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Sample records for yuca manihot esculenta

  1. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava. PMID:25416250

  2. Household utilization of Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Northern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Muoki, Penina N; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie

    2010-01-01

    Mozambique is ranked ninth of top manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) producing countries in the world. Manioc roots are a staple to people living in the northern part of the country. Despite this, information on production, utilization, postharvest handling, and marketing is scarce. The purpose of this baseline study was to document selected information on manioc, from the production to marketing stage. To gather this information, 70 focus groups consisting of 1,724 participants purposely sampled from 10 districts were engaged in discussions using a questionnaire. The results show that manioc is the most important crop in terms of contribution to household food security and income in the region. Both men and women participate in the delivery of manioc production chain. Typically, 5 to 15 varieties identified by local language can be found on most farms in the study area. Manioc leaves and roots are the parts of the plant used as human food. Sun dried manioc roots are principally marketed within the locality of production by individual farmers. This baseline study suggests the need for location-targeted interventions as the farmers reported varied challenges along the manioc production chain. PMID:21888575

  3. Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

  4. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  5. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21–24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop. PMID:26799216

  6. Nutritional composition of "gari" analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

    2014-11-01

    Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist. PMID:25493189

  7. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development

    PubMed Central

    Perera, P. I. P.; Ordoñez, C. A.; Dedicova, B.; Ortega, P. E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu2+ and Fe2+) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in cassava. This is the first ever detailed report of microspore reprogramming at the tetrad stage and the first report of microspore embryogenesis induction in cassava with detailed evidence. PMID:24887001

  8. Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone areas and on marginal so...

  9. Nutritional composition of “gari” analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber

    PubMed Central

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist. PMID:25493189

  10. Tuberization in Cassava (Manihot esculenta): Cytokinin and Abscisic Acid Activity in Tuberous Roots.

    PubMed

    Melis, R J; van Staden, J

    1985-03-01

    The nature and distribution of cytokinins and abscisic acid in tuberous roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was studied. Trans-ribosylzeatin, dihydrozeatin and trans-zeatin were tentatively identified as the major cytokinins in tuberous root extracts. Cytokinin activity was concentrated in the meristematic region of the secondary xylem and in the phloem. This suggests a role for cytokinins in the regulation of meristematic activity which is responsible for the growth of the tuberous roots. Some cytokinin activity which co-eluted with cytokinin glucosides was found in extracts from the phloem. Inhibitor activity which was tentatively identified as cis-abscisic acid was present in tuberous root extracts. The activity of this hormone did not vary greatly between the different tissues analysed. PMID:23196078

  11. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-01

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research. PMID:23899040

  12. Pathological and Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris Strains Causing Diseases of Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Valérie; Boher, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; Geiger, Jean-Paul

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-one strains representing Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis and cassavae and different pathovars occurring on plants of the family Euphorbiaceae were characterized by ribotyping with a 16S+23S rRNA probe of Escherichia coli and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with a plasmid probe from X. campestris pv. manihotis. Pathogenicity tests were performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta). Histological comparative studies were conducted on strains of two pathovars of X. campestris (vascular and mesophyllic) that attack cassava. Our results indicated that X. campestris pv. manihotis and cassavae have different modes of action in the host and supplemented the taxonomic data on restriction fragment length polymorphism that clearly separate the two pathovars. The plasmid probe could detect multiple restriction fragment length polymorphisms among strains of the pathovar studied. Ribotyping provides a useful tool for rapid identification of X. campestris pathovars on cassava. Images PMID:16349463

  13. A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    PubMed Central

    Vsquez-Ordez, Aymer Andrs; Parsa, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIATs Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

  14. Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, So Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from So Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

  15. Neurotoxic effect of linamarin in rats associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) consumption.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra-Domnguez, Eduardo; Vzquez-Luna, Alma; Rodrguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Daz-Sobac, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a plant widely used for food consumption in different processed products in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Cassava is a good source of carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, if it is not adequately processed or the consumer has nutritional deficiencies, then its cyanogenic glycoside (i.e., linamarin and lotaustralin) content makes it potentially neurotoxic. In the present study, the neurotoxic effects of different concentrations of linamarin (0.075, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mg/kg) contained in cassava juice were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor alterations in adult male Wistar rats. The linamarin concentration in cassava juice was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the juice was administered intraesophageally for 28 days. The results suggested that the consumption of linamarin in cassava juice increased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field test and caused behavioral deficiency, reflected by lateral swimming, in the swim test on days 21 and 28 of treatment. These alterations are possibly related to neuronal damage caused by linamarin in cassava juice in structures of the central nervous system involved in motor processing. PMID:23778051

  16. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

  17. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kitimu, Shedrack R.; Taylor, Julian; March, Timothy J.; Tairo, Fred; Wilkinson, Mike J.; Rodríguez López, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture. There was also good separation between the tissues of field samples but this effect was less distinct among the meristem culture materials. Application of methylation-sensitive Genotype by sequencing identified 105 candidate epimarks that distinguish between field cutting and meristem culture samples. Cross referencing the sequences of these epimarks to the draft cassava genome revealed 102 sites associated with genes whose homologs have been implicated in a range of fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, development, sugar metabolism, DNA methylation, stress response, photosynthesis, and transposon activation. We explore the relevance of these findings for the selection of micropropagation systems for use on this and other crops. PMID:26322052

  18. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Kitimu, Shedrack R; Taylor, Julian; March, Timothy J; Tairo, Fred; Wilkinson, Mike J; Rodríguez López, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture. There was also good separation between the tissues of field samples but this effect was less distinct among the meristem culture materials. Application of methylation-sensitive Genotype by sequencing identified 105 candidate epimarks that distinguish between field cutting and meristem culture samples. Cross referencing the sequences of these epimarks to the draft cassava genome revealed 102 sites associated with genes whose homologs have been implicated in a range of fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, development, sugar metabolism, DNA methylation, stress response, photosynthesis, and transposon activation. We explore the relevance of these findings for the selection of micropropagation systems for use on this and other crops. PMID:26322052

  19. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system. PMID:26214457

  20. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) landraces from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mongomake, Kone; Doungous, Oumar; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to regenerate cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars from Cameroon via somatic embryogenesis (SE) was developed. Shoot apical meristems and immature leaf lobes were used as explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing 33 or 50M of the auxins Picloram (Pic), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Dicamba (Dic), and ?-Naphthalene acetic acid. Cultivar performance was assessed using SE and number of somatic embryos produced. Overall, the frequency of primary somatic embryogenesis (PSE) and the mean number of somatic embryos produced varied considerably with genotype, type of auxin and concentration tested. For example, cultivar (cv.) Ngan Mbada showed the best performance on MS medium supplemented with 50M Pic with a SE frequency of 40% and an average number of somatic embryos of 90. The second best performance was recorded in cv. Local Red on MS medium supplemented with 33M 2,4-D, where the SE frequency was 40% and an average number of somatic embryos of 60.5. Cultivar Ekona Red recorded the best performance on medium supplemented with 50M Pic showing a SE frequency of 47% and an average number of somatic embryos of 45. We further examined secondary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis (SSE, CSE) and both were also observed to vary with genotype, however, both exhibited significantly higher frequencies of SE compared with PSE. SE started to decline at the fourth cycle of embryogenesis. Examination of organogenesis showed that shoot bud induction from green cotyledons varied across cultivars and benzylaminopurine was shown to outperform Thidiazuron in the ability to induce organogenesis. Furthermore, the frequencies of bud induction were identical under light and dark conditions. Finally, regenerated plants grew easily in the greenhouse with 90-100% survival rate and did not display detectable variation in morphology. PMID:26361578

  1. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%), followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%). Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of ?-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the problem of post-harvest physiological deterioration. PMID:20187967

  2. Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.

    PubMed

    Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly. PMID:19559583

  3. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  4. Pathological changes in growing dogs fed on a balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet.

    PubMed

    Kamalu, B P

    1993-05-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effects of the toxic principle linamarin, a cyanogenic glucoside, in a diet containing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the form of gari fed to growing dogs for 14 weeks. There were three groups of dogs, each comprising six animals. One group was fed on a control diet with rice as the carbohydrate source, the second group was fed on cassava (gari) as the carbohydrate source and which was expected to release 10.8 mg HCN/kg cooked food, the third group was fed on the control diet to which enough NaCN was added at feeding time to release 10.8 mg HCN/kg cooked food in order to monitor the effects of the HCN released from gari. All diets contained 130 g crude protein (N x 6.25)/kg and were supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Each animal was given approximately 100 g diet/kg body weight for the duration of the experiment. The biochemical variables investigated were plasma electrolytes, serum proteins, plasma-free amino acids, plasma enzymes and urine protein, and the histology of some metabolically active tissues, namely liver, kidney, myocardium, testis and adrenal gland, was studied. The gari diet caused an elevated plasma thiocyanate concentration (P < 0.01), elevated 24 h urinary thiocyanate excretion and elevated urinary protein excretion (P < 0.01), lowered serum albumin (P < 0.05), a plasma-free amino acid profile which resembled that found in kwashiorkor, lowered plasma K and Ca (P < 0.05). The rice + cyanide diet caused an elevated plasma thiocyanate (P < 0.01) and a 24 h urinary thiocyanate excretion that was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that of the dogs fed on gari, but caused a urinary protein excretion that was significantly lower than that of the dogs fed on gari (P < 0.01), lowered serum albumin (P < 0.05), a plasma-free amino acid profile that indicated that the amino acids were not being utilized to the same extent as in the control (rice) group but were accumulating. Neither diet had an effect on plasma gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2), alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2) or isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activities, plasma Na, Mg, and P concentrations. The gari diet caused generalized congestion and haemorrhage, periportal vacuolation of the liver, swelling, vacuolation and rupture of the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, myocardial degeneration and adrenal gland degeneration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8329365

  5. Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M

    1994-11-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability. PMID:24178017

  6. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. PMID:25504737

  7. High-Resolution Linkage Map and Chromosome-Scale Genome Assembly for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 Populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. PMID:25504737

  8. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in β-carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin. The data set was used for the construction of a descriptive model by chemometric analysis. The genotypes of yellow-fleshed roots were clustered by the higher concentrations of cis-β-carotene and lutein. Inversely, cream-fleshed roots genotypes were grouped precisely due to their lower concentrations of these pigments, as samples rich in lycopene (redfleshed) differed among the studied genotypes. The analytical approach (UV-Vis, HPLC, and chemometrics) used showed to be efficient for understanding the chemodiversity of cassava genotypes, allowing to classify them according to important features for human health and nutrition. PMID:26673931

  9. Large-Scale SNP Discovery through RNA Sequencing and SNP Genotyping by Targeted Enrichment Sequencing in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R.; Ruang-areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10. PMID:25551642

  10. In vitro Cultured Primary Roots Derived from Stem Segments of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Can Behave Like Storage Organs

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Ricardo D.; Faloci, Mirta M.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Mroginski, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Methods Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Key Results Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0·54 μm 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0·44 μm 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly influenced by hormone treatments. Conclusions The storage root formation system reported here is a first approach to develop a tuberization model, and additional efforts are required to improve it. Although it was not possible to achieve root secondary growth, after this work it will be feasible to advance in some aspects of in vitro cassava tuberization. PMID:17267513

  11. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) Activated Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N?-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in inflammation like conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

  12. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lipoperoxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-09-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

  13. Transgenic rice expressing a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plasma membrane gene MePMP3-2 exhibits enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Cui, Y C; Ren, C; Rocha, P S C F; Peng, M; Xu, G Y; Wang, M L; Xia, X J

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteolipid 3 (PMP3) is a class of small hydrophobic proteins found in many organisms including higher plants. Some plant PMP3 genes have been shown to respond to abiotic stresses and to participate in the processes of plant stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MePMP3-2 gene and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by expressing it in rice (Oryza sativa L.). MePMP3-2 encodes a 77-amino acid protein belonging to a subgroup of plant PMP3s that have long hydrophylic C-terminal tails of unknown function. In silico analysis and co-localization studies indicated that MePMP3-2 is a plasma membrane protein with two transmembrane domains, similar to other PMP3s. In cassava leaves, MePMP3-2 expression was up-regulated by salt and drought stresses. Heterologous constitutive expression of MePMP3-2 in rice did not alter plant growth and development but increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. In addition, under stress conditions MePMP3-2 transgenic plants accumulated less malondialdehyde, had increased levels of proline, and exhibited greater up-regulation of the stress-related genes OsProT and OsP5CS, but led to only minor changes in OsDREB2A and OsLEA3 expression. These findings indicate that MePMP3-2 may play an important role in salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic rice. PMID:26909954

  14. Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Results Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 μM ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H2O2, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H2O2 synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. Conclusions These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress. PMID:25091029

  15. The effect of a nutritionally-balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet on endocrine function using the dog as a model. 1. Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kamalu, B P

    1991-05-01

    Growing dogs were divided into three groups and were fed on a control (rice) diet, a diet in which cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz; gari) was used as the carbohydrate source, and the rice diet to which cyanide (equivalent to that present in gari) was added. Each group consumed its diet for 14 weeks, during which plasma thiocyanate concentration and plasma lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) activity were monitored. Plasma free amino acids were determined from pooled samples taken at the end of the experimental period, and the insulin status of the dogs was evaluated using the gluconeogenic index. The dogs were killed and the pancreas examined for histopathology. Dogs fed on both gari diet and the rice + cyanide diet generated significant amounts of thiocyanate when compared with the controls, with the rice + cyanide group having higher plasma thiocyanate than the gari group (P less than 0.01). Plasma lipase activity rose significantly at the end of the experimental period in the dogs fed on gari (P less than 0.05). Gluconeogenesis from protein was greatest in the dogs fed on gari, five times greater than that in the control dogs, while gluconeogenesis from protein in the dogs fed on rice + cyanide was approximately twice as high as that of the control dogs. Histopathological examination of the pancreas showed haemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis and atrophy of the acinar tissue and fibrosis of the islets of Langerhans in the dogs fed on gari. The pancreas of the dogs fed on rice + cyanide showed similar lesions but haemorrhage was not prominent and fibrosis was more marked.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1878356

  16. Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graas, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

    2014-01-01

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples. PMID:24634228

  17. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

  18. Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by primed in situ labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wang, J F; Yin, H; Gao, H Q; Zhuang, N S; Liu, J P

    2015-01-01

    Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were achieved using primed in situ labeling. Amplified signals for both the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were consistently observed in different stages of cell division. A comparison of the length, arm ratio, and other morphological characteristics of somatic metaphase chromosomes in karyotype analysis indicated that the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were localized on the short and long arm of cassava chromosome 11 with the relative map positions of 41.67 and 23.07, respectively. The physical localization of the 2 markers on chromosome 11 of the karyotype corresponds to their positions on the 15th linkage group in cassava. PMID:26345763

  19. The complete nucleotide sequence of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) chloroplast genome and the evolution of atpF in Malpighiales: RNA editing and multiple losses of a group II intron

    PubMed Central

    Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Lee, Seung-Bum; Saski, Christopher; Jansen, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    The complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae) has been determined. The genome is 161,453 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 26,954 bp. The genome includes 128 genes; 96 are single copy and 16 are duplicated in the IR. There are four rRNA genes and 30 distinct tRNAs, seven of which are duplicated in the IR. The infA gene is absent; expansion of IRb has duplicated 62 amino acids at the 3′ end of rps19 and a number of coding regions have large insertions or deletions, including insertions within the 23S rRNA gene. There are 17 intron-containing genes in cassava, 15 of which have a single intron while two (clpP, ycf3) have two introns. The usually conserved atpF group II intron is absent and this is the first report of its loss from land plant chloroplast genomes. The phylogenetic distribution of the atpF intron loss was determined by a PCR survey of 251 taxa representing 34 families of Malpighiales and 16 taxa from closely related rosids. The atpF intron is not only missing in cassava but also from closely related Euphorbiaceae and other Malpighiales, suggesting that there have been at least seven independent losses. In cassava and all other sequenced Malphigiales, atpF gene sequences showed a strong association between C-to-T substitutions at nucleotide position 92 and the loss of the intron, suggesting that recombination between an edited mRNA and the atpF gene may be a possible mechanism for the intron loss. PMID:18214421

  20. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    PubMed

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance. PMID:26909917

  1. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of Manihot species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the genus, cultivated mainly for its starchy tuber roots. Cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats. However, there are very scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives, which usu...

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of sorption isotherms of cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Koua, Blaise Kamenan; Koffi, Paul Magloire Ekoun; Gbaha, Prosper; Toure, Siaka

    2014-09-01

    Sorption isotherms of cassava were determined experimentally using a static gravimetric method at 30, 45 and 60 °C and within the range of 0.10-0.90 water activity. At a constant water activity, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature. The experimental results were modelled using seven sorption models using non-linear regression technique. Results demonstrated that the GAB model adequately predicted equilibrium moisture content of cassava for the range of temperatures and water activities studied. The thermodynamic functions such as net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy of sorption, net integral enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to provide an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behaviour. Net isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The net integral enthalpy decreased while net integral entropy increased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Net integral entropy was negative in value. All thermodynamic functions were adequately characterised by a power law model. The point of maximum stability was found between 0.053 and 0.154 kg water/kg db for cassava. PMID:25190827

  3. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A; Akande, Ebunoluwa O

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68-4.98%), ash (1.84-4.01%), and crude fiber (1.42-4.56%) showed significant increase with increasing level of cocoyam, while the crude fat and carbohydrate reduced with increase in cocoyam. The minerals also increased with increase in cocoyam level with sample E having the highest value of Magnesium (32.15 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors were very low and the pasting properties revealed the importance of cocoyam in the fufu analog produced. In conclusion, fufu produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam has more nutritional qualities than the common fufu made from cassava alone. PMID:26788301

  4. Effects of Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Storage-Root Formation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    PubMed Central

    Makumbi-Kidza, N. N.; Speijer, P. R.; Sikora, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Two-node cuttings of cassava cultivar SS4 were inoculated with 1,000 infective juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita at 1, 14, 40, 70, 88, and 127 days after planting (DAP). Plant growth and root damage were assessed at 150 DAP. Meloidogyne incognita significantly reduced the number of storageroots formed in plants inoculated at 14, 40, 70, and 88 DAP and the total weight of storage-roots in plants inoculated at 1, 14, 40, 70, and 88 DAP, compared to uninoculated plants. Individual storage-root weight and plant height were not affected by M. incognita. Storage-root formation in cassava is initiated when plants are 1 to 2 months old. The results of this experiment indicate that, at this time, young cassava plants are most prone to root-knot nematode damage in terms of storage-root formation. The production loss caused by M. incognita to young SS4 plants was due to a reduction of storage-root number rather than a reduction in individual storage-root weight. PMID:19270997

  5. Protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Urribarrí, Lauris; Chacón, David; González, Orlaidy; Ferrer, Alexis

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, cassava leaves were treated with 0.5 kg ammonia/kg dry matter at 78 degrees C and 30% moisture content in a 2-kg reactor. Protein extraction was carried out with a calcium hydroxide solution (pH 10) for 30 min at several temperatures (30 degrees C, 45 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C, and 90 degrees C) and solid/liquid ratios (1:10 and 1:15) in a thermostatized bath. Soluble protein content of the extracts was determined by Lowry's method. Dry substrate concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and enzyme doses of 2 and 5 IU/g dry matter were used for the enzymatic hydrolysis in an orbital incubator at 50 degrees C and 100 rpm. Both cellulase and xylanase were used. Reducing sugars produced were determined with the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highest protein extraction yield for the ammonia-treated leaves was 29.10%, which was 50% higher than with the untreated leaves (20%), and was obtained at 90 degrees C with a 1:10 solid/liquid ratio. The concentrate had a protein content of 36.35% and the amino acid profile was suitable for swine and poultry. The highest sugar yield was 54.72% with respect to theoretical and was obtained with 5% solids and an enzyme dose of 5 IU/g dry matter. This yield was 3.4 times higher than the yield of the untreated leaves (16.13%). These results indicate that cassava leaves have a great potential for animal feeding and ethanol production. Both protein extraction and sugar yields may be enhanced by optimizing the ammonia treatment. PMID:19067247

  6. Comparison of Leaf Proteomes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivar NZ199 Diploid and Autotetraploid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X.; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

  7. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel. PMID:22535425

  8. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

  9. Resistance to the Whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis, in Wild Populations of Cassava, Manihot Tristis

    PubMed Central

    Carabalí, A.; Bellotti, A. C.; Montoya-Lerma, J.; Fregene, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The levels of resistance in the wild species of cassava, Manihot tristis Muell-Arg. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar (Hemiptera: Alelyrodidae), the most important economic pest in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) crops in South America, were estimated under glasshouse conditions. The parameters of the life history of A. socialis were studied on TST-26 and TST-18 accessions of the wild parent and compared with the susceptible (CMC-40) and resistant (MEcu-72) cultivars. The average longevity on the wild accessions (TST-26, 4.1; TST-18, 4.6 days) and oviposition rates (TST-26, 2.0; TST-18, 1.6 eggs/female/2 days) of the A. socialis females were not significantly different from those of MEcu-72 (5.1 days and 3.4 eggs/female/2days). The longevity and oviposition rates on CMC-40 were highest (11 days and 8.6 eggs/female/2days). Analyses of the demographic parameters (Ro, rm; DT) showed a significant impact of the M. tristis accessions on the potential growth of A. socialis. The average survival time of adults that fed on TST-26, TST-18, and MEcu-72 were significantly different from those recorded on the susceptible genotype. Results from this study revealed important levels of resistance to the whitefly A. socialis on the TST-26 and TST-18 accessions due to the marked differences found for longevity and reproduction, which influenced and were consistent with the differences found in the net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic growth rate (rm) and population doubling time (DT). The combined effect of these parameters indicated that M. tristis accessions were inappropriate hosts for A. socialis. PMID:21062208

  10. Traditional anthropology and geographical information systems in the collaborative study of Cassava in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanoff, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Cross-cultural, village-level, and farmer surveys have been used with a geographical information system to describe the distribution and relative importance of cassava (manioc, yuca, Manihot esculenta) in its cultural, economic, and ecological contexts. It presents examples of data management for mapping, sample selection, cross-tabulation of characteristics, combination of data types for indices and hypothesis testing. The methods used are reviewed, and some of the main conclusions of the study are presented.

  11. Effect of resistant starch on the cooking quality of yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) based paste products.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Olivier Kouadio; N'dri, Denis Yao; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Marti, Alessandra; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Faoro, Franco; Erba, Daniela; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Amani, N'guessan Georges

    2013-06-01

    Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 ?m) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak. PMID:23215529

  12. Effect of medium salt concentration on differentiation and maturation of somatic embryos of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Groll, J; Mycock, D J; Gray, V M

    2002-05-01

    Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro- and micro-nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter-, half-, full- or double-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half- or full-strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full-strength MS medium. Developed somatic embryos were then desiccated above a saturated K2SO4 solution for 10 d. After transfer to germination medium, embryos that had developed on half- and full-strength MS medium yielded 8.3 and 8.6 germinants g(-1) NEC tissue, respectively. For this important but often disregarded culture factor, either half- or full-strength MS medium is recommended for both the differentiation and development of cassava somatic embryos that are capable of germination. PMID:12099540

  13. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14.

    PubMed

    Nyaboga, Evans N; Njiru, Joshua M; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1-2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70-80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava. PMID:26113851

  14. Identification of actively filling sucrose sinks. [Solanum tuberosum; Phaseolus lunatus; Manihot esculenta; Liquidambar styraciflua L. ; Carya illinoinensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Shijean S.; Xu, Dianpeng; Black C.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Certain actively filling plant sucrose sinks such as a seed, a tuber, or a root can be identified by measuring the uridine diphosphate and pyrophosphate-dependent metabolism of sucrose. Sucrolysis in both active and quiescent sucrose sinks was tested and sucrose synthase was found to be the predominant sucrose breakdown activity. Sucrolysis via invertases was low and secondary in both types of sinks. Sucrose synthase activity dropped markedly, greater than fivefold, in quiescent sinks. The test are consistent with the hypothesis that the sucrose filling activity, i.e. the sink strength, of these plant sinks can be measured by testing the uridine diphosphate and pyrophosphate-dependent breakdown of sucrose. Measuring the initial reactions of sucrolysis shows much promise for use in agriculture crop and tree improvement research as a biochemical test for sink strength.

  15. Effects of processing, cooking, and storage on ß-carotene retention and bioaccessibility in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortification of cassava with beta-carotene is currently being tested in African populations where cassava is a staple food and vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. Measuring the impact of traditional African processing and cooking on beta-carotene concentration and bioaccessibility ...

  16. Cassava about-FACE: Greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for tuber crops such as cassava, yams and potatoes to enhance food security in the future is underestimated. In tuber crops there is the potential for a much higher ratio of edible to non-edible components than in above ground grain and bean crops such as rice, wheat, maize or soybean....

  17. The Metabolic Effects of Consumption of Yellow Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Experimental Rats.

    PubMed

    Udeme, Nelson; Okafor, Polycarp; Eleazu, Chinedum

    2015-11-01

    The metabolism of yellow cassava (variety TMS 01/1368) was investigated in male albino rats fed a diet containing yellow cassava for 7 to 28 days. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in total and free cyanide and thiocyanate in the sera and urine samples of the experimental rats compared with the control, significant increases (P < 0.05) in serum glucose, alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase, and alkaline phosphatase levels of the experimental rats compared with the control, significant decreases (P < 0.05) in serum albumin of the experimental rats compared with the control, but no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the serum total proteins of the experimental rats compared with the control. The experimental rats treated for 7, 14, 21, or 28 days exhibited body weight decreases of 5.11%, 11.10%, 19.16%, and 24.18%, respectively, whereas the control group showed 9.17% gain in body weight. Total and free cyanide concentrations were detected in the liver, kidney, and heart of most of the rats in both the experimental and control groups, except for free cyanide in the control group that was not detected. Metabolism of the yellow cassava variety in experimental rats was capable of exposing the animals to cyanide, underscoring the need for its proper processing before consumption by humans. PMID:26467190

  18. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrate: ammonium ratios on gas exchange and growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated how different nitrogen forms affect growth and photosynthetic responses of cassava to CO2 concentration. Cassava was grown in 12-L pots in a greenhouse (30/25o C day / night) at 390 or 750 ppm of CO2. Three nitrogen treatments were applied: (a) 12 mM NO3-, (b) 6 mM NO3- + 6 mM N...

  19. Phylogeny and expression pattern of starch branching enzyme family genes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under diverse environments.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jinli; Wang, Huijun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Ma, Pingan; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-08-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) is one of the key enzymes involved in starch biosynthetic metabolism. In this study, six SBE family genes were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis divided the MeSBE family genes into dicot family A, B, C, and the new group. Tissue-specific analysis showed that MeSBE2.2 was strongly expressed in leaves, stems cortex, and root stele, and MeSBE3 had high expression levels in stem cortex and root stele of plants in the rapid growth stage under field condition, whereas the expression levels of MeSBE2.1, MeSBE4, and MeSBE5 were low except for in stems cortex. The transcriptional activity of MeSBE2.2 and MeSBE3 was higher compared with other members and gradually increased in the storage roots during root growth process, while the other MeSBE members normally remained low expression levels. Expression of MeSBE2.2 could be induced by salt, drought, exogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signals, while MeSBE3 had positive response to drought, salt, exogenous abscisic acid, and salicylic acid in leaves but not in storage root, indicating that they might be more important in starch biosynthesis pathway under diverse environments. PMID:25981533

  20. Phenylpropanoids, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase and Peroxidases in Elicitor?challenged Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Suspension Cells and Leaves

    PubMed Central

    GMEZ?VSQUEZ, ROCO; DAY, ROBERT; BUSCHMANN, HOLGER; RANDLES, SOPHIE; BEECHING, JOHN R.; COOPER, RICHARD M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims Control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components. Methods Phenylalanine ammonia?lyase (PAL), phenylpropanoids and peroxidases (POD) were investigated in elicited cassava suspension cells and leaves. Yeast elicitor was the most effective of several microbial and endogenous elicitors. Fungitoxicity was determined against the cassava pathogens Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and the saprotroph Trichoderma harzianum. Key results A single and rapid (?23min) oxidative burst, measured as hydrogen peroxide, occurred in elicited cells. PAL activity was induced maximally at 15h and was preceded by PAL mRNA accumulation, which peaked at 9h. Symplasmic POD activity increased four?fold in cells, 48h post?elicitation. POD isoforms (27 isoforms, pI 3188) were detected in elicited and unelicited cells, extracellular medium and leaves but two extracellular isoforms were enhanced post?elicitation. Also expression of a cassava peroxidase gene MecPOD1 increased in elicited cells. Only anionic forms oxidized scopoletin, with highest activity by isoform pI 36, present in all samples. Unidentified phenolics and possibly scopolin increased post?elicitation, but there was no enhancement of scopoletin, rutin or kaempferol?3?O?rutinoside concentration. Fungal germ tube elongation was inhibited more than germination by esculetin, ferulic acid, quercetin and scopoletin. T. harzianum was generally more sensitive than the pathogens and was inhibited by ?50gmL1 of ferulic acid and quercetin and ?10 gmL1 of scopoletin. Conclusions Phenolic levels in cells were not enhanced and were, theoretically, too low to be inhibitory. However, in combination and when oxidized they may contribute to defence, because oxidation of esculetin and scopoletin by peroxidase and of esculetin by tyrosinase enhanced their fungitoxicity up to 20?fold. PMID:15145789

  1. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans N.; Njiru, Joshua M.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1–2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70–80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava. PMID:26113851

  2. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-01

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. PMID:26811902

  3. Cloning, 3D modeling and expression analysis of three vacuolar invertase genes from cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (?-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed ?-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a ?-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the ?-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, ? and ? groups, in which ? group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while ? group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development. PMID:24838076

  4. A molecular and biochemical analysis of the structure of the cyanogenic beta-glucosidase (linamarase) from cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz).

    PubMed

    Hughes, M A; Brown, K; Pancoro, A; Murray, B S; Oxtoby, E; Hughes, J

    1992-06-01

    The cyanogenic beta-glucosidase (linamarase) of cassava is responsible for the first step in the sequential break-down of two related cyanoglucosides. Hydrolysis of these cyanoglucosides occurs following tissue damage and leads to the production of hydrocyanic acid. This mechanism is widely regarded as a defense mechanism against predation. A linamarase cDNA clone (pCAS5) was isolated from a cotyledon cDNA library using a white clover beta-glucosidase heterologous probe. The nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence is reported and five putative N-asparagine glycosylation sites are identified. Concanavalin A affinity chromatography and endoglycosidase H digestion demonstrate that linamarase from cassava is glycosylated, having high-mannose-type N-asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. Consistent with this structure and the extracellular location of the active enzyme is the identification of an N-terminal signal peptide on the deduced amino acid sequence of pCAS5. PMID:1586156

  5. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2??2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?

  6. Mercury in the surface soil and cassava, Manihot esculenta (flesh, leaves and peel) near goldmines at Bogoso and Prestea, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo-Gasokpoh, A; Golow, A A; Kambo-Dorsa, J

    2012-12-01

    Mercury amalgamation is used indiscriminately in the recovery of gold by small-scale native gem winners in Ghana. Mercury is released into the environment in the form of wastewater, tailing and vapor from the roasting of amalgam to separate gold. The study looked at the levels of total mercury concentration in surface soil and cassava crop from farms located within the vicinities of Bogoso and Prestea Goldmines. The surface soil total mercury concentrations ranged between 125.29 and 352.52 ?g/kg whiles cassava had between 66.60 and 195.47 ?g/kg. The results showed proportionately more deposits at higher distances in 15-30 cm soil zone and less deposits at higher distances on leaves with relatively high uptake of the metal occurred at higher distances from the mines into the peels. These results suggest serious mercury pollution to the surface soil and the cassava crop but the speciation exercise showed that mercury is not in the free state, rather bound to hydroxides and organic compounds as complexes. PMID:23052587

  7. Digestibility of a nutritionally-balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs.

    PubMed

    Kamalu, B P

    1991-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the digestibility of a cassava (gari) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs. Three groups of dogs were fed on diets with rice (control), cassava (gari), and rice + cyanide respectively as the carbohydrate source. Each diet contained 130 g crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25)/kg, was supplemented with vitamins and minerals, and was fed for 14 weeks. Variables measured were body-weight gain, bone growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) activity, total serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and some plasma free amino acids. The apparent digestibilities of dry matter, protein and fat were not significantly different in the three groups, but the digestibility of gari fibre was significantly lower than the digestibility of rice fibre when fed to dogs (P less than 0.05). Proximate analysis of the faeces showed that the group of dogs fed on the gari diet had faeces which had a significantly higher moisture content than the faeces of the other groups (P less than 0.05), and also a significantly higher fibre content (P less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in body-weight gain and bone growth between the control and gari-fed groups of dogs, but these variables were significantly lower in the dogs fed on the rice + cyanide diet (P less than 0.05). At the end of the 14-week experimental period total serum T3 and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity were not significantly different between the control group of dogs and the gari-fed group, but were significantly lower in the rice + cyanide group. Plasma free methionine, leucine, isoleucine and valine concentrations were higher in the rice + cyanide group of dogs than in the control group and the gari group, indicating that these amino acids were accumulating and not being utilized for protein synthesis and growth to the same extent in the rice + cyanide group of dogs as in the other groups. It was concluded that the digestibilities of cassava starch and rice starch were the same in the dog but that rice fibre was more digestible in the dog than cassava fibre. It was also concluded that growth proceeded normally when a balanced gari diet or a balanced rice diet containing 130 g crude protein/kg was fed to dogs, but growth was retarded when a balanced rice + cyanide diet containing 130 g crude protein/kg was fed to dogs because total serum T3 concentration became greatly depressed. PMID:1662068

  8. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), polysaccharides, and protein contents associated with the early events of postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava roots. Increases in APX and GPX activity, as well as total protein contents occurred from 3 to 5 days of storage and were correlated with the delay of PPD. Cassava samples stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) highlighted the presence of starch and cellulose. Degradation of starch granules during PPD was also detected. Slight metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue is indicative of increasing of acidic polysaccharides and may play an important role in PPD delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified samples according to their levels of enzymatic activity based on the decision tree model which showed GPX and total protein amounts to be correlated with PPD. The Oriental (ORI) cultivar was more susceptible to PPD. PMID:26617011

  9. Retention of total carotenoid and β-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after domestic cooking

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Oliveira, Alcides R. G.; Godoy, Ronoel L. O.; Pacheco, Sidney; Nutti, Marília R.; de Carvalho, José L. V.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Fukuda, Wânia G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, β-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention after three boiling cooking methods. Design The total carotenoid, β-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers in yellow sweet cassava samples were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, before and after applying the cooking methods. All analyses were performed in triplicate. Results The total carotenoid in raw roots varied from 2.64 to 14.15 µg/g and total β-carotene from 1.99 to 10.32 µg/g. The β-carotene predominated in all the roots. The Híbrido 2003 14 08 cultivar presented the highest β-carotene content after cooking methods 1 and 3. The 1153 – Klainasik cultivar presented the highest 9-Z-β-carotene content after cooking by method 3. The highest total carotenoid retention was observed in cultivar 1456 – Vermelhinha and that of β-carotene for the Híbrido 2003 14 11 cultivar, both after cooking method 1. Evaluating the real retention percentage (RR%) in sweet yellow cassava after home cooking methods showed differences that can be attributed to the total initial carotenoid contents. However, no cooking method uniformly provided a higher total carotenoid or β-carotene retention in all the cultivars. Conclusion Differences were found in the cooking methods among the samples regarding total carotenoid or β-carotene retention, suggesting that the different behaviors of the cultivars need to be further analyzed. However, high percentages of total carotenoid or β-carotene retention were observed and can minimize vitamin A deficiency in low-income populations. PMID:22468142

  10. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars of Bant, a District of Central Benin.

    PubMed

    Sanoussi, Abadjay Faouziath; Loko, Laura Yyinou; Ahissou, Hyacinthe; Adjahi, Adidjath Koubourath; Orobiyi, Azize; Agr, Angelot Paterne; Azokpota, Paulin; Dansi, Alexandre; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bant district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca), and compare them with the farmers' and processors' perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilrou, Monlkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%), starch (24.47% to 25.5%) and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%), low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%), and cyanide (50?mg/kg) contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture) products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers' perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials. PMID:26693522

  11. Treatment of chronic kidney disease using a traditional Chinese medicine, Flos Abelmoschus manihot (Linnaeus) Medicus (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yizhi; Cai, Guangyan; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-02-01

    The flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (Linnaeus) Medicus (Malvaceae; Flos A. manihot) have been used in China for many centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. The Huangkui capsule is a single-plant drug extracted from the dry corolla of Flos A. manihot that has been approved by China's State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly some of the past experiences in rapid filtration and to present more fully a few facts brought out in recent studies. The primary chemical constituents of Flos A. manihot are flavonoids. In vivo, the flavonoids can be transformed into glucuronide-sulphate conjugates, which are the major metabolites of Flos A. manihot and could contribute to the renoprotective effects in vivo. Flos A. manihot can ameliorate proteinuria, podocyte apoptosis, glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferation. The renoprotective effects of Flos A. manihot are related to inhibition of caspase-3 and caspase-8 overexpression, reduction of the infiltration of ED1(+) and ED3(+) macrophages, downregulation of oxidative stress, inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and serine/threonine kinase pathways and suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 and tumour necrosis factor-α expression. Recently, a multicentre randomized controlled trial demonstrated that Flos A. manihot was more effective than the angiotensin-receptor blocker losartan in reducing proteinuria in patients with primary glomerular disease. Because Flos A. manihot is generally preferred by Chinese patients and clinicians, high-quality trials to test the efficacy and safety of Flos A. manihot are urgently needed. PMID:26667396

  12. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    PubMed

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

  13. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (Taro)

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X. Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, that has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung colonizing ability as well as spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic ER, PR and Her-2/neu negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphologic changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable to stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kD contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins; 12 kD storage protein, tarin and lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, post-translational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing a compound(s) derived from taro, that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

  14. Production and characterization of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta flours.

    PubMed

    Prez, E E; Gutirrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M

    2007-08-01

    The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids. PMID:17995692

  15. Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta using soybean residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta are active ingredients in a number of medicines that play important roles in immunity improvement and tumor growth inhibition. So far, the production of polysaccharides from M. esculenta mycelia has not been commercialized. The aims of this wor...

  16. Characterization of 11 new microsatellite loci in taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kan; Huang, Xing Fang; Ke, Wei Dong; Ding, Yi

    2009-03-01

    Eleven new microsatellite markers were isolated from taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, a root crop widely distributed all over the world. Forty-eight primer pairs were designed from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library, of which 11 primer pairs have polymorphisms in 30 individuals tested from a population in China, which revealed two to six alleles per locus with the observed and expected heterozygosity levels ranging from 0 to 0.733 and from 0.381 to 0.731, respectively. These new genetic markers will be useful for the study of taro germplasm management and population evolution in the future. PMID:21564697

  17. Isozymes analysis of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianmin; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Rucai; Wang, Shidang; Zhou, Weiwu

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM) show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (P<0.99). The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

  18. Cloning, expression, and characterization of soluble starch synthase I cDNA from taro (Colocasia esculenta Var. esculenta).

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-Gin; Jeang, Chii-Ling

    2005-10-01

    Soluble starch synthase I (SSSI) cDNA was isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends reaction. The transcript of this single-copy gene is 2340 bp and encodes 642 amino acids protein containing a putative transit peptide of 54 residues. Recombinant SSSI protein displayed both primer-dependent and primer-independent activities of starch synthase. More SSSI transcript was expressed in taro leaves than in tubers, with no evident expression in petioles; and more transcript and protein were found in tubers of 597 +/- 37 g of fresh weight than in smaller or larger ones. Two forms of SSSI, i.e., 72 and 66 kDa, exist in leaves, and only the 66 kDa form was found in tubers. The taro SSSI, proposed as a novel member, was located only in the soluble fraction of tuber extract, while SSSI from other sources exist in both soluble and granule-bound forms. PMID:16190660

  19. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

  20. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic. PMID:26456453

  1. The effect of a nutritionally-balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet on endocrine function using the dog as a model. 2. Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Kamalu, B P; Agharanya, J C

    1991-05-01

    Growing dogs were divided into three groups and were fed on nutritionally-balanced diets. Control dogs were fed on a rice diet, the cassava (gari) group ate a diet in which gari provided the carbohydrate source, while the rice + cyanide group consumed the rice diet to which hydrocyanic acid (equivalent to that present in gari) was added. Each group consumed its diet for 14 weeks, during which plasma thiocyanate concentration and total serum triiodothyronine (T3) were monitored. At the end of the experiment the concentrations of the plasma free amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, the thyroid weights and histology were determined. While plasma thiocyanate remained undetectable in control dogs, animals consuming both gari and rice + cyanide generated significant amounts. In the control dogs and the gari group, total serum T3 increased 40 and 38.8% respectively from the basal level by the end of the period (P less than 0.02). In contrast there was a decrease in T3 by 36% in the dogs fed on rice + cyanide (P less than 0.05). This group also showed significant thyroid enlargement and a histological picture consistent with parenchymatous goitre, whereas the gari group was essentially normal. The relatively low mean thyroid weight, the rise in total serum T3 level and the normal histological appearance of the gland indicate that dogs that consumed the gari diet were essentially normal with respect to their thyroid function, in spite of their high blood thiocyanate content. In contrast, dogs that consumed rice with cyanide suffered from hypothyroidism and goitre.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1878357

  2. Synthesis of an air-working trilayer artificial muscle using a conductive cassava starch biofilm (manihot esculenta, cranz) and polypyrrole (PPy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez D, Y. E.; Arrieta A, Á. A.; Segura B, J. A.; Bertel H, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a methodology for obtaining a conductive cassava starch biofilm doped with lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) is shown, as well as the electrochemical technique for the synthesis of polypyrrole films, which are used for developing the trilayer artificial muscle PPy/Biopolymer/PPy designed to operate in air. Furthermore, results from the trilayer movement using chronoamperometric techniques are shown.

