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1

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava. PMID:25416250

Bull, Simon E

2015-01-01

2

Root and tuber phytoliths and starch grains document manioc ( Manihot esculenta ) arrowroot ( Maranta arundinacea ) and llerén ( Calathea sp. ) at the real alto site Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although roots and tubers are dietary staples in many parts of the world, their use is difficult to document archaeo logically\\u000a because their organic remains are often poorly preserved in archaeological sedi ments. Here we describe the first diagnostic\\u000a phytoliths from the underground storage organs of the important New World agricultural crops manioc or yuca(Manihot esculenta Crantz), arrowroot(Maranta arundinacea L.),

Karol Chandler Ezell; Deborah M. Pearsall; James A. Zeidler

2006-01-01

3

Nutritional composition of “gari” analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber  

PubMed Central

Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist. PMID:25493189

Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

2014-01-01

4

Household utilization of Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Northern Mozambique.  

PubMed

Mozambique is ranked ninth of top manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) producing countries in the world. Manioc roots are a staple to people living in the northern part of the country. Despite this, information on production, utilization, postharvest handling, and marketing is scarce. The purpose of this baseline study was to document selected information on manioc, from the production to marketing stage. To gather this information, 70 focus groups consisting of 1,724 participants purposely sampled from 10 districts were engaged in discussions using a questionnaire. The results show that manioc is the most important crop in terms of contribution to household food security and income in the region. Both men and women participate in the delivery of manioc production chain. Typically, 5 to 15 varieties identified by local language can be found on most farms in the study area. Manioc leaves and roots are the parts of the plant used as human food. Sun dried manioc roots are principally marketed within the locality of production by individual farmers. This baseline study suggests the need for location-targeted interventions as the farmers reported varied challenges along the manioc production chain. PMID:21888575

Muoki, Penina N; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie

2010-01-01

5

Immobilized Manihot esculenta preparation as a novel biocatalyst in the enantioselective acetylation of racemic alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic preparation obtained from a discard of Manihot esculenta roots has been successfully immobilized on calcium alginate hydrogels. This preparation has been tested as a chiral biocatalyst in the enzymatic acylation of a set of racemic aromatic alcohols. Depending on the reaction conditions, excellent enantioselectivities can be achieved. Some parameters that can alter the biocatalytic properties of the enzyme,

Luciana L. Machado; Telma L. G. Lemos; Marcos Carlos de Mattos; Maria da Conceicão F. de Oliveira; Gonzalo de Gonzalo; Vicente Gotor-Fernández; Vicente Gotor

2008-01-01

6

Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

7

Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.  

PubMed

Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in cassava. This is the first ever detailed report of microspore reprogramming at the tetrad stage and the first report of microspore embryogenesis induction in cassava with detailed evidence. PMID:24887001

Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

2014-01-01

8

Identification and characterization of a novel cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) clone with high free sugar content and novel starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the identification of a new class of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with a storage root showing unusual free sugar accumulation and novel starch. Twenty-seven clones high in free sugar were identified under cultivation in primitive rural community areas in the Amazon. Iodine test and glucose oxidase–peroxidase reagent strips were used, in the field, for identification of starch

Luiz Joaquim castelo branco carvalho; Claudia Regina Batista de souza; Julio César mattos De cascardo; Carlos Bloch Junior; Laura Campos

2004-01-01

9

Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone areas and on marginal so...

10

A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus’ native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

2014-01-01

11

Inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers for germplasm characterization in Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae).  

PubMed

Manioc, Manihot esculenta, is economically important in many tropical and subtropical countries. The genetic variability of the species has not been fully explored, and new information may help expand its use. Molecular markers based on retrotransposons have good potential for analysis of genetic diversity given their abundance in the genome. Eight long terminal repeat retrotransposons were selected for the development of inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers. To test these primers, we analyzed 32 varieties from Anori, 30 from Manicoré and 10 Mandiocabas from the Manioc Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Western Amazonia. The six informative primer pairs yielded 20- 60 polymorphic bands, averaging 92% polymorphism (51.7-98.4) and 0.37 heterozygosity (0.17 to 0.40), with a Shannon information index of 0.54 (0.26-0.59). These markers can be used to explore the genetic diversity of manioc. PMID:24938466

Oliveira-Silva, A M; Silva, G F; Dias, M C; Clement, C R; Sousa, N R

2014-01-01

12

Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research. PMID:23899040

van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

2013-09-01

13

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Krantz) genome harbors KNOX genes differentially expressed during storage root development.  

PubMed

In plants, homeodomain proteins play a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. KNOX proteins are members of the homeodomain protein family. The KNOX transcription factors have been reported from Arabidopsis, rice, and other higher plants. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of cassava (Manihot esculenta Krantz) has allowed a genome-wide search for M. esculenta KNOX (MeKNOX) transcription factors and the comparison of these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. In the present study, we identified 12 MeKNOX genes in the cassava genome and grouped them into two distinct subfamilies based on their domain composition and phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to elucidate the expression profiles of these genes in different tissues and during various stages of root development. The analysis of MeKNOX expression profiles of indicated that 12 MeKNOX genes display differential expressions either in their transcript abundance or expression patterns. PMID:25526192

Guo, D; Li, H L; Tang, X; Peng, S Q

2014-01-01

14

Population history of Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae) inferred from nuclear DNA sequences.  

PubMed

The nature of gene flow in plants -- including the propensity for interspecific introgression -- makes them interesting candidates for phylogeographical analysis. Plant phylogeography studies have been limited, however, by the availability of suitable intraspecific variation. In this study, DNA sequence variation from a nuclear gene [Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; (G3pdh)] was used to examine the population history of Manihot esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and a potentially hybridizing species, M. pruinosa. These species occur in the rainforest-savanna ecotone adjoining the Amazon basin, a region believed to have undergone major habitat shifts since the Pleistocene. Geographical distributions of the G3pdh haplotypes indicate genetic isolation-by-distance across the range of M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia. However, there is greater genetic similarity between northeastern and western populations than would be expected given the present species distribution. A nested clade analysis suggests that northeastern and western populations were connected by gene flow until relatively recently, when they became fragmented. This inferred fragmentation event is consistent with post-Pleistocene habitat shifts proposed for the Amazon basin. At the interspecific level, haplotype sharing with M. pruinosa may reflect either recent interspecific introgression or incomplete lineage sorting between these closely related species. PMID:11975706

Olsen, Kenneth M

2002-05-01

15

Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

2015-01-01

16

Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats  

PubMed Central

Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

2009-01-01

17

Size asymmetry in intraspecific competition and the density-dependence of inbreeding depression in a natural plant population: a case study in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of competition on the genetic composition of natural populations are not well understood. We combined demography and molecular genetics to study how intraspecific competition affects microevolution in cohorts of volunteer plants of cassava (Manihot esculenta) originating from seeds in slash- and-burn fields of Palikur Amerindians in French Guiana. In this clonally propagated crop, genotypic diversity is enhanced by

B. PUJOL; D. MCKEY

2006-01-01

18

Protein Replacement Value of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) Leaf Protein Concentrate (CLPC) in Broiler Starter : Effect on Performance, Muscle Growth, Haematology and Serum Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) was used to replace a known and conventional source of protein in broiler starter diets 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% respectively. The reference diet 1 was one where fish meal was the major source in the diet without CLPC. The inclusion level of CLPC

2005-01-01

19

Evolution of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) after recent introduction into a South Pacific Island system: the contribution of sex to the diversification of a clonally propagated crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated crop that was introduced into the South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu in the 1850s. Based on a survey conducted in 10 different villages throughout the archipelago, we present here a study of its diversity. Farmers' knowledge about cultivation cycle and sexual reproduction of cassava was recorded during group interviews in each village.

J. Sardos; D. McKey; M. F. Duval; R. Malapa; J. L. Noyer; V. Lebot

2008-01-01

20

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

21

Growth and nutritive value of cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz.) are reduced when grown in elevated CO.  

PubMed

Global food security in a changing climate depends on both the nutritive value of staple crops as well as their yields. Here, we examined the direct effect of atmospheric CO(2) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz., manioc), a staple for 750 million people worldwide. Cassava is poor in nutrients and contains high levels of cyanogenic glycosides that break down to release toxic hydrogen cyanide when damaged. We grew cassava at three concentrations of CO(2) (C(a): 360, 550 and 710 ppm) supplied together with nutrient solution containing either 1 mM or 12 mM nitrogen. We found that total plant biomass and tuber yield (number and mass) decreased linearly with increasing C(a). In the worst-case scenario, tuber mass was reduced by an order of magnitude in plants grown at 710 ppm compared with 360 ppm CO(2). Photosynthetic parameters were consistent with the whole plant biomass data. It is proposed that since cassava stomata are highly sensitive to other environmental variables, the decrease in assimilation observed here might, in part, be a direct effect of CO(2) on stomata. Total N (used here as a proxy for protein content) and cyanogenic glycoside concentrations of the tubers were not significantly different in the plants grown at elevated CO(2). By contrast, the concentration of cyanogenic glycosides in the edible leaves nearly doubled in the highest C(a). If leaves continue to be used as a protein supplement, they will need to be more thoroughly processed in the future. With increasing population density, declining soil fertility, expansion into marginal farmland, together with the predicted increase in extreme climatic events, reliance on robust crops such as cassava will increase. The responses to CO(2) shown here point to the possibility that there could be severe food shortages in the coming decades unless CO(2) emissions are dramatically reduced, or alternative cultivars or crops are developed. PMID:19778371

Gleadow, Roslyn M; Evans, John R; McCaffery, Stephanie; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

2009-11-01

22

High-Resolution Linkage Map and Chromosome-Scale Genome Assembly for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 Populations  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400–500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. PMID:25504737

2014-01-01

23

High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. PMID:25504737

2014-01-01

24

Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz genetic resources: VI. Anatomy of a diversity center.  

PubMed

Central Brasil is one of the four centers of diversity of Manihot species. Of 26 wild Manihot species reported to occur in this region, 20 were collected from two limited areas, each less than 100 km in diameter. These two areas are Goiás Velho and Corumbá de Goiás. Considering the Harlan concept of geographic patterns of variation of cultivated crops, it is assumed that the two areas are microcenters of cassava diversity. Topographic, soil and ethnological data of these species were collected and compared. PMID:14966687

Nassar, Nagib M A

2003-01-01

25

Identification of potential active-site residues in the hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta by site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed

The hydroxynitrile lyase from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) (EC 4.1.2.37) catalyzes the decomposition of the achiral alpha-hydroxynitrile acetone cyanohydrin into HCN and acetone during cyanogenesis of damaged plants. This enzyme can also be used for stereoselective synthesis of a wide array of (S)-cyanohydrins by addition of HCN to aldehydes or ketones. Optically active cyanohydrins are interesting intermediates for the synthesis of alpha-hydroxy acids, alpha-hydroxy ketones, or beta-ethanolamines, all of which are important building blocks in organic synthesis. Inhibition of hydroxynitrile lyase from M. esculenta (MeHNL) by serine- and histidine-modifying reagents suggests involvement of active site seryl and histidyl residues. Furthermore, serine 80 of MeHNL is part of the active site motif Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly/Ala, often considered as the hallmark of catalytic triads having independently evolved in four groups of enzymes: the alpha/beta hydrolase fold enzymes, subtilisins, the cysteine proteases, and the eukaryotic serine proteases. By site-directed mutagenesis, three residues critical for enzyme activity have been identified: serine 80, aspartic acid 208, and histidine 236. These residues may be directly involved in MeHNL-catalyzed decomposition of cyanohydrins, providing evidence for a catalytical triad in HNLs, too. The order of the catalytic triad residues in the primary sequence of MeHNL is nucleophile-histidine-acid, suggesting that MeHNL belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold group of enzymes. In contrast to all other enzymes having a catalytical triad, HNLs catalyze no net hydrolytic reactions. PMID:8824213

Wajant, H; Pfizenmaier, K

1996-10-18

26

Large-Scale SNP Discovery through RNA Sequencing and SNP Genotyping by Targeted Enrichment Sequencing in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10. PMID:25551642

Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R.; Ruang-areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

2014-01-01

27

In vitro Cultured Primary Roots Derived from Stem Segments of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Can Behave Like Storage Organs  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Methods Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Key Results Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0·54 ?m 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0·44 ?m 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly influenced by hormone treatments. Conclusions The storage root formation system reported here is a first approach to develop a tuberization model, and additional efforts are required to improve it. Although it was not possible to achieve root secondary growth, after this work it will be feasible to advance in some aspects of in vitro cassava tuberization. PMID:17267513

Medina, Ricardo D.; Faloci, Mirta M.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Mroginski, Luis A.

2007-01-01

28

Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the

M. A. Fregene; J. Vargas; J. Ikea; F. Angel; J. Tohme; R. A. Asiedu; M. O. Akoroda; W. M. Roca

1994-01-01

29

Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) Activated Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N?-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

2011-01-01

30

Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

PubMed Central

Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Results Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 ?M ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H2O2, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H2O2 synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. Conclusions These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress. PMID:25091029

2014-01-01

31

Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

K?íbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevi?, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

2014-11-01

32

Wild Manihot Species Do Not Possess C4 Photosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta) has a higher rate of photosynthesis than is usual for C3 plants and photosynthesis is not light saturated. For these reasons it has been suggested that cultivated cassava could be derived from wild species possessing C4 photosynthesis. The natural abundance of 13C and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoglycolate phosphatase were measured in leaves of 20 wild cassava species to test this hypothesis. All the species studied, including M. flabellifolia the potential wild progenitor of cultivated cassava, clearly exhibited C3 not C4 characteristics. PMID:12096814

CALATAYUD, P.?A.; BARÓN, C. H.; VELÁSQUEZ, H.; ARROYAVE, J. A.; LAMAZE, T.

2002-01-01

33

Thermodynamic analysis of sorption isotherms of cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

PubMed

Sorption isotherms of cassava were determined experimentally using a static gravimetric method at 30, 45 and 60 °C and within the range of 0.10-0.90 water activity. At a constant water activity, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature. The experimental results were modelled using seven sorption models using non-linear regression technique. Results demonstrated that the GAB model adequately predicted equilibrium moisture content of cassava for the range of temperatures and water activities studied. The thermodynamic functions such as net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy of sorption, net integral enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to provide an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behaviour. Net isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The net integral enthalpy decreased while net integral entropy increased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Net integral entropy was negative in value. All thermodynamic functions were adequately characterised by a power law model. The point of maximum stability was found between 0.053 and 0.154 kg water/kg db for cassava. PMID:25190827

Koua, Blaise Kamenan; Koffi, Paul Magloire Ekoun; Gbaha, Prosper; Toure, Siaka

2014-09-01

34

Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The production of embryos in liquid medium was distinctly higher, faster and more synchronized than on solid medium. Lower densities and fragmentation of starting embryos improved the production significantly. The highest production found was 32.1 embryos per initial embryo. In all treatments the explants initiated multiple embryos. The production of single embryos was achieved by pressing starting embryos through a fine meshed sieve, indicating that embryos can be produced from a piece of tissue with a restricted number of cells. The shoot conversion rate of embryos from liquid medium was comparable with that of embryos from solid medium. PMID:24197025

Raemakers, C J; Schavemaker, C M; Jacobsen, E; Visser, R G

1993-02-01

35

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves  

PubMed Central

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

2013-01-01

36

Starch granule size and the domestication of manioc ( Manihot esculenta ) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological studies of plant remains have indicated that an increase in seed size is frequently correlated with both intensive\\u000a cultivation and domestication of seed crop plants. To test if starch granules of domesticated root crops are significantly\\u000a larger than those of wild or less intensively cultivated plants, archaeological and modern specimens of manioc and sweet potato\\u000a were sampled for starch

Linda Perry; Economu Botany

2002-01-01

37

Les maladies bactriennes du manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) en Rpublique Populaire du Congo et en Rpu-  

E-print Network

spots, leaf blight, wilting of young branches, gum exudation and tip die back. The disease appears has been isolated. This tuber rot is a secondary disease which is not as severe as cassava bacterial of the Congo, Central African Republic. Bacterial pathogens of cassava in the People's Republic of the Congo

Boyer, Edmond

38

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.  

PubMed

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

2013-09-01

39

Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.  

PubMed

In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. PMID:24374265

Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

2014-06-24

40

Comparison of Leaf Proteomes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivar NZ199 Diploid and Autotetraploid Genotypes  

PubMed Central

Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X.; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Chen, Songbi

2014-01-01

41

Resistance to the Whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis, in Wild Populations of Cassava, Manihot Tristis  

PubMed Central

The levels of resistance in the wild species of cassava, Manihot tristis Muell-Arg. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar (Hemiptera: Alelyrodidae), the most important economic pest in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) crops in South America, were estimated under glasshouse conditions. The parameters of the life history of A. socialis were studied on TST-26 and TST-18 accessions of the wild parent and compared with the susceptible (CMC-40) and resistant (MEcu-72) cultivars. The average longevity on the wild accessions (TST-26, 4.1; TST-18, 4.6 days) and oviposition rates (TST-26, 2.0; TST-18, 1.6 eggs/female/2 days) of the A. socialis females were not significantly different from those of MEcu-72 (5.1 days and 3.4 eggs/female/2days). The longevity and oviposition rates on CMC-40 were highest (11 days and 8.6 eggs/female/2days). Analyses of the demographic parameters (Ro, rm; DT) showed a significant impact of the M. tristis accessions on the potential growth of A. socialis. The average survival time of adults that fed on TST-26, TST-18, and MEcu-72 were significantly different from those recorded on the susceptible genotype. Results from this study revealed important levels of resistance to the whitefly A. socialis on the TST-26 and TST-18 accessions due to the marked differences found for longevity and reproduction, which influenced and were consistent with the differences found in the net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic growth rate (rm) and population doubling time (DT). The combined effect of these parameters indicated that M. tristis accessions were inappropriate hosts for A. socialis. PMID:21062208

Carabalí, A.; Bellotti, A. C.; Montoya-Lerma, J.; Fregene, Martin

2010-01-01

42

Effect of medium salt concentration on differentiation and maturation of somatic embryos of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro- and micro-nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter-, half-, full- or double-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half- or full-strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full-strength MS medium. Developed somatic embryos were then desiccated above a saturated K2SO4 solution for 10 d. After transfer to germination medium, embryos that had developed on half- and full-strength MS medium yielded 8.3 and 8.6 germinants g(-1) NEC tissue, respectively. For this important but often disregarded culture factor, either half- or full-strength MS medium is recommended for both the differentiation and development of cassava somatic embryos that are capable of germination. PMID:12099540

Groll, J; Mycock, D J; Gray, V M

2002-05-01

43

Phenylpropanoids, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase and Peroxidases in Elicitor?challenged Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Suspension Cells and Leaves  

PubMed Central

• Background and aims Control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components. • Methods Phenylalanine ammonia?lyase (PAL), phenylpropanoids and peroxidases (POD) were investigated in elicited cassava suspension cells and leaves. Yeast elicitor was the most effective of several microbial and endogenous elicitors. Fungitoxicity was determined against the cassava pathogens Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and the saprotroph Trichoderma harzianum. • Key results A single and rapid (?2–3 min) oxidative burst, measured as hydrogen peroxide, occurred in elicited cells. PAL activity was induced maximally at 15 h and was preceded by PAL mRNA accumulation, which peaked at 9 h. Symplasmic POD activity increased four?fold in cells, 48 h post?elicitation. POD isoforms (2–7 isoforms, pI 3·1–8·8) were detected in elicited and unelicited cells, extracellular medium and leaves but two extracellular isoforms were enhanced post?elicitation. Also expression of a cassava peroxidase gene MecPOD1 increased in elicited cells. Only anionic forms oxidized scopoletin, with highest activity by isoform pI 3·6, present in all samples. Unidentified phenolics and possibly scopolin increased post?elicitation, but there was no enhancement of scopoletin, rutin or kaempferol?3?O?rutinoside concentration. Fungal germ tube elongation was inhibited more than germination by esculetin, ferulic acid, quercetin and scopoletin. T. harzianum was generally more sensitive than the pathogens and was inhibited by ?50 µg mL–1 of ferulic acid and quercetin and ?10 µg mL–1 of scopoletin. • Conclusions Phenolic levels in cells were not enhanced and were, theoretically, too low to be inhibitory. However, in combination and when oxidized they may contribute to defence, because oxidation of esculetin and scopoletin by peroxidase and of esculetin by tyrosinase enhanced their fungitoxicity up to 20?fold. PMID:15145789

GÓMEZ?VÁSQUEZ, ROCÍO; DAY, ROBERT; BUSCHMANN, HOLGER; RANDLES, SOPHIE; BEECHING, JOHN R.; COOPER, RICHARD M.

2004-01-01

44

Using cDNA and genomic sequences as tools to develop SNP strategies in cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are the most abundant type of DNA polymorphism found in animal and plant genomes. They provide an important new source of molecular markers that are useful in genetic mapping, map-based positional cloning, quantitative trait locus mapping and the assessment of genetic distances between individuals. Very little is known on the frequency of SNPs in cassava. We

C. Lopez; B. Piégu; R. Cooke; M. Delseny; J. Tohme; V. Verdier

2005-01-01

45

Molecular differentiation, diversity, and folk classification of “sweet” and “bitter” cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Caiçara and Caboclo management systems (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses the inter-relationships among the men, the use, and the intra-specific cassava diversity, under the perspective\\u000a of this crop evolutionary dynamics. The origin, the use and the current local management of varieties with high and low cyanogenic\\u000a potential are important questions around cassava domestication. We collected 169 local varieties identified as “sweet” or\\u000a “bitter” cassava by traditional farmers

Nivaldo Peroni; Paulo Yoshio Kageyama; Alpina Begossi

2007-01-01

46

Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. PMID:23721067

Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

2014-06-01

47

Cloning, 3D modeling and expression analysis of three vacuolar invertase genes from cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (?-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed ?-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a ?-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the ?-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, ? and ? groups, in which ? group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while ? group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development. PMID:24838076

Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

2014-01-01

48

Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?

Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

2014-10-01

49

Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Saccharide on In Vitro Plant and Tuberous Root Regeneration of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A faster system to get tuberous roots from in vitro cultured cassava plants may enhance the process of exploring the function\\u000a and practical application of some root-specific expressed genes. The effects of cytokinin, auxin, sucrose, maltose, and glucose\\u000a on development of shoots and tuberous roots and plantlet regeneration of in vitro cultured cassava were investigated in this\\u000a study. The cytokinin

Mingxia Fan; Zaochang Liu; Liguo Zhou; Tian Lin; Yunhua Liu; Lijun Luo

2011-01-01

50

Mercury in the surface soil and cassava, Manihot esculenta (flesh, leaves and peel) near goldmines at Bogoso and Prestea, Ghana.  

PubMed

Mercury amalgamation is used indiscriminately in the recovery of gold by small-scale native gem winners in Ghana. Mercury is released into the environment in the form of wastewater, tailing and vapor from the roasting of amalgam to separate gold. The study looked at the levels of total mercury concentration in surface soil and cassava crop from farms located within the vicinities of Bogoso and Prestea Goldmines. The surface soil total mercury concentrations ranged between 125.29 and 352.52 ?g/kg whiles cassava had between 66.60 and 195.47 ?g/kg. The results showed proportionately more deposits at higher distances in 15-30 cm soil zone and less deposits at higher distances on leaves with relatively high uptake of the metal occurred at higher distances from the mines into the peels. These results suggest serious mercury pollution to the surface soil and the cassava crop but the speciation exercise showed that mercury is not in the free state, rather bound to hydroxides and organic compounds as complexes. PMID:23052587

Adjorlolo-Gasokpoh, A; Golow, A A; Kambo-Dorsa, J

2012-12-01

51

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.  

PubMed

The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80?% (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2?µM for 3 and 6.3?µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3?µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

2014-12-01

52

Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (Taro)  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, that has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung colonizing ability as well as spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic ER, PR and Her-2/neu negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphologic changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable to stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kD contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins; 12 kD storage protein, tarin and lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, post-translational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing a compound(s) derived from taro, that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X. Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M.

2013-01-01

53

Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta using soybean residues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta are active ingredients in a number of medicines that play important roles in immunity improvement and tumor growth inhibition. So far, the production of polysaccharides from M. esculenta mycelia has not been commercialized. The aims of this wor...

54

Anticonvulsant, antidepressant-like activity of Abelmoschus manihot ethanol extract and its potential active components in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Searching for antiepileptic (anticonvulsant) and antidepressant-like medicines from natural products is very important for the treatment of this disease. The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been reported to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia injury. In order to further explore the activity of Abelmoschus manihot on the

Jianming Guo; Caifu Xue; Jin-ao Duan; Dawei Qian; Yuping Tang; Yi You

2011-01-01

55

Isozymes analysis of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM) show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (P<0.99). The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianmin; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Rucai; Wang, Shidang; Zhou, Weiwu

2004-04-01

56

Study on the antithrombotic activity of Umbilicaria esculenta polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Umbilicaria esculenta as a traditional food is known to have many pharmacological activities, such as cholesterol synthesis inhibition, anti-inflammation and anti-tumor. The antithrombotic activities of UEP isolated from the lichen were examined in vitro and in vivo for the first time. The in vitro anticoagulant activity of UEP was tested by its PT, APTT and TT. The more prolongation of APTT suggested a more obvious inhibition of the intrinsic coagulation systems than the extrinsic. Its antithrombotic properties were evaluated using an arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats, and its inhibition of thrombus formation increased in a dose-dependent manner. It also caused a dose-dependent increase in tail transection bleeding time. Oral administration of UEP also showed a significant dose dependent preventive effect against thrombotic death or paralysis. UEP has a potent antithrombotic effect in vitro and in vivo, which may be used as a novel, effective and promising antithrombotic agent. PMID:24708975

Wang, Yufeng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Yao, Shulin; Zhang, Shengsheng; Yan, Jingfan; Wang, Huiqin; Chen, Yangyang

2014-05-25

57

Identification of essential active-site residues in the cyanogenic beta-glucosidase (linamarase) from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed Central

The coding sequence of the mature cyanogenic beta-glucosidase (beta-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21; linamarase) was cloned into the vector pYX243 modified to contain the SUC2 yeast secretion signal sequence and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant enzyme is active, glycosylated and showed similar stability to the plant protein. Michaelis constants for hydrolysis of the natural substrate, linamarin (K(m)=1.06 mM) and the synthetic p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNP-Glc; K(m)=0.36 mM), as well as apparent pK(a) values of the free enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complexes (pK(E)(1)=4.4-4.8, pK(E)(2)=6.7-7.2, pK(ES)(1)=3.9-4.4, pK(ES)(2)=8.3) were very similar to those of the plant enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to study the function of active-site residues based on a homology model generated for the enzyme using the MODELLER program. Changing Glu-413 to Gly destroyed enzyme activity, consistent with it being the catalytic nucleophile. The Gln-339Glu mutation also abolished activity, confirming a function in positioning the catalytic diad. The Ala-201Val mutation shifted the pK(a) of the acid/base catalyst Glu-198 from 7.22 to 7.44, reflecting a change in its hydrophobic environment. A Phe-269Asn change increased K(m) for linamarin hydrolysis 16-fold (16.1 mM) and that for PNP-Glc only 2.5-fold (0.84 mM), demonstrating that Phe-269 contributes to the cyanogenic specificity of the cassava beta-glucosidase. PMID:11139381

Keresztessy, Z; Brown, K; Dunn, M A; Hughes, M A

2001-01-01

58

Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

59

Unmanaged sexual reproduction and the dynamics of genetic diversity of a vegetatively propagated crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), in a traditional farming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of intervarietal or interspecific natural crosses has been reported for many crop plants in traditional farming systems, underlining the potential importance of this source of genetic exchange for the dynamics of genetic diversity of crop plants. In this study, we use microsatellite loci to investigate the role of volunteer seedlings (plants originating from unmanaged sexual reproduction) in the dynamics

M. Elias; L. Penet; P. Vindry; D. McKey; O. Panaud; T. Robert

2001-01-01

60

Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.  

PubMed

Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

2013-08-01

61

Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.  

PubMed

Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions. PMID:24837923

Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

2014-10-15

62

Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of ?-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil.  

PubMed

Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with ?-carotene (?C), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher ?C than white cassava, and the additional complement of ?C was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of ?C per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of ?C during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-?C from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with ?C has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking. PMID:24970565

Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

2014-07-16

63

Genome-wide identification, 3D modeling, expression and enzymatic activity analysis of cell wall invertase gene family from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a ?-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a ?-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker. PMID:24786092

Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

2014-01-01

64

Optimization of In vitro Cyclic Somatic Embryogenesis and Regeneration of the Asian Cultivars of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for Genetic Manipulation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: A prerequisite for genetic modification of cassava is a reliable transformation system. Establishment of a transformation system for cassava will open up the possibility for genetic manipulation and provide the information needed for handling and introduction of genetically modified cassava clones. Methods for efficient cassava transformation, including plant regeneration in vitro, gene delivery, selection of transformed tissues and

Laddawan Saelim; Salak Phansiri; Supatcharee Netrphan; Malinee Suksangpanomrung; Jarunya Narangajavana

65

Testicular endocrine activity is upregulated by D-aspartic acid in the green frog, Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the involvement of ?-aspartic acid (?-Asp) in testicular steroidogenesis of the green frog Rana esculenta and its effect on stimulation of thumb pad morphology and glandular activity, a typical testosterone- dependent secondary sexual characteristic in this amphibian species. In the testis, ?-Asp concentrations vary significantly during the reproductive cycle: they are low in pre- and post-reproductive periods,

F Raucci; L Assisi; S D'Aniello; P Spinelli; V Botte; M M Di Fiore

2004-01-01

66

NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons and pathways in the brain of the frog Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We described the NADPH-diaphorase-containing neurons and fibres in the brain of the frog Rana esculenta. In the telencephalon stained cells occurred in the olfactory bulb, all subdivisions of the pallium, the diagonal band, the medial septum and the striatum. The olfactory glomeruli showed the most intense enzyme reaction. The neuropil of the accessory olfactory bulb was also heavily stained and

G. Lázár; Attila Losonczy

1999-01-01

67

Variations of intestinal calcium absorption in adult frogs (Rana esculenta). Effect of lysine  

E-print Network

with calcium absorption. The absorbed calcium is deposited as carbonate in the « chalky» and endolymphatic sacs as phosphates and carbonate. In the present paper we studied the intestinal calcium permeability with or withoutVariations of intestinal calcium absorption in adult frogs (Rana esculenta). Effect of lysine

Boyer, Edmond

68

Influence of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott) growth conditions on the phenolic composition and biological properties.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly known as taro, is an essential food for millions of people. The leaves are consumed in sauces, purees, stews, and soups, being also used in wound healing treatment. Nowadays, the consumers' demand for bioactive compounds from the diet led to the development of new agricultural strategies for the production of health-promoting constituents in vegetables. In this work, two strategies (variety choice and irrigation conditions) were considered in the cultivation of C. esculenta. The effect on the phenolic composition of the leaves was evaluated. Furthermore, a correlation between the biological activity of the different varieties and their chemical composition was established. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the phenolic composition were observed between varieties; furthermore, the irrigation conditions also influenced the composition. C. esculenta varieties were able to scavenge several oxidant species and to inhibit hyaluronidase, but data suggest that metabolites other than phenolics are involved. The results show that cultivation strategies can effectively modulate the accumulation of these types of bioactive compounds. Furthermore C. esculenta wound healing potential can be attributed, at least in part, to the protection of the wound site against oxidative/nitrosative damage and prevention of hyaluronic acid degradation. PMID:23993510

Gonçalves, Rui F; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Ana Margarida; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

2013-12-15

69

Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.  

PubMed

Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-04-15

70

[Mechanisms and effects of Abelmoschus manihot preparations in treating chronic kidney disease].  

PubMed

Abelmoschus manihot (AM) is a medicinal plant rich in twenty kinds of separated active bio-components including flavones, polysaccharides, trannic acid, and long chain hydrocarbons. Among these, total flavones of A. manihot (TFA) are the major active component. In this review, the mechanisms of Huangkui capsule will be discussed as a preparation of AM to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) by improving immunological reaction, inflammation, renal fibrosis, and renal tubular epithelial injury. Additionally, it has been reported that Huangkui capsule can ameliorate some clinical symptoms, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal function in patients with common CKD, such as nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis, IgA nephropathy, and membranous nephropathy. PMID:23189729

Chen, Ping; Wan, Yigang; Wang, Chaojun; Zhao, Qing; Wei, Qingxue; Tu, Yue; Yin, Xuejiao

2012-08-01

71

The genetic differentiation of Colocasia esculenta growing in gold mining areas with arsenic contamination.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a heavy metal found in contaminated gold mining areas and which can affect plant and animal species. This study aims to determine the concentration of As in the aquatic plant Colocasia esculenta as well as this plant's genetic variability. Sediment and C. esculenta samples were collected from three studied sites at the edge of a stream around a gold mine. The arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples were analyzed using induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Genetic differentiations were studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with dendrogram construction and analysis of genetic similarity (S). The results showed that the arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples ranged from 4.547?±?0.318 to 229.964?±?0.978 and 0.108?±?0.046 to 0.406?±?0.174 mg kg(-1), respectively. To compare the samples studied to the reference site, RAPD fingerprints from 26 primers successfully produced 2301 total bands used for dendrogram construction and S value analysis. The dendrogram construction separates C. esculenta into four clusters corresponding to their sampling sites. The S values of the studied sample sites compared to the reference site are 0.676-0.779, 0.739-0.791, and 0.743-0.783 for sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively, whereas the values of the individuals within each site are as high as 0.980. These results suggest that As accumulation in aquatic plant species should be of concern because of the potential effects of As on aquatic plants as well as humans. PMID:25838064

Boonmee, Sirilak; Neeratanaphan, Lamyai; Tanee, Tawatchai; Khamon, Prodpran

2015-05-01

72

Isolation of a galactomannan that enhances macrophage activation from the edible fungus Morchella esculenta.  

