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1

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava. PMID:25416250

Bull, Simon E

2015-01-01

2

Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop’s domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava’s evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava’s origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants. PMID:10318928

Olsen, Kenneth M.; Schaal, Barbara A.

1999-01-01

3

Nutritional composition of "gari" analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.  

PubMed

Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist. PMID:25493189

Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

2014-11-01

4

Nutritional composition of “gari” analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber  

PubMed Central

Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist. PMID:25493189

Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

2014-01-01

5

Gene-based Microsatellites for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Prevalence, Polymorphisms, and Cross-taxa Utility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a large...

6

Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.  

PubMed

Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in cassava. This is the first ever detailed report of microspore reprogramming at the tetrad stage and the first report of microspore embryogenesis induction in cassava with detailed evidence. PMID:24887001

Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

2014-01-01

7

Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone areas and on marginal so...

8

Inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers for germplasm characterization in Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae).  

PubMed

Manioc, Manihot esculenta, is economically important in many tropical and subtropical countries. The genetic variability of the species has not been fully explored, and new information may help expand its use. Molecular markers based on retrotransposons have good potential for analysis of genetic diversity given their abundance in the genome. Eight long terminal repeat retrotransposons were selected for the development of inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers. To test these primers, we analyzed 32 varieties from Anori, 30 from Manicoré and 10 Mandiocabas from the Manioc Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Western Amazonia. The six informative primer pairs yielded 20- 60 polymorphic bands, averaging 92% polymorphism (51.7-98.4) and 0.37 heterozygosity (0.17 to 0.40), with a Shannon information index of 0.54 (0.26-0.59). These markers can be used to explore the genetic diversity of manioc. PMID:24938466

Oliveira-Silva, A M; Silva, G F; Dias, M C; Clement, C R; Sousa, N R

2014-01-01

9

Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research. PMID:23899040

van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

2013-09-01

10

A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

PubMed

The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus' native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

2014-01-01

11

A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus’ native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

2014-01-01

12

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Krantz) genome harbors KNOX genes differentially expressed during storage root development.  

PubMed

In plants, homeodomain proteins play a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. KNOX proteins are members of the homeodomain protein family. The KNOX transcription factors have been reported from Arabidopsis, rice, and other higher plants. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of cassava (Manihot esculenta Krantz) has allowed a genome-wide search for M. esculenta KNOX (MeKNOX) transcription factors and the comparison of these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. In the present study, we identified 12 MeKNOX genes in the cassava genome and grouped them into two distinct subfamilies based on their domain composition and phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to elucidate the expression profiles of these genes in different tissues and during various stages of root development. The analysis of MeKNOX expression profiles of indicated that 12 MeKNOX genes display differential expressions either in their transcript abundance or expression patterns. PMID:25526192

Guo, D; Li, H L; Tang, X; Peng, S Q

2014-01-01

13

Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial\\u000a crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone\\u000a areas and on marginal soils. To increase the tools for understanding and manipulating drought tolerance in

Y. Lokko; J. V. Anderson; S. Rudd; A. Raji; D. Horvath; M. A. Mikel; R. Kim; L. Liu; A. Hernandez; A. G. O. Dixon; I. L. Ingelbrecht

2007-01-01

14

Neurotoxic effect of linamarin in rats associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) consumption.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a plant widely used for food consumption in different processed products in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Cassava is a good source of carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, if it is not adequately processed or the consumer has nutritional deficiencies, then its cyanogenic glycoside (i.e., linamarin and lotaustralin) content makes it potentially neurotoxic. In the present study, the neurotoxic effects of different concentrations of linamarin (0.075, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mg/kg) contained in cassava juice were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor alterations in adult male Wistar rats. The linamarin concentration in cassava juice was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the juice was administered intraesophageally for 28 days. The results suggested that the consumption of linamarin in cassava juice increased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field test and caused behavioral deficiency, reflected by lateral swimming, in the swim test on days 21 and 28 of treatment. These alterations are possibly related to neuronal damage caused by linamarin in cassava juice in structures of the central nervous system involved in motor processing. PMID:23778051

Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

2013-09-01

15

Assessment of genetic diversity among African cassava Manihot esculenta Grantz accessions resistant to the cassava mosaic virus disease using SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the extent of genetic diversity among African cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) accessions resistant to the cassava mosaic virus disease (CMD), using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The accessions included a breeding stock (clone 58308), five improved lines, 62 CMD resistant and 10 CMD susceptible landraces. Genetic diversity was assessed among accessions in five cluster

Yvonne Lokko; Alfred Dixon; Sam Offei; Eric Danquah; Martin Fregene

2006-01-01

16

Comparative expression of wild-type and highly soluble mutant His103Leu of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low protein solubility and inclusion body formation represent big challenges in production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We have recently reported functional expression of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta, MeHNL, in E. coli with high in vivo solubility and activity using directed evolution. As a part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, we have described the

Mohammad Dadashipour; Yasuhisa Fukuta; Yasuhisa Asano

2011-01-01

17

Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots  

PubMed Central

Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%), followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%). Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of ?-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the problem of post-harvest physiological deterioration. PMID:20187967

2010-01-01

18

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

19

An EST-derived SNP and SSR genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food security crops in the tropics and increasingly being adopted for agro-industrial processing. Genetic improvement of cassava can be enhanced through marker-assisted breeding. For this, appropriate genomic tools are required to dissect the genetic architecture of economically important traits. Here, a genome-wide SNP-based genetic map of cassava anchored in SSRs is presented. An outbreeder full-sib (F1) family was genotyped on two independent SNP assay platforms: an array of 1,536 SNPs on Illumina's GoldenGate platform was used to genotype a first batch of 60 F1. Of the 1,358 successfully converted SNPs, 600 which were polymorphic in at least one of the parents and was subsequently converted to KBiosciences' KASPar assay platform for genotyping 70 additional F1. High-precision genotyping of 163 informative SSRs using capillary electrophoresis was also carried out. Linkage analysis resulted in a final linkage map of 1,837 centi-Morgans (cM) containing 568 markers (434 SNPs and 134 SSRs) distributed across 19 linkage groups. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.4 cM. About 94.2% of the mapped SNPs and SSRs have also been localized on scaffolds of version 4.1 assembly of the cassava draft genome sequence. This more saturated genetic linkage map of cassava that combines SSR and SNP markers should find several applications in the improvement of cassava including aligning scaffolds of the cassava genome sequence, genetic analyses of important agro-morphological traits, studying the linkage disequilibrium landscape and comparative genomics. PMID:22419105

Rabbi, Ismail Yusuf; Kulembeka, Heneriko Philbert; Masumba, Esther; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Ferguson, Morag

2012-07-01

20

High-Resolution Linkage Map and Chromosome-Scale Genome Assembly for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 Populations.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. PMID:25504737

2014-01-01

21

High-Resolution Linkage Map and Chromosome-Scale Genome Assembly for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 Populations  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400–500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. PMID:25504737

2014-01-01

22

EVALUACION DE LA AGROINDUSTRIA DEL ALMIDON AGRIO DE YUCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) EN CORDOBA Y SUCRE CASSAVA SOUR STARCH AGROINDUSTRY EVALUATION (Manihot esculenta Crantz) IN CORDOBA AND SUCRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sour cassava starch is obtained from natural fermentation of sweet starch after drying using solar energy. In Colombia, production areas are the Pacific Coast (Cauca) and Caribbean region (Córdoba and Sucre). The present research focused on determining the situation of the processes and production sites in the Córdoba and Sucre department areas based on INVIMA regulations for foodstuff plants and