  3. Characterization of Carotenoid-protein Complexes and Gene Expression Analysis Associated with Carotenoid Sequestration in Pigmented Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Storage Root

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luiz Joaquim Castelo Branco; Lippolis, John; Chen, Songbi; Batista de Souza, Claudia Regina; Vieira, Eduardo A; Anderson, James V

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid-protein complex (CPC) was isolated from chromoplast-enriched suspensions of cassava storage root (CSR) using size exclusion chromatography and characterized. Peptide sequences (LC_MS/MS spectrum) obtained from CPC and their corresponding proteins were obtained using publically available databases. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) were the most abundant proteins identified in the CPC. Western blot analysis showed that Fribrillin and Or-protein were present in chromoplast-enriched suspensions of yellow root but not in the complex or white root. Results from qRT-PCR helped identify an isoform of HSP21 possessing four single point mutations in the intense yellow CSR that may be responsible for increased sequestration of b-carotene. PMID:23230451

  4. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  5. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin

    PubMed Central

    Sanoussi, Abadjayé Faouziath; Loko, Laura Yéyinou; Ahissou, Hyacinthe; Adjahi, Adidjath Koubourath; Orobiyi, Azize; Agré, Angelot Paterne; Azokpota, Paulin; Dansi, Alexandre; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca), and compare them with the farmers' and processors' perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%), starch (24.47% to 25.5%) and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%), low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%), and cyanide (50 mg/kg) contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture) products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers' perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials. PMID:26693522

  6. Studies on variation of carotenoid-proteins content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root reveal implications for breeding and the use of induced mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein content in storage roots of cassava is low but variable and characterization of this variability is lacking. Total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP) content in pigmented cassava landraces varied from 0.9-7.5 (mg/gDWt.) and correlated with total carotenoid content (R2=0.4757). More than 3x T...

  7. Identification and characterization of a cytotoxic polysaccharide from the flower of Abelmoschus manihot.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Zhihui; Li, Shuang; Wang, Liling; Lv, Jiajia; Li, Junsheng; Ma, Xingmiao; Fan, Ling; Qian, Fang

    2016-01-01

    A low molecular weight polysaccharide was identified from the flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus, a popular herbal medicine also known as Flos A. manihot. The polysaccharide, AMPS-a, was obtained from the ethanol-extracted debris of Flos A. manihot by successive purification through DEAE-cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 column. AMPS-a has an estimated molecular weight of 8.8×10(3)Da and is mainly composed of β-d-glucose, α-d-mannose, α-d-galactose and α-l-fucose at a molar ratio of 1.00:0.91:2.14:1.09. The preliminary structural features were studied by hydrolysis-methylation analysis, GC-MS, FT-IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. AMPS-a contains a backbone composed of repeating units of →6)α-d-Galp-(1→6)α-d-Manp-(1→6)α-d-Galp-(1→ with β-d-Glcp (1→3)α-Fucp-(1→ branching at O-3 of mannose. AMPS-a exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of hepatic (SMMC-7721, HepG2) and gastric (MGC-803, MKN-45) cancer cells in vitro, and the sugar branches were indispensible for the cytotoxicity. Our work contributes to the first report of a novel cytotoxic polysaccharide from Flos A. manihot that may provide a potential source of anti-tumor agent. PMID:26478094

  8. [Mechanisms and effects of Abelmoschus manihot preparations in treating chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Wan, Yigang; Wang, Chaojun; Zhao, Qing; Wei, Qingxue; Tu, Yue; Yin, Xuejiao

    2012-08-01

    Abelmoschus manihot (AM) is a medicinal plant rich in twenty kinds of separated active bio-components including flavones, polysaccharides, trannic acid, and long chain hydrocarbons. Among these, total flavones of A. manihot (TFA) are the major active component. In this review, the mechanisms of Huangkui capsule will be discussed as a preparation of AM to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) by improving immunological reaction, inflammation, renal fibrosis, and renal tubular epithelial injury. Additionally, it has been reported that Huangkui capsule can ameliorate some clinical symptoms, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal function in patients with common CKD, such as nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, Henoch-Schnlein purpura nephritis, IgA nephropathy, and membranous nephropathy. PMID:23189729

  9. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dvila-Jimnez, Martn M; Elizalde-Gonzlez, Mara P; Garca-Daz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

  10. Dendritic Cell Activation by Glucan Isolated from Umbilicaria Esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Sook; Kim, Jee Youn; Lee, Hong Kyung; Kim, Moo Sung; Lee, Sang Rin; Kang, Jong Soon; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kyung-Ae; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2010-01-01

    Background Lichen-derived glucans have been known to stimulate the functions of immune cells. However, immunostimulatory activity of glucan obtained from edible lichen, Umbilicaria esculenta, has not been reported. Thus we evaluated the phenotype and functional maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) following treatment of extracted glucan (PUE). Methods The phenotypic and functional maturation of PUE-treated DCs was assessed by flow cytometric analysis and cytokine production, respectively. PUE-treated DCs was also used for mixed leukocyte reaction to evaluate T cell-priming capacity. Finally we detected the activation of MAPK and NF-?B by immunoblot. Results Phenotypic maturation of DCs was shown by the elevated expressions of CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II molecules. Functional activation of DCs was proved by increased cytokine production of IL-12, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IFN-?/?, decreased endocytosis, and enhanced proliferation of allogenic T cells. Polymyxin B, specific inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), did not affect PUE activity, which suggested that PUE was free of LPS contamination. As a mechanism of action, PUE increased phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs, and enhanced nuclear translocation of NF-?B p50/p65 in DCs. Conclusion These results indicate that PUE induced DC maturation via MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:21286379

  11. Detection and Identification of Dasheen mosaic virus Infecting Colocasia esculenta in India.

    PubMed

    Babu, Binoy; Hegde, Vinayaka; Makeshkumar, T; Jeeva, M L

    2011-06-01

    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the infected leaf samples of Colocasia esculenta plants showing severe whitish feathery symptoms were carried out using Potyvirus group specific primers, resulting in an amplicon of 327bp, encoding the core region of the coat protein gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis showed that the virus is distinct, closely related to Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV). Sequence analysis revealed 86 and 96% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level respectively with the DsMV isolate SY1(accession Number AJ628756). This is the first molecular level characterisation of the DsMV infecting C. esculenta in India. PMID:23637503

  12. Determination of molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions in Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Yingying; Wu, Mimi; Zhang, Xiuzhen

    2012-09-01

    Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharide, AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3, and AMP-4, were purified from four kinds of Abelmoschus manihot gum (AMG). The molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions of AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3 and AMP-4 were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Results indicated that the molecular weights of AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3, and AMP-4 were approximately 3.91 × 103, 5.36 × 105, 3.87 × 103, and 5.12 × 105 Da, respectively. The Abelmoschus manihot polysaccharide was mainly composed of galactose, glucose and mannose with the molar ratios at 0.29: 1.00: 0.41 (AMP-1), 0.56: 0.13: 1.00 (AMP-2), 0.10: 1.00: 0.11 (AMP-3) and 0.55: 0.17: 1.00 (AMP-4), respectively.

  13. Atrazine increases the sodium absorption in frog (Rana esculenta) skin.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Giuseppe; Bellantuono, Vito; Ardizzone, Concetta; Lippe, Claudio

    2006-02-01

    The presence of atrazine in agricultural sites has been linked to the decline in amphibian populations. The efforts of the scientific community generally are directed toward investigating the long-term effect of atrazine on complex functions (reproduction or respiration), but in the present study, we investigated the short-term effect on the short-circuit current (I(sc)), a quantitative measure of the ion transport operated by frog (Rana esculenta) skin. Treatment with 5 microM atrazine (1.08 mg/L) does not affect the transepithelial outfluxes of [14C]mannitol or [14C]urea; therefore, atrazine does not damage the barrier properties of frog skin. Atrazine causes a dose-dependent increase in the short-circuit current, with a minimum of 4.64 +/- 0.76 microA/cm2 (11.05% +/- 1.22%) and a maximum of 12.7 +/- 0.7 microA/cm2 (35% +/- 2.4%) measured at 10 nM and 5 microM, respectively. An increase in Isc also is caused by 5 microM ametryne, prometryn, simazine, terbuthylazine, or terbutryn (other atrazine derivatives). In particular, atrazine increases the transepithelial 22Na+ influx without affecting the outflux. Finally, stimulation of Isc by atrazine is suppressed by SQ 22536, H89, U73122, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and W7 (blockers of adenylate cyclase, protein kinase A, phospholipase C, intracellular Ca2+ increase, and calmodulin, respectively), whereas indomethacin and calphostin C (inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and protein kinase C, respectively) have no effect. PMID:16519313

  14. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals. PMID:21554124

  15. Influence of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott) growth conditions on the phenolic composition and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Gonalves, Rui F; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Ana Margarida; Valento, Patrcia; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Silva, Joo B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly known as taro, is an essential food for millions of people. The leaves are consumed in sauces, purees, stews, and soups, being also used in wound healing treatment. Nowadays, the consumers' demand for bioactive compounds from the diet led to the development of new agricultural strategies for the production of health-promoting constituents in vegetables. In this work, two strategies (variety choice and irrigation conditions) were considered in the cultivation of C. esculenta. The effect on the phenolic composition of the leaves was evaluated. Furthermore, a correlation between the biological activity of the different varieties and their chemical composition was established. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the phenolic composition were observed between varieties; furthermore, the irrigation conditions also influenced the composition. C. esculenta varieties were able to scavenge several oxidant species and to inhibit hyaluronidase, but data suggest that metabolites other than phenolics are involved. The results show that cultivation strategies can effectively modulate the accumulation of these types of bioactive compounds. Furthermore C. esculenta wound healing potential can be attributed, at least in part, to the protection of the wound site against oxidative/nitrosative damage and prevention of hyaluronic acid degradation. PMID:23993510

  16. The genetic differentiation of Colocasia esculenta growing in gold mining areas with arsenic contamination.

    PubMed

    Boonmee, Sirilak; Neeratanaphan, Lamyai; Tanee, Tawatchai; Khamon, Prodpran

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic is a heavy metal found in contaminated gold mining areas and which can affect plant and animal species. This study aims to determine the concentration of As in the aquatic plant Colocasia esculenta as well as this plant's genetic variability. Sediment and C. esculenta samples were collected from three studied sites at the edge of a stream around a gold mine. The arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples were analyzed using induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Genetic differentiations were studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with dendrogram construction and analysis of genetic similarity (S). The results showed that the arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples ranged from 4.547 ± 0.318 to 229.964 ± 0.978 and 0.108 ± 0.046 to 0.406 ± 0.174 mg kg(-1), respectively. To compare the samples studied to the reference site, RAPD fingerprints from 26 primers successfully produced 2301 total bands used for dendrogram construction and S value analysis. The dendrogram construction separates C. esculenta into four clusters corresponding to their sampling sites. The S values of the studied sample sites compared to the reference site are 0.676-0.779, 0.739-0.791, and 0.743-0.783 for sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively, whereas the values of the individuals within each site are as high as 0.980. These results suggest that As accumulation in aquatic plant species should be of concern because of the potential effects of As on aquatic plants as well as humans. PMID:25838064

  17. Arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) in Tarkwa a mining community.

    PubMed

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Obiri, S; Yaney, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) have gained increased importance in the diets of majority of people in developing countries such as Ghana. The concentration levels of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in Cocoyam (X. sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (C. esculenta) in Tarkwa and its surrounding villages a mining community in Ghana were measured in this study. From the results of the study, the levels of arsenic, cadmium and mercury in X. sagititolium and C. esculenta were higher than the WHO recommended levels. These root tubers absorb or uptake toxic chemicals from the soil as a result of the mining operations. This means that, the consumption of X. sagititolium and C. esculenta by humans from such environments may pose a serious health risk. There is therefore the need for a concerted effort by all to minimize the negative impact of gold mining in the study area. PMID:17673943

  18. Comparative characterization of nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases in Abelmoschus manihot roots, stems, leaves and flowers during different growth periods by UPLC-TQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Du, Le-yue; Qian, Da-wei; Jiang, Shu; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming; Liu, Pei; Su, Shu-lan; Duan, Jin-ao; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases have been proven as important bioactive compounds related to many physiological processes. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medicus from the family of Malvaceae is an annual herbal plant of folk medicine widely distributed in Oceania and Asia. However, up to now, no detailed information could be available for the types and contents of nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases contained in A. manihot roots, stems, leaves as well as the flowers. In the present study, an UPLC-TQ-MS/MS method was established for detection of the twelve nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases. The validated method was successfully applied to identify the 12 analytes in different parts of A. manihot harvested at ten growth periods. 2'-deoxyinosine was not detected in all of the A. manihot samples. The data demonstrated that the distribution and concentration of the 12 compounds in A. manihot four parts were arranged in a decreasing order as leaf>flower>stem>root. Based on the results, the leaves and flowers of A. manihot could be developed as health products possessed nutraceutical and bioactive properties in the future. This method might also be utilized for the quality control of the A. manihot leaves and other herbal medicines being rich in nucleotides, nucleosides and nulecobases. PMID:26551204

  19. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by smut spores of Ustilago esculenta].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yumi; Usui, Yutaka; Konno, Kazunori; Atarashi, Kenichi; Ohtani, Yoshio; Inase, Naohiko; Tanaka, Takehiko; Yoshizawa, Yasuyuki

    2007-04-01

    A 49-year-old woman was admitted with cough, general fatigue, and dyspnea on effort. Her hobby was the Japanese traditional handicraft of lacquer-carving. She sometimes used smut spores of Ustilago esculenta, pronounced as "Makomozumi"on lacquer ware. The chest radiographs showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and small centrilobular nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage yielded a marked number of lymphocytes as well as total cell counts and a low CD4 +/CD8 + ratio. The transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and non-necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas. The results of provocation test by Makomozumi were positive. Serum tests of the specific antibody against extracted soluble antigens of smut spores were positive. The peripheral lymphocyte proliferation test, performed with Mokomozumi antigens was also positive. The final diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by smut spores of fungus Ustilago esculenta. PMID:17491314

  20. [Clinical observation on diabetic nephropathy treated with alcohol of Abelmoschus manihot].

    PubMed

    Yu, J Y; Xiong, N N; Guo, H F

    1995-05-01

    Sixty-eight cases of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) complicated with nephropathy were randomly divided into two groups: treated group, 35 cases treated with alcohol extraction of Abelmoschus manihot, Gliclazide and Captopril tablets; control group, 33 cases treated with Gliclazide and Captopril tablets, over a period of 8 weeks. The total effective rate in treated and control group were 83.87% and 31.03%(P < 0.01), urinary micro-albumin were 31.7 mg/L and 76.3 mg/L (P < 0.05), proteinuria were 0.41 g/24h and 0.77 g/24h (P < 0.01), blood beta 2-microglobulin were 3317.8 ng/ml and 3473.1 ng/ml (P < 0.05), urinary beta 2-microglobulin were 367.2 ng/ml and 641.5 ng/ml (P < 0.01), urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) were 26.3 u/L and 66.7 u/L (P < 0.01), plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) were 6.13 nmol/L and 8.78 nmol/L (P < 0.05), and plasma superoxide anion were 8.36 kcpm and 10.42 kcpm respectively (P < 0.05). It was suggested that Abemoschus manihot alcohol extraction could eliminate oxygen free radicals, alleviate renal tubular-interstitial diseases, improve renal function and reduce proteinuria. PMID:7640495

  1. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract. PMID:26012222

  2. Inhibitory effects of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott constituents on aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Mei; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Beom Goo; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon Sung

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the rat lens aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of 95% ethanol extracts from the leaves of C. esculenta and, its organic solvent soluble fractions, including the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) layers, using dl-glyceraldehyde as a substrate. Ten compounds, namely tryptophan (1), orientin (2), isoorientin (3), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (7), rosmarinic acid (8), 1-O-feruloyl-d-glucoside (9) and 1-O-caffeoyl-d-glucoside (10) were isolated from the EtOAc and BuOH fractions of C. esculenta. The structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previous reports. All the isolates were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. Among tested compounds, compounds 2 and 3 significantly inhibited rat lens aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 1.65 and 1.92 μM, respectively. Notably, the inhibitory activity of orientin was 3.9 times greater than that of the positive control, quercetin (4.12 μM). However, the isolated compounds showed only moderate ABTS+ [2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] activity. These results suggest that flavonoid derivatives from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott represent potential compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25255750

  3. Further knowledge on the phenolic profile of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Gonalves, Rui F; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valento, Patrcia; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Joo B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-18

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly called taro, is an ancient species selected for its edible tuber. Its huge "elephant ear" like leaves are also consumed in sauces and stews or as soups. Forty-one phenolic metabolites (11 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and 30 glycosylated flavonoids) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) in the leaves of two C. esculenta varieties cultivated in Azores Islands. To our knowledge, 34 of the 41 phenolic compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. Phenolics quantification was achieved by an HPLC-DAD accurate and sensitive validated method. Although the qualitative profile of the two varieties is quite similar, quantitative differences were observed between them. "Giant white" and "red" varieties (local denomination) contain, respectively, ca. 14 and 21% of phenolic acids, 37 and 28% of flavones mono-C-glycosides, 42 and 43% of flavones di-C-glycosides, 3 and 4% of flavones mono-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides, and both of them ca. 2% of flavones di-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides and 2% of flavones-O-glycosides. Luteolin-6-C-hexoside was the compound present in higher amounts in both varieties. The established phenolic profile is an added value for the authenticity and quality control of C. esculenta and may be useful in the discrimination of its varieties. PMID:22724554

  4. Anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like activity of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract and its potential active components in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Xue, Caifu; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; You, Yi

    2011-11-15

    Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Searching for antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and antidepressant-like medicines from natural products is very important for the treatment of this disease. The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been reported to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury. In order to further explore the activity of Abelmoschus manihot on the central nervous system, the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like effects of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract (AMEE) as well as its potential active components in vivo was investigated in the present study. It was found that AMEE could protect mice against PTZ-induced clonic convulsions and mortality. AMEE could also decrease immobility time in the FST in mice. Furthermore, the potential active components of AMEE in rat brain were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS). Five parent components including isoquercitrin, hyperoside, hibifolin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, quercetin and three metabolites were detected in rat brain after administration of AMEE. In conclusion, eight flavonoids were identified in rat brain after administration of AMEE; meanwhile, these flavonoids might represent the potential bioactive components of AMEE and contribute to its anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activity in vivo. PMID:21784623

  5. First report of taro vein chlorosis virus infecting taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March 2013, taro plants [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott cv. ‘iliuaua’] with leaves displaying veinal chlorosis and necrosis were observed at a germplasm collection on the island of Molokai. These symptoms were similar to those of taro vein chlorosis, an important disease of taro found in severa...

  6. Distribution of wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) in subtropical Texas, growth of young colonies, and tolerance to simulated herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-native wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an ornamental plant that is an emerging invasive weed in moist riparian areas in subtropical and warm temperate river systems in Texas, with potential impacts on native plant species, habitat quality and water use in the Lower Rio Grande Basin. Observati...

  7. Effects of environmental factors on sperm motility and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Z; Jiang, J-H; Jin, C-H; Xu, S-J; Zhu, J-Q

    2014-09-01

    The study investigated the effects of environmental factors (salinity, pH, ions and activation media) on sperm motility (activation rate, duration of quick movement, and lifespan) and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. The results showed that spermatozoa in the coelom and nephridium are able to move quickly. The optimal salinity was 14.64 to 43.35 and the optimal pH was 6.46 to 9.53 for sperm activation and motility, whereas the ranges for fertilization were narrower (18.56 to 30.3 for salinity and 6.46 to 8.61 for pH). Of the ions studied, Na+ was indispensable for sperm motility and fertilization, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ were necessary for fertilization. P. esculenta sperm could not fertilize eggs and have short lifespans in 200 to 600 mmol/L NaCl and KCl solutions. Furthermore, they could not be activated or move in 200 to 600 mmol/L CaCl2, MgSO4, and sucrose solutions. PMID:25194731

  8. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804

  9. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively). PMID:20359228

  10. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  11. Aibika (Abelmoschus manihot L.): Genetic variation, morphology and relationships to micronutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Rubiang-Yalambing, Lydia; Arcot, Jayashree; Greenfield, Heather; Holford, Paul

    2016-02-15

    Aibika (Abelmoschus manihot L.) is believed to be a good source of micronutrients. However, although many varieties of aibika are commonly consumed in Papua New Guinea, their micronutrient content is unknown. Therefore, the mineral (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn & Cu), folate composition and the genetic variation of 23 aibika accessions from the collection at the National Agricultural Research Institute were studied over a 3year period to provide data for nutritional studies and to inform breeding programs. The data showed that aibika is, potentially, a crop of high nutritional value with the potential to boost the micronutrient status of local PNG communities. However, there were substantial differences in the micronutrient concentrations of the accessions from year to year and accessions that had the highest concentration of a particular mineral in 1year did not have the high concentrations in other years. Clusters determined using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis (UPGMA) of the micronutrient contents differed in each of the 3years. Genetic analysis made using random amplification of polymorphic DNA and directed amplification of mini satellite region DNA placed the accessions into five groups. There was no correlation between these groups and leaf morphology, nor were there correlations with the clusters determined from the UPGMA analyses. There appears to be considerable interaction between genotype and environmental factors determining micronutrient composition and environmental factors may play a greater role than genotype in influencing micronutrient composition. PMID:26433288

  12. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant. PMID:26837840

  13. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R.

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant. PMID:26837840

  14. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  15. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    PubMed

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn). PMID:25306315

  16. Antioxidant and NF-?B inhibitory constituents isolated from Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lau, Edward; Tay, David; De Blanco, Esperanza J Carcache

    2011-09-01

    Morchella esculenta Pers. (Morchellaceae) was investigated for its antioxidant activity by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species in HT-29 colon cancer cells. The methylene chloride extract, which showed the highest antioxidant activity, led to the isolation of four fungal sterols, 1-4, and trilinolein (5), in addition to methyl myristate (6), 1-linoleoylglycerol (7), and ceramide (8). The isolated compounds were identified through the analysis of various spectroscopic methods. In the hydroxyl radical assay, 5-dihydroergosterol exhibited significant antioxidant activity. All compounds isolated were also tested using an enzyme-based Elisa NF-?B assay. Fungal sterols and trilinolein showed significant inhibition of NF-?B activation in the NF-?B assay. PMID:20234969

  17. Polysaccharides from Umbilicaria esculenta cultivated in Huangshan Mountain and immunomodulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-Qun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Jun-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Umbilicaria esculenta cultivated in Huangshan Mountain (HSSE) is precious edible and medicinal lichen. In this study, four polysaccharide fractions designated as UEP1, UEP2, UEP3, and UEP4 were isolated from HSSE with water extraction at different temperature. The physico-chemical properties and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharide fractions were investigated. The results indicated that UEP1, UEP2, UEP3 and UEP4 were acid polysaccharide with 0.50%, 0.62%, 0.63%, and 0.83% of uronic acid contents, respectively. Four polysaccharide fractions were mainly composed of glucose, galactose and mannose with different molar ratio. In the in vitro immunomodulatory assay, all the polysaccharide fractions (20-500 μg/mL) could increase the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrated that the polysaccharides from HSSE could be used as potential biological response modifier. PMID:25316425

  18. Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2002-06-01

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12049788

  19. Identification and some properties of anthocyanin isolated from Zuiki, stalk of Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Naoko; Saotome, Ayako; Tachimura, Yuki; Mochizuki, Ayumi; Ono, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Makiko; Murata, Masatsune

    2007-05-16

    Zuiki, a stalk of taro (Colocasia esculenta), is a traditional vegetable in Japan. Raw zuiki is often boiled and vinegared to eat. The surface color of zuiki is reddish. Here, we isolated a red pigment from zuiki and identified it as cyanidin 3-rutinoside using instrumental analyses. The color of zuiki disappeared by boiling, but the zuiki turned red again in an acetic acid solution. It seems that the cyanidin 3-rutinoside that exists on the surface of zuiki elutes in boiling water and then, the pigment that seeps out from the inside of the zuiki is exposed to an acid solution, and its surface turns red again. The radical scavenging activity of purified zuiki anthocyanin was 114 mg equivalent to BHT/g. About half of the anthocyanin in fresh zuiki was washed out by boiling, and the radical scavenging activity of zuiki was definitely reduced. PMID:17447784

  20. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  1. Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

    2012-07-01

    The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

  2. Metabolite identification strategy of non-targeted metabolomics and its application for the identification of components in Chinese multicomponent medicine Abelmoschus manihot L.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-ming; Lu, Yu-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Li, Ting; Liu, Yang; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Da-wei; Tang, Yu-ping

    2015-05-15

    Identification of multicomponent in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is complex and time-consuming. The inspection of the full-scan mass chromatograms was usually performed manually, which is labor-intensive. It is difficult to distinguish low response signals from complex chemical background. Furthermore, this process is typically based on earlier knowledge of the chemical composition of TCM, and those molecules that have not been characterized earlier were thus ignored. In this paper, a strategy using UPLC-MS combined with pattern recognition analysis was developed to simplify and quicken the identification of multicomponent in Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. First, complex signals obtained by UPLC-MS were processed using automated data mining algorithm and further processed with multivariate chemometric methods. Multicomponent in Abelmoschus manihot L. can be clearly displayed in S- and VIP-plot. Using this method, 320 peaks which present in Abelmoschus manihot L. were detected. In the next step, accurate mass spectra of the characteristic markers acquired by QTOF MS were used to estimate their elemental formulae and enable structure identification. By searching in METLIN database, 41 components were tentatively identified in Abelmoschus manihot L. Our results showed that UPLC-MS based-pattern recognition analysis approach can be used to quickly identify TCM multicomponent and for standardization of herbal preparations. PMID:25981925

  3. Effect of accessions of Colocasia esculenta-based diets on the hepatic and renal functional indices of weanling Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Musa T; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-10-01

    The liver and kidney functional indices of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphological characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days were investigated. All the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets did not significantly (P?>?.05) alter the serum levels of albumin, globulin, inorganic phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and uric acid of the animals.The total protein and total bilirubin levels decreased only in the UFCe3- and UFCe4-fed animals, respectively. Whereas UFCe1 and UFCe2 significantly decreased the conjugated bilirubin levels, UFCe3 and UFCe6 increased it. While all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diet decreased the serum alkaline phosphatase activity, ?-glutamyl transferase activity was increased. UFCe1 and UFCe5 increased the serum alanine aminotransferase activity, whereas UFCe4 decreased the activity of the enzyme. Again, UFCe3 and UFCe1 increased the serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase activity of the animals. Furthermore, the computed blood urea nitrogen:creatinine ratio was higher in animals maintained on UFCe1-, UFCe3-, UFCe4-, and UFCe5-based diets. Whereas UFCe6 and UFCe7 increased the level of sodium in the serum of the animals, UFCe4 and UFCe5 decreased the chloride level. The serum urea level was decreased by UFCe1, UFCe3, UFCe4, and UFCe5, whereas the potassium level increased in the UFCe4-, UFCe6-, and UFCe7-fed animals. Overall, the results revealed that all the accessions of C. esculenta produced selective effects on the hepatic and renal functional indices of the weanling rats. The highest alterations were produced by UFCe4, whereas the least was from UFCe2. These alterations may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. UFCe2 exhibited the least toxicity risk among the accessions of C. esculenta growing in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. PMID:20828320

  4. Effects of Amendments on Growth and Uptake of Cd and Zn by Wetland Plants, Typha angustifolia and Colocasia esculenta from Contaminated Sediments.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-01-01

    A pot study was conducted to compare the effects of amendments (CaHPO4 and cow manure) on growth and uptake of Cd and Zn from contaminated sediments by two wetland plant species, Typha angustifolia and Colocasia esculenta. Contaminated sediments (Cd 33.2 mg kg(-1) and Zn 363 mg kg(-1)) were collected from Mae Tao basin, Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments: control (uncontaminated sediment), Cd/Zn, Cd/Zn + 5% CaHPO4, and Cd/Zn + 10% cow manure. Plants were grown for 3 months in the greenhouse. The addition of CaHPO4 resulted in the highest relative growth rate (RGR) and highest Cd accumulation in both T. angustifolia and C. esculenta while the lowest RGR was found in C. esculenta grown in the cow manure treatment. Both plant species had higher concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn) in their belowground parts. None of the amendments affected Zn accumulation. C. esculenta exhibited the highest uptake of both Cd and Zn. The results clearly demonstrated the phytoremediation potential of C. esculenta and the enhancement of this potential by CaHPO4 amendment. PMID:25831275

  5. Modeling Foliar Uptake in Colocasia Esculenta Using High Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkler, C. J.; Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    The uptake of carbon dioxide by vegetation is a major sink of CO2 and a factor that will determine future climate. Some studies predict a decrease in CO2 uptake from vegetation because of a general drying of the Amazon Basin. Because of the tight linkage between water availability and plant carbon uptake, a comprehensive model of plant water use at the individual scale is necessary to build a complete carbon budget at the global scale. Foliar uptake of non-meteoric water is a common process used by plants to alleviate water stress. However the occurrence of this process in tropical ecosystems, as well as its interaction with other physiological parameters, is not well understood. We present a model of leaf water balance that includes foliar uptake. The isotopic composition of the different sources as well as the leaf water are also included. The model is tested against a series of experiments on Colocasia esculenta, under two different water availability conditions: drought and artificial dew. The artificial dew is spiked with stable isotopes of water (?18O = 8.56 permil, ?2H = 709.7 permil) that allow us to trace the partition of dew uptake within a leaf. We create high-resolution maps of the distribution of isotopes in one half of each leaf using a Picarro IM-CRDS. The maps show a clear enrichment due to foliar uptake for the artificial dew treatment. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and IRMS for quality control of the IM-CRDS data. Soil water is collected for isotope analysis and water content measurement. Finally, stomatal conductance data collected every two days shows no significant decrease due to either treatment over the course of the experiment. We conclude that foliar uptake of dew water is an important water acquisition mechanism for C. esculenta, even under high soil water content conditions, and we propose guidelines for further improvement of models of leaf-scale water balance.

  6. Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate with Colocasia esculenta, Gynerum sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorum in Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Salamanca, E J; Peña, M R; Rousseau, D P L; Lens, P N L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulation of Cd (II), Hg (II), Cr (VI) and Pb (II) in Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) planted in constructed wetlands treating synthetic landfill leachate. Sixteen bioreactors were operated in two experimental blocks. Metal concentrations in the influent and effluent; root, stem, branch and leaves of plants were analysed, as well as COD, N-NH4+, TKN, T, pH, ORP, DO, and EC. Average removal efficiencies of COD, TKN and NH4+-N were 66, 67 and 72%, respectively and heavy metal removal ranged from 92 to 98% in all units. Cr (VI) was not detected in any effluent sample. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 10(0) -10(2). The BCF of Cr (VI) was the lowest: 0.59 and 2.5 (L kg(-1)) for Gs and He respectively; whilst Cd (II) had the highest (130-135 L kg(-1)) for Gs. Roots showed a higher metal content than shoots. Translocation factors (TF) were lower, He was the plant exhibiting TFs>1 for Pb (II), Cr (T) and Hg (II) and 0.4-0.9 for Cd (II) and Cr (VI). The evaluated plants demonstrate their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate and all of them can be categorized as metals accumulators. PMID:25174421

  7. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r?=?-0.87; p?

  8. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Entomotoxic Effect of Colocasia esculenta Tuber Agglutinin against Dysdercus cingulatus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amit; Das, Sampa

    2015-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a mannose binding lectin, exhibits insecticidal efficacy against different hemipteran pests. Dysdercus cingulatus, red cotton bug (RCB), has also shown significant susceptibility to CEA intoxication. However, the molecular basis behind such entomotoxicity of CEA has not been addressed adequately. The present study elucidates the mechanism of insecticidal efficacy of CEA against RCB. Confocal and scanning electron microscopic analyses documented CEA binding to insect midgut tissue, resulting in an alteration of perimicrovillar membrane (PMM) morphology. Internalization of CEA into insect haemolymph and ovary was documented by western blotting analyses. Ligand blot followed by mass spectrometric identification revealed the cognate binding partners of CEA as actin, ATPase and cytochrome P450. Deglycosylation and mannose inhibition assays indicated the interaction to probably be mannose mediated. Bioinformatic identification of putative glycosylation or mannosylation sites in the binding partners further supports the sugar mediated interaction. Correlating entomotoxicity of CEA with immune histological and binding assays to the insect gut contributes to a better understanding of the insecticidal potential of CEA and endorses its future biotechnological application.

  9. Recovery of energy from Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs).

    PubMed

    Bindu, T; Ramasamy, E V

    2008-01-01

    We present studies on solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs) in which chopped Colocasia esculenta was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop an efficient means of utilizing the semi-aquatic weed that is otherwise an environmental nuisance. Two types of SOFADs were studied. The first type had a single vessel with two compartments. The lower portion of the digester, 25% of the total volume, was separated from the upper by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cow dung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the digester led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The bioleachate, rich in the VFAs, passed through the perforated PVC disk and was collected in the lower compartment of the digester. The other type of digesters, referred to as anaerobic multi-phase high-solids digesters (AMHDs), had the same type of compartmentalized digester unit as the first type and an additional methaniser unit. Up-flow anaerobic filters (UAFs) were used as methaniser units, which converted the bioleachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 60% methane. All SOFADs developed a consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 20 weeks from the start. Among the two types of digesters studied, the AMHDs were found to perform better with a twofold increase in biogas yield compared to the first type of digesters. PMID:17382532

  10. Zn tolerance of novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein and its domains in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Patel, Darshan H; Kim, Ho Myeong; Ahn, Sung-Ju; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2012-11-01

    Contrary to extensive researches on the roles of metallothioneins (MTs) in metal tolerance of animals, the roles of plant MTs in metal tolerance are largely under investigation. In this study, we evaluated the functional role of type 2 MT from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. Under Zn-stress conditions, transgenic tobacco overexpressing CeMT2b displayed much better seedling growth, a significant decrease in the levels of H(2)O(2) and an increase in Zn accumulation compared with the wild type. Overexpression of CeMT2b in E. coli greatly enhanced Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation under Zn stresses compared with control cells. CeMT2b bound 5.380.29 atoms of Zn per protein. To identify a structural domain of CeMT2b for Zn binding, we investigated the growth of E. coli expressing each of the N-terminal, C-terminal, and central linker domains or a CNC motif deletion from the C-terminus of full-length CeMT2b. The results showed that the CNC motif is required for Zn tolerance, and the N-terminal domain is more effective in Zn tolerance than the C-terminal domain. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence for functional contributions of CeMT2b in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. PMID:22610130

  11. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  12. Rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebot, Vincent; Malapa, Roger; Bourrieau, Marion

    2011-09-14

    The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for the rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality. Chemical analyses were conducted on 315 accessions for major constituents (starch, total sugars, cellulose, proteins, and minerals). NIRS calibration equations, developed on a calibration set composed of 243 accessions, showed high explained variances in cross-validation (r(2)(cv)) for starch (0.89), sugars (0.90), proteins (0.89), and minerals (0.90) but poor response for amylose (0.44) and cellulose (0.61). The predictions were tested on an independent set of 58 randomly selected accessions. The r(2)(pred) values for starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals were, respectively, of 0.76, 0.74, 0.85, and 0.85 with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of 3.41, 4.01, 3.78, and 3.64. New calibration equations developed on 303 accessions confirmed good RPD values for starch (3.30), sugars (4.13), proteins (3.61), and minerals (3.74). NIRS could be used to predict starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals contents in taro corms with reasonably high confidence. PMID:21806061

  13. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  14. cDNAs encoding for storage proteins in the tubers of taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott).

    PubMed

    Hirai, M; Nakamura, K; Imai, T; Sato, T

    1993-06-01

    Two major protein groups of taro (Colocasia esculenta) tuber were purified, and their antisera were used for the screening of the cDNA library constructed from poly(A)+ RNA of taro tuber. A cDNA clone obtained by screening with an anti-12 kD protein antiserum had an insert 1058 bp-long, and an open reading frame for a peptide of 268 amino acids. The analyses of the N-terminal amino acid sequence and in vitro translation product suggested that the protein was synthesized as a peptide with a molecular weight of 27 kD, and then processed into two mature peptides with a molecular weight of 12.5 and 13.9 kD and an extra peptide with a molecular weight of 0.6 kD. The cDNA clones obtained using the anti-25 kD protein antiserum were highly homologous with each other. One of them had an insert 958 bp-long and an open reading frame for a peptide with 209 amino acids. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of this clone indicated that the 25 kD proteins were homologous to the trypsin inhibitors of soybean and winged bean as well as sporamins, the storage proteins of sweet potato. PMID:8251188

  15. High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.

    PubMed

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

  16. Changes in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase under anaerobiosis in cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Chibueze, Nwose

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in the cormels of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum) immediately after harvest and in storage under anaerobiosis for one and three weeks, respectively. During stress condition in plants, hydrogen peroxide is released and mechanisms to detoxify it must be maintained. The cocoyam tubers that were neither damaged nor affected by disease were harvested from a local farm in Ugbogui, Ovia North Local Government Area in Edo State, Nigeria. The selected cocoyam tubers were peeled manually, washed with ice cold water and cut into pieces. The root tissues (50 g) were homogenised with 100 mL of ice cold 0.05 M phosphate buffer. The extract obtained was clarified by centrifugation for 15 min at 8000 g at 4 degrees C. Ascorbate-peroxidising activity was assayed using the initial rate of decrease in ascorbate concentration as measured by its absorbance at 290 nm using Milton Roy Spectron 21D. Results showed the weight of the cormels decreased all through during storage. Immediately after harvest the activity of ascorbate peroxidase was 15.49 unit mL(-1) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) after one week to 73.05 U mL(-1). Thereafter there was a significant decrease in activity of the enzyme after three weeks of storage to 33.33 U mL(-1). This increase in activity of ascorbate peroxidase after three weeks of storage may be related to increase in response to various biotic stresses. Therefore, manipulation of the capacity of cocoyam to tolerate anaerobiosis is a function of its ability to modulate the antioxidant enzymes' armory in case of need. PMID:24783794

  17. Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4?C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.34.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 g/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector?to?target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 g/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 g/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 g/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 g/mouse Taro-4-I. PMID:23292184

  18. Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.

    PubMed

    Quero-Garca, Jos; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2009-07-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be conducted by using a broader genetic base. This is the first study assessing the relationship of hybrid vigour with the genetic distances between parents, conducted on a tropical root crop. PMID:19363661

  19. Competition Among Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains for Nodulation of Lentils (Lens esculenta).

    PubMed

    May, S N; Bohlool, B B

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-one cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum were screened for effectiveness (C(2)H(2) reduction) on lentils (Lens esculenta). Fluorescent antibodies prepared against three of the most effective strains (Hawaii 5-0, Nitragin 92A3, and Nitragin 128A12) exhibited a high degree of strain specificity; the antibodies reacted strongly with their homologous rhizobia in culture and with bacteroids in nodules. They did not cross-react with one another, and only weakly with 5 of the 47 other R. leguminosarum cultures tested. In competition studies in the growth chamber, whenever strain Nitragin 92A3 was included in the inoculum mixture, it consistently (but not always significantly, P = 0.05) occupied the majority of nodules on all four cultivars used. However, some degree of strain X cultivar interaction was apparent: Hawaii 5-0 was of equal competitiveness (P = 0.05) with Nitragin 92A3 on three of the varieties (Commercial, Tekoa, and Benewah), but inferior (P = 0.01) on the Chilean variety; Nitragin 92A3 completely dominated (P = 0.01) Nitragin 128A12 on all cultivars; and Hawaii 5-0 was of equal competitiveness (P = 0.05) to Nitragin 128A12 on the Chilean variety and more competitive (P = 0.01) on the commercial variety and less so on the other two varieties. In field experiments, Hawaii 5-0 proved of equal competitiveness (P = 0.01) with Nitragin 92A3 in one soil (an Inceptisol) and superior (P

  20. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties in Fruits of Myrica esculenta: A Popular Wild Edible Species in Indian Himalayan Region

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Sandeep; Jugran, Arun; Giri, Lalit; Bhatt, Indra D.; Rawal, Ranbeer S.

