11-month-old plants. The accumulation of linamarin showed a similar pattern in both cultivars, although a higher concentration was always found in the HCV. Linamarase was found mainly in laticifer cells of petioles and roots of both cultivars with no significant differences between them. At the subcellular level, there were sharp differences because linamarase was found mainly in the cell walls of the HCV, whereas in the low-cyanide cultivar, the enzyme was present in vacuoles and cell wall of laticifer cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed. PMID:12177481

Santana, Maria Angelica; Vasquez, Valeria; Matehus, Juan; Aldao, Rafael Rangel

2002-01-01

191

Efficient production of active form recombinant cassava hydroxynitrile lyase using Escherichia coli in low-temperature culture.  

PubMed

Hydroxynitrile lyase (MeHNL, EC 4.1.2.39) is a useful enzyme for production of optically active cyanohydrin compounds. Production of MeHNL can be increased by substituting rare codons of the natural sequence of cassava (Manihot esculenta) MeHNL. However, most of the MeHNL produced by this method was in an insoluble form in Escherichia coli expression system. In order to increase the productivity of active form of MeHNL, the effects of cultivation temperature were investigated. When the cultivation temperature was reduced, the cell yield and the ratio of soluble MeHNL increased significantly. The enzyme activity and yield at low-temperature cultures (17 degrees C) were 850 times higher than those obtained at the optimum growth temperature of 37 degrees C. The rate of MeHNL production in the present study was calculated as 3,000 U/h. Low-temperature cultivation is very effective in improving the productivity of the active form of MeHNL and has more potential for large-scale production of MeHNL for optically active cyanohydrin production. PMID:20552449

Semba, Hisashi; Ichige, Eita; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki; Aoyagi, Hideki

2010-01-01

192

The defense-related rice gene Pir7b encodes an alpha/beta hydrolase fold protein exhibiting esterase activity towards naphthol AS-esters.  

PubMed

Acquired resistance of rice to Pyricularia oryzae, the causing agent of rice blast, can be induced by inoculation with the non-host pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. We have previously cloned a cDNA and a corresponding gene (Pir7b) whose transcripts accumulate upon infiltration with the resistance-inducing bacteria. The putative encoded product Pir7b exhibits significant sequence similarity to two recently cloned hydroxynitrile lyases from Manihot esculenta (cassava) and Hevea brasisliensis, enzymes involved in the release of hydrogen cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides. As rice does not contain cyanogenic glycosides, a similar function of Pir7b appears unplausible. In order to functionally characterize the protein, recombinant Pir7b was produced in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that recombinant Pir7b does not have hydroxynitrile lyase activity, but exhibits esterase activity towards naphthol AS-acetate. Using Pir7b-specific antibodies, we show that the protein accumulates in rice leaves inoculated with P. syringae pv. syringae. Both the recombinant and the authentic proteins have an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa (28.8 kDa calculated) and seem to be active as monomers. Pir7b esterase also exhibits sequence similarity to several expressed sequence tags of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that it belongs to a family of proteins widely occuring in plants. PMID:9652390

Wäspi, U; Misteli, B; Hasslacher, M; Jandrositz, A; Kohlwein, S D; Schwab, H; Dudler, R

1998-05-15

193

Over-expression of hydroxynitrile lyase in transgenic cassava roots accelerates cyanogenesis and food detoxification.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) roots are the primary source of calories for more than 500 million people, the majority of whom live in the developing countries of Africa. Cassava leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides. Consumption of residual cyanogens (linamarin or acetone cyanohydrin) in incompletely processed cassava roots can cause cyanide poisoning. Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL), which catalyses the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin to cyanide, is expressed predominantly in the cell walls and laticifers of leaves. In contrast, roots have very low levels of HNL expression. We have over-expressed HNL in transgenic cassava plants under the control of a double 35S CaMV promoter. We show that HNL activity increased more than twofold in leaves and 13-fold in roots of transgenic plants relative to wild-type plants. Elevated HNL levels were correlated with substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin levels and increased cyanide volatilization in processed or homogenized roots. Unlike acyanogenic cassava, transgenic plants over-expressing HNL in roots retain the herbivore deterrence of cyanogens while providing a safer food product. PMID:17166141

Siritunga, Dimuth; Arias-Garzon, Diana; White, Wanda; Sayre, Richard T

2004-01-01

194

Cyanogenesis in cassava. The role of hydroxynitrile lyase in root cyanide production  

PubMed

In the cyanogenic crop cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), the final step in cyanide production is the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin, the deglycosylation product of linamarin, to cyanide plus acetone. This process occurs spontaneously at pH greater than 5. 0 or enzymatically and is catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL). Recently, it has been demonstrated that acetone cyanohydrin is present in poorly processed cassava root food products. Since it has generally been assumed that HNL is present in all cassava tissues, we reinvestigated the enzymatic properties and tissue-specific distribution of HNL in cassava. We report the development of a rapid two-step purification protocol for cassava HNL, which yields an enzyme that is catalytically more efficient than previously reported (Hughes, J., Carvalho, F., and Hughes, M. [1994] Arch Biochem Biophys 311: 496-502). Analyses of the distribution of HNL activity and protein indicate that the accumulation of acetone cyanohydrin in roots is due to the absence of HNL, not to inhibition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the absence of HNL in roots and stems is associated with very low steady-state HNL transcript levels. It is proposed that the lack of HNL in cassava roots accounts for the high acetone cyanohydrin levels in poorly processed cassava food products. PMID:9536038

White; Arias-Garzon; McMahon; Sayre

1998-04-01

195

Production and characterization of a plant alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The coding sequence of the cyanogenic alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase gene of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) was cloned in the plasmid vector pMal-c2 and expressed in Escherichia coli strain JM105. DNA sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmid contained the same sequence as the cDNA clone pHNL10. Peptide sequencing of the recombinant protein showed that the N-terminus was heterogeneous, with either four or six additional amino acid residues compared with the native protein. Circular dichroism spectra indicated similar secondary structure contents for both proteins. Enzyme assays showed that specific activity of native and recombinant proteins were 0.24 and 0.26 mmol CN(-)/mg/min, respectively; that both proteins had optimal activity at 40 degrees C and pH 5.5; and that both proteins were inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane sulfonyl flouride (PMSF). Isoelectric focusing of native and recombinant protein revealed multiple isoforms for both proteins; the recombinant protein had a more basic mean isoelectric point (pl) (5.1) than the native protein (4.5). PMID:18633988

Hughes, J; Lakey, J H; Hughes, M A

1997-02-01

196

Uneven twins: comparison of two enantiocomplementary hydroxynitrile lyases with alpha/beta-hydrolase fold.  

PubMed

Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) are applied in technical processes for the synthesis of chiral cyanohydrins. Here we describe the thorough characterization of the recently discovered R-hydroxynitrile lyase from Arabidopsis thaliana and its S-selective counterpart from Manihot esculenta (MeHNL) concerning their properties relevant for technical applications. The results are compared to available data of the structurally related S-HNL from Hevea brasiliensis (HbHNL), which is frequently applied in technical processes. Whereas substrate ranges are highly similar for all three enzymes, the stability of MeHNL with respect to higher temperature and low pH-values is superior to the other HNLs with alpha/beta-hydrolase fold. This enhanced stability is supposed to be due to the ability of MeHNL to form tetramers in solution, while HbHNL and AtHNL are dimers. The different inactivation pathways, deduced by means of circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and static light scattering further support these results. Our data suggest different possibilities to stabilize MeHNL and AtHNL for technical applications: whereas the application of crude cell extracts is appropriate for MeHNL, AtHNL is stabilized by addition of polyols. In addition, the molecular reason for the inhibition of MeHNL and HbHNL by acetate could be elucidated, whereas no such inhibition was observed with AtHNL. PMID:19433222

Guterl, Jan-Karl; Andexer, Jennifer N; Sehl, Torsten; von Langermann, Jan; Frindi-Wosch, Ilona; Rosenkranz, Tobias; Fitter, Jörg; Gruber, Karl; Kragl, Udo; Eggert, Thorsten; Pohl, Martina

2009-05-20

197

A convenient synthesis of optically active 5,5-disubstituted 4-amino- and 4-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanones from (S)-ketone cyanohydrins.  

PubMed

(S)-Ketone cyanohydrins (S)-2 are accessible by enantioselective HCN addition to ketones 1 by using hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta ((S)-MeHNL) as a biocatalyst. Acylation of (S)-2 gave the corresponding (S)-acyloxynitriles (S)-3, which can be cyclized by LHMDS to give 5,5-disubstituted (S)-4-amino-2(5H)-furanones (S)-4 and (S)-5. Different substituents (H. Me, OBn, OH) in the 3-position of the furanones were introduced by selecting the appropriate acylating agent, which in the case of benzyloxyacetyl chloride led to the novel structure type of 4-amino-3-hydroxyfuranones (S)-5. For the synthesis of 5,5-disubstituted (S)-tetronic acids (S)-8, ketone cyanohydrins (S)-2 were first transformed into the corresponding 2-hydroxy esters (S)-6. Acylation of (S)-6 gave 2-acyloxy esters (S)-7, which, by treatment with LHMDS or LDA, afforded tetronic acids (S)-8 in high yields and enantiomeric excesses. By debenzylation of benzyloxy acetoxy derivatives (S)-8e,f, the new vitamin C analogues (S)-9a,b were generated. All the described tetronic acid and aminofuranone derivatives were obtained in good chemical yields and without racemization with respect to the starting cyanohydrins (S)-2. In many cases the enantiomeric purity could be enriched by simple recrystallization (e.g. (S)-4a from 69% ee to > 99% ee). PMID:10961401

Bühler, H; Bayer, A; Effenberger, F

2000-07-14

198

Effect of feeding cassava and/or Stylosanthes foliage on the performance of crossbred growing cattle.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS) fed ad libitum, 0.87 kg concentrate and 0.22 kg molasses on dry matter (DM) basis. The treatments were four supplements: soybean meal, cassava foliage, stylosanthes foliage or a mix of stylosanthes foliage and cassava foliage all giving the same nitrogen intake. The consumption of tannins and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were significantly higher in groups fed a mixture of foliages compared with only cassava foliage, respectively. There were 30% and 19%, respectively, higher live weight gain in the group fed a mixture of foliages as compared to the groups fed only cassava or stylosanthes. The factors of low organic matter and high level of HCN in the diet when feeding only cassava foliage might explain the negative effects on intake, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and nitrogen retention, and resulted in lower growth rates. PMID:19521793

Thang, C M; Ledin, I; Bertilsson, J

2010-01-01

199

Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

1990-09-01

200

The effect of vestibular nerve section on the expression of the hyaluronan in the frog, Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following postganglionic lesion of the eighth cranial nerve, the changes in the expression of hyaluronan (HA), one of the\\u000a extracellular matrix macromolecules, were examined in the medial (MVN) and lateral (LVN) vestibular nuclei and in the entry\\u000a or transitional zone (TZ) of the nerve in the frog. HA was detected in different survival times by using a specific biotinylated\\u000a hyaluronan-binding

Gábor Halasi; Ervin Wolf; Tímea Bácskai; György Székely; László Módis; Zsuzsa M. Szigeti; Zoltán Mészár; Szabolcs Felszeghy; Clara Matesz

2007-01-01

201

Mate choice and fitness in a hybrid frog: Rana esculenta females prefer Rana lessonae males over their own  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution and maintenance of female choice based on purely genetic differences is still a controversial issue, not only for theoretical reasons, but also because of the practical difficulty of demonstrating the fitness consequences of preferences and heritability of and genetic variability in the chosen traits. We argue that hybrid systems (broadly defined) offer suitable models for studying mate choice

Gaby Abt; Heinz-Ulrich Reyer

1993-01-01

202

A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of

Xin Shen; Xiaoyin Ma; Jianfeng Ren; Fangqing Zhao

2009-01-01

203

Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5?×?2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others. PMID:25190840

Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

2014-09-01

204

Empowering biotechnology in southern Africa: establishment of a robust transformation platform for the production of transgenic industry-preferred cassava.  

PubMed

Knowledge and technology transfer to African laboratories and farmers is an important objective for achieving food security and sustainable crop production on the sub-Saharan African continent. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for more than a billion people in developing countries, and its potential industrial use for starch and bioethanol in the tropics is increasingly being recognized. However, cassava production remains constrained by the susceptibility of the crop to several biotic and abiotic stresses. For more than a decade, biotechnology has been considered an attractive tool to improve cassava as it substantially circumvents the limitations of traditional breeding, which is particularly time-consuming and tedious because of the high heterozygosity of the crop. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite some success achieved in genetic modification of the model cassava cultivar Tropical Manihot Series (TMS), TMS 60444, in some European and U.S. laboratories, the lack of a reproducible and robust protocol has not allowed the establishment of a routine transformation system in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we optimized a robust and efficient protocol developed at ETH Zurich to successfully establish transformation of a commercially cultivated South African landrace, T200, and compared this with the benchmark model cultivar TMS 60444. Results from our study demonstrated high transformation rates for both T200 (23 transgenic lines from 100 friable embryogenic callus (FEC) clusters) compared with TMS 60444 (32 transgenic lines from 100 FEC clusters). The success in transforming landraces or farmer-preferred cultivars has been limited, and the high transformation rate of an industry-preferred landrace in this study is encouraging for a feasible transformation program for cassava improvement in South Africa (SA), which can potentially be extended to other countries in southern Africa. The successful establishment of a robust cassava transformation and regeneration system in SA demonstrates the relevance of technology transfer to sub-Saharan Africa and highlights the importance of developing suitable and reliable techniques before their transfer to laboratories offering less optimal conditions. PMID:22683498

Chetty, C C; Rossin, C B; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H; Rey, M E C

2013-01-25

205

West african okra — Morphological and cytogenetical indications for the existence of a natural amphidiploid of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and A. manihot (L.) Medikus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a collection of 314 entries of cultivated okra from Ivory Coast, data are presented on the morphology, chromosome numbers and interspecific crossing behaviour of two very distinct okra types. These types have been called provisionally ‘Soudanien’ and ‘Guinéen’.

J. S. Siemonsma

1982-01-01

206

Research on Motor Neuron Diseases Konzo and Neurolathyrism: Trends from 1990 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Konzo (caused by consumption of improperly processed cassava, Manihot esculenta) and neurolathyrism (caused by prolonged overconsumption of grass pea, Lathyrus sativus) are two distinct non-infectious upper motor neurone diseases with identical clinical symptoms of spastic paraparesis of the legs. They affect many thousands of people among the poor in the remote rural areas in the central and southern parts of Africa afflicting them with konzo in Ethiopia and in the Indian sub-continent with neurolathyrism. Both diseases are toxico-nutritional problems due to monotonous consumption of starchy cassava roots or protein-rich grass pea seeds as a staple, especially during drought and famine periods. Both foods contain toxic metabolites (cyanogenic glycosides in cassava and the neuro-excitatory amino acid ?-ODAP in grass pea) that are blamed for theses diseases. The etiology is also linked to the deficiency in the essential sulfur amino acids that protect against oxidative stress. The two diseases are not considered reportable by the World Health Organization (WHO) and only estimated numbers can be found. This paper analyzes research performance and determines scientific interest in konzo and neurolathyrism. A literature search of over 21 years (from 1990 to 2010) shows that in terms of scientific publications there is little interest in these neglected motorneurone diseases konzo and neurolathyrism that paralyze the legs. Comparison is made with HTLV-1/TSP, an infectious disease occurring mainly in Latin America of which the clinical manifestation is similar to konzo and neurolathyrism and requires a differential diagnosis. Our findings emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of studies on these neglected diseases, which however have not really captured the attention of decision makers and project planners, especially when compared with the infectious HTLV-1/TSP. Konzo and neurolathyrism can be prevented by a balanced diet. PMID:22860149

Ngudi, Delphin Diasolua; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Van Montagu, Marc; Lambein, Fernand

2012-01-01

207

Cassava For Space Diet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

208

Whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (WGD), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. Detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. Established methods for reconstructing WGDs include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, KS age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions. Results By analysing 67 completely sequenced plant genomes 775 myosins were identified and manually assembled. Phylogenetic trees of the myosin motor domains revealed orthologous and paralogous relationships and were consistent with recent species trees. Based on the myosin inventories and the phylogenetic trees, we have identified duplications of the entire myosin motor protein family at timings consistent with 23 WGDs, that had been reported before. We also predict 6 WGDs based on further protein family duplications. Notably, the myosin data support the two recently reported WGDs in the common ancestor of all extant angiosperms. We predict single WGDs in the Manihot esculenta and Nicotiana benthamiana lineages, two WGDs for Linum usitatissimum and Phoenix dactylifera, and a triplication or two WGDs for Gossypium raimondii. Our data show another myosin duplication in the ancestor of the angiosperms that could be either the result of a single gene duplication or a remnant of a WGD. Conclusions We have shown that the myosin inventories in angiosperms retain evidence of numerous WGDs that happened throughout plant evolution. In contrast to other protein families, many myosins are still present in extant species. They are closely related and have similar domain architectures, and their phylogenetic grouping follows the genome duplications. Because of its broad taxonomic sampling the dataset provides the basis for reliable future identification of further whole genome duplications. PMID:24053117

2013-01-01

209

Response of Cassava Leaf Area Expansion to Water Deficit: Cell Proliferation, Cell Expansion and Delayed Development  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important food crop in the tropics that has a high growth rate in optimal conditions, but also performs well in drought-prone climates. The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of water deficit and rewatering on the rate of expansion of leaves at different developmental stages and to evaluate the extent to which decreases in cell proliferation, expansion, and delay in development are responsible for reduced growth. • Methods Glasshouse-grown cassava plants were subjected to 8 d of water deficit followed by rewatering. Leaves at 15 developmental stages from nearly full size to meristematic were sampled, and epidermal cell size and number were measured on leaves at four developmental stages. • Key Results Leaf expansion and development were nearly halted during stress but resumed vigorously after rewatering. In advanced-stage leaves (Group 1) in which development was solely by cell expansion, expansion resumed after rewatering, but not sufficiently for cell size to equal that of controls at maturity. In Group 2 (cell proliferation), relative expansion rate and cell proliferation were delayed until rewatering, but then recovered partially, so that loss of leaf area was due to decreased cell numbers per leaf. In Group 3 (early meristematic development) final leaf area was not affected by stress, but development was delayed by 4–6 d. On a plant basis, the proportion of loss of leaf area over 26 d attributed to leaves at each developmental stage was 29, 50 and 21 % in Group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. • Conclusions Although cell growth processes were sensitive to mild water deficit, they recovered to a large extent, and much of the reduction in leaf area was caused by developmental delay and a reduction in cell division in the youngest, meristematic leaves. PMID:15319226

ALVES, ALFREDO A. C.; SETTER, TIM L.