PubMed

The edible mushroom Morchella esculenta is among the most highly prized and morphologically recognizable fungi in the world. We describe the isolation from a polar extract of M. esculenta carpophores of a high-molecular-weight galactomannan, about 1.0 million Da, that exhibits immunostimulatory activity. At 3.0 microg/mL the galactomannan polysaccharide increased NF-kappa B directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels 50% of those achieved by maximal activating concentration (10 microg/mL) of lipopolysaccharide. This galactomannan comprises about 2.0% of the dry fungal material weight, and its glycosyl components include mannose (62.9%) and galactose (20.0%). PMID:12236698

Duncan, Christine J G; Pugh, Nirmal; Pasco, David S; Ross, Samir A

2002-09-25

73

UBPy/MSJ-1 system during male germ cell progression in the frog, Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

mUBPy (mouse ubiquitin specific processing protease) is a de-ubiquitinating enzyme expressed in mouse testis and brain. In testis, it interacts with the DnaJ protein MSJ-1 (mouse sperm cell specific DnaJ first homologue), a molecular chaperone expressed in spermatids and spermatozoa. Since MSJ-1 is conserved among vertebrates, to demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved function of UBPy/MSJ-1 system, we assayed mUBPy presence in the anuran amphibian, the frog, Rana esculenta, during the annual sexual cycle. By Western blot we have detected a specific signal of 126kDa in testis and isolated spermatozoa. During the annual sexual cycle, the signal gradually increases as soon as spermatogenesis resumes after the winter stasis. Using immunocytochemistry, we have localized the protein in spermatids and spermatozoa. In conclusion, UBPy/MSJ-1 system is available in R. esculenta testis suggesting a conserved fundamental function in spermatogenesis and sperm formation. PMID:17187787

Meccariello, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosanna; Scarpa, Donatella; Berruti, Giovanna; Cobellis, Gilda; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Fasano, Silvia

2007-01-01

74

d-Asp: A new player in reproductive endocrinology of the amphibian Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the involvement of d-Aspartic acid (d-Asp) on ovarian and testicular morphology of the green frog, Rana esculenta, and its effect on the testosterone production. The study has been performed throughout the reproductive cycle. In both ovary and testis a substantial amount of d-Asp is endogenously present and its concentration varies as function of reproduction. In the frog, d-Asp

Franca Raucci; Maria Maddalena Di Fiore

2011-01-01

75

Recovery of energy from Taro ( Colocasia esculenta) with solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present studies on solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs) in which chopped Colocasia esculenta was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop an efficient means of utilizing the semi-aquatic weed that is otherwise an environmental nuisance.Two types of SOFADs were studied. The first type had a single vessel with two compartments. The lower portion of the digester, 25%

T. Bindu; E. V. Ramasamy

2008-01-01

76

Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the frog Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and topographic distribution of somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in the stomach and small intestine of the frog Rana esculenta were studied at the light-microscopic level by the use of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Scattered immunostained cells occurred in all regions of the gastrointestinal tract investigated. In the small intestine, the number of these cells decreased gradually in the oral to anal

Tiberiu Trandaburu; Frank Niirnberger

1995-01-01

77

Evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infection in Water Frogs of the Rana esculenta Complex in Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (phylum Chytridiomycota, order Chytridiales) is the causative organism of chytridiomycosis in amphibians, a disease associated\\u000a with their population decline worldwide. In this work, we report a cutaneous infection in water frogs of the Rana esculenta complex in agricultural areas of Umbria, central Italy. Histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular\\u000a analyses demonstrated for the first time the presence of the

Francesca Simoncelli; Anna Fagotti; Raffaele Dall’Olio; Daniela Vagnetti; Rita Pascolini; Ines Di Rosa

2005-01-01

78

Production of d -amino acids using immobilized d -hydantoinase from lentil, Lens esculenta , seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

d-Hydantoinase from the lentil, Lens esculenta, seed is quite unstable, and has been immobilized on Diethyl amino ethyl (DEAE) cellulose by an adsorption and cross-linking\\u000a method. The immboilized d-hydantoinase exhibited 80% enzyme activity and contained 86% protein. The immobilization of the enzyme preparation does not\\u000a change its optimum pH, temperature or affinity constant, but increases its shelf-life, thermostability and stability

R. Rai; V. Taneja

1998-01-01

79

Further knowledge on the phenolic profile of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly called taro, is an ancient species selected for its edible tuber. Its huge "elephant ear" like leaves are also consumed in sauces and stews or as soups. Forty-one phenolic metabolites (11 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and 30 glycosylated flavonoids) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) in the leaves of two C. esculenta varieties cultivated in Azores Islands. To our knowledge, 34 of the 41 phenolic compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. Phenolics quantification was achieved by an HPLC-DAD accurate and sensitive validated method. Although the qualitative profile of the two varieties is quite similar, quantitative differences were observed between them. "Giant white" and "red" varieties (local denomination) contain, respectively, ca. 14 and 21% of phenolic acids, 37 and 28% of flavones mono-C-glycosides, 42 and 43% of flavones di-C-glycosides, 3 and 4% of flavones mono-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides, and both of them ca. 2% of flavones di-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides and 2% of flavones-O-glycosides. Luteolin-6-C-hexoside was the compound present in higher amounts in both varieties. The established phenolic profile is an added value for the authenticity and quality control of C. esculenta and may be useful in the discrimination of its varieties. PMID:22724554

Ferreres, Federico; Gonçalves, Rui F; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

2012-07-18

80

Nutrient composition of the leaves and flowers of Colocasia esculenta and the fruits of Solanum melongena.  

PubMed

The nutrient composition, of Colocasia esculenta flowers (CF) and leaves (CL), and the green fruits of Solanum melongena (SM) were carried out as a means to determine their nutritional potential. Results showed that these food materials had high moisture and fiber levels which ranged between 888 and 906 g.kg-1; and 204 and 303 g.kg-1 dry weight (dw) for moisture and fiber respectively. The calorific values were between 3889 and 4001 kcals.kg-1 dw, while the total lipids ranged from 53 in CF to 71 g.kg-1 dw in SM. The leaves of Colocasia esculenta had the highest crude protein value of 307 g.kg-1 dw. The flowers had 149 g.kg-1 dw while SM had 138 g.kg-1 dw. The amino acid profile in the flowers and leaves of Colocasia esculenta in contrast to SM were balanced comparable to the reference FAO pattern. Ash values were high (ranging from 76 in SM to 98 g.kg-1 in CL) with potassium being the principal element. Iron and Zinc levels were also high especially in CF (with 303 and 82 mg.kg-1 dw respectively). These foods also contained moderate quantities of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium but were poor in manganese and copper. PMID:8811722

Ejoh, A R; Mbiapo, F T; Fokou, E

1996-02-01

81

Bioinsecticidal activity of Talisia esculenta reserve protein on growth and serine digestive enzymes during larval development of Anticarsia gemmatalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants synthesize a variety of molecules to defend themselves against an attack by insects. Talisin is a reserve protein from Talisia esculenta seeds, the first to be characterized from the family Sapindaceae. In this study, the insecticidal activity of Talisin was tested by incorporating the reserve protein into an artificial diet fed to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, the major

Maria Lígia R. Macedo; Maria das Graças M. Freire; Carlos Eduardo G. Kubo; José Roberto P. Parra

2011-01-01

82

Effect of testes removal and androgen replacement therapy on enzyme levels in hypothalamus and pituitary of frog ( Rana esculenta )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto La castrazione provoca una diminuzione significativa nella attività di alcuni degli enzimi studiati (ACP, G6P, MDH, ?-GLR) sia nell'adenoipofisi che nell'ipotalamo diRana esculenta. Invece la G6PDH (solo nell'adenoipofisi) e le proteine aumentano. Il propionato di testosterone causa un aumento notevole del livello enzimatico dei castrati.

L. Iela; M. Milone; R. K. Rastogi

1974-01-01

83

Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

2012-07-01

84

Effects of environmental factors on sperm motility and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of environmental factors (salinity, pH, ions and activation media) on sperm motility (activation rate, duration of quick movement, and lifespan) and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. The results showed that spermatozoa in the coelom and nephridium are able to move quickly. The optimal salinity was 14.64 to 43.35 and the optimal pH was 6.46 to 9.53 for sperm activation and motility, whereas the ranges for fertilization were narrower (18.56 to 30.3 for salinity and 6.46 to 8.61 for pH). Of the ions studied, Na+ was indispensable for sperm motility and fertilization, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ were necessary for fertilization. P. esculenta sperm could not fertilize eggs and have short lifespans in 200 to 600 mmol/L NaCl and KCl solutions. Furthermore, they could not be activated or move in 200 to 600 mmol/L CaCl2, MgSO4, and sucrose solutions. PMID:25194731

Sheng, Z; Jiang, J-H; Jin, C-H; Xu, S-J; Zhu, J-Q

2014-09-01

85

Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

86

Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

2007-10-01

87

Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12049788

Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

2002-06-01

88

Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.  

PubMed

Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-? plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24960143

Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

2014-07-25

89

Influence of light and temperature on the secretory activity of the Harderian gland of the green frog, Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

1. The secretory activity of the Harderian gland in Rana esculenta varies during the year, reaching its highest activity during the hottest period (July-August). Therefore, secretion may be modulated by temperature and/or photoperiod. 2. Adult males and females were placed under several combinations of light and temperature in two different periods of the year (February and July) in order to elucidate their respective roles, if any, on the stimulation of secretion. 3. Under experimental conditions, high temperature (24 degrees C), irrespective of the photoperiod selected, stimulates secretion shown both at histological and histochemical levels. 4. Low temperature (8 degrees C) impairs secretory activity, again independently of the photoperiod selected. 5. This data suggests that the secretion of the Harderian gland in Rana esculenta is modulated mainly by temperature. PMID:1968820

Minucci, S; Chieffi Baccari, G; Di Matteo, L; Marmorino, C; d'Istria, M; Chieffi, G

1990-01-01

90

Variation in fertilisation abilities between hemiclonal hybrid and sexual parental males of sympatric water frogs ( Rana lessonae , R. esculenta , R. ridibunda )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species, males and females mate with multiple partners, which gives rise to sperm competition and multiple paternity. The experiments on water frogs presented here demonstrate that such sperm competition can affect the structure and dynamics of mixed-species communities. The hybrid frog Rana esculenta ( LR) mates with one of its parental species, usually R. lessonae ( LL), although

Heinz-Ulrich Reyer; Bettina Niederer; Attila Hettyey

2003-01-01

91

D-Asp: a new player in reproductive endocrinology of the amphibian Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

We investigated the involvement of D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) on ovarian and testicular morphology of the green frog, Rana esculenta, and its effect on the testosterone production. The study has been performed throughout the reproductive cycle. In both ovary and testis a substantial amount of D-Asp is endogenously present and its concentration varies as function of reproduction. In the frog, D-Asp content is differently correlated with gonadal and plasmatic levels of testosterone, depending on the sex. In fact, the amount of the D-Asp is inversely linked with that of the testosterone in the ovary, while this correlation directly matched in the testis. In vivo short-term experiments, consisting of a single intra-peritoneal injection of D-Asp (2.0 ?mol/g body weight), demonstrated that the enantiomer is significantly accumulated by both the ovary and testis, reaching after 3 h the highest uptake and thereafter decreasing to baseline values within 24 h. Furthermore, D-Asp influences the synthesis and/or the release of testosterone, causing a decrease of its level in the female, and an increase in the male, respectively. In vivo long-term experiments, D-Asp, chronically administered to the frogs of both sexes, enhances the maturation of both gonads, determining in the oocytes an higher accumulation of carbohydrate yolk plates in the ooplasm, and stimulating the spermatogenesis in the testis. Taken altogether, our results show that D-Asp operates differently in female and male frog gonads, indicating that it has different targets in the reproductive machinery depending on the sex. PMID:21531634

Raucci, Franca; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena

2011-11-01

92

High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.  

PubMed

A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

2014-03-01

93

Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 ?m×12.2 ?m. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 ?m2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 ?m×12.1 ?m. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 ?m×5.5 ?m. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231

Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

2014-03-01

94

[Effect of ionophore A23187 on the response to ADH in the ventral skin of Rana esculenta].  

PubMed

The addition of the Ca++ ionophore A23187 (10 microM) to the inside solution of the frog skin induced a transient increase in the active Na+ transport in frog skin (Rana esculenta) which decayed to the control values 60 minutes after the addition. At the same time the skin resistance failed significantly; antidiuretic hormone addition resulted in no-more increase of the Na+ active transport; the skin resistance remained unchanged. To further investigate the role of intracellular calcium on the skin transepithelial permeability, the effect of A23187 ionophore on thiourea permeability has been tested. Increase in intracellular Ca++ concentration brought about by calcium ionophores have been shown to modify both basal and ADH-stimulated thiourea transport. PMID:6414490

Casavola, V; Svelto, M; Curci, S; Schettino, T

1983-07-30

95

Comparison of amino acid sequences of the trypsin inhibitors from taro (Colocasia esculenta), giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza) and giant swamp taro (Cyrtosperma chamissonis).  

PubMed

The amino acid sequences of the trypsin inhibitors from taro Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta and giant swamp taro Cyrtosperma chamissonis have been determined and are compared with the protein sequence of the trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor from giant taro Alocasia macrorrhiza. Both inhibitors display polymorphism and there is evidence of two components in the giant swamp taro. The positional identity between the proteins is highest at 73-75% for the comparison of the giant taro (GT) with the polymorphic forms of the taro (T) inhibitors and lowest at 56-58% for the pairs of taro and giant swamp taro (GST) proteins. The comparisons show that the inhibitors from T and GT are more related to each other than to GST, which supports their taxonomic classification into different tribes. Location of the P1 site for the trypsin inhibitors of aroids is different from that of other Kunitz-type inhibitors and could be at Leu56. PMID:8260948

Peng, L; Bradbury, J H; Hammer, B C; Shaw, D C

1993-09-01

96

D-aspartic acid is implicated in the control of testosterone production by the vertebrate gonad. Studies on the female green frog, Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we report the occurrence of d-aspartic acid (d-Asp) in the ovary of the green frog Rana esculenta and its putative involvement in testosterone production by the gonad. In the ovary, d-Asp concentrations undergo significant variations during the main phases of the sexual cycle. In spawning females (March), its concentration was low (2·5&1·1 nmol\\/g ovary) and during

M M Di Fiore; L Assisi; V Botte; A D'Aniello

1998-01-01

97

Testicular endocrine activity is upregulated by D-aspartic acid in the green frog, Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

This study investigated the involvement of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) in testicular steroidogenesis of the green frog Rana esculenta and its effect on stimulation of thumb pad morphology and glandular activity, a typical testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristic in this amphibian species. In the testis, D-Asp concentrations vary significantly during the reproductive cycle: they are low in pre- and post-reproductive periods, but reach peak levels in the reproductive period (140-236 nmol/g wet tissue). Moreover, the concentrations of D-Asp in the testis through the sexual cycle positively match the testosterone levels in the gonad and the plasma. The racemase activity evaluated during the cycle expresses its peak when D-Asp and testosterone levels are highest, that is, during the reproductive period, confirming the synthesis of D-Asp from L-Asp by an aspartate racemase. Short-term in vivo experiments consisting of a single injection of D-Asp (2.0 micro mol/g body weight) demonstrated that this amino acid accumulates significantly in the testis, and after 3 h its uptake is coupled with a testosterone increase in both testis and plasma. Moreover, within 18 h of amino acid administration, the D-Asp concentration in the testis decreased along with the testosterone titer to prestimulation levels. Other amino acids (L-Asp, D-Glu and L-Glu) used instead of D-Asp were ineffective, confirming that the significant increase in testicular testosterone was a specific feature of this amino acid. In long-term experiments, D-Asp had been administered chronically to frogs caught during the three phases of the reproductive cycle, inducing testosterone increase and 17beta-estradiol decrease in the gonad during the pre- and post-reproductive period, and vice versa during the reproductive period. The stimulatory effect of D-Asp on testosterone production by the testis is consistent with the stimulation of spermatogenesis and the maturation of thumb pads occurring in D-Asp-treated frogs. In these last animals, there was an increase of seminiferous ampoule area and a higher number of spermatids and sperm. Moreover, in spermatogonia I and II and in spermatocytes, a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) intense immunopositivity was observed. In addition, the thumb pads of D-Asp-treated frogs compared with controls showed a significantly thicker epithelial lining, a wider area of their glands with taller secretion cells, and more numerous, PAS-positive-rich secretions. Finally, these results provide functional evidence for a biologic role of D-Asp in amphibian male steroidogenesis; therefore, this unusual amino acid could be considered a modulatory agent for reproductive processes. PMID:15283696

Raucci, F; Assisi, L; D'Aniello, S; Spinelli, P; Botte, V; Di Fiore, M M

2004-08-01

98

Characterisation and evaluation of a novel feedstock, Manihot glaziovii, Muell. Arg, for production of bioenergy carriers: Bioethanol and biogas.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterise and evaluate a wild inedible cassava species, Manihot glaziovii as feedstock for bioenergy production. Tubers obtained from 3 different areas in Tanzania were characterised and evaluated for bioethanol and biogas production. These bioenergy carriers were produced both separately and sequentially and their energy values evaluated based on these two approaches. Composition analysis demonstrated that M. glaziovii is a suitable feedstock for both bioethanol and biogas production. Starch content ranged from 77% to 81%, structural carbohydrates 3-16%, total crude protein ranged from 2% to 8%. Yeast fermentation achieved ethanol concentration of up to 85g/L at a fermentation efficiency of 89%. The fuel energy of the bioethanol and methane from flour-peels mix ranged from 5 to 13 and 11 to 14MJ/kgVS, respectively. Co-production of bioethanol and biogas in which the peels were added to the fermentation residue prior to anaerobic digestion produced maximum fuel energy yield of (15-23MJ/kgVS). PMID:25237774

Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Ken M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Elisante, Emrode; Mattiasson, Bo

2014-11-01

99

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Common Bean Landraces and Cultivars from the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

bean on its introduction from South America, include cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz subsp. esculenta), Little information is available regarding the relationship of Carib- pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.), and peanuts bean bean landraces with the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) While small-seeded Meso- (Arachis hypogaea L.) (Rouse, 1992). Historical refer- american black beans are

L. A. Durán; M. W. Blair; M. C. Giraldo; R. Macchiavelli; E. Prophete; J. C. Nin; J. S. Beaver

2005-01-01

100

Comparative study of the methane production based on the chemical compositions of Mangifera Indica and Manihot Utilissima leaves.  

PubMed

Leaves of Mangifera Indica (MI, mango leaves) and Manihot Utilissima (MU, cassava leaves) are available in tropical regions and are the most accessible vegetal wastes of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo. These wastes are not suitably managed and are not rationally valorized. They are abandoned in full air, on the soil and in the rivers. They thus pollute environment. By contrast, they can be recuperated and treated in order to produce methane (energy source), organic fertilizer and clean up the environment simultaneously. The main objective of this study was to investigate methane production from MI and MU leaves by BMP tests at 30°C. The yields achieved from the anaerobic digestion of up to 61.3 g raw matter in 1 l medium were 0.001 l/g and 0.100 l CH4/g volatile solids of MI and MU leaves, respectively. The yield of MU leaves was in the range mentioned in the literature for other leaves because of a poor presence of bioactive substrates, and low C/N ratio. This methane yield corresponded to 7% of calorific power of wood. By contrast, the methane yield from MI leaves was almost nil suggesting some metabolism inhibition because of their rich composition in carbon and bioactive substrates. Whereas classical acidogenesis and acetogenesis were recorded. Therefore, methane production from the sole MI leaves seems unfavorable by comparison to MU leaves at the ambient temperature in tropical regions. Their solid and liquid residues obtained after anaerobic digestion would be efficient fertilizers. However, the methane productivity of both leaves could be improved by anaerobic co-digestion. PMID:25825684

Mambanzulua Ngoma, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Sumbu Zola, Eric; Culot, Marc; Fievez, Thierry; Thonart, Philippe

2015-01-01

101

TiO2 Immobilized on Manihot Carbon: Optimal Preparation and Evaluation of Its Activity in the Decomposition of Indigo Carmine  

PubMed Central

Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M.; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M.; Elizalde-González, María P.; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-01-01

102

TiO2 immobilized on Manihot carbon: optimal preparation and evaluation of its activity in the decomposition of indigo carmine.  

PubMed

Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-01-01

103

Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

2014-06-01

104

Structural insights regarding an insecticidal Talisia esculenta protein and its biotechnological potential for Diatraea saccharalis larval control.  

PubMed

Talisin is a seed-storage protein from Talisia esculenta that presents lectin-like activities, as well as proteinase-inhibitor properties. The present study aims to provide new in vitro and in silico biochemical information about this protein, shedding some light on its mechanistic inhibitory strategies. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of Talisin bound to trypsin was constructed in order to determine the relative interaction mode. Since the structure of non-competitive inhibition has not been elucidated, Talisin-trypsin docking was carried out using Hex v5.1, since the structure of non-competitive inhibition has not been elucidated. The predicted non-coincidence of the trypsin binding site is completely different from that previously proposed for Kunitz-type inhibitors, which demonstrate a substitution of an Arg(64) for the Glu(64) residue. Data, therefore, provide more information regarding the mechanisms of non-competitive plant proteinase inhibitors. Bioassays with Talisin also presented a strong insecticide effect on the larval development of Diatraea saccharalis, demonstrating LD50 and ED50 of ca. 2.0% and 1.5%, respectively. PMID:21983187

Freire, Maria das Graças M; Franco, Octávio L; Kubo, Carlos Eduardo G; Migliolo, Ludovico; Vargas, Rodrigo H; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Parra, José Roberto P; Macedo, Maria Ligia R

2012-01-01

105

Bioinsecticidal activity of Talisia esculenta reserve protein on growth and serine digestive enzymes during larval development of Anticarsia gemmatalis.  

PubMed

Plants synthesize a variety of molecules to defend themselves against an attack by insects. Talisin is a reserve protein from Talisia esculenta seeds, the first to be characterized from the family Sapindaceae. In this study, the insecticidal activity of Talisin was tested by incorporating the reserve protein into an artificial diet fed to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, the major pest of soybean crops in Brazil. At 1.5% (w/w) of the dietary protein, Talisin affected larval growth, pupal weight, development and mortality, adult fertility and longevity, and produced malformations in pupae and adult insects. Talisin inhibited the trypsin-like activity of larval midgut homogenates. The trypsin activity in Talisin-fed larvae was sensitive to Talisin, indicating that no novel protease-resistant to Talisin was induced in Talisin-fed larvae. Affinity chromatography showed that Talisin bound to midgut proteinases of the insect A. gemmatalis, but was resistant to enzymatic digestion by these larval proteinases. The transformation of genes coding for this reserve protein could be useful for developing insect resistant crops. PMID:20692365

Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Freire, Maria das Graças M; Kubo, Carlos Eduardo G; Parra, José Roberto P

2011-01-01

106

Kisspeptin receptor, GPR54, as a candidate for the regulation of testicular activity in the frog Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins, acting via GPR54, are new players in the control of reproductive axis. They have the ability to communicate with GnRH neurons sending environmental, metabolic, and gonadal signals, with the induction of GnRH and LH secretion as final effect. At present, the physiological significance of kisspeptin signaling in the gonad is poorly investigated. We cloned GPR54 receptor from the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta testis and investigated its expression in several tissues (brain, spinal cord, ovary, muscle, and kidney). In particular, the expression analysis was carried out in pituitary and testis during the annual sexual cycle. Pituitary and testicular GPR54 mRNA increased at the end of the winter stasis (February) and reached high levels during the breeding season (April). The analysis of GPR54 expression in testis was reinforced by in situ hybridization that revealed GPR54 presence in the interstitial compartment and in proliferating germ cells. Testicular GPR54 expression in February and in June was indicated to be estradiol dependent. Furthermore, in February, kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) induced the testicular expression of both GPR54 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, in March, Kp-10 had a biphasic effect on the expression of ERalpha, being inhibitory at short (1 h) and stimulatory at longer (4 h) incubation time. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that frog testis expresses GPR54 in an estradiol-dependent manner and that Kp-10 modulates the testicular expression of ERalpha; thus, the kisspeptin/GPR54 system might be locally involved in the regulation of estrogen-dependent testicular functions such as germ cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. PMID:23365413

Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

2013-03-01

107

Structural analysis and binding properties of isoforms of tarin, the GNA-related lectin from Colocasia esculenta.  

PubMed

The lectins, a class of proteins that occur widely in animals, plants, fungi, lichens and microorganisms, are known for their ability to specifically bind to carbohydrates. Plant lectins can be classified into 12 families including the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin superfamily, which is widespread among monocotyledonous plants and binds specifically to mannose, a behavior that confers remarkable anti-tumor, anti-viral and insecticidal properties on these proteins. The present study characterized a mitogenic lectin from this family, called tarin, which was purified from the crude extract from taro (Colocasia esculenta). The results showed that tarin is a glycoprotein with 2-3% carbohydrate content, composed of least 10 isoforms with pIs ranging from 5.5 to 9.5. The intact protein is a heterotetramer of 47kDa composed of two non-identical and non-covalently associated polypeptides, with small subunits of 11.9kDa and large subunits of 12.6kDa. The tarin structure is stable and recovers or maintains its functional structure following treatments at different temperatures and pH. Tarin showed a complex carbohydrate specificity, binding with high affinity to high-mannose and complex N-glycans. Many of these ligands can be found in viruses, tumor cells and insects, as well as in hematopoietic progenitor cells. Chemical modifications confirmed that both conserved and non-conserved amino acids participate in this interaction. This study determined the structural and ligand binding characteristics of a GNA-related lectin that can be exploited for several different purposes, particularly as a proliferative therapeutic molecule that is able to enhance the immunological response. PMID:25448725

Pereira, Patrícia R; Winter, Harry C; Verícimo, Mauricio A; Meagher, Jennifer L; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Goldstein, Irwin J; Paschoalin, Vânia M F; Silva, Joab T

2015-01-01

108

Mallory stain may indicate differential rates of RNA synthesis: I. A seasonal cycle in the harderian gland of the green frog (Rana esculenta).  

PubMed

When Mallory's trichrome stain is used, acinar nuclei of the Harderian gland of Rana esculenta display different affinities for the dye. Some of the orangiophilic nuclei show affinity for aniline blue (blue nuclei). In the Harderian gland of Rana esculenta their number and the intensity of staining with aniline blue may vary during the year. The affinity for aniline blue disappears following digestion of paraffin sections with RNAase, but not with DNAase or trypsin. Furthermore, in vitro incubation with [5, 6-3H]-Uridine shows a selective incorporation by the majority of blue nuclei. Therefore, the affinity for aniline blue is likely due to increased RNA synthesis. The increment of nuclear RNA shown by these methods is supported by the quantitative determination of total RNAs during the resumption (October) and enhancement (May) of secretory activity, when the percentage of blue nuclei of the acinar cells is at its highest levels of the year. The affinity of RNA-rich nuclei for aniline blue, while others are strictly orangiophil, is discussed on the basis of molecular structure of the dyes used in the staining mixture. Mallory's trichrome stain appears to be an useful tool for detecting changes in cell nuclear status. PMID:1374668

Chieffi Baccari, G; Marmorino, C; Minucci, S; Di Matteo, L; Varriale, B; d'Istria, M; Chieffi, G

1992-01-01

109

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235

Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N

2012-01-01

110

Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P?

Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

2014-05-01

111

Purification and characterization of the lectin from taro (Colocasia esculenta) and its effect on mouse splenocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Lectins are proteins found in a wide range of organisms, with the ability to bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates. They can display important biological activities, such as the activation of the cell cycle in lymphocytes. Storage proteins with lectin activity have been reported in tuberous plant species, such as Colocasia esculenta, popularly known as taro. A simple strategy based on Cibacron Blue chromatography was used to purify a 12 kDa polypeptide 1.3-fold, with a recovery of 30 %. The purified protein was identified as tarin by mass spectrometry, which indicated that it was present in G1a/G1d isoforms. Tarin exhibited both agglutinating activity against hamster erythrocytes and mitogenic activity in vitro and in vivo toward mouse splenocytes. Optimum cellular proliferation in vitro was achieved by 625 ng of the crude extract or 500 ng of the purified tarin. Total mouse splenocyte proliferation measured after 5 days of intraperitoneal inoculation of purified tarin was increased 3.3-fold in comparison to the control group. Half of the proliferating cells were identified as B lymphocytes by flow cytometry. These results show that this is an efficient and simple strategy to purify tarin and aid in establishing this protein as a new therapeutic drug, able to promote cell proliferation in a murine model. PMID:24395119

Pereira, Patrícia Ribeiro; Del Aguila, Eduardo Mere; Verícimo, Maurício Afonso; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Silva, Joab Trajano

2014-02-01

112

Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65?mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23971053

Eleazu, C. O.; Iroaganachi, M.; Eleazu, K. C.

2013-01-01

113

Developmental plasticity and biomechanics of treelets and lianas in Manihot aff. quinquepartita (Euphorbiaceae): a branch-angle climber of French Guiana  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Most tropical lianas have specialized organs of attachment such as twining stems, hooks or tendrils but some do not. Many climbers also have an early self-supporting phase of growth and in some species this can produce treelet-sized individuals. This study focuses on how a liana can climb without specialized attachment organs and how biomechanical properties of the stem are modulated between self-supporting treelets and canopy-climbing lianas. Methods Biomechanics and stem development were investigated in self-supporting to climbing individuals of Manihot aff. quinquepartita (Euphorbiaceae) from tropical rain forest at Saül, central French Guiana. Bending tests were carried out close to the site of growth. Mechanical properties, including Young's elastic modulus, were observed with reference to habit type and changes in stem anatomy during development. Key Results This liana species can show a remarkably long phase of self-supporting growth as treelets with stiff, juvenile wood characterizing the branches and main stem. During the early phase of climbing, stiff but unstable stem segments are loosely held in a vertical position to host plants via petiole bases. The stiffest stems – those having the highest values of Young's modulus measured in bending – belonged to young, leaning and climbing stems. Only when climbing stems are securely anchored into the surrounding vegetation by a system of wide-angled branches, does the plant develop highly flexible stem properties. As in many specialized lianas, the change in stiffness is linked to the development of wood with numerous large vessels and thin-walled fibres. Conclusions Some angiosperms can develop highly effective climbing behaviour and specialized flexible stems without highly specialized organs of attachment. This is linked to a high degree of developmental plasticity in early stages of growth. Young individuals in either open or closed marginal forest conditions can grow as substantial treelets or as leaning/climbing plants, depending on the availability of host supports. The species of liana studied differs both in terms of development and biomechanics from many other lianas that climb via twining, tendrils or other specialized attachment organs. PMID:19351684

Ménard, Léa; McKey, Doyle; Rowe, Nick

2009-01-01

114

Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta  

PubMed Central

Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P < 0.0001). It also increased with acidosis, but in postmetamorphic tadpoles only (P < 0.05). The noise-titration technique evidenced low-dimensional nonlinearities in all the postmetamorphic brainstems, at both pH. Chaos-like complexity, assessed through the noise limit, increased from pH 7.8 to pH 7.4 (P < 0.01). In contrast, linear models best fitted the ventilatory rhythm in all but one of the premetamorphic preparations at pH 7.8 (P < 0.005 vs. postmetamorphic) and in four at pH 7.4 (not significant vs. postmetamorphic). Therefore, in a lower vertebrate model, the brainstem respiratory central rhythm generator accounts for ventilatory chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals. PMID:21325645

Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darré, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

2011-01-01

115

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion. PMID:18301900

He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

2008-05-01

116

Molecular determination of the predator community of a cassava whitefly in Colombia: Pest-specific primer development and field validation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In South America, the whitefly Aleurotrachelus socialis is one of the principal pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), reaching high population levels throughout the Andean region. Management of this species is primarily based upon the use of insecticides, while biological control has received...

117

BEMISIA TABACI (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) BIOTYPES IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host plant performance, esterase, and virus transmission tests revealed cassava-strain and sweetpotato-strain populations of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotypes in India. Individuals from the sweetpotato-reared population did not breed on cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, and the cassava-s...

118

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-  

E-print Network

2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants such as Annona squamosa, Carica papaya, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Ipomoea spp., Manihot esculenta and Solanum in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae) plants. On Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) the tender shoots covered by mealybugs

Reddy, Gadi VP

119

Slope position effects on soil fertility and crop productivity and implications for soil conservation in upland northwest Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is increasingly practised on the very steep slopes of mountainous Vietnam with serious problems of soil erosion and degradation. In five Black Thai villages of Yen Chau and Mai Son district, northwest Vietnam, soil parameters and crop yields of 19 maize (Zea mays L.) and 25 cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fields with 33–91% inclination at upper and lower mid

A. Wezel; N. Steinmüller; J. R. Friederichsen

2002-01-01

120

Family farmers and Manioc in contemporary Brazil: the management of agrobiodiversity and change   

E-print Network

Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food in the North and NE of Brazil and is the main crop and source of sustenance for many thousands of small-scale family farmers. It is native to Brazil and has been cultivated ...

Stocker, Patricia

2006-01-01

121

The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

122

GENETIC MODIFICATION OF CASSAVA FOR ENHANCED STARCH PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify orphan crops grown by subsistence farmers have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is a major source of calories for over 250 million persons living in sub-Saharan Africa and...

123

Update on Fresh Ways Forward Underexplored Niches in Research on Plant  

E-print Network

, such as Xanthomonas wilt of banana (Musa spp.) and bacterial blight of cassava (Manihot esculenta). A more widespread familiar systems remain poorly understood. We know remarkably little about end-stage disease, latent on high-impact diseases of subsistence crops. Understanding the biology under- lying important practical

124

Control of Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato Through Integrated Crop Management Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt disease caused by the soilborne pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (previously known as Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith). Effects of rotation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with other crops on soil populations of R. solanacearum and on bacterial wilt disease incidence of tomato were evaluated in the field. Monocropped Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), Mucuna puriens L.,

O. S. Adebayo; A. A. Kintomo; H. Y. Fadamiro

2009-01-01

125

Traditional cassava-based foods: Survey of processing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important source of food in the tropics. Phillips (1974) estimated that by 1980 it would provide 37% of the calories consumed in Africa, 11% in Latin America and 6% in the Far East forming the staple diet of 500 million people. Total world production in 1978 was estimated to be over 119 mill tonnes,

P. A. Lancaster; J. S. Ingram; M. Y. Lim; D. G. Coursey

1982-01-01

126

D-aspartic acid is implicated in the control of testosterone production by the vertebrate gonad. Studies on the female green frog, Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

In the present study we report the occurrence of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) in the ovary of the green frog Rana esculenta and its putative involvement in testosterone production by the gonad. In the ovary, D-Asp concentrations undergo significant variations during the main phases of the sexual cycle. In spawning females (March), its concentration was low (2.5 +/- 1.1 nmol/g ovary) and during the post-reproductive period (June) it increased and reached its peak level (58.0 +/- 10.1 nmol/g) in October. In that month, vitellogenesis occurs in a new set of ovarian follicles and continues until the next spring. The concentrations of D-Asp in the ovary and of testosterone in the ovary and in the plasma were inversely correlated during the reproductive cycle: when endogenous D-Asp was low (March), testosterone was high (36.9 +/- 4.8 ng/g ovary; 23.1 +/- 2.76 ng/ml plasma) and, in contrast, when the D-Asp concentration was high (October), the testosterone concentration was low (0.86 +/- 0.21 ng/g ovary and 5.0 +/- 1.3 ng/ml plasma). In vivo experiments, consisting of injection of D-Asp (2.0 mumol/g body weight) into the dorsal lymphatic sac of adult female frogs, demonstrated that this amino acid accumulates significantly in the ovary. After 3 h, moreover, it caused a decrease in testosterone level in the plasma of about 80%. This inhibition was reversible: within 18 h after the amino acid injection, as the D-Asp concentration in the ovary decreased, the testosterone titre was restored in both ovary and plasma. In vitro experiments, conducted in isolated ovarian follicles, confirmed this phenomenon and identified these gonadal components as the putative D-Asp targets. Other amino acids (L-Asp, D-Glu, L-Glu, D-Ala and L-Ala) used instead of D-Asp were ineffective. These findings indicate that D-Asp is involved in the control of androgen secretion by the ovary in this amphibian species, revealing a more complex system for control of this androgen synthesis than was previously believed to exist. PMID:9659282

Di Fiore, M M; Assisi, L; Botte, V; D'Aniello, A

1998-05-01

127

Identification of selenium species in selenium-enriched Lens esculenta plants by using two-dimensional liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and [77Se]selenomethionine selenium oxide spikes.  