    2011-01-01

    Crude extract of Myrica esculenta fruits, a wild edible species of Indian Himalayan Region, was evaluated for phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Results revealed significant variation in total phenolic and flavonoid contents across populations. Among populations, total phenolic content varied between 1.78 and 2.51 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight (fw) of fruits and total flavonoids ranged between 1.31 and 1.59 mg quercetin equivalent/g fw. Antioxidant activity determined by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) exhibited considerable antioxidant potential and showed significant positive correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoids content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed significant variation (P <  .01) in phenolic compounds (i.e., gallic acid, catechin, hydroxybenzioc acid and ρ-coumaric acid) across populations. This study provides evidences to establish that consumption of M. esculenta fruits while providing relished taste would also help in reduction of free radicals. Therefore, this wild edible species deserves promotion in the region through horticulture and forestry interventions. PMID:21785629

  1. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 μm×12.2 μm. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 μm2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 μm×12.1 μm. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 μm×5.5 μm. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231

  2. Protective effect of pharmacological preconditioning of total flavones of abelmoschl manihot on cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ji-Yue; Chen, Zhi-Wu

    2007-01-01

    The present study was to investigate the effect of pharmacological preconditioning of total flavones of abelmoschl manihot (TFA) on cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury in rats. Rat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by occluding the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). The infarct size was determined by staining with 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazalium chloride (TTC). The serum malonaldehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were measured by using spectrophotometry; Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR method. The percentage of cerebral infarction volume was 28.1 +/- 0.8 in the model group, while TFA or nimodipine (Nim) pretreatment 36 hours prior to the ischemic insult significantly decreased the infarction volume. Increases of serum LDH activity and MDA level were observed after ischemia/reperfusion, but these changes were inhibited in rats pretreated with either TFA (20, 40, 80, 160 mg/kg) or Nim, indicating a delayed protective effect of TFA preconditioning on cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. In addition, the serum NO level and the cerebral iNOS mRNA were up-regulated, suggesting a possible mechanism for the protective effect of TFA pretreatment on cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. PMID:17708631

  3. Characterisation and evaluation of a novel feedstock, Manihot glaziovii, Muell. Arg, for production of bioenergy carriers: Bioethanol and biogas.

    PubMed

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Ken M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Elisante, Emrode; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise and evaluate a wild inedible cassava species, Manihot glaziovii as feedstock for bioenergy production. Tubers obtained from 3 different areas in Tanzania were characterised and evaluated for bioethanol and biogas production. These bioenergy carriers were produced both separately and sequentially and their energy values evaluated based on these two approaches. Composition analysis demonstrated that M. glaziovii is a suitable feedstock for both bioethanol and biogas production. Starch content ranged from 77% to 81%, structural carbohydrates 3-16%, total crude protein ranged from 2% to 8%. Yeast fermentation achieved ethanol concentration of up to 85g/L at a fermentation efficiency of 89%. The fuel energy of the bioethanol and methane from flour-peels mix ranged from 5 to 13 and 11 to 14MJ/kgVS, respectively. Co-production of bioethanol and biogas in which the peels were added to the fermentation residue prior to anaerobic digestion produced maximum fuel energy yield of (15-23MJ/kgVS). PMID:25237774

  4. Itches-stimulating compounds from Colocasia esculenta (taro): bioactive-guided screening and LC-MS/MS identification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gao; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Zong-Xiang; Yang, Yan

    2015-10-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schoot (taro) is one of the most common crops in the world. Its rhizome was a tonic medicine and accustomed to treat some gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. Today, the taro was further developed as anticancer prescription in herbal therapy. However, the mucilage of the fresh taro has irritation, and causes itchy feeling. The components in the mucilage were not evident up to now. Two active compounds, uracil and glycol-protein taro lectin (Accession number: A5HMM7), were purified and identified from the fresh taro. The glycol-protein taro lectin showed nerve stimulation activity on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from GCaMP transgenic mice at the concentration of 1mg/mL. PMID:26387442

  5. Role of pCeMT, a putative metallothionein from Colocasia esculenta, in response to metal stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Jung, Sera; Kim, Kyounghyoun; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2013-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) play a major role in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification in plants. In this study, a novel gene, pCeMT, was isolated from Colocasia esculenta and characterized. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli cells expressing pCeMT exhibited enhanced Cd, Cu, and Zn tolerance and accumulation compared with control cells. Furthermore, pCeMT-overexpressing tobacco seedlings displayed better growth under Cd, Cu, and Zn stresses and accumulated more Cd and Zn compared with the wild type. Interestingly, transgenic tobacco displayed markedly decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation levels under Cd, Cu, and Zn treatments. These results suggest that pCeMT could play an important role in the protection of plant cells from oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and in the detoxification of free metals by metal binding, leading to improved plant metal tolerance. PMID:23344478

  6. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of seven accessions of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott tubers growing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (cocoyam) is cultivated mainly for its edible tubers. The effect of cooking the tubers on the proximate composition of seven accessions (UFCe1-UFCe7) of the crop growing in South Africa was investigated. When compared with the uncooked, the ash and crude fibre contents of the accessions significantly decreased after cooking. The moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate and caloric contents increased with cooking in all the accessions, except UFCe1 and UFCe5 where the crude lipid content reduced. The results indicate that cooking enhanced the carbohydrate, energy and protein contents of the tubers. They further showed that the tubers could be used for allergic infants, old people and invalids since the fibre contents were still appreciably high despite the slight reduction after cooking the tubers. PMID:19468953

  7. A Novel Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Glycoside Hydrolase from Ustilago esculenta Functions in ?-1,3-Glucan Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Machiko; Nakano, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    A glycoside hydrolase responsible for laminarin degradation was partially purified to homogeneity from a Ustilago esculenta culture filtrate by weak-cation-exchange, strong-cation-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Three proteins in enzymatically active fractions were digested with chymotrypsin followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis, resulting in the identification of three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity to a putative ?-1,3-glucanase, a member of glucoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) from Sporisorium reilianum SRZ2. A gene encoding a laminarin-degrading enzyme from U. esculenta, lam16A, was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the S. reilianum SRZ2 ?-1,3-glucanase gene. Lam16A possesses a GH16 catalytic domain with an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor peptide. Recombinant Lam16A fused to an N-terminal FLAG peptide (Lam16A-FLAG) overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae exhibited hydrolytic activity toward ?-1,3-glucan specifically and was localized both in the extracellular and in the membrane fractions but not in the cell wall fraction. Lam16A without a GPI anchor signal peptide was secreted extracellularly and was not detected in the membrane fraction. Membrane-anchored Lam16A-FLAG was released completely by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These results suggest that Lam16A is anchored in the plasma membrane in order to modify ?-1,3-glucan associated with the inner cell wall and that Lam16A is also used for the catabolism of ?-1,3-glucan after its release in the extracellular medium. PMID:22685137

  8. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments. PMID:26521563

  9. Fast and automated characterization of major constituents in rat biofluid after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MetaboLynx.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan

    2010-02-01

    In drug metabolism research, the setting up of a complex series of mass spectrometry experiments and the subsequent analysis of the large amounts of data produced are often time-consuming. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOFMS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Rat plasma and urine samples collected 1 h and 0-12 h after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot were analyzed by UPLC/QTOFMS within 15 min. The post-acquisition data were processed using MetaboLynx. With key parameters carefully set, MetaboLynx is able to show the presence of a wide range of metabolites with only a limited requirement for manual intervention and data interpretation time. A total of 16 and 38 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine compared with blank samples. The results indicated that methylation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot which will be helpful for fully understanding the mechanism of action of this herb. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC/QTOFMS approach using MetaboLynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites from Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:20069688

  10. Comparative study of the methane production based on the chemical compositions of Mangifera Indica and Manihot Utilissima leaves.

    PubMed

    Mambanzulua Ngoma, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Sumbu Zola, Eric; Culot, Marc; Fievez, Thierry; Thonart, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Leaves of Mangifera Indica (MI, mango leaves) and Manihot Utilissima (MU, cassava leaves) are available in tropical regions and are the most accessible vegetal wastes of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo. These wastes are not suitably managed and are not rationally valorized. They are abandoned in full air, on the soil and in the rivers. They thus pollute environment. By contrast, they can be recuperated and treated in order to produce methane (energy source), organic fertilizer and clean up the environment simultaneously. The main objective of this study was to investigate methane production from MI and MU leaves by BMP tests at 30C. The yields achieved from the anaerobic digestion of up to 61.3g raw matter in 1l medium were 0.001l/g and 0.100l CH4/g volatile solids of MI and MU leaves, respectively. The yield of MU leaves was in the range mentioned in the literature for other leaves because of a poor presence of bioactive substrates, and low C/N ratio. This methane yield corresponded to 7% of calorific power of wood. By contrast, the methane yield from MI leaves was almost nil suggesting some metabolism inhibition because of their rich composition in carbon and bioactive substrates. Whereas classical acidogenesis and acetogenesis were recorded. Therefore, methane production from the sole MI leaves seems unfavorable by comparison to MU leaves at the ambient temperature in tropical regions. Their solid and liquid residues obtained after anaerobic digestion would be efficient fertilizers. However, the methane productivity of both leaves could be improved by anaerobic co-digestion. PMID:25825684

  11. TiO2 Immobilized on Manihot Carbon: Optimal Preparation and Evaluation of Its Activity in the Decomposition of Indigo Carmine

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M.; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M.; Elizalde-González, María P.; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

  12. TiO2 immobilized on Manihot carbon: optimal preparation and evaluation of its activity in the decomposition of indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dvila-Jimnez, Martn M; Elizalde-Gonzlez, Mara P; Garca-Daz, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

  13. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xin; Ma, Xiaoyin; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2009-01-01

    Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%). All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid clade (including echiurans and pogonophorans). Hence annelid "key-characters" including segmentation may be more labile than previously assumed. PMID:19327168

  14. Granulopoiesis in tadpoles of Rana esculenta. Ultrastructural observations on the morphology and development of heterophil and basophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, G

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and development of heterophil and basophil granules from the trunk kidneys of Rana esculenta tadpoles were studied at the electron microscopic level. Cells of the heterophils series contain granules displaying either spheroid profiles with homogeneous content (Type A), or elongate profiles with a crystalloid interior (Type B). Type A granules apparently originate directly from Golgi-derived vesicles, which, gaining slightly in size and density, transform into the mature granules. Type B granules could be traced back to vacuolate structures showing an irregular content. Their development could be traced through increasingly elongated forms with the appearance of a characteristic crystalloid core. Fully developed basophil granules are considerably larger in size than heterophil granules and contain heterogeneous interna showing a central-cortical organisation: a finely stippled medullary zone of varying density is surrounded by a sickle-shaped and lamellate cortex (Type L), or a moderately dense and uniformly stippled medulla is enclosed by two diametrically opposed, cap-shaped, filamentous regions (Type F). The heterophil and basophil granules are compared to those in other vertebrates and possible phylogenetic aspects are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:2606765

  15. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; Nehir El, Sedef

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some functional properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm, which can be a good alternative to the other dietary carbohydrate sources with its high starch content. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of taro corm was found as 205±53mgCAE/100g and 61±9mgCAE/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of corm was determined as 452±72mMTEAC/100g and 244±73mMTEAC/100g, by the scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The free glucose content of corms was less than 1%, whereas the 60% of dry matter was composed of starch. According to the results, the taro corms' starch was highly digestible and higher than the 50% of the starch was composed of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) fractions. The estimated glycemic index (eGI) of taro corm was 63.1±2.5, indicating taro corm as a medium GI food and a good dietary carbohydrate alternative especially for diabetic people. PMID:25172708

  16. Structural insights regarding an insecticidal Talisia esculenta protein and its biotechnological potential for Diatraea saccharalis larval control.

    PubMed

    Freire, Maria das Graas M; Franco, Octvio L; Kubo, Carlos Eduardo G; Migliolo, Ludovico; Vargas, Rodrigo H; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Parra, Jos Roberto P; Macedo, Maria Ligia R

    2012-01-01

    Talisin is a seed-storage protein from Talisia esculenta that presents lectin-like activities, as well as proteinase-inhibitor properties. The present study aims to provide new in vitro and in silico biochemical information about this protein, shedding some light on its mechanistic inhibitory strategies. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of Talisin bound to trypsin was constructed in order to determine the relative interaction mode. Since the structure of non-competitive inhibition has not been elucidated, Talisin-trypsin docking was carried out using Hex v5.1, since the structure of non-competitive inhibition has not been elucidated. The predicted non-coincidence of the trypsin binding site is completely different from that previously proposed for Kunitz-type inhibitors, which demonstrate a substitution of an Arg(64) for the Glu(64) residue. Data, therefore, provide more information regarding the mechanisms of non-competitive plant proteinase inhibitors. Bioassays with Talisin also presented a strong insecticide effect on the larval development of Diatraea saccharalis, demonstrating LD50 and ED50 of ca. 2.0% and 1.5%, respectively. PMID:21983187

  17. High cadmium-binding ability of a novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein increases cadmium tolerance in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Patel, Darshan H; Lee, Dae-Seok; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence in vivo as to the functional roles and binding properties to cadmium (Cd) of type-2 plants metallothionein (MT) has been limited thus far. We investigated the biological role of metallothionein from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Escherichia coli and tobacco, and developed a new model for the relationship between Cd tolerance and Cd-binding ability. Heterologous expression of CeMT2b in Escherichia coli greatly enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulated Cd content as compared to control cells. The molecular weight of CeMT2b increased with Cd, and CeMT2b bound up to 5.961 molar ratio (Cd/protein). Under Cd stress, transgenic tobacco plants displayed much better seedling growth and high Cd accumulation than the wild type. The presence of an extra CXC motif in CeMT2b contributed to the enhanced Cd-tolerance. The present study provides the first insight into the ability of type-2 plant MT to bind physiological Cd. PMID:21979068

  18. Impact of soil quality on elemental uptake by, and distribution in, Colocasia esculenta (Amadumbe), an edible root.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2011-01-01

    In this study the elemental distribution of selected essential (Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn, Ni and Se) and the non-essential (Pb, Hg and As) elements were determined in the bulb and peel of Amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta) samples from eight different sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The concentration of Se and As in the soil and in the Amadumbe bulbs were below the detection limit of 0.09 ?g g?. The total and bioavailable concentrations of the elements in conjunction with pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined in the soil samples from the eight sites. Statistical analysis was done to evaluate the impact of soil quality parameters on the chemical composition of the Amadumbe root. The results show accumulation or exclusion of certain elements by the bulb as evidenced by the noticeable increase or decrease of the concentrations of elements, respectively. Ca and Mg were found to be major elements in the range (2000-12000 ?g g?), whilst Mn, Zn, Fe and Al were found to be minor elements in the range (20-400 ?g g?). A general trend observed was that the plant favours the absorption of Zn over Cu. A positive correlation between Mg & Ca, Cu & Fe and Co & Ni was also observed. Statistical analysis revealed that the plant tended to accumulate Mg, Ca, Co, Cr and Pb whilst it excluded Hg and Fe, to a lesser extent. PMID:21462052

  19. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott) leaves on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinonyelum, Azubike Nkiruka; Uwadiegwu, Achukwu Peter; Nwachukwu, Okwuosa Chukwugozie; Emmanuel, Oduah

    2015-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of orally administered leaf aqueous extract of Colocasia esculenta (CCLE) in thioacetamide-induced liver toxicity in rats was investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats (weight range: 120-150g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5) and received no treatment (normal control), distilled water (negative control), 50mg/kg silymarin (positive control) and CCLE (250 and 500mg/kg) respectively once daily for 3 consecutive days. Thioacetamide (TAA) (150mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally on the 4th day to rats in all groups except the normal control. Evaluations were made for serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and serum albumin. Histopathological examination was performed on the excised liver tissues. TAA-induced hepatotoxicity increased ALT, AST, ALP and decreased serum albumin. Histopathological results revealed extensive disruption of the liver histoarchitecture when compared to the normal control liver sections. Pre-treatment with CCLE showed protective effects by normalizing the liver enzymes markers. These results were supported by the histopathological observations. The activity of the CCLE was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug, silymarin (50mg/kg). Overall findings suggest that CCLE possesses in vivo hepatoprotective activity against thioacetamide in rats. PMID:26687753

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  1. Evaluation of Rana snk esculenta blood cell response to chemical stressors in the environment during the larval and adult phases.

    PubMed

    Barni, Sergio; Boncompagni, Eleonora; Grosso, Amelia; Bertone, Vittorio; Freitas, Isabel; Fasola, Mauro; Fenoglio, Carla

    2007-02-15

    The assessment of the biological effects on aquatic vertebrate species is frequently employed to monitor water pollution, as it provides significant information on bioavailability and actual concentration levels. In anamniote vertebrates (fish and amphibians), significant correlations have been observed between exposure to contaminants - both natural and experimental - and blood modification. We investigated the changes in some circulating blood cell parameters of green frog (Rana snk esculenta) tadpoles and adults collected at two sample rice fields, one heavily polluted and the other relatively unpolluted. The frequency of eosinophilic leucocytes, mitotic, anucleated and micronucleated erythrocytes was evaluated also regarding the haemopoietic/haemocatheretic and NOS expression of the liver. Haematological indicators in polluted samples were found to be significantly different from controls as regards both larval and adult exposure, and provided information on long-term background pollution of the habitats under investigation. The population of the polluted area showed evident effects of chronic exposure to contaminants, to a degree which could lead to sub-lethal alterations of their health status. The general nature of responses to this kind of stress emphasizes the role of amphibian peripheral blood as a sensitive indicator regarding contamination in aquatic environments. PMID:17150265

  2. Structural analysis and binding properties of isoforms of tarin, the GNA-related lectin from Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia R; Winter, Harry C; Verícimo, Mauricio A; Meagher, Jennifer L; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Goldstein, Irwin J; Paschoalin, Vânia M F; Silva, Joab T

    2015-01-01

    The lectins, a class of proteins that occur widely in animals, plants, fungi, lichens and microorganisms, are known for their ability to specifically bind to carbohydrates. Plant lectins can be classified into 12 families including the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin superfamily, which is widespread among monocotyledonous plants and binds specifically to mannose, a behavior that confers remarkable anti-tumor, anti-viral and insecticidal properties on these proteins. The present study characterized a mitogenic lectin from this family, called tarin, which was purified from the crude extract from taro (Colocasia esculenta). The results showed that tarin is a glycoprotein with 2-3% carbohydrate content, composed of least 10 isoforms with pIs ranging from 5.5 to 9.5. The intact protein is a heterotetramer of 47kDa composed of two non-identical and non-covalently associated polypeptides, with small subunits of 11.9kDa and large subunits of 12.6kDa. The tarin structure is stable and recovers or maintains its functional structure following treatments at different temperatures and pH. Tarin showed a complex carbohydrate specificity, binding with high affinity to high-mannose and complex N-glycans. Many of these ligands can be found in viruses, tumor cells and insects, as well as in hematopoietic progenitor cells. Chemical modifications confirmed that both conserved and non-conserved amino acids participate in this interaction. This study determined the structural and ligand binding characteristics of a GNA-related lectin that can be exploited for several different purposes, particularly as a proliferative therapeutic molecule that is able to enhance the immunological response. PMID:25448725

  3. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber from taro (Colocasia esculenta), an important food plant of the South Pacific.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ferguson LR; Roberton AM; McKenzie RJ; Watson ME; Harris PJ

    The incidence of colorectal cancer is lower in Polynesian populations of the South Pacific than in European populations. This difference in incidence of the disease may be, at least partly, related to diet. Dietary fiber is believed to protect against colorectal cancer, and one of the ways it may act is by adsorbing mutagens that are carcinogenic. Very little is known about the chemical composition or the ability to adsorb mutagens of these dietary fibers from South Pacific food plants. In contrast to European food plants, which are mostly dicotyledons, South Pacific food plants are mainly monocotyledons. We isolated cell walls (dietary fiber) from the three edible parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta), which is a monocotyledon and a major South Pacific food plant. The ability of these three unlignified cell-wall preparations to adsorb the hydrophobic environmental mutagen 1,8-dinitropyrene was studied. The greatest adsorption occurred with walls from leaf blade, followed by petiole and corm walls, although the differences were not major. The amount of adsorption was intermediate between the low adsorption previously found with unlignified dicotyledon walls (from the flesh of potato tubers and immature cabbage leaves) and the much higher adsorption found with unlignified walls from monocotyledons of the grass and cereal family (Poaceae) (from leaves of seedling Italian ryegrass). These data are consistent with the monosaccharide compositions of the taro wall preparations, which were more similar to those of unlignified walls of dicotyledons than to unlignified walls of the Poaceae. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the composition of the dietary fiber determines its adsorptive properties and that there may be important differences between the major dietary fibers of South Pacific and European food plants.

  4. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Kumar, Senthil; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Venkatagiri, Shripathi; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-10-01

    Tarocystatin from Colocasia esculenta, a group-2 phytocystatin, is a defense protein against phytopathogenic nematodes and fungi. It is composed of a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is homological to group-1 cystatin, and a repetitive peptide at the C-terminus. The purified recombinant proteins of tarocystatin, such as full-length (FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL peptide exhibited mixed type inhibition (K(ia) = 0.098 microM and K(ib) = 0.252 microM) and Nt peptide showed competitive inhibition (K(i) = 0.057 microM), whereas Ct peptide possessed weak papain activation properties. A shift in the inhibitory pattern from competitive inhibition of Nt peptide alone to mixed type inhibition of FL peptide implied that the Ct peptide has an regulatory effect on the function of FL peptide. Based on the inhibitory kinetics of FL (group-2) and Nt (group-1) peptides on papain activity, an inhibitory mechanism of group-2 phytocystatins and a regulatory mechanism of extended Ct peptide have each been proposed. By contrast, the antifungal activity of Nt peptide appeared to be greater than that of FL peptide, and the Ct peptide showed no effect on antifungal activity, indicating that the antifungal effect is not related to proteinase inhibitory activity. The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase. PMID:18785929

  5. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets. PMID:26031004

  6. Phlorotannin production and lipid oxidation as a potential protective function against high photosynthetically active and UV radiation in gametophytes of Alaria esculenta (Alariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Franciska S; Graeve, Martin; Bartoszek, Krzysztof; Bischof, Kai; Wiencke, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Radiation damage can inter alia result in lipid peroxidation of macroalgal cell membranes. To prevent photo-oxidation within the cells, photoprotective substances such as phlorotannins are synthesized. In the present study, changes in total fatty acids (FA), FA composition and intra/extracellular phlorotannin contents were determined by gas chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method to investigate the photoprotective potential of phlorotannins to prevent lipid peroxidation. Alaria esculenta juveniles (Phaeophyceae) were exposed over 20 days to high/low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in combination with UV radiation (UVR) in the treatments: PAB (low/high PAR + UV-B + UV-A), PA (low/high PAR + UV-A) or low/high PAR only. While extracellular phlorotannins increased after 10 days, intracellular phlorotannins increased with exposure time and PA and decreased under PAB. Interactive effects of time:radiation wavebands, time:PAR dose as well as radiation wavebands:PAR dose were observed. Low FA contents were detected in the PA and PAB treatments; interactive effects were observed between time:high PAR and PAB:high PAR. Total FA contents were correlated to extra/intracellular phlorotannin contents. Our results suggest that phlorotannins might play a role in intra/extracellular protection by absorption and oxidation processes. Changes in FA content/composition upon UVR and high PAR might be considered as an adaptive mechanism of the A. esculenta juveniles subjected to variations in solar irradiance. PMID:21958385

  7. Inhibition of the basal and oestradiol-stimulated mitotic activity of primary spermatogonia by melatonin in the testis of the frog, Rana esculenta, in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    d'Istria, M; Palmiero, C; Serino, I; Izzo, G; Minucci, S

    2003-07-01

    Melatonin has a direct inhibitory effect on the basal and oestradiol-stimulated mitotic activity of primary spermatogonia in the testis of the frog, Rana esculenta. In this study oestradiol was used to induce spermatogonial proliferation to verify the anti-proliferative effect of melatonin. The colchicine metaphase arrest technique was used. The results obtained from in vivo experiments confirm that oestradiol increases the mitotic index of primary spermatogonia and, for the first time, indicate that melatonin has an inhibitory role on the proliferation of primary spermatogonia in the frog testis. Similar results were obtained from testes of melatonin-injected frogs that were exposed to oestradiol in vitro; in fact spermatogonia were unresponsive to hormonal stimulation. In addition, in short-term cultured testes, melatonin (at physiological concentration) interferes with the effects of oestradiol on spermatogonial proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that melatonin exerts the inhibitory effect directly via its local action on the frog gonads. Morphological observation after in vivo or in vitro melatonin treatments indicates that Leydig cells display degenerative features, whereas in adjacent germinal tubules, Sertoli cells show heterochromatic nuclei. These results indicate that melatonin may act on Leydig cells and confirm that there is a paracrine interaction between interstitial and germinal compartments. The results of the present study indicate, for the first time, that melatonin may be directly involved in the inhibitory control of spermatogonial proliferation in the testis of the frog, R. esculenta. PMID:12814350

  8. Identification of chloroplast genome loci suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic studies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) and closely related taxa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Matthews, Peter J; Biggs, Patrick J; Naeem, Muhammad; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic loci. The primers have been tested in a range of intra-specific to intergeneric comparisons, including ten taro samples (Colocasia esculenta) from diverse geographical locations, four other Colocasia species (C.affinis, C.fallax, C.formosana, C.gigantea) and three other aroid genera (represented by Remusatia vivipara, Alocasia brisbanensis and Amorphophallus konjac). Multiple sequence alignments for the intra-specific comparison revealed nucleotide substitutions (point mutations) at all 30 loci and microsatellite polymorphisms at 14 loci. The primer pairs reported here reveal levels of genetic variation suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of taro and other closely related aroids. Our results confirm that information on repeat distribution can be used to identify loci suitable for such studies, and we expect that this approach can be used in other plant groups. PMID:23718317

  9. Studies on physicochemical and pasting properties of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour in comparison with a cereal, tuber and legume flour.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Kaushal, Pragati; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh

    2013-02-01

    The physicochemical and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour were investigated and compared with flours from other botanical sources. Proximate composition, color parameters, water and oil absorption, foaming characteristics and pasting properties (measured using Rapid visco analyzer) of flours were related to each other using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Taro flour was significantly (P?

  10. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.40.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.11.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.60.5 and 51.90.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.20.2% and 7.61.7%, respectively. PMID:22939332

  11. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N

    2012-01-01

    Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235

  12. The distribution of GABA-like-immunoreactive neurons in the brain of the newt, Triturus cristatus carnifex, and the green frog, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, M F; Morino, P

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity was studied in the brain of two amphibian species (Triturus cristatus carnifex, Urodela; Rana esculenta, Anura) by employing a specific GABA antiserum. A noteworthy immunoreactive neuronal system was found in the telencephalic dorsal and medial pallium (primordium pallii dorsalis and primordium hippocampi) and in the olfactory bulbs. In the diencephalic habenular nuclei there was a rich GABAergic innervation, and immunoreactive neurons were observed in the dorsal thalamus. In the hypothalamus the GABA immunoreactivity was found in the preoptic area, the paraventricular organ and in the hypothalamo-hypophysial complex. In the preoptic area of the frog some GABA-immunoreactive CSF-contacting cells were shown. In the optic tectum immunolabeled neurons were present in all the cellular layers. A rich GABAergic innervation characterized both the fibrous layers of the tectum and the neuropil of the tegmentum and interpeduncular nucleus. In the cerebellum, in addition to the Purkinje cells showing a variable immunopositivity, some immunoreactive cells bodies appeared in the central grey. Abundant immunolabeled nerve fibers in the acoustico-lateral area and some immunopositive neurons in the region of the raphe nucleus were observed. In conclusion, the GABAergic central systems, well-developed in the amphibian species studied, were generally characterized by close similarities to the pattern described in mammals. PMID:2786752

  13. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, C. O.; Iroaganachi, M.; Eleazu, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65?mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23971053

  14. Binding of insecticidal lectin Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) to midgut receptors of Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi provides clues to its insecticidal potential.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit; Gupta, Sumanti; Hess, Daniel; Das, Kali Pada; Das, Sampa

    2014-07-01

    The insecticidal potential of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins against hemipterans has been experimentally proven. However, the basis behind the toxicity of these lectins against hemipterans remains elusive. The present study elucidates the molecular basis behind insecticidal efficacy of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) against Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi. Confocal microscopic analyses highlighted the binding of 25 kDa stable homodimeric lectin to insect midgut. Ligand blots followed by LC MS/MS analyses identified binding partners of CEA as vacuolar ATP synthase and sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum type Ca(2+) ATPase from B. tabaci, and ATP synthase, heat shock protein 70 and clathrin heavy chain assembly protein from L. erysimi. Internalization of CEA into hemolymph was confirmed by Western blotting. Glycoprotein nature of the receptors was identified through glycospecific staining. Deglycosylation assay indicated the interaction of CEA with its receptors to be probably glycan mediated. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed the interaction kinetics between ATP synthase of B. tabaci with CEA. Pathway prediction study based on Drosophila homologs suggested the interaction of CEA with insect receptors that probably led to disruption of cellular processes causing growth retardation and loss of fecundity of target insects. Thus, the present findings strengthen our current understanding of the entomotoxic potentiality of CEA, which will facilitate its future biotechnological applications. PMID:24753494

  15. Purification and characterization of the lectin from taro (Colocasia esculenta) and its effect on mouse splenocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrcia Ribeiro; Del Aguila, Eduardo Mere; Vercimo, Maurcio Afonso; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Paschoalin, Vnia Margaret Flosi; Silva, Joab Trajano

    2014-02-01

    Lectins are proteins found in a wide range of organisms, with the ability to bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates. They can display important biological activities, such as the activation of the cell cycle in lymphocytes. Storage proteins with lectin activity have been reported in tuberous plant species, such as Colocasia esculenta, popularly known as taro. A simple strategy based on Cibacron Blue chromatography was used to purify a 12 kDa polypeptide 1.3-fold, with a recovery of 30 %. The purified protein was identified as tarin by mass spectrometry, which indicated that it was present in G1a/G1d isoforms. Tarin exhibited both agglutinating activity against hamster erythrocytes and mitogenic activity in vitro and in vivo toward mouse splenocytes. Optimum cellular proliferation in vitro was achieved by 625 ng of the crude extract or 500 ng of the purified tarin. Total mouse splenocyte proliferation measured after 5 days of intraperitoneal inoculation of purified tarin was increased 3.3-fold in comparison to the control group. Half of the proliferating cells were identified as B lymphocytes by flow cytometry. These results show that this is an efficient and simple strategy to purify tarin and aid in establishing this protein as a new therapeutic drug, able to promote cell proliferation in a murine model. PMID:24395119

  16. Quantitative assessment of lactate and progerin production in normal human cutaneous cells during normal ageing: effect of an Alaria esculenta extract.

    PubMed

    Verdy, C; Branka, J-E; Mekideche, N

    2011-10-01

    Anti-ageing products are of a great importance in cosmetic fields. However, even if numerous strategies have been proposed to fight against skin ageing or to minimize its aesthetic impact since the beginning of the 'scientific cosmetology' era, the products basing their efficacy on the observation of pathological situations are rare. The most obvious pathology linked to the ageing of skin (notably) consists in the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), a rare disorder characterized by accelerated ageing and early death. In this disease the lamin A, a protein participating (with others lamins) in the formation of the nuclear lamina and implicated in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression, is present in a truncated version called progerin. In this study, we have examined the lactate and the progerin production of human normal cutaneous cells issued from subjects of different ages. Using a sensitive and specific progerin ELISA assay developed in house, we so provide the first quantitative demonstration of an increased progerin expression and lactate production in skin during ageing. Moreover, we have also demonstrated that in the selected experimental conditions, it was possible to down-regulate the progerin production of aged cells by using an algae extract. As this extract, an Alaria esculenta extract, could be used in cosmetic formulations, we suggest that a better understanding of the skin pathologies could be a useful tool in developing efficient active compounds, attractive for but not limited to cosmetic purposes. PMID:21535442

  17. Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Nolle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darr, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P < 0.0001). It also increased with acidosis, but in postmetamorphic tadpoles only (P < 0.05). The noise-titration technique evidenced low-dimensional nonlinearities in all the postmetamorphic brainstems, at both pH. Chaos-like complexity, assessed through the noise limit, increased from pH 7.8 to pH 7.4 (P < 0.01). In contrast, linear models best fitted the ventilatory rhythm in all but one of the premetamorphic preparations at pH 7.8 (P < 0.005 vs. postmetamorphic) and in four at pH 7.4 (not significant vs. postmetamorphic). Therefore, in a lower vertebrate model, the brainstem respiratory central rhythm generator accounts for ventilatory chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals. PMID:21325645

  18. Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Straus, Christian; Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Nolle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darr, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P < 0.0001). It also increased with acidosis, but in postmetamorphic tadpoles only (P < 0.05). The noise-titration technique evidenced low-dimensional nonlinearities in all the postmetamorphic brainstems, at both pH. Chaos-like complexity, assessed through the noise limit, increased from pH 7.8 to pH 7.4 (P < 0.01). In contrast, linear models best fitted the ventilatory rhythm in all but one of the premetamorphic preparations at pH 7.8 (P < 0.005 vs. postmetamorphic) and in four at pH 7.4 (not significant vs. postmetamorphic). Therefore, in a lower vertebrate model, the brainstem respiratory central rhythm generator accounts for ventilatory chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals. PMID:21325645

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

    2008-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion. PMID:18301900

  20. Molecular determination of the predator community of a cassava whitefly in Colombia: Pest-specific primer development and field validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In South America, the whitefly Aleurotrachelus socialis is one of the principal pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), reaching high population levels throughout the Andean region. Management of this species is primarily based upon the use of insecticides, while biological control has received...

  1. The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

  2. “Huay Bong 80” a new variety with high yield and high stability for starch content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huay Bong 80 is a new cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) variety developed by researchers from Kasetsart University cooperating with the Thai Tapioca Development Institute (TTDI). This new variety has been protected by the Thai New Plant Variety Protection Act of B.E. 2542 (AD 1999) from January 4,...

  3. Genetic mapping using genotyping-by-sequencing in the clonally-propagated cassava

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) is one of the most important food crops in the tropics, but yields are far below their potential. The gene-pool of cassava contains natural genetic diversity relevant to many important breeding goals, but breeding progress has been slow, partly due to insufficient geno...

  4. BEMISIA TABACI (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) BIOTYPES IN INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant performance, esterase, and virus transmission tests revealed cassava-strain and sweetpotato-strain populations of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotypes in India. Individuals from the sweetpotato-reared population did not breed on cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, and the cassava-s...

  5. Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae. PMID:25416252

  6. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component. PMID:24803691

  7. First record of cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W; M N, Mohamad Roff; Hanifah Y, Mohd; A B, Idris

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is an important staple food crop in tropical countries. The leaves and tubers are used for human consumption and livestock feed. The tubers are processed into starch (Winotai et al. 2010) and biofuel (Howeler 2007). In Africa, cassava is a particularly important crop because the tubers can be stored to provide staple food during severe droughts (Calatayud & Le R 2006). PMID:26249070

  8. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  9. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ?2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  10. Corrin-based chemosensors for the ASSURED detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Zelder, Felix; Tivana, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for more than 500 million people, especially in Africa and South America. However, its consumption bears risks as it contains cyanogenic glycosides that convert enzymatically to toxic cyanide during cell damage. To avoid serious health problems by unintentional cyanide intake, this dangerous product of decomposition must be removed before consumption. For monitoring such food processing procedures and for controlling the quality and safety of cassava products on the market, a convenient and reliable analytical method for routine applications without laboratory equipment is required. This Perspective summarizes the authors' work on corrin-based chemosensors for the ('naked-eye') detection of endogenous cyanide in cassava samples. Considering selectivity, sensitivity, handling and speed of detection, these systems are superior to currently applied methods. Based on these properties, the development of a test kit for application by rural farmers in remote locations is proposed. PMID:25317920

  11. Cytotoxicity of purified cassava linamarin to a selected cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Idibie, Christopher Avwoghokoghene; Davids, Hajierah; Iyuke, Sunny Esayegbemu

    2007-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a known source of linamarin, but difficulties associated with its isolation have prevented it from being exploited as a major source. A batch adsorption process using activated carbon proved successful in its isolation, with ultrafiltration playing a pivotal role in its purification. Thirty-two minutes of contact time was required for 60 g of extract, yielding 1.7 g of purified product. Picrate paper, infra-red and 'HNMR analysis confirmed the presence and structure of linamarin. Cytotoxic effects of linamarin on MCF-7, HT-29 and HL60 cells were determined using the MTT assay. Cytotoxic effects were significantly increased in the presence of linamarase (P-glucosidase), with a 10-fold decrease in the IC50 values obtained for HL-60 cells. This study thus describes a method for the isolation and purification of linamarin from cassava, as well as its cytotoxicity potential. PMID:17566787

  12. Cassava brown streak disease: a threat to food security in Africa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Legg, James P; Kanju, Edward; Fauquet, Claude M

    2015-05-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has emerged as the most important viral disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Africa and is a major threat to food security. CBSD is caused by two distinct species of ipomoviruses, Cassava brown streak virus and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus, belonging to the family Potyviridae. Previously, CBSD was reported only from the coastal lowlands of East Africa, but recently it has begun to spread as an epidemic throughout the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. This new spread represents a major threat to the cassava-growing regions of West Africa. CBSD-resistant cassava cultivars are being developed through breeding, and transgenic RNA interference-derived field resistance to CBSD has also been demonstrated. This review aims to provide a summary of the most important studies on the aetiology, epidemiology and control of CBSD and to highlight key research areas that need prioritization. PMID:26015320

  13. An overview of protein identification studies in cassava.

    PubMed

    Batista de Souza, Cludia R; dos Reis, Svio P; Castelo Branco Carvalho, Luiz J

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is originated from the Southern Amazon basin. The storage root is the most important product of cassava as food for more than 800 million people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this review, we present a retrospective of studies aiming the identification of cassava proteins, starting from the first investigations using SDS-PAGE and classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to recent studies with advanced technologies such as high-resolution 2DE, mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ-based analysis that have contributed for characterization of cassava proteome. Several cassava proteins have been identified, including those involved in the storage root formation and post-harvest physiological deterioration processes. PMID:25707473

  14. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, C H; Huang, C S; Cares, J E

    1985-07-01

    Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas. The type habitat is flooded annually for about 6 months by the Amazon River. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. differs from the closely related species Xiphidorus yepesara Monteiro, 1976 by the larger size, by a, b, and c values, and by the rounded tail terminus. It also resembles Xiphidorus tucumanensis Chaves and Coomans, 1984, but can be distinguished by its larger size, larger a, b, and c values, more conical female tail, bilobed amphidial pouch, and the presence of a spermatheca full of sperm. PMID:19294098

  15. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335 UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385 IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  16. Therapeutic protein transduction of mammalian cells and mice by nucleic acid-free lentiviral nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Link, Nils; Aubel, Corinne; Kelm, Jens M; Marty, Ren R; Greber, David; Djonov, Valentin; Bourhis, Jean; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The straightforward production and dose-controlled administration of protein therapeutics remain major challenges for the biopharmaceutical manufacturing and gene therapy communities. Transgenes linked to HIV-1-derived vpr and pol-based protease cleavage (PC) sequences were co-produced as chimeric fusion proteins in a lentivirus production setting, encapsidated and processed to fusion peptide-free native protein in pseudotyped lentivirions for intracellular delivery and therapeutic action in target cells. Devoid of viral genome sequences, protein-transducing nanoparticles (PTNs) enabled transient and dose-dependent delivery of therapeutic proteins at functional quantities into a variety of mammalian cells in the absence of host chromosome modifications. PTNs delivering Manihot esculenta linamarase into rodent or human, tumor cell lines and spheroids mediated hydrolysis of the innocuous natural prodrug linamarin to cyanide and resulted in efficient cell killing. Following linamarin injection into nude mice, linamarase-transducing nanoparticles impacted solid tumor development through the bystander effect of cyanide. PMID:16449199

  17. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, Thangavel; Karuppuchamy, Palaniappan; Singh, Soibam B; Kalyanasundaram, Manickavasagam; Mohankumar, S; Ravi, Madhaiyan

    2015-12-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava. PMID:26691465

  18. Unexpected Outcomes of Thai Cassava Trade: A Case of Global Complexity and Local Unsustainability

    PubMed Central

    CURRAN, SARA R.; COOKE, ABIGAIL M.

    2014-01-01

    Tracing the Thai cassava (Manihot esculenta) trade network, between 1960 and 2000, offers a compelling example of global complexity at work. The emergence of Thailand’s dominance of world export markets caught the world by surprise. The opening up of a European market for cassava was supposed to be met by Brazilian and Indonesian producers. Instead, Thailand took over the market by 1975. Several factors facilitated this emergence including: entrepreneurial diasporic networks of Thai-Chinese traders, local political economy conditions in both Europe and Thailand, and ecological conditions in Thailand. These same factors also shaped the subsequent timing of the closing of the European market, the emergence of a new industry association, the creation of new cassava products, and the expansion to other markets. Furthermore, the dynamic nature of cassava market yielded equivocal outcomes for both Europe and Thai farmers. PMID:25328444

  19. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Thangavel; Karuppuchamy, Palaniappan; Singh, Soibam B.; Kalyanasundaram, Manickavasagam; Mohankumar, S.; Ravi, Madhaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava. PMID:26691465

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse for L-(+)-lactic Acid production using Lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    John, Rojan P; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

    2006-09-01

    Saccharification and fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) bagasse was carried out in a single step for the production of L-(+)-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Using 15.5% w/v of cassava bagasse as the raw material, a maximum starch to lactic acid conversion of 96% was obtained with L. casei with a productivity rate of 1.40 mg/mLxh and maximum yield of 83.8 mg/mL. It was 94% with L. delbrueckii with a productivity rate of 1.36 mg/mLxh and maximum yield of 81.9 mg/mL. Supplementation of bagasse with 0.01% w/v MnCl2 showed positive influence on the lactic acid production by L. casei. PMID:16960284

  1. Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.