2004-01-01

210

Research on motor neuron diseases konzo and neurolathyrism: trends from 1990 to 2010.  

PubMed

Konzo (caused by consumption of improperly processed cassava, Manihot esculenta) and neurolathyrism (caused by prolonged overconsumption of grass pea, Lathyrus sativus) are two distinct non-infectious upper motor neurone diseases with identical clinical symptoms of spastic paraparesis of the legs. They affect many thousands of people among the poor in the remote rural areas in the central and southern parts of Africa afflicting them with konzo in Ethiopia and in the Indian sub-continent with neurolathyrism. Both diseases are toxico-nutritional problems due to monotonous consumption of starchy cassava roots or protein-rich grass pea seeds as a staple, especially during drought and famine periods. Both foods contain toxic metabolites (cyanogenic glycosides in cassava and the neuro-excitatory amino acid ?-ODAP in grass pea) that are blamed for theses diseases. The etiology is also linked to the deficiency in the essential sulfur amino acids that protect against oxidative stress. The two diseases are not considered reportable by the World Health Organization (WHO) and only estimated numbers can be found. This paper analyzes research performance and determines scientific interest in konzo and neurolathyrism. A literature search of over 21 years (from 1990 to 2010) shows that in terms of scientific publications there is little interest in these neglected motorneurone diseases konzo and neurolathyrism that paralyze the legs. Comparison is made with HTLV-1/TSP, an infectious disease occurring mainly in Latin America of which the clinical manifestation is similar to konzo and neurolathyrism and requires a differential diagnosis. Our findings emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of studies on these neglected diseases, which however have not really captured the attention of decision makers and project planners, especially when compared with the infectious HTLV-1/TSP. Konzo and neurolathyrism can be prevented by a balanced diet. PMID:22860149

Ngudi, Delphin Diasolua; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Van Montagu, Marc; Lambein, Fernand

2012-01-01

211

Developmenrt of EST-SSR and genomic-SSR markers to assess genetic diversity in Jatropha Curcas L.  

PubMed Central

Background Jatropha curcas L. has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide, regarding its potential as a new biodiesel crop. However, the understanding of this crop remains very limited and little genomic research has been done. We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that could be transferred from Manihot esculenta (cassava) to analyze the genetic relationships among 45 accessions of J. curcas from our germplasm collection. Results In total, 187 out of 419 expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR and 54 out of 182 genomic (G)-SSR markers from cassava were polymorphic among the J. curcas accessions. The EST-SSR markers comprised 26.20% dinucleotide repeats, 57.75% trinucleotide repeats, 7.49% tetranucleotide repeats, and 8.56% pentanucleotide repeats, whereas the majority of the G-SSR markers were dinucleotide repeats (62.96%). The 187 EST-SSRs resided in genes that are involved mainly in biological and metabolic processes. Thirty-six EST-SSRs and 20 G-SSRs were chosen to analyze the genetic diversity among 45 J. curcas accessions. A total of 183 polymorphic alleles were detected. On the basis of the distribution of these polymorphic alleles, the 45 accessions were classified into six groups, in which the genotype showed a correlation with geographic origin. The estimated mean genetic diversity index was 0.5572, which suggests that our J. curcas germplasm collection has a high level of genetic diversity. This should facilitate subsequent studies on genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Conclusion We identified 241 novel EST-SSR and G-SSR markers in J. curcas, which should be useful for genetic mapping and quantitative trait loci analysis of important agronomic traits. By using these markers, we found that the intergroup gene diversity of J. curcas was greater than the intragroup diversity, and that the domestication of the species probably occurred partly in America and partly in Hainan, China. PMID:20181259

2010-01-01

212

Conversion of sterically demanding ?,?-disubstituted phenylacetonitriles by the arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191.  

PubMed

The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile, which contains a quaternary carbon atom in the ?-position toward the nitrile group, and also similar sterically demanding substrates, such as 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionitrile (acetophenone cyanohydrin) or 2-acetyloxy-2-methylphenylacetonitrile. 2-Methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile was hydrolyzed to almost stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding acid. Acetophenone cyanohydrin was transformed to the corresponding acid (atrolactate) and amide (atrolactamide) at a ratio of about 3.4:1. The (R)-acid and the (S)-amide were formed preferentially from acetophenone cyanohydrin. A homology model of the nitrilase suggested that steric hindrance with amino acid residue Tyr54 could impair the binding or conversion of sterically demanding substrates. Therefore, several enzyme variants that carried mutations in the respective residues were generated and subsequently analyzed for the substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of the reactions. Enzyme variants that demonstrated increased relative activities for the conversion of acetophenone cyanohydrin were identified. The chiral analysis of these reactions demonstrated peculiar reaction kinetics, which suggested that the enzyme variants converted the nonpreferred (S)-enantiomer of acetophenone cyanohydrin with a higher reaction rate than that of the (preferred) (R)-enantiomer. Recombinant whole-cell catalysts that simultaneously produced the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191 and a plant-derived (S)-oxynitrilase from cassava (Manihot esculenta) converted acetophenone plus cyanide at pH 4.5 to (S)-atrolactate and (S)-atrolactamide. These recombinant cells are promising catalysts for the synthesis of stable chiral quaternary carbon centers from ketones. PMID:22020513

Baum, Stefanie; Williamson, Dael S; Sewell, Trevor; Stolz, Andreas

2012-01-01

213

Extending cassava root shelf life via reduction of reactive oxygen species production.  

PubMed

One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

2012-08-01

214

Introduction of East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus to Oman harks back to "Zanzibar, the capital of Oman".  

PubMed

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is the most devastating disease of the subsistence crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The disease is caused by viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae)-seven species have been identified so far. The Sultanate of Oman is unusual among countries in Arabia in growing cassava on a small scale for local consumption. During a recent survey in A'Seeb wilayat of Muscat governorate, Oman, cassava plants were identified with symptoms typical of CMD. A begomovirus, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), was isolated from symptomatic plants. This virus was previously only known to occur in Zanzibar and Kenya. During the 19th Century, Zanzibar was governed by Oman and was so important that the Sultan of Oman moved his capital there from Muscat. After a period of colonial rule, the governing Arab elite was overthrown, following independence in the 1960s, and many expatriate Omanis returned to their homeland. Having gained a liking for the local Zanzibar cuisine, it appears that returning Omanis did not wish to do without dishes made from one particular favorite, cassava. Consequently, they carried planting material back to Oman for cultivation in their kitchen gardens. The evidence suggests that this material harbored EACMZV. Recently, Oman has been shown to be a nexus for geminiviruses and their associated satellites from diverse geographic origins. With their propensity to recombine, a major mechanism for evolution of geminiviruses, and the fact that Oman (and several other Arabian countries) is a major hub for trade and travel by air and sea, the possibility of onward spread is worrying. PMID:23085885

Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Matrushi, Abdulrahman M; Fauquet, Claude M; Briddon, Rob W

2013-02-01

215

Influence of material structure on air-borne ultrasonic application in drying.  

PubMed

This work aims to contribute to the understanding of how the properties of the material being dried affect air-borne ultrasonic application. To this end, the experimental drying kinetics (40°C and 1m/s) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and apple (Malus domestica var. Granny Smith) were carried out applying different ultrasonic powers (0, 6, 12, 19, 25 and 31 kW/m(3)). Furthermore, the power ultrasound-assisted drying kinetics of different fruits and vegetables (potato, eggplant, carrot, orange and lemon peel) already reported in previous studies were also analyzed. The structural, textural and acoustic properties of all these products were assessed, and the drying kinetics modeled by means of the diffusion theory. A significant linear correlation (r>0.95) was established between the identified effective diffusivity (DW) and the applied ultrasonic power for the different products. The slope of this relationship (SDUP) was used as an index of the effectiveness of the ultrasonic application; thus the higher the SDUP, the more effective the ultrasound application. SDUP was well correlated (r ? 0.95) with the porosity and hardness. In addition, SDUP was largely affected by the acoustic impedance of the material being dried, showing a similar pattern with the impedance than the transmission coefficient of the acoustic energy on the interface. Thus, soft and open-porous product structures exhibited a better transmission of acoustic energy and were more prone to the mechanical effects of ultrasound. However, materials with a hard and closed-compact structure were less affected by acoustic energy due to the fact that the significant impedance differences between the product and the air cause high energy losses on the interface. PMID:24411471

Ozuna, César; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás; Riera, Enrique; Cárcel, Juan A; Garcia-Perez, Jose V

2014-05-01

216

Enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging by overproduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase delays postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.  

PubMed

Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava. PMID:23344905

Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R; Zhang, Peng

2013-03-01

217

Feed intake, digestibility, and N retention in cattle fed rice straw and para grass combined with different levels of protein derived from cassava foliage.  

PubMed

Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

Sath, K; Sokun, K; Pauly, T; Holtenius, K

2012-07-01

218

Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.  

PubMed

In comparison with the technology platforms developed to localize transcripts and proteins, imaging tools for visualization of metabolite distributions in plant tissues are less well developed and lack versatility. This hampers our understanding of plant metabolism and dynamics. In this study, we demonstrate that desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) of tissue imprints on porous Teflon may be used to accurately image the distribution of even labile plant metabolites such as hydroxynitrile glucosides, which normally undergo enzymatic hydrolysis by specific ?-glucosidases upon cell disruption. This fast and simple sample preparation resulted in no substantial differences in the distribution and ratios of all hydroxynitrile glucosides between leaves from wild-type Lotus japonicus and a ?-glucosidase mutant plant that lacks the ability to hydrolyze certain hydroxynitrile glucosides. In wild-type, the enzymatic conversion of hydroxynitrile glucosides and the concomitant release of glucose were easily visualized when a restricted area of the leaf tissue was damaged prior to sample preparation. The gene encoding the first enzyme in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis in L. japonicus leaves, CYP79D3, was found to be highly expressed during the early stages of leaf development, and the hydroxynitrile glucoside distribution in mature leaves reflected this early expression pattern. The utility of direct DESI-MSI of plant tissue was demonstrated using cryo-sections of cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers. The hydroxynitrile glucoside levels were highest in the outer cell layers, as verified by LC-MS analyses. The unexpected discovery of a hydroxynitrile-derived di-glycoside shows the potential of DESI-MSI to discover and guide investigations into new metabolic routes. PMID:23551340

Li, Bin; Knudsen, Camilla; Hansen, Natascha Krahl; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Kannangara, Rubini; Bak, Søren; Takos, Adam; Rook, Fred; Hansen, Steen H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Janfelt, Christian; Bjarnholt, Nanna

2013-06-01

219

Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi). Estimates of the individual broad-sense heritability of AML were low (hg(2) = 0.07 ± 0.02), medium for StYi and DMC, and high for CyC. The heritability of AML was substantially improved based on mean of accessions (hm(2) = 0.28), indicating that some strategies such as increasing the number of repetitions can be used to increase the selective efficiency. In general, the observed genotypic values were very close to the predicted average of the improved population, most likely due to the high accuracy (>0.90), especially for DMC, CyC, and StYi. Gains via selection of the 30 best genotypes for each trait were 4.8 and 3.2% for an increase and decrease for AML, respectively, an increase of 10.75 and 74.62% for DMC for StYi, respectively, and a decrease of 89.60% for CyC in relation to the overall mean of the genotypic values. Genotypic correlations between the quality traits of the cassava roots collected were generally favorable, although they were low in magnitude. The REML/BLUP method was adequate for estimating genetic parameters and predicting the genotypic values, making it useful for cassava breeding. PMID:25177949

Oliveira, E J; Santana, F A; Oliveira, L A; Santos, V S

2014-01-01

220

Molecular and biochemical characterization of a cyanogenic ?-glucosidase in the inner bark tissues of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).  

PubMed

Tapping causes the loss of large amounts of latex from laticifers and subsequently enhances latex regeneration, a high carbon- and nitrogen-cost activity in rubber tree. It is suggested that a 67 kDa protein associated with protein-storing cells in the inner bark tissues of rubber tree plays an important role in meeting the nitrogen demand for latex regeneration. Here, the 67 kDa protein was further characterized by a combination of cell biological, molecular biological and biochemical techniques. Immunogold labeling showed that the 67 kDa protein was specifically localized in the central vacuole of protein-storing cells. A full-length cDNA, referred to as HbVSP1, was cloned. The HbVSP1 contained a 1584 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 527 amino acids. The putative protein HbVSP1 shared high identity with the P66 protein from rubber tree and proteins of the linamarase, and bg1A from cassava (Manihot esculenta). HbVSP1 contained the active site sequences of ?-glucosidase, TFNEP and I/VTENG. In vitro analysis showed that the 67 kDa protein exhibited the activity of both ?-glucosidase and linamarase and was thus characterized as a cyanogenic ?-glucosidase. Proteins immuno-related to the 67 kDa protein were present in leaves and lutoids of laticifers. Tapping down-regulated the expression of HbVSP1, but up-regulated the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes for rubber biosynthesis, while the effect of resting from tapping was the reverse. Taken together, the results suggest that the 67 kDa protein is a vacuole-localized cyanogenic ?-glucosidase encoded by HbVSP1 and may have a role in nitrogen storage in inner bark tissues of trunk during the leafless periods when rubber tree is rested from tapping. PMID:23510639

Tian, Wei-Min; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Shu-Guang; Shi, Min-Jing; Wang, Xu-Chu; Dai, Long-Jun; Chen, Yue-Yi

2013-05-15

221

Molecular cloning and characterization of a cassava translationally controlled tumor protein gene potentially related to salt stress response.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important tropical crops showing tolerance to abiotic stress and adaptations to a wide range of environmental conditions. Here, we aimed to isolate and characterize the full-length cDNA and genomic sequences of a cassava translationally controlled tumor protein gene (MeTCTP), and evaluate its potential role in response to salt stress. The MeTCTP full-length cDNA sequence encodes for a deduced protein with 168 amino acid residues, with theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 4.53 and 19 kDa, respectively, containing two putative signatures of TCTP family and one site for myristoylation. The MeTCTP genomic sequence includes four introns and five exons within a 1,643 bp coding region, and a 264 bp partial promoter sequence containing several putative cis-acting regulatory elements, among them, two putative GT-1 motifs, which may be related to response to sodium chloride (NaCl) and pathogen infection. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeTCTP transcripts were higher in roots than leaves, and were significantly increased in detached leaves treated with NaCl. Furthermore, the recombinant MeTCTP conferred a protective function against salt stress in bacterial cells. We report for the first time the molecular cloning and characterization of a cassava TCTP with potential role in salt-stress response. Since salinity is one the most important abiotic factors affecting the production of crops worldwide, the MeTCTP gene could be a candidate gene for generation of salt tolerant crops. PMID:24413992

Santa Brígida, Ailton Borges; dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteirou; Cardoso, Cristina Michiko Yokoyama; Lima, Aline Medeiros; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

2014-03-01

222

A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

2014-01-01

223

Enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Overproduction of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Delays Postharvest Physiological Deterioration of Cassava Storage Roots1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava. PMID:23344905

Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R.; Zhang, Peng

2013-01-01

224

Cassava Plants with a Depleted Cyanogenic Glucoside Content in Leaves and Tubers. Distribution of Cyanogenic Glucosides, Their Site of Synthesis and Transport, and Blockage of the Biosynthesis by RNA Interference Technology1  

PubMed Central

Transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, cv MCol22) plants with a 92% reduction in cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers and acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained by RNA interference to block expression of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2, the two paralogous genes encoding the first committed enzymes in linamarin and lotaustralin synthesis. About 180 independent lines with acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained. Only a few of these were depleted with respect to cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers. In agreement with this observation, girdling experiments demonstrated that cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the shoot apex and transported to the root, resulting in a negative concentration gradient basipetal in the plant with the concentration of cyanogenic glucosides being highest in the shoot apex and the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Supply of nitrogen increased the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the shoot apex. In situ polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that CYP79D1 and CYP79D2 were preferentially expressed in leaf mesophyll cells positioned adjacent to the epidermis. In young petioles, preferential expression was observed in the epidermis, in the two first cortex cell layers, and in the endodermis together with pericycle cells and specific parenchymatic cells around the laticifers. These data demonstrate that it is possible to drastically reduce the linamarin and lotaustralin content in cassava tubers by blockage of cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in leaves and petioles. The reduced flux to the roots of reduced nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides did not prevent tuber formation. PMID:16126856

J?rgensen, Kirsten; Bak, S?ren; Busk, Peter Kamp; S?rensen, Charlotte; Olsen, Carl Erik; Puonti-Kaerlas, Johanna; M?ller, Birger Lindberg

2005-01-01

225

Extending Cassava Root Shelf Life via Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Production1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

2012-01-01

226

A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting cyanogenic potential of cassava root in an outbred population  

PubMed Central

Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) can produce cyanide, a toxic compound, without self-injury. That ability was called the cyanogenic potential (CN). This project aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the CN in an outbred population derived from 'Hanatee' × 'Huay Bong 60', two contrasting cultivars. CN was evaluated in 2008 and in 2009 at Rayong province, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. CN was measured using a picrate paper kit. QTL analysis affecting CN was performed with 303 SSR markers. Results The phenotypic values showed continuous variation with transgressive segregation events with more (115 ppm) and less CN (15 ppm) than either parent ('Hanatee' had 33 ppm and 'Huay Bong 60' had 95 ppm). The linkage map consisted of 303 SSR markers, on 27 linkage groups with a map that encompassed 1,328 cM. The average marker interval was 5.8 cM. Five QTL underlying CN were detected. CN08R1from 2008 at Rayong, CN09R1and CN09R2 from 2009 at Rayong, and CN09L1 and CN09L2 from 2009 at Lop Buri were mapped on linkage group 2, 5, 10 and 11, respectively. Among all the identified QTL, CN09R1 was the most significantly associated with the CN trait with LOD score 5.75 and explained the greatest percentage of phenotypic variation (%Expl.) of 26%. Conclusions Five new QTL affecting CN were successfully identified from 4 linkage groups. Discovery of these QTL can provide useful markers to assist in cassava breeding and studying genes affecting the trait. PMID:21609492

2011-01-01

227

Conversion of Sterically Demanding ?,?-Disubstituted Phenylacetonitriles by the Arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191  

PubMed Central

The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile, which contains a quaternary carbon atom in the ?-position toward the nitrile group, and also similar sterically demanding substrates, such as 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionitrile (acetophenone cyanohydrin) or 2-acetyloxy-2-methylphenylacetonitrile. 2-Methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile was hydrolyzed to almost stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding acid. Acetophenone cyanohydrin was transformed to the corresponding acid (atrolactate) and amide (atrolactamide) at a ratio of about 3.4:1. The (R)-acid and the (S)-amide were formed preferentially from acetophenone cyanohydrin. A homology model of the nitrilase suggested that steric hindrance with amino acid residue Tyr54 could impair the binding or conversion of sterically demanding substrates. Therefore, several enzyme variants that carried mutations in the respective residues were generated and subsequently analyzed for the substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of the reactions. Enzyme variants that demonstrated increased relative activities for the conversion of acetophenone cyanohydrin were identified. The chiral analysis of these reactions demonstrated peculiar reaction kinetics, which suggested that the enzyme variants converted the nonpreferred (S)-enantiomer of acetophenone cyanohydrin with a higher reaction rate than that of the (preferred) (R)-enantiomer. Recombinant whole-cell catalysts that simultaneously produced the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191 and a plant-derived (S)-oxynitrilase from cassava (Manihot esculenta) converted acetophenone plus cyanide at pH 4.5 to (S)-atrolactate and (S)-atrolactamide. These recombinant cells are promising catalysts for the synthesis of stable chiral quaternary carbon centers from ketones. PMID:22020513

Baum, Stefanie; Williamson, Dael S.; Sewell, Trevor

2012-01-01

228

Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage  

PubMed Central

Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

2012-01-01

229

A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

Rivadeneyra-Dominguez, Eduardo; Vazquez-Luna, Alma; Rodriguez-Landa, Juan F.; Diaz-Sobac, Rafael

2014-01-01

230

Aural Myiasis in Children and Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

YUCA, K., ÇAKSEN, H., SAKIN, Y.F., YUCA, S.A., KIRIS ¸, M., YILMAZ, H. and ÇANKAYA, H. Aural Myiasis in Children and Literature Review. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2005, 206 (2), 125-130 ?? Myiasis is a disease caused by fly larvae. The term \\

Köksal Yuca; Hüseyin Çaksen; Yunus Feyyat Sakin; Sevil Ari Yuca; Muzaffer Kiris; Hasan Yilmaz; Hakan Çankaya

2005-01-01

231

A histidine thiol 100 kDa, tetrameric acid phosphatase from lentil, Lens esculenta, seeds with the characteristics of protein tyrosine phosphatases.  