Marly P. Cadena; Erika C. Villarraga; Deivis E. Luján; Jairo G. Salcedo

23

Provitamin A accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots driven by a single nucleotide polymorphism in a phytoene synthase gene.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important staple crop, especially in the arid tropics. Because roots of commercial cassava cultivars contain a limited amount of provitamin A carotenoids, both conventional breeding and genetic modification are being applied to increase their production and accumulation to fight vitamin A deficiency disorders. We show here that an allelic polymorphism in one of the two expressed phytoene synthase (PSY) genes is capable of enhancing the flux of carbon through carotenogenesis, thus leading to the accumulation of colored provitamin A carotenoids in storage roots. A single nucleotide polymorphism present only in yellow-rooted cultivars cosegregates with colored roots in a breeding pedigree. The resulting amino acid exchange in a highly conserved region of PSY provides increased catalytic activity in vitro and is able to increase carotenoid production in recombinant yeast and Escherichia coli cells. Consequently, cassava plants overexpressing a PSY transgene produce yellow-fleshed, high-carotenoid roots. This newly characterized PSY allele provides means to improve cassava provitamin A content in cassava roots through both breeding and genetic modification. PMID:20889914

Welsch, Ralf; Arango, Jacobo; Bär, Cornelia; Salazar, Bertha; Al-Babili, Salim; Beltrán, Jesús; Chavarriaga, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Tohme, Joe; Beyer, Peter

2010-10-01

24

Large-Scale SNP Discovery through RNA Sequencing and SNP Genotyping by Targeted Enrichment Sequencing in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10. PMID:25551642

Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R.; Ruang-areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

2014-01-01

25

Large-Scale SNP Discovery through RNA Sequencing and SNP Genotyping by Targeted Enrichment Sequencing in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10. PMID:25551642

Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

2014-01-01

26

Comparative morphology, biology and histology of reproductive development in three lines of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae: Crotonoideae)  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major food staple in the tropics and subtropics, thrives even in environments undergoing threatening climate change. To satisfy the increasing demand for crop improvement and overcome the limitations of conventional breeding, the introduction of inbreeding techniques such as the production of doubled haploid lines via androgenesis or gynogenesis offers advantages. However, comprehensive studies on cassava flower bud biology or structural development are lacking and precise structural and biological information is a prerequisite to enhance the efficiency of these techniques. Methodology The floral biology of three selected cassava lines was studied, focusing on morphology, phenology and pollen biology (quantity, viability and dimorphism). Histological studies were also conducted on microsporogenesis/microgametogenesis and megasporogenesis/megagameto-genesis to generate precise developmental data for these lines. Principal results Male and female cyathia have distinct developmental phases. Pollen viability was high during immature stages of plant development; however, pollen mortality was common at later stages. Pollen trimorphism in male gametophytes towards the larger or smaller pollen size, as compared with normal size, was observed. Ten characteristic events were identified in male gametogenesis and six in female gametogenesis that were correlated with flower bud diameter. Male gametophyte diameter at different developmental stages was also determined. Conclusions Results indicate that the three lines did not differ significantly, except regarding a few morphological aspects such as plant height, flower colour and number of male cyathia. Pollen grains were initially viable, but viability decreased drastically at later stages of growth. Abnormal meiosis or mitosis triggered pollen trimorphism. The demonstrated sequential events of reproductive development generated valuable information at the cellular level, which will help close the current information gap for cassava improvement via breeding programmes and doubled haploid plant production. PMID:23346343

Perera, P. I. P.; Quintero, M.; Dedicova, B.; Kularatne, J. D. J. S.; Ceballos, H.

2013-01-01

27

Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with starch pasting viscosity characteristics in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits. PMID:23614826

Thanyasiriwat, T; Sraphet, S; Whankaew, S; Boonseng, O; Bao, J; Lightfoot, D A; Tangphatsornruang, S; Triwitayakorn, K

2013-04-24

28

Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) Activated Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N?-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

2011-01-01

29

Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lipoperoxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes.  