    PubMed

    Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

    2010-12-01

    The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. PMID:20943239

  2. Development of cassava periclinal chimera may boost production.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, N; Nassar, N M A

    2014-01-01

    Plant periclinal chimeras are genotypic mosaics arranged concentrically. Trials to produce them to combine different species have been done, but pratical results have not been achieved. We report for the second time the development of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera in cassava. It has very large edible roots up to 14 kg per plant at one year old compared to 2-3 kg in common varieties. The epidermal tissue formed was from Manihot esculenta cultivar UnB 032, and the subepidermal and internal tissue from the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis. We determined the origin of tissues by meiotic and mitotic chromosome counts, plant anatomy and morphology. Epidermal features displayed useful traits to deduce tissue origin: cell shape and size, trichome density and stomatal length. Chimera roots had a wholly tuberous and edible constitution with smaller starch granule size and similar distribution compared to cassava. Root size enlargement might have been due to an epigenetic effect. These results suggest a new line of improved crop based on the development of interspecific chimeras composed of different combinations of wild and cultivated species. It promises boosting cassava production through exceptional root enlargement. PMID:24615046

  3. Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benot; McKey, Doyle

    2008-09-01

    Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

  4. [Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

    2013-11-01

    Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles. PMID:24558867

  5. Production of endolymph in the semicircular canal of the frog Rana esculenta.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, C; Ferrary, E; Sterkers, O

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms of secretion of endolymph were studied in vitro in the isolated inner ear of the frog. Prior to in vitro experiments, the composition of perilymph was evaluated in vivo and compared to that of plasma. Composition of perilymph resembled that of an extracellular fluid, although Na and Cl concentrations were higher and K concentration was lower in perilymph than in plasma water. No difference in Ca and Mg concentrations was observed between these two fluids. Osmolality averaged 227 mosmol/kg H2O in perilymph and 183 mosmol/kg H2O in plasma. Endolymph in frog inner ear corresponded in chemical pattern to mammalian endolymph. K and Na concentrations in endolymph collected from the ampulla of the posterior vertical semicircular canal averaged 121.1 mM and 2.5 mM, respectively. Osmolality of endolymph was 237 mosmol/kg H2O. K and Na concentrations were unaltered when inner ears were incubated for 24 h either at 15 degrees C or at 4 degrees C. Addition of ouabain (10(-4) M) to the perilymph-like bathing solution altered greatly Na and K composition of endolymph after incubation for 3 h at 15 degrees C. The Na and K concentration gradients between endolymph and the bath were abolished after incubation for 24 h. Ligatures of the posterior vertical semicircular canal were performed at different sites to isolate some parts of the canal, i.e. the ampulla and the non-ampullar duct. K concentration in the ampulla after incubation for 24 h remained as high as 20 times that in the bath. This K gradient was abolished in the presence of ouabain (10(-4) M). High K concentration could be maintained in the non-ampullar part of the semicircular canal only if the latter communicated with the ampulla. It is concluded that endolymph is actively secreted into the ampulla of the semicircular canal. Na+-K+-activated ATPase in the ampullar dark cells may energize the ouabain sensitive ionic transports that are involved in the production of endolymph. Endolymph secreted into the ampulla would spread intraluminally to account for the high K and low Na concentrations of the fluid which fills the non-secretory part of the semicircular canal. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3486270

  6. Coupling between chloride absorption and base excretion in isolated skin of Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Ehrenfeld, J; Garcia-Romeu, F

    1978-07-01

    The net excretory fluxes of base (HCO3- or OH-) and the unidirectional fluxes of chloride were measured and their relationship examined in isolated frog skin maintained in open- or short-circuit (OC and SC) conditions. When the mucosal solution was a 2 mM choline chloride solution and the serosal solution a Ringer solution buffered with a HCO3-/CO2 mixture, the rate of base excretion was -105 +/- 10 in OC and -60 +/- 7 neq h-1 cm-2 in SC. A highly significant correlation was observed between the influx of chloride and the excretion of base. As a function of external chloride both these parameters followed saturation kinetics, Vmax being obtained for a chloride concentration below 2 mM. The removal of chloride in the external solution was followed by a 70 or 100% inhibition of base excretion in OC and SC conditions, respectively. Chloride transport is dependent on the presence of a HCO3-/CO2 mixture in the internal or the external medium. This transport, as well as base excretion, is inhibited to a considerable extent by removal of HCO3-/CO2 or by acetazolamide (10(-3) M). This investigation characterizes a saturable transport system in which chloride absorption and base excretion are coupled. PMID:307916

  7. Purification and characterization of elicitor protein from Phytophthora colocasiae and basic resistance in Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Kamal; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2009-01-01

    An elicitor was identified in the fungus Phytophthora colocasiae. The molecular weight of the purified elicitor was estimated by means of gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE and was estimated as 15kDa. Protease treatment severely reduced its activity, allowing the conclusion that the elicitor is proteinaceous. Infiltration of a few nanograms of this proteinaceous elicitor into taro leaves caused the formation of lesions that closely resemble hypersensitive response lesions. The elicitation of the cells was effective in the induction of the activity of lipoxygenase. Cellular damage, restricted to the infiltrated zone, occurred only several hours later, after the infiltration of the elicitor protein. After few days, systemic acquired resistance was also induced. Thus, taro plant cells that perceived the glycoprotein generated a cascade of signals acting at local, short, and long distances, and causing the coordinate expression of specific defence. The obtained results give important information regarding the plant-pathogen interactions, mainly as subsidy for taro improvement against Phytophthora leaf blight. PMID:18990553

  8. Dissipation of flubendiamide in/on okra [Abelmoschus esculenta (L.) Moench] fruits.

    PubMed

    Das, Shaon Kumar; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Suvo Kumar

    2012-03-01

    A field experiment was undertaken at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif (rainy season) in the year 2010 to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits following foliar application of Belt 39.35% SC formulation at 24 (standard dose) and 48 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1). After HPLC analysis study revealed that residues of flubendiamide in/on okra persisted till 5th and 7th day after the last spray at standard and double dose, respectively. The residues of flubendiamide were reported as parent compound, and des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite (photo product) of flubendiamide, was not detected in/on okra at any time during the study period. The initial deposits of 0.28 and 0.53 μg g(-1) in/on okra fruits reached below determination level of 0.01 μg g(-1) on the 7th and 10th day at standard and double dose, respectively. The half life of flubendiamide in/on okra fruits ranged from 4.7 to 5.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Soil sample collected from the treated field on the 15th day after the last spray revealed residues of flubendiamide or its metabolite below determination level (0.01 μg g(-1)) at single and double dose. PMID:22147083

  9. Endophytic fungi from the Amazonian plant Paullinia cupana and from Olea europaea isolated using cassava as an alternative starch media source.

    PubMed

    Sia, Eliandra de Freitas; Marcon, Joelma; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Tsui, Sarina; Pereira, Jos Odair; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, Joo Lcio

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live inside plants, apparently do not cause any harm to their hosts and may play important roles in defense and growth promotion. Fungal growth is a routine practice at microbiological laboratories, and the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) is the most frequently used medium because it is a rich source of starch. However, the production of potatoes in some regions of the world can be costly. Aiming the development of a new medium source to tropical countries, in the present study, we used leaves from the guarana (a tropical plant from the Amazon region) and the olive (which grows in subtropical and temperate regions) to isolate endophytic fungi using PDA and Manihot Dextrose Agar (MDA). Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was evaluated as a substitute starch source. For guarana, the endophytic incidence (EI) was 90% and 98% on PDA and MDA media, respectively, and 65% and 70% for olive, respectively. The fungal isolates were sequenced using the ITS- rDNA region. The fungal identification demonstrated that the isolates varied according to the host plant and media source. In the guarana plant, 13 fungal genera were found using MDA and six were found using PDA. In the olive plant, six genera were obtained using PDA and 4 were obtained using MDA. The multivariate analysis results demonstrated the highest fungal diversity from guarana when using MDA medium. Interestingly, some genera were isolated from one specific host or in one specific media, suggesting the importance of these two factors in fungal isolation specificity. Thus, this study indicated that cassava is a feasible starch source that could serve as a potential alternative medium to potato medium. PMID:25674409

  10. Polyphenol Content and Modulatory Activities of Some Tropical Dietary Plant Extracts on the Oxidant Activities of Neutrophils and Myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frederich, Michel; Kohnen, Stephane; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin) were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health. PMID:22312276

  11. Polyphenol content and modulatory activities of some tropical dietary plant extracts on the oxidant activities of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frederich, Michel; Kohnen, Stephane; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin) were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health. PMID:22312276

  12. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  13. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    PubMed

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava. PMID:26547558

  14. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).

    PubMed

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

  15. Cassava: constraints to production and the transfer of biotechnology to African laboratories.

    PubMed

    Bull, Simon E; Ndunguru, Joseph; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Beeching, John R; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge and technology transfer to African institutes is an important objective to help achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Plant biotechnology in particular enables innovative advances in agriculture and industry, offering new prospects to promote the integration and dissemination of improved crops and their derivatives from developing countries into local markets and the global economy. There is also the need to broaden our knowledge and understanding of cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for approximately 500 million people living in developing countries. Unfortunately, it is subject to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses that impact on production, consumption, marketability and also local and country economics. To date, improvements to cassava have been led via conventional plant breeding programmes, but with advances in molecular-assisted breeding and plant biotechnology new tools are being developed to hasten the generation of improved farmer-preferred cultivars. In this review, we report on the current constraints to cassava production and knowledge acquisition in Africa, including a case study discussing the opportunities and challenges of a technology transfer programme established between the Mikocheni Agricultural Research Institute in Tanzania and Europe-based researchers. The establishment of cassava biotechnology platform(s) should promote research capabilities in African institutions and allow scientists autonomy to adapt cassava to suit local agro-ecosystems, ultimately serving to develop a sustainable biotechnology infrastructure in African countries. PMID:21212961

  16. Augmenting iron accumulation in cassava by the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GBO3)

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Mônica A.; Medeiros, Flavio H. V.; Carvalho, Samuel P.; Guilherme, Luiz R. G.; Teixeira, William D.; Zhang, Huiming; Paré, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major staple food in the developing world, provides a basic carbohydrate diet for over half a billion people living in the tropics. Despite the iron abundance in most soils, cassava provides insufficient iron for humans as the edible roots contain 3–12 times less iron than other traditional food crops such as wheat, maize, and rice. With the recent identification that the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (strain GB03) activates iron acquisition machinery to increase metal ion assimilation in Arabidopsis, the question arises as to whether this plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium also augments iron assimilation to increase endogenous iron levels in cassava. Biochemical analyses reveal that shoot-propagated cassava with GB03-inoculation exhibit elevated iron accumulation after 140 days of plant growth as determined by X-ray microanalysis and total foliar iron analysis. Growth promotion and increased photosynthetic efficiency were also observed for greenhouse-grown plants with GB03-exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to increase iron accumulation in an important agricultural crop and is consistent with idea that microbial signaling can regulate plant photosynthesis. PMID:26300897

  17. Reactive oxygen species regulate leaf pulvinus abscission zone cell separation in response to water-deficit stress in cassava

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wenbin; Wang, Gan; Li, Yayun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plant resists water-deficit stress by shedding leaves leading to adaptive water-deficit condition. Transcriptomic, physiological, cellular, molecular, metabolic, and transgenic methods were used to study the mechanism of cassava abscission zone (AZ) cell separation under water-deficit stress. Microscopic observation indicated that AZ cell separation initiated at the later stages during water-deficit stress. Transcriptome profiling of AZ suggested that differential expression genes of AZ under stress mainly participate in reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. The key genes involved in hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis and metabolism showed significantly higher expression levels in AZ than non-separating tissues adjacent to the AZ under stress. Significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide correlated with hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis related genes and AZ cell separation was detected by microscopic observation, colorimetric detection and GC-MS analyses under stress. Co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 in cassava decreased the levels of hydrogen peroxide in AZ under water-deficit stress. The cell separation of the pulvinus AZ also delayed in co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 plants both in vitro and at the plant level. Together, the results indicated that ROS play an important regulatory role in the process of cassava leaf abscission under water-deficit stress. PMID:26899473

  18. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  19. Cassava as a food.

    PubMed

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue. PMID:6756790

  20. Predicting the potential invasion suitability of regions to cassava lacebug pests (Heteroptera: Tingidae: Vatiga spp.).

    PubMed

    Montemayor, S I; Dellap, P M; Melo, M C

    2015-04-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops for small farmers in the tropics, feeding about 800 million people worldwide. It is currently cultivated in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. The genus Vatiga is widespread throughout the Neotropical region. Its species are sympatric and feed exclusively on cassava. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to assess the potential distribution of Vatiga, one of the most relevant pests of cassava; (2) to project the resulting models onto the world; (3) to recognize areas with suitable and optimal climates (and thus, high probability) for future colonization, and (4) to compare this model with the harvested area of cassava analyzing the climatic variables required by both the host and the pest species. Species distribution models were built using Maxent (v3.3.3k) with bioclimatic variables from the WorldClim database in 2.5 arc min resolution across the globe. Our model shows that Vatiga has the potential to expand its current distribution into other suitable areas, and could invade other regions where cassava is already cultivated, e.g., Central Africa and Asia. Considering the results and the high host specificity of Vatiga, its recent appearance in Runion Island (Africa) poses a serious threat, as nearby areas are potentially suitable for invasion and could serve as dispersal routes enabling Vatiga to reach the continent. The present work may help prevention or early detection of Vatiga spp. in areas where cassava is grown. PMID:25523908

  1. The BioCassava plus program: biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Richard; Beeching, John R; Cahoon, Edgar B; Egesi, Chiedozie; Fauquet, Claude; Fellman, John; Fregene, Martin; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Mallowa, Sally; Manary, Mark; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Mbanaso, Ada; Schachtman, Daniel P; Siritunga, Dimuth; Taylor, Nigel; Vanderschuren, Herve; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10%-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassava Plus (BC+) program has employed modern biotechnologies intended to improve the health of Africans through the development and delivery of genetically engineered cassava with increased nutrient (zinc, iron, protein, and vitamin A) levels. Additional traits addressed by BioCassava Plus include increased shelf life, reductions in toxic cyanogenic glycosides to safe levels, and resistance to viral disease. The program also provides incentives for the adoption of biofortified cassava. Proof of concept was achieved for each of the target traits. Results from field trials in Puerto Rico, the first confined field trials in Nigeria to use genetically engineered organisms, and ex ante impact analyses support the efficacy of using transgenic strategies for the biofortification of cassava. PMID:21526968

  2. Spatial distribution of mercury and arsenic levels in water, soil and cassava plants in a community with long history of gold mining in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nyanza, Elias C; Dewey, Deborah; Thomas, Deborah S K; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the spatial distribution of total mercury (THg) and total arsenic (TAs) in water, soil and cassava (Manihot esculenta) (leaves and roots) samples taken from areas in Rwamagasa village in northwestern Tanzania where daily living activities occur in close proximity to extensive artisanal and small scale gold mining. Results indicated that 33.3 % of the water sources had THg levels above the WHO guideline of 1.0 g/L for safe drinking water, and 12.5 % had TAs levels above 10 g/L. Cassava leaves were found to have higher THg (ranging from 8.3 to 167 g/kg) and TAs (ranging from 60 to 1,120 g/kg) levels than cassava roots, which ranged between 1.2-8.3 g/kg for THg and 25-310 g/kg for TAs. Concentrations of THg and TAs in soil samples ranged between 5.8-1,759 and 183-20,298 g/kg, respectively. Both THg and TAs were found to be distributed throughout Rwamagasa village. PMID:24923470

  3. Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.

    PubMed

    Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

  4. Starch grains reveal early root crop horticulture in the Panamanian tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Piperno, D R; Ranere, A J; Holst, I; Hansell, P

    2000-10-19

    Native American populations are known to have cultivated a large number of plants and domesticated them for their starch-rich underground organs. Suggestions that the likely source of many of these crops, the tropical forest, was an early and influential centre of plant husbandry have long been controversial because the organic remains of roots and tubers are poorly preserved in archaeological sediments from the humid tropics. Here we report the occurrence of starch grains identifiable as manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), yams (Dioscorea sp.) and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.) on assemblages of plant milling stones from preceramic horizons at the Aguadulce Shelter, Panama, dated between 7,000 and 5,000 years before present (BP). The artefacts also contain maize starch (Zea mays L.), indicating that early horticultural systems in this region were mixtures of root and seed crops. The data provide the earliest direct evidence for root crop cultivation in the Americas, and support an ancient and independent emergence of plant domestication in the lowland Neotropical forest. PMID:11057665

  5. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama.

    PubMed

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J; Cooke, Richard G

    2007-02-27

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800-7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriqu province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400-5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

  6. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  7. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  8. Tuber Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90% of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose?binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

  9. CG gene body DNA methylation changes and evolution of duplicated genes in cassava.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Beyene, Getu; Zhai, Jixian; Feng, Suhua; Fahlgren, Noah; Taylor, Nigel J; Bart, Rebecca; Carrington, James C; Jacobsen, Steven E; Ausin, Israel

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation is important for the regulation of gene expression and the silencing of transposons in plants. Here we present genome-wide methylation patterns at single-base pair resolution for cassava (Manihot esculenta, cultivar TME 7), a crop with a substantial impact in the agriculture of subtropical and tropical regions. On average, DNA methylation levels were higher in all three DNA sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH, where H equals A, T, or C) than those of the most well-studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. As in other plants, DNA methylation was found both on transposons and in the transcribed regions (bodies) of many genes. Consistent with these patterns, at least one cassava gene copy of all of the known components of Arabidopsis DNA methylation pathways was identified. Methylation of LTR transposons (GYPSY and COPIA) was found to be unusually high compared with other types of transposons, suggesting that the control of the activity of these two types of transposons may be especially important. Analysis of duplicated gene pairs resulting from whole-genome duplication showed that gene body DNA methylation and gene expression levels have coevolved over short evolutionary time scales, reinforcing the positive relationship between gene body methylation and high levels of gene expression. Duplicated genes with the most divergent gene body methylation and expression patterns were found to have distinct biological functions and may have been under natural or human selection for cassava traits. PMID:26483493

  10. Production and characterization of a plant alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Lakey, J H; Hughes, M A

    1997-02-01

    The coding sequence of the cyanogenic alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase gene of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) was cloned in the plasmid vector pMal-c2 and expressed in Escherichia coli strain JM105. DNA sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmid contained the same sequence as the cDNA clone pHNL10. Peptide sequencing of the recombinant protein showed that the N-terminus was heterogeneous, with either four or six additional amino acid residues compared with the native protein. Circular dichroism spectra indicated similar secondary structure contents for both proteins. Enzyme assays showed that specific activity of native and recombinant proteins were 0.24 and 0.26 mmol CN(-)/mg/min, respectively; that both proteins had optimal activity at 40 degrees C and pH 5.5; and that both proteins were inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane sulfonyl flouride (PMSF). Isoelectric focusing of native and recombinant protein revealed multiple isoforms for both proteins; the recombinant protein had a more basic mean isoelectric point (pl) (5.1) than the native protein (4.5). PMID:18633988

  11. Structural and functional analysis of hydroxynitrile lyase from Baliospermum montanum with crystal structure, molecular dynamics and enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shogo; Dadashipour, Mohammad; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-09-16

    Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) catalyze degradation of cyanohydrins to hydrogen cyanide and the corresponding ketone or aldehyde. HNLs can also catalyze the reverse reaction, i.e., synthesis of cyanohydrins. Although several crystal structures of S-selective hydroxynitrile lyases (S-HNLs) have been reported, it remains unknown whether and how dynamics at the active site of S-HNLs influence their broad substrate specificity and affinity. In this study, we analyzed the structure, dynamics and function of S-HNL from Baliospermum montanum (BmHNL), which has an ?/? hydrolase fold. Two crystal structures of BmHNL, apo1 and apo2, were determined at 2.55 and 1.9, respectively. Structural comparison between BmHNL (apo2) and S-HNL from Hevea brasiliensis with (S)-mandelonitrile bound to the active site revealed that hydrophobic residues at the entrance region of BmHNL formed hydrophobic interactions with the benzene ring of the substrate. The flexible structures of these hydrophobic residues were confirmed by a 15ns molecular dynamics simulation. This flexibility regulated the size of the active site cavity, enabling binding of various substrates to BmHNL. The high affinity of BmHNL toward substrates containing a benzene ring was also confirmed by comparing the kinetics of BmHNL and S-HNL from Manihot esculenta. Taken together, the results indicated that the flexibility and placement of the residues are important for the broad substrate specificity of S-HNLs. PMID:25220808

  12. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J.; Cooke, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 78007000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriqu province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 74005600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

  13. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

  14. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  15. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)

    PubMed Central

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

  16. Large-Scale Proteomics of the Cassava Storage Root and Identification of a Target Gene to Reduce Postharvest Deterioration[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vanderschuren, Herv; Nyaboga, Evans; Poon, Jacquelyne S.; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Nanni, Paolo; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We established a reliable method for image-based PPD symptom quantification and used label-free quantitative proteomics to generate an extensive cassava root and PPD proteome. Over 2600 unique proteins were identified in the cassava root, and nearly 300 proteins showed significant abundance regulation during PPD. We identified protein abundance modulation in pathways associated with oxidative stress, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (including scopoletin), the glutathione cycle, fatty acid ?-oxidation, folate transformation, and the sulfate reduction II pathway. Increasing protein abundances and enzymatic activities of glutathione-associated enzymes, including glutathione reductases, glutaredoxins, and glutathione S-transferases, indicated a key role for ascorbate/glutathione cycles. Based on combined proteomics data, enzymatic activities, and lipid peroxidation assays, we identified glutathione peroxidase as a candidate for reducing PPD. Transgenic cassava overexpressing a cytosolic glutathione peroxidase in storage roots showed delayed PPD and reduced lipid peroxidation as well as decreased H2O2 accumulation. Quantitative proteomics data from ethene and phenylpropanoid pathways indicate additional gene candidates to further delay PPD. Cassava root proteomics data are available at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch for easy access and comparison with other proteomics data. PMID:24876255

  17. Risk assessment of gene flow from genetically engineered virus resistant cassava to wild relatives in Africa: an expert panel report.

    PubMed

    Hokanson, Karen E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Dixon, Alfred G O; Kulembeka, Heneriko P; Olsen, Kenneth M; Raybould, Alan

    2016-02-01

    The probability and consequences of gene flow to wild relatives is typically considered in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops. This is a report from a discussion by a group of experts who used a problem formulation approach to consider existing information for risk assessment of gene flow from cassava (Manihot esculenta) genetically engineered for virus resistance to the 'wild' (naturalized) relative M. glaziovii in East Africa. Two environmental harms were considered in this case: (1) loss of genetic diversity in the germplasm pool, and (2) loss of valued species, ecosystem resources, or crop yield and quality due to weediness or invasiveness of wild relatives. Based on existing information, it was concluded that gene flow will occur, but it is not likely that this will reduce the genetic diversity in the germplasm pool. There is little existing information about the impact of the virus in natural populations that could be used to inform a prediction about whether virus resistance would lead to an increase in reproduction or survival, hence abundance of M. glaziovii. However, an increase in the abundance of M. glaziovii should be manageable, and would not necessarily lead to the identified environmental harms. PMID:26667472

  18. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  19. Enhanced butanol production from cassava with Clostridium acetobutylicum by genome shuffling.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Bo; Qian, Yi; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Mou-Ming; Pang, Zong-Wen

    2016-04-01

    To obtain strains exhibiting high levels of solvent tolerance and butanol production, wild type strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum butanol-producing strain GX01 and Lactobacillus mucosae butanol-tolerant strain M26 were subjected to mutagenesis combining N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction with genome shuffling. After four successive rounds of genome shuffling, the C. acetobutylicum shuffled strain GS4-3 showing greater levels of fermentation performances (such as secreting a higher level of amylase, improving the thermal stability, and possessing greater environmental robustness) compared to the wild type strains was isolated. As a result, after optimization of culture conditions, mutant GS4-3 produced 32.6 g/L of total solvent, 20.1 g/L of butanol production, and 0.35 g/L/h of butanol productivity, which were, respectively, increased by 23.5, 23.3, and 40.0 % than the wild-type strain GX01, in a 10 L bioreactor. The enhanced production of butanol and tolerance of solvent of mutant associated with GS4-3 make it promising for acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation from cassava (Manihot esculenta). Compared to the parental strain (blue), the shuffled strain exhibited the more excellent performances for butanol production from different carbon sources. PMID:26925615

  20. Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Cock, J.H.

    1982-11-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  2. Data supporting the role of enzymes and polysaccharides during cassava postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; da Costa Nunes, Eduardo; de Oliveira Neubert, Enilto; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    This data article is referred to the research article entitled The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration by Uarrota et al. (2015). Food Chemistry 197, Part A, 737-746. The stress duo to PPD of cassava roots leads to the formation of ROS which are extremely harmful and accelerates cassava spoiling. To prevent or alleviate injuries from ROS, plants have evolved antioxidant systems that include non-enzymatic and enzymatic defence systems such as ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and polysaccharides. In this data article can be found a dataset called "newdata", in RData format, with 60 observations and 06 variables. The first 02 variables (Samples and Cultivars) and the last 04, spectrophotometric data of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, tocopherol, total proteins and arcsined data of cassava PPD scoring. For further interpretation and analysis in R software, a report is also provided. Means of all variables and standard deviations are also provided in the Supplementary tables ("data.long3.RData, data.long4.RData and meansEnzymes.RData"), raw data of PPD scoring without transformation (PPDmeans.RData) and days of storage (days.RData) are also provided for data analysis reproducibility in R software. PMID:26900596

  3. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  4. Reactive oxygen species regulate leaf pulvinus abscission zone cell separation in response to water-deficit stress in cassava.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenbin; Wang, Gan; Li, Yayun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plant resists water-deficit stress by shedding leaves leading to adaptive water-deficit condition. Transcriptomic, physiological, cellular, molecular, metabolic, and transgenic methods were used to study the mechanism of cassava abscission zone (AZ) cell separation under water-deficit stress. Microscopic observation indicated that AZ cell separation initiated at the later stages during water-deficit stress. Transcriptome profiling of AZ suggested that differential expression genes of AZ under stress mainly participate in reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. The key genes involved in hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis and metabolism showed significantly higher expression levels in AZ than non-separating tissues adjacent to the AZ under stress. Significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide correlated with hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis related genes and AZ cell separation was detected by microscopic observation, colorimetric detection and GC-MS analyses under stress. Co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 in cassava decreased the levels of hydrogen peroxide in AZ under water-deficit stress. The cell separation of the pulvinus AZ also delayed in co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 plants both in vitro and at the plant level. Together, the results indicated that ROS play an important regulatory role in the process of cassava leaf abscission under water-deficit stress. PMID:26899473

  5. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    PubMed

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta?Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5?mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. PMID:25781881

  6. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Cepon-Robins, Tara J.; Gildner, Theresa E.; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  7. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Son, A R; Ji, S Y; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME in copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR) in growing pigs. Eight boars with an initial BW of 67.3 ± 5.8 kg were individually housed in metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design was used with 4 dietary treatments, 4 periods, and 8 animals. A basal diet mainly contained corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 30% of CM, PKM, and CR. All diets contained the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 4.14:1. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was 89.5, 84.1, 82.4, and 87.9% (P < 0.001) in the basal, CM, PKM, and CR diets, respectively. The DE in CM and PKM were greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3440 and 3238 vs. 2966 kcal/kg as-fed). The ME in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3340 vs. 2935 kcal/kg as-fed) but not different from the ME in PKM (3168 kcal/kg as-fed). In conclusion, CM and PKM have a higher DE value than CR, and CM has a higher ME value than CR. PMID:23365309

  8. Senescence-inducible expression of isopentenyl transferase extends leaf life, increases drought stress resistance and alters cytokinin metabolism in cassava.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wen-Quan; Zhang, Gen-Liang; Kaminek, Miroslav; Dobrev, Petre; Xu, Jia; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) sheds its leaves during growth, especially within the tropical dry season. With the production of SAG12-IPT transgenic cassava we want to test the level of leaf retention and altered cytokinin metabolism of transgenic plants via the autoregulatory senescence inhibition system. After confirmation of transgene expression by molecular analysis and phenotype examination in greenhouse plants, two transgenic plant lines, 529-28 and 529-48, were chosen for further investigation. Detached mature leaves of 529-28 plants retained high levels of chlorophyll compared with wild-type leaves after dark-induced senescence treatment. Line 529-28 showed significant drought tolerance as indicated by stay-green capacity after drought stress treatment. Field experiments proved that leaf senescence syndrome was significantly delayed in 529-28 plants in comparison with wild-type and 529-48 plants. Physiological and agronomical characterizations of these plants also revealed that the induced expression of IPT had effects on photosynthesis, sugar allocation and nitrogen partitioning. Importantly, the 529-28 plants accumulated a high level of trans-zeatin-type cytokinins particularly of corresponding storage O-glucosides to maintain cytokinin homeostasis. Our study proves the feasibility of prolonging the leaf life of woody cassava and also sheds light on the control of cytokinin homeostasis in cassava leaves. PMID:20590995

  9. Determination of the specific growth of molds on semi-solid cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Carrizalez, V.; Rodriguez, H.; Sardina, I.

    1981-02-01

    The determination of growth constants of Aspergillus niger were obtained for semisolid cultures on cassava flour, Manihot esculenta, as a sole carbon source. As a consequence, a technique was developed that consisted of the use of a packed-bed microfermentor with a working volume of 16 cubic centimetres. The bed consisted of gelatinized and granulated cassava flour containing material nutrients and mold spores. The carbon dioxide produced during the respiration was drawn off with a current of air and then absorbed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The absorption of CO/sub 2/, P, was correlated with the specific growth rate mu by means of the equation P equals Kemut, where t is time and K is a constant. Ammonium nitrogen was used as a limiting substrate and its concentration was varied from 0.039 to 2.5% in dry base. The maximum growth rate, mu maximum, and the saturation constant, Ks, were 0.31/hour and 0.065 mmol (N/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4//g total dry solids. The proposed method is highly recommended for the evaluation of the semisolid fermentation of molds and for strictly aerobic bacteria and yeasts. It can be used especially in the evaluation of the growth of microorganisms on peanut shells, coffee residues, sugar cane bagasse, and other agricultural wastes.

  10. Effect of feeding cassava and/or Stylosanthes foliage on the performance of crossbred growing cattle.

    PubMed

    Thang, C M; Ledin, I; Bertilsson, J

    2010-01-01

    The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS) fed ad libitum, 0.87 kg concentrate and 0.22 kg molasses on dry matter (DM) basis. The treatments were four supplements: soybean meal, cassava foliage, stylosanthes foliage or a mix of stylosanthes foliage and cassava foliage all giving the same nitrogen intake. The consumption of tannins and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were significantly higher in groups fed a mixture of foliages compared with only cassava foliage, respectively. There were 30% and 19%, respectively, higher live weight gain in the group fed a mixture of foliages as compared to the groups fed only cassava or stylosanthes. The factors of low organic matter and high level of HCN in the diet when feeding only cassava foliage might explain the negative effects on intake, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and nitrogen retention, and resulted in lower growth rates. PMID:19521793

  11. CG gene body DNA methylation changes and evolution of duplicated genes in cassava

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifeng; Beyene, Getu; Zhai, Jixian; Feng, Suhua; Fahlgren, Noah; Taylor, Nigel J.; Bart, Rebecca; Carrington, James C.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Ausin, Israel

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is important for the regulation of gene expression and the silencing of transposons in plants. Here we present genome-wide methylation patterns at single-base pair resolution for cassava (Manihot esculenta, cultivar TME 7), a crop with a substantial impact in the agriculture of subtropical and tropical regions. On average, DNA methylation levels were higher in all three DNA sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH, where H equals A, T, or C) than those of the most well-studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. As in other plants, DNA methylation was found both on transposons and in the transcribed regions (bodies) of many genes. Consistent with these patterns, at least one cassava gene copy of all of the known components of Arabidopsis DNA methylation pathways was identified. Methylation of LTR transposons (GYPSY and COPIA) was found to be unusually high compared with other types of transposons, suggesting that the control of the activity of these two types of transposons may be especially important. Analysis of duplicated gene pairs resulting from whole-genome duplication showed that gene body DNA methylation and gene expression levels have coevolved over short evolutionary time scales, reinforcing the positive relationship between gene body methylation and high levels of gene expression. Duplicated genes with the most divergent gene body methylation and expression patterns were found to have distinct biological functions and may have been under natural or human selection for cassava traits. PMID:26483493

  12. [Chemical characterization and quantification of fructooligosaccharides, phenolic compounds and antiradical activity of Andean roots and tubers grown in Northwest of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Jimnez, Mara Eugenia; Sammn, Norma

    2014-06-01

    There is great interest in consuming foods that can provide the nutrients for a good nutrition and other health beneficial compounds. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of native foods of the Andean region and to quantify some functional com-ponents. Proximal composition, vitamin C, total phenolic compounds, antiradical activity (DPPH) in peel and pulp, dietary fiber soluble and insoluble, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), total and resistant starch (in tubers and raw roots, boiled and boiled and stored) of 6 varieties of Oca (Oxalis tuberosa), 4 clones of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius were determined. The results showed greater amount of bioactive compounds and antiradical activity in the skin of these products. The highest content was found in the oca peel. In all cases, the content of insoluble fiber was greater than the soluble. The manioc had higher total starch than Andean roots and tubers. The boiling process decreased the resistant starch content of ocas and maniocs, but when these are stored for 48 h at 5 C, the resistant starch content increased. The FOS content of the ocas was similar for all varieties (7%). The main component of yacon carbohydrates were FOS (8.89%). The maniocs did not contain FOS. It can be concluded that the roots and tubers studied, in addition to provide nutrients, contain functional compounds that confer additional helpful value for preventing no communicable diseases. PMID:25799690

  13. High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.

    PubMed

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60C. A raw starch degrading ?-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol. PMID:25594508

  14. Comparative study on the conventional and non thermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Manihot glaziovii root starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargono, Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Jos, Bakti

    2015-12-01

    Inconventional ethanol production process, starch is converted into dextrins via liquefaction using α-amylase enzyme at high temperature (90-120°C). Then, dextrins are saccharified by glucoamylase to obtain to monomeric sugars (glucose). Recently, a granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE), Stargen 002, was developed to convert starch into dextrins at low temperature (< 32°C) and hydrolyzes dextrins into glucose. The subject of this research was to compare ethanol production using a granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes and conventional enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification in cassava starch processing. Starch slurry concentrations were 20% w/v, and dosage of enzymes 0.50, 1.0 and 2%, respectively, were studied. After 48 hr process the final ethanol concentration for the respective enzyme concentration for conventional process were 34.90, 36.16 and 42.10 g/L, whereas for the non-thermal treatment, final ethanol concentration were 46.4, 57.62 and 59.65 g/L, respectively. By implementation of this non thermal process, the use of energy can be saved by carrying out saccharification step at lower temperature (30°C) could be realized.

  15. Physical, functional, and pasting properties of flours from corms of two Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Okafor, Chidinma A

    2015-06-01

    Physical, functional and physicochemical properties of flours of five cocoyam (Colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp) cultivars were evaluated. Colour (L*a*b*) parameters of corms and flours, pasting and functional properties of the flours were determined. Xanthosoma spp showed significantly higher length (95.16-151.46), width (75.29-78.03) and weight (179.20-605.94) than the Colocasia spp., but the parameters did not vary significantly within either Xanthosoma and Colocasia spp. Generally, colour of peeled corms [L* (72.08-78.93); a* (+1.06 - +3.5); b* (+17.65 - +35.80)] was lighter than the flours [L* (69.35-84.97); a* (+0.30 - + 4.76); b* (+4.44 - +23.48)]. The NXs001 showed significantly higher peak (201.71RVU), trough (186.75 RVU), final (289.75 RVU) and setback (103 RVU) viscosities that the other cultivars. Pasting profiles of the cocoyam flours showed similar trend with the NXs001 showing a steeper curve. Pasting temperature and peak time ranged from 87.33 to 92.53 °C and 5.17-6.34 min, respectively. Water absorption capacity, gelling point, pH, foam capacity, bulk density and swelling power varied from 32-69 %, 6.56-7.59, 58.5-72.5 °C, 7.19-14.72 %, 0.94-1.01 g/mL and 3.18-7.36, respectively. PMID:26028725

  16. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  17. Characteristics of taro (Colocasia esculenta) starches planted in different seasons and their relations to the molecular structure of starch.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting-Jang; Lin, Jheng-Hua; Chen, Jia-Ci; Chang, Yung-Ho

    2008-03-26

    Physico-chemical properties and molecular structure of starches from three cultivars (Dog hoof, Mein, and KS01) of taro tubers planted in summer, winter, and spring were investigated. The effects of the planting season on the physico-chemical properties and the molecular structure of starch were determined, and the relations between the physico-chemical properties and the molecular structure of starch are discussed. Results indicate that taro starches from tubers planted in summer had the largest granule size, a low uniformity of gelatinization, and a high tendency to swell and collapse when heated in water. Taro starch planted in summer also showed an elasticity during gelatinization that was higher than that of starches planted in the other seasons. In addition to the planting season and the variety, rheological and pasting properties of taro starches studied are influenced not only by the amylose content but also by the chain-length distribution of amylopectin, whereas swelling power and solubility only depend on the amylose content of starch. Taro starch with relatively high amylose content, high short-to-long-chain ratio, and long average chain length of long-chain fraction of amylopectin displayed high elasticity and strong gel during heating. PMID:18293922

  18. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    PubMed

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others. PMID:25190840

  19. Empowering biotechnology in southern Africa: establishment of a robust transformation platform for the production of transgenic industry-preferred cassava.

    PubMed

    Chetty, C C; Rossin, C B; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H; Rey, M E C

    2013-01-25

    Knowledge and technology transfer to African laboratories and farmers is an important objective for achieving food security and sustainable crop production on the sub-Saharan African continent. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for more than a billion people in developing countries, and its potential industrial use for starch and bioethanol in the tropics is increasingly being recognized. However, cassava production remains constrained by the susceptibility of the crop to several biotic and abiotic stresses. For more than a decade, biotechnology has been considered an attractive tool to improve cassava as it substantially circumvents the limitations of traditional breeding, which is particularly time-consuming and tedious because of the high heterozygosity of the crop. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite some success achieved in genetic modification of the model cassava cultivar Tropical Manihot Series (TMS), TMS 60444, in some European and U.S. laboratories, the lack of a reproducible and robust protocol has not allowed the establishment of a routine transformation system in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we optimized a robust and efficient protocol developed at ETH Zurich to successfully establish transformation of a commercially cultivated South African landrace, T200, and compared this with the benchmark model cultivar TMS 60444. Results from our study demonstrated high transformation rates for both T200 (23 transgenic lines from 100 friable embryogenic callus (FEC) clusters) compared with TMS 60444 (32 transgenic lines from 100 FEC clusters). The success in transforming landraces or farmer-preferred cultivars has been limited, and the high transformation rate of an industry-preferred landrace in this study is encouraging for a feasible transformation program for cassava improvement in South Africa (SA), which can potentially be extended to other countries in southern Africa. The successful establishment of a robust cassava transformation and regeneration system in SA demonstrates the relevance of technology transfer to sub-Saharan Africa and highlights the importance of developing suitable and reliable techniques before their transfer to laboratories offering less optimal conditions. PMID:22683498

  20. Correlation of Chemical Compositions of Cassava Varieties to Their Resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    PubMed Central

    Osipitan, Adebola A.; Sangowusi, Victoria T.; Lawal, Omoniyi I.; Popoola, Kehinde O.

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0–10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ∼10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index <0.8 and were classified as resistant to larger grain borer damage, while others with selection index >0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas. PMID:25700536

  1. Treatment of cyanide-containing wastewater from the food industry in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed methanogenic reactor.