PubMed

A non-specific acid phosphatase (APase) hydrolysing L-tyrosine-O-phosphate and 3'-AMP was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from mature lentil seeds with apparent native molecular mass of 100 kDa and subunit molecular mass of 24 kDa. These activities appear to reside on the same protein which shows a single band in native and SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum is 5.5, while the K(m) (mM) and V(max) (micromoles/min/mg protein) for p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) are 0.7 and 9.2 and for L-tyrosine-O-phosphate 1.4 and 10.1, respectively, at 30 degrees C and for 3'-AMP, 2 and 4.4 at 37 degrees C. The protein also hydrolyses other phosphomonoesters to a lesser extent. L-Tyrosine-O-phosphate, 3'-AMP and pNPP hydrolysis is potently inhibited by micromolar orthovanadate and also to nearly the same extent by sodium fluoride, potassium tartrate and metal ions. Histidine and cysteine are likely to be involved in the catalysis. Thermal inactivation studies indicate that the active site conformations for pNPP and 3'-AMP hydrolytic activities are different. The enzyme shows the characteristics of the animal protein tyrosine phosphatase. PMID:10446377

Roknabadi, S M; Bose, S K; Taneja, V

1999-08-17

232

Somato-dendritic morphology and dendritic signal transfer properties differentiate between fore- and hindlimb innervating motoneurons in the frog Rana esculenta  

PubMed Central

Background The location specific motor pattern generation properties of the spinal cord along its rostro-caudal axis have been demonstrated. However, it is still unclear that these differences are due to the different spinal interneuronal networks underlying locomotions or there are also segmental differences in motoneurons innervating different limbs. Frogs use their fore- and hindlimbs differently during jumping and swimming. Therefore we hypothesized that limb innervating motoneurons, located in the cervical and lumbar spinal cord, are different in their morphology and dendritic signal transfer properties. The test of this hypothesis what we report here. Results Discriminant analysis classified segmental origin of the intracellularly labeled and three-dimensionally reconstructed motoneurons 100% correctly based on twelve morphological variables. Somata of lumbar motoneurons were rounder; the dendrites had bigger total length, more branches with higher branching orders and different spatial distributions of branch points. The ventro-medial extent of cervical dendrites was bigger than in lumbar motoneurons. Computational models of the motoneurons showed that dendritic signal transfer properties were also different in the two groups of motoneurons. Whether log attenuations were higher or lower in cervical than in lumbar motoneurons depended on the proximity of dendritic input to the soma. To investigate dendritic voltage and current transfer properties imposed by dendritic architecture rather than by neuronal size we used standardized distributions of transfer variables. We introduced a novel combination of cluster analysis and homogeneity indexes to quantify segmental segregation tendencies of motoneurons based on their dendritic transfer properties. A segregation tendency of cervical and lumbar motoneurons was detected by the rates of steady-state and transient voltage-amplitude transfers from dendrites to soma at all levels of synaptic background activities, modeled by varying the specific dendritic membrane resistance. On the other hand no segregation was observed by the steady-state current transfer except under high background activity. Conclusions We found size-dependent and size-independent differences in morphology and electrical structure of the limb moving motoneurons based on their spinal segmental location in frogs. Location specificity of locomotor networks is therefore partly due to segmental differences in motoneurons driving fore-, and hindlimbs. PMID:22708833

2012-01-01

233

Premitotic DNA synthesis in the brain of the adult frog (Rana esculenta L. ): An autoradiographic sup 3 H-thymidine study  

SciTech Connect

Replicative synthesis of DNA in the brain of the adult frog was studied by light microscope autoradiography. Animals collected during the active period (May-June) and in hibernation (January) were used. In active frogs, 3H-thymidine labelling occurred mainly in the ependymal cells which line the ventricles. The mean labelling index (LI%) was higher in the ependyma of the lateral and fourth ventricles than in the ependyma of the lateral diencephalon and tectal parts of the mesencephalon. In the recessus infundibularis and preopticus the number of labelled cells (LCs) was several times greater than in the lateral parts of the third ventricle. LCs were seen subependymally only occasionally. The incidence of LCs in the parenchyma of the brain was much lower in most regions than in the ventricular ependyma; LCs were mainly small and, from their nuclear morphology, they were glial cells. The LI% reached the highest value in the septum hippocampi and in the nucleus entopeduncularis. In these locations, LCs were larger and closer in size to the nerve cells of these regions. From comparison with data obtained earlier in the brain of mammals, it is evident that the distribution of proliferating cells in the olfactory and limbic system is phylogenetically conservative. The occurrence of pyknotic cells in the same areas which contain LCs, suggests that cell division reflects in part the process of cell renewal observed in mammals. However, proliferating cells could also be linked to the continuous growth observed in non-mammalian vertebrates. In hibernating frogs, LCs and pyknoses were not seen or were found occasionally, which further indicates the functional significance of both processes.

Bernocchi, G.; Scherini, E.; Giacometti, S.; Mares, V. (Univ. of Pavia (Italy))

1990-12-01

234

Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.  

PubMed

Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265 % in adult women and 1.084 % in adult men) and Cu (1.182 % for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 ?g/day) and Pb (0.062 ?g/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

2015-01-01

235

Food supply modifies the trade-off between past and future reproduction in a sexual parasite–host system ( Rana esculenta, Rana lessonae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history theory is concerned with the costs of survival, growth and reproduction under different ecological conditions\\u000a and the allocation of resources to meet these costs. Typical approaches used to address these topics include manipulation\\u000a of food resources, followed by measures of subsequent reproductive traits, and measures of the relationship between current\\u000a and future reproductive investment. Rarely, however, do studies

Marc Olivier Waelti; Heinz-Ulrich Reyer

2007-01-01

236

76 FR 7577 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Leptoneta myopica) Walker's manioc (Manihot walkerae) White bladderpod (Lesquerella pallid) Whooping crane (Grus americana) Zapata bladderpod (Lesquerella thamnophila) Permit TE-150338 Applicant: Crouch Environmental,...

2011-02-10

237

Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucosides Linamarin and Lotaustralin in Cassava: Isolation, Biochemical Characterization, and Expression Pattern of CYP71E7, the Oxime-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzyme1[OA  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a eudicotyledonous plant that produces the valine- and isoleucine-derived cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin with the corresponding oximes and cyanohydrins as key intermediates. CYP79 enzymes catalyzing amino acid-to-oxime conversion in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are known from several plants including cassava. The enzyme system converting oxime into cyanohydrin has previously only been identified in the monocotyledonous plant great millet (Sorghum bicolor). Using this great millet CYP71E1 sequence as a query in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool-p search, a putative functional homolog that exhibited an approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity was found in cassava. The corresponding full-length cDNA clone was obtained from a plasmid library prepared from cassava shoot tips and was assigned CYP71E7. Heterologous expression of CYP71E7 in yeast afforded microsomes converting 2-methylpropanal oxime (valine-derived oxime) and 2-methylbutanal oxime (isoleucine-derived oxime) to the corresponding cyanohydrins, which dissociate into acetone and 2-butanone, respectively, and hydrogen cyanide. The volatile ketones were detected as 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A KS of approximately 0.9 ?m was determined for 2-methylbutanal oxime based on substrate-binding spectra. CYP71E7 exhibits low specificity for the side chain of the substrate and catalyzes the conversion of aliphatic and aromatic oximes with turnovers of approximately 21, 17, 8, and 1 min?1 for the oximes derived from valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, respectively. A second paralog of CYP71E7 was identified by database searches and showed approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity. In tube in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that in nearly unfolded leaves, the CYP71E7 paralogs are preferentially expressed in specific cells in the endodermis and in most cells in the first cortex cell layer. In fully unfolded leaves, the expression is pronounced in the cortex cell layer just beside the epidermis and in specific cells in the vascular tissue cortex cells. Thus, the transcripts of the CYP71E7 paralogs colocalize with CYP79D1 and CYP79D2. We conclude that CYP71E7 is the oxime-metabolizing enzyme in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in cassava. PMID:21045121

J?rgensen, Kirsten; Morant, Anne Vinther; Morant, Marc; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Olsen, Carl Erik; Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; M?ller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, S?ren

2011-01-01

238

Prediction of gross energy and digestible energy in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to pigs.  

PubMed

Many of the available prediction equations for feed energy value may not be applicable for ingredients such as copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR). Therefore, we developed novel equations for estimating GE and DE concentrations in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. Data for GE and DE concentrations were obtained from previous experiments in which the chemical composition in the ingredients and diets were determined. In addition, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) values in 3 samples of ingredients including CM, PKM, and CR and 4 samples of diets including a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-based diet and 3 diets containing CM, PKM, and CR were determined. Based on the model R(2), conceptual predictive criterion, and the P-value of the equation, the best equation for GE concentration (kcal/kg) was GE = 3313 + (24.81 × CP) + (9.83 × NDF) with R(2) = 0.93, root mean square error = 102, and P = 0.005 (CP and NDF values are percentages). Regression analysis was conducted between the DE:GE ratio and IVDMD (%). The DE:GE ratio was 0.81, 0.73, 0.83, 0.89, 0.84, 0.82, and 0.88 in CM, PKM, CR, a corn-soybean meal-based diet, and diets containing CM, PKM, or CR, respectively. The values for IVDMD were 70.3, 42.6, 88.2, 93.4, 86.7, 75.5, and 91.3%, respectively. The DE:GE ratio may be calculated by (0.0030 × IVDMD) + 0.5986 (R(2) = 0.91; P = 0.001). Using the estimated GE concentration and IVDMD, the prediction equation for DE concentration (kcal/kg) was DE = -1965 + (1.02 × GE) + (15.33 × IVDMD) with R(2) = 0.88 and P = 0.007. In conclusion, IVDMD values are useful in estimating energy digestibility in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. PMID:23365336

Park, C S; Son, A R; Kim, B G

2012-12-01

239

Isolation and characterization of three cassava elongation factor 1 alpha (MeEF1A) promoters.  

PubMed

In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family. Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A4 and MeEF1A5 were successfully isolated. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5'UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

2014-01-01

240

Mineral status in cattle fed rice straw and para grass combined with different levels of protein derived from cassava foliage.  

PubMed

Eight male cattle of the Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage supplementation on mineral metabolism in growing cattle fed rice straw and para grass as basal diet. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cassava foliage intake was lower than the planned levels. DM consumption was significantly affected by cassava foliage supplementation, with the largest intake observed at the two highest levels of cassava foliage supplementation. Rice straw intake showed the opposite pattern, with lower intake at higher cassava foliage supplementation. No refusals occurred for para grass in any of the treatments. Ca, P, Mg, K, S and Mn intake increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage, but Na intake was not affected by treatment. Faecal excretion of Ca, Mg, S and Mn increased significantly with increasing cassava foliage intake. There were no differences between P, K and Na excretion in faeces. There was a significant diet effect on Mg, S and Mn digestibility. Mg and Mn digestibility increased with increasing cassava foliage supplementation, while S digestibility decreased. Ca, P, K and Na digestibility was not affected by diet. There was a significant effect of treatment on P retention, with the highest value observed for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. Ca and Mg showed similar trends, with the highest retention again for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. There were weak but significant positive correlations between nitrogen retention and the macro minerals Ca, P and Mg. Furthermore, retention of all these minerals was positively correlated. Mineral losses in urine were not affected by dietary treatment with the exception of P excretion, which was affected by treatment. In conclusion, cassava foliage is a good Ca source which compensates for the low Ca content in rice straw and para grass, but P deficiency appears to be exaggerated in cattle with higher cassava intake. The results suggest that under these conditions growing cattle on a high cassava intake would benefit from P and S supplementation. PMID:25049706

Sath, K; Pauly, T; Holtenius, K

2013-01-01

241

East African cassava mosaic-like viruses from Africa to Indian ocean islands: molecular diversity, evolutionary history and geographical dissemination of a bipartite begomovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food source for over 200 million sub-Saharan Africans. Unfortunately, its cultivation is severely hampered by cassava mosaic disease (CMD). Caused by a complex of bipartite cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMG) species (Family: Geminivirideae; Genus: Begomovirus) CMD has been widely described throughout Africa and it is apparent that CMG's are expanding their geographical distribution. Determining where and when CMG movements have occurred could help curtail its spread and reveal the ecological and anthropic factors associated with similar viral invasions. We applied Bayesian phylogeographic inference and recombination analyses to available and newly described CMG sequences to reconstruct a plausible history of CMG diversification and migration between Africa and South West Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. Results The isolation and analysis of 114 DNA-A and 41 DNA-B sequences demonstrated the presence of three CMG species circulating in the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos (East African cassava mosaic virus, EACMV; East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, EACMKV; and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, EACMCV). Phylogeographic analyses suggest that CMG’s presence on these SWIO islands is probably the result of at least four independent introduction events from mainland Africa occurring between 1988 and 2009. Amongst the islands of the Comoros archipelago, two major migration pathways were inferred: One from Grande Comore to Mohéli and the second from Mayotte to Anjouan. While only two recombination events characteristic of SWIO islands isolates were identified, numerous re-assortments events were detected between EACMV and EACMKV, which seem to almost freely interchange their genome components. Conclusions Rapid and extensive virus spread within the SWIO islands was demonstrated for three CMG complex species. Strong evolutionary or ecological interaction between CMG species may explain both their propensity to exchange components and the absence of recombination with non-CMG begomoviruses. Our results suggest an important role of anthropic factors in CMGs spread as the principal axes of viral migration correspond with major routes of human movement and commercial trade. Finer-scale temporal analyses of CMGs to precisely scale the relative contributions of human and insect transmission to their movement dynamics will require further extensive sampling in the SWIO region. PMID:23186303

2012-01-01

242

Economics and cost and return analysis of a large scale swine operation in Ecuador  

E-print Network

Base de Maiz, Yuca y Banano. " Tunrialba. 14 176-184. Br essani, R. , A. Aguinre, R. Arnoyave, R. Janquin (1961). "La Comppsic ion Guxmica de Diver sas Clases de Banario y el Uso ae Hanirias de Bariano en la Al imentacxon de Pol los. " Turrialba 11... Base de Maiz, Yuca y Banano. " Tunrialba. 14 176-184. Br essani, R. , A. Aguinre, R. Arnoyave, R. Janquin (1961). "La Comppsic ion Guxmica de Diver sas Clases de Banario y el Uso ae Hanirias de Bariano en la Al imentacxon de Pol los. " Turrialba 11...

Prieto, Ivan A

2012-06-07

243

CHANGES IN FOREST BIOMASS, LITTER DYNAMICS AND SOILS FOLLOWING SHIFTING CULTIVATION IN SOUTHERN MEXICO: AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

ver the past four de- cades the southern Yuca- tan peninsular region has undergone increasing amounts and inten- sity of land use change, ranging from se- lective logging to widespread shifting cultivation agriculture to land clearing for intensive agriculture and village establish- ment. These land uses alter the structure and function of forested lands and often generate new feedbacks in

DEBORAH LAWRENCE; DAVID FOSTER

2002-01-01

244

Distribution of mRNA encoding the FA-CHIP water channel in amphibian tissues: Effects of salt adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water channel, the frog aquaporin-CHIP (FA-CHIP) was recently cloned from Rana esculenta urinary bladder. The 28.9 kDa encoded protein shows 78.8%, 77.4%, 42.4% and 35.6% identity with rat CHIP28, human CHIP28, rat WCH-CD and ?-TIP, other members of the new transmembrane water channel family (Aquaporin-CHIP). We have now studied membranes from different frog (R. esculenta) organs employing semiquantitative PCR

L. Abrami; C. Capurro; C. Ibarra; M. Parisi; J.-M. Buhler; P. Ripoche

1995-01-01

245

Supplement 17, Part 2, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Parasites: Protozoa  

E-print Network

; Spirotricha; Peritricha. Ciliophora deludes: Cilia ta Ciliophora [spp.] Dollfus, R. P. F., I96I a,266 Triturus vulgaris (intestin) all from France Rana esculenta (rectum) Pisidium amnicum (cavit? pall?ale) Clausilocola apostropha Dollfus, R. P. F., 19...; Spirotricha; Peritricha. Ciliophora deludes: Cilia ta Ciliophora [spp.] Dollfus, R. P. F., I96I a,266 Triturus vulgaris (intestin) all from France Rana esculenta (rectum) Pisidium amnicum (cavit? pall?ale) Clausilocola apostropha Dollfus, R. P. F., 19...

Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

1968-01-01

246

Phytotoxic effects and chemical analysis of leaf extracts from three Phytolaccaceae species in South Korea.  

PubMed

We analyzed phenolic compounds and other elements in leaf extracts and compared morphology of three species of the Phytolaccaceae family found in South Korea. To test allelochemical effects of the three Phytolacca species, we also examined seed germination and dry weight of seedlings of Lactuca indica and Sonchus oleraceus treated with leaf extracts. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were exotic Phytolacca esculenta (3.9 mg/l), native Phytolacca insularis (4.4 mg/l), and exotic Phytolacca americana (10.2 mg/l). There was no significant difference in concentrations between P. esculenta and P. insularis, but the concentration of total phenolics in P. americana was two times higher than either P. esculenta or P. insularis. Analysis of aqueous extracts by HPLC showed seven phenolic compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid). Total phenolics in P. americana were eight to 16 times higher than either P. esculenta or P. insularis, respectively. P. americana inhibited seed germination and dry weight of the two assay species. The phytotoxic effects of the two Phytolacca species were different, despite the fact that P. esculenta and P. insularis had similar levels of total phenolic compounds. We also found that P. americana had invaded Ullung Island, which suggested that P. americana had excellent adaptability to the environment. The three species of Phytolaccaceae in South Korea can be distinguished by their different allelopathic potentials and morphologies. PMID:16124240

Kim, Yong Ok; Johnson, Jon D; Lee, Eun Ju

2005-05-01

247

Epidemia de neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica en Mérida, Yucatán  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the main epidemiological, clinical, and microbiologic characteristics of an outbreak of ventila- tor-associated pneumonia at an intensive care unit in Yuca- tan. Material and methods. An 11-month prospective and observational study was designed to determine incidence, mortality, potential reservoirs, etiologic agents and antibio- tic susceptibility patterns. Results. The incidence of venti- lator-associated pneumonia was 74%. The crude

Mussaret Zaidi; Gloria Martín; Rilke Rosado

1999-01-01

248

An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root

Lewis H. Ziska; G. Brett Runion; Martha Tomecek; Stephen A. Prior; H. Allen Torbet; Richard Sicher

2009-01-01

249

Treated-cassava peel vermicomposts enhanced earthworm activities and cowpea growth in field plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peels of bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima) root, a major source of food carbohydrate in the tropics, though rich in nutrients, form toxic wastes lethal to soil invertebrates and can inhibit root growth. Recent investigations highlighted the ability of the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae (Eug) to partially detoxify the toxic wastes, and transform the cassava peels into valuable vermicompost. Vermicomposting and

1996-01-01

250

UncorrectedProof Assessing cyanogen content in cassava-based food using  

E-print Network

; Linamarin; Cyanide; Cyanogen content; Linamarase-dipstick; Detoxi®cation 1. Introduction Cassava (Manihot of free cyanide. In processed cassava pro- ducts such as ¯our and gari, variable amounts of resi- dual cyanide arising from linamarin and its breakdown products (acetone cyanohydrin and free cyanide) have been

Yeoh, Hock Hin

251

Plant Cell Rep (2004) 23:9198 DOI 10.1007/s00299-004-0798-7  

E-print Network

,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid · EMS: Ethylmethanesulfonate · IBA: Indole-3-butyric acid Introduction Cassava (Manihot are desirable. Induced mutations are highly effective in enhancing natural genetic resources and have been used in devel- oping improved cultivars of cereals, fruits and other crops (Lee et al. 2002). The induction

Yeoh, Hock Hin

252

Plant Biotechnology Journal (2004) 2, pp. 3743 Doi: 10.1046/j.1467-7652.2003.00047.x 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 37  

E-print Network

Blackwell Publishing Ltd 37 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Over-expression of hydroxynitrile lyase in transgenic cassava roots can cause cyanide poisoning. Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL), which catalyses the conversion; e-mail: sayre.2@osu.edu) Keywords: cassava transformation, cyanide, hydroxynitrile lyase, Manihot

Meier, Iris

253

Original article Soil solarization, a non-chemical technique  

E-print Network

and were present at high intensity (from 13 to 44 shoots per faba bean plant), impeding the faba bean plants from producing flowers, pods and seeds. Soil solarization improved faba bean growth Production of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), lentil (Lens esculenta Medik.) and chickpea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Microwave Drying Kinetics of Okra  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effects of power level and sample mass on moisture content, moisture ratio, drying rate, and drying time of Turkey okra (Hibiscus esculenta L.) were investigated using microwave drying technique. Various microwave power levels ranging from to 180 to 900 W were used for drying of 100 g of okra. To investigate the effect of sample mass on drying,

Gökçe Dadal?; Dilek K?l?ç Apar; Belma Özbek

2007-01-01

255

Two distinct gait types in swimming frogs Sandra Nauwelaerts* and Peter Aerts  

E-print Network

Two distinct gait types in swimming frogs Sandra Nauwelaerts* and Peter Aerts Department of Biology 2001) Abstract During terrestrial locomotion, frogs use two distinct gaits: out-of-phase leg movements velocity- dependent gait shift appears in swimming R. esculenta. Typically, swimming frogs propel

Nauwelaerts, Sandra

256

Toxicological screening of seven Nigerian mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicological studies were carried out on seven Nigerian mushrooms, namely, Chlorophyllum molybditis (Mayer ex. fr.) Masse, Cortinarius melliolens Fries, Lentinus subnudus Berk, Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer, Termitomyces robustus (Beeli) Heim, Tricholoma lobayensis Heim and Volvariella esculenta (Mass) Singer. Amatoxin spot test and Chromatographic screening of the mushrooms revealed the absence of amatoxins and phallotoxins. None of the mushroom extracts tested

Isola O. Fasidi; Mukaila Kadiri

1995-01-01

257

Environmentally induced mechanical feedback in locomotion: Frog performance as a model  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first glance, the strategy for generating propulsive impulses for both jumping and swimming in frogs is quite similar. Both modes rely on powerful extension of the hind limbs. However, in Rana esculenta (the semi-aquatic green frog), propulsive impulses for jumping were found to be much larger than those generated during swimming [Nauwelaerts and Aerts, 2003. Propulsive impulses as a

Peter Aerts; Sandra Nauwelaerts

2009-01-01

258

Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs : II. Application of a vortex ring model to DPIV data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frogs propel themselves by kicking water backwards using a synchronised extension of their hind limbs and webbed feet. To understand this propulsion process, we quantified the water movements and displacements resulting from swimming in the green frog Rana esculenta, applying digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to the frog's wake. The wake showed two vortex rings left behind by the two

Eize J. Stamhuis; Sandra Nauwelaerts

2005-01-01

259

Effect of heat-treatment and defatting on the proximate composition of some Nigerian local soup thickeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the effect of heat-treatment and defatting on the proximate composition of melon seeds (Colocynthis citrullus Linn.), dikanut seeds (Irvingia gabonensis) and cocoyam tuber (Colocasia esculenta), mostly used now as conventional soup thickeners in southern Nigeria, was carried out. There was generally no significant difference in proximate composition between raw and heat-processed samples at the 5% level

Eugene N. Onyeike; Tamunosiki Olungwe; Augustine A. Uwakwe

1995-01-01

260

This article is from the March 2005 issue of  

E-print Network

plants in the genus Syngonium and black rot of corms of the edible aroid Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott annually (15). We have seen similar black rot on the edible corms of Xanthosoma spp. (known as yautia. The edible species of Xanthosoma

Harrington, Thomas C.

261

Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3) ferrocarbonatites. The concentrations of thorium, uranium, niobium, yttrium and rare earth elements increase with differentiation. Carbonatites are associated with up to 20000 times enrichment of lanthanum and cerium with respect to chondrite. Finally, the Mariana carbonatite breccia is associated with about 7,928,550 short tons of rock with a grade of 0.14% SigmaREE, and primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of carbonatites indicate a mantle origin of their parental melts.

Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

262

Hepatic respiratory compensation and haematological changes in the cave cyprinid, Phreatichthys andruzzii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several ectotherms, including all members of the Osteichthyes studied so far, the spleen is capable of storing and releasing\\u000a erythrocytes according to the animal's respiratory needs. The tropical cave cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii uses its liver rather than the spleen as the site of accumulation in the respiratory compensation process, like the amphibian\\u000a Rana esculenta. The reversible process of erythrocyte

Giuliano Frangioni; Roberto Berti; Gianfranco Borgioli

1997-01-01

263

Effects of chemical modification of amino groups by two different imidoesters on voltage-clamped nerve fibres of the frog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage clamped single nerve fibres of the frogPanta esculenta were treated with the amino groups specific reagents ethyl acetimidate and isethionyl acetimidate. Ethyl acetimidate is lipid soluble, relatively non-polar and can penetrate a membrane. Isethionyl acetimidate is lipid-insoluble, polar and membrane-impermeant. Treatment with ethyl acetimidate caused an irreversible reduction of Na currents and a shift of the voltage dependence of

Michael Rack

1985-01-01

264

Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The microrelief of plant surfaces, mainly caused by epicuticular wax crystalloids, serves different purposes and often causes\\u000a effective water repellency. Furthermore, the adhesion of contaminating particles is reduced. Based on experimental data carried\\u000a out on microscopically smooth (Fagus sylvatica L., Gnetum gnemon L., Heliconia densiflora Verlot, Magnolia grandiflora L.) and rough water-repellent plants (Brassica oleracea L., Colocasia esculenta (L.)

W. Barthlott; C. Neinhuis

1997-01-01

265

Secondary somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos isolated from mature seed-derived cotyledon cultures of cassava (Mannihot esculenta Crantz) underwent direct secondary somatic embryogenesis or plant development under appropriate incubation conditions. Isolated somatic embryos were subjected to a two-stage culture procedure similar to that which induced their development on cotyledon explants. This involved incubation for 24–30 days on Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with 2–8

James A. Stamp; Graham G. Henshaw

1987-01-01

266

Effects of water motion on propagule release from algae with complex life histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive marine algae with complex life histories may respond differently to water motion depending upon whether the spore-producing or gamete-producing phase is considered. Two such species, the kelp Alaria esculenta (L.) Greville (Phaeophyceae) and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta), were examined experimentally in the laboratory. The kelp was collected in April–June 2000 and U. lactuca was collected in July–August 2000, from

R. Gordon; S. H. Brawley

2004-01-01

267

Antioxidative enzymes and isozymes analysis of taro genotypes and their implications in Phytophthora blight disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the differential expression of antioxidative enzymes and their isozymes, was done in 30 day-old ex vitro raised\\u000a plants of three highly resistant (DP-25, Jhankri and Duradim) and one highly susceptible (N-118) genotypes of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott]. Antioxidative enzymes were assayed in the ex vitro plants, 7 days after inoculation with the spores (15,000\\u000a spores ml?1 water) of

Manas Ranjan Sahoo; Madhumita DasGupta; Paresh C. Kole; Jayant S. Bhat; Archana Mukherjee

2007-01-01

268

Widespread unidirectional transfer of mitochondrial DNA: a case in western Palearctic water frogs  

PubMed Central

Interspecies transfer of mitochondrial (mt) DNA is a common phenomenon in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, normally linked with hybridization of closely related species in zones of sympatry or parapatry. In Central Europe, in an area north of 48° N latitude and between 08° and 22° E longitude, western Palearctic water frogs show massive unidirectional introgression of mtDNA: 33.7% of 407 R. ridibunda possessed mtDNA specific for R. lessonae. In contrast, no R. lessonae with R. ridibunda mtDNA was observed. That R. ridibunda with introgressed mitochondrial genomes were found exclusively within the range of the hybrid R. esculenta and that most hybrids had lessonae mtDNA (90.4% of 335 individuals investigated) is evidence that R. esculenta serves as a vehicle for transfer of lessonae mtDNA into R. ridibunda. Such introgression has occurred several times independently. The abundance and wide distribution of individuals with introgressed mitochondrial genomes show that R. lessonae mt genomes work successfully in a R. ridibunda chromosomal background despite their high sequence divergence from R. ridibunda mtDNAs (14.2–15.2% in the ND2/ND3 genes). Greater effectiveness of enzymes encoded by R. lessonae mtDNA may be advantageous to individuals of R. ridibunda and probably R. esculenta in the northern parts of their ranges. PMID:18373588

Plotner, Jorg; Uzzell, Thomas; Beerli, Peter; Spolsky, Christina; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich; Hotz, Hansjurg

2008-01-01

269

Telomerase inhibitory effects of medicinal mushrooms and lichens, and their anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Telomerase has been widely accepted as a cancer marker and a promising therapeutic target for novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro telomerase inhibitory effects of mushrooms and their anticancer properties. The inhibitory effects of mushrooms and lichens against telomerase activity of HL-60 cells were systematically assessed using polymerase chain reaction based on assay of telomeric repeat amplification protocol. Telomerase inhibitory samples were further tested for antiproliferation effects against the gastric cell line SNU-1 using the MTT method. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotus ostreatus, ethyl acetate and water extracts of Lasiosphaera fenzlii, hexane extract of Strobilomyces floccopus, water extract of Sarcodon aspratus, and hexane, ethyl acetate, and water extracts from Umbilicaria esculenta showed strong positive telomerase inhibitory activity. Hexane extract of S. floccopus and water extracts from the edible lichen U. esculenta exhibited strong anticancer effects against SNU-1 cells through antiproliferation assay. The water extract of U. esculenta has a great potential to be developed into an anticancer agent that targets telomerase. PMID:24940901

Xu, Baojun; Li, Chantian; Sung, Changkeun

2014-01-01

270

Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of selected actinorhizal fruits growing in the forests of Northeast India.  

PubMed

Hippophae salicifolia, Elaeagnus pyriformis, Myrica esculenta and M. nagi are actinorhizal plants growing in the sacred forests of Northeast India with multipurpose uses. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the phenol, flavonoid and flavonol contents of the fresh fruit juice of these plant species including the antioxidant potential by means of DPPH, H2O2 and NO scavenging activity and FRP. The total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of fruit juice ranged from 321.68+/-0.06 to 76.67+/-0.01 mg/g GAE, 272.92+/-0.07 to 20.12+/-0.02 mg/g QE and 258.92+/-0.08 to 18.72+/-0.02 mg/g QE, respectively. At 2.0 mg/mL concentration, DPPH scavenging activity was found to be the highest in M. esculenta (89.62 percent) and the lowest in E. pyriformis (17.58 percent). The reducing power activity was found significantly higher in H. salicifolia juice, which increased with increase in concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of H. salicifolia juice was found to be as high as 98.78 percent, while Elaeagnus juice was found to be less effective with just 48.90 percent. Juice of H. salicifolia showed the greatest NO scavenging effect of 75.24 percent as compared to juice of E. pyriformis, where only 37.54 percent scavenging was observed at the same concentration. Taking into account all the experimental data, it can be said that the fruits of H. salicifolia and both M. nagi and M. esculenta have good antioxidant activity compared to fruits of E. pyriformis. PMID:24287659

Goyal, Arvind K; Mishra, Tanmayee; Bhattacharya, Malay; Kar, Pallab; Sen, Arnab

2013-11-01

271

Ability of cold-tolerant plants to grow in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation of hydrocarbons in soil involves plants and their associated microorganisms. Differences in environmental conditions and restrictions on species importation mean that each country may need to identify indigenous plants to use for phytoremedation. Screening plants for hydrocarbon tolerance before screening for degradation ability may prove more economical than screening directly for degradation. Thirty-nine cold-tolerant plants native, or exotic and naturalized, in western Canada were assessed for their ability to survive in crude oil-contaminated soil. Four naturalized grasses (i.e., Agropyron pectiniforme, Bromus inermis, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis), three naturalized legumes (i.e., Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, and Trifolium repens), two native forbs (i.e., Artemisia frigida and Potentilla pensylvanica), one native grass (i.e., Bromus ciliatus) and two native legumes (i.e., Glycyrrhiza lepidota and Psoralea esculenta) exhibited phytoremediation potential, based on survival. We determined the effect of increasing crude oil concentrations on total and root biomass, and relative growth rate of those species with the highest survival. The addition of 0.5%, 1%, and 5% (crude oil wt/fresh soil wt) crude oil to soil significantly decreased both the total biomass by at least 22% of the control and the relative growth rate of all species except P. esculenta. Root biomass significantly decreased by at least 22% with crude oil addition in all species except P. esculenta and A. frigida. Total biomass production in contaminated soil had a significant negative correlation with the relative growth rate in uncontaminated soil. PMID:12929494

Robson, Diana Bizecki; Knight, J Diane; Farrell, Richard E; Germida, James J

2003-01-01

272

Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi. PMID:23095488

Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

2014-10-01

273

Selected emerging diseases of amphibia.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the most recent updates on emerging infectious diseases of amphibia. A brief summary of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, life cycle, diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity is provided. Ambystoma tigrinum virus, common midwife toad virus, frog virus 3, Rana grylio virus, Rana catesbeiana ranavirus, Mahaffey Road virus, Rana esculenta virus, Bohle iridovirus, and tiger frog virus ranaviruses are extensively reviewed. Emerging bacterial pathogens are discussed, including Flavobacter sp, Aeromonas sp, Citrobacter freundii, Chlamydophila sp, Mycobacterium liflandii, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. Rhabdias sp, Ribeiroia sp, and Spirometra erinacei are among several of the parasitic infections overviewed in this article. PMID:23642863

Latney, La'Toya V; Klaphake, Eric

2013-05-01

274

Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2010 - 31 July 2010.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 205 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bagassa guianensis, Bulweria bulwerii, Camelus bactrianus, Chaenogobius annularis, Creontiades dilutus, Diachasmimorpha tryoni, Dioscorea alata, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, Gmelina arborea, Haliotis discus hannai, Hirtella physophora, Melanaphis sacchari, Munida isos, Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Tuberolachnus salignus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Halobaena caerulea, Procellaria aequinoctialis, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Camelus ferus, Creontiades pacificus, Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea praehensilis, Dioscorea abyssinica, Dioscorea nummularia, Dioscorea transversa, Dioscorea esculenta, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Dioscorea trifida, Hirtella bicornis, Hirtella glandulosa, Licania alba, Licania canescens, Licania membranaceae, Couepia guianensis and 7 undescribed Thaumastocoris species. PMID:21565125

Andris, Malvina; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Arnau, G; Audzijonyte, Asta; Bess, Emilie C; Bonadonna, Francesco; Bourdel, G; Bried, Joël; Bugbee, Gregory J; Burger, P A; Chair, H; Charruau, P C; Ciampi, A Y; Costet, L; Debarro, Paul J; Delatte, H; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Eldridge, Mark D B; England, Phillip R; Enkhbileg, D; Fartek, B; Gardner, Michael G; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Hanley, Steven J; Havil, Nathan; Hereward, James P; Hirase, Shotaro; Hong, Yan; Jarne, Philippe; Jianfei, Qi; Johnson, Rebecca N; Kanno, Manami; Kijima, Akihiro; Kim, Hyun C; Kim, Kwan S; Kim, Woo-Jin; Larue, Elizabeth; Lee, Jang W; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Li, Chunhong; Liao, Minghui; Lo, Nathan; Lowe, Andrew J; Malausa, Thibaut; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Marko, Michelle D; Martin, Jean-François; Messing, Russell; Miller, Karen J; Min, Byeong-Wha; Myeong, Jeong-In; Nibouche, S; Noack, Ann E; Noh, Jae K; Orivel, Jérôme; Park, Choul-Ji; Petro, D; Prapayotin-Riveros, Kittipath; Quilichini, Angélique; Reynaud, B; Riginos, Cynthia; Risterucci, A M; Rose, Harley A; Sampaio, I; Silbermayr, K; Silva, M B; Tero, N; Thum, Ryan A; Vinson, C C; Vorsino, Adam; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Walzer, C; White, Jason C; Wieczorek, Ania; Wright, Mark

2010-11-01

275

Mutational Dynamics of Aroid Chloroplast Genomes  

PubMed Central

A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported. We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:23204304

Ahmed, Ibrar; Biggs, Patrick J.; Matthews, Peter J.; Collins, Lesley J.; Hendy, Michael D.; Lockhart, Peter J.