PubMed

Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

2011-09-01

30

Provitamin A Accumulation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Roots Driven by a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in a Phytoene Synthase Gene[W  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important staple crop, especially in the arid tropics. Because roots of commercial cassava cultivars contain a limited amount of provitamin A carotenoids, both conventional breeding and genetic modification are being applied to increase their production and accumulation to fight vitamin A deficiency disorders. We show here that an allelic polymorphism in one of the two expressed phytoene synthase (PSY) genes is capable of enhancing the flux of carbon through carotenogenesis, thus leading to the accumulation of colored provitamin A carotenoids in storage roots. A single nucleotide polymorphism present only in yellow-rooted cultivars cosegregates with colored roots in a breeding pedigree. The resulting amino acid exchange in a highly conserved region of PSY provides increased catalytic activity in vitro and is able to increase carotenoid production in recombinant yeast and Escherichia coli cells. Consequently, cassava plants overexpressing a PSY transgene produce yellow-fleshed, high-carotenoid roots. This newly characterized PSY allele provides means to improve cassava provitamin A content in cassava roots through both breeding and genetic modification. PMID:20889914

Welsch, Ralf; Arango, Jacobo; Bär, Cornelia; Salazar, Bertha; Al-Babili, Salim; Beltrán, Jesús; Chavarriaga, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Tohme, Joe; Beyer, Peter

2010-01-01

31

In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) on three pre-parasitic stages of susceptible and resistant strains of Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered as one of the main limiting factors causing significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry. The anthelmintic properties of some plants are among the suggested alternative solutions to control these parasitic worms. The present study investigated the anthelmintic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts against the susceptible and resistant strains of one of the most important nematodes in small ruminants, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta. Three different in vitro tests: egg hatch test, larval development assay, and larval paralysis assay were used to determine the efficiency of neem and cassava extracts on three pre-parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The LC(50) was determined for the most potent extract in each plant as well as the phytochemical tests, total tannin quantification and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats. The results revealed a high anthelmintic activity of neem methanol extract (NME) and cassava methanol extract (CME) on both strains of T. circumcincta without significant differences between the strains. The first stage larvae were more sensitive with the lowest LC(50) at 7.15 mg/ml and 10.72 mg/ml for NME and CME, respectively, compared with 44.20mg/ml and 56.68 mg/ml on eggs and 24.91 mg/ml and 71.96 mg/ml on infective stage larvae. PMID:22455724

Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

2012-08-13

32

Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.  

PubMed

Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples. PMID:24634228

Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

2014-01-01

33

In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) on susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to represent the first report of the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) against eggs and larvae of susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. As well as, to determine the total tannin compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity of the extract. The egg hatch test was used to evaluate ovicidal activity against unembryonated eggs, whereas larval feeding inhibition assay and MTT-formazan assay were used to evaluate larvicidal activity against first (L(1)) and infective (L(3)) larvae, respectively. The results showed no significant differences were detected between the sensitivities of susceptible and resistant strains of T. colubriformis to the extract. Eggs, L(1) and L(3) were significantly affected (P<0.001) compared with negative control, and L(1) were more sensitive than the eggs and L(3). The total tannin compounds were investigated using tannin quantification assay and determined by 254.44 TAE/mg. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and the median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was determined by 2.638 mg/ml. Acute oral toxicity at dose of 5,000 mg/kg, and sub-chronic oral toxicity at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg of the extract were observed in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The acute oral toxicity revealed that the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of methanolic extract of cassava leaves on SD rats was greater than 5,000 mg/kg, whereas the sub-chronic oral toxicity did not show observed adverse effects at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of cassava leaves has direct ovicidal and larvicidal activity against T. colubriformis strains with a safety margin for animals, and it may be potentially utilized as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22749290

Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

2012-11-23

34

Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

K?íbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevi?, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

2014-11-01

35

A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava. PMID:24026343

Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

2014-01-01

36

The complete nucleotide sequence of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) chloroplast genome and the evolution of atpF in Malpighiales: RNA editing and multiple losses of a group II intron  