    PubMed

    Siller, H; Winter, J

    1998-02-01

    During the process of producing cassava starch from Manihot esculenta roots, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released, which rapidly decayed to CN- following enzymatic hydrolysis. Depending on the varying cyanoglycoside content of the cassava varieties, the cyanide concentration in the wastewater was as high as 200 mg/l. To simulate anaerobic stabilization, a wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of about 20 g/l was prepared from cassava roots and was fermented in a fixed-bed methanogenic reactor. The start-up phase for a 99% degradation of low concentrations of cyanide (10 mg/l) required about 6 months. After establishment of the biofilm, a cyanide concentration of up to 150 mg CN-/l in the fresh wastewater was degraded during anaerobic treatment at a hydraulic retention time of 3 days. All nitrogen from the degraded cyanide was converted to organic nitrogen by the biomass of the effluent. The cyanide-degrading biocoenosis of the anaerobic reactor could tolerate shock concentrations of cyanide up to 240 mg CN-/l for a short time. Up to 5 mmol/l NH4Cl (i.e. 70 mg N/l = 265 mg NH4Cl/l) in the fresh wastewater did not affect cyanide degradation. The bleaching agent sulphite, however, had a negative effect on COD and cyanide removal. For anaerobic treatment, the maximum COD space loading was 12 g l-1 day-1, equivalent to a hydraulic retention time of 1.8 days. The COD removal efficiency was around 90%. The maximum permanent cyanide space loading was 50 mg CN- l-1 day-1, with tolerable shock loadings up to 75 mg CN- l-1 day-1. Under steady-state conditions, the cyanide concentration of the effluent was lower than 0.5 mg/l. PMID:9534260

  2. Research on Motor Neuron Diseases Konzo and Neurolathyrism: Trends from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ngudi, Delphin Diasolua; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Van Montagu, Marc; Lambein, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Konzo (caused by consumption of improperly processed cassava, Manihot esculenta) and neurolathyrism (caused by prolonged overconsumption of grass pea, Lathyrus sativus) are two distinct non-infectious upper motor neurone diseases with identical clinical symptoms of spastic paraparesis of the legs. They affect many thousands of people among the poor in the remote rural areas in the central and southern parts of Africa afflicting them with konzo in Ethiopia and in the Indian sub-continent with neurolathyrism. Both diseases are toxico-nutritional problems due to monotonous consumption of starchy cassava roots or protein-rich grass pea seeds as a staple, especially during drought and famine periods. Both foods contain toxic metabolites (cyanogenic glycosides in cassava and the neuro-excitatory amino acid ?-ODAP in grass pea) that are blamed for theses diseases. The etiology is also linked to the deficiency in the essential sulfur amino acids that protect against oxidative stress. The two diseases are not considered reportable by the World Health Organization (WHO) and only estimated numbers can be found. This paper analyzes research performance and determines scientific interest in konzo and neurolathyrism. A literature search of over 21 years (from 1990 to 2010) shows that in terms of scientific publications there is little interest in these neglected motorneurone diseases konzo and neurolathyrism that paralyze the legs. Comparison is made with HTLV-1/TSP, an infectious disease occurring mainly in Latin America of which the clinical manifestation is similar to konzo and neurolathyrism and requires a differential diagnosis. Our findings emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of studies on these neglected diseases, which however have not really captured the attention of decision makers and project planners, especially when compared with the infectious HTLV-1/TSP. Konzo and neurolathyrism can be prevented by a balanced diet. PMID:22860149

  3. Correlation of chemical compositions of cassava varieties to their resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Osipitan, Adebola A; Sangowusi, Victoria T; Lawal, Omoniyi I; Popoola, Kehinde O

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0-10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ?10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index <0.8 and were classified as resistant to larger grain borer damage, while others with selection index >0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas. PMID:25700536

  4. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    PubMed

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed. PMID:16672076

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the WRKY Gene Family in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yunxie; Shi, Haitao; Xia, Zhiqiang; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Wenquan; Hu, Wei; Li, Kaimian

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family, a large family of transcription factors (TFs) found in higher plants, plays central roles in many aspects of physiological processes and adaption to environment. However, little information is available regarding the WRKY family in cassava (Manihot esculenta). In the present study, 85 WRKY genes were identified from the cassava genome and classified into three groups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. Conserved motif analysis showed that all of the identified MeWRKYs had the conserved WRKY domain. Gene structure analysis suggested that the number of introns in MeWRKY genes varied from 1 to 5, with the majority of MeWRKY genes containing three exons. Expression profiles of MeWRKY genes in different tissues and in response to drought stress were analyzed using the RNA-seq technique. The results showed that 72 MeWRKY genes had differential expression in their transcript abundance and 78 MeWRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to drought stresses in different accessions, indicating their contribution to plant developmental processes and drought stress resistance in cassava. Finally, the expression of 9 WRKY genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR under osmotic, salt, ABA, H2O2, and cold treatments, indicating that MeWRKYs may be involved in different signaling pathways. Taken together, this systematic analysis identifies some tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MeWRKY genes for further functional assays in planta, and provides a solid foundation for understanding of abiotic stress responses and signal transduction mediated by WRKYs in cassava. PMID:26904033

  6. Improvement of the amides forming capacity of the arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Sosedov, Olga; Stolz, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The influence of different amino acid substitutions in the nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 (NitA) on the catalytical activity and the ability to form amides was investigated. The enzyme variant Glu137Ala was constructed because glutamate residues homologous to Glu137 are highly conserved among different members of the nitrilase superfamily and it has been suggested that these residues are indispensable for the hydrolysis of amides by enzymes belonging to the nitrilase superfamily. The enzyme variant Glu137Ala demonstrated less than 1 % of the wild-type activity but was still enzymatically competent to convert mandelonitrile to mandelic acid and mandeloamide. The tryptophan residue at position 188, which was previously identified as important for the amide forming capacity of the nitrilase, was exchanged by saturation mutagenesis for all other proteinogenic amino acids. Surprisingly, 18 of these 19 exchanges resulted in an increased formation of mandeloamide from (R,S)-mandelonitrile and three of these variants converted (R,S)-mandelonitrile to more than 90 % of mandeloamide. Furthermore, these modifications also resulted in a reversal of stereoselectivity and these variants formed in contrast to the wild-type enzyme and almost all other known nitrilases preferentially (S)-mandelic acid. The synthetic potential of one of these variants was demonstrated by the construction of recombinant E. coli clones which simultaneously expressed the nitrilase variant and the (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase (oxynitrilase) from the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). These "bienzymatic catalysts" converted benzaldehyde plus cyanide almost exclusively to (S)-mandeloamide and did not show any inhibition in the presence of cyanide in concentrations up to 200 mM. PMID:25248440

  7. Characterization and expression profile of two UDP-glucosyltransferases, UGT85K4 and UGT85K5, catalyzing the last step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in cassava.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed S; Hansen, Natascha K K; Paquette, Suzanne M; Olsen, Carl E; Mller, Birger L; Jrgensen, Kirsten

    2011-10-01

    Manihot esculenta (cassava) contains two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, biosynthesized from l-valine and l-isoleucine, respectively. In this study, cDNAs encoding two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) paralogs, assigned the names UGT85K4 and UGT85K5, have been isolated from cassava. The paralogs display 96% amino acid identity, and belong to a family containing cyanogenic glucoside-specific UGTs from Sorghum bicolor and Prunus dulcis. Recombinant UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 produced in Escherichia coli were able to glucosylate acetone cyanohydrin and 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyronitrile, forming linamarin and lotaustralin. UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 show broad in?vitro substrate specificity, as documented by their ability to glucosylate other hydroxynitriles, some flavonoids and simple alcohols. Immunolocalization studies indicated that UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 co-occur with CYP79D1/D2 and CYP71E7 paralogs, which catalyze earlier steps in cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in cassava. These enzymes are all found in mesophyll and xylem parenchyma cells in the first unfolded cassava leaf. In?situ PCR showed that UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 are co-expressed with CYP79D1 and both CYP71E7 paralogs in the cortex, xylem and phloem parenchyma, and in specific cells in the endodermis of the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Based on the data obtained, UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 are concluded to be the UGTs catalyzing in?planta synthesis of cyanogenic glucosides. The localization of the biosynthetic enzymes suggests that cyanogenic glucosides may play a role in both defense reactions and in fine-tuning nitrogen assimilation in cassava. PMID:21736650

  8. Bioinformatic identification of cassava miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules that control gene expression by silencing complementary mRNA. They play a crucial role in stress response in plants, including biotic stress. Some miRNAs are known to respond to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana but it is currently unknown whether these responses are conserved in other plants and whether novel species-specific miRNAs could have a role in defense. Results This work addresses the role of miRNAs in the Manihot esculenta (cassava)-Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) interaction. Next-generation sequencing was used for analyzing small RNA libraries from cassava tissue infected and non-infected with Xam. A full repertoire of cassava miRNAs was characterized, which included 56 conserved families and 12 novel cassava-specific families. Endogenous targets were predicted in the cassava genome for many miRNA families. Some miRNA families' expression was increased in response to bacterial infection, including miRNAs known to mediate defense by targeting auxin-responding factors as well as some cassava-specific miRNAs. Some bacteria-repressed miRNAs included families involved in copper regulation as well as families targeting disease resistance genes. Putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) were identified in the MIRNA genes promoter region and compared to promoter regions in miRNA target genes and protein coding genes, revealing differences between MIRNA gene transcriptional regulation and other genes. Conclusions Taken together these results suggest that miRNAs in cassava play a role in defense against Xam, and that the mechanism is similar to what's known in Arabidopsis and involves some of the same families. PMID:22361011

  9. Introduction of East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus to Oman harks back to "Zanzibar, the capital of Oman".

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Matrushi, Abdulrahman M; Fauquet, Claude M; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-02-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is the most devastating disease of the subsistence crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The disease is caused by viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae)-seven species have been identified so far. The Sultanate of Oman is unusual among countries in Arabia in growing cassava on a small scale for local consumption. During a recent survey in A'Seeb wilayat of Muscat governorate, Oman, cassava plants were identified with symptoms typical of CMD. A begomovirus, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), was isolated from symptomatic plants. This virus was previously only known to occur in Zanzibar and Kenya. During the 19th Century, Zanzibar was governed by Oman and was so important that the Sultan of Oman moved his capital there from Muscat. After a period of colonial rule, the governing Arab elite was overthrown, following independence in the 1960s, and many expatriate Omanis returned to their homeland. Having gained a liking for the local Zanzibar cuisine, it appears that returning Omanis did not wish to do without dishes made from one particular favorite, cassava. Consequently, they carried planting material back to Oman for cultivation in their kitchen gardens. The evidence suggests that this material harbored EACMZV. Recently, Oman has been shown to be a nexus for geminiviruses and their associated satellites from diverse geographic origins. With their propensity to recombine, a major mechanism for evolution of geminiviruses, and the fact that Oman (and several other Arabian countries) is a major hub for trade and travel by air and sea, the possibility of onward spread is worrying. PMID:23085885

  10. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many edible plants are used in Cameroon since ancient time to control microbial infections. This study was designed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Methods The broth microdilution method was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and the Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) of the studied extracts. When chloramphenicol was used as a reference antibiotic, the MICs were also determined in the presence of Phenylalanine-Arginine β-Naphtylamide (PAβN), an efflux pumps inhibitor (EPI). The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results All tested extracts exhibited antibacterial activities, with the MIC values varying from 128 to 1024 mg/L. The studied extracts showed large spectra of action, those from L. sativa, S. edule, C. pepo and S. nigrum being active on all the 29 bacterial strains tested meanwhile those from Amaranthus hybridus, Vernonia hymenolepsis, Lactuca.carpensis and Manihot esculenta were active on 96.55% of the strains used. The plant extracts were assessed for the presence of large classes of secondary metabolites: alkaloids, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenes. Each studied plant extract was found to contain compounds belonging to at least two of the above mentioned classes. Conclusion These results confirm the traditional claims and provide promising baseline information for the potential use of the tested vegetables in the fight against bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes. PMID:23368430

  11. A survey of total hydrocyanic acid content in ready-to-eat cassava-based chips obtained in the Australian market in 2008.

    PubMed

    Miles, David; Jansson, Edward; Mai, My Chi; Azer, Mounir; Day, Peter; Shadbolt, Craig; Stitt, Victoria; Kiermeier, Andreas; Szabo, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely consumed food in the tropics that naturally contains cyanogenic glycosides (cyanogens, mainly composed of linamarin, acetone cyanohydrin, and hydrocyanic acid). If cassava is not adequately processed to reduce the level of cyanogens prior to consumption, these compounds can lead to the formation of hydrocyanic acid in the gut. Exposure to hydrocyanic acid can cause symptoms ranging from vomiting and abdominal pain to coma and death. In 2008, a survey of ready-to-eat (RTE) cassava-based snack foods was undertaken to determine levels of cyanogens measured as total hydrocyanic acid. This survey was undertaken in response to the New South Wales Food Authority being alerted to the detection of elevated levels of cyanogens in an RTE cassava-based snack food. This survey took 374 samples of RTE cassava chips available in the Australian marketplace. Significant variation in the levels of total hydrocyanic acid were observed in the 317 samples testing positive for cyanogens, with levels ranging from 13 to 165 mg of HCN equivalents per kg (mean value, 64.2 mg of HCN eq/kg for positive samples). The results from this survey serve as a timely warning for manufacturers of RTE cassava chips and other cassava-based snack foods to ensure there is tight control over the levels of cyanogens in the cassava ingredient. Evidence from this survey contributed to an amendment to the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, which now prescribes a maximum level for hydrocyanic acid in RTE cassava chips of 10 mg of HCN eq/kg, which aligns with the Codex Alimentarius Commission international standard for edible cassava flour. PMID:21669076

  12. AFLP-based transcript profiling for cassava genome-wide expression analysis in the onset of storage root formation.

    PubMed

    Sojikul, Punchapat; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Thaiprasit, Jittrawan; Intawong, Burapat; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Svasti, Mom Rajawong Jisnuson

    2010-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root crop that accumulates large quantities of starch, and it is an important source of carbohydrate. Study on gene expressions during storage root development provides important information on storage root formation and starch accumulation as well as unlock new traits for improving of starch yield. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used to compare gene expression profiles in fibrous and storage roots of cassava cultivar Kasetsart 50. Total of 155 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments with undetectable or low expression in leaves were characterized and classified into 11 groups regarding to their functions. The four major groups were no similarity (20%), hypothetical or unknown proteins (17%), cellular metabolism and biosynthesis (17%) and cellular communication and signaling (14%). Interestingly, sulfite reductase (MeKD82), calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) (MeKD83), ent-kaurene synthase (KS) (MeKD106) and hexose transporter (HT) (MeKD154) showed root-specific expression patterns. This finding is consistent with previously reported genes involved in the initiation of potato tuber. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of early-developed root samples confirmed that those four genes exhibited significant expression with similar pattern in the storage root initiation and early developmental stages. We proposed that KS and HT may involve in transient induction of CDPK expression, which may play an important role in the signaling pathway of storage root initiation. Sulfite reductase, on the other hand, may involve in storage root development by facilitating sulfur-containing protein biosynthesis or detoxifying the cyanogenic glucoside content through aspartate biosynthesis. PMID:20536786

  13. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra-Domnguez, Eduardo; Vzquez-Luna, Alma; Rodrguez-Landa, Juan F; Daz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  14. Whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (WGD), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. Detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. Established methods for reconstructing WGDs include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, KS age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions. Results By analysing 67 completely sequenced plant genomes 775 myosins were identified and manually assembled. Phylogenetic trees of the myosin motor domains revealed orthologous and paralogous relationships and were consistent with recent species trees. Based on the myosin inventories and the phylogenetic trees, we have identified duplications of the entire myosin motor protein family at timings consistent with 23 WGDs, that had been reported before. We also predict 6 WGDs based on further protein family duplications. Notably, the myosin data support the two recently reported WGDs in the common ancestor of all extant angiosperms. We predict single WGDs in the Manihot esculenta and Nicotiana benthamiana lineages, two WGDs for Linum usitatissimum and Phoenix dactylifera, and a triplication or two WGDs for Gossypium raimondii. Our data show another myosin duplication in the ancestor of the angiosperms that could be either the result of a single gene duplication or a remnant of a WGD. Conclusions We have shown that the myosin inventories in angiosperms retain evidence of numerous WGDs that happened throughout plant evolution. In contrast to other protein families, many myosins are still present in extant species. They are closely related and have similar domain architectures, and their phylogenetic grouping follows the genome duplications. Because of its broad taxonomic sampling the dataset provides the basis for reliable future identification of further whole genome duplications. PMID:24053117

  15. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  16. Effect of tapioca starch and amyloglucosidase concentration on very high gravity simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (VHG-SSF) of bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugih, A. K.; Santoso, I. V.; Kristijarti, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tapioca starch is isolated from the root of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). It is produced in a large quantity in Indonesia and other south east Asian countries. Tapioca starch has been commonly used as a feedstock for food as well as non-food industries. Due to its high carbohydrate content, tapioca starch has the potentiality to be used as a raw material for bioethanol production. In this research, a novel approach (Very High Gravity Simultaneous Sacharification and Fermentation/ VHG-SSF) to synthesise highly concentrated ethanol from tapioca starch was investigated. Tapioca starch suspension was first gelatinised for two hours at 90°C and hydrolised at the same temperature for another two hours using commercial α- amylase (Liquozyme Supra, 0.16%-v/ w starch). The pretreated suspension was sterilised and mixed with nitrogenous supplement. In order to start the fermentation, Saccharomyces cereviseae NRRL Y-132 inoculum (10%-v/v; 107 cells/ ml) and commercial amyloglucosidase (Dextrozyme GA, 35-105 AGU/ g starch) were added to the mixture. The initial total carbohydrate, yeast extract, and peptone concentrations of the fermentation broths were 30-40 %-w/v, 1%-w/v, and 2%-w/v, respectively. VHG-SSF was allowed to proceed for 6 days at 30°C with rotary shaker speed of 100 rpm. The concentration of glucose and ethanol during fermentation was monitored using HPLC. The experimental result shows that tapioca starch has been successfully converted to ethanol with a final concentration of 10.12-16.14 %-w/v, which is corresponding to yield of 34.68-56.83 %-w ethanol/ w-converted sugar. The result suggests that VHG-SSF is a prospective method to synthesise bioethanol from tapioca starch.

  17. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  18. Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage

    PubMed Central

    Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

    2012-01-01

    Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

  19. Anopheles gambiae feeding and survival on honeydew and extra-floral nectar of peridomestic plants.

    PubMed

    Gary, R E; Foster, W A

    2004-06-01

    It is widely believed that the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) rarely or never feeds on sugar in nature. If so, the need for supplemental blood-feeding may be increased and this would help to explain why it is such an efficient malaria vector. Nonetheless, both sexes of this mosquito species readily imbibe and digest sugar solutions, and sugar is a staple of laboratory colonies. In this study, we investigated whether An. gambiae will feed on the extra-floral nectar of three common peridomestic plants in Africa, and on honeydew of the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozetti) (Hemiptera: Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), and how this affects survivorship. We found that both males and females of An. gambiae provided with vegetative parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) survived as well (x = 26.3 and 19.2 days, respectively) as they did on 50% sucrose solution (x = 29.7 and 24.3 days, respectively) and much longer than they did on water alone (x = 1.8 days, both sexes). Females provided with mealybug honeydew also lived substantially longer (x = 16.5 days) than those on water alone. Males and females provided with vegetative parts of castorbean (Ricinus communis L.) also survived much longer (x = 12.7 and 7.8 days, respectively) than on water, but those provided with flowering lantana (Lantana camara L.) did not. Anthrone tests of females after one night of exposure to these potential energy sources confirmed that they obtained fructose from cassava, from mealybug honeydew, and from non-flowering castorbean, but not from lantana or from castorbean lacking its petiolar nectaries. Previous laboratory studies had shown that sugar availability affects the survival and biting frequency of An. gambiae. It now appears that this mosquito can locate natural sources of plant sugar readily and utilize them effectively. Nectar-producing plants in the domestic environment may play a significant role in this mosquito's energy budget and malaria vectorial capacity. PMID:15189234

  20. Informal Seed Systems and the Management of Gene Flow in Traditional Agroecosystems: The Case of Cassava in Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, George A.; Gonzlez, Carolina; Lopera, Diana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to manage gene flow within traditional agroecosystems and their repercussions requires understanding the biology of crops, including farming practices' role in crop ecology. That these practices' effects on crop population genetics have not been quantified bespeaks lack of an appropriate analytical framework. We use a model that construes seed-management practices as part of a crop's demography to describe the dynamics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Cauca, Colombia. We quantify several management practices for cassavathe first estimates of their kind for a vegetatively-propagated cropdescribe their demographic repercussions, and compare them to those of maize, a sexually-reproduced grain crop. We discuss the implications for gene flow, the conservation of cassava diversity, and the biosafety of vegetatively-propagated crops in centers of diversity. Cassava populations are surprisingly open and dynamic: farmers exchange germplasm across localities, particularly improved varieties, and distribute it among neighbors at extremely high rates vis--vis maize. This implies that a large portion of cassava populations consists of non-local germplasm, often grown in mixed stands with local varieties. Gene flow from this germplasm into local seed banks and gene pools via pollen has been documented, but its extent remains uncertain. In sum, cassava's biology and vegetative propagation might facilitate pre-release confinement of genetically-modified varieties, as expected, but simultaneously contribute to their diffusion across traditional agroecosystems if released. Genetically-modified cassava is unlikely to displace landraces or compromise their diversity; but rapid diffusion of improved germplasm and subsequent incorporation into cassava landraces, seed banks or wild populations could obstruct the tracking and eradication of deleterious transgenes. Attempts to regulate traditional farming practices to reduce the risks could compromise cassava populations' adaptive potential and ultimately prove ineffectual. PMID:22174952

  1. Influence of material structure on air-borne ultrasonic application in drying.

    PubMed

    Ozuna, Csar; Gmez lvarez-Arenas, Toms; Riera, Enrique; Crcel, Juan A; Garcia-Perez, Jose V

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to contribute to the understanding of how the properties of the material being dried affect air-borne ultrasonic application. To this end, the experimental drying kinetics (40C and 1m/s) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and apple (Malus domestica var. Granny Smith) were carried out applying different ultrasonic powers (0, 6, 12, 19, 25 and 31 kW/m(3)). Furthermore, the power ultrasound-assisted drying kinetics of different fruits and vegetables (potato, eggplant, carrot, orange and lemon peel) already reported in previous studies were also analyzed. The structural, textural and acoustic properties of all these products were assessed, and the drying kinetics modeled by means of the diffusion theory. A significant linear correlation (r>0.95) was established between the identified effective diffusivity (DW) and the applied ultrasonic power for the different products. The slope of this relationship (SDUP) was used as an index of the effectiveness of the ultrasonic application; thus the higher the SDUP, the more effective the ultrasound application. SDUP was well correlated (r ? 0.95) with the porosity and hardness. In addition, SDUP was largely affected by the acoustic impedance of the material being dried, showing a similar pattern with the impedance than the transmission coefficient of the acoustic energy on the interface. Thus, soft and open-porous product structures exhibited a better transmission of acoustic energy and were more prone to the mechanical effects of ultrasound. However, materials with a hard and closed-compact structure were less affected by acoustic energy due to the fact that the significant impedance differences between the product and the air cause high energy losses on the interface. PMID:24411471

  2. Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops

    SciTech Connect

    Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

    1982-09-01

    Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

  3. Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Santana, F A; Oliveira, L A; Santos, V S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi). Estimates of the individual broad-sense heritability of AML were low (hg(2) = 0.07 0.02), medium for StYi and DMC, and high for CyC. The heritability of AML was substantially improved based on mean of accessions (hm(2) = 0.28), indicating that some strategies such as increasing the number of repetitions can be used to increase the selective efficiency. In general, the observed genotypic values were very close to the predicted average of the improved population, most likely due to the high accuracy (>0.90), especially for DMC, CyC, and StYi. Gains via selection of the 30 best genotypes for each trait were 4.8 and 3.2% for an increase and decrease for AML, respectively, an increase of 10.75 and 74.62% for DMC for StYi, respectively, and a decrease of 89.60% for CyC in relation to the overall mean of the genotypic values. Genotypic correlations between the quality traits of the cassava roots collected were generally favorable, although they were low in magnitude. The REML/BLUP method was adequate for estimating genetic parameters and predicting the genotypic values, making it useful for cassava breeding. PMID:25177949

  4. Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.

    PubMed

    Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 μg/day) and Pb (0.062 μg/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 1,3,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone Isolated from Twigs of Garcinia esculenta on Stimulated Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Hong; Lao, Yuan-zhi; Wu, Rong; Xu, Jin-wen; Murad, Ferid; Bian, Ka; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia Linn. plants having rich natural xanthones and benzophenones with anti-inflammatory activity attracted a great deal of attention to discover and develop them as potential drug candidates. Through screening targeting nitric oxide accumulation in stimulated macrophage, we found that 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone (TIE) had potential anti-inflammatory effect. To understand how TIE elicits its anti-inflammatory activity, we uncovered that it significantly inhibits the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS/IFN?-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In further study, we showed that TIE reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two key molecules responsible for the production of NO and PGE2 during inflammation progress. Additionally, TIE also suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-?. TIE-led suppression in iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines production were probably the consequence of TIE's capability to block ERK and p38MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, TIE blocked activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) as well as NF-?B regulation of miR155 expression. Our study suggests that TIE may represent as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26538826

  6. [Production of cassava whole meal (N. esculenta Crantz) to prepare a feed for growing chicks. I. Chemical and nutritive characterization of leaves, roots and cassava whole meal].

    PubMed

    Ballinas Díaz, J; Cruz Mondragón, C; Castellanos Molina, R; Larios Saldaña, A

    1997-12-01

    Cassava roots are frequently used as a energy source in feeds. The leaves due to their high fiber content, are not used in animal feeds despite they have a good content of protein and a balanced level of essential amino acids. The purpose of this research was to produce a cassava whole meal (CWF) with low content of fiber for using in chick feed. Leaves and roots of cassava by separated, were dried at 60 degrees C for 20 h, ground in a hammermill and passed through a 60 mesh sieve. By this procedure a root flour (CRF) and a leaves flour were obtained (CLF). The fiber content in CLF was reduced 25.8% and the protein content was increased 8.2%. The CWF was made with 61.2% of CRF and 38.8% of CLF, having a protein and fiber content of 9.15% and 9.73%, respectively. The True Metabolizable Energy of CWF was 2,454 kcal/kg with an average true bioavailability of amino acids of 68.8%. PMID:9673702

  7. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 2 factorial (three levels of ET two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits. PMID:22610600

  8. Premitotic DNA synthesis in the brain of the adult frog (Rana esculenta L. ): An autoradiographic sup 3 H-thymidine study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernocchi, G.; Scherini, E.; Giacometti, S.; Mares, V. )

    1990-12-01

    Replicative synthesis of DNA in the brain of the adult frog was studied by light microscope autoradiography. Animals collected during the active period (May-June) and in hibernation (January) were used. In active frogs, 3H-thymidine labelling occurred mainly in the ependymal cells which line the ventricles. The mean labelling index (LI%) was higher in the ependyma of the lateral and fourth ventricles than in the ependyma of the lateral diencephalon and tectal parts of the mesencephalon. In the recessus infundibularis and preopticus the number of labelled cells (LCs) was several times greater than in the lateral parts of the third ventricle. LCs were seen subependymally only occasionally. The incidence of LCs in the parenchyma of the brain was much lower in most regions than in the ventricular ependyma; LCs were mainly small and, from their nuclear morphology, they were glial cells. The LI% reached the highest value in the septum hippocampi and in the nucleus entopeduncularis. In these locations, LCs were larger and closer in size to the nerve cells of these regions. From comparison with data obtained earlier in the brain of mammals, it is evident that the distribution of proliferating cells in the olfactory and limbic system is phylogenetically conservative. The occurrence of pyknotic cells in the same areas which contain LCs, suggests that cell division reflects in part the process of cell renewal observed in mammals. However, proliferating cells could also be linked to the continuous growth observed in non-mammalian vertebrates. In hibernating frogs, LCs and pyknoses were not seen or were found occasionally, which further indicates the functional significance of both processes.

  9. Inheritance of resistance to Okra yellow vein mosaic disease in interspecific crosses of Abelmoschus.

    PubMed

    Jambhale, N D; Nerkar, Y S

    1981-09-01

    Two Abelmoschus species, viz., A. manihot (L.) Medik and A. manihot (L.) Medik ssp. manihot, resistant to Okra yellow vein mosaic (YVM) were crossed to A. esculentus cv. 'Pusa Sawani', a susceptible culture. The hybrids were resistant and partially fertile. Segregation pattern for disease reaction in F2, BC1 and subsequent generations of the two crosses revealed that resistance to YVM is controlled by a single dominant gene in each species. PMID:24276872

  10. Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanolchloroformhexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexaneisopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P < 0.05) and water ratio in the solvent mixture (r = 0.5299, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In general, BD-based methods showed better extraction yields compared to methods without the addition of water and, most interestingly, there was much greater method dependence of lipid yields in the starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and starches). PMID:24132804

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Three Cassava Elongation Factor 1 Alpha (MeEF1A) Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

    2014-01-01

    In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family. Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A4 and MeEF1A5 were successfully isolated. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5′UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

  12. Feeding and lying behavior of heat-stressed early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing roughage and nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Junlapho, W; Karnjanasirm, K

    2015-02-01

    In addition to reduced nutrient intake, an environmental thermal load may directly affect milk yield in heat-stressed dairy cows. Feeding and lying behaviors of early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from roughage and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Immediately after calving, 30 multiparous cows (87.5% Holstein 12.5% Sahiwal) were randomly allocated to dietary treatments for 63 d in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments contained 25% of dry matter (DM) as dietary NDF. The control diet consisted of 13.9% roughage NDF from rice straw (RS). Two additional treatments were created by replacing 3.9% of DM with NDF from either soy hulls (SH) or cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) residues (CR), so that the roughage NDF content was reduced to 10%. During the experimental period, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity indices (THI) were 86.42.5 and 91.52.7 during the day and 74.22.1 and 81.02.5 during the night, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for induction of extreme heat stress. The duration of feeding and lying bouts decreased linearly with increasing THI. The DM intake during the day was greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR than for those fed the diet containing NDF from RS. The number of meals during the day and night was lower, whereas meal size and meal length during the day and night were greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR. Cows fed diets containing SH and CR lay down less frequently and longer during the day. These results suggest that under the severe heat stress during the day, early lactation cows fed the diet containing NFFS increased DM intake by increasing meal length and meal size rather than by increasing meal frequency and they spent more time lying. Cows fed diets containing NDF from SH and CR produced more 4% fat-corrected milk, lost less body weight, and had lower rectal temperatures measured at the 1530h milking. Therefore, reducing the filling effect may contribute to reducing heat load derived from the change in feeding and lying behavior. This should be considered as a factor for impairing productivity of heat-stressed early lactation cows. PMID:25497805

  13. Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucosides Linamarin and Lotaustralin in Cassava: Isolation, Biochemical Characterization, and Expression Pattern of CYP71E7, the Oxime-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzyme1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Jrgensen, Kirsten; Morant, Anne Vinther; Morant, Marc; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Olsen, Carl Erik; Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Mller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Sren

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a eudicotyledonous plant that produces the valine- and isoleucine-derived cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin with the corresponding oximes and cyanohydrins as key intermediates. CYP79 enzymes catalyzing amino acid-to-oxime conversion in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are known from several plants including cassava. The enzyme system converting oxime into cyanohydrin has previously only been identified in the monocotyledonous plant great millet (Sorghum bicolor). Using this great millet CYP71E1 sequence as a query in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool-p search, a putative functional homolog that exhibited an approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity was found in cassava. The corresponding full-length cDNA clone was obtained from a plasmid library prepared from cassava shoot tips and was assigned CYP71E7. Heterologous expression of CYP71E7 in yeast afforded microsomes converting 2-methylpropanal oxime (valine-derived oxime) and 2-methylbutanal oxime (isoleucine-derived oxime) to the corresponding cyanohydrins, which dissociate into acetone and 2-butanone, respectively, and hydrogen cyanide. The volatile ketones were detected as 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A KS of approximately 0.9 ?m was determined for 2-methylbutanal oxime based on substrate-binding spectra. CYP71E7 exhibits low specificity for the side chain of the substrate and catalyzes the conversion of aliphatic and aromatic oximes with turnovers of approximately 21, 17, 8, and 1 min?1 for the oximes derived from valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, respectively. A second paralog of CYP71E7 was identified by database searches and showed approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity. In tube in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that in nearly unfolded leaves, the CYP71E7 paralogs are preferentially expressed in specific cells in the endodermis and in most cells in the first cortex cell layer. In fully unfolded leaves, the expression is pronounced in the cortex cell layer just beside the epidermis and in specific cells in the vascular tissue cortex cells. Thus, the transcripts of the CYP71E7 paralogs colocalize with CYP79D1 and CYP79D2. We conclude that CYP71E7 is the oxime-metabolizing enzyme in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in cassava. PMID:21045121

  14. Prediction of gross energy and digestible energy in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Son, A R; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    Many of the available prediction equations for feed energy value may not be applicable for ingredients such as copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR). Therefore, we developed novel equations for estimating GE and DE concentrations in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. Data for GE and DE concentrations were obtained from previous experiments in which the chemical composition in the ingredients and diets were determined. In addition, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) values in 3 samples of ingredients including CM, PKM, and CR and 4 samples of diets including a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-based diet and 3 diets containing CM, PKM, and CR were determined. Based on the model R(2), conceptual predictive criterion, and the P-value of the equation, the best equation for GE concentration (kcal/kg) was GE = 3313 + (24.81 × CP) + (9.83 × NDF) with R(2) = 0.93, root mean square error = 102, and P = 0.005 (CP and NDF values are percentages). Regression analysis was conducted between the DE:GE ratio and IVDMD (%). The DE:GE ratio was 0.81, 0.73, 0.83, 0.89, 0.84, 0.82, and 0.88 in CM, PKM, CR, a corn-soybean meal-based diet, and diets containing CM, PKM, or CR, respectively. The values for IVDMD were 70.3, 42.6, 88.2, 93.4, 86.7, 75.5, and 91.3%, respectively. The DE:GE ratio may be calculated by (0.0030 × IVDMD) + 0.5986 (R(2) = 0.91; P = 0.001). Using the estimated GE concentration and IVDMD, the prediction equation for DE concentration (kcal/kg) was DE = -1965 + (1.02 × GE) + (15.33 × IVDMD) with R(2) = 0.88 and P = 0.007. In conclusion, IVDMD values are useful in estimating energy digestibility in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. PMID:23365336

  15. Heartbeat Registration Experiment (Rana Esculenta): Demonstration of the Preparatory Phase. A Case Study in the Design of a Video Presentation for Use in the Physiology Laboratory in the Department of Comparative Physiology at the Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, F. A.

    This case study describes the design of a video tape presentation for use in a college physiology laboratory. A goal of this color film is to demonstrate to the students those techniques involved in anaesthetising and preparing a frog for a laboratory experiment on the reaction of the heart to electrical and chemical stimuli. The film first shows…

  16. Heartbeat Registration Experiment (Rana Esculenta): Demonstration of the Preparatory Phase. A Case Study in the Design of a Video Presentation for Use in the Physiology Laboratory in the Department of Comparative Physiology at the Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, F. A.

    This case study describes the design of a video tape presentation for use in a college physiology laboratory. A goal of this color film is to demonstrate to the students those techniques involved in anaesthetising and preparing a frog for a laboratory experiment on the reaction of the heart to electrical and chemical stimuli. The film first shows

  17. Estimation of proximate composition, micronutrients and phytochemical compounds in traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shrawan; Singh, D R; Salim, K M; Srivastava, Amit; Singh, L B; Srivastava, R C

    2011-11-01

    In present study, 10 preferred traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, were analysed for nutritional profiles. Moisture content in their edible parts ranged from 83.43 to 94.78%. Maximum ash content was recorded in Portulaca oleracea, crude protein in Colocasia esculenta, crude fibre in Eryngium foetidum and fat in E. foetidum. Phosphorus was maximum in Ipomea aquatica, potassium in C. esculenta, zinc, calcium and manganese in Centella asiatica, copper in Sauropus androgynous, sodium and iron in P. oleracea, magnesium in Amaranthus viridi and cobalt in C. esculenta. Maximum polyphenol was recorded in Hibiscus sabdariffa, carotenoids in A. viridi, ascorbic acid in Saursops androgynus, anthocyanin in C. esculenta and chlorophyll in S. androgynus. Antioxidant activity was maximum in P. oleracea. Positive correlation was observed between polyphenol and tannin content and also between antioxidant activity and photochemicals. The developed nutritional profiles is being used in health and nutrition related schemes in Islands. PMID:21615278

  18. Molecular characterization of Dasheen mosaic virus isolates infecting edible aroids in India.

    PubMed

    Babu, B; Hegde, V

    2014-01-01

    Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) infecting three major edible aroids namely Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Colocasia esculenta, and Xanthosoma sagittifolium cultivated in India was characterized. Infected plants showing typical DsMV symptoms were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and an amplification of a 963 bp fragment which encoded the coat protein (CP) gene was obtained. BLAST analysis of the cloned DNA amplicon revealed the identity of the virus to be that of DsMV. Sequence identity matrix of the nucleotide sequences among the three isolates showed that the DsMV isolate infecting A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta shared an identity as high as 93%, while the DsMV isolate from X. sagittifolium shared an identity of only 73% and 76% with the DsMV isolates from A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta, respectively. Comparative analysis of the coat protein of the three DsMV isolates showed the presence of DVG motif (A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta) and DTG motif in X. sagittifolium and several varying potential threonine and asparagine rich N-glycosylation motifs. Single amino acid substitution of the several conserved motifs occurs in all the three DsMV isolates. This is the first characterization of DsMV isolates infecting A. paeoniifolius, C. esculenta, and X. sagittifolium plants in India. PMID:24717027

  19. Seed oil and Fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species were evaluated for seed oil content using TD-NMR. Species evaluated included; A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschat...

  20. High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

  1. Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

  2. Atomic force microscopy and thermodynamics on taro, a self-cleaning plant leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüger, E.; Rothe, H.; Frant, M.; Grohmann, S.; Hildebrand, G.; Liefeith, K.

    2009-07-01

    The evolution-optimized leaves of Colocasia esculenta (taro) and Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) are the best optimized self-cleaning surfaces known to date. Using an atomic force microscope device equipped with a piezodriven sample stage which enables a z-range of 100 μm we measured the surface morphology of dried and undried leaves of Colocasia esculenta. Thermodynamic calculations were done to investigate the interaction strength of a water droplet with the surfaces of the morphology shown in the images. The results show that the hierarchical structure produces a stable superhydrophobic state with optimal self-cleaning properties.

  3. Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

    2011-04-27

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (?23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ?30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus. PMID:21413797

  4. Mapping Wild Taro with Color-infrared Aerial Photography and Image Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.] is an exotic ornamental plant that has escaped cultivation and invaded many freshwater wetlands in the southeastern United States. Remote sensing techniques were evaluated for distinguishing wild taro along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas. Field refle...

  5. Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

    This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3) ferrocarbonatites. The concentrations of thorium, uranium, niobium, yttrium and rare earth elements increase with differentiation. Carbonatites are associated with up to 20000 times enrichment of lanthanum and cerium with respect to chondrite. Finally, the Mariana carbonatite breccia is associated with about 7,928,550 short tons of rock with a grade of 0.14% SigmaREE, and primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of carbonatites indicate a mantle origin of their parental melts.

  6. Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants.