2012-01-01

276

The large bowel carcinogenic effects of hydrazines and related compounds occurring in nature and in the environment.  

PubMed

Five substituted hydrazines that induce large bowel and other types of cancer in laboratory animals are described. Two of these compounds, which originate in nature, are 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, a tobacco ingredient, and methylhydrazine, formed from a chemical present in the edible wild mushroom Gyromitra esculenta. The human population is therefore exposed to them considerably. In addition, both compounds are manufactured and used in rocket fuel. The other three chemicals, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride,1-methyl-2-butylhydrazine dihydrochloride and trimethylhydrazine hydrochloride, are manufactured synthetically only and apparently are not found in substantial quantities in the environment. PMID:922685

Toth, B

1977-11-01

277

Endocannabinoids and Endovanilloids: A Possible Balance in the Regulation of the Testicular GnRH Signalling  

PubMed Central

Reproductive functions are regulated both at central (brain) and gonadal levels. In this respect, the endocannabinoid system (eCS) has a very influential role. Interestingly, the characterization of eCS has taken many advantages from the usage of animal models different from mammals. Therefore, this review is oriented to summarize the main pieces of evidence regarding eCS coming from the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, with particular interest to the morphofunctional relationship between eCS and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Furthermore, a novel role for endovanilloids in the regulation of a testicular GnRH system will be also discussed. PMID:24072997

Ciaramella, Vincenza; Scarpa, Donatella; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo

2013-01-01

278

Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.  

PubMed

Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554

Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

2013-01-01

279

Host Races of the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii, in Asexual Populations from Wild Plants of Taro and Brinjal  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554

Agarwala, B.K.; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

2013-01-01

280

Metabolism of hibifolin by human intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed

Hibifolin, the highest-content bioactive flavonoid of the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot, was incubated with human intestinal bacteria, and four metabolites (1-4) were obtained from the incubated solution by chromatographic methods. The structures of the four metabolites were elucidated as gossypetin 8-O-beta-D-4''-deoxy- Delta(4'')-glucuropyranoside (1), gossypetin (2), quercetin (3), and 8-methoxy-quercetin (4), respectively, on the basis of UV, NMR, and MS data. Metabolite 1 was obtained as a new compound with a specific beta-D-4''-deoxy-Delta(4'')-glucuropyranosyl moiety, which was formed through a unique and novel metabolic pathway that has not been reported previously. PMID:19235125

Xu, Tong-Tong; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Bin; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Qing-Ying

2009-04-01

281

Frogs and toads in front of a mirror: lateralisation of response to social stimuli in tadpoles of five anuran species.  

PubMed

Tadpoles of five anuran species were tested for preferences in the use of the eyes during inspection of their own visual image in a mirror. When tested in a tank with several small mirrors, tadpoles of five different species (Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana temporaria, Rana esculenta, Bombina variegata) preferentially approached and positioned themselves with the mirror located on their left side, thus looking at the image with the monocular field of their left eye. Similar results were obtained with tadpoles of R. temporaria tested in a simple task in which they had to choose approaching one or other of two large mirrors located on their left and right side. Control experiment showed that the behavioural asymmetry was not due to motor preferences and that it was independent of morphological asymmetries in the positions of the spiracles. This is the first demonstration of a functional visual lateralisation among juvenile amphibia before metamorphosis. PMID:12191829

Bisazza, Angelo; De Santi, Andrea; Bonso, Silvia; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

2002-08-21

282

Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.  

PubMed

In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer. PMID:22794131

Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

2012-01-01

283

Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

2014-05-01

284

Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

Wolverton, B. C.

1988-01-01

285

Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river.  

PubMed

With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality. PMID:24080292

Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S

2013-11-01

286

Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-?1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

2012-01-01

287

Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

1989-01-01

288

Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

2011-03-01

289

Morama bean research in Texas: a technical report  

SciTech Connect

The search for drought-resistant crops has energy-saving as well as water-saving goals. The agricultural potential of morama beans (Bauhinea esculenta, also known as Tylosema esculentum), a plant that grows extensively across southern Africa was investigated. The beans are usually eaten roasted, like peanuts. Morama tubers, which store water to assure the plant's survival in drought years, may be uprooted and eaten as a source of moisture and some other nutrients. The goals of the morama project were specifically to discover the tolerance of morama for Texas agronomic conditions, to discover the ideal conditions and methods of cultivation, to demonstrate the productivity and forage potential of the plants grown at various sites in Texas, and to measure the nutritional quality of the edible parts of this plant.

Bousquet, J.E.

1982-07-01

290

Studies on lectins. XLIV. The pH dependence of lectin interactions with sugars as determined by affinity electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The pH dependence of association constants of the lectin-sugar complexes was determined by means of affinity electrophoresis. All the lectins studied (from the seeds of Dolichos biflorus, Glycine soja, Lens esculenta and Vicia cracca and of the fruiting body of Marasmius oreades) were characterized by a similar course of pH dependence of the association constants, with the maximum values at pH 7--9. For concanavalin A and the L-fucose binding Ulex europaeus lectin only the association constants at three selected pH values were determined. Concanavalin A does not interact with immobilized alpha-D-mannosyl residues at pH 2.3. The association constants vs. pH curves measured for lectins isolated from two different lentil varieties slightly differ in accordance with the differences observed in the interaction of these lectins with the Sephadex gel. PMID:33723

Hauzer, K; Tichá, M; Horejsí, V; Kocourek, J

1979-02-19

291

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of mycelia of 10 wild mushroom species.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of mycelia obtained from 10 wild edible mushrooms-Armillaria mellea, Meripilus giganteus, Morchella costata, Morchella elata, Morchella esculenta var. vulgaris, Morchella hortensis, Morchella rotunda, Paxillus involutus, Pleurotus eryngii, and Pleurotus ostreatus-were investigated. For determination of antimicrobial activities of these mushrooms, ethanol extracts were examined with 11 test microorganisms by the agar well diffusion method. P. ostreatus and M. giganteus were the most active species against both bacteria and yeast. Antioxidant properties of ethanol extracts were studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method. Among the mushroom extracts, M. elata showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. This research has shown that these 10 wild macrofungi have potential as natural antioxidants and antibiotics. PMID:20192845

Kalyoncu, Fatih; Oskay, Mustafa; Sa?lam, Hüsniye; Erdo?an, Tu?çe Fafal; Tamer, A Usame

2010-04-01

292

Floral thermogenesis of three species of Hydnora (Hydnoraceae) in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Floral thermogenesis occurs in at least 12 families of ancient seed plants. Some species show very high rates of respiration through the alternative pathway, and some are thermoregulatory, with increasing respiration at decreasing ambient temperature. This study assesses the intensity and regulation of respiration in three species of African Hydnora that represent the Hydnoraceae, an unusual family of holoparasitic plants from arid environments. Methods Long-term respirometry (CO2 production) and thermometry were carried out on intact flowers of H. africana, H. abyssinica and H. esculenta in the field, and short-term measurements were made on floral parts during the protogynous flowering sequence. Key Results For H. africana, there was no temperature elevation in either the osmophores or the gynoecial chamber in any phase, and mass-specific respiration rates of the flower parts were low (maximum 8·3 nmol CO2 g?1 s?1 in osmophore tissue). Respiration tracked ambient and floral temperatures, eliminating the possibility of the inverse relationship expected in thermoregulatory flowers. Hydnora abyssinica flowers had higher respiration (maximum 27·5 nmol g?1 s?1 in the osmophores) and a slight elevation of osmophore temperature (maximum 2·8 °C) in the female stage. Respiration by gynoecial tissue was similar to that of osmophores in both species, but there was no measurable elevation of gynoecial chamber temperature. Gynoecial chamber temperature of H. esculenta could reach 3·8 °C above ambient, but there are no respiration data available. Antheral tissue respiration was maximal in the male phase (4·8 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. africana and 10·3 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. abyssinica), but it did not raise the antheral ring temperature, which showed that thermogenesis is not a by-product of pollen maturation or release. Conclusions The exceptionally low thermogenesis in Hydnora appears to be associated with scent production and possibly gynoecial development, but has little direct benefit to beetle pollinators. PMID:19584128

Seymour, Roger S.; Maass, Erika; Bolin, Jay F.

2009-01-01

293

Petroleum system of the Cano Limon field, Llanos Basin, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

The Chipaque-Lower Carbonera({circ}) Petroleum System of the northernmost Llanos Basin of Colombia, covers 11,100 km{sup 2} and includes two major oil fields: Caho Limon in Colombia, and Guafita in Venezuela, jointly with three more relatively small fields in Colombia: Redondo, Cano Rondon, and Jiba. Ultimate recoverable reserves are in the order of 1.4 BBO. The sedimentary section penetrated in the Northern Llanos has been informally subdivided into four Cretaceous formations: K3, K2B, K2A, and Lower K1 deposited during the Albian-Senonian, and into four Tertiary formations: Lower Carbonera, Upper Carbonera, Leon, and Guayabo deposited during the Late Eocene to Pliocene time. The main reservoir is the Lower Carbonera Formation, which contains 81% of the total reserves. The Cretaceous K2A and Lower K1 reservoirs contain 6% and 8%, respectively of the reserves. Minor reserves are accumulated in the discontinuous sandstones of the Oligocene Upper Carbonera Formation Geochemical analyses of the Cano Limon/Guafita oils indicate that these are aromatic intermediate to paraffinic-naphthenic, non degradated, genetically related to a common marine-derived type of kerogen. These oils were generated by a mature, marine clastic source rock with a small contribution of continental organic matter. The geochemistry of the hydrocarbon suggest a genetic relationship with the shales of the Chipaque formation, basin-ward equivalent of the K2 Formation, which presents kerogen type II organic matter and has been recognized as a good source rock. The petroleum system is hypothetical because a definite oil-source rock correlation is lacking. The development of the petroleum system is directly related to the history of movement of the Santa Maria, La Yuca, Caho Limon, and Matanegra wrench faults. It has been determined that these faults of pre-Cretaceous rifting origin, created the Santa Maria Graben of which the Espino Graben is the continuation in Venezuela.

Molina, J. [Occidental de Colombia, Inc., Bogota (Colombia)

1996-08-01

294

Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

295

Antithyroid effects in vivo and in vitro of babassu and mandioca: a staple food in goiter areas of Brazil.  

PubMed

Babassu (Orbignya phalerata), a palm-tree coconut fruit, mixed with mandioca (Manihot utilissima) is the staple food of people living in the endemic goiter area of Maranhao in Brazil, where goiter prevalence among schoolchildren was still 38% in 1986 despite an adequate iodine intake in most of the population. Therefore, the question arose as to whether or not the ingestion of babassu alone or mixed with mandioca contributed to the persistence of endemic goiter in this area of Brazil. In this investigation we examined the potential antithyroid effects of babassu and mandioca by means of in vivo studies in Sprague-Dawley rats, in vitro studies in porcine thyroid slices and using a purified porcine thyroid peroxidase (TPO) system. Samples of various edible parts of babassu and mandioca flour were homogenized and extracted in goitrogen-free water (GFW) for in vivo experiments, and in methanol (100 g/l), GFW or 0.06 mol/l phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) for in vitro experiments. The edible parts of babassu produced significant in vivo antithyroid effects (p < 0.05- < 0.001) in rats on a high iodine intake (14 micrograms I- day-1.rat-1), as well as distinct and reproducible antithyroid and anti-TPO activities in both in vitro systems, their action being similar to that of the thionamide-like antithyroid drugs propylthiouracil and methimazole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075782

Gaitan, E; Cooksey, R C; Legan, J; Lindsay, R H; Ingbar, S H; Medeiros-Neto, G

1994-08-01

296

Anti-sickling effect of dietary thiocyanate in prophylactic control of sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

As a clinical entity, sickle cell anemia (SCA) is known to be relatively rarer in Africans than in the African-American population of the United States. Paradoxically, sickle cell trait (SCT), the non-anemic, heterozygous condition, is about three times more common among indigenous Africans than in African-Americans. The ratio of SCA to SCT is 1:50 for African-Americans, and less than 1:1,000 for tropical Africans. This etiological disparity is attributed to an anti-sickling agent, thiocyanate, (SCN-) found abundantly in staple African foods, such as the African yam (Dioscorea sp) and cassava (Manihot utilissima). Staple American foods have negligible SCN-concentrations. Nonstaple foods in the American diet, such as carrots, cabbage, and radishes, have SCN- levels far below the African yam and cassava. This finding explains the high incidence of SCA among African-Americans and its rarity in Africans.The author concludes that SCA is a congenital deficiency anemia, ameliorable by prophylactic diets of foods with high SCN- contents. Thus, "thiocyanate deficiency anemia" is nutritionally a more correct clinical status for those born with the homozygous sickle hemoglobin genome. Just as any iron undernourished person can suffer from iron deficiency anemia, sickle hemoglobin homozygotes suffer from "thiocyanate deficiency anemia" when they subsist on SCN-deficient foods. This article reviews the role of dietary SCN- in SCA control. PMID:3795284

Agbai, O

1986-11-01

297

Dietary secondary amines and liver hepatoma in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dietary secondary amines of some Nigerian foodstuffs were analyzed by Soxhlet extraction, using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80 degrees C); followed by thin layer chromatography developed in a solvent system; n-butanol: 95% ethanol: water (4:2:1) for the qualitative test. Each UV fluorescent band in the test chromatogram was scraped and eluted with distilled water, filtered and assayed for secondary amine content for the quantitative test. Quantitative estimations were by the colorimetric methods. The results show that Ugu--Telfairia occidentalo; millet--Panicum miliaceum; bitter leaf--Vernonia amygdalina; mushroom--Boletus spp; and Okro--Hibiscus esculentus contain diethylamine, dimethylamine, morpholine and ethylaniline. Garri--Manihot utilissima flour contains diethylamine and dimethylamine only; while fish (frozen) Tilapia malanopleura contains diethylamine, dimethylamine and piperidine and the smoked fish--Tilapia nilotica contains diethylamine, dimethylamine, ethylaniline, morpholine, piperidine and n-propylamine. Cocoyam--Xanthosoma sagittifolium contains diethylamine, dimethylamine, morpholine, ethylaniline and proline. The results also show that the secondary amine content of the various foodstuffs ranged between 0.80-0.91 microg N/kg. The public health implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9629865

Uhegbu, F O

1997-01-01

298

In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600–700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. PMID:17652338

Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Perez-Negron, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

2007-01-01

299

A virtual screening method for inhibitory peptides of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme.  

PubMed

Natural small peptides from foods have been proven to be efficient inhibitors of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) for the regulation of blood pressure. The traditional ACE inhibitory peptides screening method is both time consuming and money costing, to the contrary, virtual screening method by computation can break these limitations. We establish a virtual screening method to obtain ACE inhibitory peptides with the help of Libdock module of Discovery Studio 3.5 software. A significant relationship between Libdock score and experimental IC50 was found, Libdock score = 10.063 log(1/IC50 ) + 68.08 (R(2) = 0.62). The credibility of the relationship was confirmed by testing the coincidence of the estimated log(1/IC50 ) and measured log(1/IC50 ) (IC50 is 50% inhibitory concentration toward ACE, in ?mol/L) of 5 synthetic ACE inhibitory peptides, which was virtual hydrolyzed and screened from a kind of seafood, Phascolosoma esculenta. Accordingly, Libdock method is a valid IC50 estimation tool and virtual screening method for small ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:25154376

Wu, Hongxi; Liu, Yalan; Guo, Mingrong; Xie, Jingli; Jiang, XiaMin

2014-09-01

300

Numerical analysis and the application of random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction to the differentiation of Vibrio strains from a seasonally cold ocean.  

PubMed

Eighty regional strains of Vibrio isolated from the seasonally cold waters of coastal Newfoundland, and a number of Vibrio reference cultures, were studied. The regional strains had been isolated from the brown macroalga Alaria esculenta and the giant scallop Placopecten magellanicus and were known to grow at 4 degrees C. The strains were grouped according to their arginine-dihydrolase reactions and examined by numerical analysis. According to phenotypic properties the arginine-dihydrolase positive strains closely resembled Vibrio splendidus biovar I. Most clusters of the arginine-dihydrolase negative strains appeared to be unique but the closest phenotypic resemblance among some strains was with Vibrio ordalii. Some strains were examined using the random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) technique for fingerprinting and it was shown that the regional strains were significantly different from either V. splendidus biovar I or V. ordalii. Generally, the strains from seaweed clustered separately from those that were from scallops. Strains in some clusters, especially those from the seaweed, were able to utilize most of the compounds that were tested as sole sources of carbon and energy. PMID:8050065

Martin-Kearley, J; Gow, J A; Péloquin, M; Greer, C W

1994-06-01

301

[Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].  