PubMed Central

The complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae) has been determined. The genome is 161,453 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 26,954 bp. The genome includes 128 genes; 96 are single copy and 16 are duplicated in the IR. There are four rRNA genes and 30 distinct tRNAs, seven of which are duplicated in the IR. The infA gene is absent; expansion of IRb has duplicated 62 amino acids at the 3? end of rps19 and a number of coding regions have large insertions or deletions, including insertions within the 23S rRNA gene. There are 17 intron-containing genes in cassava, 15 of which have a single intron while two (clpP, ycf3) have two introns. The usually conserved atpF group II intron is absent and this is the first report of its loss from land plant chloroplast genomes. The phylogenetic distribution of the atpF intron loss was determined by a PCR survey of 251 taxa representing 34 families of Malpighiales and 16 taxa from closely related rosids. The atpF intron is not only missing in cassava but also from closely related Euphorbiaceae and other Malpighiales, suggesting that there have been at least seven independent losses. In cassava and all other sequenced Malphigiales, atpF gene sequences showed a strong association between C-to-T substitutions at nucleotide position 92 and the loss of the intron, suggesting that recombination between an edited mRNA and the atpF gene may be a possible mechanism for the intron loss. PMID:18214421

Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Lee, Seung-Bum; Saski, Christopher; Jansen, Robert K.

2008-01-01

37

Compatibility of interspecific Manihot crosses presaged by protein electrophoresis .  

PubMed

Cross incompatibility of wild Manihot species with cassava (M. esculenta) can impede their utilization for improving this cultigen. We tested whether compatibility could be determined based on electrophoresis results. Manihot pilosa, M. glaziovii, M. reptans, and M. cearulescens were tested. These species were allowed to hybridize with cassava to determine whether hybridization coincides with the similarity index based on electrophoresis analysis. Gene markers of leaf shape, stem surface, disk color, and fruit shape were used to confirm hybridization. Manihot pilosa and M. glaziovii successfully hybridized with cassava, while the others failed to do so under natural conditions. This result coincided with the similarity index from electrophoresis. PMID:20092040

Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N; Chaib, A; Abreu, L F A; Gomes, P T C

2010-01-01

38

Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of Manihot species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the genus, cultivated mainly for its starchy tuber roots. Cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats. However, there are very scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives, which usu...

39

Thermodynamic analysis of sorption isotherms of cassava (Manihot esculenta).  

PubMed

Sorption isotherms of cassava were determined experimentally using a static gravimetric method at 30, 45 and 60 °C and within the range of 0.10-0.90 water activity. At a constant water activity, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature. The experimental results were modelled using seven sorption models using non-linear regression technique. Results demonstrated that the GAB model adequately predicted equilibrium moisture content of cassava for the range of temperatures and water activities studied. The thermodynamic functions such as net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy of sorption, net integral enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to provide an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behaviour. Net isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The net integral enthalpy decreased while net integral entropy increased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Net integral entropy was negative in value. All thermodynamic functions were adequately characterised by a power law model. The point of maximum stability was found between 0.053 and 0.154 kg water/kg db for cassava. PMID:25190827

Koua, Blaise Kamenan; Koffi, Paul Magloire Ekoun; Gbaha, Prosper; Toure, Siaka

2014-09-01

40

Phylogenetic patterns in the genus Manihot (Euphorbiaceae) inferred from analyses of nuclear and chloroplast DNA regions.  

PubMed

From a phylogenetic perspective, the genus Manihot can be considered as an orphan group of plants, and the scientific knowledge acquired has been mainly related to cassava, one of the most important crops in poor tropical countries. The goal of the majority of evolutionary studies in the genus has been to decipher the domestication process and identify the closest relatives of cassava. Few investigations have focused on wild Manihot species, and the phylogeny of the genus is still unclear. In this study the DNA sequence variation from two chloroplast regions, the nuclear DNA gene G3pdh and two nuclear sequences derived from the 3'-end of two cassava ESTs, were used in order to infer the phylogenetic relationships among a subset of wild Manihot species, including two species from Cnidoscolus as out-groups. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses were conducted for each data set and for a combined matrix due to the low variation of each region when analyzed independently. A penalized likelihood analysis of the chloroplast region trnL-trnF, calibrated with various age estimates for genera in the Euphorbiaceae extracted from the literature was used to determine the ages of origin and diversification of the genus. The two Mesoamerican species sampled form a well-defined clade. The South American species can be grouped into clades of varying size, but the relationships amongst them cannot be established with the data available. The age of the crown node of Manihot was estimated at 6.6 million years ago. Manihot esculenta varieties do not form a monophyletic group that is consistent with the possibility of multiple introgressions of genes from other wild species. The low levels of variation observed in the DNA regions sampled suggest a recent and explosive diversification of the genus, which is confirmed by our age estimates. PMID:18706508

Chacón, Juliana; Madriñán, Santiago; Debouck, Daniel; Rodriguez, Fausto; Tohme, Joe

2008-10-01

41

Polyphenol oxidases from cassava (Manihot esculenta C.) root : extraction, purification and characterization.  