    PubMed

    Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai

    2011-01-01

    Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants. PMID:21598766

  7. Ocean acidification modulates the response of two Arctic kelps to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Francisco J L; Aguilera, Jos; Wiencke, Christian; Jimnez, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The combined effects of ocean acidification and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been studied in the kelps Alaria esculenta and Saccharina latissima from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), two major components of the Arctic macroalgal community, in order to assess their potential to thrive in a changing environment. Overall results revealed synergistic effects, however with a different amplitude in the respective species. Changes in growth, internal N, C:N ratio, pigments, optimum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and electron transport rates (ETR) following CO2 enrichment and/or UVR were generally more pronounced in S. latissima than in A. esculenta. The highest growth rates were recorded under simultaneous CO2 enrichment and UVR in both species. UVR-mediated changes in pigment content were partially prevented under elevated CO2 in both species. Similarly, UVR led to increased photosynthetic efficiency (?) and ETR only if CO2 was not elevated in A. esculenta and even under high CO2 in S. latissima. Increased CO2 did not inhibit external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) activity in the short-term but in the mid-term, indicating a control through acclimation of photosynthesis rather than a direct inhibition of eCA by CO2. The higher benefit of simultaneous CO2 enrichment and UVR for S. latissima respect to A. esculenta seems to involve higher C and N assimilation efficiency, as well as higher ETR, despite a more sensitive Fv/Fm. The differential responses shown by these two species indicate that ongoing ocean acidification and UVR could potentially change the dominance at lower depths (4-6m), which will eventually drive changes at the community level in the Arctic coastal ecosystem. These results support an existing consideration of S. latissima as a winner species in the global change scenario. PMID:25462077

  8. Removal of furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice by edible fungi.

    PubMed

    Myung, Kyung; Narciso, Jan A; Manthey, John A

    2008-12-24

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) in the human diet irreversibly inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) and are responsible for the "grapefruit/drug"interaction phenomenon. Previously, we reported that FCs in grapefruit juice (GFJ) bind to autoclaved Aspergillus niger, and this binding reduced the GFJ inhibition of CYP 3A4. However, A. niger is not an edible fungus, and thus, potentially similar binding by edible fungi was also characterized. In this study, autoclaved Morchella esculenta, an edible ascomycete, removed much of the FC content in GFJ, resulting in decreased inhibition of CYP 3A4 activity by the GFJ. Three other edible fungi, Monascus purpureus, Pleurotus sapidus, and Agaricus bisporus, were evaluated for their binding with two of the major FCs in GFJ, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) and bergamottin (BM). These autoclaved edible fungi removed these FCs from GFJ, similar to M. esculenta, indicating that binding is a general, passive interaction between FCs and fungal hyphae. The removal of FCs was independent of pH in GFJ. Dried fungal material of M. esculenta was also effective in removing FCs from GFJ and occurred with GFJ samples prepared from both fresh grapefruit and GFJ concentrate. PMID:19012403

  9. Phylogeny of Morella rubra and Its Relatives (Myricaceae) and Genetic Resources of Chinese Bayberry Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Luxian; Jin, Xinjie; Chen, Nan; Li, Xian; Li, Pan; Fu, Chengxin

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Chinese species of Morella (Myricaceae) are unresolved. Here, we use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify candidate loci that will help in determining phylogenetic relationships among Morella rubra, M. adenophora, M. nana and M. esculenta. Three methods for inferring phylogeny, maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian concordance, were applied to data sets including as many as 4253 RAD loci with 8360 parsimony informative variable sites. All three methods significantly favored the topology of (((M. rubra, M. adenophora), M. nana), M. esculenta). Two species from North America (M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica) were placed as sister to the four Chinese species. According to BEAST analysis, we deduced speciation of M. rubra to be at about the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma). Intraspecific divergence in M. rubra occurred in the late Pliocene (3.39 Ma). From pooled data, we assembled 29378, 21902 and 23552 de novo contigs with an average length of 229, 234 and 234 bp for M. rubra, M. nana and M. esculenta respectively. The contigs were used to investigate functional classification of RAD tags in a BLASTX search. Additionally, we identified 3808 unlinked SNP sites across the four populations of M. rubra and discovered genes associated with fruit ripening and senescence, fruit quality and disease/defense metabolism based on KEGG database. PMID:26431030

  10. Phylogeny of Morella rubra and Its Relatives (Myricaceae) and Genetic Resources of Chinese Bayberry Using RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Luxian; Jin, Xinjie; Chen, Nan; Li, Xian; Li, Pan; Fu, Chengxin

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Chinese species of Morella (Myricaceae) are unresolved. Here, we use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify candidate loci that will help in determining phylogenetic relationships among Morella rubra, M. adenophora, M. nana and M. esculenta. Three methods for inferring phylogeny, maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian concordance, were applied to data sets including as many as 4253 RAD loci with 8360 parsimony informative variable sites. All three methods significantly favored the topology of (((M. rubra, M. adenophora), M. nana), M. esculenta). Two species from North America (M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica) were placed as sister to the four Chinese species. According to BEAST analysis, we deduced speciation of M. rubra to be at about the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma). Intraspecific divergence in M. rubra occurred in the late Pliocene (3.39 Ma). From pooled data, we assembled 29378, 21902 and 23552 de novo contigs with an average length of 229, 234 and 234 bp for M. rubra, M. nana and M. esculenta respectively. The contigs were used to investigate functional classification of RAD tags in a BLASTX search. Additionally, we identified 3808 unlinked SNP sites across the four populations of M. rubra and discovered genes associated with fruit ripening and senescence, fruit quality and disease/defense metabolism based on KEGG database. PMID:26431030

  11. Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2014-10-01

    Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 g) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi. PMID:23095488

  12. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of selected actinorhizal fruits growing in the forests of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Arvind K; Mishra, Tanmayee; Bhattacharya, Malay; Kar, Pallab; Sen, Arnab

    2013-11-01

    Hippophae salicifolia, Elaeagnus pyriformis, Myrica esculenta and M. nagi are actinorhizal plants growing in the sacred forests of Northeast India with multipurpose uses. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the phenol, flavonoid and flavonol contents of the fresh fruit juice of these plant species including the antioxidant potential by means of DPPH, H2O2 and NO scavenging activity and FRP. The total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of fruit juice ranged from 321.68+/-0.06 to 76.67+/-0.01 mg/g GAE, 272.92+/-0.07 to 20.12+/-0.02 mg/g QE and 258.92+/-0.08 to 18.72+/-0.02 mg/g QE, respectively. At 2.0 mg/mL concentration, DPPH scavenging activity was found to be the highest in M. esculenta (89.62 percent) and the lowest in E. pyriformis (17.58 percent). The reducing power activity was found significantly higher in H. salicifolia juice, which increased with increase in concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of H. salicifolia juice was found to be as high as 98.78 percent, while Elaeagnus juice was found to be less effective with just 48.90 percent. Juice of H. salicifolia showed the greatest NO scavenging effect of 75.24 percent as compared to juice of E. pyriformis, where only 37.54 percent scavenging was observed at the same concentration. Taking into account all the experimental data, it can be said that the fruits of H. salicifolia and both M. nagi and M. esculenta have good antioxidant activity compared to fruits of E. pyriformis. PMID:24287659

  13. Mutational Dynamics of Aroid Chloroplast Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Biggs, Patrick J.; Matthews, Peter J.; Collins, Lesley J.; Hendy, Michael D.; Lockhart, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported. We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:23204304

  14. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2010 - 31 July 2010.

    PubMed

    Andris, Malvina; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Arnau, G; Audzijonyte, Asta; Bess, Emilie C; Bonadonna, Francesco; Bourdel, G; Bried, Jol; Bugbee, Gregory J; Burger, P A; Chair, H; Charruau, P C; Ciampi, A Y; Costet, L; Debarro, Paul J; Delatte, H; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Eldridge, Mark D B; England, Phillip R; Enkhbileg, D; Fartek, B; Gardner, Michael G; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Hanley, Steven J; Havil, Nathan; Hereward, James P; Hirase, Shotaro; Hong, Yan; Jarne, Philippe; Jianfei, Qi; Johnson, Rebecca N; Kanno, Manami; Kijima, Akihiro; Kim, Hyun C; Kim, Kwan S; Kim, Woo-Jin; Larue, Elizabeth; Lee, Jang W; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Li, Chunhong; Liao, Minghui; Lo, Nathan; Lowe, Andrew J; Malausa, Thibaut; Mal, Pierre-Jean G; Marko, Michelle D; Martin, Jean-Franois; Messing, Russell; Miller, Karen J; Min, Byeong-Wha; Myeong, Jeong-In; Nibouche, S; Noack, Ann E; Noh, Jae K; Orivel, Jrme; Park, Choul-Ji; Petro, D; Prapayotin-Riveros, Kittipath; Quilichini, Anglique; Reynaud, B; Riginos, Cynthia; Risterucci, A M; Rose, Harley A; Sampaio, I; Silbermayr, K; Silva, M B; Tero, N; Thum, Ryan A; Vinson, C C; Vorsino, Adam; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Walzer, C; White, Jason C; Wieczorek, Ania; Wright, Mark

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 205 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bagassa guianensis, Bulweria bulwerii, Camelus bactrianus, Chaenogobius annularis, Creontiades dilutus, Diachasmimorpha tryoni, Dioscorea alata, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, Gmelina arborea, Haliotis discus hannai, Hirtella physophora, Melanaphis sacchari, Munida isos, Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Tuberolachnus salignus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Halobaena caerulea, Procellaria aequinoctialis, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Camelus ferus, Creontiades pacificus, Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea praehensilis, Dioscorea abyssinica, Dioscorea nummularia, Dioscorea transversa, Dioscorea esculenta, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Dioscorea trifida, Hirtella bicornis, Hirtella glandulosa, Licania alba, Licania canescens, Licania membranaceae, Couepia guianensis and 7 undescribed Thaumastocoris species. PMID:21565125

  15. Bound potassium in muscle II.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Z

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511

  16. Mutational dynamics of aroid chloroplast genomes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Biggs, Patrick J; Matthews, Peter J; Collins, Lesley J; Hendy, Michael D; Lockhart, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported. We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:23204304

  17. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of ?-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  18. Nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Boda, Rouf Hamza; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Mushrooms are considered rich in proteins, carbohydrates and other nutrients. The present study was carried out to evaluate some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley for their protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. The highest protein content was found in Boletus edulis (2.20g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (1.80g), Pleurotus ostreatus (1.68g), Morchella esculenta (1.62g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (1.6g). Carbohydrate content also showed variation in all the five tested edible mushroom species, the highest carbohydrate content observed in Boletus edulis (6.0g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (4.85g), Pleurotus ostreatus (4.30g), Morchella esculenta (4.25g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (3.35g) respectively. Similar results were observed for lipid content. The present study was also investigated for the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of mushroom species by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidant Catechin. PMID:22713951

  19. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  20. Yams (Dioscorea spp.) from the South Pacific Islands contain many novel badnaviruses: implications for international movement of yam germplasm.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Lebas, B S M; Seal, S E

    2008-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) samples (n = 690) from seven South Pacific Islands were screened for badnavirus infection by ELISA using two antisera to African badnaviruses. Positive readings were obtained for 26.4-34.6% of samples representing both known (D. bulbifera, D. nummularia and D. pentaphylla) and unreported host species (D. alata, D. esculenta, D. rotundata and D. trifida) in this region. Total DNAs were extracted from 25 ELISA-positive plants and 4 ELISA-negative controls and subjected to PCR amplification with badnavirus-specific primers targeting the reverse transcriptase (RT)-RNaseH genes. All 29 samples yielded the expected size PCR-product for badnaviruses, which were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting 45 partial (500-527 bp) RT-RNaseH sequences revealed 11 new sequence groups with <79% nucleotide identity to each other or any EMBL sequence. Three sequences (two groups) were highly divergent to the other nine new South Pacific yam badnavirus groups (47.9-57.2% identity) and probably represent either new Caulimoviridae genera or endogenous pararetrovirus sequences. Some sequence groups appeared specific to particular Dioscorea host species. Four 99.9% identical RT-RNaseH sequences possessing nine amino acid deletions from D. esculenta from three islands represent a putative integrated sequence group. The distribution of sequence groups across the islands indicates that badnaviruses have spread extensively between islands and continents through infected germplasm. PMID:18330495

  1. Cancer induction in mice with acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone of the false morel mushroom.

    PubMed

    Toth, B; Smith, J W; Patil, K D

    1981-10-01

    Acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone (AMFH), which occurs up to 0.3% in one of the edible false morel mushrooms, Gyromitra esculenta, was administered to noninbred Swiss mice in propylene glycol in 52 weekly intragastric instillations as 100 micrograms/g body weight. The treatment induced tumors of the lungs, preputial glands, forestomach, and clitoral glands. The tumor incidences in these four tissues in treated females were 70, 0, 16, and 12%, respectively, whereas in the treated males they were 40, 90, 0, and 0%. The corresponding tumor incidences in the solvent control females were 26, 0, 0, and 0%, whereas in the solvent control males they were 22, 0, 0, and 0%, respectively. Histopathologically, the neoplasms were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lungs; squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, angiosarcomas, and fibrosarcomas of the preputial glands; squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach; and squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas and keratoacanthomas of the clitoral glands. The study thus proves for the first time the tumorigenicity of AMFH. In view of these and earlier findings, the human population should abstain from consumption of Gyromitra esculenta. PMID:6944556

  2. Mitochondrial genome structure and evolution in the living fossil vampire squid, Vampyroteuthis infernalis, and extant cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Yoshida, Mari; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Maruyama, Tadashi; Oshima, Tairo

    2007-08-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the "living fossil" cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Vampyromorpha) and the cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Sepiida) were determined. The V. infernalis mt genome structure is identical to the incirrate octopod Octopus vulgaris mt genome structure, and is therefore more similar to that of the polyplacophoran Katharina tunicata, than to that of the other "living fossil" cephalopod Nautilus macromphalus. The mt genome structure of S. esculenta is identical to that of Sepia officinalis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the mt protein genes from the completely sequenced cephalopod mt genomes suggested the monophyletic relationship of two myopsid squids Loligo bleekeri and Sepiotheuthis lessoniana, and the monophyletic relationship of two oegopsid squids Watasenia scintillans, and Todarodes pacificus. Sepiida appeared as the sister group of Teuthida (Myopsida + Oegopsida). The phylogenetic position of Vampyromorpha appeared as the sister group of Octopoda, although the monophyly of Vampyromorpha and Decapodiformes cannot be rejected outright by our phylogenetic analyses. The hypothesis that Vampyromorpha is basal among the coleoid cephalopods can be rejected because of low statistical support. Therefore, it is reasonable to recognize three major groups in Coleoidea--Vampyromorpha, Octopoda, and Decapodiformes. PMID:17596970

  3. Host Races of the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii, in Asexual Populations from Wild Plants of Taro and Brinjal

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.K.; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554

  4. Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554

  5. Management of arsenic-accumulated waste from constructed wetland treatment of mountain tap-water.

    PubMed

    Nakwanit, Sannop; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Sangchoom, Wantana

    2011-01-30

    Arsenic-contaminated mountain tap water supply in Ron Phibun District, Nakorn Si Thammarat Province, Thailand poses a health hazard. Arsenic was removed using a constructed wetland (CW) system, in which the treated contaminated tap water was sedimented in 3 consecutive ponds before entering into the CW ponds, containing either Cyperus spp. or Colocasia esculenta. Following 1 year of operation both plants had similar ability to remove arsenic from mountain tap water. Arsenic was mostly concentrated at the roots of both plants. Arsenic in C. esculenta leaves was allowed to leach out in freshwater for 149 days, but the level (0.05 mg L(-1)) was much lower than standard guidelines for industrial discharge. For Cyperus spp., young shoots were utilized as ornamental plants. As the sediments contained high arsenic levels, they were converted by a solidification/stabilization (S/S) system into cement-containing blocks, which after curing for 21 days produced arsenic leaching at levels that did not require a secure landfill for storage. The success of this study demonstrated that CW combined with appropriate S/S system is a suitable approach for Thailand in removing arsenic from contaminated water. PMID:21036470

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting.

    PubMed

    Mihail, Jeanne D; Bruhn, Johann N; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2007-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30 d preceding fruiting. The two years with the greatest fruiting had the shortest fruiting seasons (6-7d). Fruiting season length was positively correlated with soil warming, suggesting that a narrow range of optimum soil temperatures favour the explosive production of fruit bodies. All woody stems of at least 1cm diam were mapped and stem diameter and crown condition were noted. Morel fruit bodies were significantly closer to stems of Carya spp., Tilia americana and Ulmus americana than predicted by the frequencies of these woody species or their contribution to the total basal area on the site. Although intra-annual clustering of fruit bodies was often observed, inter-annual clustering was not. The spatial pattern of M. esculenta fruiting appears to be associated with vegetation pattern, whereas the onset and abundance of fruiting are determined by the interaction of spring temperatures with availability of supporting precipitation. PMID:17363234

  7. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions. PMID:23242587

  8. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  9. Origin and environmental setting of ancient agriculture in the lowlands of Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Pope, K O; Pohl, M E; Jones, J G; Lentz, D L; von Nagy, C; Vega, F J; Quitmyer, I R

    2001-05-18

    Archaeological research in the Gulf Coast of Tabasco reveals the earliest record of maize cultivation in Mexico. The first farmers settled along beach ridges and lagoons of the Grijalva River delta. Pollen from cultivated Zea appears with evidence of forest clearing about 5100 calendar years B.C. (yr B.C.) [6200 (14)C years before the present (yr B.P.)]. Large Zea sp. pollen, typical of domesticated maize (Zea mays), appears about 5000 calendar yr B.C. (6000 yr B.P.). A Manihot sp. pollen grain dated to 4600 calendar yr B.C. (5800 yr B.P.) may be from domesticated manioc. About 2500 calendar yr B.C. (4000 yr B.P.), domesticated sunflower seeds and cotton pollen appear as farming expanded. PMID:11359011

  10. Expression of PCNA positivity in the brain of normal adult heterothermic vertebrates: further observations.

    PubMed

    Margotta, Vito; Morelli, Antonio; Caronti, Brunella

    2005-01-01

    As part of our study of non-experimentally induced encephalic proliferation in unequivocally adult individuals of several heterothermic Vertebrates (Podarcis sicula, Triturus carnifex, Rana esculenta, Carassius carassius), we deal here with areas not considered in previous investigations, i.e. various encephalic regions (except the telencephalon) in Podarcis sicula, Triturus carnifex and Rana esculenta, the diencephalon and medulla oblongata in Carassius carassius, and the olfactory bulbs in the two Amphibians. In the previous and current research, we have used Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) as a marker. PCNA is a ubiquitous intracellular antigen of the cycline family (proteins that regulate the cell cycle), which acts as an auxiliary protein to DNA polymerase delta; it can be detected immunocytochemically with monoclonal antibodies to reveal cell cycle phases that coincide with DNA synthesis. Spontaneous proliferation events, revealed by PCNA positivity, were constantly present in this study, being substantial in the olfactory region and diencephalon, very modest in the mesencephalon and myelencephalon, and absent in the cerebellum. In particular, signs of proliferation were abundant in the epithelium lining the cavities of the olfactory bulbs, while they were of different magnitude in tracts (with multiple and comparatively different sites related to the dorsal and/or ventral thalami) of the ependyma that delimits portions of the III ventricle and also, in all the species examined, at the level of the preoptic and infundibular recesses. Such signs were rare in the ependymal epithelium of the mesencephalic ventricle in Podarcis sicula and the rhombencephalic ventricle in all four species examined. This immunoreactivity was also observed in extra-ependymal areas: in the internal granular layer of the olfactory bulbs in Triturus carnifex and Rana esculenta; in the diencephalic nuclei of the habenula in Podarcis sicula, in both Amphibians and in Carassius carassius; in the mesencephalic tectum in Podarcis sicula and in the two Amphibians. As in our previous studies, the current immunocytochemical picture revealed by PCNA positivity generally agrees with literature reports on the presence of normal proliferation in the areas investigated here. These literature sources consist primarily of the observations of Kirsche (1967), emerging from his preceding experimental investigations, and of confirmatory data from studies in subsequent decades by other researchers obtained with tests different from our marker. Nevertheless, the number of studies that deal with the species considered in the present research, or species closely related to them, is rather limited. PMID:16277156

  11. Geological study of Guafita field reservoirs, Apure basin, southwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Moya, E.; Abud, J.; Hernandez, J.

    1989-03-01

    The medium-grade oil reservoirs of the Guafita field, Apure basin, southwestern Venezuela, represent the northeastern extension of the La Yuca-Cano Limon fields of Colombia. A detailed integrated reservoir study is being carried out in Guafita in order to define the geological model and to improve its development plan. The stratigraphic sequence of interest in the southern block of the Guafita field contains approximately 600 ft of sediments of Cretaceous and Oligocene-Miocene ages (Quevedo Member of the Navay and Guafita Formations, respectively). Fifteen prospective intervals, with approximately 150 ft of net oil sand, have been defined within this sequence by detailed correlation in the Colombian fields and four have been defined in the Quevedo Member. Lower delta-plain and delta-front depositional environments have been recognized from core studies in the Tertiary sediments. A combination of both structural and stratigraphic traps controls the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Guafita field, and at least two sealing shale regional markers have been defined. As a preliminary result of the approach of defining reservoir geometry and mapping each major sand body separately, the proven reserves of the Guafita field will decrease by approximately 12%. The possibility of fluid communication with the Colombian fields through the small-displacement riddle faults was established by means of juxtaposition of sand bodies.

  12. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; lvarez, Lina; Dueas, Pilar; Garzn, Anglica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 g kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 g kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 g kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 g kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 g kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 g kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 g kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour. PMID:25494681

  13. Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus, a putative cytorhabdovirus infecting taro.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Colleen M; Bejerman, Nicolas; Li, Ming; James, Anthony P; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Pearson, Michael N; Revill, Peter A; Harding, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    We report the first genome sequence of a Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV) derived from bobone-affected taro [Colocasia esculenta L. Schott] from Solomon Islands. The negative-strand RNA genome is 12,193 nt long, with six major open reading frames (ORFs) with the arrangement 3'-N-P-P3-M-G-L-5'. Typical of all rhabdoviruses, the 3' leader and 5' trailer sequences show complementarity to each other. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CBDaV is a member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, supporting previous reports of virus particles within the cytoplasm of bobone-infected taro cells. The availability of the CBDaV genome sequence now makes it possible to assess the role of this virus in bobone, and possibly alomae disease of taro and confirm that this sequence is that of Colocasia bobone disease virus (CBDV). PMID:26687584

  15. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  16. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

  17. Gyromitrin as a tumor inducer.

    PubMed

    Toth, B; Patil, K

    1981-01-01

    Acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone (gyromitrin) was administered in propylene glycol as 12 weekly subcutaneous injections of 50 micrograms/g weight to randomly bred Swiss mice. The treatment induced lung and preputial gland tumors in incidences of 51 and 0% in females and 46 and 28% in males, respectively. In the propylene glycol injected control groups, the corresponding tumor incidences were 28 and 0% in females and 32 and 0% in males. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lungs and squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of preputial glands. Gyromitrin is an ingredient of the wild edible false morel mushroom Gyromitrin esculenta. The environmental significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:7198186

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; B, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Gurin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-Garca, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

    2011-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

  19. [Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].

    PubMed

    Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

    1997-04-01

    The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important. PMID:9601842

  20. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  1. Morama bean research in Texas: a technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet, J.E.

    1982-07-01

    The search for drought-resistant crops has energy-saving as well as water-saving goals. The agricultural potential of morama beans (Bauhinea esculenta, also known as Tylosema esculentum), a plant that grows extensively across southern Africa was investigated. The beans are usually eaten roasted, like peanuts. Morama tubers, which store water to assure the plant's survival in drought years, may be uprooted and eaten as a source of moisture and some other nutrients. The goals of the morama project were specifically to discover the tolerance of morama for Texas agronomic conditions, to discover the ideal conditions and methods of cultivation, to demonstrate the productivity and forage potential of the plants grown at various sites in Texas, and to measure the nutritional quality of the edible parts of this plant.

  2. Biocompatible novel starch/polyaniline composites: characterization, anti-cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Banerjee, Somik; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Starch/polyaniline composites have been synthesized using oxidative polymerization of polyaniline in an aqueous dispersion of starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta corm. Scanning electron micrographs reveals the growth of polyaniline over the surface of the starch granules. DPPH scavenging and haemolysis prevention assay have been performed to estimate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the composites. Formation of new properties of the composites as compared to starch and poloyaniline was evident from the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Characterization done using UV-Vis, FTIR and DSC analysis provide evidence of composite formation. Composite possesses antioxidant nature which increases with the concentration of polyaniline. The haemolysis prevention activity of these novel composite materials is found to increase as compared to the pure polyaniline with minor compromise in the antioxidant activity. The materials show tremendous potential for biomedical applications. PMID:20674287

  3. Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river.

    PubMed

    Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S

    2013-11-01

    With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality. PMID:24080292

  4. Groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic contamination in farming villages of Bangladesh--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Egashira, Kazuhiko; Tani, Masakazu; Jahiruddin, M; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md; Rahman, Zulfikar Md

    2008-11-01

    To clarify the groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic (As) contamination, As concentration was measured in tubewell (TW) water, surface soil from farmyards and paddy fields, and fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves from farmyards in the farming villages of Bangladesh. The As concentration in TW water from farmyards was at least four times higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard, and the concentration in fresh taro leaves was equal to or higher than those reported previously for leafy vegetables in Bangladesh. As concentration of surface soils in both farmyards and paddy fields was positively correlated with that of the TW water. Further, the concentration in surface soil was positively correlated with levels in fresh taro leaves in the farmyard. This study, therefore, clarified the groundwater-soil-crop relationship in farmyards and the relationship between groundwater-soil in paddy fields to assess the extent of As contamination in Bangladeshi villages. PMID:18395311

  5. Nanostructure on taro leaves resists fouling by colloids and bacteria under submerged conditions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianwei; Sun, Yuekai; Gleichauf, Karla; Lou, Jun; Li, Qilin

    2011-08-16

    The antifouling and self-cleaning properties of plants such as Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and Colocasia esculenta (taro) have been attributed to the superhydrophobicity resulting from the hierarchical surface structure of the leaf and the air trapped between the nanosized epicuticular wax crystals. The reported study showed that the nanostructures on the taro leaf surfaces were also highly resistant to particle and bacterial adhesion under completely wetted conditions. Adhesion force measurements using atomic force microscopy revealed that the adhesion force on top of the papilla as well as the area around it was markedly lower than that on the edge of an epidermal cell. The decreased adhesion force and the resistance to particle and bacterial adhesion were attributed to the dense nanostructures found on the epidermal papilla and the area surrounding it. These results suggest that engineered surfaces with properly designed nanoscale topographic structures could potentially reduce or prevent particle/bacterial fouling under submerged conditions. PMID:21736298

  6. Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-?1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

  7. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer. PMID:22794131

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Sipunculus nudus (Sipuncula, Sipunculidae).

    PubMed

    Song, Su-Xia; Ding, Shao-Xiong; Yan, Qing-Pi; Qin, Ying-Xue

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Sipunculus nudus collected from the coast of southeast China was determined. The complete mt genome was 15,376?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 23 tRNA genes, and a putative control region (CR). The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.25% A, 28.78% T, 27.19% C, and 14.78% G, with an AT content of 58.03%. The mt DNA of Chinese S. nudus shared 73.6% and 60.2% identities with that of French S. nudus (GenBank accession number: FJ42,2961) and Chinese Phascolosoma esculenta (GenBank accession number: EF58,3817), respectively. PMID:24938083

  9. Kinetic thermal degradation of vitamin C during microwave drying of okra and spinach.

    PubMed

    Dadali, Gke; Ozbek, Belma

    2009-01-01

    In this present study, the effect of microwave output power and sample amount on vitamin C loss in okra (Hibiscus esculenta L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were investigated using the microwave drying technique. The procedure is based on the reaction between l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. The proposed method was applied successfully to both okra and spinach for the determination of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content. It was observed that as the microwave output power increased or as the sample amount decreased, the vitamin C in okra and spinach decreased as well. The activation energy for degradation of vitamin C for both okra and spinach was calculated using an exponential expression based on the Arrhenius equation. PMID:17886082

  10. Hypolipidaemic effect of chemically different mucilages in rats: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Boban, Puthenpura T; Nambisan, Bala; Sudhakaran, Perumana R

    2006-12-01

    Different classes of fibres differ in their potential to lower lipid levels. In order to examine how chemically diverse fibres differ in their hypolipidaemic activity, mucilages of varying chemical composition isolated from three different sources were administered to experimental animals and the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins was studied. The mucilages used were a galactomannan isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, a glucomannan from Dioscorea esculenta tubers and an arabinogalactan from Colocasia esculenta tubers. Rats were fed these mucilages at a dose of 4 mg/100 g body weight per d for 8 weeks and the changes in the levels of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in serum, liver and aorta were analysed. All these mucilages decreased lipid levels both in serum and tissues. Among these mucilages, glucomannan showed the most hypolipidaemic effect followed by galactomannan and arabinogalactan. Further, hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of mucilage-fed rats and the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins were studied using metabolic labelling. There was a decrease in the synthesis and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins, mainly VLDL, by hepatocytes isolated from mucilage-fed rats when compared to control (P<0.05). This was further confirmed by pulse chase analysis. Among the different mucilages, mannose-rich glucomannan showed the most effect followed by galactomannan, and mannose-free arabinogalactan showed minimal effect. Comparison of relative viscosity and water-holding capacity showed that mannan-rich mucilages like galactomannan and glucomannan, which showed greater hypolipidaemic effect, had greater relative viscosity and water-holding capacity. The present results suggested that the hypolipidaemic effect of dietary fibre involves a decrease in hepatic production of VLDL and further that it varies with the nature of the fibre. PMID:17181876

  11. Floral thermogenesis of three species of Hydnora (Hydnoraceae) in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Roger S.; Maass, Erika; Bolin, Jay F.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral thermogenesis occurs in at least 12 families of ancient seed plants. Some species show very high rates of respiration through the alternative pathway, and some are thermoregulatory, with increasing respiration at decreasing ambient temperature. This study assesses the intensity and regulation of respiration in three species of African Hydnora that represent the Hydnoraceae, an unusual family of holoparasitic plants from arid environments. Methods Long-term respirometry (CO2 production) and thermometry were carried out on intact flowers of H. africana, H. abyssinica and H. esculenta in the field, and short-term measurements were made on floral parts during the protogynous flowering sequence. Key Results For H. africana, there was no temperature elevation in either the osmophores or the gynoecial chamber in any phase, and mass-specific respiration rates of the flower parts were low (maximum 83 nmol CO2 g?1 s?1 in osmophore tissue). Respiration tracked ambient and floral temperatures, eliminating the possibility of the inverse relationship expected in thermoregulatory flowers. Hydnora abyssinica flowers had higher respiration (maximum 275 nmol g?1 s?1 in the osmophores) and a slight elevation of osmophore temperature (maximum 28 C) in the female stage. Respiration by gynoecial tissue was similar to that of osmophores in both species, but there was no measurable elevation of gynoecial chamber temperature. Gynoecial chamber temperature of H. esculenta could reach 38 C above ambient, but there are no respiration data available. Antheral tissue respiration was maximal in the male phase (48 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. africana and 103 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. abyssinica), but it did not raise the antheral ring temperature, which showed that thermogenesis is not a by-product of pollen maturation or release. Conclusions The exceptionally low thermogenesis in Hydnora appears to be associated with scent production and possibly gynoecial development, but has little direct benefit to beetle pollinators. PMID:19584128

  12. Mitospore stages of Disciotis, Gyromitra and Morchella in the inland Pacific Northwest USA.

    PubMed

    Carris, Lori M; Peever, Tobin L; McCotter, Sean W

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Costantinella species growing on soil, moss and woody debris in the autumn in the inland Pacific Northwest USA were established in culture. Five different mitospore taxa were distinguished based on colony color, presence or absence of setae and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) rDNA amplicon size. Sequence data from the largest and second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II, translation elongation factor 1-?, D1 and D2 domains of nuclear large subunit rDNA and ITS were used to connect each of the distinct mitospore taxa to corresponding vernal-fruiting Pezizales, including Disciotis cf. venosa, Gyromitra cf. esculenta and three species of Morchella. Both meiospore and mitospore stages of Morchella brunnea and M. populiphila collected in spring and autumn within a meter of each other at two urban sites had identical multilocus haplotypes, providing evidence connecting the two stages of the life cycle. Among other Morchella mitospore stages collected, some had identical haplotypes to previously sampled meiospore stages, while others were distinct, possibly representing undescribed species. Mitospore isolates with sequences assigning them to Disciotis or Gyromitra had different haplotypes from meiospore stages occurring in the same area. Meiospore stages of Disciotis and Gyromitra sampled as part of the study were also genetically distinct from European collections of D. venosa and G. esculenta, indicating more diversity is present in these taxa than is reflected in the current taxonomy. The widespread occurrence of mitospore stages of these fungi suggests that the life cycles of morels, false morels and allied taxa are more complex than previously recognized. PMID:25911699

  13. [Role of the digestive microflora and of the crystalline structure of starch in digestion and dietary efficiency in the chicken. Study of tropical tubers].

    PubMed

    Bewa, H; Charlet-Lery, G; Szylit, O

    1979-01-01

    The influence of microflora in the utilization of starches, the X ray pattern which was of A or B type, was studied by balances and carcasses analysis with growing axenic or holoxenic chickens, put in isolators. Five tropical tubers were used : Manihot utilissima and Dioscorea dumetorum of A-type, Dioscorea cayenensis and alata and Canna edulis of B-type. They were introduced in isoenergetic (4,460 Kcal/g D.M.) and isoproteic (18 p. 100) diets. The A-type starches are entirely digested (95 p. 100) and the B-type are poorly digested (40-60 p. 100). The first ones induced a better growth than the second. The influence of digestive microflora changes with the two types of tubers used. With A-type starches the microflora lowered the feed intake, the growth and the energy and protein efficiency respectively--25 and--10 p. 100. When the diet included tubers with B-type starches, the low digestibility of starch and the low metabolisable energy in the diets induced poor growth and retentions. The results are discussed in relation with the starch breakdown into glucose, lactic acid and volatile fatty acids. PMID:496174

  14. Antithyroid effects in vivo and in vitro of babassu and mandioca: a staple food in goiter areas of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E; Cooksey, R C; Legan, J; Lindsay, R H; Ingbar, S H; Medeiros-Neto, G

    1994-08-01

    Babassu (Orbignya phalerata), a palm-tree coconut fruit, mixed with mandioca (Manihot utilissima) is the staple food of people living in the endemic goiter area of Maranhao in Brazil, where goiter prevalence among schoolchildren was still 38% in 1986 despite an adequate iodine intake in most of the population. Therefore, the question arose as to whether or not the ingestion of babassu alone or mixed with mandioca contributed to the persistence of endemic goiter in this area of Brazil. In this investigation we examined the potential antithyroid effects of babassu and mandioca by means of in vivo studies in Sprague-Dawley rats, in vitro studies in porcine thyroid slices and using a purified porcine thyroid peroxidase (TPO) system. Samples of various edible parts of babassu and mandioca flour were homogenized and extracted in goitrogen-free water (GFW) for in vivo experiments, and in methanol (100 g/l), GFW or 0.06 mol/l phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) for in vitro experiments. The edible parts of babassu produced significant in vivo antithyroid effects (p < 0.05- < 0.001) in rats on a high iodine intake (14 micrograms I- day-1.rat-1), as well as distinct and reproducible antithyroid and anti-TPO activities in both in vitro systems, their action being similar to that of the thionamide-like antithyroid drugs propylthiouracil and methimazole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075782

  15. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  16. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Prez-Negrn, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. PMID:17652338

  17. Mushroom cryopreservation and its effect on survival, yield and genetic stability.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Kamal, Shwet; Tiwari, Mugdha

    2004-01-01

    Mycelial stock cultures of Agaricus bisporus, A. Bitorquis, Pleurotus flabellatus, P. Sajor-caju, P. Ostreatus, P. Sapidus, Auricularia polytricha, Lentinula edodes, Morchella esculenta and Volvariella volvacea were maintained by frequent subculturing at an interval of two months and separately as wheat grain spawn in liquid nitrogen with 15 percent glycerol. Preservation of mushroom stock cultures as wheat grain spawn under liquid nitrogen proved to be the better method of maintenance. The percent recoveries of stored samples were unchanged from the first recovery after six months to the last recovery after 42 months in nine out of 11 stock cultures preserved under liquid nitrogen. However, a marginal decline in survival of 10 % was recorded in Auricularia polytricha and Volvariella volvacea. Yields before preservation of mushroom stock cultures and after 30 months of preservation exhibited static biological efficiency and fruitbody weight. The comparison of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) PCR amplified products did not exhibit DNA fragment variation in banding patterns at the intraspecific level during preservation of stock cultures by either method. The modified cryopreservation protocol and experimental demonstration of genetic stability of stock cultures reported here validate the use of mushroom cryopreservation techniques and supports studies on genetic stability of preserved biological materials. PMID:15031742

  18. SNP markers identify widely distributed clonal lineages of Phytophthora colocasiae in Vietnam, Hawaii and Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sandesh; Hu, Jian; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout; Mudge, Joann; Lamour, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important food crop, and taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae can significantly affect production. Our objectives were to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for P. colocasiae and characterize populations in Hawaii (HI), Vietnam (VN) and Hainan Island, China (HIC). In total, 379 isolates were analyzed for mating type and multilocus SNP profiles including 214 from HI, 97 from VN and 68 from HIC. A total of 1152 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites were identified via restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of two field isolates. Genotyping with 27 SNPs revealed 41 multilocus SNP genotypes grouped into seven clonal lineages containing 2-232 members. Three clonal lineages were shared among countries. In addition, five SNP markers had a low incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) during asexual laboratory growth. For HI and VN, >95% of isolates were the A2 mating type. On HIC, isolates within single clonal lineages had A1, A2 and A0 (neuter) isolates. The implications for the wide dispersal of clonal lineages are discussed. PMID:24895424

  19. Green Technology for the Removal of Chloro-Organics from Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Chhaya; Kumar, Vivek

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) for the removal of chloro-organic compounds from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The surface area of the HSSF-CW unit was 5.25 m² and was planted with Colocasia esculenta. The wastewater was characterized for different chloro-organic compounds, that is, adsorbable organic halides (AOX), chlorophenolics, and chlorinated resin and fatty acids (cRFAs). Under a hydraulic retention time of 5.9 days, the average AOX, chlorophenolics, and cRFA removal from wastewater was 87, 87, and 93%, respectively. Some of the chlorophenolics were found to accumulate in the plant biomass and soil material. The mass balance studies show that a significant fraction of chlorophenolics and cRFA was degraded in the constructed wetland system. Modeling studies were carried out to estimate the first-order area-based removal rate constants (k) for chemical oxygen demand removal. The HSSF-CW was found to be an effective treatment technology for the remediation of pulp and paper mill wastewater. PMID:26163503

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species. PMID:26309277

  1. Late Quaternary environments, vegetation and agriculture in northern New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S. L.; Augustinus, P. C.; Barber, I. G.

    2007-03-01

    A sedimentological and plant microfossil history of the Late Quaternary is preserved in two sediment cores from early Polynesian ditch systems on southern Aupouri Peninsula. The study places human activities into a geomorphological and ecological context and allows comparison of natural and anthropogenic effects on two different geological settings: a floodplain and a relatively closed peat swamp. The data fill part of the current gap in the environmental record from northern New Zealand, namely MIS 3 (57k-26k yr BP). There is evidence for an increase in fire frequency in the region after 40k 14C yr BP, suggesting a shift to drier (and cooler) conditions. Pollen records show that conifer-hardwood forest dominated by podocarps (especially Dacrydium) prevailed prior to Polynesian arrival and deforestation within the last millennium, with Fuscopsora insignificant throughout. Both cores show sections with gaps in deposition or preservation, possible flood-stripping of peat during the pre-Holocene and mechanical disturbance by early Polynesians. The identification of prehistoric starch grains and other microremains of introduced Colocasia esculenta (taro) in both cores supports indirect evidence that the ditch systems of far northern New Zealand were used for the extensive cultivation of this crop. Copyright

  2. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N.; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  3. The Medicinal Uses of Poi

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amy C.; Valiere, Ana

    2006-01-01

    Poi is a pasty starch made from the cooked, mashed corm of the taro plant (Colocasia esculenta L.). Originating in Asia, this root crop is now found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions and was a major dietary staple in the Pacific islands. We hypothesize that poi has potential use as a probiotic—defined by FAO/WHO as, “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host.” No scientific studies have explored the possibility of poi being used as a probiotic in medical nutrition therapy, however, an investigator determined that the predominant bacteria in poi are Lactococcus lactis (95%) and Lactobacilli (5%), both of which are lactic acid-producing bacteria. This investigator also reported that poi contains significantly more of these bacteria per gram than yogurt. To determine if poi is beneficial for certain health conditions, a literature search was conducted to find all available research studies in which poi was used as a complementary treatment. Documented evidence suggests that poi shows promise for use in infants with allergies or failure-to-thrive. However, to support previous findings, more research needs to be conducted with poi and its potential use as a probiotic. PMID:15481740

  4. Effect of conditioning potential on potassium current kinetics in the frog node.

    PubMed Central

    Palti, Y; Ganot, G; Stmpfli, R

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of potassium conductance changes were determined in the voltage clamped frog node (Rana esculenta), as a function of conditioning prepotential. The conditioning potential duration varied from 1 to 50 ms and the amplitude between -60 and +130 mV (relative to rest). The conductance kinetics were determined at a single test potential of +20 mV (depolarization) by means of the slope of log [ninfinity - nt] vs. time relationship which defines the time constant of the process (tau). The values of tau, after conditioning hyperpolarizations, were around 5 ms, up to 10 times greater than values obtained following a strong depolarization. The tau vs. pre-potential curve was sigmoid in shape. These differences were only slightly dependent on [K+]0 or conditioning pulse duration. The steady-state current values were also found to be a function of conditioning potential. After conditioning hyperpolarizations, the log [ninfinity - nt] vs. time curve could not be fitted by a single exponent regardless of the power of n chosen. The prepotential dependency of potassium current kinetics is inconsistent with the Hodgkin-Huxley axon model where the conductance parameters are assumed to be in either one of two possible states, and where the rate of transfer from one state to the other follows first order kinetics. In contrast the described kinetics may be consistent with complex multistate potassium "channel" models or membranes consisting of a number of types of channels. PMID:1082776

  5. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

    2014-09-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack. PMID:25190848

  6. Root-knot Nematode Management in Dryland Taro with Tropical Cover Crops.

    PubMed

    Sipes, B S; Arakaki, A S

    1997-12-01

    Twenty-two cover crops were evaluated for their ability to reduce damage by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, to taro, Colocastia esculenta, in a tropical cropping system. Cover crops were grown and incorporated into the soil before taro was planted. Barley, greenpanic, glycine, marigold, sesame, sunn hemp, and sorghum x sudangrass DeKalb ST6E were poor or nonhosts to the nematode as measured by low population changes of nematodes in soil between cover crop planting and taro planting. Alfalfa, buckwheat, cowpea, lablab, Lana vetch, mustard, oat, okra, rhodes grass, ryegrain, ryegrass, siratro, sweet corn, and wheat allowed nematode populations to increase dramatically. Taro yields were greatest in the marigold plots and lowest in the ryegrain plots. Taro corm weight decreased with increasing initial nematode population (Pi) (r = 0.22, P = 0.056). Siratro, ryegrass, and Blizzard wheat plots had higher taro yield than plots with similar Pi's but planted to other cover crops. These cover crops may have antagonism to other soil microorganisms or their decomposition products may be toxic or adversely affect the nematodes. Cover crops can be an effective and valuable nematode management tactic for use in minor tropical cropping systems such as taro. PMID:19274275

  7. Partial purification and properties of cyclodextrin glycosiltransferase (CGTase) from alkalophilic Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Mora, Marlene M Martnez; Snchez, Karel Hernndez; Santana, Reynaldo Villalonga; Rojas, Arley Prez; Ramrez, Hctor L; Torres-Labandeira, Juan Jos

    2012-12-01

    Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.9) is an unique enzyme capable of converting starch and related substrates into cyclodextrins (CDs). In this paper, we report an one step gel purification method of CGTase from Bacillus sp. and later enzyme characterization. The Bacillus sp. strain was isolated from a Colocacia esculenta rizospheric soil sample and the CGTase production was carried out in alkaline medium (pH=10). The CGTase purification from the culture supernatant was performed by gel filtration. The enzyme was purified in one step with a recovery of 87.3% activity and 40-fold purification for specific enzymatic activity of 2.24 U/mg. Optimal activity was observed at pH 5.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer, and the enzyme retained almost 100 % of its activity between pH 5.5 and 10 after incubation for 1 h at 4C. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 55C and showed a T(50%) of 70C. The ratio of ?:?:? CD formed by the enzyme was 0.74:1:0.61 for soluble starch and 0.29:1:0.85 for cocoyam starch. PMID:23420668

  8. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241

  9. Role of cutaneous surface fluid in frog osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ramlv, Hans

    2013-07-01

    The study investigated whether evaporative water loss (EWL) in frogs stems from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by mucous glands. Osmolality of cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) of Rana esculenta (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) subjected to isoproterenol or 30C-34C was 1919.3 and 1817.5 mosm/kg, respectively, as compared to lymph osmolality of, 24910 mosm/kg. Cation concentrations of CSF were likewise independent of pre-treatment with averages of, [Na(+)]=65.55.1 and [K(+)]=14.91.6 mmol/L, and lymph concentrations of 116 mmol Na(+)/L and 5.1 mmol K(+)/L. The relatively high [K(+)] confirms that CSF is produced by submucosal glands. Since the chemical energy of water of CSF was always higher than that of body fluids, diffusion of water would be from CSF to the interstitial fluid and not in the opposite direction. It is concluded that volume and composition of CSF are regulated by subepidermal exocrine gland secretion balanced by EWL into the atmosphere and ion reuptake by the epidermal epithelium. Previously discovered regulatory mechanisms of epithelial ion absorption, hitherto not ascribed a body function, fit well with a role in regulating turnover of CSF. As a regulated external physiological compartment, CSF would be of importance for the immune defenses that amphibians employ in protecting their skin. PMID:23587876

  10. Long-term study of an infection with ranaviruses in a group of edible frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) and partial characterization of two viruses based on four genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Sthr, Anke C; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Papp, Tibor; Robert, Nadia; Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich; Marschang, Rachel E

    2013-08-01

    Several edible frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) collected into a single group from various ponds in Europe died suddenly with reddening of the skin (legs, abdomen) and haemorrhages in the gastrointestinal tract. Ranavirus was detected in some of the dead frogs using PCR, and virus was also isolated in cell culture. Over the following 3 years, another two outbreaks occurred with low to high mortality in between asymptomatic periods. In the first 2 years, the same ranavirus was detected repeatedly, but a new ranavirus was isolated in association with the second mass-mortality event. The two different ranaviruses were characterized based on nucleotide sequences from four genomic regions, namely, major capsid protein, DNA polymerase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase alpha and beta subunit genes. The sequences showed slight variations to each other or GenBank entries and both clustered to the Rana esculenta virus (REV-like) clade in the phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, a quiescent infection was demonstrated in two individuals. By comparing samples taken before and after transport and caging in groups it was possible to identify the pond of origin and a ranavirus was detected for the first time in wild amphibians in Germany. PMID:23535222

  11. Possible neural network mediating jaw opening during prey-catching behavior of the frog.

    PubMed

    Kovalecz, Gabriella; Kecskes, Szilvia; Birinyi, Andrs; Matesz, Clara

    2015-10-01

    The prey-catching behavior of the frog is a complex, well-timed sequence of stimulus response chain of movements. After visual analysis of the prey, a size dependent program is selected in the motor pattern generator of the brainstem. Besides this predetermined feeding program, various direct and indirect sensory inputs provide flexible adjustment for the optimal contraction of the executive muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether trigeminal primary afferents establish direct contacts with the jaw opening motoneurons innervated by the facial nerve. The experiments were carried out on Rana esculenta (Pelophylax esculentus), where the trigeminal and facial nerves were labeled simultaneously with different fluorescent dyes. Using a confocal laser scanning microscope, close appositions were detected between trigeminal afferent fibers and somatodendritic components of the facial motoneurons. Quantitative analysis revealed that the majority of close contacts were encountered on the dendrites of facial motoneurons and approximately 10% of them were located on the perikarya. We suggest that the identified contacts between the trigeminal afferents and facial motoneurons presented here may be one of the morphological substrate in the feedback and feedforward modulation of the rapidly changing activity of the jaw opening muscle during the prey-catching behavior. PMID:26444079

  12. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent.