PubMed

Selenium speciation in Se-enriched Lens esculenta grown in hydroponic culture containing inorganic selenium as Na(2)SeO(3) and Na(2)SeO(4) was performed. After 16 days of growth, the plants were collected and divided in two parts, roots and stems and then analysed to identify and quantify selenium species. Speciation studies of the enzymatic extracts were carried out by using anion-exchange (PRP-X100) and size-exclusion/ion-exchange (Shodex Asahipak) columns coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The need of using two independent chromatographic mechanisms for unambiguous species identification is demonstrated. Moreover, the use of a [(77)Se]selenomethionine selenium oxide spike turned out to be critical to discriminate between selenium selenomethioine selenium oxide and selenocysteine. PMID:17140591

Pedrero, Zoyne; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen

2007-01-19

128

Simultaneous virus-specific detection of the two cassava brown streak-associated viruses by RT-PCR reveals wide distribution in East Africa, mixed infections, and infections in Manihot glaziovii.  

PubMed

The expanding cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) epidemic in East Africa is caused by two ipomoviruses (genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae), namely, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) that was described recently. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic method was developed in this study for simultaneous virus-specific detection of the two viruses. Results showed that CBSV and UCBSV are distributed widely in the highlands (> 1000 m above the sea level) of the Lake Victoria zone in Uganda and Tanzania and also in the Indian Ocean costal lowlands of Tanzania. Isolates of UCBSV from the Lake Victoria zone were placed to two phylogenetic clusters in accordance with their origin in Uganda or Tanzania, respectively. Mixed infections with CBSV and UCBSV were detected in many cassava plants in the areas surveyed. CBSV was also detected in the perennial species Manihot glaziovii (DNA-barcoded in this study) in Tanzania, which revealed the first virus reservoir other than cassava. The method for detection of CBSV and UCBSV described in this study has important applications for plant quarantine, resistance breeding of cassava, and studies on epidemiology and control of CBSD in East Africa. PMID:20923689

Mbanzibwa, D R; Tian, Y P; Tugume, A K; Mukasa, S B; Tairo, F; Kyamanywa, S; Kullaya, A; Valkonen, J P T

2011-02-01

129

Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).  

PubMed

Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae. PMID:25416252

He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

2015-01-01

130

Synthesis of periclinal chimera in cassava.  

PubMed

We provide the first report on the synthesis of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera of cassava, with large and edible roots. The epidermal tissue of the chimera was formed by the cultivated species Manihot esculenta (E), and the subepidermis and internal tissue were formed by the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis (F). We used cytogenetics and morphological analyses to determine the origins of all tissues. These results may offer potential for the development of new lines for crop improvement based on the use of chimera composed of different combinations of wild species and cultivars. PMID:23512678

Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N

2013-01-01

131

Treatment of cyanide-containing wastewater from the food industry in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed methanogenic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of producing cassava starch from Manihot esculenta roots, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released, which rapidly decayed to CN? following enzymatic hydrolysis. Depending on the varying cyanoglycoside content of the cassava varieties, the cyanide concentration\\u000a in the wastewater was as high as 200?mg\\/l. To simulate anaerobic stabilization, a wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand\\u000a (COD) of about

H. Siller; J. Winter

1998-01-01

132

Putative storage root specific promoters from cassava and yam: cloning and evaluation in transgenic carrots as a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prerequisite for biotechnological improvements of storage roots is the availability of tissue-specific promoters enabling\\u000a high expression of transgenes. In this work, we cloned two genomic fragments, pMe1 and pDJ3S, controlling the expression of a gene with unknown function from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and of the storage protein dioscorin 3 small subunit gene from yam (Dioscorea japonica), respectively. Using ?-glucuronidase

Jacobo Arango; Bertha Salazar; Ralf Welsch; Felipe Sarmiento; Peter Beyer; Salim Al-Babili

2010-01-01

133

Edible canna ( Canna edulis) as a complementary starch source to cassava for the starch industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible canna (Canna edulis Ker) as an alternative starch source was evaluated on the basis of genetic characteristics, agronomic traits and starch properties. Four canna varieties indigenous to Thailand were examined including Thai-green, Japanese-green, Thai-purple and Chinese-purple and compared with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique employing ten 10-base primers, four primers implied that

Kuakoon Piyachomkwan; Sunee Chotineeranat; Chukiet Kijkhunasatian; Ratchata Tonwitowat; Siripatr Prammanee; Christopher G Oates; Klanarong Sriroth

2002-01-01

134

Synthesis of enantiomerically pure ( S)-mandelic acid using an oxynitrilase–nitrilase bienzymatic cascade: a nitrilase surprisingly shows nitrile hydratase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzaldehyde was converted into enantiomerically pure (S)-mandelic acid by sequential HCN addition and hydrolysis in the presence of a cross-linked enzyme aggregate composed of the (S)-selective oxynitrilase from Manihot esculenta and the non-selective recombinant nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC 191. Surprisingly, (S)-mandelic amide was formed in large amounts. It was shown, in separate experiments, that the nitrilase hydrolyses (S)-mandelonitrile into

Cesar Mateo; Andrzej Chmura; Sven Rustler; Fred van Rantwijk; Andreas Stolz; Roger A. Sheldon

2006-01-01

135

Neurological disorders associated with cassava diet: a review of putative etiological mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) and epidemic spastic paraparesis (konzo) are two neurological disorders associated with the\\u000a consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in several African countries. TAN is characterized by sensory polyneuropathy, sensory ataxia, bilateral optic atrophy and\\u000a bilateral sensori-neural deafness. It occurs in elderly individuals subsisting on a monotonous cassava diet with minimal protein\\u000a supplementation. Konzo is a syndrome of

Bola Adamolekun

2011-01-01

136

Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security  

E-print Network

. Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sugar cane Saccharum spp.2 Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz. Maize Zea mays L3 Millet Panicum miliaceum L. Ground nut Arachis spp.4 Potato Solanum tuberosum L. Rice Oryza sativa L.5 Sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.) Soybean... are Northwest Mexico, West Africa, the Cross River region, the Western Himalayas, the Eastern Himalayas, Sulawesi, and New Guinea. Most of these areas experience upper quartile crop loss or habitat suitability loss under most GCM scenarios, but with little inter...

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick

2013-08-21

137

Response of cassava to VA mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus application in greenhouse and field experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was grown in the greenhouse and in the field at different levels of phosphorus applied, with or without inoculation\\u000a with VA mycorrhiza in sterilized or unsterilized soil. When grown in a sterilized soil to which eight levels of P had been\\u000a applied the non-inoculated plants required the application of 3200 kg P ha?1 to reach near-maximum

R. H. Howeler; L. F. Cadavid; E. Burckhardt

1982-01-01

138

The effect of cassava mosaic disease on the genetic diversity of cassava in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a tropical crop that is grown in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. Cassava was introduced from Latin America\\u000a into West and East Africa at two independent events. In Uganda a serious threat to cassava's survival is the cassava mosaic\\u000a disease (CMD). Uganda has had two notable CMD epidemics since the introduction of cassava in the

Elizabeth Balyejusa Kizito; Anton Bua; Martin Fregene; Thomas Egwang; Urban Gullberg; Anna Westerbergh

2005-01-01

139

Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.  

PubMed

In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

2009-08-11

140

Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru  

PubMed Central

In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ?2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

2009-01-01

141

Optical chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water based on ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine.  

PubMed

Ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose was functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine. The modified polymer was easily transformed in a film, which could be used as a highly selective chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water, with detection limits of 1.9 × 10(-5) and 1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The film was successfully applied to the detection of cyanide in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots, which are a well-known source of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:24805864

Nandi, Leandro G; Nicoleti, Celso R; Bellettini, Ismael C; Machado, Vanderlei G

2014-05-20

142

The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation and mulch of contrasting chemical composition on the yield of cassava under humid tropical conditions.  

PubMed

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus deserticola, and leaf mulch from Gliricidia sepium and Senna siamea on the yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in a degraded alfisol of southwestern Nigeria was investigated. Inoculation in conjunction with mulching increased cassava tuber yield by 40-278% over the control. The highest yield was obtained with G. sepium and S. siamea mulch applied together in equal proportions. The results are explained in the light of the growth-enhancing effects of AMF, encouraged by the ameliorating effects of mulch on the soil structure and nutrient contents. PMID:20364236

Okon, Iniobong E; Solomon, Marian G; Osonubi, Oluwole

2010-01-01

143

A comparative study of cadmium, lead, zinc, pH, and bulk density from the Enyigba lead and zinc mine in two different seasons.  

PubMed

Soil pH and bulk density, as well as the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in soils and these metal levels in the leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and rice (Oryza sativa), both collected, respectively, in the dry season (December) of 1991 and the rainy season (September) of 1992 from the Enyigba lead and zinc mine, Nigeria, were investigated. Interspecific variations in trace element levels in the plant leaves were detected and may reflect the predilection of these plants to particular elements rather than their variability being due to different climatic conditions, such as precipitation, or other environmental factors. PMID:7498063

Chukwuma, C

1995-08-01

144

Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These genes can be directly applied in existing varieties of vegetatively propagated crops like cassava.

C. J. J. M. Raemakers

1993-01-01

145

La yuca en el Caribe colombiano: De cultivo ancestral a agroindustrial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yucca is one of the vegetables with the highest energy source in the world for both human and animal consumption. Its farming is adaptable to different geographical conditions, so it may be an important reserve crop in case of poor harvests of other food products. The Colombian Caribbean region has the highest production of yucca in the country, and during

María Aguilera Díaz

2012-01-01

146

Glycaemic index of selected staples commonly eaten in the Caribbean and the effects of boiling v. crushing.  

PubMed

Integrating information about the glycaemic index (GI) of foods into the Caribbean diet is limited by the lack of data. Therefore, we determined the GI of eight staple foods eaten in the Caribbean and the effect on GI of crushing selected tubers. Groups of eight to ten healthy volunteers participated in three studies at two sites. GI was determined using a standard method with white bread and adjusted relative to glucose. The mean area under the glucose response curve elicited by white bread was similar for the different groups of subjects. In study 1, the GI of cassava (Manihot esculenta; 94 (sem 11)) was significantly higher than those of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis; 60 (sem 9)), cooking 'green' banana (Musa spp.; 65 (sem 11)) and sadha roti (65 (sem 9)) (P=0.018). There was no significant difference in the GI of the foods in study 2: dasheen (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta; 77 (sem 10)), eddoes (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum; 61 (sem 10)), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum; 71 (sem 8)), tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium; 60 (sem 5)) and white yam (Dioscorea alata; 62 (sem 6)), and, in study 3, crushing did not significantly affect the GI of dasheen, tannia or Irish potato. However, when the results from studies 2 and 3 were pooled, the GI of dasheen (76 (sem 7)) was significantly greater than that of tannia (55 (sem 5); P=0.015) with potato being intermediate (69 (sem 6)). We conclude that dasheen and cassava are high-GI foods, whereas the other tubers studied and sadha roti are intermediate-GI foods. Given the regular usage of cassava and dasheen in Caribbean diets we speculate that these diets would tend to be high GI, although this could be reduced by foods such as sadha roti and white yam. The range of GI between the staples is sufficiently large that health benefits may be accrued by replacing high-GI staples with intermediate-GI staples in the Caribbean diet. PMID:15182400

Ramdath, D Dan; Isaacs, Renée L C; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Wolever, Thomas M S

2004-06-01

147

Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis.  

PubMed

Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its own (as opposed to castor bean) and, among prospective crops that could be used as a trap crop, has foliage more persistent than an annual trap crop such as corn. PMID:21526935

McQuate, Grant T

2011-01-01

148

Cassava: an appraisal of its phytochemistry and its biotechnological prospects.  

PubMed

The present state of knowledge of the phytochemistry of small molecules isolated from the roots and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), is reviewed. Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates, mainly eaten as a source of starch, forming the staple food to over 500 million; additionally, the roots have value as a raw material for industrial starch production and for animal feed giving the crop high economic value, but it suffers markedly from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD). The hydroxycoumarins scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin as well as trace quantities of esculetin and its glucoside esculin are identified from cassava roots during PPD. The biotechnological prospects for cassava are also reviewed including a critical appraisal of transgenic approaches for crop improvement, together with its use for bioethanol production, due to cassava's efficient ability to fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. PMID:20943239

Blagbrough, Ian S; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Rowan, Michael G; Beeching, John R

2010-12-01

149

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

150

Unexpected Outcomes of Thai Cassava Trade: A Case of Global Complexity and Local Unsustainability  

PubMed Central

Tracing the Thai cassava (Manihot esculenta) trade network, between 1960 and 2000, offers a compelling example of global complexity at work. The emergence of Thailand’s dominance of world export markets caught the world by surprise. The opening up of a European market for cassava was supposed to be met by Brazilian and Indonesian producers. Instead, Thailand took over the market by 1975. Several factors facilitated this emergence including: entrepreneurial diasporic networks of Thai-Chinese traders, local political economy conditions in both Europe and Thailand, and ecological conditions in Thailand. These same factors also shaped the subsequent timing of the closing of the European market, the emergence of a new industry association, the creation of new cassava products, and the expansion to other markets. Furthermore, the dynamic nature of cassava market yielded equivocal outcomes for both Europe and Thai farmers. PMID:25328444

CURRAN, SARA R.; COOKE, ABIGAIL M.

2014-01-01

151

Corrin-based chemosensors for the ASSURED detection of endogenous cyanide.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for more than 500 million people, especially in Africa and South America. However, its consumption bears risks as it contains cyanogenic glycosides that convert enzymatically to toxic cyanide during cell damage. To avoid serious health problems by unintentional cyanide intake, this dangerous product of decomposition must be removed before consumption. For monitoring such food processing procedures and for controlling the quality and safety of cassava products on the market, a convenient and reliable analytical method for routine applications without laboratory equipment is required. This Perspective summarizes the authors' work on corrin-based chemosensors for the ('naked-eye') detection of endogenous cyanide in cassava samples. Considering selectivity, sensitivity, handling and speed of detection, these systems are superior to currently applied methods. Based on these properties, the development of a test kit for application by rural farmers in remote locations is proposed. PMID:25317920

Zelder, Felix; Tivana, Lucas

2015-01-01

152

Development of cassava periclinal chimera may boost production.  

PubMed

Plant periclinal chimeras are genotypic mosaics arranged concentrically. Trials to produce them to combine different species have been done, but pratical results have not been achieved. We report for the second time the development of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera in cassava. It has very large edible roots up to 14 kg per plant at one year old compared to 2-3 kg in common varieties. The epidermal tissue formed was from Manihot esculenta cultivar UnB 032, and the subepidermal and internal tissue from the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis. We determined the origin of tissues by meiotic and mitotic chromosome counts, plant anatomy and morphology. Epidermal features displayed useful traits to deduce tissue origin: cell shape and size, trichome density and stomatal length. Chimera roots had a wholly tuberous and edible constitution with smaller starch granule size and similar distribution compared to cassava. Root size enlargement might have been due to an epigenetic effect. These results suggest a new line of improved crop based on the development of interspecific chimeras composed of different combinations of wild and cultivated species. It promises boosting cassava production through exceptional root enlargement. PMID:24615046

Bomfim, N; Nassar, N M A

2014-01-01

153

Production of oxalic acid by some fungi infected tubers.  

PubMed

Oxalic acid (as oxalate) was detected in four tubers commonly used for food in Nigeria-Dioscorea rotundata (White yam), Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato), Ipomoea batatas (Sweet potato), and Manihot esculenta (cassava). Whereas healthy I. batata had the highest oxalic acid content, healthy M. esculenta contained the lowest. When all tubers were artifically inoculated with four fungi-Penicillium oxalicum CURIE and THOM, Aspergillus niger VAN TIEGH, A. flavus and A. tamarii KITA, there was an increase in oxalate content/g of tuber tissue. The greatest amount of oxalate was produced by P. oxalicum in D. rotundata tuber. Consistently higher amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in infected sweet potato tuber than in any other tuber and consistently lower amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in Irish potato tuber. Differences in the carbohydrate type present in the tubers and in the biosynthesis pathway are thought to be responsible for variation in the production of oxalate in the different tubers by the four fungi used. PMID:6670294

Faboya, O; Ikotun, T; Fatoki, O S

1983-01-01

154

Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava. PMID:23661446

Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

2013-01-01

155

Infestation and population dynamics of insects on stored cassava and yams chips in Benin, West Africa.  

PubMed

Natural insect infestation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz subspecies esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) chips was evaluated during two consecutive storage seasons (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) in two agroecological zones of Benin (Northern Guinea Savanna [NGS] and Sudan Savanna [SS]). The insects infesting chips were collected, identified, and counted, they included Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). P. truncatus and C. quadricollis were observed with a higher prevalence on cassava than on yam chips. During both seasons after 3 mo of storage, all (100%) cassava chip samples were infested with P. truncatus and C. quadricollis in both agroecological zones, whereas yam chips only showed lower infestation rates of 59.5 and 19.1% for P. truncatus and C. quadricollis, respectively, at the end of storage in 2003-2004. During the 2004-2005 season after 3 mo of storage infestation rate in yam chips was 66 and 24% in NGS and 100 and 0% in SS for P. truncatus and C. quadricollis, respectively, showing that insect infestation levels vary significantly with commodity, year, and fluctuate during the storage season. PMID:19133481

Gnonlonfin, G J B; Hell, K; Siame, A B; Fandohan, P

2008-12-01

156

[Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].  

PubMed

Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles. PMID:24558867

Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

2013-11-01

157

Ultracytochemical localization of Ca ++ ATPase activity in the paraphyseal epithelial cells of the frog, Rana esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca++-ATPase activity was studied ultracytochemically (cf. Ando et al. 1981) in the paraphysis cerebri of the frog. An intense reaction was demonstrated on the plasmalemma of the microvilli at the apical pole of paraphyseal cells; in contrast, the basolateral plasmalemma showed only a slight staining. In addition, mitochondria, gap junctions, cilia, and cytoplasmic elements (e.g., microfilaments) displayed Ca++-ATPase activity. Variation

Satoki Ueno; Hikmet Umar; Heinz Joachim Bambauer; Manfred Ueck

1984-01-01

158

[The nature of urea transport across the skin of of Rana esculenta].  

PubMed

In several epithelial tissues such as toad bladder, gallbladder and human red cells, it has been established that urea movement implies a phloretin sensitive mediated transport. In the skin of the toad Bufo viridis also it has been described an active transport of urea. Our data, obtained on the frog skin seem to demonstrate the existence of some specific mechanism for urea transport towards the inside solution. In fact, two molecules having the some molecular diameter, such as urea and thiourea, show a large difference in permeability at low concentration. In addition 0.1 mM urea influxes and outfluxes, measured on paired skin halves in the absence of concentration gradient, exhibit an evident asymmetry. Further approaches with phloretin experiments were made in order to characterize the urea transport system. Phloretin (5.10(-4)M) added to the external solution significantly inhibits the urea influx. Little can be said at this time about the composition or kinetics of the carrier involved in the transport. PMID:6980654

Svelto, M; Casavola, V; Valenti, G; Lippe, C

1982-06-30

159

Anaerobiosis and the oxygen debt in an anuran amphibian, Rana esculenta (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1)Artificially ventilated curarised frogs consumed 23% less oxygen than animals breathing naturally but their respiratory quotient was significantly increased. Artificial ventilation maintained arterial oxygen tension at normal levels but arterial carbon dioxide tension fell significantly. When 90% of the haemoglobin was combined with carbon monoxide oxygen consumption was reduced by 40% and the respiratory quotient was increased.(2)During apnoea both normal

David R. Jones

1972-01-01

160

Selection of superior lentil (Lens esculenta M.) genotypes by assessing character association and genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Lentil is one of the most important pulse crops in the world as well as in Bangladesh. It is now considered a main component for training and body building practising in first world countries. Yield varies tremendously from year to year and location to location. Therefore, it is very important to find genotypes that perform consistently well even in ecological farming systems without any intercultural operations. Twenty lentil genotypes were tested during the period from November 2010 to March 2011 and from December 2011 to March 2012 with three replicates in each season to determine genetic variability, diversity, characters association, and selection indices for better grain yield. The experiment was conducted at the breeding field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study revealed that all the genotypes possess a high amount of genetic diversity. Plant height and 100-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield plant(-1) that was also confirmed by path analysis as the highest direct effect on grain yield. The genotypes BM-513 and BM-941 were found to be the best performer in both the seasons and were considered as consistent genotype. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters based on Euclidean distance following Ward's method and RAPD analysis. However, discriminant function analysis revealed a progressive increase in the efficiency of selection and BM-70 ranked as the best followed by the genotypes BM-739, BM-680, BM-185, and BM-513. These genotypes might be recommended for farmers' cultivation in ecological farming in Bangladesh. PMID:25580457

Nath, U K; Rani, Santona; Paul, M R; Alam, M N; Horneburg, B

2014-01-01

161

Selection of Superior Lentil (Lens esculenta M.) Genotypes by Assessing Character Association and Genetic Diversity  

PubMed Central

Lentil is one of the most important pulse crops in the world as well as in Bangladesh. It is now considered a main component for training and body building practising in first world countries. Yield varies tremendously from year to year and location to location. Therefore, it is very important to find genotypes that perform consistently well even in ecological farming systems without any intercultural operations. Twenty lentil genotypes were tested during the period from November 2010 to March 2011 and from December 2011 to March 2012 with three replicates in each season to determine genetic variability, diversity, characters association, and selection indices for better grain yield. The experiment was conducted at the breeding field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study revealed that all the genotypes possess a high amount of genetic diversity. Plant height and 100-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield plant?1 that was also confirmed by path analysis as the highest direct effect on grain yield. The genotypes BM-513 and BM-941 were found to be the best performer in both the seasons and were considered as consistent genotype. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters based on Euclidean distance following Ward's method and RAPD analysis. However, discriminant function analysis revealed a progressive increase in the efficiency of selection and BM-70 ranked as the best followed by the genotypes BM-739, BM-680, BM-185, and BM-513. These genotypes might be recommended for farmers' cultivation in ecological farming in Bangladesh. PMID:25580457

Nath, U. K.; Rani, Santona; Paul, M. R.; Alam, M. N.; Horneburg, B.

2014-01-01

162

Distribution of extracellular matrix macromolecules in the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum of the frog, Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

The axons of transected and re-apposed vestibulocochlear nerve of the frog, in contrast to mammalian species, regenerate and establish functional contacts within their original termination areas of the vestibular nuclear complex and the cerebellum. The lack of regenerative capability of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is partially attributed to various extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) and tenascin-R (TN-R), which exert inhibition on axon regeneration. In contrast to these molecules, hyaluronan (HA) was reported to be permissive for CNS regeneration. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, we investigated the distribution pattern of these molecules in the medial (MVN), lateral (LVN), superior and descending vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum of the frog and detected regional differences in the organization of the ECM. In the vestibular nuclear complex, pericellular condensation of the ECM, the perineuronal nets (PNNs) were recognizable in the LVN and MVN and were positive only for HA. The neuropil of the vestibular nuclei showed either a diffuse appearance with varying intensity of reactions, or dots and ring-like structures, which may represent the perinodal ECM of the vestibular fibers. In the cerebellum, indistinct PNNs that were only labeled for HA were present in the granular layer. Our findings suggest that the HA-rich, but CSPG and TN-R-free PNNs may be associated with the high degree of plasticity and regenerative potential of the amphibian vestibular system. PMID:24269935

Gaál, B; Rácz, É; Juhász, T; Holló, K; Matesz, C

2014-01-31

163

Predicting Prehistoric Taro (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum) Lo'i Distribution in Hawaii1  

E-print Network

JOCELYN G. MÜLLER*,2 , YELENA OGNEVA-HIMMELBERGER 3 , STEPHEN LLOYD 2 , AND J. MICHAEL REED 2 2 Biology growth (Dahl 1990). In Hawaii, the wetland conservation discourse is further complicated by limited fresh

Reed, Michael

164

Polyphenol Content and Modulatory Activities of Some Tropical Dietary Plant Extracts on the Oxidant Activities of Neutrophils and Myeloperoxidase  

PubMed Central

Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin) were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health. PMID:22312276

Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frederich, Michel; Kohnen, Stephane; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry

2012-01-01

165

Polyphenol content and modulatory activities of some tropical dietary plant extracts on the oxidant activities of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase.  

PubMed

Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin) were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health. PMID:22312276

Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frederich, Michel; Kohnen, Stephane; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry

2012-01-01

166

Cassava biology and physiology.  

PubMed

Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4 species, pointing to the need for further research on cultivated and wild Manihot to further improve its photosynthetic potential and yield,particularly under stressful environments. Moreover, a wide range in values of Km (CO2) for the C3 photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco was found among cassava cultivars indicating the possibility of selection for higher affinity to CO2, and consequently higher leaf photosynthesis. Several plant traits that may be of value in crop breeding and improvement have been identified, such as an extensive fine root system, long leaf life, strong root sink and high leaf photosynthesis. Selection of parental materials for tolerance to drought and infertile soils under representative field conditions have resulted in developing improved cultivars that have high yields in favorable environments while producing reasonable and stable yields under stress. PMID:15669146

El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

2004-11-01

167

Cassava: constraints to production and the transfer of biotechnology to African laboratories.  

PubMed

Knowledge and technology transfer to African institutes is an important objective to help achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Plant biotechnology in particular enables innovative advances in agriculture and industry, offering new prospects to promote the integration and dissemination of improved crops and their derivatives from developing countries into local markets and the global economy. There is also the need to broaden our knowledge and understanding of cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for approximately 500 million people living in developing countries. Unfortunately, it is subject to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses that impact on production, consumption, marketability and also local and country economics. To date, improvements to cassava have been led via conventional plant breeding programmes, but with advances in molecular-assisted breeding and plant biotechnology new tools are being developed to hasten the generation of improved farmer-preferred cultivars. In this review, we report on the current constraints to cassava production and knowledge acquisition in Africa, including a case study discussing the opportunities and challenges of a technology transfer programme established between the Mikocheni Agricultural Research Institute in Tanzania and Europe-based researchers. The establishment of cassava biotechnology platform(s) should promote research capabilities in African institutions and allow scientists autonomy to adapt cassava to suit local agro-ecosystems, ultimately serving to develop a sustainable biotechnology infrastructure in African countries. PMID:21212961

Bull, Simon E; Ndunguru, Joseph; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Beeching, John R; Vanderschuren, Hervé

2011-05-01

168

Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content1  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the expression and localization of linamarase in roots of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars of low and high cyanide. Two different patterns of linamarase activity were observed. In the low-cyanide type, young leaves displayed very high enzyme activity during the early plant growing stage (3 months), whereas in root peel, the activity increased progressively to reach a peak in 11-month-old plants. Conversely, in the high-cyanide cultivar (HCV), root peel linamarase activity decreased during the growth cycle, whereas in expanded leaves linamarase activity peaked in 11-month-old plants. The accumulation of linamarin showed a similar pattern in both cultivars, although a higher concentration was always found in the HCV. Linamarase was found mainly in laticifer cells of petioles and roots of both cultivars with no significant differences between them. At the subcellular level, there were sharp differences because linamarase was found mainly in the cell walls of the HCV, whereas in the low-cyanide cultivar, the enzyme was present in vacuoles and cell wall of laticifer cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed. PMID:12177481

Santana, María Angélica; Vásquez, Valeria; Matehus, Juan; Aldao, Rafael Rangel

2002-01-01

169

The BioCassava plus program: biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10%-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassava Plus (BC+) program has employed modern biotechnologies intended to improve the health of Africans through the development and delivery of genetically engineered cassava with increased nutrient (zinc, iron, protein, and vitamin A) levels. Additional traits addressed by BioCassava Plus include increased shelf life, reductions in toxic cyanogenic glycosides to safe levels, and resistance to viral disease. The program also provides incentives for the adoption of biofortified cassava. Proof of concept was achieved for each of the target traits. Results from field trials in Puerto Rico, the first confined field trials in Nigeria to use genetically engineered organisms, and ex ante impact analyses support the efficacy of using transgenic strategies for the biofortification of cassava. PMID:21526968

Sayre, Richard; Beeching, John R; Cahoon, Edgar B; Egesi, Chiedozie; Fauquet, Claude; Fellman, John; Fregene, Martin; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Mallowa, Sally; Manary, Mark; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Mbanaso, Ada; Schachtman, Daniel P; Siritunga, Dimuth; Taylor, Nigel; Vanderschuren, Herve; Zhang, Peng

2011-01-01

170

Starch grains reveal early root crop horticulture in the Panamanian tropical forest.  

PubMed

Native American populations are known to have cultivated a large number of plants and domesticated them for their starch-rich underground organs. Suggestions that the likely source of many of these crops, the tropical forest, was an early and influential centre of plant husbandry have long been controversial because the organic remains of roots and tubers are poorly preserved in archaeological sediments from the humid tropics. Here we report the occurrence of starch grains identifiable as manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), yams (Dioscorea sp.) and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.) on assemblages of plant milling stones from preceramic horizons at the Aguadulce Shelter, Panama, dated between 7,000 and 5,000 years before present (BP). The artefacts also contain maize starch (Zea mays L.), indicating that early horticultural systems in this region were mixtures of root and seed crops. The data provide the earliest direct evidence for root crop cultivation in the Americas, and support an ancient and independent emergence of plant domestication in the lowland Neotropical forest. PMID:11057665

Piperno, D R; Ranere, A J; Holst, I; Hansell, P

2000-10-19

171

Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama.  

PubMed

The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800-7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400-5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J; Cooke, Richard G

2007-02-27

172

Structural and functional analysis of hydroxynitrile lyase from Baliospermum montanum with crystal structure, molecular dynamics and enzyme kinetics.  

PubMed

Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) catalyze degradation of cyanohydrins to hydrogen cyanide and the corresponding ketone or aldehyde. HNLs can also catalyze the reverse reaction, i.e., synthesis of cyanohydrins. Although several crystal structures of S-selective hydroxynitrile lyases (S-HNLs) have been reported, it remains unknown whether and how dynamics at the active site of S-HNLs influence their broad substrate specificity and affinity. In this study, we analyzed the structure, dynamics and function of S-HNL from Baliospermum montanum (BmHNL), which has an ?/? hydrolase fold. Two crystal structures of BmHNL, apo1 and apo2, were determined at 2.55 and 1.9Å, respectively. Structural comparison between BmHNL (apo2) and S-HNL from Hevea brasiliensis with (S)-mandelonitrile bound to the active site revealed that hydrophobic residues at the entrance region of BmHNL formed hydrophobic interactions with the benzene ring of the substrate. The flexible structures of these hydrophobic residues were confirmed by a 15ns molecular dynamics simulation. This flexibility regulated the size of the active site cavity, enabling binding of various substrates to BmHNL. The high affinity of BmHNL toward substrates containing a benzene ring was also confirmed by comparing the kinetics of BmHNL and S-HNL from Manihot esculenta. Taken together, the results indicated that the flexibility and placement of the residues are important for the broad substrate specificity of S-HNLs. PMID:25220808

Nakano, Shogo; Dadashipour, Mohammad; Asano, Yasuhisa

2014-09-16

173

Effect of feeding cassava and/or Stylosanthes foliage on the performance of crossbred growing cattle.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS) fed ad libitum, 0.87 kg concentrate and 0.22 kg molasses on dry matter (DM) basis. The treatments were four supplements: soybean meal, cassava foliage, stylosanthes foliage or a mix of stylosanthes foliage and cassava foliage all giving the same nitrogen intake. The consumption of tannins and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were significantly higher in groups fed a mixture of foliages compared with only cassava foliage, respectively. There were 30% and 19%, respectively, higher live weight gain in the group fed a mixture of foliages as compared to the groups fed only cassava or stylosanthes. The factors of low organic matter and high level of HCN in the diet when feeding only cassava foliage might explain the negative effects on intake, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and nitrogen retention, and resulted in lower growth rates. PMID:19521793

Thang, C M; Ledin, I; Bertilsson, J

2010-01-01

174

Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a novel cystatin from Hevea rubber latex.  

PubMed

A novel cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase inhibitor or phytocystatin was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis RRIM600 rubber latex cDNA library. The full-length HbCPI obtained from rapid amplification of cDNA ends contains 588 bp. An open reading frame of 306 bp encodes for a protein of 101 amino acids with the typical inhibitory motifs of phytocystatin superfamily, namely the central signature motif QXVXG, a GG doublet and LARFAV-like motifs in the N-terminal part, and conserved A/PW residues in the C-terminal region. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acid sequence was similar to that of cysteine protease inhibitor from Manihot esculenta (84% identity). The HbCPI was subcloned into expression vector pQE-40 and then overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 strain (pREP4) as a His-tagged recombinant protein with molecular mass approximately 13 kDa. The purified HbCPI showed thermal stable property and efficiently inhibited the protease activity of papain by non-competitive inhibition with K(i) value of 15.4 nM. Beside latex, HbCPI also transcripted in leaf and young seed. The HbCPI message accumulation was induced by phytopathogenic fungi Phytophthora palmivora infection. These data suggest that HbCPI might play crucial roles in defense mechanism against biotic stimuli. PMID:21247772

Bangrak, Phuwadol; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

2011-03-01

175

Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Many edible plants are used in Cameroon since ancient time to control microbial infections. This study was designed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Methods The broth microdilution method was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and the Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) of the studied extracts. When chloramphenicol was used as a reference antibiotic, the MICs were also determined in the presence of Phenylalanine-Arginine ?-Naphtylamide (PA?N), an efflux pumps inhibitor (EPI). The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results All tested extracts exhibited antibacterial activities, with the MIC values varying from 128 to 1024 mg/L. The studied extracts showed large spectra of action, those from L. sativa, S. edule, C. pepo and S. nigrum being active on all the 29 bacterial strains tested meanwhile those from Amaranthus hybridus, Vernonia hymenolepsis, Lactuca.carpensis and Manihot esculenta were active on 96.55% of the strains used. The plant extracts were assessed for the presence of large classes of secondary metabolites: alkaloids, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenes. Each studied plant extract was found to contain compounds belonging to at least two of the above mentioned classes. Conclusion These results confirm the traditional claims and provide promising baseline information for the potential use of the tested vegetables in the fight against bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes. PMID:23368430

2013-01-01

176

Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.  

PubMed

Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

2014-01-01

177

Predicting the potential invasion suitability of regions to cassava lacebug pests (Heteroptera: Tingidae: Vatiga spp.).  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops for small farmers in the tropics, feeding about 800 million people worldwide. It is currently cultivated in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. The genus Vatiga is widespread throughout the Neotropical region. Its species are sympatric and feed exclusively on cassava. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to assess the potential distribution of Vatiga, one of the most relevant pests of cassava; (2) to project the resulting models onto the world; (3) to recognize areas with suitable and optimal climates (and thus, high probability) for future colonization, and (4) to compare this model with the harvested area of cassava analyzing the climatic variables required by both the host and the pest species. Species distribution models were built using Maxent (v3.3.3k) with bioclimatic variables from the WorldClim database in 2.5 arc min resolution across the globe. Our model shows that Vatiga has the potential to expand its current distribution into other suitable areas, and could invade other regions where cassava is already cultivated, e.g., Central Africa and Asia. Considering the results and the high host specificity of Vatiga, its recent appearance in Réunion Island (Africa) poses a serious threat, as nearby areas are potentially suitable for invasion and could serve as dispersal routes enabling Vatiga to reach the continent. The present work may help prevention or early detection of Vatiga spp. in areas where cassava is grown. PMID:25523908

Montemayor, S I; Dellapé, P M; Melo, M C

2015-04-01

178

Large-Scale Proteomics of the Cassava Storage Root and Identification of a Target Gene to Reduce Postharvest Deterioration[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We established a reliable method for image-based PPD symptom quantification and used label-free quantitative proteomics to generate an extensive cassava root and PPD proteome. Over 2600 unique proteins were identified in the cassava root, and nearly 300 proteins showed significant abundance regulation during PPD. We identified protein abundance modulation in pathways associated with oxidative stress, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (including scopoletin), the glutathione cycle, fatty acid ?-oxidation, folate transformation, and the sulfate reduction II pathway. Increasing protein abundances and enzymatic activities of glutathione-associated enzymes, including glutathione reductases, glutaredoxins, and glutathione S-transferases, indicated a key role for ascorbate/glutathione cycles. Based on combined proteomics data, enzymatic activities, and lipid peroxidation assays, we identified glutathione peroxidase as a candidate for reducing PPD. Transgenic cassava overexpressing a cytosolic glutathione peroxidase in storage roots showed delayed PPD and reduced lipid peroxidation as well as decreased H2O2 accumulation. Quantitative proteomics data from ethene and phenylpropanoid pathways indicate additional gene candidates to further delay PPD. Cassava root proteomics data are available at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch for easy access and comparison with other proteomics data. PMID:24876255

Vanderschuren, Hervé; Nyaboga, Evans; Poon, Jacquelyne S.; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Nanni, Paolo; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2014-01-01

179

Parakari, an indigenous fermented beverage using amylolytic Rhizopus in Guyana.  