PubMed

By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians). PMID:23789398

Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Va?shnora?te, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

2013-01-01

302

Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639

Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele

2011-01-01

303

Peptides with antimicrobial activity from four different families isolated from the skins of the North American frogs Rana luteiventris, Rana berlandieri and Rana pipiens.  

PubMed

The skins of frogs of the genus Rana synthesize a complex array of antimicrobial peptides that may be grouped into eight families on the basis of structural similarity. A total of 24 peptides with differential growth-inhibitory activity towards the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Candida albicans were isolated from extracts of the skins of three closely related North American frogs, Rana luteiventris (spotted frog), Rana berlandieri (Rio Grande leopard frog) and Rana pipiens (Northern leopard frog). Structural characterization of the antimicrobial peptides demonstrated that they belonged to four of the known families: the brevinin-1 family, first identified in skin of the Asian frog Rana porosa brevipoda; the esculentin-2 family, first identified in the European frog Rana esculenta; the ranatuerin-2 family, first identified in the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana; and the temporin family, first identified in the European frog Rana temporaria. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-2, ranalexin, esculentin-1 and ranatuerin-1 families were not identified in the extracts. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship between the various species of Ranid frogs, the distribution and amino-acid sequences of the antimicrobial peptides produced by each species are highly variable and species-specific, suggesting that they may be valuable in taxonomic classification and molecular phylogenetic analysis. PMID:10651828

Goraya, J; Wang, Y; Li, Z; O'Flaherty, M; Knoop, F C; Platz, J E; Conlon, J M

2000-02-01

304

Similar fine structural localization of immunoreactive glutamate in the frog pineal complex and retina.  

PubMed

The distribution of immunoreactive glutamate was compared in the pineal complex (pineal and frontal organs) and retina of frogs (Rana esculenta, R. arvalis, R. ridibunda, R. catesbeiana, Bufo viridis, Bombinator igneus) by postembedding immuno-electron microscopy. Similar to retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones), bipolars and ganglion cells, the rod- and cone-like photoreceptors and the neurons of the pineal and frontal organs exhibited glutamate immunoreactivity. Synaptic terminals of photoreceptor cells on secondary neurons of the pineal complex and retina were strongly immunoreactive. The pineal tract and the fibers of the frontal nerve also displayed glutamate immunoreactivity. There was no essential difference in the immunoreactivity of the retinal and pineal elements among the species studied. The similar histology of the pineal complex and retina of the frog and the high correlation of their binding sites of antiglutamate immunosera allow us to assume that glutamate performs a similar role in the pineal complex as is already known for the retina. The high immunoreactivity of the presynaptic region of pinealocytic processes and axons of secondary neurons suggests the role of a neurotransmitter for this excitatory amino acid in the efferent pathways of the pineal complex. PMID:7612360

Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I; Debreceni, K; Takács, J

1995-03-01

305

Distribution of major brain gangliosides in olfactory tract of frogs.  

PubMed

Gangliosides are major cell-surface determinants in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates, found both in neuronal and glial cell membranes. Together with cholesterol and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored proteins, gangliosides are involved in organization of plasma membrane microdomains. Based on biochemical studies, frog brain was previously described as having low quantities of gangliosides and their distribution pattern in specific brain regions was unknown. Using highly specific monoclonal antibodies generated against four major brain gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b), we examined the distribution of these molecules in CNS of four different species of frogs (Rana esculenta, Rana temporaria, Bufo bufo and Bufo viridis). We also studied the distribution of myelin- associated glycoprotein (MAG), an inhibitor of axonal regeneration, which is a ligand for gangliosides GD1a and GT1b. Our results show that ganglioside GDla is expressed in neurons of olfactory bulb in all studied animals. In the brain of Rana sp., GD1a is expressed in the entire olfactory pathway, from olfactory bulbs to amygdala, while in Bufo sp. GD1a is restricted to the main olfactory bulb. Furthermore, we found that most of myelinated pathways in frogs express MAG, but do not express GD1a, which could be one of the reasons for better axon regeneration of neural pathways after CNS injury in amphibians in comparison to mammals. PMID:21648321

Viljeti?, Barbara; Degmeci?, Ivan Veceslav; Krajina, Vinko; Bogdanovi?, Tomislav; Mojsovi?-Cui?, Ana; Diki?, Domagoj; Vajn, Katarina; Schnaar, Ronald L; Heffer, Marija

2011-01-01

306

Trichoderma gamsii (NFCCI 2177): a newly isolated endophytic, psychrotolerant, plant growth promoting, and antagonistic fungal strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25?°C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30?°C (optimum 25?°C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem. PMID:23564225

Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita

2014-05-01

307

Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173

Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

308

Termination of trigeminal primary afferents on glossopharyngeal-vagal motoneurons: possible neural networks underlying the swallowing phase and visceromotor responses of prey-catching behavior.  

PubMed

Prey-catching behavior (PCB) of the frog consists of a sequence of coordinated activity of muscles which is modified by various sensory signals. The aim of the present study was, for the first time, to examine the involvement of the trigeminal afferents in the swallowing phase of PCB. Experiments were performed on Rana esculenta, where the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal (IX)-vagus (X) nerves were labeled simultaneously with different fluorescent dyes. Using confocal laser scanning microscope, close appositions were detected between the trigeminal afferent fibers and somatodendritic components of the IX-X motoneurons of the ambiguus nucleus (NA). Neurolucida reconstruction revealed spatial distribution of the trigeminal afferents in the functionally different parts of the NA. Thus, the visceromotor neurons supplying the stomach, the heart and the lung received about two third of the trigeminal contacts followed by the pharyngomotor and then by the laryngomotor neurons. On the other hand, individual motoneurons responsible for innervation of the viscera received less trigeminal terminals than the neurons supplying the muscles of the pharynx. The results suggest that the direct contacts between the trigeminal afferents and IX-X motoneurons presented here may be one of the morphological substrate of a very quick response during the swallowing phase of PCB. Combination of direct and indirect trigeminal inputs may contribute to optimize the ongoing motor execution. PMID:24076270

Kecskes, Szilvia; Matesz, Clara; Birinyi, András

2013-10-01

309

CAROTENOIDS AND THE VISUAL CYCLE  

PubMed Central

1. Carotenoids have been identified and their quantities measured in the eyes of several frog species. The combined pigment epithelium and choroid layer of an R. pipiens or esculenta eye contain about 1? of xanthophyll and about 4? of vitamin A. During light adaptation the xanthophyll content falls 10 to 20 per cent. 2. Light adapted retinas contain about 0.2–0.3 ? of vitamin A alone. 3. Dark adapted retinas contain only a trace of vitamin A. The destruction of their visual purple with chloroform liberates a hitherto undescribed carotenoid, retinene. The bleaching of visual purple to visual yellow by light also liberates retinene. Free retinene is removed from the isolated retina by two thermal processes: reversion to visual purple and decomposition to colorless products, including vitamin A. This is the source of the vitamin A of the light adapted retina. 4. Isolated retinas which have been bleached and allowed to fade completely contain several times as much vitamin A as retinas from light adapted animals. The visual purple system therefore expends vitamin A and is dependent upon the diet for its replacement. 5. Visual purple behaves as a conjugated protein in which retinene is the prosthetic group. 6. Vitamin A is the precursor of visual purple as well as the product of its decomposition. The visual processes therefore constitute a cycle. PMID:19872932

Wald, George

1935-01-01

310

Comparison of European systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus and frog virus 3.  

PubMed

Iridovirus-like agents isolated from systemic infected fish (Silurus glanis, SFIR; Ictalurus melas, CFIR I, CFIR II, CFIR III) and from frogs (Rana esculenta, REIR) in Europe, Epizootic Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (EHNV) isolated in Australia from redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis), and Frog Virus 3 (FV 3) isolated from frogs (Rana pipiens) in the USA were investigated by electron microscopy, polypeptide composition, immunofluorescence, restriction endonuclease digestion, Southern-blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. All virus isolates proved to be similar in morphology and in size and reacted with EHNV polyclonal antiserum in the immunofluorescence. Whilst DNA restriction profiles of the European piscine isolates cleaved by BamH I were similar, they differed clearly from those of EHNV, REIR and FV 3. Southern-blot analysis of viral BamH I digested DNA using an EHNV DNA probe revealed cross-hybridization with DNA of the investigated iridoviruses. Using a set of primers designed for an open reading frame of the EHNV genome, PCR products of about 250 bp were obtained with the DNA of systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses. The data suggest that the systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses should be regarded as members of the the genus Ranavirus within the family Iridoviridae. PMID:9719770

Ahne, W; Bearzotti, M; Bremont, M; Essbauer, S

1998-08-01

311

Susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to a panel of ranavirus isolates.  

PubMed

Ranaviruses are considered a serious threat to lower vertebrates, including fish, amphibians and reptiles. However, epidemiological data on these agents are lacking, and further investigations are needed to understand the role of carriers and to update the list of susceptible hosts. We carried out various experimental infections under controlled conditions to contribute to the current knowledge on the susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to European catfish virus (ECV) and other ranaviruses. A panel of 7 ranavirus isolates was used to challenge duplicate groups of A. melas juveniles maintained in aquaria supplied with running dechlorinated tap water. The experiments were performed at 15 and 25 degrees C. The results confirmed the high susceptibility of A. melas to ECV infection. Furthermore, a significant mortality associated with the typical signs of systemic viral infections was observed in groups challenged with Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) at 25 degrees C, and to a lesser extent, at 15 degrees C. No significant mortality was recorded in fish challenged with European sheatfish virus (ESV), Frog virus 3 (FV3), Rana esculenta virus-like (REV-like), Bohle iridovirus (BIV) or short-finned eel virus (SERV). PMID:20815324

Gobbo, F; Cappellozza, E; Pastore, M R; Bovo, G

2010-07-01

312

Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:21565018

Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P; Catanéo, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; García-Jiménez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, René; González, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mélodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

2010-01-01

313

Availability of in vitro vitellogenin assay for screening of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin (VTG) protein, VTG mRNA, other egg yolk proteins, vitelline envelope proteins and their mRNAs are produced in the liver of oviparous species by stimulation of endogenous estrogen and exogenous estrogenic chemicals. The VTG assay based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been widely used for many fish species to screen estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of chemicals and sewage effluents using immature fish and/or male fish. In order to reduce the number of fish for screening of estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of chemicals, primary cultured fish hepatocytes can be used. In fact, primary cultured hepatocytes have been successfully used for the detection of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals in selected OECD fish species, e.g., medaka (Oryzias latipes) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchys mykiss) together with other fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), bream (Abramis brama), Carassius auratus, silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctanus). In terms of hepatocyte assays relating to other taxa, these include frogs such as Xenopus laevis and the common green frog (Rana esculenta), chickens (Gallus domesticus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus). VTG mRNA measurement by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction has also been successfully applied in the primary cultured hepatocytes of various species. PMID:16883298

Iguchi, Taisen; Irie, Fumi; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Tooi, Osamu; Kawashima, Yukio; Roberts, Mike; Norrgren, Leif; Hutchinson, Thomas

2006-01-01

314

Pyrethroid stimulation of ion transport across frog skin.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are grouped into two classes (types I and II) because of the absence or presence of an alpha-cyano substituent and the production of a different intoxication syndrome in rodents. In this study, we investigated the effect of pyrethroids on the ion transport across frog skin (Rana esculenta). The short-circuit current value (estimate of ion transport) was increased by each of the eight pyrethroids tested, with the following order of potency: lambda-cyhalothrin > deltamethrin > alpha-cypermethrin = beta-cyfluthrin > bioallethrin > permethrin > bioresmethrin > phenothrin. The first four compounds are type II pyrethroids. Therefore, ion transport is stimulated more by type II pyrethroids than by type I. Experiments performed in the presence of amiloride support the conclusion that pyrethroids mainly increase Na+ absorption and to a lesser extent Cl- secretion. In these experiments, no systematic difference between type I and II pyrethroids was found. Finally, the stimulation by pyrethroids was inhibited by indomethacin and W7 (inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and the Ca2+/calmodulin system, respectively). These observations suggest that pyrethroids do not directly affect the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) but indirectly influence an intracellular event involved in ENaC modulation and linked to the Ca2+ signaling cascade. PMID:12785591

Cassano, Giuseppe; Bellantuono, Vito; Ardizzone, Concetta; Lippe, Claudio

2003-06-01

315

Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.  

PubMed

To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-? and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-? production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-? and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-? levels and high-level production of IFN-? in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

2012-12-01

316

Genomic cloning and characterization of a PPA gene encoding a mannose-binding lectin from Pinellia pedatisecta.  

PubMed

A gene encoding a mannose-binding lectin, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA), was isolated from leaves of Pinellia pedatisecta using genomic walker technology. The ppa contained an 1140-bp 5'-upstream region, a 771-bp open reading frame (ORF) and an 829-bp 3'-downstream region. The ORF encoded a precursor polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues with a 24-amino acid signal peptide. There were one putative TATA box and six possible CAAT boxes lying in the 5'-upstream region of ppa. The ppa showed significant similarity at the nucleic acid level with genes encoding mannose-binding lectins from other Araceae species such as Pinellia ternata, Arisaema hererophyllum, Colocasia esculenta and Arum maculatum. At the amino acid level, PPA also shared varying homology (ranging from 40% to 85%) with mannose-binding lectins from other plant species, such as those from Araceae, Alliaceae, Iridaceae, Lillaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Bromeliaceae. The cloning of the ppa gene not only provides a basis for further investigation of PPA's structure, expression and regulation mechanism, but also enables us to test its potential role in controlling pests and fungal diseases by transferring the gene into tobacco and rice in the future. PMID:16845824

Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuanwei; Fei, Jiong; Liao, Zhihua; Jin, Wang; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

2006-04-01

317

Patterns of major metabolites biosynthesis by different mushroom fungi grown on glucose-based submerged cultures.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic potential of four basidiomycetes (Agrocybe aegerita, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum and Pleurotus pulmonarius) and one ascomycete (Morchella esculenta) was examined in regard to biomass, intracellular (endopolysaccharides and lipids) and extracellular (exopolysaccharides) compounds' production in liquid media with glucose as substrate, in static and agitated cultures. Exopolysaccharides' production presented significant negative correlation with biomass, endopolysaccharides and lipids, while biomass was positively related to the production of endopolysaccharides and lipids. Maximum values of biomass, endo- and exo-polysaccharides obtained were quite impressive: P. pulmonarius produced 22.5 g/L of biomass, A. aegerita 60.4 % (w/w) of endopolysaccharides and F. velutipes 1.2 g/L of exopolysaccharides. Polysaccharides and lipids synthesized at the early growth stages were subjected to degradation as the fermentation proceeded. Mycelial lipids of all strains were highly unsaturated, dominated by linoleic acid, whereas glucose was the main building block of endopolysaccharides. The ability of the examined mushroom fungi to synthesize in high quantities biomass and polysaccharides, products with biotechnological and medicinal interest, renders these fungi as potential candidates in sugar-based bio-refineries. PMID:24366161

Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

2014-07-01

318

The major tuber storage protein of araceae species is a lectin. Characterization and molecular cloning of the lectin from Arum maculatum L.  

PubMed Central

A new lectin was purified from tubers of Arum maculatum L. by affinity chromatography on immobilized asialofetuin. Although this lectin is also retained on mannose-Sepharose 4B, under the appropriate conditions free mannose is a poor inhibitor of its agglutination activity. Pure preparations of the Arum lectin apparently yielded a single polypeptide band of approximately 12 kD upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein combined with molecular cloning of the lectin have shown that the lectin is composed of two different 12-kD lectin subunits that are synthesized on a single large precursor translated from an mRNA of approximately 1400 nucleotides. Lectins with similar properties were also isolated from the Araceae species Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, and Dieffenbachia sequina Schott. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of the different Araceae lectins have shown that they are tetrameric proteins composed of lectin subunits of 12 to 14 kD. Interestingly, these lectins are the most prominent proteins in the tuber tissue. Evidence is presented that a previously described major storage protein of Colocasia tubers corresponds to the lectin. PMID:7770523

Van Damme, E J; Goossens, K; Smeets, K; Van Leuven, F; Verhaert, P; Peumans, W J

1995-01-01

319

Polyethylene glycol improves phenol removal by immobilized turnip peroxidase.  

PubMed

Purified peroxidase from turnip (Brassica napus L. var. esculenta D.C.) was immobilized by entrapment in spheres of calcium alginate and by covalent binding to Affi-Gel 10. Both immobilized Turnip peroxidase (TP) preparations were assayed for the detoxification of a synthetic phenolic solution and a real wastewater effluent from a local paints factory. The effectiveness of phenolic compounds (PC's) removal by oxidative polymerization was evaluated using batch and recycling processes, and in the presence and in the absence of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The presence of PEG enhances the operative TP stability. In addition, reaction times were reduced from 3h to 10 min, and more effective phenol removals were achieved when PEG was added. TP was able to perform 15 reaction cycles with a real industrial effluent showing PC's removals >90% PC's during the first 10 reaction cycles. High PC's removal efficiencies (>95%) were obtained using both immobilized preparations at PC's concentrations <1.2mM. Higher PC's concentrations decreased the removal efficiency to 90% with both preparations after the first reaction cycle, probably due to substrate inhibition. On the other hand, immobilized TP showed increased thermal stability when compared with free TP. A large-scale enzymatic process for industrial effluent treatment is expected to be developed with immobilized TP that could be stable enough to make the process economically feasible. PMID:18502120

Quintanilla-Guerrero, F; Duarte-Vázquez, M A; García-Almendarez, B E; Tinoco, R; Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Regalado, C

2008-12-01

320

Why amphibians are more sensitive than mammals to xenobiotics.  