    PubMed

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  13. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.): Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    PubMed

    Ngo Ngwe, Marie Florence Sandrine; Omokolo, Denis Ndoumou; Joly, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD) approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species. PMID:26691919

  14. Susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to a panel of ranavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, F; Cappellozza, E; Pastore, M R; Bovo, G

    2010-07-01

    Ranaviruses are considered a serious threat to lower vertebrates, including fish, amphibians and reptiles. However, epidemiological data on these agents are lacking, and further investigations are needed to understand the role of carriers and to update the list of susceptible hosts. We carried out various experimental infections under controlled conditions to contribute to the current knowledge on the susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to European catfish virus (ECV) and other ranaviruses. A panel of 7 ranavirus isolates was used to challenge duplicate groups of A. melas juveniles maintained in aquaria supplied with running dechlorinated tap water. The experiments were performed at 15 and 25 degrees C. The results confirmed the high susceptibility of A. melas to ECV infection. Furthermore, a significant mortality associated with the typical signs of systemic viral infections was observed in groups challenged with Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) at 25 degrees C, and to a lesser extent, at 15 degrees C. No significant mortality was recorded in fish challenged with European sheatfish virus (ESV), Frog virus 3 (FV3), Rana esculenta virus-like (REV-like), Bohle iridovirus (BIV) or short-finned eel virus (SERV). PMID:20815324

  15. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M.; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241

  16. Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., a symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris that is very effective at fixing nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeo-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Maron; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martnez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-11-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can establish symbiotic associations with several Rhizobium species; however, the effectiveness of most strains at fixing nitrogen under field conditions is very low. PRF 81(T) is a very effective strain, usually referred to as Rhizobium tropici and used successfully in thousands of doses of commercial inoculants for the common bean crop in Brazil; it has shown high rates of nitrogen fixation in all areas representative of the crop in the country. Here, we present results that indicate that PRF 81(T), although it belongs to the 'R. tropici group', which includes 10 Rhizobium species, R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum, R. multihospitium, R. miluonense, R. hainanense, R. calliandrae, R. mayense, R. jaguaris and R. rhizogenes, represents a novel species. Several morpho-physiological traits differentiated PRF 81(T) from related species. Differences were also confirmed in the analysis of rep-PCR (sharing less than 45?% similarity with the other species), MLSA with recA, atpD and rpoB genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. The novel species, for which we propose the name Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., is able to establish effective root nodule symbioses with Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, Crotalaria juncea and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The type strain is PRF 81(T) (?=?CNPSo 122(T)?=?SEMIA 4080(T)?=?IPR-Pv81(T)?=?WDCM 440(T)). PMID:23771622

  17. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Maron; Ormeo-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martnez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60?% similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4?% sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50?% DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) (?=?CNPSo 120(T)?=?LMG 27577(T)?=?IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24972614

  18. Trichoderma gamsii (NFCCI 2177): a newly isolated endophytic, psychrotolerant, plant growth promoting, and antagonistic fungal strain.

    PubMed

    Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita

    2014-05-01

    An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25?C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30?C (optimum 25?C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem. PMID:23564225

  19. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  20. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.): Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices

    PubMed Central

    Ngo Ngwe, Marie Florence Sandrine; Omokolo, Denis Ndoumou; Joly, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD) approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species. PMID:26691919

  1. Agricultural Encroachment: Implications for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical African Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.; Kansiime, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical wetlands have been shown to exhibit high rates of net primary productivity and may therefore play an important role in global climate change mitigation through carbon assimilation and sequestration. Many permanently flooded areas of tropical East Africa are dominated by the highly productive C4 emergent macrophyte sedge, Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus). However, increasing population densities around wetland margins in East Africa are reducing the extent of papyrus coverage due to the planting of subsistence crops such as Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). We have assessed the impact of this land use change on the carbon cycle in theis wetland environment. Eddy covariance techniques were used, on a campaign basis, to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide over both papyrus and cocoyam dominated wetlands located on the Ugandan shore of Lake Victoria. The integration of flux data over the annual cycle shows that papyrus wetlands have the potential to act as a sink for significant amounts of carbon, in the region of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The cocoyam vegetation was found to assimilate ~7 t C ha-1 yr-1 but when carbon exports from crop biomass removal were taken into account these wetlands represent a significant net loss of carbon of similar magnitude. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required in order to promote the dual wetland function of crop production and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions especially under future climate change scenarios.

  2. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  3. Food processing methods influence the glycaemic indices of some commonly eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods.

    PubMed

    Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N

    2006-09-01

    Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were processed by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods processed by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet. PMID:16925852

  4. Uses of mushrooms by Finns and Karelians.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, M

    1998-01-01

    Finns have adopted two traditions of mushroom use: one, the old Roman tradition, came through France and Sweden to the educated, mostly Swedish speaking people of southwest Finland; the other came from the east via Karelia and was adopted by ordinary country folk. This eastern tradition is still maintained among the Karelinas living in Tver government in Russia. Even the use of Amanita muscaria for killing flies is still utilized there. The western tradition favoured chanterelles and Boletus edulis, the eastern acrid milk caps, the Lactarius species. During the famines in the 1860's and after the World War II the government authorities tried to promote the use of wild mushrooms, but the real impulse to a more versatile mushroom use was initiated after the war when 400,000 evacuees from that part of Karelia conquered by the Soviet Union were resettled among farming families all over Finland. In 1969 the National Board of Forestry began to train mushroom advisors, a programme which still continues. In 1981 Finland passed a statute on edible mushrooms and drew up a list of commercial species. Even today the largest percentage of marketed mushrooms comes from Eastern Finland and the Lactarius tivialis species sells best. Gyromitra esculenta, the false morel is considered a delicacy. Today picking mushrooms is a passionate hobby for many Finns. PMID:9567575

  5. Why Amphibians Are More Sensitive than Mammals to Xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Angelo; Bellantuono, Vito; Cassano, Giuseppe; Lippe, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Dramatic declines in amphibian populations have been described all over the world since the 1980s. The evidence that the sensitivity to environmental threats is greater in amphibians than in mammals has been generally linked to the observation that amphibians are characterized by a rather permeable skin. Nevertheless, a numerical comparison of data of percutaneous (through the skin) passage between amphibians and mammals is lacking. Therefore, in this investigation we have measured the percutaneous passage of two test molecules (mannitol and antipyrine) and three heavily used herbicides (atrazine, paraquat and glyphosate) in the skin of the frog Rana esculenta (amphibians) and of the pig ear (mammals), by using the same experimental protocol and a simple apparatus which minimizes the edge effect, occurring when the tissue is clamped in the usually used experimental device. The percutaneous passage (P) of each substance is much greater in frog than in pig. LogP is linearly related to logKow (logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient). The measured P value of atrazine was about 134 times larger than that of glyphosate in frog skin, but only 12 times in pig ear skin. The FoD value (Pfrog/Ppig) was 302 for atrazine, 120 for antipyrine, 66 for mannitol, 29 for paraquat, and 26 for glyphosate. The differences in structure and composition of the skin between amphibians and mammals are discussed. PMID:19888346

  6. Griffipavixanthone, a dimeric xanthone extracted from edible plants, inhibits tumor metastasis and proliferation via downregulation of the RAF pathway in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhijie; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Hong; Fu, Wenwei; Zhu, Lunlun; Tan, Hongsheng; Xu, Hongxi

    2016-01-12

    Metastasis causes a large number of deaths among esophageal cancer patients. The activation of RAF family proteins elevates tumor metastasis and proliferation. In screen targeting the RAF protein, we identified that Griffipavixanthone (GPX), a dimeric xanthone isolated from Garcinia esculenta, is a B-RAF and C-RAF inhibitor against esophageal cancer cells. Using wound healing, transwell migration and matrigel invasion assays, we confirmed that GPX significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, exposure to GPX rendered cell proliferation and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Our mechanistic study showed that GPX suppressed cancer metastasis and proliferation through downregulation of RAF-MEK-ERK cascades proteins as well as RAF mRNA levels. In a pulmonary metastasis model, the intraperitoneal injection of GPX significantly suppressed esophageal tumor metastasis and ERK protein level in vivo. In conclusion, our present study suggested that GPX could inhibit tumor migration, invasion and proliferation in vitro and in vivo, which indicated the potential of GPX for preventing and treating esophageal cancer. PMID:26646323

  7. Do epidermal lens cells facilitate the absorptance of diffuse light?

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Craig R; Vogelmann, Thomas C

    2007-07-01

    Many understory plants rely on diffuse light for photosynthesis because direct light is usually scattered by upper canopy layers before it strikes the forest floor. There is a considerable gap in the literature concerning the interaction of direct and diffuse light with leaves. Some understory plants have well-developed lens-shaped epidermal cells, which have long been thought to increase the absorption of diffuse light. To assess the role of epidermal cell shape in capturing direct vs. diffuse light, we measured leaf reflectance and transmittance with an integrating sphere system using leaves with flat (Begonia erythrophylla, Citrus reticulata, and Ficus benjamina) and lens-shaped epidermal cells (B. bowerae, Colocasia esculenta, and Impatiens velvetea). In all species examined, more light was absorbed when leaves were irradiated with direct as opposed to diffuse light. When leaves were irradiated with diffuse light, more light was transmitted and more was reflected in both leaf types, resulting in absorptance values 2-3% lower than in leaves irradiated with direct light. These data suggest that lens-shaped epidermal cells do not aid the capture of diffuse light. Palisade and mesophyll cell anatomy and leaf thickness appear to have more influence in the capture and absorption of light than does epidermal cell shape. PMID:21636475

  8. Analysis of the mineral composition of taro for determination of geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Noda, Akihiko; Iwata, Naoko; Nakano, Akimasa; Nakamura, Satoru; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2011-05-11

    The mineral composition of taro ( Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) was analyzed to develop a method to distinguish taro produced in Japan and China. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Zn) were assayed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), malate, and oxalate were measured by ion chromatography. The mean concentrations of H(2)PO(4)(-), Co, Cr, and Na significantly differed (P < 0.01) between taro grown in Japan and that grown in China. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most efficient combination of elements and compounds to discriminate the taro geographic origin. The highest percentage of correct classification was achieved with a two-variable model including H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co (100% for Japanese, 93.75% for Chinese). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using all of the assayed elements and compounds were also conducted to determine which elements significantly accounted for the variation of the taro mineral composition. We report on the potential of H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co concentrations to differentiate taro grown in China and Japan and discuss the sources of variability in the taro mineral composition of our samples. PMID:21425858

  9. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes in the resistance reaction in taro infected with Phytophthora colocasiae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2009-07-01

    Leaf blight disease caused by Phytophthora colocasiae represents a major constraint to the growth and yield of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.). Ongoing research on model plant systems has revealed that defense responses are activated via signaling pathways mediated by endogenous signaling molecule such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Activation of plant defenses is associated with changes in the expression of large number of genes. To gain a better understanding of defense responses, virulent race of P. colocasiae was used to inoculate the taro cultivar UL-56 (compatible) and its nearly isogenic line Muktakeshi (incompatible). We have employed suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH), cDNA libraries, Northern blot analysis, high throughput DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics to identify the defense-related genes in taro induced by P. colocasiae infection. Two putative resistance genes and a transcription factor were identified among the upregulated sequences. The expression of several candidate genes including lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), and other pathogenesis-related genes were evaluated following 8-48 h of appearance of symptom in compatible and incompatible interactions. Results confirmed the higher overall expression of these genes in Muktakeshi (resistant) compared to UL-56 (susceptible). This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the taro differential transcriptome associated with host-pathogen interactions from different genotypes. All the generated ESTs have been submitted to GenBank for further functional studies. PMID:18622758

  10. Cytokine-mimetic properties of some Philippine food and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tulin, Edgardo E; Ecleo, Zenaida T

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated Philippine indigenous plants for cytokine-mimetic properties and partially characterized candidate mimetics for their stability as well as their sensitivity to variations in temperature and pH. Forty-five plant extract preparations were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of mouse spleen cells and bone marrow cells. Temperature and pH effects were determined by subjecting the extracts to different temperature and pH levels and measuring their residual proliferative activities. Results revealed that 24 and 14 extracts were able to stimulate proliferation of bone marrow cells and spleen cells, respectively. Extracts from yam (Dioscorea alata L.) (Dioscoreaceae) roots and leaves, taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) (Araceae) roots, and buyo (Piper betle L.) (Piperaceae) leaf were among the extracts that strongly stimulated proliferation of both bone marrow cells and splenocytes, significantly increasing cell concentrations. Heating the extracts beyond 40 degrees C markedly reduced their proliferative ability, while a pH level below 4.0 and above 8.0 also significantly decreased the extracts' activity. Three protein-mimetics with sizes of 26 kDa, 35 kDa, and 50 kDa were isolated from buyo leaf, yam root, and taro root extracts, respectively. All three molecules are biologically active and stimulate a dose-dependent proliferative response. PMID:17651065

  11. Creating High-Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes Using IM-CRDS and IRMS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Since the development of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), the applications of water isotope analysis have been increasing. Here, we present a new protocol to create high-resolution maps of leaf water isotopes 18O and 2H. We use the Picarro induction module (IM-CRDS) combined with an isotope analyzer (L2130-i) to sample up to 25 locations in one half of each leaf. Each sampling location corresponds to four samples (6 mm outside diameter punched-holes) punched next to each other. In the induction module, an induction coil heats a metal holder containing the leaf sample. The sample will release water vapor that is then sent to the isotope analyzer. The IM-CRDS allows us to significantly reduce the sample size and therefore increase the sample density, compared to the traditional cryogenic extraction method. Using spatial analysis tools, we create high-resolution spatial maps of each isotope as well as d-excess maps. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The isotopic composition of the extracted water is compared to the average composition calculated from the maps and used for calibration. We present applications of this protocol to the analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution of foliar uptake in Colocasia esculenta under laboratory conditions.

  12. Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2011-05-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

  13. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.

    PubMed

    Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Cline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Ameza, P; Catano, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; Garca-Jimnez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, Ren; Gonzlez, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutirrez-Rodrguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pr K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mlodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:21565018

  14. Heterologous expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuan-Li; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Tzu; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2010-03-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest of many plant species and cause global economic loss. A phytocystatin gene, Colocasia esculenta cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI), isolated from a local taro Kaosiang No. 1, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). When infected with Meloidogyne incognita, one of root-knot nematode (RKN) species, transgenic T1 lines overexpressing CeCPI suppressed gall formation as evidenced by a pronounced reduction in gall numbers. In comparison with wild-type plants, a much lower proportion of female nematodes without growth retardation was observed in transgenic plants. A decrease of RKN egg mass in transgenic plants indicated seriously impaired fecundity. Overexpression of CeCPI in transgenic tomato has inhibitory functions not only in the early RKN infection stage but also in the production of offspring, which may result from intervention in sex determination. PMID:20054551

  15. [Study on identification of Gastrodia elata Bl. by Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ze-Feng; Xu, Rui; Cheng, Cun-Gui

    2007-09-01

    In the present article the FTIR spectra of the wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl. from different habitats and its confusable varieties such as Canna edulis Ker-Gawl, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Solanum tuberosum L. were obtained by horizontal attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR), and were all transformed by Fourier self-deconvolution. The authors investigated the discrepancy extent of Fourier self-deconvolution of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties under various bandwidth and enhancement, and found that the discrepancy extent of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties was the most obvious when the bandwidth was between 75.0 and 76.0 and enhancement was 3.2. By adopting Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy (FSD-IR) analytical method the samples were studied in detail. The results showed that we could find out the difference among them by means of Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy, although it was very difficult to find out the difference in FSD-IR spectra of wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl., and asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction Gastrodia elata Bl. The difference in FSD-IR spectra between Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties is also very great. Therefore, this method can be used to recognize different Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties simply, rapidly and accurately. PMID:18051513

  16. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding an elicitor of Phytophthora colocasiae.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Kamal; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2010-02-28

    The rapid and effective activation of disease resistance responses is essential for plant defense against pathogen attack. These responses are initiated when pathogen-derived molecules (elicitors) are recognized by the host. A cDNA encoding elicitor, the major secreted extracellular glycoprotein of Phytophthora colocasiae, a pathogen of taro (Colocasia esculenta) plants, was isolated, sequenced and characterized. The expression of the corresponding elicitor gene during the disease cycle of P. colocasiae was analyzed. Elicitor was shown to be expressed in mycelium grown in culture media, whereas it was not expressed in sporangiospores and zoospores. In planta, during infection of taro, particularly during the biotrophic stage, expression of elicitor was down-regulated compared to in vitro. The highest levels of expression of elicitor were observed in in vitro grown mycelium and in late stages of infection when profuse sporulation and leaf necrosis occur. The elicitation of the suspension-cultured taro cells was effective in the induction of the enzyme activity of l-phenylalanine-ammonia lyase, peroxidase and lipoxygenase as well as the expression of defense-related endochitinase gene. All these biological activities were exerted within a low concentration range. The glycoprotein represents a powerful tool to investigate further the signals and their transduction pathways involved in induced disease resistance. It may also be useful to engineer broad disease protection in taro plant against Phytophthora leaf blight. PMID:19230634

  17. Effect of Temperature on Starch Synthesis in Potato Tuber Tissue and in Amyloplasts

    PubMed Central

    Mohabir, Gangaram; John, Philip

    1988-01-01

    A sharp temperature optimum is observed at 21.5C when the incorporation of [14C]sucrose into starch is measured with discs cut from developing tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Desire). By contrast, increasing temperatures over the range 9 to 31C only enhance release of 14C to respiratory CO2 and incorporation of 14C into the ethanolsoluble fraction. By comparison, starch synthesis in discs from developing corms of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) is increased by raising the temperature from 15 to 35C. The significance of a relatively low temperature optimum for starch synthesis in potato is discussed in relation to the yield limitations imposed by continuously high soil temperatures. Amyloplasts isolated from protoplasts prepared from developing potato tubers contain activities of alkaline pyrophosphatase, NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and phosphoglucomutase in addition to ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase, starch phosphorylase and starch synthase. Cell-free amyloplasts released by thinly slicing developing potato tubers synthesize starch from [14C]triose-phosphate generated from [14C]fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in the reaction medium. This starch synthesis is inhibited by addition of 10 millimolar inorganic phosphate and requires amyloplast integrity, suggesting the operation of a triose-phosphate/inorganic phosphate exchange carrier at the amyloplast membrane. The temperature optimum at 21.5C observed with tissue discs is not observed with amyloplasts. PMID:16666448

  18. Lipovitellin-phosvitin crystals with orthorhombic features: thin-section electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis, and microanalysis in teleost and amphibian yolk platelets and a comparison with other vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, R.H.; Richter, H.P.; Riehl, R.; Zierold, K.; Trandaburu, T.; Magdowski, G.

    1983-05-01

    Yolk-platelet crystals in the teleosts Pelvicachromis pulcher and Noemacheilus barbatulus and the amphibians Xenopus laevis, Rana temporaria, R. esculenta, and Triturus sp. have been studied by electron diffraction and imaging using a standardized processing (glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide fixation, glutaraldehyde-urea embedding, thin-section staining), by X-ray microanalysis, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of their constituents. The crystal lattice is orthorhombic having. Crystal images in the three axial projections point to the presence of space group P212121 (or an approximation of it since the lipovitellin dimers cannot be fully equivalent in some cases), to differences between the phosvitins of the two teleosts, and to a highly unusual stain exclusion from large crystal constituents interpreted as representing lipovitellin dimers. Microanalysis in ultrathin cryosections and other preparations revealed K and Cl to be the prominent ions in the crystals (and in the superficial layer of the platelet). Gel electrophoresis (including data of cyclostomes) showed considerable molecular variations despite a closely similar crystal architecture, emphasizing a physiological significance of the architecture, which may have remained conserved for nearly 400 million years according to paleontologic views.

  19. Heat and mass transfer in deep-frying of pumpkin, sweet potato and taro.

    PubMed

    Ahromrit, Araya; Nema, Prabhat K

    2010-12-01

    Heat and mass transfer parameters, effective thermal diffusivity, heat transfer coefficient, effective moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient-for pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) under deep-frying conditions were determined by fitting experimental data on transient values of temperature and moisture content to the solution of the standard diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates as modified by Dincer (Heat Mass Transfer 32:109-113, 1996). A case of Biot number in the range of 0< B i <100 was considered in this study. Remarkably good agreement was found between estimated and calculated values as the root mean square error between the measured and calculated temperature and moisture content values were only 5.0% and 1.3%, respectively. The model can be easily and effectively used to determine effective diffusion coefficients as well as transfer coefficients for heat and mass transfer. The oil uptake values for the above vegetables were lower than the values reported for other deep fried products. PMID:23572697

  20. Mineral composition of non-conventional leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Barminas, J T; Charles, M; Emmanuel, D

    1998-01-01

    Six non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed largely by the rural populace of Nigeria were analyzed for mineral composition. Mineral contents appeared to be dependent on the type of vegetables. Amaranthus spinosus and Adansonia digitata leaves contained the highest level of iron (38.4 mg/100 g and 30.6 mg/100 g dw, respectively). These values are low compared to those for common Nigerian vegetables but higher than those for other food sources. All the vegetables contained high levels of calcium compared to common vegetables, thus they could be a rich source of this mineral. Microelement content of the leaves varied appreciably. Zinc content was highest in Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata and Cassia tora leaves (25.5 mg/100 g, 22.4 mg/100 g and 20.9 mg/100 g dw, respectively) while the manganese content was comparatively higher in Colocasia esculenta. The concentrations of the mineral elements in the vegetables per serving portion are presented and these values indicate that the local vegetables could be valuable and important contributors in the diets of the rural and urban people of Nigeria. The mean daily intake of P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn were lower than their recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). However, the manganese daily intake was found not to differ significantly (p = 0.05) from the RDA value. PMID:10890755

  1. Analytical characterization of beet root vacuole membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, F.; Branton, D.

    1980-10-01

    Vacuoles from beet root (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta Gurke) isolated by a mechanical procedure were osmotically lysed to separate the membrane and sap components for analysis. Approximately 62% of the vacuole proteins, 70% of the nondialyzable carbohydrates and almost all of the phospholipids and sterols were recovered in the membrane fraction. The vacuole membrane had a phospholipid:protein ratio of 0.68 and a sterol:phospholipid ratio of 0.21. Seventeen complex polar lipids including phosphatides ad glycolipids have been tentatively identified. Phosphatidylcholine (54%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (24%) were the most prominant phosphoglycerides besides phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid (1, 4, 5, and 12%, respectively. A putative sulfoglycoside and two major ceramide glycoside-like lipids, resembling those of animal lysosomes, were identified by thin-layer chromatography. High-resolution SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the polypeptides from the vacuole revealed 15 major bands with apparent molecular weights ranging from 91,000 to 12,000. Selective elution experiments delineated those polypeptides that were peripheral membrane proteins or sap proteins adsorbed to the membrane, and those that exhibited hydrophobic interaction with the lipid core. Lectin labeling results indicated that most of the polypeptides from the membrane and from the sap were glycoproteins probably of the high-mannose type characteristic of lysosomal enzymes that have undergone several stages of posttranslational modification.

  2. Modification of ultraviolet radiation effects on the membrane of myelinated nerve fibers by sulfhydryl compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, D.; Fox, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The modification of the ultraviolet blocking of sodium channels and of the ultraviolet-induced potential shift of the gating parameters by means of the sulfhydryl compounds l-cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol was investigated in the node of Ranvier of Rana esculenta under voltage-clamp conditions. The UV wavelength was 280 nm. The radiation-induced potential shift of the voltage-dependent gating parameters was prevented or even reversed by the action of the sulfhydryl compounds (internal application), while the blocking effect was not affected. It is concluded that the two radiation effects are caused by two separate photoreactions. Internally applied N-ethylmaleimide, binding specifically to protein-SH groups, exhibits an effect similar to the ultraviolet-induced potential shift, without affecting the maximum sodium permeability. Therefore, the ultraviolet-induced potential shift might be caused by a photocatalyzed oxidation of -SH groups of membrane proteins changing the surface charge density at the inner side of the nodal membrane.

  3. Nutritional quality of microwave-cooked and pressure-cooked legumes.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Naveeda; Prakash, Jamuna

    2004-09-01

    Eight whole legumes, namely Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), broad beans (Vicia faba), Cowpea (Vigna catjang), field beans (Dolichos lablab), green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb), horse gram (Dolichos biflorus), lentils (Lens esculenta) and French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), were cooked under pressure or in a microwave oven and were analysed for nutrient composition. Raw legumes served as control. The range of nutrients analysed in 100 g cooked samples were as follows: moisture, 62.8-69.7 g; protein, 14.7-24.3 g; fat, 0.9-5.9 g; ash, 1.7-4.6 g; iron, 3.3-8.6 mg; calcium, 50-209 mg; phosphorus, 249-429 mg; and thiamin, 0.14-0.32 mg. Cooking methods did not affect the nutrient composition of legumes. However, thiamine decreased in cooked samples. Cooking altered the dietary fibre content of some legumes. The mean in vitro protein digestibility of pressure-cooked and microwaved samples was 79.8% and 74.7%, respectively. The in vitro starch and protein digestibility of pressure-cooked samples were higher. PMID:15762308

  4. Prophylactic effects of quercetin and hyperoside in a calcium oxalate stone forming rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yun-fei; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Bo; Che, Jian-ping; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-hua

    2014-12-01

    Quercetin and hyperoside (QH) are the two main constituents of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot, which has been prescribed for treating chronic kidney disease for decades. This study aimed to investigate the effect of QH on calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-fed rats. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated stone-forming group, a QH-treated stone-forming group (20 mg/kg/day) and a potassium citrate-treated stone-forming group (potassium citrate was a worldwide-recognized calculi-prophylactic medicine). Ethylene glycol (0.5 %) was administered to the rats during the last week, and vitamin D3 was force-fed to induce hyperoxaluria and kidney calcium oxalate crystal deposition. 24 h urine samples were collected before and after inducing crystal deposits. Rats were killed and both kidneys were harvested after 3 weeks. Bisected kidneys were examined under a polarized light microscope for semi-quantification of the crystal-formation. The renal tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were measured by Western blot. QH and potassium citrate have the ability to alkalinize urine. The number of crystal deposits decreased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group as compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase levels also increased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group, as compared with the untreated stone-forming group. QH administration has an inhibitory effect on the deposition of CaOx crystal in EG-fed rats and may be effective for preventing stone-forming disease. PMID:25085199

  5. [Cloning, expression and preliminary application of a alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase from cassave].

    PubMed

    Cheng, S H; Yan, G H; Wu, J; Sun, W R

    2001-01-01

    alpha-Hydroxynitrile lyase (ME-HNLs, E.C. 4.1.2.3.37) from the cyanogenic crop cassava(Manihot esculentz, Crantz) catalyze the condensation of hydrocyanic acid and aldehydes or ketone into (s)-cyanohydrins, which are valuable starting material for various optically active compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. The cDNA of a ME-HNL were obtained by RT-PCR and cloned. The sequencing result for the cDNA showed that the sequence encoded for the ME-HNL was inconsistent with all those which are published, such as hnl10, hnl24, hnl4. The full sequence analysis demonstrated that the cloned cDNA was about 75.2%, 79.8%, 99.2% homologous to other three reported HNL genes from cassava, respectively, among which the last was the same to the cloned gene except the five base substitution at the site 142, 337, 476, 634 and 636, respectively. The two base substitutions lead to change the amino acid sequence, i.e., Ser113-->Gly113, Phe158-->Tyr158. To construct the recombinant plasmid pET30a-hnl, the cDNA was inserted into an expression vector pET30a. After transformation of pET30a-hnl and induction with IPTG, the ME-HNL was efficiently expressed in E. coli. BL21 (DE3) and reached over 2100 units/L of culture with the specific activity 8.5 u/mg protein. By one simple treatment, incubating 10 minutes at 70 degrees C, the recombinant ME-HNL may be used as an catalyst for production of (S)-mandelonitrile with enantiomeric excess of 95.2% and 98.2% yield. PMID:11330194

  6. The role of bio-inspired hierarchical structures in wetting.

    PubMed

    Grewal, H S; Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2015-04-01

    Superhydrophobicity facilitates the development of self-cleaning, anti-biofouling, and anti-corrosion surfaces. The leaves of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) plants are well known for their self-cleaning properties. A hierarchical structure comprising papillae epidermal cells superimposed with epicuticular wax crystalloids of varying shapes, sizes, and orientations is an important aspect of the surface of these plant leaves. We fabricated two types of hierarchical structures biomimicking the surface topography of the lotus leaf. The hierarchical patterns successfully demonstrated the superhydrophobic state in comparison with nano and micro patterns. We used the finite element method (FEM) to simulate and understand the wetting process. The FEM simulations showed good correlation with the experimental results. FEM was helpful in understanding the wetting of enormously complex biological surfaces with relative ease, and it qualifies as a potential tool for designing superhydrophobic surfaces. Using the FEM framework, we further designed surfaces to optimize the order of the shapes in hierarchy. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with the lowest wetted area was obtained by placing shapes with smaller geometric angles at the top of the hierarchy. This arrangement of shapes provides the optimum combination of superhydrophobicity and surface integrity. This observation explains why the hierarchical structure of many superhydrophobic leaves follows this order. We also investigated the complex hierarchical structure of Salvinia minima. Owing to its remarkable ability to entrap air and pin the contact line, it exhibits superhydrophobicity along with the much-required Cassie state. These properties of Salvinia minima make it an excellent candidate for developing omniphobic surfaces. PMID:25856043

  7. True morels (Morchella, Pezizales) of Europe and North America: evolutionary relationships inferred from multilocus data and a unified taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Richard, Franck; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Clowez, Philippe; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry; Urban, Alexander; Sauve, Mathieu; Courtecuisse, Régis; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Applying early names, with or without original material, to genealogical species is challenging. For morels this task is especially difficult because of high morphological stasis and high plasticity of apothecium color and shape. Here we propose a nomenclatural revision of true morels (Morchella, Pezizales) from Europe and North America, based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of portions of the genes for RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) and second largest subunit (RPB2), translation elongation factor-1α (TEF1), the nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), and partial nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S). The 107 newly sequenced collections were from both continents, including 48 types, together with previously published sequences. Names are applied to 30 of the 65 currently recognized genealogical species. Results of the present study revealed that the number of Morchella species in Europe (n = 21) is nearly identical to that in North America (n = 22). Only seven species were found on both continents, consistent with previous reports of high continental endemism within the genus. Presently it is not possible to tell whether the transoceanic disjunctions were due to human activities, migration across a Bering land bridge or long-distance dispersal. In an effort to stabilize the taxonomy, due in part to the recent publication of synonyms for 11 of the species, accepted names are presented together with their corresponding later synonyms. A new subclade that includes holotypes of M. castanea and M. brunneorosea is identified in sect. Morchella (Esculenta Clade). Lectotypes for Morchella deliciosa, M. eximia and M. tridentina are designated here, as well as epitypes for M. dunalii, M. eximia, M. purpurascens and M. vulgaris. Morchella conica was determined to be illegitimate, and further research is required to determine the identity of M. elata and M. inamoena. PMID:25550303

  8. Genome exclusion and gametic DAPI-DNA content in the hybridogenetic Bacillus rossius-grandii benazzii complex (Insecta Phasmatodea).

    PubMed

    Tinti, F; Scali, V

    1992-11-01

    Among Sicilian stick insects, two hybridogenetic complexes have been discovered: Bacillus rossius-grandii benazzii and B. rossius-grandii grandii, which also produce androgenetic offspring. The egg maturation of the former is analyzed here through DAPI fluorometry, which, besides the assessment of the meiotic stages, also allows their DNA measurements and the analysis of sperm-head evolution into male pronuclei in these polyspermic eggs. Hybridogenetic eggs undergo an extrasynthesis of chromosomes, because two groups of n autobivalents (4C each) are segregated at metaphase 1st; the two groups must correspond to the pure parental species haplosets. Then the grandii chromosomes degenerate (1st polar body), while the rossius chromosomes divide further to produce two groups of n autodiads (2C each); one of them degenerates (2nd polar body), and the other is ready to perform syngamy (female pronucleus). Meanwhile, several B. grandii sperm evolve into male pronuclei by doubling their DNA (from 1C to 2C content) and assuming an interphase nucleus appearance. If regular mixis occurs, the F1 hybrid constitution is restored but, if it fails, a fusion between two sperms may occur, originating fully paternal descendants (natural androgenesis). The genome exclusion mechanism of stick-insect hybridogens appears to be more primitive than those observed in the already known hybridogenetic complexes of Poeciliopsis and Rana esculenta. Unfertilized eggs of hybridogens are capable of self-activation, but the cytology of the related clonally reproducing B. whitei indicates that its parthenogenetic mechanism stems from the hybridization event (hybrid theory) rather than from tychoparthenogenetic potentialities (spontaneous theory). PMID:1449790

  9. Canopy-Forming Seaweeds in Urchin-Dominated Systems in Eastern Canada: Structuring Forces or Simple Prey for Keystone Grazers?

    PubMed Central

    Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed Desmarestia bed. The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150 000 recruits kg?1 D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability to better understand the factors and processes that shape marine communities. PMID:24859311

  10. Modification of hosts' behavior by a parasite: field evidence for adaptive manipulation.

    PubMed

    Lagrue, Clment; Kaldonski, Nicolas; Perrot-Minnot, Marie J; Motreuil, Sbastien; Bollache, Loc

    2007-11-01

    Parasites relying on trophic transmission to complete their life cycles often induce modifications of their host's behavior in ways that may increase their susceptibility to predation by final hosts. These modifications have often been interpreted as parasite adaptations, but very few studies have demonstrated that host manipulation has fitness benefits for the parasite. The aim of the present study was to address the adaptive significance of parasite manipulation by coupling observations of behavioral manipulation to estimates of trophic transmission to the definitive host in the natural environment. We show that the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis manipulates the drifting behavior of one of its intermediate hosts, the amphipod Gammarus pulex, but not of a sympatric host, the introduced amphipod Gammarus roeseli. We found a 26.3-28.3 times higher proportion of infected G. pulex in the stomach content of one of the definitive hosts of P. laevis, the bullhead Cottus gobio, than in the benthos. No such trend was observed for G. roeseli. The bell-shaped curve of mean parasite abundance (MPA) relative to host size observed in G. pulex also supported an increased predation mortality of P. laevis-infected individuals compared to uninfected amphipods. Again, no such pattern was observed in G. roeseli. Furthermore, our results indicate that the modifications induced by P. laevis are specific to the definitive host and do not increase the risk of predation by inappropriate hosts, here the adult edible frog Rana esculenta. Overall, our study is original in that it establishes, under field conditions, a direct link between parasitic manipulation and increased transmission to the definitive host, and more importantly, identifies the specificity of the manipulation both in the intermediate host species and toward the definitive host. PMID:18051653

  11. Neuroanatomical organization of the brain gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone systems in the frog Pelophylax esculentus.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Claudia; Jadhao, Arun G; Biswas, Saikat P; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; D'Aniello, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) may play a key role in mediating vertebrate reproduction. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons as well as by directly regulating gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary. Whereas the presence of GnIH has been widely investigated in various classes of vertebrates, there are very few immunohistochemical reports focusing on GnIH in amphibians. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and neuroanatomical distribution of GnIH-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the anuran amphibian Pelophylax (Rana) esculentus (esculenta) and to explore any potential anatomical relationship with mammalian GnRH-immunoreactive (mGnRH-ir) elements. The GnIH-like immunoreactive (GnIH-ir) system constitutes two distinct subpopulations in the telencephalon and diencephalon, with the highest number of immunoreactive cells located in the preoptic and suprachiasmatic areas. GnIH-ir neurons were also observed in the medial septum, the anterior commissure, the dorsal hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the posterior tuberculum. Scattered GnIH-ir fibers were present in all major subdivisions of the brain but only occasionally in the median eminence. mGnRH-ir neurons were distributed in the mediobasal telencephalon, the medial septal area, and the anterior preoptic area. Double-label immunohistochemistry revealed that the GnRH and GnIH systems coexist and have overlapping distributions at the level of the anterior preoptic area. Some GnIH-ir fibers were in close proximity to mGnRH-ir cell bodies. Our results suggest that both the neuroanatomy and the functional regulation of GnRH release are conserved properties of the hypothalamic GnIH-ir system among vertebrate species. PMID:25471728

  12. The contributions of filaments and cross-bridges to sarcomere compliance in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brunello, Elisabetta; Caremani, Marco; Melli, Luca; Linari, Marco; Fernandez-Martinez, Manuel; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Irving, Malcolm; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Reconditi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Force generation in the muscle sarcomere is driven by the head domain of the myosin molecule extending from the thick filament to form cross-bridges with the actin-containing thin filament. Following attachment, a structural working stroke in the head pulls the thin filament towards the centre of the sarcomere, producing, under unloaded conditions, a filament sliding of ?11 nm. The mechanism of force generation by the myosin head depends on the relationship between cross-bridge force and movement, which is determined by compliances of the cross-bridge (Ccb) and filaments. By measuring the force dependence of the spacing of the high-order myosin- and actin-based X-ray reflections from sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta we find a combined filament compliance (Cf) of 13.1 1.2 nm MPa?1, close to recent estimates from single fibre mechanics (12.8 0.5 nm MPa?1). Ccb calculated using these estimates is 0.37 0.12 nm pN?1, a value fully accounted for by the compliance of the myosin head domain, 0.38 0.06 nm pN?1, obtained from the intensity changes of the 14.5 nm myosin-based X-ray reflection in response to 3 kHz oscillations imposed on single muscle fibres in rigor. Thus, a significant contribution to Ccb from the myosin tail that joins the head to the thick filament is excluded. The low Ccb value indicates that the myosin head generates isometric force by a small sub-step of the 11 nm stroke that drives filament sliding at low load. The implications of these results for the mechanism of force generation by myosins have general relevance for cardiac and non-muscle myosins as well as for skeletal muscle. PMID:25015916

  13. Intra-thallus differentiation of fatty acid and pigment profiles in some temperate Fucales and Laminariales.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-02-01

    Intra-thallus variation in fatty acid and pigment contents and profiles was investigated in five species of Laminariales (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Saccharina latissima, and Saccorhiza polyschides), and three Fucales (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, and Himanthalia elongata). Significant variation occurred across all species and compounds examined. Total fatty acids were generally higher in the fronds, with highest levels and largest variability observed in A. nodosum (1.5% of dry weight (DW) in the base, 6.3% of DW in frond tips). Percentages of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:4 n-3 and 20:5 n-3 were generally higher in more distal parts, while 20:4 n-6 exhibited a contrasting pattern, with higher levels in basal structures and holdfasts. Trends for pigments were similar to those for fatty acids in Laminariales. In the Fucales, highest levels were detected in the mid-fronds, with lower concentrations in meristematic areas. Highest levels and greatest variability in pigments (e.g., chl a) was observed in F. serratus (1.07 mg · g(-1) DW in the base, 3.04 mg · g(-1) DW in the mid frond). Intra-thallus variability was attributed to physiological functions of the respective thallus sections, e.g., photosynthetic activity, meristematic tissue, and to variations in physical attributes of the structures investigated. Regarding potential commercial nutritional applications, fronds appeared to represent most suitable source materials, due to higher levels of pigments, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and more preferable omega-3/omega-6 ratios. PMID:26986256

  14. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  15. Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?