PubMed

The alcoholic beverage parakari is a product of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation by Amerindians of Guyana. While fermented beverage production is nearly universal among indigenous Amazonians, parakari is unique among New World beverages because it involves the use of an amylolytic mold (Rhizopus sp., Mucoraceae, Zygomycota) followed by a solid substratum ethanol fermentation. The mycological significance of this dual fermentation process previously was unrecognized. A detailed study of parakari fermentation was made in the Wapisiana Amerindian village of Aishalton, South Rupununi, Guyana. Thirty steps were involved in parakari manufacture, and these exhibited a high degree of sophistication, including the use of specific cassava varieties, control of culture temperature and boosting of Rhizopus inoculum potential with purified starch additives. During the fermentation process, changes in glucose content, pH, flavor, odor and culture characteristics were concomitant with a desirable finished product. Parakari is the only known example of an indigenous New World fermentation that uses an amylolytic mold, likely resulting from domestication of a wild Rhizopus species in the distant past. Parakari production is remarkably similar to dual fermentations of Asia, yet it was independently derived. PMID:16389951

Henkel, Terry W

2005-01-01

180

Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation  

PubMed Central

Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Cepon-Robins, Tara J.; Gildner, Theresa E.; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

2014-01-01

181

Molecular cloning and expression of a novel MYB transcription factor gene in rubber tree.  

PubMed

MYB family proteins regulate a variety of cellular processes in plants. Tapping panel dryness (TPD) in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) affects latex biosynthesis and causes serious losses to rubber producers. In this study, a novel SANT/MYB transcription factor gene down-regulated in TPD rubber tree, named as HbSM1, was isolated from rubber tree. The complete HbSM1 open reading frame (ORF) was 948 bp in length. The deduced HbSM1 protein is 315 amino acids. HbSM1 belonged to 1RMYB subfamily with a single SANT domain. Sequence alignment revealed that HbSM1 had high homology with MYB members from Ricinus communis and Manihot esculenta, with 72 and 78 % identity, respectively. Moreover, HbSM1 shared 56 % identity with Glycine max GmMYB176. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbSM1, GmMYB176, rice OsMYBS2, and OsMYBS3 fell into the same cluster with 93 % bootstrap support value. Comparing expression among different tissues demonstrated that HbSM1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, but it appeared to be preferentially expressed in leaf and latex. Furthermore, HbSM1 transcripts were significantly induced by various phytohormones (including gibberellic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid) and wounding treatments. These results suggested that HbSM1 might play multiple roles in plant development via different phytohormones signaling pathways. PMID:25195053

Qin, Bi; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Meng

2014-12-01

182

Transcriptional Response of Virus-Infected Cassava and Identification of Putative Sources of Resistance for Cassava Brown Streak Disease  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

Maruthi, M. N.; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A.; Mohammed, Ibrahim U.; Hillocks, Rory J.

2014-01-01

183

Metabolic Engineering of Valine- and Isoleucine-Derived Glucosinolates in Arabidopsis Expressing CYP79D2 from Cassava  

PubMed Central

Glucosinolates are amino acid-derived natural products that, upon hydrolysis, typically release isothiocyanates with a wide range of biological activities. Glucosinolates play a role in plant defense as attractants and deterrents against herbivores and pathogens. A key step in glucosinolate biosynthesis is the conversion of amino acids to the corresponding aldoximes, which is catalyzed by cytochromes P450 belonging to the CYP79 family. Expression of CYP79D2 from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) in Arabidopsis resulted in the production of valine (Val)- and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates not normally found in this ecotype. The transgenic lines showed no morphological phenotype, and the level of endogenous glucosinolates was not affected. The novel glucosinolates were shown to constitute up to 35% of the total glucosinolate content in mature rosette leaves and up to 48% in old leaves. Furthermore, at increased concentrations of these glucosinolates, the proportion of Val-derived glucosinolates decreased. As the isothiocyanates produced from the Val- and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates are volatile, metabolically engineered plants producing these glucosinolates have acquired novel properties with great potential for improvement of resistance to herbivorous insects and for biofumigation. PMID:12586901

Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Halkier, Barbara Ann

2003-01-01

184

Tuber Storage Proteins  

PubMed Central

A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose?binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

SHEWRY, PETER R.

2003-01-01

185

Cyanide detoxification in cassava for food and feed uses.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important tropical root crop providing energy to about 500 million people. The presence of the two cyanogenic glycosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, in cassava is a major factor limiting its use as food or feed. Traditional processing techniques practiced in cassava production are known to reduce cyanide in tubers and leaves. Drying is the most ubiquitous processing operation in many tropical countries. Sun drying eliminates more cyanide than oven drying because of the prolonged contact time between linamarase and the glucosides in sun drying. Soaking followed by boiling is better than soaking or boiling alone in removing cyanide. Traditional African food products such as gari and fufu are made by a series of operations such as grating, dewatering, fermenting, and roasting. During the various stages of gari manufacture, 80 to 95% cyanide loss occurs. The best processing method for the use of cassava leaves as human food is pounding the leaves and cooking the mash in water. Fermentation, boiling, and ensiling are efficient techniques for removing cyanide from cassava peels. PMID:7576161

Padmaja, G

1995-07-01

186

Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.  

PubMed

Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms. PMID:23144242

Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

2012-10-01

187

Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress  

PubMed Central

The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Tohme, Joe

2013-01-01

188

Moisture-pressure combination treatments for cyanide reduction in grated cassava.  

PubMed

Several cyanide-associated health disorders have been linked with frequent consumption of mildly toxic cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) products in individuals on a low-protein diet. Production of bread from cassava often involves application of prolonged physical pressure (pressing) to the freshly grated root for several hours. This study aimed to determine effects of pressure and wetting on grated cassava. Six treatments were applied: confining pressure for 12 h, wetting for 4 h at 25 °C, 2 h at 25 °C, 2 h at 40 °C, and 2 h at 50 °C, or each of the above followed by pressure for 12 h. Treatments released cyanide from samples in the order: 2-h wet at 50 °C + pressing >4-h wet at 25 °C + pressing = 2-h wet at 40 °C + pressing >2-h wet at 25 °C + pressing = 4-h wet at 25 °C >12-h pressing. Wetting for 2 h at 50 °C followed by pressure for 12 h reduced cyanide levels by at least 20% more than that of any other treatment. The combination of moisture and pressure enhanced the contact time between linamarin and linamarase to increase the release of hydrogen cyanide. PMID:21535726

Harris, Mark Anglin; Koomson, Charles Kofi

2011-01-01

189

Development of a cassava core collection based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in the largest cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm collection from Brazil to develop core collections based on the maximization strategy. Subsets with 61, 64, 84, 128, 256, and 384 cassava accessions were selected and named PoHEU, MST64, PoRAN, MST128, MST256, and MST384, respectively. All the 798 alleles identified by 402 SNP markers in the entire collection were captured in all core collections. Only small alterations in the diversity parameters were observed for the different core collections compared with the complete collection. Because of the optimal adjustment of the validation parameters representative of the complete collection, the absence of genotypes with high genetic similarity and the maximization of the genetic distances between accessions of the PoHEU core collection, which contained 4.7% of the accessions of the complete collection, maximized the genetic conservation of this important cassava collection. Furthermore, the development of this core collection will allow concentrated efforts toward future characterization and agronomic evaluation of accessions to maximize the diversity and genetic gains in cassava breeding programs. PMID:25158266

Oliveira, E J; Ferreira, C F; Santos, V S; Oliveira, G A F

2014-01-01

190

Phytic acid in green leaves.  

PubMed

Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

2014-07-01

191

Large-Scale Proteomics of the Cassava Storage Root and Identification of a Target Gene to Reduce Postharvest Deterioration.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We established a reliable method for image-based PPD symptom quantification and used label-free quantitative proteomics to generate an extensive cassava root and PPD proteome. Over 2600 unique proteins were identified in the cassava root, and nearly 300 proteins showed significant abundance regulation during PPD. We identified protein abundance modulation in pathways associated with oxidative stress, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (including scopoletin), the glutathione cycle, fatty acid ?-oxidation, folate transformation, and the sulfate reduction II pathway. Increasing protein abundances and enzymatic activities of glutathione-associated enzymes, including glutathione reductases, glutaredoxins, and glutathione S-transferases, indicated a key role for ascorbate/glutathione cycles. Based on combined proteomics data, enzymatic activities, and lipid peroxidation assays, we identified glutathione peroxidase as a candidate for reducing PPD. Transgenic cassava overexpressing a cytosolic glutathione peroxidase in storage roots showed delayed PPD and reduced lipid peroxidation as well as decreased H2O2 accumulation. Quantitative proteomics data from ethene and phenylpropanoid pathways indicate additional gene candidates to further delay PPD. Cassava root proteomics data are available at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch for easy access and comparison with other proteomics data. PMID:24876255

Vanderschuren, Hervé; Nyaboga, Evans; Poon, Jacquelyne S; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Nanni, Paolo; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2014-05-29

192

Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama  

PubMed Central

The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800–7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400–5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J.; Cooke, Richard G.

2007-01-01

193

Nutrient content of young cassava leaves and assessment of their acceptance as a green vegetable in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves contained a high level of crude protein (29.3-32.4% dry weight) compared to a conventional vegetable, Amaranthus (19.6%). Ash was 4.6-6.4% in cassava leaf samples but 13.1% dry weight in Amaranthus. Dietary fibre was very high in all samples (26.9-39% dry weight) while HCN-potential was low (5.1-12.6 mg/100 g dry weight). Tannin was the highest in IITA red cassava leaves (29.7 mg/g) and the lowest in Amaranthus vegetable. In vitro digestibility was very low in oven dried samples (15.6-22.7%). Blanching increased protein content (except Amaranthus) and in vitro protein digestibility but decreased ash, minerals, dietary fibre and tannin, while HCN-potential was unchanged. Grinding reduced both HCN-potential and tannin by 84 and 71% respectively while oven drying only reduced the HCN content marginally. Preference studies showed that the highest percentage of respondents (25.3%) preferred Amaranthus vegetable, followed by Celosia (17.5%), Talinum (12.4%), garden egg (11.5%), with cassava leaves as the least (0.5%). Organoleptic evaluation rated cassava leaf soup inferior to Amaranthus in terms of appearance, colour and texture but equal in terms of taste and flavour and overall acceptability. PMID:7784394

Awoyinka, A F; Abegunde, V O; Adewusi, S R

1995-01-01

194

Isolation and characterization of ethanol-producing Schizosaccharomyces pombe CHFY0201.  

PubMed

Ethanol-producing yeast strain, CHFY0201 was isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w/v) ethanol at 30 degrees C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rDNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1+2 regions suggested that the CHFY0201 was novel strain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. pombe CHFY0201 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 0.59 +/- 0.01 g/l/h and 88.4 +/- 0.91%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 degrees C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 120 rpm. Under these conditions, S. pombe CHFY0201 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 72.1 +/- 0.27 g/l and a theoretical yield of 82.7 +/- 1.52% at a maximum ethanol productivity of 1.16 +/- 0.07 g/l/h. These results suggest that S. pombe CHFY0201 is a potential producer for industrial bioethanol production. PMID:20467261

Choi, Gi-Wook; Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Chung, Bong-Woo; Kim, Yang-Hoon

2010-04-01

195

Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 ?Sv y(-1)). PMID:24814722

Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M

2014-09-01

196

Spatial distribution of mercury and arsenic levels in water, soil and cassava plants in a community with long history of gold mining in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study examined the spatial distribution of total mercury (THg) and total arsenic (TAs) in water, soil and cassava (Manihot esculenta) (leaves and roots) samples taken from areas in Rwamagasa village in northwestern Tanzania where daily living activities occur in close proximity to extensive artisanal and small scale gold mining. Results indicated that 33.3 % of the water sources had THg levels above the WHO guideline of 1.0 µg/L for safe drinking water, and 12.5 % had TAs levels above 10 µg/L. Cassava leaves were found to have higher THg (ranging from 8.3 to 167 µg/kg) and TAs (ranging from 60 to 1,120 µg/kg) levels than cassava roots, which ranged between 1.2-8.3 µg/kg for THg and 25-310 µg/kg for TAs. Concentrations of THg and TAs in soil samples ranged between 5.8-1,759 and 183-20,298 µg/kg, respectively. Both THg and TAs were found to be distributed throughout Rwamagasa village. PMID:24923470

Nyanza, Elias C; Dewey, Deborah; Thomas, Deborah S K; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

2014-12-01

197

Sorption of cadmium(II) and zinc(II) ions from aqueous solutions by cassava waste biomass (Manihot sculenta Cranz).  

PubMed

The sorption of two divalent metal ions, Cd(II) and Zn(II), onto untreated and differentially acid-treated cassava waste biomass over a wide range of reaction conditions was studied at 30 degrees C. The metal ion removal from the spent biomass was also measured. The batch experiments show that pH 4.5-5.5 was the best range for the sorption of the metal ions for untreated and acid-treated biomass. Time-dependent experiments for the metal ions showed that for the two metals examined, binding to the cassava waste biomass was rapid and occurred within 30 min and completed within 1h. High sorption capacities were observed for the two metals. The binding capacity experiments revealed the following amounts of metal ions bound per gram of biomass: 86.68 mg/g Cd, 55.82 mg/g Zn and 647.48 mg/g Cd, 559.74 mg/g Zn for untreated and acid-treated biomass, respectively. It was further found that the rate of sorption was particle-diffusion controlled, and the sorption rate coefficients were determined to be 2.30 x 10(-1)min(-1) (Cd(2+)), 4.0 x 10(-3)min(-1) (Zn(2+)) and 1.09 x 10(-1)min(-1) (Cd(2+)), 3.67 x 10(-2)min(-1) (Zn(2+)) for 0.5 and 1.00 M differential acid treatment, respectively. Desorption studies showed that acid treatment inhibited effective recovery of metal ions already bound to the biomass as a result of stronger sulfhydryl-metal bonds formed. Less than 25% of both metals were desorbed as concentration of acid treating reagent increases. However, over 60% Cd and 40% Zn were recovered from untreated biomass during the desorption study. The results from these studies indicated that both untreated and acid-treated cassava waste biomass could be employed in the removal of toxic and valuable metals from industrial effluents. PMID:14604637

Horsfall, M; Abia, A A

2003-12-01

198

Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5?×?2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others. PMID:25190840

Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

2014-09-01

199

A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of

Xin Shen; Xiaoyin Ma; Jianfeng Ren; Fangqing Zhao

2009-01-01

200

Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

1990-09-01

201

Empowering biotechnology in southern Africa: establishment of a robust transformation platform for the production of transgenic industry-preferred cassava.  

PubMed

Knowledge and technology transfer to African laboratories and farmers is an important objective for achieving food security and sustainable crop production on the sub-Saharan African continent. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for more than a billion people in developing countries, and its potential industrial use for starch and bioethanol in the tropics is increasingly being recognized. However, cassava production remains constrained by the susceptibility of the crop to several biotic and abiotic stresses. For more than a decade, biotechnology has been considered an attractive tool to improve cassava as it substantially circumvents the limitations of traditional breeding, which is particularly time-consuming and tedious because of the high heterozygosity of the crop. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite some success achieved in genetic modification of the model cassava cultivar Tropical Manihot Series (TMS), TMS 60444, in some European and U.S. laboratories, the lack of a reproducible and robust protocol has not allowed the establishment of a routine transformation system in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we optimized a robust and efficient protocol developed at ETH Zurich to successfully establish transformation of a commercially cultivated South African landrace, T200, and compared this with the benchmark model cultivar TMS 60444. Results from our study demonstrated high transformation rates for both T200 (23 transgenic lines from 100 friable embryogenic callus (FEC) clusters) compared with TMS 60444 (32 transgenic lines from 100 FEC clusters). The success in transforming landraces or farmer-preferred cultivars has been limited, and the high transformation rate of an industry-preferred landrace in this study is encouraging for a feasible transformation program for cassava improvement in South Africa (SA), which can potentially be extended to other countries in southern Africa. The successful establishment of a robust cassava transformation and regeneration system in SA demonstrates the relevance of technology transfer to sub-Saharan Africa and highlights the importance of developing suitable and reliable techniques before their transfer to laboratories offering less optimal conditions. PMID:22683498

Chetty, C C; Rossin, C B; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H; Rey, M E C

2013-01-25

202

Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest that TRP fed as pellets could be used to decrease methane production. PMID:25568379

Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

2015-01-01

203

Treatment of cyanide-containing wastewater from the food industry in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed methanogenic reactor.  

PubMed

During the process of producing cassava starch from Manihot esculenta roots, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released, which rapidly decayed to CN- following enzymatic hydrolysis. Depending on the varying cyanoglycoside content of the cassava varieties, the cyanide concentration in the wastewater was as high as 200 mg/l. To simulate anaerobic stabilization, a wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of about 20 g/l was prepared from cassava roots and was fermented in a fixed-bed methanogenic reactor. The start-up phase for a 99% degradation of low concentrations of cyanide (10 mg/l) required about 6 months. After establishment of the biofilm, a cyanide concentration of up to 150 mg CN-/l in the fresh wastewater was degraded during anaerobic treatment at a hydraulic retention time of 3 days. All nitrogen from the degraded cyanide was converted to organic nitrogen by the biomass of the effluent. The cyanide-degrading biocoenosis of the anaerobic reactor could tolerate shock concentrations of cyanide up to 240 mg CN-/l for a short time. Up to 5 mmol/l NH4Cl (i.e. 70 mg N/l = 265 mg NH4Cl/l) in the fresh wastewater did not affect cyanide degradation. The bleaching agent sulphite, however, had a negative effect on COD and cyanide removal. For anaerobic treatment, the maximum COD space loading was 12 g l-1 day-1, equivalent to a hydraulic retention time of 1.8 days. The COD removal efficiency was around 90%. The maximum permanent cyanide space loading was 50 mg CN- l-1 day-1, with tolerable shock loadings up to 75 mg CN- l-1 day-1. Under steady-state conditions, the cyanide concentration of the effluent was lower than 0.5 mg/l. PMID:9534260

Siller, H; Winter, J

1998-02-01

204

Enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Overproduction of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Delays Postharvest Physiological Deterioration of Cassava Storage Roots1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava. PMID:23344905

Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R.; Zhang, Peng

2013-01-01

205

Informal “Seed” Systems and the Management of Gene Flow in Traditional Agroecosystems: The Case of Cassava in Cauca, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Our ability to manage gene flow within traditional agroecosystems and their repercussions requires understanding the biology of crops, including farming practices' role in crop ecology. That these practices' effects on crop population genetics have not been quantified bespeaks lack of an appropriate analytical framework. We use a model that construes seed-management practices as part of a crop's demography to describe the dynamics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Cauca, Colombia. We quantify several management practices for cassava—the first estimates of their kind for a vegetatively-propagated crop—describe their demographic repercussions, and compare them to those of maize, a sexually-reproduced grain crop. We discuss the implications for gene flow, the conservation of cassava diversity, and the biosafety of vegetatively-propagated crops in centers of diversity. Cassava populations are surprisingly open and dynamic: farmers exchange germplasm across localities, particularly improved varieties, and distribute it among neighbors at extremely high rates vis-à-vis maize. This implies that a large portion of cassava populations consists of non-local germplasm, often grown in mixed stands with local varieties. Gene flow from this germplasm into local seed banks and gene pools via pollen has been documented, but its extent remains uncertain. In sum, cassava's biology and vegetative propagation might facilitate pre-release confinement of genetically-modified varieties, as expected, but simultaneously contribute to their diffusion across traditional agroecosystems if released. Genetically-modified cassava is unlikely to displace landraces or compromise their diversity; but rapid diffusion of improved germplasm and subsequent incorporation into cassava landraces, seed banks or wild populations could obstruct the tracking and eradication of deleterious transgenes. Attempts to regulate traditional farming practices to reduce the risks could compromise cassava populations' adaptive potential and ultimately prove ineffectual. PMID:22174952

Dyer, George A.; González, Carolina; Lopera, Diana Carolina

2011-01-01

206

Conservation and divergence of microRNAs and their functions in Euphorbiaceous plants  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ?21 nt non-coding RNAs which regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are key regulators of nearly all essential biological processes. Aiming at understanding miRNA’s functions in Euphorbiaceae, a large flowering plant family, we performed a genome-scale systematic study of miRNAs in Euphorbiaceae, by combining computational prediction and experimental analysis to overcome the difficulty of lack of genomes for most Euphorbiaceous species. Specifically, we predicted 85 conserved miRNAs in 23 families in the Castor bean (Ricinus communis), and experimentally verified and characterized 58 (68.2%) of the 85 miRNAs in at least one of four Euphorbiaceous species, the Castor bean, the Cassava (Manihot esculenta), the Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) during normal seedling development. To elucidate their function in stress response, we verified and profiled 48 (56.5%) of the 85 miRNAs under cold and drought stresses as well as during the processes of stress recovery. The results revealed some species- and condition-specific miRNA expression patterns. Finally, we predicted 258 miRNA:target partners, and identified the cleavage sites of six out of ten miRNA targets by a modified 5? RACE. This study produced the first collection of miRNAs and their targets in Euphorbiaceae. Our results revealed wide conservation of many miRNAs and diverse functions in Euphorbiaceous plants during seedling growth and in response to abiotic stresses. PMID:19942686

Zeng, Changying; Wang, Wenquan; Zheng, Yun; Chen, Xin; Bo, Weiping; Song, Shun; Zhang, Weixiong; Peng, Ming

2010-01-01

207

Conversion of sterically demanding ?,?-disubstituted phenylacetonitriles by the arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191.  

PubMed

The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile, which contains a quaternary carbon atom in the ?-position toward the nitrile group, and also similar sterically demanding substrates, such as 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionitrile (acetophenone cyanohydrin) or 2-acetyloxy-2-methylphenylacetonitrile. 2-Methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile was hydrolyzed to almost stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding acid. Acetophenone cyanohydrin was transformed to the corresponding acid (atrolactate) and amide (atrolactamide) at a ratio of about 3.4:1. The (R)-acid and the (S)-amide were formed preferentially from acetophenone cyanohydrin. A homology model of the nitrilase suggested that steric hindrance with amino acid residue Tyr54 could impair the binding or conversion of sterically demanding substrates. Therefore, several enzyme variants that carried mutations in the respective residues were generated and subsequently analyzed for the substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of the reactions. Enzyme variants that demonstrated increased relative activities for the conversion of acetophenone cyanohydrin were identified. The chiral analysis of these reactions demonstrated peculiar reaction kinetics, which suggested that the enzyme variants converted the nonpreferred (S)-enantiomer of acetophenone cyanohydrin with a higher reaction rate than that of the (preferred) (R)-enantiomer. Recombinant whole-cell catalysts that simultaneously produced the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191 and a plant-derived (S)-oxynitrilase from cassava (Manihot esculenta) converted acetophenone plus cyanide at pH 4.5 to (S)-atrolactate and (S)-atrolactamide. These recombinant cells are promising catalysts for the synthesis of stable chiral quaternary carbon centers from ketones. PMID:22020513

Baum, Stefanie; Williamson, Dael S; Sewell, Trevor; Stolz, Andreas

2012-01-01

208

Correlation of chemical compositions of cassava varieties to their resistance to Prostephanus truncatus horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).  

PubMed

The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0-10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ?10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index <0.8 and were classified as resistant to larger grain borer damage, while others with selection index >0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas. PMID:25700536

Osipitan, Adebola A; Sangowusi, Victoria T; Lawal, Omoniyi I; Popoola, Kehinde O

2015-01-01

209

Improvement of the amides forming capacity of the arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 by site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed

The influence of different amino acid substitutions in the nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 (NitA) on the catalytical activity and the ability to form amides was investigated. The enzyme variant Glu137Ala was constructed because glutamate residues homologous to Glu137 are highly conserved among different members of the nitrilase superfamily and it has been suggested that these residues are indispensable for the hydrolysis of amides by enzymes belonging to the nitrilase superfamily. The enzyme variant Glu137Ala demonstrated less than 1 % of the wild-type activity but was still enzymatically competent to convert mandelonitrile to mandelic acid and mandeloamide. The tryptophan residue at position 188, which was previously identified as important for the amide forming capacity of the nitrilase, was exchanged by saturation mutagenesis for all other proteinogenic amino acids. Surprisingly, 18 of these 19 exchanges resulted in an increased formation of mandeloamide from (R,S)-mandelonitrile and three of these variants converted (R,S)-mandelonitrile to more than 90 % of mandeloamide. Furthermore, these modifications also resulted in a reversal of stereoselectivity and these variants formed in contrast to the wild-type enzyme and almost all other known nitrilases preferentially (S)-mandelic acid. The synthetic potential of one of these variants was demonstrated by the construction of recombinant E. coli clones which simultaneously expressed the nitrilase variant and the (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase (oxynitrilase) from the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). These "bienzymatic catalysts" converted benzaldehyde plus cyanide almost exclusively to (S)-mandeloamide and did not show any inhibition in the presence of cyanide in concentrations up to 200 mM. PMID:25248440

Sosedov, Olga; Stolz, Andreas

2015-03-01

210

Putative storage root specific promoters from cassava and yam: cloning and evaluation in transgenic carrots as a model system.  

PubMed

A prerequisite for biotechnological improvements of storage roots is the availability of tissue-specific promoters enabling high expression of transgenes. In this work, we cloned two genomic fragments, pMe1 and pDJ3S, controlling the expression of a gene with unknown function from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and of the storage protein dioscorin 3 small subunit gene from yam (Dioscorea japonica), respectively. Using beta-glucuronidase as a reporter, the activities of pMe1 and pDJ3S were evaluated in independent transgenic carrot lines and compared to the constitutive CaMV35S and the previously described cassava p15 promoters. Activities of pMe1 and pDJ3S in storage roots were assessed using quantitative GUS assays that showed pDJ3S as the most active one. To determine organ specificities, uidA transcript levels in leaves, stems and roots were measured by real-time RT-PCR analyses showing highest storage root specificity for pDJ3S. Root cross sections revealed that pMe1 was highly active in secondary xylem. In contrast, pDJ3S was active in all root tissues except for the central xylem. The expression patterns caused by the cassava p15 promoter in carrot storage roots were consistent with its previously described activities for the original storage organ. Our data demonstrate that the pDJ3S and, to a lesser extent, the pMe1 regulatory sequences represent feasible candidates to drive high and preferential expression of genes in carrot storage roots. PMID:20369359

Arango, Jacobo; Salazar, Bertha; Welsch, Ralf; Sarmiento, Felipe; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

2010-06-01

211

Influence of material structure on air-borne ultrasonic application in drying.  

PubMed

This work aims to contribute to the understanding of how the properties of the material being dried affect air-borne ultrasonic application. To this end, the experimental drying kinetics (40°C and 1m/s) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and apple (Malus domestica var. Granny Smith) were carried out applying different ultrasonic powers (0, 6, 12, 19, 25 and 31 kW/m(3)). Furthermore, the power ultrasound-assisted drying kinetics of different fruits and vegetables (potato, eggplant, carrot, orange and lemon peel) already reported in previous studies were also analyzed. The structural, textural and acoustic properties of all these products were assessed, and the drying kinetics modeled by means of the diffusion theory. A significant linear correlation (r>0.95) was established between the identified effective diffusivity (DW) and the applied ultrasonic power for the different products. The slope of this relationship (SDUP) was used as an index of the effectiveness of the ultrasonic application; thus the higher the SDUP, the more effective the ultrasound application. SDUP was well correlated (r ? 0.95) with the porosity and hardness. In addition, SDUP was largely affected by the acoustic impedance of the material being dried, showing a similar pattern with the impedance than the transmission coefficient of the acoustic energy on the interface. Thus, soft and open-porous product structures exhibited a better transmission of acoustic energy and were more prone to the mechanical effects of ultrasound. However, materials with a hard and closed-compact structure were less affected by acoustic energy due to the fact that the significant impedance differences between the product and the air cause high energy losses on the interface. PMID:24411471

Ozuna, César; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás; Riera, Enrique; Cárcel, Juan A; Garcia-Perez, Jose V

2014-05-01

212

Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops  

SciTech Connect

Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

1982-09-01

213

Molecular cloning and characterization of a cassava translationally controlled tumor protein gene potentially related to salt stress response.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important tropical crops showing tolerance to abiotic stress and adaptations to a wide range of environmental conditions. Here, we aimed to isolate and characterize the full-length cDNA and genomic sequences of a cassava translationally controlled tumor protein gene (MeTCTP), and evaluate its potential role in response to salt stress. The MeTCTP full-length cDNA sequence encodes for a deduced protein with 168 amino acid residues, with theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 4.53 and 19 kDa, respectively, containing two putative signatures of TCTP family and one site for myristoylation. The MeTCTP genomic sequence includes four introns and five exons within a 1,643 bp coding region, and a 264 bp partial promoter sequence containing several putative cis-acting regulatory elements, among them, two putative GT-1 motifs, which may be related to response to sodium chloride (NaCl) and pathogen infection. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeTCTP transcripts were higher in roots than leaves, and were significantly increased in detached leaves treated with NaCl. Furthermore, the recombinant MeTCTP conferred a protective function against salt stress in bacterial cells. We report for the first time the molecular cloning and characterization of a cassava TCTP with potential role in salt-stress response. Since salinity is one the most important abiotic factors affecting the production of crops worldwide, the MeTCTP gene could be a candidate gene for generation of salt tolerant crops. PMID:24413992

Santa Brígida, Ailton Borges; dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteirou; Cardoso, Cristina Michiko Yokoyama; Lima, Aline Medeiros; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

2014-03-01

214

Whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (WGD), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. Detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. Established methods for reconstructing WGDs include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, KS age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions. Results By analysing 67 completely sequenced plant genomes 775 myosins were identified and manually assembled. Phylogenetic trees of the myosin motor domains revealed orthologous and paralogous relationships and were consistent with recent species trees. Based on the myosin inventories and the phylogenetic trees, we have identified duplications of the entire myosin motor protein family at timings consistent with 23 WGDs, that had been reported before. We also predict 6 WGDs based on further protein family duplications. Notably, the myosin data support the two recently reported WGDs in the common ancestor of all extant angiosperms. We predict single WGDs in the Manihot esculenta and Nicotiana benthamiana lineages, two WGDs for Linum usitatissimum and Phoenix dactylifera, and a triplication or two WGDs for Gossypium raimondii. Our data show another myosin duplication in the ancestor of the angiosperms that could be either the result of a single gene duplication or a remnant of a WGD. Conclusions We have shown that the myosin inventories in angiosperms retain evidence of numerous WGDs that happened throughout plant evolution. In contrast to other protein families, many myosins are still present in extant species. They are closely related and have similar domain architectures, and their phylogenetic grouping follows the genome duplications. Because of its broad taxonomic sampling the dataset provides the basis for reliable future identification of further whole genome duplications. PMID:24053117

2013-01-01

215

Developmenrt of EST-SSR and genomic-SSR markers to assess genetic diversity in Jatropha Curcas L.  

PubMed Central

Background Jatropha curcas L. has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide, regarding its potential as a new biodiesel crop. However, the understanding of this crop remains very limited and little genomic research has been done. We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that could be transferred from Manihot esculenta (cassava) to analyze the genetic relationships among 45 accessions of J. curcas from our germplasm collection. Results In total, 187 out of 419 expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR and 54 out of 182 genomic (G)-SSR markers from cassava were polymorphic among the J. curcas accessions. The EST-SSR markers comprised 26.20% dinucleotide repeats, 57.75% trinucleotide repeats, 7.49% tetranucleotide repeats, and 8.56% pentanucleotide repeats, whereas the majority of the G-SSR markers were dinucleotide repeats (62.96%). The 187 EST-SSRs resided in genes that are involved mainly in biological and metabolic processes. Thirty-six EST-SSRs and 20 G-SSRs were chosen to analyze the genetic diversity among 45 J. curcas accessions. A total of 183 polymorphic alleles were detected. On the basis of the distribution of these polymorphic alleles, the 45 accessions were classified into six groups, in which the genotype showed a correlation with geographic origin. The estimated mean genetic diversity index was 0.5572, which suggests that our J. curcas germplasm collection has a high level of genetic diversity. This should facilitate subsequent studies on genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Conclusion We identified 241 novel EST-SSR and G-SSR markers in J. curcas, which should be useful for genetic mapping and quantitative trait loci analysis of important agronomic traits. By using these markers, we found that the intergroup gene diversity of J. curcas was greater than the intragroup diversity, and that the domestication of the species probably occurred partly in America and partly in Hainan, China. PMID:20181259

2010-01-01

216

Biosynthesis of the Nitrile Glucosides Rhodiocyanoside A and D and the Cyanogenic Glucosides Lotaustralin and Linamarin in Lotus japonicus1  

PubMed Central

Lotus japonicus was shown to contain the two nitrile glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and rhodiocyanoside D as well as the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. The content of cyanogenic and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus depends on plant developmental stage and tissue. The cyanide potential is highest in young seedlings and in apical leaves of mature plants. Roots and seeds are acyanogenic. Biosynthetic studies using radioisotopes demonstrated that lotaustralin, rhodiocyanoside A, and rhodiocyanoside D are derived from the amino acid l-Ile, whereas linamarin is derived from Val. In silico homology searches identified two cytochromes P450 designated CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 in L. japonicus. The two cytochromes P450 are 94% identical at the amino acid level and both catalyze the conversion of Val and Ile to the corresponding aldoximes in biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus. CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 are differentially expressed. CYP79D3 is exclusively expressed in aerial parts and CYP79D4 in roots. Recombinantly expressed CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 in yeast cells showed higher catalytic efficiency with l-Ile as substrate than with l-Val, in agreement with lotaustralin and rhodiocyanoside A and D being the major cyanogenic and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus. Ectopic expression of CYP79D2 from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) in L. japonicus resulted in a 5- to 20-fold increase of linamarin content, whereas the relative amounts of lotaustralin and rhodiocyanoside A/D were unaltered. PMID:15122013

Forslund, Karin; Morant, Marc; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl Erik; Asamizu, Erika; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Bak, Søren

2004-01-01

217

Effect of Temperature on Geminivirus-Induced RNA Silencing in Plants1  

PubMed Central

Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the molecular markers of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), are powerful tools that interfere with gene expression and counter virus infection both in plants and animals. Here, we report the effect of temperature on geminivirus-induced gene silencing by quantifying virus-derived siRNAs and by evaluating their distribution along the virus genome for isolates of five species of cassava geminiviruses in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Nicotiana benthamiana. Cassava geminivirus-induced RNA silencing increased by raising the temperature from 25°C to 30°C, with the appearance of less symptomatic newly developed leaves, irrespective of the nature of the virus. Consequently, nonrecovery-type geminiviruses behaved like recovery-type viruses under high temperature. Next, we evaluated the distribution of virus-derived siRNAs on the respective virus genome at three temperatures (25°C, 25°C–30°C, and 30°C). For recovery-type viruses, siRNAs accumulated at moderately higher levels during virus-induced PTGS at higher temperatures, and there was no change in the distribution of the siRNA population along the virus genome. For nonrecovery-type viruses, siRNAs accumulated at strikingly higher levels than those observed for infections with recovery-type viruses at high temperature. As determined for an RNA virus, temperature influences gene silencing for single-stranded DNA geminiviruses. It is possible that other mechanisms besides gene silencing also control geminivirus accumulation at high temperatures. The findings presented here should be taken into consideration when implementing PTGS-based strategies to control plant virus accumulation. PMID:16040661

Chellappan, Padmanabhan; Vanitharani, Ramachandran; Ogbe, Francis; Fauquet, Claude M.