PubMed

Dramatic declines in amphibian populations have been described all over the world since the 1980s. The evidence that the sensitivity to environmental threats is greater in amphibians than in mammals has been generally linked to the observation that amphibians are characterized by a rather permeable skin. Nevertheless, a numerical comparison of data of percutaneous (through the skin) passage between amphibians and mammals is lacking. Therefore, in this investigation we have measured the percutaneous passage of two test molecules (mannitol and antipyrine) and three heavily used herbicides (atrazine, paraquat and glyphosate) in the skin of the frog Rana esculenta (amphibians) and of the pig ear (mammals), by using the same experimental protocol and a simple apparatus which minimizes the edge effect, occurring when the tissue is clamped in the usually used experimental device.The percutaneous passage (P) of each substance is much greater in frog than in pig. LogP is linearly related to logKow (logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient). The measured P value of atrazine was about 134 times larger than that of glyphosate in frog skin, but only 12 times in pig ear skin. The FoD value (Pfrog/Ppig) was 302 for atrazine, 120 for antipyrine, 66 for mannitol, 29 for paraquat, and 26 for glyphosate.The differences in structure and composition of the skin between amphibians and mammals are discussed. PMID:19888346

Quaranta, Angelo; Bellantuono, Vito; Cassano, Giuseppe; Lippe, Claudio

2009-01-01

321

Agricultural Encroachment: Implications for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical African Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical wetlands have been shown to exhibit high rates of net primary productivity and may therefore play an important role in global climate change mitigation through carbon assimilation and sequestration. Many permanently flooded areas of tropical East Africa are dominated by the highly productive C4 emergent macrophyte sedge, Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus). However, increasing population densities around wetland margins in East Africa are reducing the extent of papyrus coverage due to the planting of subsistence crops such as Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). We have assessed the impact of this land use change on the carbon cycle in theis wetland environment. Eddy covariance techniques were used, on a campaign basis, to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide over both papyrus and cocoyam dominated wetlands located on the Ugandan shore of Lake Victoria. The integration of flux data over the annual cycle shows that papyrus wetlands have the potential to act as a sink for significant amounts of carbon, in the region of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The cocoyam vegetation was found to assimilate ~7 t C ha-1 yr-1 but when carbon exports from crop biomass removal were taken into account these wetlands represent a significant net loss of carbon of similar magnitude. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required in order to promote the dual wetland function of crop production and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions especially under future climate change scenarios.

Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.; Kansiime, F.

2013-12-01

322

Do epidermal lens cells facilitate the absorptance of diffuse light?  

PubMed

Many understory plants rely on diffuse light for photosynthesis because direct light is usually scattered by upper canopy layers before it strikes the forest floor. There is a considerable gap in the literature concerning the interaction of direct and diffuse light with leaves. Some understory plants have well-developed lens-shaped epidermal cells, which have long been thought to increase the absorption of diffuse light. To assess the role of epidermal cell shape in capturing direct vs. diffuse light, we measured leaf reflectance and transmittance with an integrating sphere system using leaves with flat (Begonia erythrophylla, Citrus reticulata, and Ficus benjamina) and lens-shaped epidermal cells (B. bowerae, Colocasia esculenta, and Impatiens velvetea). In all species examined, more light was absorbed when leaves were irradiated with direct as opposed to diffuse light. When leaves were irradiated with diffuse light, more light was transmitted and more was reflected in both leaf types, resulting in absorptance values 2-3% lower than in leaves irradiated with direct light. These data suggest that lens-shaped epidermal cells do not aid the capture of diffuse light. Palisade and mesophyll cell anatomy and leaf thickness appear to have more influence in the capture and absorption of light than does epidermal cell shape. PMID:21636475

Brodersen, Craig R; Vogelmann, Thomas C

2007-07-01

323

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-01-01

324

SNP markers identify widely distributed clonal lineages of Phytophthora colocasiae in Vietnam, Hawaii and Hainan Island, China.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important food crop, and taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae can significantly affect production. Our objectives were to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for P. colocasiae and characterize populations in Hawaii (HI), Vietnam (VN) and Hainan Island, China (HIC). In total, 379 isolates were analyzed for mating type and multilocus SNP profiles including 214 from HI, 97 from VN and 68 from HIC. A total of 1152 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites were identified via restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of two field isolates. Genotyping with 27 SNPs revealed 41 multilocus SNP genotypes grouped into seven clonal lineages containing 2-232 members. Three clonal lineages were shared among countries. In addition, five SNP markers had a low incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) during asexual laboratory growth. For HI and VN, >95% of isolates were the A2 mating type. On HIC, isolates within single clonal lineages had A1, A2 and A0 (neuter) isolates. The implications for the wide dispersal of clonal lineages are discussed. PMID:24895424

Shrestha, Sandesh; Hu, Jian; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout; Mudge, Joann; Lamour, Kurt

2014-01-01

325

Performance of chickpea, lentil and lupin nodulated with indigenous or inoculated rhizobia micropartners under nitrogen, boron, cobalt and molybdenum fertilization schedules.  

PubMed

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens esculenta) and lupin (Lupinus albus) responded to inoculation with their respective symbiotants:Rhizobium loti, Rhizobium leguminosarum biovarviceae andBradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) alone or with (NH4)2SO4 at 30 ppm N. Soil application of Na2MoO4.2H2O at 3 ppm Mo, CoCl2.6H2O at 2 ppm Co(2+) or Na2B4O7.10H2O at 1 ppm B with 0 and 30 ppm N increased nodule weight and plant dry weight and N-content 60 days after sowing and seed yield, seed size and the N and P contents of seed. Nodule numbers slightly decreased with application of such chemicals. Mo enhanced performance of the three plants more than Co and B. Yield, total N and P-contents of lupin were comparable with those of chickpea or lentil and lupin had the highest levels of both N2-fixation and N absorption from the fertilizer. IndigenousR. leguminosarum biovarviceae was more established in the soil compared with the other two, chickpea and lupin, micropartners. PMID:24425609

Yanni, Y G

1992-11-01

326

Potassium currents and conductance. Comparison between motor and sensory myelinated fibers.  

PubMed Central

The potassium conductance system of sensory and motor fibers from the frog Rana esculenta were studied and compared by means of the voltage clamp. The potassium ion accumulation was first estimated from the currents and reversal potentials within the framework of both a three-compartment model and diffusion-in-an-unstirred-layer model. The potassium conductance parameters were then computed using the measured currents and corrected ionic driving forces. It was found that the potassium accumulation is faster and more pronounced in sensory fibers, the voltage dependency of the potassium conductance is steeper in sensory fibers, the maximal potassium conductance, corrected for accumulation, is approximately 1.1 S/cm2 in sensory and 0.55 S/cm2 in motor fibers, and that the conductance time constants, tau n, are smaller in sensory than in motor fibers. These differences, which increase progressively with depolarization, are not detectable for depolarization of 50 mV or smaller. The interpretation of these findings in terms of different types of potassium channels as well as their implications with regard to the differences between the excitability phenomena in motor and sensory fibers are discussed. PMID:6973371

Palti, Y; Moran, N; Stampfli, R

1980-01-01

327

Adaptability in stone tool use by wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus).  

PubMed

Capuchin monkeys are well known for population variation in the use of stone tools and the types of food items consumed. In order to determine adaptability in stone tool use, we investigated a never before studied population of wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus) displaying terrestrial habits in a Caatinga environment. To carry out this study we recorded physical evidence of the use of stone tools as well as made direct observations through trap cameras. During a 15-month period, we studied a group of Sapajus libidinosus in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 257 anvils and 395 hammers were identified, characterized, and monitored. We identified five types of food items exploited at these "tool use sites": Syagrus oleracea (catolé palm), Manihot epruinosa (manioc), Pilosocereus pachycladus (facheiro), Tacinga inamoena (quípa), and Commiphora leptophloeos (imburana de cambão). Five hundred three video clips of capuchin monkeys were recorded, 43 of which involved the use of stone tools. The results indicated evidence of adaptability in tool use by the capuchins. We verified that the rigidity and size of the food item, along with the presence or absence of spines seem to influence the choice of stone tools made by the animals for processing the food. The recurring use of tools for the processing of cacti was especially noteworthy and it appears that the presence of spines predisposes the capuchins to use stones to process them. A significant difference was observed between the characteristics of the anvils and the weight of the hammers according to the food item consumed. The use of tools enabled the animals to access otherwise unavailable or difficult to acquire food items within a Caatinga habitat. Adaptability in the use of stone tools by the capuchin monkey population of Serra Talhada provides an example of the complexity that these primates demonstrate in food processing. PMID:24753103

De Moraes, Bárbara Lins Caldas; Da Silva Souto, Antonio; Schiel, Nicola

2014-10-01

328

Prophylactic effects of quercetin and hyperoside in a calcium oxalate stone forming rat model.  

PubMed

Quercetin and hyperoside (QH) are the two main constituents of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot, which has been prescribed for treating chronic kidney disease for decades. This study aimed to investigate the effect of QH on calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-fed rats. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated stone-forming group, a QH-treated stone-forming group (20 mg/kg/day) and a potassium citrate-treated stone-forming group (potassium citrate was a worldwide-recognized calculi-prophylactic medicine). Ethylene glycol (0.5 %) was administered to the rats during the last week, and vitamin D3 was force-fed to induce hyperoxaluria and kidney calcium oxalate crystal deposition. 24 h urine samples were collected before and after inducing crystal deposits. Rats were killed and both kidneys were harvested after 3 weeks. Bisected kidneys were examined under a polarized light microscope for semi-quantification of the crystal-formation. The renal tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were measured by Western blot. QH and potassium citrate have the ability to alkalinize urine. The number of crystal deposits decreased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group as compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase levels also increased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group, as compared with the untreated stone-forming group. QH administration has an inhibitory effect on the deposition of CaOx crystal in EG-fed rats and may be effective for preventing stone-forming disease. PMID:25085199

Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yun-Fei; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Bo; Che, Jian-Ping; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-Hua

2014-12-01

329

[Cloning, expression and preliminary application of a alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase from cassave].  

PubMed

alpha-Hydroxynitrile lyase (ME-HNLs, E.C. 4.1.2.3.37) from the cyanogenic crop cassava(Manihot esculentz, Crantz) catalyze the condensation of hydrocyanic acid and aldehydes or ketone into (s)-cyanohydrins, which are valuable starting material for various optically active compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. The cDNA of a ME-HNL were obtained by RT-PCR and cloned. The sequencing result for the cDNA showed that the sequence encoded for the ME-HNL was inconsistent with all those which are published, such as hnl10, hnl24, hnl4. The full sequence analysis demonstrated that the cloned cDNA was about 75.2%, 79.8%, 99.2% homologous to other three reported HNL genes from cassava, respectively, among which the last was the same to the cloned gene except the five base substitution at the site 142, 337, 476, 634 and 636, respectively. The two base substitutions lead to change the amino acid sequence, i.e., Ser113-->Gly113, Phe158-->Tyr158. To construct the recombinant plasmid pET30a-hnl, the cDNA was inserted into an expression vector pET30a. After transformation of pET30a-hnl and induction with IPTG, the ME-HNL was efficiently expressed in E. coli. BL21 (DE3) and reached over 2100 units/L of culture with the specific activity 8.5 u/mg protein. By one simple treatment, incubating 10 minutes at 70 degrees C, the recombinant ME-HNL may be used as an catalyst for production of (S)-mandelonitrile with enantiomeric excess of 95.2% and 98.2% yield. PMID:11330194

Cheng, S H; Yan, G H; Wu, J; Sun, W R

2001-01-01

330

2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Palau and everywhere in the world, coastal coral reefs are threatened by sedimentation resulting from land clearing in the watersheds. Palau's largest island of Babeldaob is particularly susceptible to significant erosion due to its steep topography, high rainfall, and highly erodible volcanic soil. Previous studies have shown the damaging impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. Related studies conducted in Micronesia have also documented that mangroves can trap about 30% of the fine eroded sediment from land. This paper examines the sediment trapping capability of cultivated wetlands, in particular taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields, which are natural wetlands used to grow taro, a main staple crop for the population. A 7-months long field study was undertaken to quantify the sediment accumulation rate for taro fields and to determine their sediment trapping efficiency. The results showed that the taro fields were able to trap on average 90% of sediment, therefore sheltering coastal coral reefs and their fisheries from the negative impacts of terrestrial runoff. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the combined sediment trapping capacity of taro fields and mangroves helped reduce sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. This enabled human settlement for over 2000 years on a small Pacific Island with the main staple food being taro for starch and reef fish for protein. Even with a population of 30,000 people over Babeldaob Island, the living was sustainable for at least 1000 years, implying that the population was able to survive and prosper with its main food being the starch from taro fields and protein from reef fish. While there was intensive cultivation on land the sustainability of reef fisheries must have required that the reef be sheltered from excessive soil erosion.The structure of the taro field (mesei) initialized by the Palauan ancestors, has been maintained to this day. Their development, probably mostly after about A.D. 900 to 1100, was presumably the culmination of accelerated erosion in the island's interior following extensive clearing of the vegetation on slopes. Sediment analyses, radiocarbon dating, and archaeological investigations indicate substantial inland land disturbance starting around 2400 years ago (Liston and Tuggle, 2006; Liston, 2009). These findings almost certainly signify the use of the interior of Babeldaob Island by this time, including the onset of major earthwork (terrace) construction. Intensive and extensive inland use continued for about another 1200 years. The continuous deposition of inland erosional soils expanded the coastal plains and formed expansive fertile wetlands” (Athens, 2009).Culturally in Palau taro fields were tendered by women (Del Rosario and Esguerra, 2003). In other parts of Micronesia, taro is planted in well drained mixed gardens or ditches (Falanruw, 1980; Englberger et al., 2009). In Palau taro is commonly grown in swampy areas, often man-made, in the lowlands usually just upstream of the mangrove areas. Traditional management of taro cultivation in Palau can be considered a type of intensive agricultural method found in societies that possess a complex social structure that is reflected in traditional Palauan society. Taro cultivation in Palau is an amalgamation of skills and knowledge for both the plant and agricultural system.Palau taro field structure, regulations of water flow and management have persisted for many generations and have proven to an integral part of Palauan life which continues to be seen today. Taro fields are distinguished separately depending on cultivation methods and taro species being planted. To illustrate, an omrekongel is a marsh land in which giant taro (Cyrtosperma merkusii) is planted. A mesei is an irrigated wet land for planting taro (Colocasia esculenta) and dechel is a marsh land where taro and giant taro is cultivated (Palau Society of Historians, 2001). Culturally, Cyrtosperma is treated as a food source for famine where it has high r

Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

2014-05-01

331

Quantifying Nitrogen Loss From Flooded Hawaiian Taro Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004 a field fertilization experiment showed that approximately 80% of the fertilizer nitrogen (N) added to flooded Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields could not be accounted for using classic N balance calculations. To quantify N loss through denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathways in these taro systems we utilized a slurry-based isotope pairing technique (IPT). Measured nitrification rates and porewater N profiles were also used to model ammonium and nitrate fluxes through the top 10 cm of soil. Quantitative PCR of nitrogen cycling functional genes was used to correlate porewater N dynamics with potential microbial activity. Rates of denitrification calculated using porewater profiles were compared to those obtained using the slurry method. Potential denitrification rates of surficial sediments obtained with the slurry method were found to drastically overestimate the calculated in-situ rates. The largest discrepancies were present in fields greater than one month after initial fertilization, reflecting a microbial community poised to denitrify the initial N pulse. Potential surficial nitrification rates varied between 1.3% of the slurry-measured denitrification potential in a heavily-fertilized site to 100% in an unfertilized site. Compared to the use of urea, fish bone meal fertilizer use resulted in decreased N loss through denitrification in the surface sediment, according to both porewater modeling and IPT measurements. In addition, sub-surface porewater profiles point to root-mediated coupled nitrification/denitrification as a potential N loss pathway that is not captured in surface-based incubations. Profile-based surface plus subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification estimates were between 1.1 and 12.7 times denitrification estimates from the surface only. These results suggest that the use of a ‘classic’ isotope pairing technique that employs 15NO3- in fertilized agricultural systems can lead to a drastic overestimation of in-situ denitrification rates and that root-associated subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification may be a major N loss pathway in these flooded agricultural systems.

Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Bruland, G. L.; Popp, B. N.; Engstrom, P.; Mueller, J. A.; Tiedje, J.

2010-12-01

332

Effects of aminoperimidine on electrolyte transport across amphibian skin.  

PubMed

The effect of aminoperimidine (AP) on transepithelial Na+ transport and Cl- conductance (G(Cl)) of isolated amphibian skin (Bufo viridis and Rana esculenta) was analyzed using transepithelial and intracellular electrophysiological techniques. AP, applied at concentrations between 30 and 100 microM from the mucosal side, stimulated Na+ transport rapidly and reversibly by more than 30% of the control value due to an increase in apical membrane Na+ permeability. Influence of AP on basolateral membrane conductance and effective driving force for Na+ were negligible. Voltage-activated G(Cl) of toad skin, but not the resting, deactivated conductance, as well as spontaneously high G(Cl) in frog skin was rapidly inhibited by AP in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 20 microM is the highest hitherto reported inhibitory power for G(Cl) in amphibian skin. The effect of AP on G(Cl) was slowly and incompletely reversible even after brief exposure to the agent. Serosal application of AP had similar, albeit delayed effects on both Na+ and Cl- transport. AP did not interfere with the Cl- pathway after it was opened by 100-300 microM CPT-cAMP, a membrane-permeable, nonhydrolyzed analogue of cAMP. Inhibition of the voltage-activated G(Cl) by AP was attenuated or missing when AP was applied during voltage perturbation to serosa-positive potentials. Since AP is positively charged at physiological pH, it suggests that the affected site is located inside the Cl- pathway at a certain distance from the external surface. AP affects then the Na+ and Cl- transport pathways independent of each other. The nature of chemical interference with AP, which is responsible for the influence on the transport of Na+ and Cl-, remains to be elucidated. PMID:9694348

Nagel, W; Shalitin, Y; Katz, U

1998-01-01

333

Chloride-related current fluctuation in amphibian skin.  