    PubMed

    Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1) D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability to better understand the factors and processes that shape marine communities. PMID:24859311

  16. Biotrophic interaction of Sporisorium scitamineum on a new host-Saccharum spontaneum.

    PubMed

    Jose, Robinson C; Louis, Bengyella; Goyari, Sailendra; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Sporisorium scitamineum is a biotrophic smut fungus harbored inside the smut gall on the top internodal region of Saccharum spontaneum, a wild relative of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The interactions of spined conidia of S. scitamineum with S. spontaneum were examined during the different stages of plant growth starting from the bud stage to the decaying stage. The spores in the soil from the polyetic inocula grew into confined epidermal cells of the buds and finally sporulated in the topmost internodal region. Hyphae invasion of the plant tissues were restricted to the point of infection. Culms of infected plants in late October sporulated, notably; hyphal sporulation produced shorter hyphal stolons. Remarkably, the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. On the basis of microscopic analyses, hyphae and spores were absent in all internodes above the ground till the topmost smut gall region. This result indicated that, S. scitamineum undergoes tissue-confined invasion of S. spontaneum. By associating culture medium method with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on plant portions void of smut gall, S. scitamineum was not detected, indicating that colonization was not systemic. It was observed that the biotrophic interaction resulted in structural reorganization in the restricted region of infection forming erect cylindrical structure, in which the fungus was sandwiched between the central stalk and sheath, and possibly played a key role in preventing inflorescence. Comparatively, a significant difference in the rate of teliospores germination between reference Ustilago esculenta (26.6%, P<0.05) and S. scitamineum (62.9%, P<0.05) at 20° C was observed. This study also provides insights on the effect of different temperature regimes on the germination of S. scitamineum teliospores in vitro. PMID:26642345

  17. Potential of trap crops for integrated management of the tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20-30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

  18. A cytokine-inducing hemagglutinin from small taros.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-07-01

    A 22.4-kDa dimeric hemagglutinin was isolated from tubers of Colocasia esculenta cv. 'Small Taro' by employing a purification protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono Q, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was isolated from the fraction of the taro extract adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and subsequently adsorbed on Mono Q. The major absorbance peak from the Superdex 75 column constituted purified hemagglutinin. Its hemagglutinating activity could not be inhibited by simple sugars, and was stable after exposure for 30 minutes to temperatures up to 40 degrees C and to ambient pH in the range of pH 2 to pH 13. The activity decreased progressively when the ambient temperature was raised from 40 degrees C to 100 degrees C. Negligible activity was detected at 100 degrees C. The activity plummeted, with about 40% and 10% remaining, 4 minutes and 20 minutes after exposure to 100 degrees C, respectively. About half of the activity remained at pH 0 and pH 1 whereas the activity was completely abolished at pH 14. The hemagglutinin exhibited slight anti-tumor activity toward hepatoma HepG2 cells, and weak mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes. It induced expression of the cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, it was devoid of anti-fungal activity toward a number of fungal species. PMID:19807671

  19. Actinokineospora bangkokensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil.

    PubMed

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2013-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain 44EHW(T), was isolated from rhizospheric soil under an Elephant ear plant (Colocasia esculenta) in Bangkok, Thailand. Strain 44EHW(T) produced long branching hyphae and abundant aerial mycelia with chains of rod-shaped spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained galactose, glucose, arabinose, ribose, mannose and rhamnose as diagnostic sugars. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was the diamino acid and glycine, alanine and glutamic acid were present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan with the acyl type of the peptidoglycan being acetyl. Phospholipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine with hydroxy fatty acids and diphosphatidylglycerol, as well as other unknown phospholipids; however, no mycolic acids were detected. The predominant menaquinone observed was MK-9(H4) and major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and 2-OH iso-C16 : 0. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 74 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this isolate was most similar to Actinokineospora enzanensis NBRC 16517(T). However, DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low relatedness between this isolate and A. enzanensis NBRC 16517(T), indicating that this isolate represented a novel species in the genus Actinokineospora. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data, we propose that strain 44EHW(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actinokineospora, Actinokineospora bangkokensis. The type strain is 44EHW(T) ( = BCC 53155(T) = NBRC 108932(T)). PMID:23291892

  20. Crystal structure of tarocystatin-papain complex: implications for the inhibition property of group-2 phytocystatins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ming-Hung; Liu, Kai-Lun; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Tarocystatin (CeCPI) from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaohsiung no. 1), a group-2 phytocystatin, shares a conserved N-terminal cystatin domain (NtD) with other phytocystatins but contains a C-terminal cystatin-like extension (CtE). The structure of the tarocystatin-papain complex and the domain interaction between NtD and CtE in tarocystatin have not been determined. We resolved the crystal structure of the phytocystatin-papain complex at resolution 2.03. Surprisingly, the structure of the NtD-papain complex in a stoichiometry of 1:1 could be built, with no CtE observed. Only two remnant residues of CtE could be built in the structure of the CtE-papain complex. Therefore, CtE is easily digested by papain. To further characterize the interaction between NtD and CtE, three segments of tarocystatin, including the full-length (FL), NtD and CtE, were used to analyze the domain-domain interaction and the inhibition ability. The results from glutaraldehyde cross-linking and yeast two-hybrid assay indicated the existence of an intrinsic flexibility in the region linking NtD and CtE for most tarocystatin molecules. In the inhibition activity assay, the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused FL showed the highest inhibition ability without residual peptidase activity, and GST-NtD and FL showed almost the same inhibition ability, which was higher than with NtD alone. On the basis of the structures, the linker flexibility and inhibition activity of tarocystatins, we propose that the overhangs from the cystatin domain may enhance the inhibition ability of the cystatin domain against papain. PMID:21416241

  1. Sarcomere-length dependence of myosin filament structure in skeletal muscle fibres of the frog.

    PubMed

    Reconditi, Massimo; Brunello, Elisabetta; Fusi, Luca; Linari, Marco; Martinez, Manuel Fernandez; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Irving, Malcolm; Piazzesi, Gabriella

    2014-03-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded at beamline ID02 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility from small bundles of skeletal muscle fibres from Rana esculenta at sarcomere lengths between 2.1 and 3.5 μm at 4°C. The intensities of the X-ray reflections from resting fibres associated with the quasi-helical order of the myosin heads and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) decreased in the sarcomere length range 2.6-3.0 μm but were constant outside it, suggesting that an OFF conformation of the thick filament is maintained by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. During active isometric contraction the intensity of the M3 reflection from the regular repeat of the myosin heads along the filaments decreased in proportion to the overlap between thick and thin filaments, with no change in its interference fine structure. Thus, myosin heads in the regions of the thick filaments that do not overlap with thin filaments are highly disordered during isometric contraction, in contrast to their quasi-helical order at rest. Heads in the overlap region that belong to two-headed myosin molecules that are fully detached from actin are also highly disordered, in contrast to the detached partners of actin-attached heads. These results provide strong support for the concept of a regulatory structural transition in the thick filament involving changes in both the organisation of the myosin heads on its surface and the axial periodicity of the myosin tails in its backbone, mediated by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. PMID:24344169

  2. Susceptibility of the European common frog Rana temporaria to a panel of ranavirus isolates from fish and amphibian hosts.

    PubMed

    Bayley, Amanda E; Hill, Barry J; Feist, Stephen W

    2013-04-11

    Ranaviruses are an emerging group of viruses and have been implicated in an increase of epidemics in susceptible species. They have a wide host range, infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles, with some isolates able to infect multiple species from different animal classes. Whilst some information exists on the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to novel hosts, there is none on the pathogenicity of fish ranaviruses to amphibians; this information is needed to develop measures to prevent the further spread of ranaviral disease in the aquatic environment. We undertook bath infection trials to assess the susceptibility of the European common frog Rana temporaria to 9 ranavirus isolates comprising doctor fish virus (DFV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), guppy virus 6 (GV6), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV) and short-finned eel ranavirus (SERV) from fish hosts, and Bohle iridovirus (BIV), frog virus 3 (FV3) and Rana esculenta virus 282/I02 (REV) from amphibians. Animals were challenged as tadpoles at 15 and 20C and as recent metamorphs at room temperature (20 1C) to investigate the effect of temperature and amphibian developmental stage on virus pathogenicity. Tadpoles were susceptible to FV3, PPIV and REV, but refractory to the other ranaviruses. Post-metamorphs were susceptible to FV3 and REV but refractory to BIV (the other ranaviruses were not tested). Significant mortality occurred in post-metamorphs and in tadpoles challenged at 20C but was low in tadpoles challenged at 15C. This study presents the first evidence of mortality in an amphibian species after challenge with ranavirus originally isolated from fish. PMID:23574703

  3. Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-related cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji

    2011-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of agricultural plants on the proliferation of seven ATL-related human leukaemia cells, using three ATL cell lines (ED, Su9T01 and S1T), two human T-cell lines transformed by HTLV-I infection (HUT-102 and MT-2) and two HTLV-I-negative human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines (Jurkat and MOLT-4). A total of 52 samples of 80% ethanol extracts obtained from 30 types of agricultural plants were examined. On the basis of IC(50) values, we selected samples with greater activity than genistein, which was used as a positive control. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with extracts from leaves of Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (blueberry) on four cell lines (ED, Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat); seeds of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) exhibited the second highest activity. The bitter gourd seeds suppressed the proliferation of three cell lines (Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat). The extracts from edible parts of Ipomea batatas LAM. (sweet potato), edible parts of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (taro), skin of taro and seeds of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (mume) showed markedly greater inhibitory effects on Su9T01 than genistein. These findings suggest that ATL-preventative bioactive compounds may exist in these agricultural plants, which are considered to be functional foods. PMID:21293936

  4. Molecular cloning, pharmacological characterization, and histochemical distribution of frog vasotocin and mesotocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Acharjee, S; Do-Rego, J-L; Oh, D Y; Moon, J S; Ahn, R S; Lee, K; Bai, D G; Vaudry, H; Kwon, H B; Seong, J Y

    2004-08-01

    The neurohypophysial nonapeptides vasotocin (VT) and mesotocin (MT) are the amphibian counterparts of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT). We have here reported the cloning and functional characterization of the receptors for vasotocin (VTR) and mesotocin (MTR) in two species of frog, Rana catesbeiana and Rana esculenta. The frog VTR and MTR cDNAs encode proteins of 419 and 384 amino acids respectively. Frog VTR exhibits a high degree of sequence identity with the mammalian AVP-1a (V1a) receptor while the frog MTR possesses a high degree of sequence identity with the mammalian OT receptor. Activation of VTR induced both c-fos promoter- and cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-driven transcriptional activities, while activation of MTR induced c-fos promoter-driven transcriptional activity but failed to evoke CRE-driven transcriptional activity, suggesting differential G protein coupling between VTR and MTR. The VTR exhibited the highest sensitivity for VT followed by OT>AVP approximately MT, whereas the MTR showed preferential ligand sensitivity for MT>OT>VT>AVP. A V1a agonist but not V2 and OT agonists substantially activated both VTR and MTR with a similar sensitivity. V1a, V2 and OT antagonists inhibited MT-induced MTR activation but not VT-induced VTR activation. In the frog brain, VTR and MTR mRNAs were found to be widely expressed in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon, and exhibited very similar regional distribution. In the pituitary, VTR and MTR were expressed in the distal and intermediate lobes but were virtually absent in the neural lobe. Taken together, these data indicated that, although the distribution of VTR and MTR largely overlaps in the frog brain and pituitary, VT and MT may play distinct activities owing to the ligand selectivity and different signaling pathways activated by their receptors. PMID:15291760

  5. Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

    Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

  6. High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding.

    PubMed

    Rabbi, Ismail Y; Hamblin, Martha T; Kumar, P Lava; Gedil, Melaku A; Ikpan, Andrew S; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Kulakow, Peter A

    2014-06-24

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot glaziovii and a dominant monogenic type of resistance, named CMD2, discovered in African landraces. The ability of the monogenic resistance to confer high levels of resistance in different genetic backgrounds has led recently to its extensive usage in breeding across Africa as well as pre-emptive breeding in Latin America. However, most of the landraces carrying the monogenic resistance are morphologically very similar and come from a geographically restricted area of West Africa, raising the possibility that the diversity of the single-gene resistance could be very limited, or even located at a single locus. Several mapping studies, employing bulk segregant analysis, in different genetic backgrounds have reported additional molecular markers linked to supposedly new resistance genes. However, it is not possible to tell if these are indeed new genes in the absence adequate genetic map framework or allelism tests. To address this important question, a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of cassava was developed through genotyping-by-sequencing a bi-parental mapping population (N=180) that segregates for the dominant monogenic resistance to CMD. Virus screening using PCR showed that CMD symptoms and presence of virus were strongly correlated (r=0.98). Genome-wide scan and high-resolution composite interval mapping using 6756 SNPs uncovered a single locus with large effect (R(2)=0.74). Projection of the previously published resistance-linked microsatellite markers showed that they co-occurred in the same chromosomal location surrounding the presently mapped resistance locus. Moreover, their relative distance to the mapped resistance locus correlated with the reported degree of linkage with the resistance phenotype. Cluster analysis of the landraces first shown to have this type of resistance revealed that they are very closely related, if not identical. These findings suggest that there is a single source of monogenic resistance in the crop's genepool tracing back to a common ancestral clone. In the absence of further resistance diversification, the long-term effectiveness of the single gene resistance is known to be precarious, given the potential to be overcome by CMGs due to their fast-paced evolutionary rate. However, combining the quantitative with the qualitative type of resistance may ensure that this resistance gene continues to offer protection to cassava, a crop that is depended upon by millions of people in Africa against the devastating onslaught of CMGs. PMID:24389096

  7. Quantifying Nitrogen Loss From Flooded Hawaiian Taro Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Bruland, G. L.; Popp, B. N.; Engstrom, P.; Mueller, J. A.; Tiedje, J.

    2010-12-01

    In 2004 a field fertilization experiment showed that approximately 80% of the fertilizer nitrogen (N) added to flooded Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields could not be accounted for using classic N balance calculations. To quantify N loss through denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathways in these taro systems we utilized a slurry-based isotope pairing technique (IPT). Measured nitrification rates and porewater N profiles were also used to model ammonium and nitrate fluxes through the top 10 cm of soil. Quantitative PCR of nitrogen cycling functional genes was used to correlate porewater N dynamics with potential microbial activity. Rates of denitrification calculated using porewater profiles were compared to those obtained using the slurry method. Potential denitrification rates of surficial sediments obtained with the slurry method were found to drastically overestimate the calculated in-situ rates. The largest discrepancies were present in fields greater than one month after initial fertilization, reflecting a microbial community poised to denitrify the initial N pulse. Potential surficial nitrification rates varied between 1.3% of the slurry-measured denitrification potential in a heavily-fertilized site to 100% in an unfertilized site. Compared to the use of urea, fish bone meal fertilizer use resulted in decreased N loss through denitrification in the surface sediment, according to both porewater modeling and IPT measurements. In addition, sub-surface porewater profiles point to root-mediated coupled nitrification/denitrification as a potential N loss pathway that is not captured in surface-based incubations. Profile-based surface plus subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification estimates were between 1.1 and 12.7 times denitrification estimates from the surface only. These results suggest that the use of a ‘classic’ isotope pairing technique that employs 15NO3- in fertilized agricultural systems can lead to a drastic overestimation of in-situ denitrification rates and that root-associated subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification may be a major N loss pathway in these flooded agricultural systems.

  8. Implications of agricultural encroachment on the carbon and greenhouse gas dynamics in tropical African wetlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Matthew; Kansiime, Frank; Jones, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus) wetlands dominate the permanently inundated wetlands of tropical East Africa and support the livelihoods of millions of people in rural sub-Saharan Africa through the provision of multiple ecosystem services such as the supply of drinking water, fish protein, building materials and biofuels. These wetlands are also extremely important in local and regional scale biogeochemical cycles due to their extensive spatial distribution, high rates of photosynthetic carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation, long-term carbon (C) sequestration in the form of peat and the control of water loss through evapotranspiration. However, these wetlands are facing significant anthropogenic pressures due to the increasing demand for agricultural land where the papyrus plants are removed and replaced with subsistence crops such as cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). Eddy covariance measurements were made on an undisturbed papyrus wetland and a cocoyam dominated wetland on the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria to better understand the impacts of agricultural encroachment on the C sequestration potential of these wetlands. Peak rates of net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation at the papyrus wetland were over 40 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, even under increasing vapour pressure deficit (≥2 kPa), while maximum rates of assimilation at the cocoyam site were 28 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Annual rates of papyrus net primary productivity (NPP) were amongst the highest recorded for wetland systems globally (3.09 kg C m-2 yr-1) and the continual regeneration of the papyrus plants, due to an absence of pronounced seasonal climatic variability, can lead to significant C accumulation in the above and belowground biomass (≥88 t C ha-1). Where these wetlands remain inundated and anaerobic conditions prevail, significant detrital and peat deposits can form further increasing the combined C sink capacity of these ecosystems to over 700 t C ha-1. The C sink strength of these wetlands is however offset by the production and emission of methane (CH4), and plant-facilitated emissions of up to 32 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 were measured from mature papyrus plants grown in a constructed wetland, suggesting that these wetlands may make a significant contribution to regional methane emissions. The conversion of the papyrus wetlands to agricultural land use has significant implications for the carbon budgets of these systems, as the decomposition of detrital material in addition to the carbon exported in the crop biomass resulted in a net loss of carbon of ~10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required to maintain and enhance the services provided by these ecosystems especially under increasing population pressures and future climatic scenarios.

  9. Conduction velocities in amphibian skeletal muscle fibres exposed to hyperosmotic extracellular solutions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongbo; Hothi, Sandeep S.; Xu, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Early quantitative analyses of conduction velocities in unmyelinated nerve studied in a constantly iso-osmotic volume conductor were extended to an analysis of the effects of varying extracellular osmolarities on conduction velocities of surface membrane action potentials in Rana esculenta skeletal muscle fibres. Previous papers had reported that skeletal muscle fibres exposed to a wide range of extracellular sucrose concentrations resemble perfect osmometers with increased extracellular osmolarity proportionally decreasing fibre volume and therefore diminishing fibre radius, a. However, classical electrolyte theory (Robinson and Stokes 1959, Electrolyte solutions 2nd edn. Butterworth & Co. pp 4142) would then predict that the consequent increases in intracellular ionic strength would correspondingly decrease sarcoplasmic resistivity, Ri. An extension of the original cable analysis then demonstrated that the latter would precisely offset its expected effect of alterations in a on the fibre axial resistance, ri, and leave action potential conduction velocity constant. In contrast, other reports (Hodgkin and Nakajima J Physiol 221:105120, 1972) had suggested that Riincreased with extracellular osmolarity, owing to alterations in cytosolic viscosity. This led to a prediction of a decreased conduction velocity. These opposing hypotheses were then tested in muscle fibres subject to just-suprathreshold stimulation at a Vaseline seal at one end and measuring action potentials and their first order derivatives, dV/dt, using 520M?, 3M KCl glass microelectrodes at defined distances away from the stimulus sites. Exposures to hyperosmotic, sucrose-containing, Ringer solutions then reversibly reduced both conduction velocity and maximum values of dV/dt. This was compatible with an increase in Ri in the event that conduction depended upon a discharge of membrane capacitance by propagating local circuit currents through initially passive electrical elements. Conduction velocity then showed graded decreases with increasing extracellular osmolarity from 250750mOsm. Action potential waveforms through these osmolarity changes remained similar, including both early surface and the late after-depolarisation events reflecting transverse tubular activation. Quantitative comparisons of reduced-? 2 values derived from a comparison of these results and the differing predictions from the two hypotheses strongly favoured the hypothesis in which Riincreased rather than decreased with hyperosmolarity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10974-007-9115-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17891463

  10. Cr(VI) and COD removal from landfill leachate by polyculture constructed wetland at a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña, M R; Peña, E J; Lens, P N L

    2015-09-01

    Four subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) at a pilot scale planted with a polyculture of the tropical plants Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) were evaluated for 7 months. The CW cells with an area of 17.94 m(2) and 0.60 m (h) each and 0.5 m of gravel were operated at continuous gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m(3) day(-1)) and a theoretical HRT of 7 days each and treating landfill leachate for the removal of filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf), BOD5, TKN, NH4 (+), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-)-P and Cr(VI). Three CWs were divided into three sections, and each section (5.98 m(2)) was seeded with 36 cuttings of each species (plant density of six cuttings per square metre). The other unit was planted randomly. The final distributions of plants in the bioreactors were as follows: CW I (He-Ce-Gs), CW II (randomly), CW III (Ce-Gs-He) and CW IV (Gs-He-Ce). The units received effluent from a high-rate anaerobic pond (BLAAT®). The results show a slightly alkaline and anoxic environment in the solid-liquid matrix (pH = 8.0; 0.5-2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO)). CODf removal was 67 %, BOD5 80 %, and TKN and NH4 (+) 50-57 %; NO3 (-) effluents were slightly higher than the influent, PO4 (3-)-P (38 %) and Cr(VI) between 50 and 58 %. CW IV gave the best performance, indicating that plant distribution may affect the removal capacity of the bioreactors. He and Gs were the plants exhibiting a translocation factor (TF) of Cr(VI) >1. The evaluated plants demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate, and all of them can be categorized as Cr(VI) accumulators. The CWs also showed that they could be a low-cost operation as a secondary system for treatment of intermediated landfill leachate (LL). PMID:25253061

  11. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation delays photosynthetic recovery in Arctic kelp zoospores.

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y; Hanelt, Dieter; Wiencke, Christian

    2006-06-01

    Seasonal reproduction in some Arctic Laminariales coincides with increased UV-B radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion and relatively high water temperatures during polar spring. To find out the capacity to cope with different spectral irradiance, the kinetics of photosynthetic recovery was investigated in zoospores of four Arctic species of the order Laminariales, the kelps Saccorhiza dermatodea, Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, and Laminaria saccharina. The physiology of light harvesting, changes in photosynthetic efficiency and kinetics of photosynthetic recovery were measured by in vivo fluorescence changes of Photosystem II (PSII). Saturation irradiance of freshly released spores showed minimal I ( k ) values (photon fluence rate where initial slope intersects horizontal asymptote of the curve) values ranging from 13 to 18 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) among species collected at different depths, confirming that spores are low-light adapted. Exposure to different radiation spectra consisting of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), PAR+UV-A radiation (UV-A; 320-400 nm), and PAR+ UV-A+UV-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) showed that the cumulative effects of increasing PAR fluence and the additional effect of UV-A and UV-B radiations on photoinhibition of photosynthesis are species specific. After long exposures, Laminaria saccharina was more sensitive to the different light treatments than the other three species investigated. Kinetics of recovery in zoospores showed a fast phase in S. dermatodea, which indicates a reduction of the photoprotective process while a slow phase in L. saccharina indicates recovery from severe photodamage. This first attempt to study photoinhibition and kinetics of recovery in zoospores showed that zoospores are the stage in the life history of seaweeds most susceptible to light stress and that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) effectively delays photosynthetic recovery. The viability of spores is important on the recruitment of the gametophytic and sporophytic life stages. The impact of UVR on the zoospores is related to the vertical depth distribution of the large sporophytes in the field. PMID:16758269

  12. Comparative assessment of the value of papyrus and cocoyams for the restoration of the Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Rukwago, S.

    Nakivubo wetland, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, separates the city of Kampala from the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (the sole raw water supply for Kampala). It provides tertiary treatment for the secondary effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, and heavily polluted wastewater (run-off, domestic and industrial effluents) from the Nakivubo channel. However, more than half of the wetland has been drained for agriculture and the natural papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus) has been progressively replaced by cocoyams ( Colocasia esculenta). In order to provide information that could be used in the restoration of Nakivubo wetland, a pilot study was carried out to assess the ecological characteristics (nutrient retention and growth characteristics) of the two plants. The plants were grown in wastewater effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, in experimental buckets under floating and rooted conditions. The wastewater was replaced every seven days. Papyrus plants were more efficient at removing NH 4-N while growing floating in wastewater or rooted in gravel (maximum values being 89.4% and 79%, respectively) than were cocoyams (67.7% and 68.3%) or the controls without plants (11% and 9%, respectively). The removal of orthophosphate by papyrus was also greater under the two growing conditions (values being 80% and 73%) than by cocoyams (66% and 63%) or the controls (11% and 14%). Biomass densities of papyrus were also higher (16.9 kg Dw/m 2 for the floating plants and 18.7 kg Dw/m 2 for the rooted ones) than of yams (5.9 kg DW/m 2 and 6.8 kg DW/m 2, respectively). It was also observed that the rhizomes of yams did not develop well under the floating conditions and were often rotten. It is concluded that, since papyrus has better wastewater treatment efficiency and superior growth characteristics, it should be encouraged to grow again in the wetland. It was also noted that if encroachment of the wetland by agricultural activities is halted, papyrus would eventually out-compete the yams. Keeping Nakivubo wetland inundated would offer papyrus a competitive advantage, since yams grow poorly when floating in water.

  13. 2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2014-05-01

    In Palau and everywhere in the world, coastal coral reefs are threatened by sedimentation resulting from land clearing in the watersheds. Palau's largest island of Babeldaob is particularly susceptible to significant erosion due to its steep topography, high rainfall, and highly erodible volcanic soil. Previous studies have shown the damaging impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. Related studies conducted in Micronesia have also documented that mangroves can trap about 30% of the fine eroded sediment from land. This paper examines the sediment trapping capability of cultivated wetlands, in particular taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields, which are natural wetlands used to grow taro, a main staple crop for the population. A 7-months long field study was undertaken to quantify the sediment accumulation rate for taro fields and to determine their sediment trapping efficiency. The results showed that the taro fields were able to trap on average 90% of sediment, therefore sheltering coastal coral reefs and their fisheries from the negative impacts of terrestrial runoff. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the combined sediment trapping capacity of taro fields and mangroves helped reduce sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. This enabled human settlement for over 2000 years on a small Pacific Island with the main staple food being taro for starch and reef fish for protein. Even with a population of 30,000 people over Babeldaob Island, the living was sustainable for at least 1000 years, implying that the population was able to survive and prosper with its main food being the starch from taro fields and protein from reef fish. While there was intensive cultivation on land the sustainability of reef fisheries must have required that the reef be sheltered from excessive soil erosion.The structure of the taro field (mesei) initialized by the Palauan ancestors, has been maintained to this day. Their development, probably mostly after about A.D. 900 to 1100, was presumably the culmination of accelerated erosion in the island's interior following extensive clearing of the vegetation on slopes. Sediment analyses, radiocarbon dating, and archaeological investigations indicate substantial inland land disturbance starting around 2400 years ago (Liston and Tuggle, 2006; Liston, 2009). These findings almost certainly signify the use of the interior of Babeldaob Island by this time, including the onset of major earthwork (terrace) construction. Intensive and extensive inland use continued for about another 1200 years. The continuous deposition of inland erosional soils expanded the coastal plains and formed expansive fertile wetlands” (Athens, 2009).Culturally in Palau taro fields were tendered by women (Del Rosario and Esguerra, 2003). In other parts of Micronesia, taro is planted in well drained mixed gardens or ditches (Falanruw, 1980; Englberger et al., 2009). In Palau taro is commonly grown in swampy areas, often man-made, in the lowlands usually just upstream of the mangrove areas. Traditional management of taro cultivation in Palau can be considered a type of intensive agricultural method found in societies that possess a complex social structure that is reflected in traditional Palauan society. Taro cultivation in Palau is an amalgamation of skills and knowledge for both the plant and agricultural system.Palau taro field structure, regulations of water flow and management have persisted for many generations and have proven to an integral part of Palauan life which continues to be seen today. Taro fields are distinguished separately depending on cultivation methods and taro species being planted. To illustrate, an omrekongel is a marsh land in which giant taro (Cyrtosperma merkusii) is planted. A mesei is an irrigated wet land for planting taro (Colocasia esculenta) and dechel is a marsh land where taro and giant taro is cultivated (Palau Society of Historians, 2001). Culturally, Cyrtosperma is treated as a food source for famine where it has high resistance to saltwater and longer plant life (3-5 years); it's a rich source of starch in times of droughts and other natural disaster. Colocasia, on the other hand, is viewed as prestigious source of food in Palau. Whereas Cyrtosperma requires little tending once it has been planted Colocasia is more delicate for its fragility and shorter plant life (8-12 months). Therefore more efforts are spent tending Colocasia than Cyrtosperma (McKnight and Obak, 1960; Bammann and Wey, 1991). Although both are eaten quite often, Colocasia can be found in many aspects of Palauan cultural practices (funerals, first birth ceremonies, transfer of title ceremonies) and used symbolically in chants, dances, proverbs, and stories with moral lessons (Palau Society of Historians, 2008).

  14. Use of Novel Whole Core Incubations to Measure the Fate of Fertilizer N in a Flooded Agricultural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, C. R.; Bruland, G. L.; Popp, B. N.; Engstrom, P.; Tiedje, J.; Brown, G. A.; Deenik, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    We developed a new whole-core perfusion technique for tracking the fate of 15NH4+ added to intact vegetated cores. Taro plants (Colocasia esculenta) were field-grown in (20 cm diameter) cores for three months, which allowed exchange with natural porewater, then harvested. Following core extraction, surface and porewater were removed and 15NH4+ labeled porewater was slowly re-introduced to the core through a perfusion cap in the laboratory. Mini porewater equilibrators were placed in 1 cm increments through the sediment profile for porewater extraction during incubation. We also independently tested the ability of taro roots to oxygenate the subsurface by growing plants in nutrient agar and measuring O2 flux with a microelectrode. In the agar experiment, diurnal O2 transport was monitored and the application of wind across the taro leaves was found necessary to develop an oxygenated zone at the root tips. Using this information, the harvested taro were incubated in growth chambers after perfusion using three treatments: Vegetated without wind, vegetated with wind, and a non-vegetated control. Porewater was analyzed for 29+30N2, 15NH4+, 15NO3-, and unlabeled nitrate and ammonium species. Plant uptake of 15NH4+ was also determined. Quantitative PCR was performed on the sediment profiles of functional genes involved in nitrogen cycling for correlation to N transformations. The major pathway of N loss was root-mediated nitrification/denitrification followed by a flow of 29+30N2 through the aerenchyma. The vegetated wind treatment exhibited the highest concentrations of labeled N2 in the subsurface during all time periods. In contrast, the vegetated no wind treatment had much higher aerenchyma 29+30N2 concentration, accounting for ~100% of the subsurface N2 accumulation by day three of the incubation. Surface water N2 concentrations were also highest in the no wind treatment. After nine days the 29+30N2 concentrations dropped by ~70%, with little difference remaining among the treatments, indicating limitation by 15NH4+ diffusion. These results indicate that N2 is preferentially transported through the aerenchyma in taro and probably other plants grown in flooded agricultural fields. However, increased wind stress reduced transport through the aerenchyma and resulted in greater N2 accumulation in the subsurface, which indicates the importance of mass flow transport of air and its effect on oxygenation at the root tips. The results indicate that the complexity of N cycling in flooded agricultural systems may confound attempts to estimate in-situ N losses through porewater modeling, ‘classic’ isotope pairing techniques, or N flux chambers. The whole-core technique presented here allows for the measurement of multiple N pools and fates while minimizing system disturbance and more accurately representing field conditions.

  15. Measurement of the conductance of the sodium channel from current fluctuations at the node of Ranvier.

    PubMed Central

    Conti, F; Hille, B; Neumcke, B; Nonner, W; Stmpfli, R

    1976-01-01

    Single myelinated nerve fibres of Rana esculenta were investigated under voltage clamp conditions at 13 degrees C. Fluctuations of steady-state membrane current were measured during the last 152 msec of 190-225 msec pulses depolarizing the membrane by 8-48 mV. Noise power spectral densities were calculated in the frequency range of 6-6-6757 Hz. 2. External application of 150 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or 10 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) ion reduced the current fluctuations. The difference of current noise spectra measured in the presence and absence of TTX (TEA) was not changed by the presence of TEA (TTX) during both measurements, and was taken as the spectrum of the Na (K) current fluctuations. 3. Residual current noise during application of both TTX and TEA was, except for some excess noise at the low and high frequency ends of the spectrum, similar to the noise measured from a passive nerve model and could be understood in terms of Nyquist noise of the known resistances and the amplifier noise. 4. Na current fluctuation spectra were interpreted as the sum N/f+SNa(f) where SNa(F) represents the spectrum expected for a set of equal, independent Na channels with only two conductance states (open or closed) which follow Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. With values of hinfinity, tauh and minfinity measured from macroscopic Na currents, the measured spectra were fitted well by optimizing N, SNa(0) and taum. Values of taum obtained by this method were in fair agreement with values found from macroscopic currents. 5. The 1/f component of Na current noise was roughly proportional to the square of the steady-state Na current, I2. The mean value of N/I2 was (1-1 +/- 0-3) X 10(-4). 6. The current carried by a single Na channel was calculated from fitted spectra and steady-state Na currents measured simultaneously with the current fluctuations. The single channel conductance gamma normalized to zero absolute membrane potential was calculated. The average gamma from twelve measurements at depolarizations of 8-40 mV was 7-9 +/- 0-9 pS (S.E. of mean). The apparent value of gamma was smallest with small depolarizations. Variations of the assumed kinetic properties of the model did not drastically affect the single channel conductance. 7. External application of 0-1 mM-Ni ion lengthened taum in the macroscopic currents and in the fluctuation spectra and enhanced both the steady-state Na current and the current fluctuations. In Ni-treated nodes gamma was smaller than in normal nodes. PMID:1087643

  16. Conductance fluctuations from the inactivation process of sodium channels in myelinated nerve fibres*

    PubMed Central

    Conti, F.; Neumcke, B.; Nonner, W.; Stmpfli, R.

    1980-01-01

    1. Na currents and fluctuations of Na currents were studied under voltage clamp in the same myelinated nerve fibres of Rana esculenta at 13 C. The results were used to test several kinetic models for the gating process of Na channels. 2. Long voltage pulses, depolarizing the membrane by 16-48 mV from a hyperpolarizing holding level of 28 mV, were applied in 4 sec intervals. The d.c. and a.c. components of the membrane current were recorded during the last 328 msec of the 473 msec pulses. For each depolarization, ninety-six trials were made with the node in Ringer solution and, again, after adding 300 nm-tetrodotoxin (TTX) in that solution. 3. The TTX-sensitive d.c. component declined during the 328 msec records by 14-51% of its time average. The a.c. component was corrected for this trend by subtracting the first from the second of each pair of subsequent records. The TTX-sensitive part of its variance declined, on the average, in parallel to the current, as if the open probability rather than the conductance of the individual Na channels was reduced by a slow process. 4. Single-channel conductances, ?, were calculated on the assumption that Na channels have only one non-zero conductance and were corrected for the limited band width (5 kHz) of the a.c. records. Values of ? increased slightly (< 30% from 16 to 40 mV), and averaged 885 07 pS (s.e. of mean, seventeen measurements on ten fibres). This small degree of change in ? suggests that deviations from the all-or-none gating are very small. 5. Power spectral densities of the fluctuations between 3 Hz and 5 kHz were calculated from the trend-free a.c. records and corrected for the TTX-insensitive noise component. Control calculations showed that the only effect of the nonstationarity in the Na current was to enhance the low-frequency points of such spectra by less than 10%. The spectra revealed at least two Lorentzian components with cut-off frequencies in the range expected from the activation and inactivation kinetics. The low-frequency component became dominant as depolarization was increased. 6. Na currents recorded during brief (< 40 msec) depolarizations were analysed in terms of various all-or-none gating models, in which inactivation either was independent of activation (Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model) or could occur only from the partly or fully activated states (coupled models). The transient Na currents were reproduced by all models. 7. With the parameters from such fits, the fluctuation spectra expected for each model were calculated. The predictions differed in the fraction, rh, of the variance contributed by the slow (inactivation) fluctuations; rh was larger in the coupled models than in the HH model. 8. The experimental spectra were divided into two spectral components to yield empirical values for rh. We used as templates the spectral curves derived for the fast and for the slow fluctuations of the HH model. The empirical rh values were one (48 mV) to four (16 mV) times larger than those expected for the HH model. They were also larger than the theoretical rh of the coupled models at the small depolarizations, but became equal or smaller than those at the largest depolarization. Direct comparison of the measured and theoretical spectra revealed the same discrepancies. 9. We conclude that all of the simple gating models considered in this paper are inconsistent with the fluctuation measurements, the coupled models giving slightly smaller deviations than the model with independent activation and inactivation. PMID:6262498

  17. Energy transfer during stress relaxation of contracting frog muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Mantovani, M; Heglund, N C; Cavagna, G A

    2001-01-01

    A contracting muscle resists stretching with a force greater than the force it can exert at a constant length, To. If the muscle is kept active at the stretched length, the excess tension disappears, at first rapidly and then more slowly (stress relaxation). The present study is concerned with the first, fast tension decay. In particular, it is still debated if and to what extent the fast tension decay after a ramp stretch involves a conservation of the elastic energy stored during stretching into cross-bridge states of higher chemical energy. Single muscle fibres of Rana temporaria and Rana esculenta were subjected to a short ramp stretch (∼15 nm per half-sarcomere at either 1.4 or 0.04 sarcomere lengths s−1) on the plateau of the force-length relation at temperatures of 4 and 14°C. Immediately after the end of the stretch, or after discrete time intervals of fixed-end contraction and stress relaxation at the stretched length (Δtisom= 0.5–300 ms), the fibre was released against a force ∼To. Fibre and sarcomere stiffness during the elastic recoil to To (phase 1) and the subsequent transient shortening against To (phase 2), which is expression of the work enhancement by stretch, were measured after different Δtisom and compared with the corresponding fast tension decay during Δtisom. The amplitude of fast tension decay is large after the fast stretch, and small or nil after the slow stretch. Two exponential terms are necessary to fit the fast tension decay after the fast stretch at 4°C, whereas one is sufficient in the other cases. The rate constant of the dominant exponential term (0.1–0.2 ms−1 at 4°C) increases with temperature with a temperature coefficient (Q10) of ∼3. After fast stretch, the fast tension decay during Δtisom is accompanied in both species and at both temperatures by a corresponding increase in the amplitude of phase 2 shortening against To after Δtisom: a maximum of ∼5 nm per half-sarcomere is attained when the fast tension decay is almost complete, i.e. 30 ms after the stretch at 4°C and 10 ms after the stretch at 14°C. After slow stretch, when fast tension decay is small or nil, the increase in phase 2 shortening is negligible. The increase in phase 2 work during fast tension decay (ΔWout) is a constant fraction of the elastic energy simultaneously set free by the recoil of the undamped elastic elements. ΔWout is accompanied by a decrease in stiffness, indicating that it is not due to a greater number of cross-bridges. It is concluded that, during the fast tension decay following a fast ramp stretch, a transfer of energy occurs from the undamped elastic elements to damped elements within the sarcomeres by a temperature-dependent mechanism with a dominant rate constant consistent with the theory proposed by A. F. Huxley and R. M. Simmons in 1971. PMID:11744765