2005-01-01

218

Response of Cassava Leaf Area Expansion to Water Deficit: Cell Proliferation, Cell Expansion and Delayed Development  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important food crop in the tropics that has a high growth rate in optimal conditions, but also performs well in drought-prone climates. The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of water deficit and rewatering on the rate of expansion of leaves at different developmental stages and to evaluate the extent to which decreases in cell proliferation, expansion, and delay in development are responsible for reduced growth. • Methods Glasshouse-grown cassava plants were subjected to 8 d of water deficit followed by rewatering. Leaves at 15 developmental stages from nearly full size to meristematic were sampled, and epidermal cell size and number were measured on leaves at four developmental stages. • Key Results Leaf expansion and development were nearly halted during stress but resumed vigorously after rewatering. In advanced-stage leaves (Group 1) in which development was solely by cell expansion, expansion resumed after rewatering, but not sufficiently for cell size to equal that of controls at maturity. In Group 2 (cell proliferation), relative expansion rate and cell proliferation were delayed until rewatering, but then recovered partially, so that loss of leaf area was due to decreased cell numbers per leaf. In Group 3 (early meristematic development) final leaf area was not affected by stress, but development was delayed by 4–6 d. On a plant basis, the proportion of loss of leaf area over 26 d attributed to leaves at each developmental stage was 29, 50 and 21 % in Group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. • Conclusions Although cell growth processes were sensitive to mild water deficit, they recovered to a large extent, and much of the reduction in leaf area was caused by developmental delay and a reduction in cell division in the youngest, meristematic leaves. PMID:15319226

ALVES, ALFREDO A. C.; SETTER, TIM L.

2004-01-01

219

A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting cyanogenic potential of cassava root in an outbred population  

PubMed Central

Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) can produce cyanide, a toxic compound, without self-injury. That ability was called the cyanogenic potential (CN). This project aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the CN in an outbred population derived from 'Hanatee' × 'Huay Bong 60', two contrasting cultivars. CN was evaluated in 2008 and in 2009 at Rayong province, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. CN was measured using a picrate paper kit. QTL analysis affecting CN was performed with 303 SSR markers. Results The phenotypic values showed continuous variation with transgressive segregation events with more (115 ppm) and less CN (15 ppm) than either parent ('Hanatee' had 33 ppm and 'Huay Bong 60' had 95 ppm). The linkage map consisted of 303 SSR markers, on 27 linkage groups with a map that encompassed 1,328 cM. The average marker interval was 5.8 cM. Five QTL underlying CN were detected. CN08R1from 2008 at Rayong, CN09R1and CN09R2 from 2009 at Rayong, and CN09L1 and CN09L2 from 2009 at Lop Buri were mapped on linkage group 2, 5, 10 and 11, respectively. Among all the identified QTL, CN09R1 was the most significantly associated with the CN trait with LOD score 5.75 and explained the greatest percentage of phenotypic variation (%Expl.) of 26%. Conclusions Five new QTL affecting CN were successfully identified from 4 linkage groups. Discovery of these QTL can provide useful markers to assist in cassava breeding and studying genes affecting the trait. PMID:21609492

2011-01-01

220

Extending Cassava Root Shelf Life via Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Production1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

2012-01-01

221

Cassava plants with a depleted cyanogenic glucoside content in leaves and tubers. Distribution of cyanogenic glucosides, their site of synthesis and transport, and blockage of the biosynthesis by RNA interference technology.  

PubMed

Transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, cv MCol22) plants with a 92% reduction in cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers and acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained by RNA interference to block expression of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2, the two paralogous genes encoding the first committed enzymes in linamarin and lotaustralin synthesis. About 180 independent lines with acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained. Only a few of these were depleted with respect to cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers. In agreement with this observation, girdling experiments demonstrated that cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the shoot apex and transported to the root, resulting in a negative concentration gradient basipetal in the plant with the concentration of cyanogenic glucosides being highest in the shoot apex and the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Supply of nitrogen increased the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the shoot apex. In situ polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that CYP79D1 and CYP79D2 were preferentially expressed in leaf mesophyll cells positioned adjacent to the epidermis. In young petioles, preferential expression was observed in the epidermis, in the two first cortex cell layers, and in the endodermis together with pericycle cells and specific parenchymatic cells around the laticifers. These data demonstrate that it is possible to drastically reduce the linamarin and lotaustralin content in cassava tubers by blockage of cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in leaves and petioles. The reduced flux to the roots of reduced nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides did not prevent tuber formation. PMID:16126856

Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bak, Søren; Busk, Peter Kamp; Sørensen, Charlotte; Olsen, Carl Erik; Puonti-Kaerlas, Johanna; Møller, Birger Lindberg

2005-09-01

222

Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage  

PubMed Central

Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

2012-01-01

223

Cassava Plants with a Depleted Cyanogenic Glucoside Content in Leaves and Tubers. Distribution of Cyanogenic Glucosides, Their Site of Synthesis and Transport, and Blockage of the Biosynthesis by RNA Interference Technology1  

PubMed Central

Transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, cv MCol22) plants with a 92% reduction in cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers and acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained by RNA interference to block expression of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2, the two paralogous genes encoding the first committed enzymes in linamarin and lotaustralin synthesis. About 180 independent lines with acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained. Only a few of these were depleted with respect to cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers. In agreement with this observation, girdling experiments demonstrated that cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the shoot apex and transported to the root, resulting in a negative concentration gradient basipetal in the plant with the concentration of cyanogenic glucosides being highest in the shoot apex and the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Supply of nitrogen increased the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the shoot apex. In situ polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that CYP79D1 and CYP79D2 were preferentially expressed in leaf mesophyll cells positioned adjacent to the epidermis. In young petioles, preferential expression was observed in the epidermis, in the two first cortex cell layers, and in the endodermis together with pericycle cells and specific parenchymatic cells around the laticifers. These data demonstrate that it is possible to drastically reduce the linamarin and lotaustralin content in cassava tubers by blockage of cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in leaves and petioles. The reduced flux to the roots of reduced nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides did not prevent tuber formation. PMID:16126856

Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bak, Søren; Busk, Peter Kamp; Sørensen, Charlotte; Olsen, Carl Erik; Puonti-Kaerlas, Johanna; Møller, Birger Lindberg

2005-01-01

224

Conversion of Sterically Demanding ?,?-Disubstituted Phenylacetonitriles by the Arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191  

PubMed Central

The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile, which contains a quaternary carbon atom in the ?-position toward the nitrile group, and also similar sterically demanding substrates, such as 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionitrile (acetophenone cyanohydrin) or 2-acetyloxy-2-methylphenylacetonitrile. 2-Methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile was hydrolyzed to almost stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding acid. Acetophenone cyanohydrin was transformed to the corresponding acid (atrolactate) and amide (atrolactamide) at a ratio of about 3.4:1. The (R)-acid and the (S)-amide were formed preferentially from acetophenone cyanohydrin. A homology model of the nitrilase suggested that steric hindrance with amino acid residue Tyr54 could impair the binding or conversion of sterically demanding substrates. Therefore, several enzyme variants that carried mutations in the respective residues were generated and subsequently analyzed for the substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of the reactions. Enzyme variants that demonstrated increased relative activities for the conversion of acetophenone cyanohydrin were identified. The chiral analysis of these reactions demonstrated peculiar reaction kinetics, which suggested that the enzyme variants converted the nonpreferred (S)-enantiomer of acetophenone cyanohydrin with a higher reaction rate than that of the (preferred) (R)-enantiomer. Recombinant whole-cell catalysts that simultaneously produced the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191 and a plant-derived (S)-oxynitrilase from cassava (Manihot esculenta) converted acetophenone plus cyanide at pH 4.5 to (S)-atrolactate and (S)-atrolactamide. These recombinant cells are promising catalysts for the synthesis of stable chiral quaternary carbon centers from ketones. PMID:22020513

Baum, Stefanie; Williamson, Dael S.; Sewell, Trevor

2012-01-01

225

TRATAMIENTO ANAEROBIO DE LAS AGUAS RESIDUALES DEL PROCESO DE EXTRACCIÓN DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE VARIABLES AMBIENTALES Y OPERACIONALES ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF CASSAVA STARCH EXTRACTION WASTEWATER. OPTIMIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND OPERATIONAL VARIABLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedimentation stage of the cassava-starch extraction process generates the largest pollutant load in terms of quantity and quality of wastewater. In the north of Cauca department, there are several anaerobic filters for wastewater treatment which have shown deficiencies associated with environmental and operational factors. The evaluation of start-up and the performance of full-scale anaerobic filter evidenced the need to

ANDREA PÉREZ VIDAL; PATRICIA TORRES LOZADA; JORGE SILVA LEAL

2009-01-01

226

Number of mast cells in the harderian gland of the green frog, Rana esculenta: the annual cycle and its relation to environmental and hormonal factors.  

PubMed Central

The Harderian gland of the green frog contains mast cells. Their number shows annual variations, being more numerous in the winter months. The increase of mast cell number (MCN) is matched by a marked degranulation. No sex differences are found throughout the year. Manipulations of the photoperiod and temperature, either in winter or in summer, suggest that only the latter is responsible for the annual variations. Exposure to higher temperatures causes a decrease in the MCN in the winter frogs, while exposure of the summer frogs to low temperatures provokes the opposite effect. The pituitary gland also influences MCN. Hypophysectomy causes a decrease of MCN, with a return to normal following replacement therapy with homologous pars distalis homogenate. Among pituitary hormones, only ACTH mimics the effect of pars distalis homogenate. However, a possible link seems to exist between environmental (temperature) and hormonal (pituitary) factors, since hypophysectomy prevents the increase of MCN in the summer frogs exposed to low temperatures. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1817144

Chieffi Baccari, G; Minucci, S; Marmorino, C; Vitiello Izzo, I

1991-01-01

227

Number of mast cells in the harderian gland of the green frog, Rana esculenta: the annual cycle and its relation to environmental and hormonal factors.  

PubMed

The Harderian gland of the green frog contains mast cells. Their number shows annual variations, being more numerous in the winter months. The increase of mast cell number (MCN) is matched by a marked degranulation. No sex differences are found throughout the year. Manipulations of the photoperiod and temperature, either in winter or in summer, suggest that only the latter is responsible for the annual variations. Exposure to higher temperatures causes a decrease in the MCN in the winter frogs, while exposure of the summer frogs to low temperatures provokes the opposite effect. The pituitary gland also influences MCN. Hypophysectomy causes a decrease of MCN, with a return to normal following replacement therapy with homologous pars distalis homogenate. Among pituitary hormones, only ACTH mimics the effect of pars distalis homogenate. However, a possible link seems to exist between environmental (temperature) and hormonal (pituitary) factors, since hypophysectomy prevents the increase of MCN in the summer frogs exposed to low temperatures. PMID:1817144

Chieffi Baccari, G; Minucci, S; Marmorino, C; Vitiello Izzo, I

1991-12-01

228

Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.  

PubMed

Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 ?g/day) and Pb (0.062 ?g/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes. PMID:25412891

Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

2015-01-01

229

The effect of cAMP on the cell membrane potential and intracellular ion activities in proximal tubule of Rana esculenta.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed in proximal tubule of the isolated perfused frog kidney to evaluate peritubular cell membrane potentials (PDpt), and the intracellular ion activities of sodium (Nai+), chloride (Cli-) and potassium (Ki+) under control conditions and following peritubular application of dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (cAMP, 2 X 10(-4) mol X 1(-1)). Conventional and ion-sensitive microelectrodes were applied to record continuously cAMP-induced changes of these parameters in individual proximal tubule cells. Within a few minutes a significant hyperpolarisation of PDpt (delta = 2.0 +/- 0.2 mV) occurs simultaneously with a decrease of Nai+ (delta = 2.5 +/- 0.5 mmol X 1(-1)). Ki+ increases (delta = 3.6 +/- 0.9 mmol X 1(-1)) and Cli- decreases (0.4 +/- 0.07 mmol X 1(-1)) slightly, but significantly. With both ions the alterations of the chemical gradient is significantly smaller than the potential shift. PDte is not significantly altered by cAMP. The cAMP-induced hyperpolarisation of PDpt can be observed in presence and absence of luminal glucose. However, omission of Na+ from the luminal perfusate abolishes the hyperpolarising effect of cAMP on PDpt. The results suggest that cAMP reduces sodium entry from the lumen into the cell, thus hyperpolarising the cell membrane and decreasing Nai+. Persistence of sensitivity of PDpt to cAMP after omission of glucose indicates that other Na+ coupled transport processes and/or passive Na+ conductance are affected by cAMP. the changes of Ki+ and Cli- are secondary, following the change of PDpt. PMID:6302634

Wang, W; Oberleithner, H; Lang, F

1983-03-01

230

Food supply modifies the trade-off between past and future reproduction in a sexual parasite–host system ( Rana esculenta, Rana lessonae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history theory is concerned with the costs of survival, growth and reproduction under different ecological conditions\\u000a and the allocation of resources to meet these costs. Typical approaches used to address these topics include manipulation\\u000a of food resources, followed by measures of subsequent reproductive traits, and measures of the relationship between current\\u000a and future reproductive investment. Rarely, however, do studies

Marc Olivier Waelti; Heinz-Ulrich Reyer

2007-01-01

231

Isolation and Characterization of Three Cassava Elongation Factor 1 Alpha (MeEF1A) Promoters  

PubMed Central

In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family. Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A4 and MeEF1A5 were successfully isolated. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5?UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

2014-01-01

232

Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P < 0.05) and water ratio in the solvent mixture (r = 0.5299, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In general, BD-based methods showed better extraction yields compared to methods without the addition of water and, most interestingly, there was much greater method dependence of lipid yields in the starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and starches). PMID:24132804

Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

2014-01-01

233

East African cassava mosaic-like viruses from Africa to Indian ocean islands: molecular diversity, evolutionary history and geographical dissemination of a bipartite begomovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food source for over 200 million sub-Saharan Africans. Unfortunately, its cultivation is severely hampered by cassava mosaic disease (CMD). Caused by a complex of bipartite cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMG) species (Family: Geminivirideae; Genus: Begomovirus) CMD has been widely described throughout Africa and it is apparent that CMG's are expanding their geographical distribution. Determining where and when CMG movements have occurred could help curtail its spread and reveal the ecological and anthropic factors associated with similar viral invasions. We applied Bayesian phylogeographic inference and recombination analyses to available and newly described CMG sequences to reconstruct a plausible history of CMG diversification and migration between Africa and South West Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. Results The isolation and analysis of 114 DNA-A and 41 DNA-B sequences demonstrated the presence of three CMG species circulating in the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos (East African cassava mosaic virus, EACMV; East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, EACMKV; and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, EACMCV). Phylogeographic analyses suggest that CMG’s presence on these SWIO islands is probably the result of at least four independent introduction events from mainland Africa occurring between 1988 and 2009. Amongst the islands of the Comoros archipelago, two major migration pathways were inferred: One from Grande Comore to Mohéli and the second from Mayotte to Anjouan. While only two recombination events characteristic of SWIO islands isolates were identified, numerous re-assortments events were detected between EACMV and EACMKV, which seem to almost freely interchange their genome components. Conclusions Rapid and extensive virus spread within the SWIO islands was demonstrated for three CMG complex species. Strong evolutionary or ecological interaction between CMG species may explain both their propensity to exchange components and the absence of recombination with non-CMG begomoviruses. Our results suggest an important role of anthropic factors in CMGs spread as the principal axes of viral migration correspond with major routes of human movement and commercial trade. Finer-scale temporal analyses of CMGs to precisely scale the relative contributions of human and insect transmission to their movement dynamics will require further extensive sampling in the SWIO region. PMID:23186303

2012-01-01

234

Development of a New Semiselective Medium for Isolating Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis from Plant Material and Soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT An effective control for bacterial blight of cassava (Manihot esculenta), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis, requires the use of non-contaminated cuttings and seeds. Using classical agar plating techniques for screening planting material for contamination has not been very successful because of the lack of a reliable semiselective agar medium. The pathogen grows slowly on general plating media and is easily overgrown by saprophytic bacteria during isolation from diseased plants. In an effort to develop a semiselective medium, the utilization of several carbon and nitrogen sources was studied. Results of these tests provided information used to design a basal medium allowing good growth of the target organism while suppressing growth of several common saprophytes. Additional selectivity was achieved by incorporating three antibiotics into the basal medium. The new semiselective agar medium, designated cefazolin trehalose agar (CTA) medium, contained (per liter) 3.0 g of K(2)HPO(4), 1.0 g of NaH(2)PO(4), 0.3 g of MgSO(4).7H(2)O, 1.0 g of NH(4)Cl, 9.0 g of D(+)-trehalose, 1.0 D(+)-glucose, 1.0 g of yeast extract, 0.025 g of cefazolin, 0.0012 g of lincomycin, 0.0025 g of phosphomycin, 0.25 g of cycloheximide, and 14.0 g of agar. In comparison to a starch-based semiselective medium (SXM), plating efficiencies using pure cultures of 10 strains of X. campestris pv. manihotis were significantly higher on CTA, with an average of 85 and 50%, respectively. Likewise, isolation and recovery of X. campestris pv. manihotis from infected cassava leaves and contaminated soil were much higher on CTA than on SXM agar. When X. campestris pv. manihotis occurs in high concentrations in diseased tissue, the standard yeast trehalose glucose agar medium supplemented with 250 mug of cycloheximide per ml appears to be satisfactory. The newly developed CTA medium should prove useful for control strategies to identify and remove infected planting material of cassava, as well as for basic ecological studies of the pathogen. PMID:18944695

Fessehaie, A; Wydra, K; Rudolph, K

1999-07-01

235

Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucosides Linamarin and Lotaustralin in Cassava: Isolation, Biochemical Characterization, and Expression Pattern of CYP71E7, the Oxime-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzyme1[OA  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a eudicotyledonous plant that produces the valine- and isoleucine-derived cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin with the corresponding oximes and cyanohydrins as key intermediates. CYP79 enzymes catalyzing amino acid-to-oxime conversion in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are known from several plants including cassava. The enzyme system converting oxime into cyanohydrin has previously only been identified in the monocotyledonous plant great millet (Sorghum bicolor). Using this great millet CYP71E1 sequence as a query in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool-p search, a putative functional homolog that exhibited an approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity was found in cassava. The corresponding full-length cDNA clone was obtained from a plasmid library prepared from cassava shoot tips and was assigned CYP71E7. Heterologous expression of CYP71E7 in yeast afforded microsomes converting 2-methylpropanal oxime (valine-derived oxime) and 2-methylbutanal oxime (isoleucine-derived oxime) to the corresponding cyanohydrins, which dissociate into acetone and 2-butanone, respectively, and hydrogen cyanide. The volatile ketones were detected as 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A KS of approximately 0.9 ?m was determined for 2-methylbutanal oxime based on substrate-binding spectra. CYP71E7 exhibits low specificity for the side chain of the substrate and catalyzes the conversion of aliphatic and aromatic oximes with turnovers of approximately 21, 17, 8, and 1 min?1 for the oximes derived from valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, respectively. A second paralog of CYP71E7 was identified by database searches and showed approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity. In tube in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that in nearly unfolded leaves, the CYP71E7 paralogs are preferentially expressed in specific cells in the endodermis and in most cells in the first cortex cell layer. In fully unfolded leaves, the expression is pronounced in the cortex cell layer just beside the epidermis and in specific cells in the vascular tissue cortex cells. Thus, the transcripts of the CYP71E7 paralogs colocalize with CYP79D1 and CYP79D2. We conclude that CYP71E7 is the oxime-metabolizing enzyme in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in cassava. PMID:21045121

Jørgensen, Kirsten; Morant, Anne Vinther; Morant, Marc; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Olsen, Carl Erik; Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

2011-01-01

236

UncorrectedProof Assessing cyanogen content in cassava-based food using  

E-print Network

; Linamarin; Cyanide; Cyanogen content; Linamarase-dipstick; Detoxi®cation 1. Introduction Cassava (Manihot- ability of such data would be helpful in assessing the need for a more eective detoxi®cation process

Yeoh, Hock Hin

237

Effectiveness of rock wall terraces on soil conservation and crop performance in a southern Honduras steepland farming system  

E-print Network

), lime (Citrus aurantifolia L), jocote (Spondia mombin L), avocado (Persea americana L), cassava (Manihot sculenta Crantz), achiote (Bixa orellana L), sugar apple (Annona squamosa L), tamarindo (Tamarindus indica Mill), cashew (Anacardium occidentale L...

Sierra, Hector Enrique

1996-01-01

238

D A R G A N M . W . F R I E R S O N D E P A R T M E N T O F A T M O S P H E R I C S C I E N C E S  

E-print Network

¡ Deforestation is 20% of world CO2 emissions Clearing Amazon rainforest for cow pastures in Brazil Slides ¡ Deforestation is 20% of world CO2 emissions Clearing Amazon rainforest for soybean fields in Bolivia (used producers: 1. USA 2. China 3. Brazil 4. Mexico 5. Argentina #12;Cassava (Yuca) Top producers: 1. Nigeria 2

Frierson, Dargan

239

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the  

E-print Network

Himalayas. Using DNA sequences from plastid and nuclear markers for some 100 Cucumis accessions from Africa radiata), angled loofah (Luffa acu- tangula), yams (Dioscorea spp.), and taro (Colocasia esculenta) (7­ 9

Renner, Susanne

240

Linked basin sedimentation and orogenic uplift: The Neogene Barinas basin sediments derived from the Venezuelan Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venezuelan Andes are an asymmetric, doubly vergent orogen that is flanked on its southeastern side by the Barinas basin. Analyses of sedimentary facies, sandstone petrography, apatite fission-tracks, and magnetostratigraphy were completed on a 1750-m section of the syn-orogenic Neogene Parángula and Río Yuca formations in the Barinas side foothills of the Venezuelan Andes. Our sedimentary facies analyses record a progression of sedimentary environments from floodplain and floodplain channel deposits through the 560-m thick Parángula Formation transitioning to distal alluvial fan deposits in the lower Río Yuca Formation and finally to an alternation of distal alluvial fan and two, ˜100-m thick organic-rich lacustrine deposits in the upper third of the section. Major- and minor-mineral petrographic analysis reveals unroofing of the Venezuelan Andes, with quartz arenite composition low in the section succeeded by metamorphic and igneous clasts and potassium feldspar appearing near the base of the Río Yuca Formation. Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis of sandstones and pebbles generated ages of 11.2 ± 1.3 - 13.8 ± 2.0 Ma over ˜1100 m of stratigraphic section. Thermal modeling of the detrital AFT and vitrinite data from the lower Río Yuca Formation indicates exhumation of the source area was occurring by 12-13 Ma, surface exposure at 10-9 Ma, maximum burial by 4-2 Ma and exhumation of the sedimentary package starting 3-2 Ma. Accumulation of the Río Yuca Formation is contemporaneous with a basinward migration of the deformation front. Regional considerations indicate that the Venezuelan Andes evolved from a primarily singly vergent orogen to its current double vergence over the interval of Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation.

Erikson, Johan P.; Kelley, Shari A.; Osmolovsky, Peter; Verosub, Kenneth L.

2012-11-01

241

Phytotoxic effects and chemical analysis of leaf extracts from three Phytolaccaceae species in South Korea.  

PubMed

We analyzed phenolic compounds and other elements in leaf extracts and compared morphology of three species of the Phytolaccaceae family found in South Korea. To test allelochemical effects of the three Phytolacca species, we also examined seed germination and dry weight of seedlings of Lactuca indica and Sonchus oleraceus treated with leaf extracts. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were exotic Phytolacca esculenta (3.9 mg/l), native Phytolacca insularis (4.4 mg/l), and exotic Phytolacca americana (10.2 mg/l). There was no significant difference in concentrations between P. esculenta and P. insularis, but the concentration of total phenolics in P. americana was two times higher than either P. esculenta or P. insularis. Analysis of aqueous extracts by HPLC showed seven phenolic compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid). Total phenolics in P. americana were eight to 16 times higher than either P. esculenta or P. insularis, respectively. P. americana inhibited seed germination and dry weight of the two assay species. The phytotoxic effects of the two Phytolacca species were different, despite the fact that P. esculenta and P. insularis had similar levels of total phenolic compounds. We also found that P. americana had invaded Ullung Island, which suggested that P. americana had excellent adaptability to the environment. The three species of Phytolaccaceae in South Korea can be distinguished by their different allelopathic potentials and morphologies. PMID:16124240

Kim, Yong Ok; Johnson, Jon D; Lee, Eun Ju

2005-05-01

242

Epidemia de neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica en Mérida, Yucatán  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the main epidemiological, clinical, and microbiologic characteristics of an outbreak of ventila- tor-associated pneumonia at an intensive care unit in Yuca- tan. Material and methods. An 11-month prospective and observational study was designed to determine incidence, mortality, potential reservoirs, etiologic agents and antibio- tic susceptibility patterns. Results. The incidence of venti- lator-associated pneumonia was 74%. The crude

Mussaret Zaidi; Gloria Martín; Rilke Rosado

1999-01-01

243

High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

244

USE OF TEMPERATURE TO CONTROL AN INFESTATION OF BISCUIT OR DRUGSTORE BEETLE STEGOBIUM PANICEUM (L.) (COLEOPTERA: ANOBIDAE) IN A LARGE ECONOMIC BOTANY COLLECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infestation of biscuit or drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum, was dis- covered in the Economic Botany Collection at Kew. Large numbers of adult insects were found in the collection and a wide range of specimens were infested in one area. Severely attacked specimens were starch-rich, such as Manihot, and many other roots, fruits and seeds. The options for control of

NAOMI RUMBALL; DAVID PINNIGER

245

Evaluation of cryogenic procedures for cryopreservation of Cassava genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculent Crantz) is a perennial plant widely grown in many tropical countries as one of the most important commercial crops. The global cassava production in 2009 was at 242 million tons. Because of its economic importance to a large number of developing world, the application of ad...

246

An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root

Lewis H. Ziska; G. Brett Runion; Martha Tomecek; Stephen A. Prior; H. Allen Torbet; Richard Sicher

2009-01-01

247

Antioxidant activity of the mycelium of 21 wild mushroom species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the antioxidant activity of mycelia from 21 wild mushrooms – Agaricus bresadolanus, Auricularia auricula-judae, Chroogomphus rutilus, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Inocybe flocculosa var. crocifolia, Inocybe catalaunica, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus sajor-caju, Lycoperdon excipuliforme, Macrolepiota excoriata, Morchella esculenta var. rigida, Morchella intermedia, Omphalotus olearius, Pleurotus djamor, Postia stiptica, Rhizopogon roseolus and Stropharia inuncta

Fatih Kalyoncu; Mustafa Oskay; Hüsniye Kayalar

2010-01-01

248

Xenobiotics removal from polluted water by a multifunctional constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal efficiencies on xenobiotics from polluted water in a twin-shaped constructed wetland consisting of a vertical flow chamber with the crop plant Colocasia esculenta L. Schott and a reverse vertical flow one with Ischaemum aristatum var. glaucum Honda, were assessed by chemical analysis and bioassays. After a four-month period of application, removal efficiencies of the applied pesticides parathion and omethoate

Shuiping Cheng; Željka Vidakovic-Cifrek; Wolfgang Grosse; Friedhelm Karrenbrock

2002-01-01

249

Rearing of Cuttlefishes and Squids  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE have succeeded (through improving the feed during the earlier stages after hatching) in rearing three species of the cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta Hoyle, Sepia subaculeata Sasaki and Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune) and two species of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson and Euprymna beryii Sasaki)1. The main points to note in rearing these animals are as follows:

Sang Choe; YASUO OHSHIMA

1963-01-01

250

Mapping Wild Taro with Color-infrared Aerial Photography and Image Processing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.] is an exotic ornamental plant that has escaped cultivation and invaded many freshwater wetlands in the southeastern United States. Remote sensing techniques were evaluated for distinguishing wild taro along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas. Field refle...

251

Biomolecular evidence for plant domestication in Sahul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the introduction of domesticated plants from the Sunda plate (South-east Asia) to Sahul (New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania) has been a subject of speculation and debate for decades. This paper reviews recent phylogenetic studies conducted with biomolecular markers on bananas (Musa spp.), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta) and the greater yam (Dioscorea alata).

V. Lebot

1999-01-01

252

Genetic variation and cultivar identification of Jamaican yam germplasm by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to characterize eleven cultivars of the five economically most important yam species grown in Jamaica (Dioscorea alata, D. cayenensis, D. rotundata, D. trifida and D. esculenta). Amplification of genomic DNA samples with nine different arbitrary 10mer primers revealed a total of 338 different band positions, ranging in size from 0.3 to

H. N. Asemota; J. Ramser; C. Lopéz-Peralta; K. Weising; G. Kahl

1995-01-01

253

Genetic Diversity of the Greater Yam ( Dioscorea alata L.) and Relatedness to D. nummularia Lam. and D. transversa Br. as Revealed with AFLP Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were used to assess the genetic relatedness between Dioscorea alata and nine other edible Dioscorea. These species include D. abyssinica Hoch., D. bulbifera L., D. cayenensis-rotundata Lamk. et Poir., D. esculenta Burk., D. nummularia Lam., D. pentaphylla L., D. persimilis Prain. et Burk., D. transversa Br. and D. trifida L. Four successive studies were conducted

R. Malapa; G. Arnau; J. L. Noyer; V. Lebot

2005-01-01

254

Indigenous Agroforestry in American Samoa1 Malala (Mike) Misa Agnes M. Vargo2  

E-print Network

, bananas, breadfruit, yams, and coconuts. Other crops commonly grown are cassava, giant taro, papaya of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While of the family or for use as gifts. Most families grow at least some of their staple foods which include taro

Standiford, Richard B.

255

Inactivation of trypsin inhibitors in sweet potato and taro tubers during processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the extent of elimination of trypsininhibitors during processing of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) andtaro (Colocasia esculenta) tubers, a detailed study was conductedusing tubers processed by oven drying, cooking, and microwavebaking. Between 80 and 90% trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity wasretained in sweet potato chips up to 2h at 70 °C. Among thefour cultivars of sweet potatoes, RS-III-2

K. Sasi Kiran; G. Padmaja

2003-01-01

256

Light and electron-microscopic demonstration of immunoreactive opsin in the pinealocytes of various vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antibody to opsin isolated from rod outer segments of the frog retina was applied in light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical studies to the pineal organ of various vertebrates (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Rana esculenta, Emys orbicularis, Pseudemys scripta elegans, Lacerta agilis and viridis, Gallus domesticus, Columba livia, Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, Taeniopyga punctata, Didelphis virginiana, Erinaceus roumanicus, Myotis myotis, rabbit,

B. Vigh; I. Vigh-Teichmann

1981-01-01

257

Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study, for the first time, comparatively investigated the enzymatic activities (proteases and hyaluronidases) in the venoms of four Scyphozoan jellyfish species, including Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculenta, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. For this, various zymographic analyses were performed using assay specific substrates. Interestingly, all the four jellyfish venoms showed gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, each of which contains

Hyunkyoung Lee; Eun-sun Jung; Changkeun Kang; Won Duk Yoon; Jong-Shu Kim; Euikyung Kim

2011-01-01

258

Widespread unidirectional transfer of mitochondrial DNA: a case in western Palaearctic water frogs  

E-print Network

Widespread unidirectional transfer of mitochondrial DNA: a case in western Palaearctic water frogs¨t Zu¨rich-Irchel, Zu¨rich, Switzerland Introduction Interspecies transfer of mitochondrial (mt) DNA has; Rana esculenta complex. Abstract Interspecies transfer of mitochondrial (mt) DNA is a common phenomenon

Beerli, Peter

259

Effect of molybdenum, phosphorus, and lime application to acid soils on dry matter yield and molybdenum nutrition of lentil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiency of molybdenum (Mo) in acid soils causes poor growth of pulses. An experiment was, therefore, conducted in greenhouse to study the effect of Mo, phosphorus (P), and lime application on the dry matter yield and plant Mo concentration of lentil (Lens esculenta L.) in two Mo?deficient acid alluvial soils. The experiment was conducted using a factorial design with three

Biswapati Mandai; S. Pal; L. N. Mandai

1998-01-01

260

Foods and predators of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in Newfoundland waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gut analyses of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O. F. Müller) demonstrated that perennial phaeophytes, mostly fucoids and Alaria esculenta, were predominant in the diet. Ephemeral species, coralline algae and animals, were consumed in smaller amounts when available. Grazing by the urchins is evidently responsible for the dearth of non-coralline sublittoral algae in Newfoundland waters. Lobsters, rock crabs, purple

J. H. Himmelman; D. H. Steele

1971-01-01

261

Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3) ferrocarbonatites. The concentrations of thorium, uranium, niobium, yttrium and rare earth elements increase with differentiation. Carbonatites are associated with up to 20000 times enrichment of lanthanum and cerium with respect to chondrite. Finally, the Mariana carbonatite breccia is associated with about 7,928,550 short tons of rock with a grade of 0.14% SigmaREE, and primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of carbonatites indicate a mantle origin of their parental melts.

Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

262

Supplement 17, Part 3, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Parasites: Trematoda And Cestoda  

E-print Network

?he, 1909 Felis catus domesticus (tenk? crevo) Apophallus miihlingi (J?ger- Zitnan, R., I966 b, 769 ski?ld, 1899) all from CSSR Rutilus rutilus carpathorossicus Leuciscus cephalus L. idus Scardinius erythrophthalraus Alburnus alburnus Blicca...., 1965 a, 121 all from Belorussia Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) Krause, 1914 Canis lupus Alaria alata Vulpes vulpes ALaria alata Rana esculenta Soitys, ?., 1964 b, 59-62 Poland Svatos, I., I963 a, 174 Czechoslovakia Vojtkov?, L.; Moravec, F...

Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

1969-01-01

263

Hepatic respiratory compensation and haematological changes in the cave cyprinid, Phreatichthys andruzzii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several ectotherms, including all members of the Osteichthyes studied so far, the spleen is capable of storing and releasing\\u000a erythrocytes according to the animal's respiratory needs. The tropical cave cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii uses its liver rather than the spleen as the site of accumulation in the respiratory compensation process, like the amphibian\\u000a Rana esculenta. The reversible process of erythrocyte

Giuliano Frangioni; Roberto Berti; Gianfranco Borgioli

1997-01-01

264

Contraction threshold and the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delayed component of intramembranous charge movement (hump, Iv) was studied around the contraction threshold in cut skeletal muscle fibers of the frog (Rana esculenta) in a single Vaseline-gap voltage clamp. Charges (Q) were computed as 50-ms integrals of the ON (QoN) and OFF (QoFr) of the asymmetric currents after subtracting a baseline. The hump appeared in parallel with an

G. Szffcs; L. CSERNOCH; J. MAGYAR; L. KovAcs

1991-01-01

265

Action of benzocaine on sodium channels of frog nodes of ranvier treated with chloramine-T  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Single myelinated nerve fibres of the frogRana esculenta were voltage clamped in solutions containing 10 mM TEA to block potassium channels. (2) Reduction of peakINa was measured after equilibrating the membrane in solution containing benzocaine between 0.025 and 2.0 mM. A Hill plot of this effect revealed a slopenH˜1 between 0.25 and 1.0 mM but showed deviations for the

T. Meeder; W. Ulbricht

1987-01-01

266

Distinctly different rates of benzocaine action on sodium channels of Ranvier nodes kept open by chloramine-T and veratridine  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Single myelinated nerve fibres of the frog,Rana esculenta, were voltage clamped in a fast-exchange chamber in the presence of 10 mM TEA to block potassium channels.2.After treatment with 0.6 mM chloramine-T for 1–4 min a sizeable INa component persisted even during a 14-s depolarizing impulse. Changing the perfusate to Ringer solution +1 mM benzocaine resulted in a fast reduction (half

Werner Ulbricht; Mechthild Stoye-Herzog

1984-01-01

267

Mechanism of hydrogen ion transport in the diluting segment of frog kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transepithelial H+ transport was studied in diluting segments of the isolated-perfused kidney ofrana esculenta. The experiments were performed in controls as well as in K+-adapted and Na+-adapted animals (exposed to 50 mmol\\/l KCl or NaCl, resp. for at least 3 days). Conventional and single-barreled, liquid ion-exchanger H+-sensitive microelectrodes were applied in the tubule lumen to evaluate transepithelial H+ net flux

Hans Oberleithner; Florian Lang; Georg Messner; Wenhui Wang

1984-01-01

268

Cytotoxic effect of choline, abolished by furosemide, in the diluting segment of frog kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous observations suggest that luminal application of tetra-N-alkylammonium ions may impair ion transport in the amphibian\\u000a diluting segment. To investigate this question conventional KCl-filled and Cl? sensitive microelectrodes were applied in diluting segments of the isolated perfused kidney ofrana esculenta to evaluate transepithelial electrical and chloride electrochemical (PDte, E\\u000a te\\u000a Cl\\u000a ) as well as peritubular cell membrane potential difference

Hans Oberleithner; Florian Lang

1984-01-01

269

Yams ( Dioscorea spp.) from the South Pacific Islands contain many novel badnaviruses: implications for international movement of yam germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) samples (n = 690) from seven South Pacific Islands were screened for badnavirus infection by ELISA using two antisera to African badnaviruses.\\u000a Positive readings were obtained for 26.4–34.6% of samples representing both known (D. bulbifera, D. nummularia and D. pentaphylla) and unreported host species (D. alata, D. esculenta, D. rotundata and D. trifida) in this region. Total DNAs were

Lawrence Kenyon; B. S. M. Lebas; S. E. Seal

2008-01-01

270

Taro and Cocoyam  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aroids are an economically important source of food for numerous tropical countries. They are mostly consumed for their corms\\u000a and cormels but leaves and petioles can also be part of the diet. According to FAO databases (www.fao.org 2007) taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) and cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) produce the lowest average yields (6.5 tons\\/ha) of all root crops.

José Quero-Garcia; Anton Ivancic; Vincent Lebot

271

Saxitoxin and procaine act independently on separate sites of the sodium channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Voltage clamp experiments were done on single myelinated nerve fibres of the frog,Rana esculenta.2.The time course of procaine action (1.0 mM at pH 7.2) was obtained from changes inINa on changing solutions during repetitive (1 Hz) depolarizing pulses of constant amplitude following hyperpolarizing prepulses. The mean half times of onset and offset of procaine block were 3.7 and 28

H. H. Wagner; W. Ulbricht

1976-01-01

272

The rates of saxitoxin action and of saxitoxin-tetrodotoxin interaction at the node of Ranvier  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Voltage clamp experiments were done on single nodes of Ranvier ofRana esculenta. Equilibrium effects were obtained fromINa-V curves, the rates of action from changes inINa on changing solutions during repetitive depolarizing pulses.2.Saxitoxin (STX) exclusively and reversibly blocked Na channels, the effect being fully described by a one-to-one reaction between STX and a receptor at the channel with an equilibrium dissociation

H.-H. Wagner; W. Ulbricht

1975-01-01

273

Ocean acidification modulates the response of two Arctic kelps to ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

The combined effects of ocean acidification and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been studied in the kelps Alaria esculenta and Saccharina latissima from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), two major components of the Arctic macroalgal community, in order to assess their potential to thrive in a changing environment. Overall results revealed synergistic effects, however with a different amplitude in the respective species. Changes in growth, internal N, C:N ratio, pigments, optimum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and electron transport rates (ETR) following CO2 enrichment and/or UVR were generally more pronounced in S. latissima than in A. esculenta. The highest growth rates were recorded under simultaneous CO2 enrichment and UVR in both species. UVR-mediated changes in pigment content were partially prevented under elevated CO2 in both species. Similarly, UVR led to increased photosynthetic efficiency (?) and ETR only if CO2 was not elevated in A. esculenta and even under high CO2 in S. latissima. Increased CO2 did not inhibit external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) activity in the short-term but in the mid-term, indicating a control through acclimation of photosynthesis rather than a direct inhibition of eCA by CO2. The higher benefit of simultaneous CO2 enrichment and UVR for S. latissima respect to A. esculenta seems to involve higher C and N assimilation efficiency, as well as higher ETR, despite a more sensitive Fv/Fm. The differential responses shown by these two species indicate that ongoing ocean acidification and UVR could potentially change the dominance at lower depths (4-6m), which will eventually drive changes at the community level in the Arctic coastal ecosystem. These results support an existing consideration of S. latissima as a winner species in the global change scenario. PMID:25462077

Gordillo, Francisco J L; Aguilera, José; Wiencke, Christian; Jiménez, Carlos

2014-10-01

274

Widespread unidirectional transfer of mitochondrial DNA: a case in western Palearctic water frogs  

PubMed Central

Interspecies transfer of mitochondrial (mt) DNA is a common phenomenon in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, normally linked with hybridization of closely related species in zones of sympatry or parapatry. In Central Europe, in an area north of 48° N latitude and between 08° and 22° E longitude, western Palearctic water frogs show massive unidirectional introgression of mtDNA: 33.7% of 407 R. ridibunda possessed mtDNA specific for R. lessonae. In contrast, no R. lessonae with R. ridibunda mtDNA was observed. That R. ridibunda with introgressed mitochondrial genomes were found exclusively within the range of the hybrid R. esculenta and that most hybrids had lessonae mtDNA (90.4% of 335 individuals investigated) is evidence that R. esculenta serves as a vehicle for transfer of lessonae mtDNA into R. ridibunda. Such introgression has occurred several times independently. The abundance and wide distribution of individuals with introgressed mitochondrial genomes show that R. lessonae mt genomes work successfully in a R. ridibunda chromosomal background despite their high sequence divergence from R. ridibunda mtDNAs (14.2–15.2% in the ND2/ND3 genes). Greater effectiveness of enzymes encoded by R. lessonae mtDNA may be advantageous to individuals of R. ridibunda and probably R. esculenta in the northern parts of their ranges. PMID:18373588

Plötner, Jörg; Uzzell, Thomas; Beerli, Peter; Spolsky, Christina; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich; Hotz, Hansjürg

2008-01-01

275

Telomerase inhibitory effects of medicinal mushrooms and lichens, and their anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Telomerase has been widely accepted as a cancer marker and a promising therapeutic target for novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro telomerase inhibitory effects of mushrooms and their anticancer properties. The inhibitory effects of mushrooms and lichens against telomerase activity of HL-60 cells were systematically assessed using polymerase chain reaction based on assay of telomeric repeat amplification protocol. Telomerase inhibitory samples were further tested for antiproliferation effects against the gastric cell line SNU-1 using the MTT method. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotus ostreatus, ethyl acetate and water extracts of Lasiosphaera fenzlii, hexane extract of Strobilomyces floccopus, water extract of Sarcodon aspratus, and hexane, ethyl acetate, and water extracts from Umbilicaria esculenta showed strong positive telomerase inhibitory activity. Hexane extract of S. floccopus and water extracts from the edible lichen U. esculenta exhibited strong anticancer effects against SNU-1 cells through antiproliferation assay. The water extract of U. esculenta has a great potential to be developed into an anticancer agent that targets telomerase. PMID:24940901

Xu, Baojun; Li, Chantian; Sung, Changkeun

2014-01-01

276

Putting a new spin on particle identity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost immediately after the development of quantum statistics, physicists were concerned with the implications for the individuality of particles. Such concerns have been further explored from a variety of perspectives during the past fifteen years or so. My intention in this paper is to briefly lay out the various positions that have been adopted and examine the philosophical consequences of the more general forms of statistics that have also been developed. The status of the spin-statistics theorem within this context has been considered in recent work by Hilborn and Yuca and I shall discuss their analysis within the philosophical framework concerning particle individuality. In particular I shall argue that a well-known philosophical position on this issue appears to be less accommodating to generalized forms of quantum statistics and I shall conclude by discussing the philosophical consequences of the supposed relationship between quantum statistics and spin.

French, Steven

2000-11-01

277

Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of selected actinorhizal fruits growing in the forests of Northeast India.  

PubMed

Hippophae salicifolia, Elaeagnus pyriformis, Myrica esculenta and M. nagi are actinorhizal plants growing in the sacred forests of Northeast India with multipurpose uses. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the phenol, flavonoid and flavonol contents of the fresh fruit juice of these plant species including the antioxidant potential by means of DPPH, H2O2 and NO scavenging activity and FRP. The total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of fruit juice ranged from 321.68+/-0.06 to 76.67+/-0.01 mg/g GAE, 272.92+/-0.07 to 20.12+/-0.02 mg/g QE and 258.92+/-0.08 to 18.72+/-0.02 mg/g QE, respectively. At 2.0 mg/mL concentration, DPPH scavenging activity was found to be the highest in M. esculenta (89.62 percent) and the lowest in E. pyriformis (17.58 percent). The reducing power activity was found significantly higher in H. salicifolia juice, which increased with increase in concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of H. salicifolia juice was found to be as high as 98.78 percent, while Elaeagnus juice was found to be less effective with just 48.90 percent. Juice of H. salicifolia showed the greatest NO scavenging effect of 75.24 percent as compared to juice of E. pyriformis, where only 37.54 percent scavenging was observed at the same concentration. Taking into account all the experimental data, it can be said that the fruits of H. salicifolia and both M. nagi and M. esculenta have good antioxidant activity compared to fruits of E. pyriformis. PMID:24287659

Goyal, Arvind K; Mishra, Tanmayee; Bhattacharya, Malay; Kar, Pallab; Sen, Arnab

2013-11-01

278

Ability of cold-tolerant plants to grow in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation of hydrocarbons in soil involves plants and their associated microorganisms. Differences in environmental conditions and restrictions on species importation mean that each country may need to identify indigenous plants to use for phytoremedation. Screening plants for hydrocarbon tolerance before screening for degradation ability may prove more economical than screening directly for degradation. Thirty-nine cold-tolerant plants native, or exotic and naturalized, in western Canada were assessed for their ability to survive in crude oil-contaminated soil. Four naturalized grasses (i.e., Agropyron pectiniforme, Bromus inermis, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis), three naturalized legumes (i.e., Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, and Trifolium repens), two native forbs (i.e., Artemisia frigida and Potentilla pensylvanica), one native grass (i.e., Bromus ciliatus) and two native legumes (i.e., Glycyrrhiza lepidota and Psoralea esculenta) exhibited phytoremediation potential, based on survival. We determined the effect of increasing crude oil concentrations on total and root biomass, and relative growth rate of those species with the highest survival. The addition of 0.5%, 1%, and 5% (crude oil wt/fresh soil wt) crude oil to soil significantly decreased both the total biomass by at least 22% of the control and the relative growth rate of all species except P. esculenta. Root biomass significantly decreased by at least 22% with crude oil addition in all species except P. esculenta and A. frigida. Total biomass production in contaminated soil had a significant negative correlation with the relative growth rate in uncontaminated soil. PMID:12929494

Robson, Diana Bizecki; Knight, J Diane; Farrell, Richard E; Germida, James J

2003-01-01

279

Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi. PMID:23095488

Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

2014-10-01

280

Endocannabinoids and endovanilloids: a possible balance in the regulation of the testicular GnRH signalling.  

PubMed

Reproductive functions are regulated both at central (brain) and gonadal levels. In this respect, the endocannabinoid system (eCS) has a very influential role. Interestingly, the characterization of eCS has taken many advantages from the usage of animal models different from mammals. Therefore, this review is oriented to summarize the main pieces of evidence regarding eCS coming from the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, with particular interest to the morphofunctional relationship between eCS and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Furthermore, a novel role for endovanilloids in the regulation of a testicular GnRH system will be also discussed. PMID:24072997

Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Scarpa, Donatella; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

2013-01-01

281

Endocannabinoids and Endovanilloids: A Possible Balance in the Regulation of the Testicular GnRH Signalling  

PubMed Central

Reproductive functions are regulated both at central (brain) and gonadal levels. In this respect, the endocannabinoid system (eCS) has a very influential role. Interestingly, the characterization of eCS has taken many advantages from the usage of animal models different from mammals. Therefore, this review is oriented to summarize the main pieces of evidence regarding eCS coming from the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, with particular interest to the morphofunctional relationship between eCS and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Furthermore, a novel role for endovanilloids in the regulation of a testicular GnRH system will be also discussed. PMID:24072997

Ciaramella, Vincenza; Scarpa, Donatella; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo

2013-01-01

282

Mutational Dynamics of Aroid Chloroplast Genomes  

PubMed Central

A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported. We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:23204304

Ahmed, Ibrar; Biggs, Patrick J.; Matthews, Peter J.; Collins, Lesley J.; Hendy, Michael D.; Lockhart, Peter J.

2012-01-01

283

Rates of block by procaine and benzocaine and the procaine-benzocaine interaction at the node of Ranvier  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Action potentials and their maximum rates of rise,\\u000a$$\\\\dot V_{\\\\text{A}}$$\\u000a, were measured in single myelinated nerve fibres of the frog,Rana esculenta at room temperature.2.On applying 1 mM procaine (pH 7.2) at 20 Hz stimulus frequency, half of the final\\u000a$$\\\\dot V_{\\\\text{A}}$$\\u000a reduction was reached atton=0.27s; on applying 0.5 mM benzocaine (pH 7.2) at 50 Hz,ton was 0.12s. Increasing the

C. Rimmel; A. Walle; H. Keßler; W. Ulbricht

1978-01-01

284

Interaction of lidocaine and benzocaine in blocking sodium channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Single myelinated nerve fibres of the frog,Rana esculenta, were investigated in voltage and current clamp experiments at pH 7.2.2.Measured with infrequent test pulses, 0.125 mM lidocaine reduced INa to 54%, 0,25 mM benzocaine to 40% and the mixture 0.125 mM lidocaine +0.25 mM benzocaine to 31% of the control. When hyperpolarizing prepulses (V=-40 mV for 15 ms) preceded the test

J. Schmidtmayer; W. Ulbricht

1980-01-01

285

The chemotaxonomy of Phytolacca species.  

PubMed

The chemical properties of crude saponins from the berries of Phytolacca dodecandra (Endod), which possesses, among other pharmacological functions, a potent spermicidal activity, were investigated. It was found that the aglycones of P. dodecandra are composed of oleanolic acid (66.2%), bayogenin (14.9%), hederogenin (8.9%), and 2-hydroxyoleanolic acid (6.5%), all of which are 28-carboxyoleanenes. P. americana, P. dioica, P. octandra, P. rivinoides, and P. esculenta are apparently composed of 28,30 dicarboxy and/or carbomethoxy oleanenes. Further analysis of the genus is required before the total absence of dicarboxylic triterpenes in P. dodecandra is established. PMID:12258562

Parkhurst, R M

1975-07-01

286

Selected emerging diseases of amphibia.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the most recent updates on emerging infectious diseases of amphibia. A brief summary of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, life cycle, diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity is provided. Ambystoma tigrinum virus, common midwife toad virus, frog virus 3, Rana grylio virus, Rana catesbeiana ranavirus, Mahaffey Road virus, Rana esculenta virus, Bohle iridovirus, and tiger frog virus ranaviruses are extensively reviewed. Emerging bacterial pathogens are discussed, including Flavobacter sp, Aeromonas sp, Citrobacter freundii, Chlamydophila sp, Mycobacterium liflandii, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. Rhabdias sp, Ribeiroia sp, and Spirometra erinacei are among several of the parasitic infections overviewed in this article. PMID:23642863

Latney, La'Toya V; Klaphake, Eric

2013-05-01

287

EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of ?-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

2010-12-01

288

Gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomal regions have different locations in the interphase nuclei of cold-blooded vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ hybridizations of single-copy GC-rich, gene-rich and GC-poor, gene-poor chicken DNA allowed us to localize the gene-rich\\u000a and the gene-poor chromosomal regions in interphase nuclei of cold-blooded vertebrates. Our results showed that the gene-rich\\u000a regions from amphibians (Rana esculenta) and reptiles (Podarcis sicula) occupy the more internal part of the nuclei, whereas the gene-poor regions occupy the periphery. This

Concetta Federico; Cinzia Scavo; Catia Daniela Cantarella; Salvatore Motta; Salvatore Saccone; Giorgio Bernardi

2006-01-01

289

Nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are considered rich in proteins, carbohydrates and other nutrients. The present study was carried out to evaluate some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley for their protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. The highest protein content was found in Boletus edulis (2.20g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (1.80g), Pleurotus ostreatus (1.68g), Morchella esculenta (1.62g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (1.6g). Carbohydrate content also showed variation in all the five tested edible mushroom species, the highest carbohydrate content observed in Boletus edulis (6.0g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (4.85g), Pleurotus ostreatus (4.30g), Morchella esculenta (4.25g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (3.35g) respectively. Similar results were observed for lipid content. The present study was also investigated for the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of mushroom species by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidant Catechin. PMID:22713951

Boda, Rouf Hamza; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad

2012-07-01

290

Yams (Dioscorea spp.) from the South Pacific Islands contain many novel badnaviruses: implications for international movement of yam germplasm.  

PubMed

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) samples (n = 690) from seven South Pacific Islands were screened for badnavirus infection by ELISA using two antisera to African badnaviruses. Positive readings were obtained for 26.4-34.6% of samples representing both known (D. bulbifera, D. nummularia and D. pentaphylla) and unreported host species (D. alata, D. esculenta, D. rotundata and D. trifida) in this region. Total DNAs were extracted from 25 ELISA-positive plants and 4 ELISA-negative controls and subjected to PCR amplification with badnavirus-specific primers targeting the reverse transcriptase (RT)-RNaseH genes. All 29 samples yielded the expected size PCR-product for badnaviruses, which were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting 45 partial (500-527 bp) RT-RNaseH sequences revealed 11 new sequence groups with <79% nucleotide identity to each other or any EMBL sequence. Three sequences (two groups) were highly divergent to the other nine new South Pacific yam badnavirus groups (47.9-57.2% identity) and probably represent either new Caulimoviridae genera or endogenous pararetrovirus sequences. Some sequence groups appeared specific to particular Dioscorea host species. Four 99.9% identical RT-RNaseH sequences possessing nine amino acid deletions from D. esculenta from three islands represent a putative integrated sequence group. The distribution of sequence groups across the islands indicates that badnaviruses have spread extensively between islands and continents through infected germplasm. PMID:18330495

Kenyon, Lawrence; Lebas, B S M; Seal, S E

2008-01-01

291

Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The present study, for the first time, comparatively investigated the enzymatic activities (proteases and hyaluronidases) in the venoms of four Scyphozoan jellyfish species, including Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculenta, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. For this, various zymographic analyses were performed using assay specific substrates. Interestingly, all the four jellyfish venoms showed gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, each of which contains a multitude of enzyme components with molecular weights between 17 and 130 kDa. These four jellyfish venoms demonstrated a huge variation in their proteolytic activities in quantitative and qualitative manner depending on the species. Most of these enzymatic activities were disappeared by the treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting they might be belonged to metalloproteinases. Toxicological significance of these venom proteases was examined by comparing their proteolytic activity and the cytotoxicity in NIH 3T3 cells. The relative cytotoxic potency was C. nozakii > N. nomurai > A. aurita > R. esculenta. The cytotoxicity of jellyfish venom shows a positive correlation with its overall proteolytic activity. The metalloproteinases appear to play an important role in the induction of jellyfish venom toxicities. In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity. PMID:21718715

Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-sun; Kang, Changkeun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

2011-09-01

292

In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.  

PubMed

Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions. PMID:23242587

Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

2013-05-01

293

Faculty Member Prize for Research at an Undergraduate Institution Lecture: Experimental Tests of the Spin-Statistics Theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between the spin of particles and the permutation symmetry ("statistics") of multiparticle states lies at the heart of much of atomic, molecular, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. The spin-statistics theorem of relativistic quantum field theory seems to provide a theoretical basis for this connection. There are, however, loopholes (O. W. Greenberg, Phys. Rev. D 43, 4111 (1991).) that allow for a field theory of identical particles whose statistics interpolate smoothly between that of bosons and fermions. Thus, it is up to experiment to reveal how closely nature follows the usual spin- statistics connection. After reviewing experiments that provide stringent limits on possible violations of the spin-statistics connection for electrons, I shall describe recent analogous experiments for spin-0 particles (R. C. Hilborn and C. L. Yuca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2844 (1996).) using diode laser spectroscopy of the A-band of molecular oxygen near 760 nm. These experiments show that the probability of finding two ^16O nuclei (spin-0 particles) in an antisymmetric state is less than 1ppm. I shall also discuss proposals to test the spin-statistics connection for photons.

Hilborn, Robert C.

1997-04-01

294

Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

2011-03-01

295

An amphibian antimicrobial peptide variant expressed in Nicotiana tabacum confers resistance to phytopathogens.  

PubMed Central

Esculentin-1 is a 46-residue antimicrobial peptide present in skin secretions of Rana esculenta. It is effective against a wide variety of micro-organisms, including plant pathogens with negligible effects on eukaryotic cells. As a possible approach to enhance plant resistance, a DNA coding for esculentin-1, with the substitution Met-28Leu, was fused at the C-terminal end of the leader sequence of endopolygalacturonase-inhibiting protein, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter region, and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum. The antimicrobial peptide was isolated from the intercellular fluids of healthy leaves of transgenic plants, suggesting that it was properly processed, secreted outside cells and accumulated in the intercellular spaces. The morphology of transgenic plants was unaffected. Challenging these plants with bacterial or fungal phytopathogens demonstrated enhanced resistance up to the second generation. Moreover, transgenic plants displayed insecticidal properties. PMID:12435273

Ponti, Donatella; Mangoni, M Luisa; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Simmaco, Maurizio; Barra, Donatella

2003-01-01

296

Morama bean research in Texas: a technical report  

SciTech Connect

The search for drought-resistant crops has energy-saving as well as water-saving goals. The agricultural potential of morama beans (Bauhinea esculenta, also known as Tylosema esculentum), a plant that grows extensively across southern Africa was investigated. The beans are usually eaten roasted, like peanuts. Morama tubers, which store water to assure the plant's survival in drought years, may be uprooted and eaten as a source of moisture and some other nutrients. The goals of the morama project were specifically to discover the tolerance of morama for Texas agronomic conditions, to discover the ideal conditions and methods of cultivation, to demonstrate the productivity and forage potential of the plants grown at various sites in Texas, and to measure the nutritional quality of the edible parts of this plant.

Bousquet, J.E.

1982-07-01

297

Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-?1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

2012-01-01

298

Phloretin sensitive active urea absorption in frog skin.  

PubMed

This report presents evidence for urea active absorption by isolated skin of Rana esculenta. One of the supporting factors of such evidence is that at a low concentration the urea influx is five times greater than the outflux, in the absence of a chemical gradient. The transport shows a saturation kinetics with an apparent Km = 1.33 mM and is inhibited by un uncoupling agent (FCCP). 5 x 10(-4) M Phloretin, added to the external side, markedly inhibits inward urea transport, whereas it is ineffective when added to the serosal fluid. This provides evidence for a phloretin-sensitive mechanism located at the external side of the epithelium. Phloretin stimulates the sodium active transport; the possible coupling of urea and sodium movement is analysed. PMID:6983053

Svelto, M; Casavola, V; Valenti, G; Lippe, C

1982-09-01

299

Amine oxidase from Lathyrus cicera and Phaseolus vulgaris: purification and properties.  

PubMed

Cu-Amine oxidases (amine oxygen oxidoreductase deaminating, copper containing E.C. 1.4.3.6.) are found in all forms of life (1). They catalyze the following general reaction: R-CH2-NH2 + O2 + H2O----R-CHO + NH3 + H2O2. Cu-amine oxidases (Cu-AOs) have been extracted from different leguminosae: Pisum sativum (2-3), Lathyrus sativus (4), Lens esculenta (5), Vicia faba (6), Cicer arietinum (7), Glycine max (8) but not from Phaseolus vulgaris. Palavan and Galston (9), in a study of polyamine biosynthesis during developmental stages of Phaseolus vulgaris, did not detect diamine or polyamine oxidase activity in Phaseolus. The present paper describes the purification of Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings amine oxidase (PhSAO) and also compares the properties of this enzyme to the Lathyrus cicera enzyme (LcSAO), obtained with the same method of purification. PMID:2798365

Cogoni, A; Farci, R; Medda, R; Rinaldi, A; Floris, G

1989-01-01

300

Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river.  

PubMed

With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality. PMID:24080292

Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S

2013-11-01

301

[Thyroid homeostasis in animals with iodine deficiency].  

PubMed

The content of total iodine, its hormonal and nonhormonal fractions as well the level of protein-bound iodine in blood and basic tissue targets in representatives of 4 classes of animals: Esox lucius L., Rana esculenta, Streptopelia decaocto Priv., Lepus europaeus Pall. inhabiting the mountain regions with iodine deficiency in environment and in the lowlands of Transcarpathia with higher iodine provision have been investigated. A considerable decrease of general and hormone iodine level in the animal tissues of the mountain area accompanied by the suppression of the thyroid function has been stated. The utilization of thyroid hormones under the iodine deficiency condition is increased in the majority of cases and the level of protein-bound iodine is lowered that testifies to the transition of animal organism in the iodine-deficient areas to the lower level of thyroid homeostasis. PMID:3265636

Fabri, Z I

1988-01-01

302

Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

1989-01-01

303

Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

Wolverton, B. C.

1988-01-01

304

Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. PMID:16781033

Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

2007-01-01

305

[The morphology of amphibian skins: comparison between some species in different natural habitats].  

PubMed

A comparison in the morphology of the skin in different species of Amphibians has been performed in this note. Species examined had different natural habitat: some of them were closely dependent on a watery environment (Proteus anguinus, Triturus cristatus, Rana esculenta and R. graeca), whereas others were more or less adapted to life on land (Rana dalmatina, Salamandra salamandra, Bufo bufo, B. viridis and Hyla arborea). Structural patterns of both epidermis and derm varied from species to species; namely differences in the thickness of both epidermis and loose and compact layers of the derm have been found, as well as variations in the keratinization processes. Such findings reveal in each species distinctive features of the skin, related to either a watery or to a water-free environment. PMID:7115576

Bani, G

1982-05-30

306

17 O nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of H 2 17 O in frog striated muscle.  

PubMed

Whole striated muscles from the frog Rana esculenta were bathed in Ringer's solution enriched with H(2) (17)O; the muscle water was subsequently collected by vacuum distillation. The integrated intensity of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal of (17)O in the muscle was measured to be approximately (3/4) of the signal observed in the distilled water. The phenomenon may arise either from immobilization of a population of the water molecules which may be a very small fraction or as much as (1/4) of the total, or may reflect tumbling of (1/3) of the water molecules in a compartment containing an anisotropic medium. Such an effect was demonstrated for H(2) (17)O using the model system of sodium linoleate in water. PMID:4537032

Civan, M M; Shporer, M

1972-04-01

307

Floral thermogenesis of three species of Hydnora (Hydnoraceae) in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Floral thermogenesis occurs in at least 12 families of ancient seed plants. Some species show very high rates of respiration through the alternative pathway, and some are thermoregulatory, with increasing respiration at decreasing ambient temperature. This study assesses the intensity and regulation of respiration in three species of African Hydnora that represent the Hydnoraceae, an unusual family of holoparasitic plants from arid environments. Methods Long-term respirometry (CO2 production) and thermometry were carried out on intact flowers of H. africana, H. abyssinica and H. esculenta in the field, and short-term measurements were made on floral parts during the protogynous flowering sequence. Key Results For H. africana, there was no temperature elevation in either the osmophores or the gynoecial chamber in any phase, and mass-specific respiration rates of the flower parts were low (maximum 8·3 nmol CO2 g?1 s?1 in osmophore tissue). Respiration tracked ambient and floral temperatures, eliminating the possibility of the inverse relationship expected in thermoregulatory flowers. Hydnora abyssinica flowers had higher respiration (maximum 27·5 nmol g?1 s?1 in the osmophores) and a slight elevation of osmophore temperature (maximum 2·8 °C) in the female stage. Respiration by gynoecial tissue was similar to that of osmophores in both species, but there was no measurable elevation of gynoecial chamber temperature. Gynoecial chamber temperature of H. esculenta could reach 3·8 °C above ambient, but there are no respiration data available. Antheral tissue respiration was maximal in the male phase (4·8 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. africana and 10·3 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. abyssinica), but it did not raise the antheral ring temperature, which showed that thermogenesis is not a by-product of pollen maturation or release. Conclusions The exceptionally low thermogenesis in Hydnora appears to be associated with scent production and possibly gynoecial development, but has little direct benefit to beetle pollinators. PMID:19584128

Seymour, Roger S.; Maass, Erika; Bolin, Jay F.

2009-01-01

308

[Post-traumatic nodular scleroderma].  

PubMed

Scleroderma of rare appearance in children appears in minor scale as to the five per cent on the whole incidence of this collagen disease. The children usually present localized scleroderma and at times associated with other pathologies, traumatisms and injections were referred. Two patients aged 5 and 13 years old are presented, both with nodular lesions on anterolateral thigh area, and in the right buttock respectively. The patches of a side bigger than the palm of hand were only touchable and the skin that covered them only showed a slight hyperpigmentation in the edge in one of the cases. The limits were not precise and the nodulose surface was irregular. The evolution was as of two and three years, right after inoculation of antitetanical vaccination and puncture thorn of Yuca leaves. The histological control showed intensive phenomenons of fibrohyalinosis covering almost all the dermis. The studies of the laboratories didn't produce interesting data. The histological and clinical set of symptoms shows differences with the esclerodermic like states as a consequence of excipient of vitamin K, B 12, norhydroxprogesterone and anti-tetanic serum, in which they settle in the cellular subcutaneous tissue and they involution spontaneously. There are also differences with the paniculitis artefacta and with the lincar morphea associated to bifid spine. At last the authors make special mention of the case described by Desmons of progressive linear scleroderma right after the triple vaccination. The nodular or subcutaneous scleroderma is a clinical form in which the histological alteration decays in deep dermis and superficial hypodermis. The cases shown suggest a conection between a previous traumatism and the nodular scleroderma. PMID:6366390

Bonino, M V; Bianchi, C; Bianchi, O; Garcia Garcia, A

1983-01-01

309

Petroleum system of the Cano Limon field, Llanos Basin, Colombia  

SciTech Connect

The Chipaque-Lower Carbonera({circ}) Petroleum System of the northernmost Llanos Basin of Colombia, covers 11,100 km{sup 2} and includes two major oil fields: Caho Limon in Colombia, and Guafita in Venezuela, jointly with three more relatively small fields in Colombia: Redondo, Cano Rondon, and Jiba. Ultimate recoverable reserves are in the order of 1.4 BBO. The sedimentary section penetrated in the Northern Llanos has been informally subdivided into four Cretaceous formations: K3, K2B, K2A, and Lower K1 deposited during the Albian-Senonian, and into four Tertiary formations: Lower Carbonera, Upper Carbonera, Leon, and Guayabo deposited during the Late Eocene to Pliocene time. The main reservoir is the Lower Carbonera Formation, which contains 81% of the total reserves. The Cretaceous K2A and Lower K1 reservoirs contain 6% and 8%, respectively of the reserves. Minor reserves are accumulated in the discontinuous sandstones of the Oligocene Upper Carbonera Formation Geochemical analyses of the Cano Limon/Guafita oils indicate that these are aromatic intermediate to paraffinic-naphthenic, non degradated, genetically related to a common marine-derived type of kerogen. These oils were generated by a mature, marine clastic source rock with a small contribution of continental organic matter. The geochemistry of the hydrocarbon suggest a genetic relationship with the shales of the Chipaque formation, basin-ward equivalent of the K2 Formation, which presents kerogen type II organic matter and has been recognized as a good source rock. The petroleum system is hypothetical because a definite oil-source rock correlation is lacking. The development of the petroleum system is directly related to the history of movement of the Santa Maria, La Yuca, Caho Limon, and Matanegra wrench faults. It has been determined that these faults of pre-Cretaceous rifting origin, created the Santa Maria Graben of which the Espino Graben is the continuation in Venezuela.

Molina, J. [Occidental de Colombia, Inc., Bogota (Colombia)

1996-08-01

310

In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600–700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. PMID:17652338

Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

2007-01-01

311

Dietary secondary amines and liver hepatoma in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dietary secondary amines of some Nigerian foodstuffs were analyzed by Soxhlet extraction, using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80 degrees C); followed by thin layer chromatography developed in a solvent system; n-butanol: 95% ethanol: water (4:2:1) for the qualitative test. Each UV fluorescent band in the test chromatogram was scraped and eluted with distilled water, filtered and assayed for secondary amine content for the quantitative test. Quantitative estimations were by the colorimetric methods. The results show that Ugu--Telfairia occidentalo; millet--Panicum miliaceum; bitter leaf--Vernonia amygdalina; mushroom--Boletus spp; and Okro--Hibiscus esculentus contain diethylamine, dimethylamine, morpholine and ethylaniline. Garri--Manihot utilissima flour contains diethylamine and dimethylamine only; while fish (frozen) Tilapia malanopleura contains diethylamine, dimethylamine and piperidine and the smoked fish--Tilapia nilotica contains diethylamine, dimethylamine, ethylaniline, morpholine, piperidine and n-propylamine. Cocoyam--Xanthosoma sagittifolium contains diethylamine, dimethylamine, morpholine, ethylaniline and proline. The results also show that the secondary amine content of the various foodstuffs ranged between 0.80-0.91 microg N/kg. The public health implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9629865

Uhegbu, F O

1997-01-01

312

The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: first records, potential distribution, and an identification key.  

PubMed

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

313

The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key  

PubMed Central

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

314

[Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].  