PubMed

Fluctuation in transepithelial current was analysed in skins of Rana esculenta and Bufo viridis. Perturbation of the tissues to serosa + 40 mV or + 80 mV activated a pathway for conductive Cl transport and led to the appearance of a Lorentzian component in the power density spectrum. The presence of Cl on the mucosal side was mandatory for the observation of Lorentzians. Corner frequencies, fc, ranged between 48 Hz and 102 Hz. The mean value was slightly larger at 40 mV than at 80 mV (88.3 +/- 4.4 versus 72.5 +/- 6.4 Hz). Plateau values, So, were proportional to the magnitude of the activated Cl current. Single-channel currents of 48.3 +/- 5.2 fA and 93.0 +/- 8.7 fA were calculated at 40 mV and 80 mV, respectively, with the assumption of equal open and closed probabilities of the channels. From these data, a voltage-dependent open-channel conductance of about 1.2 pS is obtained. Activation of Cl conductance was associated with an increase in channel density. Stimulation of Cl conductance by procaine did not affect So and fc despite considerable stimulation of transepithelial Cl current. This could indicate that non-gated channels participate in the voltage-sensitive Cl conductance. Mucosal application of inhibitors of Cl conductance (3',5-dichlorodiphenylaminocarboxy acid, MK-196) decreased So in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on fc. The data could support the hypothesis that the voltage-sensitive transepithelial Cl transport is localized to a cellular compartment, which is most likely the mitochondria-rich cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1658724

Nagel, W; Van Driessche, W

1991-07-01

334

Potential of trap crops for integrated management of the tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura in tobacco.  

PubMed

The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20-30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

2010-01-01

335

Hypothalamus-pituitary axis: An obligatory target for endocannabinoids to inhibit steroidogenesis in frog testis.  

PubMed

Endocannabinoids - primarily anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) - are lipophilic molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). They affect neuroendocrine activity inhibiting gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and testosterone production in rodents, through a molecular mechanism supposed to be hypothalamus dependent. In order to investigate such a role, we choose the seasonal breeder, the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, an experimental model in which components of the endocannabinoid system have been characterized. In February, at the onset of a new spermatogenetic wave, we carried out in vitro incubations of frog testis with AEA, at 10(-9)M dose. Such a treatment had no effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (cyp17) nor 3-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?-5-4 isomerase (3?-HSD), key enzymes of steroidogenesis. To understand whether or not the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis could be essential to support the role of endocannabinoids in steroidogenesis, frogs were injected with AEA, at 10(-8)M dose. Differently from in vitro experiment, the in vivo administration of AEA reduced the expression of cyp17 and 3?-HSD. Whereas the effect on 3?-HSD was counteracted by SR141716A (Rimonabant) - a selective antagonist of CB1, thus indicating a CB1 dependent modulation - the effect on cyp17 was not, suggesting a possible involvement of receptors other than CB1, probably the type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), since AEA works as an endocannabinoid and an endovanilloid as well. In conclusion our results indicate that endocannabinoids, via CB1, inhibit the expression of 3?-HSD in frog testis travelling along the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. PMID:24566122

Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

2014-09-01

336

Serum IGF-1 Concentrations Change With Soy and Seaweed Supplements in Healthy Postmenopausal American Women  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations. PMID:21711174

Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.; Savarese, Todd M.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

2011-01-01

337

The contributions of filaments and cross-bridges to sarcomere compliance in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Force generation in the muscle sarcomere is driven by the head domain of the myosin molecule extending from the thick filament to form cross-bridges with the actin-containing thin filament. Following attachment, a structural working stroke in the head pulls the thin filament towards the centre of the sarcomere, producing, under unloaded conditions, a filament sliding of ?11 nm. The mechanism of force generation by the myosin head depends on the relationship between cross-bridge force and movement, which is determined by compliances of the cross-bridge (Ccb) and filaments. By measuring the force dependence of the spacing of the high-order myosin- and actin-based X-ray reflections from sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta we find a combined filament compliance (Cf) of 13.1 ± 1.2 nm MPa(-1), close to recent estimates from single fibre mechanics (12.8 ± 0.5 nm MPa(-1)). Ccb calculated using these estimates is 0.37 ± 0.12 nm pN(-1), a value fully accounted for by the compliance of the myosin head domain, 0.38 ± 0.06 nm pN(-1), obtained from the intensity changes of the 14.5 nm myosin-based X-ray reflection in response to 3 kHz oscillations imposed on single muscle fibres in rigor. Thus, a significant contribution to Ccb from the myosin tail that joins the head to the thick filament is excluded. The low Ccb value indicates that the myosin head generates isometric force by a small sub-step of the 11 nm stroke that drives filament sliding at low load. The implications of these results for the mechanism of force generation by myosins have general relevance for cardiac and non-muscle myosins as well as for skeletal muscle. PMID:25015916

Brunello, Elisabetta; Caremani, Marco; Melli, Luca; Linari, Marco; Fernandez-Martinez, Manuel; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Irving, Malcolm; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Reconditi, Massimo

2014-09-01

338

Potential of Trap Crops for Integrated Management of the Tropical Armyworm, Spodoptera litura in Tobacco  

PubMed Central

The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20–30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

2010-01-01

339

Akt/eNOS signaling and PLN S-sulfhydration are involved in H?S-dependent cardiac effects in frog and rat.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H?S) has recently emerged as an important mediator of mammalian cardiovascular homeostasis. In nonmammalian vertebrates, little is known about the cardiac effects of H?S. This study aimed to evaluate, in the avascular heart of the frog, Rana esculenta, whether and to what extent H?S affects the cardiac performance, and what is the mechanism of action responsible for the observed effects. Results were analyzed in relation to those obtained in the rat heart, used as the mammalian model. Isolated and perfused (working and Langendorff) hearts, Western blot analysis, and modified biotin switch (S-sulfhydration) assay were used. In the frog heart, NaHS (used as H?S donor, 10?¹²/10?? M) dose-dependently decreased inotropism. This effect was reduced by glibenclamide (KATP channels blocker), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NOS inhibitor), 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), KT???? (PKG inhibitor), and it was blocked by Akt1/2 (Akt inhibitor) and by detergent Triton X-100. In the rat, in addition to the classic negative inotropic effect, NaHS (10?¹²/10?? M) exhibited negative lusitropism. In both frog and rat hearts, NaHS treatment induced Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and an increased cardiac protein S-sulfhydration that, in the rat heart, includes phospholamban. Our data suggest that H?S represents a phylogenetically conserved cardioactive molecule. Results obtained on the rat heart extend the role of H?S also to cardiac relaxation. H?S effects involve KATP channels, the Akt/NOS-cGMP/PKG pathway, and S-sulfhydration of cardiac proteins. PMID:23785074

Mazza, Rosa; Pasqua, Teresa; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Angelone, Tommaso; Gattuso, Alfonsina

2013-08-15

340

Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?  

PubMed

Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1) D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability to better understand the factors and processes that shape marine communities. PMID:24859311

Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

2014-01-01

341

Anandamide regulates the expression of GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH-Rs in frog testis.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (either GnRH1 or GnRH2) exerts a local activity in vertebrate testis, including human testis. Relationships between endocannabinoid (eCB) and GnRH systems in gonads have never been elucidated in any species so far. To reveal a cross-talk between eCBs and GnRH at testicular level, we characterized the expression of GnRH (GnRH1 and GnRH2) as well as GnRH receptor (GnRH-R1, -R2, and -R3) mRNA in the testis of the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta during the annual sexual cycle; furthermore, the corresponding transcripts were localized inside the testis by in situ hybridization. The possible endogenous production of the eCB, anandamide (AEA), was investigated in testis by analyzing the expression of its biosynthetic enzyme, Nape-pld. Incubations of testis pieces with AEA were carried out in the postreproductive period (June) and in February, when a new spermatogenetic wave takes place. In June, AEA treatment significantly decreased GnRH1 and GnRH-R2 mRNA, stimulated the transcription of GnRH2 and GnRH-R1, and did not affect GnRH-R3 expression. In February, AEA treatment upregulated GnRH2 and GnRH-R3 mRNA, downregulated GnRH-R2, and did not affect GnRH1 and GnRH-R1 expression. These effects were mediated by type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) since they were fully counteracted by SR141716A (Rimonabant), a selective CB1 antagonist. In conclusion, eCB system modulates GnRH activity in frog testis during the annual sexual cycle in a stage-dependent fashion. PMID:22669247

Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Scarpa, Donatella; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

2012-08-15

342

High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding.  

PubMed

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot glaziovii and a dominant monogenic type of resistance, named CMD2, discovered in African landraces. The ability of the monogenic resistance to confer high levels of resistance in different genetic backgrounds has led recently to its extensive usage in breeding across Africa as well as pre-emptive breeding in Latin America. However, most of the landraces carrying the monogenic resistance are morphologically very similar and come from a geographically restricted area of West Africa, raising the possibility that the diversity of the single-gene resistance could be very limited, or even located at a single locus. Several mapping studies, employing bulk segregant analysis, in different genetic backgrounds have reported additional molecular markers linked to supposedly new resistance genes. However, it is not possible to tell if these are indeed new genes in the absence adequate genetic map framework or allelism tests. To address this important question, a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of cassava was developed through genotyping-by-sequencing a bi-parental mapping population (N=180) that segregates for the dominant monogenic resistance to CMD. Virus screening using PCR showed that CMD symptoms and presence of virus were strongly correlated (r=0.98). Genome-wide scan and high-resolution composite interval mapping using 6756 SNPs uncovered a single locus with large effect (R(2)=0.74). Projection of the previously published resistance-linked microsatellite markers showed that they co-occurred in the same chromosomal location surrounding the presently mapped resistance locus. Moreover, their relative distance to the mapped resistance locus correlated with the reported degree of linkage with the resistance phenotype. Cluster analysis of the landraces first shown to have this type of resistance revealed that they are very closely related, if not identical. These findings suggest that there is a single source of monogenic resistance in the crop's genepool tracing back to a common ancestral clone. In the absence of further resistance diversification, the long-term effectiveness of the single gene resistance is known to be precarious, given the potential to be overcome by CMGs due to their fast-paced evolutionary rate. However, combining the quantitative with the qualitative type of resistance may ensure that this resistance gene continues to offer protection to cassava, a crop that is depended upon by millions of people in Africa against the devastating onslaught of CMGs. PMID:24389096

Rabbi, Ismail Y; Hamblin, Martha T; Kumar, P Lava; Gedil, Melaku A; Ikpan, Andrew S; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Kulakow, Peter A

2014-06-24

343

Cell proliferation and death in the brain of active and hibernating frogs  

PubMed Central

‘Binomial’ cell proliferation and cell death have been studied in only a few non-mammalian vertebrates, such as fish. We thought it of interest to map cell proliferation/apoptosis in the brain of the frog (Rana esculenta L.) as this animal species undergoes, during the annual cycle, physiological events that could be associated with central nervous system damage. Therefore, we compared the active period and the deep underground hibernation of the frog. Using western blot analysis for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), we revealed a positive 36 kDa band in all samples and found higher optical density values in the hibernating frogs than in active frogs. In both active and hibernating frogs, we found regional differences in PCNA-immunoreactive cells and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labelling apoptotic cells in the ventricular zones and parenchyma areas of the main encephalon subdivisions. During the active period of the frogs, the highest concentration of PCNA-immunoreactive cells was found in the ventricle dorsal zone of the cerebral hemispheres but only some of the cells were apoptotic. By contrast, the tectal and cerebellar ventricular zones had a small or medium amount of PCNA-immunoreactive cells, respectively, and a higher number of apoptotic cells. During hibernation, an increased PCNA-immunoreactive cell number was observed in both the brain ventricles and parenchyma compared with active frogs. This increase was primarily evident in the lateral ventricles, a region known to be a proliferation ‘hot spot’. Although differences existed among the brain areas, a general increase of apoptotic cell death was found in hibernating frogs, with the highest number of apoptotic cells being detected in the parenchyma of the cerebral hemispheres and optic tectum. In particular, the increased number of apoptotic cells in the hibernating frogs compared with active frogs in the parenchyma of these brain areas occurred when cell proliferation was higher in the corresponding ventricular zones. We suggest that the high number of dying cells found in the parenchymal regions of hibernating frogs might provide the stimulus for the ventricular zones to proliferate. Hibernating frogs could utilize an increased cell proliferation in the brain areas as a neuroprotective strategy to face cell death and the onset of neurological damages. Therefore, the hibernator promises to be a valuable model for studying the mechanisms naturally carried out by the central nervous system in order to adapt itself or survive adverse conditions. PMID:19531087

Cerri, Silvia; Bottiroli, Giovanni; Bottone, Maria Grazia; Barni, Sergio; Bernocchi, Graziella

2009-01-01

344

The Protective Effect of Esculentoside A on Experimental Acute Liver Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory response and oxidative stress are considered to play an important role in the development of acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Esculentoside A (EsA), isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, has the effect of modulating immune response, cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as anti-inflammatory effects. The present study is to evaluate the protective effect of EsA on CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury. In vitro, CCK-8 assays showed that EsA had no cytotoxicity, while it significantly reduced levels of TNF-? and cell death rate challenged by CCl4. Moreover, EsA treatment up-regulated PPAR-? expression of LO2 cells and reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) challenged by CCl4. In vivo, EsA prevented mice from CCl4-induced liver histopathological damage. In addition, levels of AST and ALT were significantly decreased by EsA treatment. Furthermore, the mice treated with EsA had a lower level of TNF-?, Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in mRNA expression. EsA prevented MDA release and increased GSH-Px activity in liver tissues. Immunohistochemical staining showed that over-expression of F4/80 and CD11b were markedly inhibited by EsA. The western bolt results showed that EsA significantly inhibited CCl4-induced phosphonated IkBalpha (P-I?B) and ERK. Furthermore, EsA treatment also alleviated GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury on liver enzyme and histopathological damage. Unfortunately, our results exhibited that EsA had no effects on CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis which were showed by TUNEL staining and Bax, Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3 expression. Our results proved that EsA treatment attenuated CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice and its protective effects might be involved in inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress, but not apoptosis with its underlying mechanism associated with PPAR-?, NF-?B and ERK signal pathways. PMID:25405982

Wang, Junjie; Fang, He; Wang, Zhihong; Sun, Yu; Xia, Zhaofan

2014-01-01

345

Natural pesticides and bioactive components in foods.  

PubMed

In this review, some common food plants and their toxic or otherwise bioactive components and mycotoxin contaminants have been considered. Crucifers contain naturally occurring components that are goitrogenic, resulting from the combined action of allyl isothiocyanate, goitrin, and thiocyanate. Although crucifers may provide some protection from cancer when taken prior to a carcinogen, when taken after a carcinogen they act as promoters of carcinogenesis. The acid-condensed mixture of indole-3-carbinol (a component of crucifers) binds to the TCDD receptor and causes responses similar to those of TCDD. Herbs contain many biologically active components, with more than 20% of the commercially prepared human drugs coming from these plants. Onion and garlic juices can help to prevent the rise of serum cholesterol. Most herbs used in treatments may have many natural constituents that act oppositely from their intended use. Some herbs like Bishop's week seed contain carcinogens, and many contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids that can cause cirrhosis of the liver. The general phytoalexin response in plants (including potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, celery, and sweet potatoes) induced by external stimuli can increase the concentrations of toxic chemical constituents in those plants. In potatoes, two major indigenous compounds are alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, which are human plasma cholinesterase inhibitors and teratogens in animals. Because of its toxicity, the potato variety Lenape was withdrawn from the market. Celery, parsley, and parsnips contain the linear furanocoumarin phytoalexins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin that can cause photosensitization and also are photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic. Celery field workers and handlers continually have photosensitization problems as a result of these indigenous celery furanocoumarins. A new celery cultivar (a result of plant breeding to produce a more pest-resistant variety) was responsible for significant incidences of phytophotodermatitis of grocery employees. Since there is no regulatory agency or body designated to oversee potential toxicological issues associated with naturally occurring toxicants, photodermatitis continues to occur from celery exposure. Sweet potatoes contain phytoalexins that can cause lung edema and are hepatotoxic to mice. At least one of these, 4-ipomeanol, can cause extensive lung clara cell necrosis and can increase the severity of pneumonia in mice. Some phytoalexins in sweet potatoes are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic to mice. The common mushroom Agaricus bisporus contains benzyl alcohol as its most abundant volatile, and A. bisporus and Gyromitra esculenta both contain hydrazine analogues. Mycotoxins are found in corn, cottonseed, fruits, grains, grain sorghums, and nuts (especially peanuts); therefore, they also occur in apple juice, bread, peanut butter, and other products made from contaminated starting materials.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2404325

Beier, R C

1990-01-01

346

Measurement of the conductance of the sodium channel from current fluctuations at the node of Ranvier.  

PubMed Central

Single myelinated nerve fibres of Rana esculenta were investigated under voltage clamp conditions at 13 degrees C. Fluctuations of steady-state membrane current were measured during the last 152 msec of 190-225 msec pulses depolarizing the membrane by 8-48 mV. Noise power spectral densities were calculated in the frequency range of 6-6-6757 Hz. 2. External application of 150 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or 10 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) ion reduced the current fluctuations. The difference of current noise spectra measured in the presence and absence of TTX (TEA) was not changed by the presence of TEA (TTX) during both measurements, and was taken as the spectrum of the Na (K) current fluctuations. 3. Residual current noise during application of both TTX and TEA was, except for some excess noise at the low and high frequency ends of the spectrum, similar to the noise measured from a passive nerve model and could be understood in terms of Nyquist noise of the known resistances and the amplifier noise. 4. Na current fluctuation spectra were interpreted as the sum N/f+SNa(f) where SNa(F) represents the spectrum expected for a set of equal, independent Na channels with only two conductance states (open or closed) which follow Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. With values of hinfinity, tauh and minfinity measured from macroscopic Na currents, the measured spectra were fitted well by optimizing N, SNa(0) and taum. Values of taum obtained by this method were in fair agreement with values found from macroscopic currents. 5. The 1/f component of Na current noise was roughly proportional to the square of the steady-state Na current, I2. The mean value of N/I2 was (1-1 +/- 0-3) X 10(-4). 6. The current carried by a single Na channel was calculated from fitted spectra and steady-state Na currents measured simultaneously with the current fluctuations. The single channel conductance gamma normalized to zero absolute membrane potential was calculated. The average gamma from twelve measurements at depolarizations of 8-40 mV was 7-9 +/- 0-9 pS (S.E. of mean). The apparent value of gamma was smallest with small depolarizations. Variations of the assumed kinetic properties of the model did not drastically affect the single channel conductance. 7. External application of 0-1 mM-Ni ion lengthened taum in the macroscopic currents and in the fluctuation spectra and enhanced both the steady-state Na current and the current fluctuations. In Ni-treated nodes gamma was smaller than in normal nodes. PMID:1087643

Conti, F; Hille, B; Neumcke, B; Nonner, W; Stampfli, R

1976-01-01