PubMed

By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians). PMID:23789398

Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Va?shnora?te, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

2013-01-01

315

Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639

Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele

2011-01-01

316

Availability of in vitro vitellogenin assay for screening of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin (VTG) protein, VTG mRNA, other egg yolk proteins, vitelline envelope proteins and their mRNAs are produced in the liver of oviparous species by stimulation of endogenous estrogen and exogenous estrogenic chemicals. The VTG assay based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been widely used for many fish species to screen estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of chemicals and sewage effluents using immature fish and/or male fish. In order to reduce the number of fish for screening of estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of chemicals, primary cultured fish hepatocytes can be used. In fact, primary cultured hepatocytes have been successfully used for the detection of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals in selected OECD fish species, e.g., medaka (Oryzias latipes) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchys mykiss) together with other fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), bream (Abramis brama), Carassius auratus, silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctanus). In terms of hepatocyte assays relating to other taxa, these include frogs such as Xenopus laevis and the common green frog (Rana esculenta), chickens (Gallus domesticus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus). VTG mRNA measurement by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction has also been successfully applied in the primary cultured hepatocytes of various species. PMID:16883298

Iguchi, Taisen; Irie, Fumi; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Tooi, Osamu; Kawashima, Yukio; Roberts, Mike; Norrgren, Leif; Hutchinson, Thomas

2006-01-01

317

Agricultural Encroachment: Implications for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical African Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical wetlands have been shown to exhibit high rates of net primary productivity and may therefore play an important role in global climate change mitigation through carbon assimilation and sequestration. Many permanently flooded areas of tropical East Africa are dominated by the highly productive C4 emergent macrophyte sedge, Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus). However, increasing population densities around wetland margins in East Africa are reducing the extent of papyrus coverage due to the planting of subsistence crops such as Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). We have assessed the impact of this land use change on the carbon cycle in theis wetland environment. Eddy covariance techniques were used, on a campaign basis, to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide over both papyrus and cocoyam dominated wetlands located on the Ugandan shore of Lake Victoria. The integration of flux data over the annual cycle shows that papyrus wetlands have the potential to act as a sink for significant amounts of carbon, in the region of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The cocoyam vegetation was found to assimilate ~7 t C ha-1 yr-1 but when carbon exports from crop biomass removal were taken into account these wetlands represent a significant net loss of carbon of similar magnitude. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required in order to promote the dual wetland function of crop production and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions especially under future climate change scenarios.

Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.; Kansiime, F.

2013-12-01

318

Termination of trigeminal primary afferents on glossopharyngeal-vagal motoneurons: possible neural networks underlying the swallowing phase and visceromotor responses of prey-catching behavior.  

PubMed

Prey-catching behavior (PCB) of the frog consists of a sequence of coordinated activity of muscles which is modified by various sensory signals. The aim of the present study was, for the first time, to examine the involvement of the trigeminal afferents in the swallowing phase of PCB. Experiments were performed on Rana esculenta, where the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal (IX)-vagus (X) nerves were labeled simultaneously with different fluorescent dyes. Using confocal laser scanning microscope, close appositions were detected between the trigeminal afferent fibers and somatodendritic components of the IX-X motoneurons of the ambiguus nucleus (NA). Neurolucida reconstruction revealed spatial distribution of the trigeminal afferents in the functionally different parts of the NA. Thus, the visceromotor neurons supplying the stomach, the heart and the lung received about two third of the trigeminal contacts followed by the pharyngomotor and then by the laryngomotor neurons. On the other hand, individual motoneurons responsible for innervation of the viscera received less trigeminal terminals than the neurons supplying the muscles of the pharynx. The results suggest that the direct contacts between the trigeminal afferents and IX-X motoneurons presented here may be one of the morphological substrate of a very quick response during the swallowing phase of PCB. Combination of direct and indirect trigeminal inputs may contribute to optimize the ongoing motor execution. PMID:24076270

Kecskes, Szilvia; Matesz, Clara; Birinyi, András

2013-10-01

319

Phylogenetic aspects of the occurrence and distribution of secretogranin II immunoreactivity in lower vertebrate gut.  

PubMed

A novel monoclonal antibody raised against bovine secretogranin II (Sg II) was used in immunohistochemical studies on amphibian (Rana esculenta), reptilian (Podarcis sicula) and avian (Gallus gallus) gut. Sg II immunoreactivity was detected in epithelial and nervous elements. Cells immunoreactive for Sg II were examined by double immunostainings to determine whether they might also co-store certain previously known bioactive amine/peptide substances. Almost all the endocrine cells immunoreactive for bombesin, substance P, neurotensin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and calcitonin gene-related peptide as well as some of those immunostained for serotonin, histamine, and polypeptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) also contained Sg II. Sg II-immunoreactive cells varied in number and distribution according to regions of the gut and animal species. The number of Sg II immunoreactive granules notably varied not only according to cell type, but also within the same cell population. Many histamine-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, substance P-, PYY-, and neurotensin-immunoreactive neurons also contained Sg II. These were mostly situated in the myenteric plexus; their distribution pattern varied among the three species. These findings show that, despite being well conserved during phylogeny, Sg II has a heterogeneous distribution. PMID:7529518

D'Este, L; Buffa, R; Renda, T

1994-08-01

320

Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:21565018

Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P; Catanéo, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; García-Jiménez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, René; González, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mélodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

2010-01-01

321

The major tuber storage protein of araceae species is a lectin. Characterization and molecular cloning of the lectin from Arum maculatum L.  

PubMed Central

A new lectin was purified from tubers of Arum maculatum L. by affinity chromatography on immobilized asialofetuin. Although this lectin is also retained on mannose-Sepharose 4B, under the appropriate conditions free mannose is a poor inhibitor of its agglutination activity. Pure preparations of the Arum lectin apparently yielded a single polypeptide band of approximately 12 kD upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein combined with molecular cloning of the lectin have shown that the lectin is composed of two different 12-kD lectin subunits that are synthesized on a single large precursor translated from an mRNA of approximately 1400 nucleotides. Lectins with similar properties were also isolated from the Araceae species Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, and Dieffenbachia sequina Schott. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of the different Araceae lectins have shown that they are tetrameric proteins composed of lectin subunits of 12 to 14 kD. Interestingly, these lectins are the most prominent proteins in the tuber tissue. Evidence is presented that a previously described major storage protein of Colocasia tubers corresponds to the lectin. PMID:7770523

Van Damme, E J; Goossens, K; Smeets, K; Van Leuven, F; Verhaert, P; Peumans, W J

1995-01-01

322

Peptides with antimicrobial activity from four different families isolated from the skins of the North American frogs Rana luteiventris, Rana berlandieri and Rana pipiens.  

PubMed

The skins of frogs of the genus Rana synthesize a complex array of antimicrobial peptides that may be grouped into eight families on the basis of structural similarity. A total of 24 peptides with differential growth-inhibitory activity towards the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Candida albicans were isolated from extracts of the skins of three closely related North American frogs, Rana luteiventris (spotted frog), Rana berlandieri (Rio Grande leopard frog) and Rana pipiens (Northern leopard frog). Structural characterization of the antimicrobial peptides demonstrated that they belonged to four of the known families: the brevinin-1 family, first identified in skin of the Asian frog Rana porosa brevipoda; the esculentin-2 family, first identified in the European frog Rana esculenta; the ranatuerin-2 family, first identified in the North American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana; and the temporin family, first identified in the European frog Rana temporaria. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-2, ranalexin, esculentin-1 and ranatuerin-1 families were not identified in the extracts. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship between the various species of Ranid frogs, the distribution and amino-acid sequences of the antimicrobial peptides produced by each species are highly variable and species-specific, suggesting that they may be valuable in taxonomic classification and molecular phylogenetic analysis. PMID:10651828

Goraya, J; Wang, Y; Li, Z; O'Flaherty, M; Knoop, F C; Platz, J E; Conlon, J M

2000-02-01

323

Gold content of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi growing in the wild were collected from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas and analyzed for gold. Gold was determined using long-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In total, 154 samples, including 67 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 22 species of terrestrial saprobes, were examined. Gold contents of the both groups were mostly less than 20 ng g(-1) of D.W. The highest concentrations (expressed in D.W.) were found in the ectomycorrhizal species Amanita strobiliformis (136 ng g(-1)), Russula claroflava (148 ng g(-1)), Cantharellus lutescens (156 and 210 ng g(-1)), and Boletus edulis (235 ng g(-1)). Among the saprobic fungi, the highest values were found in Langermannia gigantea (160 ng g(-1)) and Morchella esculenta (189 ng g(-1)). Species of Agaricus commonly had relatively high gold values, 10s of ng g(-1). The gold content of macrofungal fruit bodies was considerably higher than that of vascular plants, and parallels concentrations found in plants growing in auriferous areas. PMID:16175798

Borovicka, Jan; Randa, Zden?k; Jelínek, Emil

2005-08-01

324

Uses of mushrooms by Finns and Karelians.  

PubMed

Finns have adopted two traditions of mushroom use: one, the old Roman tradition, came through France and Sweden to the educated, mostly Swedish speaking people of southwest Finland; the other came from the east via Karelia and was adopted by ordinary country folk. This eastern tradition is still maintained among the Karelinas living in Tver government in Russia. Even the use of Amanita muscaria for killing flies is still utilized there. The western tradition favoured chanterelles and Boletus edulis, the eastern acrid milk caps, the Lactarius species. During the famines in the 1860's and after the World War II the government authorities tried to promote the use of wild mushrooms, but the real impulse to a more versatile mushroom use was initiated after the war when 400,000 evacuees from that part of Karelia conquered by the Soviet Union were resettled among farming families all over Finland. In 1969 the National Board of Forestry began to train mushroom advisors, a programme which still continues. In 1981 Finland passed a statute on edible mushrooms and drew up a list of commercial species. Even today the largest percentage of marketed mushrooms comes from Eastern Finland and the Lactarius tivialis species sells best. Gyromitra esculenta, the false morel is considered a delicacy. Today picking mushrooms is a passionate hobby for many Finns. PMID:9567575

Härkönen, M

1998-01-01

325

Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173

Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

326

Susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to a panel of ranavirus isolates.  

PubMed

Ranaviruses are considered a serious threat to lower vertebrates, including fish, amphibians and reptiles. However, epidemiological data on these agents are lacking, and further investigations are needed to understand the role of carriers and to update the list of susceptible hosts. We carried out various experimental infections under controlled conditions to contribute to the current knowledge on the susceptibility of black bullhead Ameiurus melas to European catfish virus (ECV) and other ranaviruses. A panel of 7 ranavirus isolates was used to challenge duplicate groups of A. melas juveniles maintained in aquaria supplied with running dechlorinated tap water. The experiments were performed at 15 and 25 degrees C. The results confirmed the high susceptibility of A. melas to ECV infection. Furthermore, a significant mortality associated with the typical signs of systemic viral infections was observed in groups challenged with Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) at 25 degrees C, and to a lesser extent, at 15 degrees C. No significant mortality was recorded in fish challenged with European sheatfish virus (ESV), Frog virus 3 (FV3), Rana esculenta virus-like (REV-like), Bohle iridovirus (BIV) or short-finned eel virus (SERV). PMID:20815324

Gobbo, F; Cappellozza, E; Pastore, M R; Bovo, G

2010-07-01

327

Comparison of European systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus and frog virus 3.  

PubMed

Iridovirus-like agents isolated from systemic infected fish (Silurus glanis, SFIR; Ictalurus melas, CFIR I, CFIR II, CFIR III) and from frogs (Rana esculenta, REIR) in Europe, Epizootic Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (EHNV) isolated in Australia from redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis), and Frog Virus 3 (FV 3) isolated from frogs (Rana pipiens) in the USA were investigated by electron microscopy, polypeptide composition, immunofluorescence, restriction endonuclease digestion, Southern-blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. All virus isolates proved to be similar in morphology and in size and reacted with EHNV polyclonal antiserum in the immunofluorescence. Whilst DNA restriction profiles of the European piscine isolates cleaved by BamH I were similar, they differed clearly from those of EHNV, REIR and FV 3. Southern-blot analysis of viral BamH I digested DNA using an EHNV DNA probe revealed cross-hybridization with DNA of the investigated iridoviruses. Using a set of primers designed for an open reading frame of the EHNV genome, PCR products of about 250 bp were obtained with the DNA of systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses. The data suggest that the systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses should be regarded as members of the the genus Ranavirus within the family Iridoviridae. PMID:9719770

Ahne, W; Bearzotti, M; Bremont, M; Essbauer, S

1998-08-01

328

Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60?% similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4?% sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50?% DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) (?=?CNPSo 120(T)?=?LMG 27577(T)?=?IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24972614

Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

2014-09-01

329

Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.  

PubMed

To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-? and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-? production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-? and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-? levels and high-level production of IFN-? in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

2012-12-01

330

Natural interspecies transfer of mitochondrial DNA in amphibians.  

PubMed Central

mtDNAs of two Central European water frog species, Rana ridibunda and Rana lessonae, were examined by electrophoresis of restriction enzyme fragments. Two types of mtDNA occur in R. ridibunda. One shares with mtDNA of R. lessonae 25.8% of 132 fragments generated by 19 enzymes, corresponding to a nucleotide sequence divergence of 8.1%; the other has diverged from R. lessonae mtDNA by only 0.3%. This latter type is a variant R. lessonae mtDNA that has been transferred into R. ridibunda; the introgression may have occurred via the hybridogenetic hybrid lineages collectively known as Rana esculenta. Of 37 R. ridibunda from Poland, 59% had the typical R. ridibunda mtDNA; 41% had the modified R. lessonae mtDNA as did a single individual from Switzerland (introduced). A single R. ridibunda from Turkey, outside the present range of R. lessonae, had the typical R. ridibunda mtDNA phenotype. Discordancies between inheritance of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes point up the danger of relying on a single molecular feature in reconstructing phylogeny. In addition, studies of mtDNA provide otherwise inaccessible information on complex evolutionary histories of closely related species. A knowledge of these complexities is important to an understanding of phylogenetic relationships and of the genetic processes that underlie the evolution of clonal taxa. Images PMID:6091109

Spolsky, C; Uzzell, T

1984-01-01

331

Root-knot Nematode Management in Dryland Taro with Tropical Cover Crops.  

PubMed

Twenty-two cover crops were evaluated for their ability to reduce damage by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, to taro, Colocastia esculenta, in a tropical cropping system. Cover crops were grown and incorporated into the soil before taro was planted. Barley, greenpanic, glycine, marigold, sesame, sunn hemp, and sorghum x sudangrass DeKalb ST6E were poor or nonhosts to the nematode as measured by low population changes of nematodes in soil between cover crop planting and taro planting. Alfalfa, buckwheat, cowpea, lablab, Lana vetch, mustard, oat, okra, rhodes grass, ryegrain, ryegrass, siratro, sweet corn, and wheat allowed nematode populations to increase dramatically. Taro yields were greatest in the marigold plots and lowest in the ryegrain plots. Taro corm weight decreased with increasing initial nematode population (Pi) (r = 0.22, P = 0.056). Siratro, ryegrass, and Blizzard wheat plots had higher taro yield than plots with similar Pi's but planted to other cover crops. These cover crops may have antagonism to other soil microorganisms or their decomposition products may be toxic or adversely affect the nematodes. Cover crops can be an effective and valuable nematode management tactic for use in minor tropical cropping systems such as taro. PMID:19274275

Sipes, B S; Arakaki, A S

1997-12-01

332

Incidence of seed-borne fungi and aflatoxins in Sudanese lentil seeds.  

PubMed

Thirteen seed samples of lentil (Lens esculenta) were incubated on agar plate and moist filter papers (Moist Chambers) at 28 +/- 2 degrees C for determination of the incidence of seed-borne fungi. Aflatoxins content of the seeds was measured using the bright greenish- yellow fluorescence test (BGYF) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Sixty-nine species and seven varieties, which belong to 24 genera of fungi, were isolated from this crop. Of these fungi, 51 species and two varieties are considered new for this crop, whereas seven genera and 13 species are new to the mycoflora of the Sudan. The genus Aspergillus (13 species and 6 varieties) which comprising 44% of the total colony count was the most prevalent genus followed by Rhizopus (2 species, 19%), Penicillium (6 species) and Fusarium (8 species) (12%), Chaetomium (3 species) and Cladosporium (5 species) (6%), where the 18 genera (1-4 species) showed very low level of incidence (19%). Of the possible pathogens of lentil plants, F. oxysporum the main cause of vascular wilt was recovered from seeds of this crop. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of chloroform extracts of 13 seed samples showed that only one samples was naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (14.3 micrograms/kg). PMID:11307599

el-Nagerabi, S A; Elshafie, A E

2001-01-01

333

Patterns of major metabolites biosynthesis by different mushroom fungi grown on glucose-based submerged cultures.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic potential of four basidiomycetes (Agrocybe aegerita, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum and Pleurotus pulmonarius) and one ascomycete (Morchella esculenta) was examined in regard to biomass, intracellular (endopolysaccharides and lipids) and extracellular (exopolysaccharides) compounds' production in liquid media with glucose as substrate, in static and agitated cultures. Exopolysaccharides' production presented significant negative correlation with biomass, endopolysaccharides and lipids, while biomass was positively related to the production of endopolysaccharides and lipids. Maximum values of biomass, endo- and exo-polysaccharides obtained were quite impressive: P. pulmonarius produced 22.5 g/L of biomass, A. aegerita 60.4 % (w/w) of endopolysaccharides and F. velutipes 1.2 g/L of exopolysaccharides. Polysaccharides and lipids synthesized at the early growth stages were subjected to degradation as the fermentation proceeded. Mycelial lipids of all strains were highly unsaturated, dominated by linoleic acid, whereas glucose was the main building block of endopolysaccharides. The ability of the examined mushroom fungi to synthesize in high quantities biomass and polysaccharides, products with biotechnological and medicinal interest, renders these fungi as potential candidates in sugar-based bio-refineries. PMID:24366161

Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

2014-07-01

334

Mushroom cryopreservation and its effect on survival, yield and genetic stability.  

PubMed

Mycelial stock cultures of Agaricus bisporus, A. Bitorquis, Pleurotus flabellatus, P. Sajor-caju, P. Ostreatus, P. Sapidus, Auricularia polytricha, Lentinula edodes, Morchella esculenta and Volvariella volvacea were maintained by frequent subculturing at an interval of two months and separately as wheat grain spawn in liquid nitrogen with 15 percent glycerol. Preservation of mushroom stock cultures as wheat grain spawn under liquid nitrogen proved to be the better method of maintenance. The percent recoveries of stored samples were unchanged from the first recovery after six months to the last recovery after 42 months in nine out of 11 stock cultures preserved under liquid nitrogen. However, a marginal decline in survival of 10 % was recorded in Auricularia polytricha and Volvariella volvacea. Yields before preservation of mushroom stock cultures and after 30 months of preservation exhibited static biological efficiency and fruitbody weight. The comparison of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) PCR amplified products did not exhibit DNA fragment variation in banding patterns at the intraspecific level during preservation of stock cultures by either method. The modified cryopreservation protocol and experimental demonstration of genetic stability of stock cultures reported here validate the use of mushroom cryopreservation techniques and supports studies on genetic stability of preserved biological materials. PMID:15031742

Singh, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Kamal, Shwet; Tiwari, Mugdha

2004-01-01

335

Food processing methods influence the glycaemic indices of some commonly eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods.  

PubMed

Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were processed by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods processed by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet. PMID:16925852

Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N

2006-09-01

336

Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-? and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-? production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-? and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-? levels and high-level production of IFN-? in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

2012-01-01

337

The effect of soaking and cooking on the oxalate content of taro leaves.  

PubMed

Pacific Island people commonly eat taro (Colocasia esculenta var. Schott) as a staple food in their home islands and also like to consume this familiar food when living in New Zealand. Some of these foods are imported from the islands and some attempts are, currently, being made to grow these crops in New Zealand. The taro leaves in this experiment were grown in a greenhouse in the North Island of New Zealand. The soluble oxalate content of the raw leaves was 236.10 mg oxalate/100 g wet matter (WM). Soaking the raw leaves in water for 30 min marginally reduces the soluble oxalate content by leaching into the tap water. Soaking for 18 h results in a 26% reduction in the soluble oxalate content of the raw leaves. During the soaking treatments the insoluble oxalate (calcium oxalate) content of the leaves remained constant (mean 171.64 mg oxalate/100 g WM). Boiling the taro leaves resulted in a 36% loss of soluble oxalates, while the soluble oxalate content of baked tissue was very similar to the raw tissue. The mean insoluble oxalate content of the raw, boiled and baked tissue was 226.28 mg oxalate/100 g WM. Overall, boiling the taro leaves was an effective way of reducing the soluble oxalate content of the cooked tissue. PMID:17135028

Savage, G P; Dubois, M

2006-01-01

338

Heat and mass transfer in deep-frying of pumpkin, sweet potato and taro.  

PubMed

Heat and mass transfer parameters, effective thermal diffusivity, heat transfer coefficient, effective moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient-for pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) under deep-frying conditions were determined by fitting experimental data on transient values of temperature and moisture content to the solution of the standard diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates as modified by Dincer (Heat Mass Transfer 32:109-113, 1996). A case of Biot number in the range of 0< B i <100 was considered in this study. Remarkably good agreement was found between estimated and calculated values as the root mean square error between the measured and calculated temperature and moisture content values were only 5.0% and 1.3%, respectively. The model can be easily and effectively used to determine effective diffusion coefficients as well as transfer coefficients for heat and mass transfer. The oil uptake values for the above vegetables were lower than the values reported for other deep fried products. PMID:23572697

Ahromrit, Araya; Nema, Prabhat K

2010-12-01

339

Mechanism-based inactivators of plant copper/quinone containing amine oxidases.  

PubMed

Copper/quinone amine oxidases contain Cu(II) and the quinone of 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine (topaquinone; TPQ) as cofactors. TPQ is derived by post-translational modification of a conserved tyrosine residue in the protein chain. Major advances have been made during the last decade toward understanding the structure/function relationships of the active site in Cu/TPQ amine oxidases using specific inhibitors. Mechanism-based inactivators are substrate analogues that bind to the active site of an enzyme being accepted and processed by the normal catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. During the reaction a covalent modification of the enzyme occurs leading to irreversible inactivation. In this review mechanism-based inactivators of plant Cu/TPQ amine oxidases from the pulses lentil (Lens esculenta), pea (Pisum sativum), grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia,) are described. Substrates forming, in aerobiotic and in anaerobiotic conditions, killer products that covalently bound to the quinone cofactor or to a specific amino acid residue of the target enzyme are all reviewed. PMID:16054177

Longu, Silvia; Mura, Anna; Padiglia, Alessandra; Medda, Rosaria; Floris, Giovanni

2005-08-01

340

Late Quaternary environments, vegetation and agriculture in northern New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sedimentological and plant microfossil history of the Late Quaternary is preserved in two sediment cores from early Polynesian ditch systems on southern Aupouri Peninsula. The study places human activities into a geomorphological and ecological context and allows comparison of natural and anthropogenic effects on two different geological settings: a floodplain and a relatively closed peat swamp. The data fill part of the current gap in the environmental record from northern New Zealand, namely MIS 3 (57k-26k yr BP). There is evidence for an increase in fire frequency in the region after 40k 14C yr BP, suggesting a shift to drier (and cooler) conditions. Pollen records show that conifer-hardwood forest dominated by podocarps (especially Dacrydium) prevailed prior to Polynesian arrival and deforestation within the last millennium, with Fuscopsora insignificant throughout. Both cores show sections with gaps in deposition or preservation, possible flood-stripping of peat during the pre-Holocene and mechanical disturbance by early Polynesians. The identification of prehistoric starch grains and other microremains of introduced Colocasia esculenta (taro) in both cores supports indirect evidence that the ditch systems of far northern New Zealand were used for the extensive cultivation of this crop. Copyright

Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S. L.; Augustinus, P. C.; Barber, I. G.

2007-03-01

341

Cytokine-mimetic properties of some Philippine food and medicinal plants.  

PubMed

This study evaluated Philippine indigenous plants for cytokine-mimetic properties and partially characterized candidate mimetics for their stability as well as their sensitivity to variations in temperature and pH. Forty-five plant extract preparations were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of mouse spleen cells and bone marrow cells. Temperature and pH effects were determined by subjecting the extracts to different temperature and pH levels and measuring their residual proliferative activities. Results revealed that 24 and 14 extracts were able to stimulate proliferation of bone marrow cells and spleen cells, respectively. Extracts from yam (Dioscorea alata L.) (Dioscoreaceae) roots and leaves, taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) (Araceae) roots, and buyo (Piper betle L.) (Piperaceae) leaf were among the extracts that strongly stimulated proliferation of both bone marrow cells and splenocytes, significantly increasing cell concentrations. Heating the extracts beyond 40 degrees C markedly reduced their proliferative ability, while a pH level below 4.0 and above 8.0 also significantly decreased the extracts' activity. Three protein-mimetics with sizes of 26 kDa, 35 kDa, and 50 kDa were isolated from buyo leaf, yam root, and taro root extracts, respectively. All three molecules are biologically active and stimulate a dose-dependent proliferative response. PMID:17651065

Tulin, Edgardo E; Ecleo, Zenaida T

2007-06-01

342

Heterologous expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation.  

PubMed

Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest of many plant species and cause global economic loss. A phytocystatin gene, Colocasia esculenta cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI), isolated from a local taro Kaosiang No. 1, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). When infected with Meloidogyne incognita, one of root-knot nematode (RKN) species, transgenic T1 lines overexpressing CeCPI suppressed gall formation as evidenced by a pronounced reduction in gall numbers. In comparison with wild-type plants, a much lower proportion of female nematodes without growth retardation was observed in transgenic plants. A decrease of RKN egg mass in transgenic plants indicated seriously impaired fecundity. Overexpression of CeCPI in transgenic tomato has inhibitory functions not only in the early RKN infection stage but also in the production of offspring, which may result from intervention in sex determination. PMID:20054551

Chan, Yuan-Li; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Tzu; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Chan, Ming-Tsair

2010-03-01

343

Distribution of major brain gangliosides in olfactory tract of frogs.  

PubMed

Gangliosides are major cell-surface determinants in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates, found both in neuronal and glial cell membranes. Together with cholesterol and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored proteins, gangliosides are involved in organization of plasma membrane microdomains. Based on biochemical studies, frog brain was previously described as having low quantities of gangliosides and their distribution pattern in specific brain regions was unknown. Using highly specific monoclonal antibodies generated against four major brain gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b), we examined the distribution of these molecules in CNS of four different species of frogs (Rana esculenta, Rana temporaria, Bufo bufo and Bufo viridis). We also studied the distribution of myelin- associated glycoprotein (MAG), an inhibitor of axonal regeneration, which is a ligand for gangliosides GD1a and GT1b. Our results show that ganglioside GDla is expressed in neurons of olfactory bulb in all studied animals. In the brain of Rana sp., GD1a is expressed in the entire olfactory pathway, from olfactory bulbs to amygdala, while in Bufo sp. GD1a is restricted to the main olfactory bulb. Furthermore, we found that most of myelinated pathways in frogs express MAG, but do not express GD1a, which could be one of the reasons for better axon regeneration of neural pathways after CNS injury in amphibians in comparison to mammals. PMID:21648321

Viljeti?, Barbara; Degmeci?, Ivan Veceslav; Krajina, Vinko; Bogdanovi?, Tomislav; Mojsovi?-Cui?, Ana; Diki?, Domagoj; Vajn, Katarina; Schnaar, Ronald L; Heffer, Marija

2011-01-01

344

A virtual screening method for inhibitory peptides of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme.  

PubMed

Natural small peptides from foods have been proven to be efficient inhibitors of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) for the regulation of blood pressure. The traditional ACE inhibitory peptides screening method is both time consuming and money costing, to the contrary, virtual screening method by computation can break these limitations. We establish a virtual screening method to obtain ACE inhibitory peptides with the help of Libdock module of Discovery Studio 3.5 software. A significant relationship between Libdock score and experimental IC(50) was found, Libdock score = 10.063 log(1/IC(50)) + 68.08 (R(2) = 0.62). The credibility of the relationship was confirmed by testing the coincidence of the estimated log(1/IC(50)) and measured log(1/IC(50)) (IC(50) is 50% inhibitory concentration toward ACE, in ?mol/L) of 5 synthetic ACE inhibitory peptides, which was virtual hydrolyzed and screened from a kind of seafood, Phascolosoma esculenta. Accordingly, Libdock method is a valid IC(50) estimation tool and virtual screening method for small ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:25154376

Wu, Hongxi; Liu, Yalan; Guo, Mingrong; Xie, Jingli; Jiang, XiaMin

2014-09-01

345

Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids  

PubMed Central

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241

Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M.; Bressan, Alberto

2013-01-01

346

Relationship between UHP eclogite and two different types of granite in the North Qaidam, NW China: Evidence from zircon SHRIMP ages of granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern margin of the Qilianshan is a long, narrow mountain range extending from the Altyn Mtn southeastward to the Alcitoshan for about 800 km and consists chiefly of Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks. Our recent studies show that this foldbelt consists of a Caledonian north Qaidam UHP belt near the Qaidam Basin and I-type and S-type granites to the north near the Qilianshan. Two types of granite bodies at the Aolaoshan and Qaidamshan were selected for zircon SHRIMP dating. The results indicate that the Aolaoshan granites range from 496+/-7.6 to 445+/-15.3 Ma whereas the Qaidamshan granites range from 435+/-6 to 456+/-11 Ma. The Aolaoshan granites have geochemical characteristics similar to I-type granite probably formed in an island arc setting whereas the Qaidamshan granites are S type granites coeval with timing of collision. The UHP eclogites at Yuca have 238U-206Pb age of 494.6+/-6.5Ma, representing the peak stage of UHP metamorphism, and the 39 Ar-40Ar plateau and isochron ages of phengite respectively at 466.7+/-1.2 Ma and 465.9+/-5.4Ma represent the cooling ages of retrograde metamorphism during exhumation. In addition, the SHRIMP ages of UHP eclogites from Xitieshan and Dulan are the Caledonian. These spatial and temporal relationships suggest that UHP eclogites and two different types of Caledonian granites occur in north Qaidam with the eclogite belt to the south and the granite bodies to the north. The country rocks of UHP eclogites are Proterozoic age whereas granitic bodies have both Proterozoic and Paleozoic groups. Thus, an early Caledonian northward subduction of an oceanic lithosphere resulted in the formation of high-P eclogite to the south and I type Aolaoshan granite to the north. Subsequent continent-continent collision induced widespread partial melting of continental crust to form S type Qaidamshan granites. Hence both eclogite and two different types of granites in this foldbelt are the products of two different stages of plate subduction.

Wu, C.; Yang, J.; Wooden, J.; Ernst, G. W.; Liou, J. G.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Wan, Y.; Shi, R.

2001-12-01

347

Energetic payoff of tool use for capuchin monkeys in the caatinga: variation by season and habitat type.  

PubMed

In this paper, we analyze predictions from the energetic bottleneck and opportunity models to explain the use of stones to crack open encased fruit by capuchins in dry environments. The energetic bottleneck model argues that tool use derives from the need to crack open hard-encased fruits which are key resources during periods of food scarcity. The opportunity model argues that tool use by capuchins derives from simultaneous access to stones and encased fruits. The study was conducted in the Caatinga biome, northeastern Brazil, at two areas where capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus and Sapajus spp.) regularly use stones to crack open encased fruit of Syagrus cearensis and Manihot dichotoma. Energetic gains were inferred based on the number of tool-use sites used and the mass of encased fruit consumed per month, and compared across seasons and areas occupied by the two groups. For the drier habitat, a significant increase in frequency of tool use (N(dry) = 329 vs. N(wet) = 59) and in the mean monthly mass of fruits consumed in the dry season (mean(dry) = 193g vs. mean(wet) = 13.5 g) offered support for the energetic bottleneck model. However, our inference of low energetic payoffs for tool using individuals (in the drier caatinga habitat from 13 to 193 cal·ind(-1) ·month(-1) and in the wetter caatinga habitat from 805 to 1150 cal·ind(-1) ·month(-1) ) offer support for the opportunity model. Finally, our analyses indicate that consumption of six S. cearensis fruits would equal the daily requirements of capuchins for ?-carotene, and the consumption of 1.22 g·day(-1) of M. dichotoma encased fruit or 1.0 g·day(-1) of S. cearensis can supply capuchin's daily requirement of vitamin C. So, specific nutritional requirements may play a role in explaining the continuous consumption of encased fruit and customary use of stones to crack open encased fruit. PMID:22539256

Emidio, Ricardo Almeida; Ferreira, Renata Gonçalves

2012-04-01

348

Identification of Drought-Responsive Universal Stress Proteins in Viridiplantae  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding proteins that contain the universal stress protein (USP) domain are known to provide bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and plants with the ability to respond to a plethora of environmental stresses. Specifically in plants, drought tolerance is a desirable phenotype. However, limited focused and organized functional genomic datasets exist on drought-responsive plant USP genes to facilitate their characterization. The overall objective of the investigation was to identify diverse plant universal stress proteins and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) responsive to water-deficit stress. We hypothesize that cross-database mining of functional annotations in protein and gene transcript bioinformatics resources would help identify candidate drought-responsive universal stress proteins and transcripts from multiple plant species. Our bioinformatics approach retrieved, mined and integrated comprehensive functional annotation data on 511 protein and 1561 ESTs sequences from 161 viridiplantae taxa. A total of 32 drought-responsive ESTs from 7 plant genera Glycine, Hordeum, Manihot, Medicago, Oryza, Pinus and Triticum were identified. Two Arabidopsis USP genes At3g62550 and At3g53990 that encode ATP-binding motif were up-regulated in a drought microarray dataset. Further, a dataset of 80 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) linked to 20 singletons and 47 transcript assembles was constructed. Integrating the datasets on SSRs and drought-responsive ESTs identified three drought-responsive ESTs from bread wheat (BE604157), soybean (BM887317) and maritime pine (BX682209). The SSR sequence types were CAG, ATA and AT respectively. The datasets from cross-database mining provide organized resources for the characterization of USP genes as useful targets for engineering plant varieties tolerant to unfavorable environmental conditions. PMID:21423406

Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Simmons, Shaneka S.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Ekunwe, Stephen I.N.; Begonia, Gregorio B.; Ayensu, Wellington K.

2011-01-01

349

Adaptability in stone tool use by wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus).  

PubMed

Capuchin monkeys are well known for population variation in the use of stone tools and the types of food items consumed. In order to determine adaptability in stone tool use, we investigated a never before studied population of wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus) displaying terrestrial habits in a Caatinga environment. To carry out this study we recorded physical evidence of the use of stone tools as well as made direct observations through trap cameras. During a 15-month period, we studied a group of Sapajus libidinosus in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 257 anvils and 395 hammers were identified, characterized, and monitored. We identified five types of food items exploited at these "tool use sites": Syagrus oleracea (catolé palm), Manihot epruinosa (manioc), Pilosocereus pachycladus (facheiro), Tacinga inamoena (quípa), and Commiphora leptophloeos (imburana de cambão). Five hundred three video clips of capuchin monkeys were recorded, 43 of which involved the use of stone tools. The results indicated evidence of adaptability in tool use by the capuchins. We verified that the rigidity and size of the food item, along with the presence or absence of spines seem to influence the choice of stone tools made by the animals for processing the food. The recurring use of tools for the processing of cacti was especially noteworthy and it appears that the presence of spines predisposes the capuchins to use stones to process them. A significant difference was observed between the characteristics of the anvils and the weight of the hammers according to the food item consumed. The use of tools enabled the animals to access otherwise unavailable or difficult to acquire food items within a Caatinga habitat. Adaptability in the use of stone tools by the capuchin monkey population of Serra Talhada provides an example of the complexity that these primates demonstrate in food processing. PMID:24753103

De Moraes, Bárbara Lins Caldas; Da Silva Souto, Antonio; Schiel, Nicola

2014-10-01

350

Prophylactic effects of quercetin and hyperoside in a calcium oxalate stone forming rat model.  

PubMed

Quercetin and hyperoside (QH) are the two main constituents of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot, which has been prescribed for treating chronic kidney disease for decades. This study aimed to investigate the effect of QH on calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-fed rats. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated stone-forming group, a QH-treated stone-forming group (20 mg/kg/day) and a potassium citrate-treated stone-forming group (potassium citrate was a worldwide-recognized calculi-prophylactic medicine). Ethylene glycol (0.5 %) was administered to the rats during the last week, and vitamin D3 was force-fed to induce hyperoxaluria and kidney calcium oxalate crystal deposition. 24 h urine samples were collected before and after inducing crystal deposits. Rats were killed and both kidneys were harvested after 3 weeks. Bisected kidneys were examined under a polarized light microscope for semi-quantification of the crystal-formation. The renal tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were measured by Western blot. QH and potassium citrate have the ability to alkalinize urine. The number of crystal deposits decreased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group as compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase levels also increased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group, as compared with the untreated stone-forming group. QH administration has an inhibitory effect on the deposition of CaOx crystal in EG-fed rats and may be effective for preventing stone-forming disease. PMID:25085199

Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yun-fei; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Bo; Che, Jian-ping; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-hua

2014-12-01

351

Isolation and characterization of neutral lipids of desilked eri silkworm pupae grown on castor and tapioca leaves.  

PubMed

The neutral lipid of desilked eri silkworm pupae (Samia cynthia ricini) grown on two different host plants, castor (Ricinus communis Linn.) and tapioca (Manihot utilizsima Phol.) leaves, was extracted with hexane. The oil content in pupae was estimated to be in the range of 18-20% (dry basis). The pupal oil was found to be enriched with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) with palmitic acid as the second major fatty acid. The level of ALA in the oil of silkworm pupae was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.001) when grown on tapioca (58.3%) as compared to those grown on castor (42.9%). Other chemical parameters such as percent free fatty acid, peroxide value, phosphorus content, percent unsaponifiable matter, and composition of sterols were also determined in both of the oils and compared. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of triacylglycerol molecular species showed that the pupal oil is rich in molecular species with equivalent carbon numbers (ECN) C36, C40, C42, C44, and C48. There was a significantly higher level (P < 0.001) of trilinolenin (C36) in the oil of tapioca-based silkworm as compared to castor-based silkworm pupae. Regiospecific analysis of the oil showed a higher level of ALA at the sn-2 position of silkworm pupae grown on tapioca (60.2%) as compared to those grown on castor (47.3%) oil. Thus, the presence of a large amount of ALA and their predominance at the sn-2 position make the eri pupal oil highly nutritious, provided that the oxidative stability is ensured. PMID:16637689

Shanker, Kaki Shiva; Shireesha, Kudugunti; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Kumar, Sambharaju V L N; Srinivas, Chinta; Rao, Jammy V K; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

2006-05-01

352

2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Palau and everywhere in the world, coastal coral reefs are threatened by sedimentation resulting from land clearing in the watersheds. Palau's largest island of Babeldaob is particularly susceptible to significant erosion due to its steep topography, high rainfall, and highly erodible volcanic soil. Previous studies have shown the damaging impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. Related studies conducted in Micronesia have also documented that mangroves can trap about 30% of the fine eroded sediment from land. This paper examines the sediment trapping capability of cultivated wetlands, in particular taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields, which are natural wetlands used to grow taro, a main staple crop for the population. A 7-months long field study was undertaken to quantify the sediment accumulation rate for taro fields and to determine their sediment trapping efficiency. The results showed that the taro fields were able to trap on average 90% of sediment, therefore sheltering coastal coral reefs and their fisheries from the negative impacts of terrestrial runoff. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the combined sediment trapping capacity of taro fields and mangroves helped reduce sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. This enabled human settlement for over 2000 years on a small Pacific Island with the main staple food being taro for starch and reef fish for protein. Even with a population of 30,000 people over Babeldaob Island, the living was sustainable for at least 1000 years, implying that the population was able to survive and prosper with its main food being the starch from taro fields and protein from reef fish. While there was intensive cultivation on land the sustainability of reef fisheries must have required that the reef be sheltered from excessive soil erosion.The structure of the taro field (mesei) initialized by the Palauan ancestors, has been maintained to this day. Their development, probably mostly after about A.D. 900 to 1100, was presumably the culmination of accelerated erosion in the island's interior following extensive clearing of the vegetation on slopes. Sediment analyses, radiocarbon dating, and archaeological investigations indicate substantial inland land disturbance starting around 2400 years ago (Liston and Tuggle, 2006; Liston, 2009). These findings almost certainly signify the use of the interior of Babeldaob Island by this time, including the onset of major earthwork (terrace) construction. Intensive and extensive inland use continued for about another 1200 years. The continuous deposition of inland erosional soils expanded the coastal plains and formed expansive fertile wetlands” (Athens, 2009).Culturally in Palau taro fields were tendered by women (Del Rosario and Esguerra, 2003). In other parts of Micronesia, taro is planted in well drained mixed gardens or ditches (Falanruw, 1980; Englberger et al., 2009). In Palau taro is commonly grown in swampy areas, often man-made, in the lowlands usually just upstream of the mangrove areas. Traditional management of taro cultivation in Palau can be considered a type of intensive agricultural method found in societies that possess a complex social structure that is reflected in traditional Palauan society. Taro cultivation in Palau is an amalgamation of skills and knowledge for both the plant and agricultural system.Palau taro field structure, regulations of water flow and management have persisted for many generations and have proven to an integral part of Palauan life which continues to be seen today. Taro fields are distinguished separately depending on cultivation methods and taro species being planted. To illustrate, an omrekongel is a marsh land in which giant taro (Cyrtosperma merkusii) is planted. A mesei is an irrigated wet land for planting taro (Colocasia esculenta) and dechel is a marsh land where taro and giant taro is cultivated (Palau Society of Historians, 2001). Culturally, Cyrtosperma is treated as a food source for famine where it has high r

Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

2014-05-01

353

Anandamide regulates the expression of GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH-Rs in frog testis.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (either GnRH1 or GnRH2) exerts a local activity in vertebrate testis, including human testis. Relationships between endocannabinoid (eCB) and GnRH systems in gonads have never been elucidated in any species so far. To reveal a cross-talk between eCBs and GnRH at testicular level, we characterized the expression of GnRH (GnRH1 and GnRH2) as well as GnRH receptor (GnRH-R1, -R2, and -R3) mRNA in the testis of the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta during the annual sexual cycle; furthermore, the corresponding transcripts were localized inside the testis by in situ hybridization. The possible endogenous production of the eCB, anandamide (AEA), was investigated in testis by analyzing the expression of its biosynthetic enzyme, Nape-pld. Incubations of testis pieces with AEA were carried out in the postreproductive period (June) and in February, when a new spermatogenetic wave takes place. In June, AEA treatment significantly decreased GnRH1 and GnRH-R2 mRNA, stimulated the transcription of GnRH2 and GnRH-R1, and did not affect GnRH-R3 expression. In February, AEA treatment upregulated GnRH2 and GnRH-R3 mRNA, downregulated GnRH-R2, and did not affect GnRH1 and GnRH-R1 expression. These effects were mediated by type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) since they were fully counteracted by SR141716A (Rimonabant), a selective CB1 antagonist. In conclusion, eCB system modulates GnRH activity in frog testis during the annual sexual cycle in a stage-dependent fashion. PMID:22669247

Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Scarpa, Donatella; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

2012-08-15

354

Hypothalamus-pituitary axis: an obligatory target for endocannabinoids to inhibit steroidogenesis in frog testis.  

PubMed

Endocannabinoids - primarily anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) - are lipophilic molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). They affect neuroendocrine activity inhibiting gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and testosterone production in rodents, through a molecular mechanism supposed to be hypothalamus dependent. In order to investigate such a role, we choose the seasonal breeder, the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, an experimental model in which components of the endocannabinoid system have been characterized. In February, at the onset of a new spermatogenetic wave, we carried out in vitro incubations of frog testis with AEA, at 10(-9)M dose. Such a treatment had no effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (cyp17) nor 3-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?-5-4 isomerase (3?-HSD), key enzymes of steroidogenesis. To understand whether or not the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis could be essential to support the role of endocannabinoids in steroidogenesis, frogs were injected with AEA, at 10(-8)M dose. Differently from in vitro experiment, the in vivo administration of AEA reduced the expression of cyp17 and 3?-HSD. Whereas the effect on 3?-HSD was counteracted by SR141716A (Rimonabant) - a selective antagonist of CB1, thus indicating a CB1 dependent modulation - the effect on cyp17 was not, suggesting a possible involvement of receptors other than CB1, probably the type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), since AEA works as an endocannabinoid and an endovanilloid as well. In conclusion our results indicate that endocannabinoids, via CB1, inhibit the expression of 3?-HSD in frog testis travelling along the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. PMID:24566122

Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

2014-09-01

355

Modulation of calcium current gating in frog skeletal muscle by conditioning depolarization.  

PubMed Central

1. Ca2+ inward currents were measured by voltage clamping cut skeletal muscle fibres of the frog (Rana esculenta) in a double-Vaseline-gap system. 2. In order to study the basis of the previously described fast gating mode induced in the Ca2+ inward current by a conditioning depolarization we quantitatively analysed the response to differing features of the conditioning prepulse. 3. The faster activation seen during the second of two depolarizations was confined to the component of the inward current which could be blocked by 5 to 10 microM nifedipine. 4. By applying depolarizing conditioning pulses of gradually increasing length the time course of the transition to the fast gating mode could be determined. 5. Both the transition to the fast gating mode (point 4) caused by a depolarization and the slow inward current activated during the same depolarization showed similar voltage-dependent kinetics. 6. The kinetic change of the test current appeared to be equal when the same fractional activation was achieved at the end of the conditioning pulse independent of its duration or amplitude. 7. Flash photolysis of nifedipine in the interval between conditioning and test pulse showed that the predepolarization causes a rate-enhancing effect even though the slow channels were blocked by nifedipine during the conditioning pulse. 8. We conclude that the transition of the calcium channel from its slow to its fast gating mode is determined by the slow voltage-dependent reaction which limits the rate of channel opening under control conditions. This reaction is apparently not prevented by the binding of nifedipine and the block of current flow through the channel. PMID:1338468

Feldmeyer, D; Melzer, W; Pohl, B; Zöllner, P

1992-01-01

356

Neuroanatomical Organization of the Brain Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Systems in the Frog Pelophylax esculentus.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) may play a key role in mediating vertebrate reproduction. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons as well as by directly regulating gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary. Whereas the presence of GnIH has been widely investigated in various classes of vertebrates, there are very few immunohistochemical reports focusing on GnIH in amphibians. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and neuroanatomical distribution of GnIH-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the anuran amphibian Pelophylax (Rana) esculentus (esculenta) and to explore any potential anatomical relationship with mammalian GnRH-immunoreactive (mGnRH-ir) elements. The GnIH-like immunoreactive (GnIH-ir) system constitutes two distinct subpopulations in the telencephalon and diencephalon, with the highest number of immunoreactive cells located in the preoptic and suprachiasmatic areas. GnIH-ir neurons were also observed in the medial septum, the anterior commissure, the dorsal hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the posterior tuberculum. Scattered GnIH-ir fibers were present in all major subdivisions of the brain but only occasionally in the median eminence. mGnRH-ir neurons were distributed in the mediobasal telencephalon, the medial septal area, and the anterior preoptic area. Double-label immunohistochemistry revealed that the GnRH and GnIH systems coexist and have overlapping distributions at the level of the anterior preoptic area. Some GnIH-ir fibers were in close proximity to mGnRH-ir cell bodies. Our results suggest that both the neuroanatomy and the functional regulation of GnRH release are conserved properties of the hypothalamic GnIH-ir system among vertebrate species. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25471728

Pinelli, Claudia; Jadhao, Arun G; Biswas, Saikat P; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; D'Aniello, Biagio

2015-01-01

357

Ethane 1,2-dimethane sulfonate effects on the testis of the lizard, Podarcis s. sicula Raf: morphological and hormonal changes.  

PubMed

Ethane 1,2-dimethane sulfonate (EDS) destroys Leydig cells in the testis of some rodents (mice excluded), disrupts interstitial and germinal compartments in the frog, Rana esculenta, while it stimulates testicular activity in the teleost, Gobius paganellus. In the Japanese quail the toxin removes mature spermatozoa. There is no information on EDS effects in reptiles. The present study examines the effect of EDS treatment in the lizard Podarcis s. sicula Raf during two different periods of the testicular cycle (winter stasis and breeding season). Animals received a single EDS injection (100 mg/kg body wt) and were sacrificed at 0 and 24 hr and 3, 5, 7, 11, and 28 days after injection. Androgens were measured in plasma and right testes, while left testes were examined histologically. Plasma androgen levels decreased 5-7 days after EDS injection, alongside interstitial tissue destruction and mast cell appearance, with slight but significant increases on Days 11 and 28. Testicular androgen levels did not change. On Day 11 metaphases were present in the interstitial tissue which regenerated on Day 28. Between Days 5 and 7 some pycnotic nuclei of spermatocytes appeared, mitotic activity of spermatogonia was normal, but germ cell stages were disorganized and empty spaces appeared at the boundary of the tubule. These data show that a single EDS injection results in destruction and repopulation of the interstitial cells in a reptile. Moreover, the effects of EDS in the lizard suggest that P. s. sicula Raf testis responds to the toxin in a similar fashion to the rat testis. PMID:7789742

Minucci, S; Fasano, S; Marmorino, C; Chieffi, P; Pierantoni, R

1995-03-01

358

Potential of Trap Crops for Integrated Management of the Tropical Armyworm, Spodoptera litura in Tobacco  

PubMed Central

The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20–30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

2010-01-01

359

Mechanism of hydrogen ion transport in the diluting segment of frog kidney.  

PubMed

Transepithelial H+ transport was studied in diluting segments of the isolated-perfused kidney of rana esculenta. The experiments were performed in controls as well as in K+-adapted and Na+-adapted animals (exposed to 50 mmol/l KCl or NaCl, resp. for at least 3 days). Conventional and single-barreled, liquid ion-exchanger H+-sensitive microelectrodes were applied in the tubule lumen to evaluate transepithelial H+ net flux (JHte) as well as limiting transepithelial electrical and H+ electrochemical potential differences (PDte, EHte) and luminal pH at zero net flux conditions. The measurements were made in absence (control) and presence of furosemide (5 X 10(-5) mol/l) or amiloride (10(-3) mol/l). EHte (lumen positive vs ground) was 19 +/- 3 mV in controls, 43 +/- 3 mV in K+ adapted but about zero in Na+ adapted animals. Using the corresponding PDte-values, steady state luminal pH of 7.63 +/- 0.05, 7.13 +/- 0.05 and 8.02 +/- 0.02 was calculated for the respective groups of animals (peritubular pH 7.80). In parallel, significant secretory JHte (from blood to lumen) was found in controls (14 +/- 2 pmol X cm-2 X s-1) which was stimulated by K+ adaptation (61 +/- 8 pmol X cm-2 X s-1) but reversed in direction by Na+-adaptation (-8 +/- 1 pmol X cm-2 X s-1). Amiloride inhibited secretory JHte.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6097868

Oberleithner, H; Lang, F; Messner, G; Wang, W

1984-11-01

360

Cytotoxic effect of choline, abolished by furosemide, in the diluting segment of frog kidney.  

PubMed

Previous observations suggest that luminal application of tetra-N-alkylammonium ions may impair ion transport in the amphibian diluting segment. To investigate this question conventional KCl-filled and Cl- sensitive microelectrodes were applied in diluting segments of the isolated perfused kidney of rana esculenta to evaluate transepithelial electrical and chloride electrochemical (PDte, EClte) as well as peritubular cell membrane potential difference (PDpt), measured at static head conditions. After determination of control values the tubule lumen was exposed to choline (95 mmol/l, substituted for Na+) both in presence or absence of furosemide (5 X 10(-5) mol/l). Then, the lumen was again perfused with control solution and the measurements were repeated. Thus, a time course for possible choline induced effects was obtained both in the presence and absence of furosemide. The lumen positive PDte decreased from 11.2 +/- 1.0 mV to 6.3 +/- 0.8 mV after 2 min and to 1.9 +/- 0.4 mV after 30 min exposure to choline. PDpt (cell interior negative) decreased from 70 +/- 2 mV to 58 +/- 3 mV and to 42 +/- 5 mV after 2 and 30 min, respectively. Intraluminal Cl- activity increased from its initial steady state value of 20 +/- 2 mmol/l to 39 +/- 2 mmol/l after 30 min exposure to choline. However, if the tubule lumen was exposed to choline in presence of furosemide (5 X 10(-5) mol/l), all the above described choline-induced effects did not become apparent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6332306

Oberleithner, H; Lang, F

1984-07-01

361

Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-related cell lines.  

PubMed

Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of agricultural plants on the proliferation of seven ATL-related human leukaemia cells, using three ATL cell lines (ED, Su9T01 and S1T), two human T-cell lines transformed by HTLV-I infection (HUT-102 and MT-2) and two HTLV-I-negative human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines (Jurkat and MOLT-4). A total of 52 samples of 80% ethanol extracts obtained from 30 types of agricultural plants were examined. On the basis of IC(50) values, we selected samples with greater activity than genistein, which was used as a positive control. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with extracts from leaves of Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (blueberry) on four cell lines (ED, Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat); seeds of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) exhibited the second highest activity. The bitter gourd seeds suppressed the proliferation of three cell lines (Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat). The extracts from edible parts of Ipomea batatas LAM. (sweet potato), edible parts of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (taro), skin of taro and seeds of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (mume) showed markedly greater inhibitory effects on Su9T01 than genistein. These findings suggest that ATL-preventative bioactive compounds may exist in these agricultural plants, which are considered to be functional foods. PMID:21293936

Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji

2011-07-01

362

Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?  

PubMed

Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1) D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability to better understand the factors and processes that shape marine communities. PMID:24859311

Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

2014-01-01

363

Sarcomere-length dependence of myosin filament structure in skeletal muscle fibres of the frog.  

PubMed

X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded at beamline ID02 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility from small bundles of skeletal muscle fibres from Rana esculenta at sarcomere lengths between 2.1 and 3.5 ?m at 4°C. The intensities of the X-ray reflections from resting fibres associated with the quasi-helical order of the myosin heads and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) decreased in the sarcomere length range 2.6-3.0 ?m but were constant outside it, suggesting that an OFF conformation of the thick filament is maintained by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. During active isometric contraction the intensity of the M3 reflection from the regular repeat of the myosin heads along the filaments decreased in proportion to the overlap between thick and thin filaments, with no change in its interference fine structure. Thus, myosin heads in the regions of the thick filaments that do not overlap with thin filaments are highly disordered during isometric contraction, in contrast to their quasi-helical order at rest. Heads in the overlap region that belong to two-headed myosin molecules that are fully detached from actin are also highly disordered, in contrast to the detached partners of actin-attached heads. These results provide strong support for the concept of a regulatory structural transition in the thick filament involving changes in both the organisation of the myosin heads on its surface and the axial periodicity of the myosin tails in its backbone, mediated by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. PMID:24344169

Reconditi, Massimo; Brunello, Elisabetta; Fusi, Luca; Linari, Marco; Martinez, Manuel Fernandez; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Irving, Malcolm; Piazzesi, Gabriella

2014-03-01

364

Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

365

Sarcomere-length dependence of myosin filament structure in skeletal muscle fibres of the frog  

PubMed Central

X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded at beamline ID02 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility from small bundles of skeletal muscle fibres from Rana esculenta at sarcomere lengths between 2.1 and 3.5??m at 4°C. The intensities of the X-ray reflections from resting fibres associated with the quasi-helical order of the myosin heads and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) decreased in the sarcomere length range 2.6–3.0??m but were constant outside it, suggesting that an OFF conformation of the thick filament is maintained by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. During active isometric contraction the intensity of the M3 reflection from the regular repeat of the myosin heads along the filaments decreased in proportion to the overlap between thick and thin filaments, with no change in its interference fine structure. Thus, myosin heads in the regions of the thick filaments that do not overlap with thin filaments are highly disordered during isometric contraction, in contrast to their quasi-helical order at rest. Heads in the overlap region that belong to two-headed myosin molecules that are fully detached from actin are also highly disordered, in contrast to the detached partners of actin-attached heads. These results provide strong support for the concept of a regulatory structural transition in the thick filament involving changes in both the organisation of the myosin heads on its surface and the axial periodicity of the myosin tails in its backbone, mediated by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. PMID:24344169

Reconditi, Massimo; Brunello, Elisabetta; Fusi, Luca; Linari, Marco; Martinez, Manuel Fernandez; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Irving, Malcolm; Piazzesi, Gabriella

2014-01-01

366

Canopy-Forming Seaweeds in Urchin-Dominated Systems in Eastern Canada: Structuring Forces or Simple Prey for Keystone Grazers?  

PubMed Central

Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed “Desmarestia bed”. The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150 000 recruits kg?1 D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability to better understand the factors and processes that shape marine communities. PMID:24859311

Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

2014-01-01

367

The role of bio-inspired hierarchical structures in wetting.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobicity facilitates the development of self-cleaning, anti-biofouling, and anti-corrosion surfaces. The leaves of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) plants are well known for their self-cleaning properties. A hierarchical structure comprising papillae epidermal cells superimposed with epicuticular wax crystalloids of varying shapes, sizes, and orientations is an important aspect of the surface of these plant leaves. We fabricated two types of hierarchical structures biomimicking the surface topography of the lotus leaf. The hierarchical patterns successfully demonstrated the superhydrophobic state in comparison with nano and micro patterns. We used the finite element method (FEM) to simulate and understand the wetting process. The FEM simulations showed good correlation with the experimental results. FEM was helpful in understanding the wetting of enormously complex biological surfaces with relative ease, and it qualifies as a potential tool for designing superhydrophobic surfaces. Using the FEM framework, we further designed surfaces to optimize the order of the shapes in hierarchy. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with the lowest wetted area was obtained by placing shapes with smaller geometric angles at the top of the hierarchy. This arrangement of shapes provides the optimum combination of superhydrophobicity and surface integrity. This observation explains why the hierarchical structure of many superhydrophobic leaves follows this order. We also investigated the complex hierarchical structure of Salvinia minima. Owing to its remarkable ability to entrap air and pin the contact line, it exhibits superhydrophobicity along with the much-required Cassie state. These properties of Salvinia minima make it an excellent candidate for developing omniphobic surfaces. PMID:25856043

Grewal, H S; Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Eui-Sung

2015-04-01

368

True morels (Morchella, Pezizales) of Europe and North America: evolutionary relationships inferred from multilocus data and a unified taxonomy.  

PubMed

Applying early names, with or without original material, to genealogical species is challenging. For morels this task is especially difficult because of high morphological stasis and high plasticity of apothecium color and shape. Here we propose a nomenclatural revision of true morels (Morchella, Pezizales) from Europe and North America, based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of portions of the genes for RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) and second largest subunit (RPB2), translation elongation factor-1? (TEF1), the nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), and partial nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S). The 107 newly sequenced collections were from both continents, including 48 types, together with previously published sequences. Names are applied to 30 of the 65 currently recognized genealogical species. Results of the present study revealed that the number of Morchella species in Europe (n = 21) is nearly identical to that in North America (n = 22). Only seven species were found on both continents, consistent with previous reports of high continental endemism within the genus. Presently it is not possible to tell whether the transoceanic disjunctions were due to human activities, migration across a Bering land bridge or long-distance dispersal. In an effort to stabilize the taxonomy, due in part to the recent publication of synonyms for 11 of the species, accepted names are presented together with their corresponding later synonyms. A new subclade that includes holotypes of M. castanea and M. brunneorosea is identified in sect. Morchella (Esculenta Clade). Lectotypes for Morchella deliciosa, M. eximia and M. tridentina are designated here, as well as epitypes for M. dunalii, M. eximia, M. purpurascens and M. vulgaris. Morchella conica was determined to be illegitimate, and further research is required to determine the identity of M. elata and M. inamoena. PMID:25550303

Richard, Franck; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Clowez, Philippe; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry; Urban, Alexander; Sauve, Mathieu; Courtecuisse, Régis; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur

2015-01-01

369

Conduction velocities in amphibian skeletal muscle fibres exposed to hyperosmotic extracellular solutions.  

PubMed

Early quantitative analyses of conduction velocities in unmyelinated nerve studied in a constantly iso-osmotic volume conductor were extended to an analysis of the effects of varying extracellular osmolarities on conduction velocities of surface membrane action potentials in Rana esculenta skeletal muscle fibres. Previous papers had reported that skeletal muscle fibres exposed to a wide range of extracellular sucrose concentrations resemble perfect osmometers with increased extracellular osmolarity proportionally decreasing fibre volume and therefore diminishing fibre radius, a. However, classical electrolyte theory (Robinson and Stokes 1959, Electrolyte solutions 2nd edn. Butterworth & Co. pp 41-42) would then predict that the consequent increases in intracellular ionic strength would correspondingly decrease sarcoplasmic resistivity, R(i). An extension of the original cable analysis then demonstrated that the latter would precisely offset its expected effect of alterations in a on the fibre axial resistance, r(i), and leave action potential conduction velocity constant. In contrast, other reports (Hodgkin and Nakajima J Physiol 221:105-120, 1972) had suggested that R(i) increased with extracellular osmolarity, owing to alterations in cytosolic viscosity. This led to a prediction of a decreased conduction velocity. These opposing hypotheses were then tested in muscle fibres subject to just-suprathreshold stimulation at a Vaseline seal at one end and measuring action potentials and their first order derivatives, dV/dt, using 5-20 MOmega, 3 M KCl glass microelectrodes at defined distances away from the stimulus sites. Exposures to hyperosmotic, sucrose-containing, Ringer solutions then reversibly reduced both conduction velocity and maximum values of dV/dt. This was compatible with an increase in R(i) in the event that conduction depended upon a discharge of membrane capacitance by propagating local circuit currents through initially passive electrical elements. Conduction velocity then showed graded decreases with increasing extracellular osmolarity from 250-750 mOsm. Action potential waveforms through these osmolarity changes remained similar, including both early surface and the late after-depolarisation events reflecting transverse tubular activation. Quantitative comparisons of reduced-chi(2) values derived from a comparison of these results and the differing predictions from the two hypotheses strongly favoured the hypothesis in which R(i) increased rather than decreased with hyperosmolarity. PMID:17891463

Chen, Zhongbo; Hothi, Sandeep S; Xu, Wei; Huang, Christopher L-H

2007-01-01

370

Comparative assessment of the value of papyrus and cocoyams for the restoration of the Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nakivubo wetland, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, separates the city of Kampala from the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (the sole raw water supply for Kampala). It provides tertiary treatment for the secondary effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, and heavily polluted wastewater (run-off, domestic and industrial effluents) from the Nakivubo channel. However, more than half of the wetland has been drained for agriculture and the natural papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus) has been progressively replaced by cocoyams ( Colocasia esculenta). In order to provide information that could be used in the restoration of Nakivubo wetland, a pilot study was carried out to assess the ecological characteristics (nutrient retention and growth characteristics) of the two plants. The plants were grown in wastewater effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, in experimental buckets under floating and rooted conditions. The wastewater was replaced every seven days. Papyrus plants were more efficient at removing NH 4-N while growing floating in wastewater or rooted in gravel (maximum values being 89.4% and 79%, respectively) than were cocoyams (67.7% and 68.3%) or the controls without plants (11% and 9%, respectively). The removal of orthophosphate by papyrus was also greater under the two growing conditions (values being 80% and 73%) than by cocoyams (66% and 63%) or the controls (11% and 14%). Biomass densities of papyrus were also higher (16.9 kg Dw/m 2 for the floating plants and 18.7 kg Dw/m 2 for the rooted ones) than of yams (5.9 kg DW/m 2 and 6.8 kg DW/m 2, respectively). It was also observed that the rhizomes of yams did not develop well under the floating conditions and were often rotten. It is concluded that, since papyrus has better wastewater treatment efficiency and superior growth characteristics, it should be encouraged to grow again in the wetland. It was also noted that if encroachment of the wetland by agricultural activities is halted, papyrus would eventually out-compete the yams. Keeping Nakivubo wetland inundated would offer papyrus a competitive advantage, since yams grow poorly when floating in water.

Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Rukwago, S.

371

The Protective Effect of Esculentoside A on Experimental Acute Liver Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory response and oxidative stress are considered to play an important role in the development of acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Esculentoside A (EsA), isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, has the effect of modulating immune response, cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as anti-inflammatory effects. The present study is to evaluate the protective effect of EsA on CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury. In vitro, CCK-8 assays showed that EsA had no cytotoxicity, while it significantly reduced levels of TNF-? and cell death rate challenged by CCl4. Moreover, EsA treatment up-regulated PPAR-? expression of LO2 cells and reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) challenged by CCl4. In vivo, EsA prevented mice from CCl4-induced liver histopathological damage. In addition, levels of AST and ALT were significantly decreased by EsA treatment. Furthermore, the mice treated with EsA had a lower level of TNF-?, Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in mRNA expression. EsA prevented MDA release and increased GSH-Px activity in liver tissues. Immunohistochemical staining showed that over-expression of F4/80 and CD11b were markedly inhibited by EsA. The western bolt results showed that EsA significantly inhibited CCl4-induced phosphonated IkBalpha (P-I?B) and ERK. Furthermore, EsA treatment also alleviated GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury on liver enzyme and histopathological damage. Unfortunately, our results exhibited that EsA had no effects on CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis which were showed by TUNEL staining and Bax, Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3 expression. Our results proved that EsA treatment attenuated CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice and its protective effects might be involved in inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress, but not apoptosis with its underlying mechanism associated with PPAR-?, NF-?B and ERK signal pathways. PMID:25405982

Wang, Junjie; Fang, He; Wang, Zhihong; Sun, Yu; Xia, Zhaofan

2014-01-01

372

Potential functional foods in the traditional Maori diet.  

PubMed

The Maori people were early New Zealand settlers of Polynesian descent. The incidence of non-infectious diseases appears to have been low in these people, perhaps in part due to the presence of protective chemical constituents within their food plant supply. Three of the tropical crops they introduced are still eaten here today: the sweet potato or kumara (Ipomoea batatas), the taro (Colocasia esculenta) and the cabbage tree or ti (Cordyline terminalis). Sporamins A and B, the major storage proteins of kumara tubers, act as proteinase inhibitors, and may have other anti-cancer properties. The tubers also contain the anti-coagulant coumarins, scopoletin, aesculetin, and umbelliferone. The corms of taro contain the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rhamnoside, reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Anthocyanins are also major components of a so-called "Maori potato", a variety officially known as Ureniki, which has a purple skin and flesh and was widely eaten in the early 1900s. Anthocyanins are also present in ripe berries of the ramarama (Lophomyrtus bullata) and rohutu (Neomyrtus pedunculata). Both the leaves and seeds of the introduced cabbage tree (Cordyline terminalis) and the native Cordyline spp., C. australis, C. indivisa, and C. pumilo, were eaten. The seeds of C. australis, of some Astelia spp., and of hinau (Elaeocarpus dentatus) are good sources of various essential fatty acids, generally regarded as protective against cardiovascular disease. Shoots and leaves from a wide range of native species were traditionally eaten as greens, especially "sow thistle" or puha (Sonchus spp.), reportedly high in Vitamin C and various phenolics. "New Zealand spinach" (Tetragonia tetragonioides or T. expansa) has anti-ulcerogenic activity that has been traced to two cerebrosides and anti-inflammatory activity that has been traced to novel water-soluble polysaccharides, as well as antioxidant phenylpropanoids including caffeic acid. Leaves of the "hen and chickens" fern (Asplenium bulbiferum) contain antioxidant flavonoids such as kaempferol glucosides. Native seaweeds also have useful nutritive properties. PMID:12628508

Cambie, Richard C; Ferguson, Lynnette R

2003-01-01

373

Conductance fluctuations from the inactivation process of sodium channels in myelinated nerve fibres*  

PubMed Central

1. Na currents and fluctuations of Na currents were studied under voltage clamp in the same myelinated nerve fibres of Rana esculenta at 13 °C. The results were used to test several kinetic models for the gating process of Na channels. 2. Long voltage pulses, depolarizing the membrane by 16-48 mV from a hyperpolarizing holding level of — 28 mV, were applied in 4 sec intervals. The d.c. and a.c. components of the membrane current were recorded during the last 328 msec of the 473 msec pulses. For each depolarization, ninety-six trials were made with the node in Ringer solution and, again, after adding 300 nm-tetrodotoxin (TTX) in that solution. 3. The TTX-sensitive d.c. component declined during the 328 msec records by 14-51% of its time average. The a.c. component was corrected for this trend by subtracting the first from the second of each pair of subsequent records. The TTX-sensitive part of its variance declined, on the average, in parallel to the current, as if the open probability rather than the conductance of the individual Na channels was reduced by a slow process. 4. Single-channel conductances, ?, were calculated on the assumption that Na channels have only one non-zero conductance and were corrected for the limited band width (5 kHz) of the a.c. records. Values of ? increased slightly (< 30% from 16 to 40 mV), and averaged 8·85 ± 0·7 pS (s.e. of mean, seventeen measurements on ten fibres). This small degree of change in ? suggests that deviations from the all-or-none gating are very small. 5. Power spectral densities of the fluctuations between 3 Hz and 5 kHz were calculated from the trend-free a.c. records and corrected for the TTX-insensitive noise component. Control calculations showed that the only effect of the nonstationarity in the Na current was to enhance the low-frequency points of such spectra by less than 10%. The spectra revealed at least two Lorentzian components with cut-off frequencies in the range expected from the activation and inactivation kinetics. The low-frequency component became dominant as depolarization was increased. 6. Na currents recorded during brief (< 40 msec) depolarizations were analysed in terms of various all-or-none gating models, in which inactivation either was independent of activation (Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model) or could occur only from the partly or fully activated states (coupled models). The transient Na currents were reproduced by all models. 7. With the parameters from such fits, the fluctuation spectra expected for each model were calculated. The predictions differed in the fraction, rh, of the variance contributed by the slow (inactivation) fluctuations; rh was larger in the coupled models than in the HH model. 8. The experimental spectra were divided into two spectral components to yield empirical values for rh. We used as templates the spectral curves derived for the fast and for the slow fluctuations of the HH model. The empirical rh values were one (48 mV) to four (16 mV) times larger than those expected for the HH model. They were also larger than the theoretical rh of the coupled models at the small depolarizations, but became equal or smaller than those at the largest depolarization. Direct comparison of the measured and theoretical spectra revealed the same discrepancies. 9. We conclude that all of the simple gating models considered in this paper are inconsistent with the fluctuation measurements, the coupled models giving slightly smaller deviations than the model with independent activation and inactivation. PMID:6262498

Conti, F.; Neumcke, B.; Nonner, W.; Stämpfli, R.

1980-01-01