E-print Network

??Polyphenol oxidases are important enzymes because of their role in food spoilage, oxidizing monophenols into o-diphenols and/or diphenols into the corresponding o-quinones. The resulting compounds… (more)

Barthet, Véronique J.

1997-01-01

42

Cyanogenesis in somatic embryos and plantlets of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

E-print Network

,3 When plant tissues are damaged, the linamarin and its hydrolytic enzyme, linamarase, come into contact hydrolytic enzyme, linamarase. In this paper, a protocol for high frequency cyclic somatic embryogenesis or ligands of many enzymes.5 In humans, cyanide exposure could lead to a number of disorders such as goitre

Yeoh, Hock Hin

43

Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.  

PubMed

Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

2013-09-01

44

Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.  

PubMed

Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

2014-01-01

45

Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement. PMID:22388699

Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

2013-03-01

46

Molecular and supra-molecular structure of waxy starches developed from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to characterize the amylopectin of low amylose content cassava starches obtained from transgenesis comparatively with a natural waxy cassava starch (WXN) discovered recently in CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). Macromolecular features, starch granule morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of these starches were determined. M¯(w) of amylopectin from the transgenic varieties are lower than WXN. Branched and debranched chain distributions analyses revealed slight differences in the branching degree and structure of these amylopectins, principally on DP 6-9 and DP>37. For the first time, a deep structural characterization of a series of transgenic lines of waxy cassava was carried out and the link between structural features and the mutated gene expression approached. The transgenesis allows to silenced partially or totally the GBSSI, without changing deeply the starch granule ultrastructure and allows to produce clones with similar amylopectin as parental cassava clone. PMID:23399176

Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Sanchez, Teresa; Buléon, Alain; Colonna, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Peng; Dufour, Dominique

2013-02-15

47

Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.  

PubMed

In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. PMID:24374265

Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

2014-06-24

48

Molecular evolution and functional divergence of soluble starch synthase genes in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz).  

PubMed

Soluble starch synthases (SSs) are major enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, which should be influenced by the evolution of SS genes in this starchy root crop. In this work, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of the soluble starch synthases in cassava. Genome-wide identification showed that there are 9 genes encoding soluble starch synthases in cassava. All of the soluble starch synthases encoded by these genes contain both Glyco_transf_5 and Glycos_transf_1 domains, and a correlation analysis showed evidence of coevolution between these 2 domains in cassava SS genes. The SS genes in land plants can be divided into 6 subfamilies that were formed before the origin of seed plants, and species-specific expansion has contributed to the evolution of this family in cassava. A functional divergence analysis for this family provided statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rates between the subfamilies of land plant soluble starch synthases. Although the main selective pressure acting on land plant SS genes was purifying selection, our results also revealed that point mutation with positive selection contributed to the evolution of 2 SS genes in cassava. The remarkable cassava starch characteristics might be the result of both the duplication and adaptive selection of SS genes. PMID:23888108

Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Shuhui; Xu, Chenwu; Yan, Changjie

2013-01-01

49

Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava. PMID:23132522

Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

2012-12-01

50

Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ? 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel. PMID:22535425

Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

2012-05-01

51

Effects of processing, cooking, and storage on ß-carotene retention and bioaccessibility in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofortification of cassava with beta-carotene is currently being tested in African populations where cassava is a staple food and vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. Measuring the impact of traditional African processing and cooking on beta-carotene concentration and bioaccessibility ...

52

Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Saccharide on In Vitro Plant and Tuberous Root Regeneration of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A faster system to get tuberous roots from in vitro cultured cassava plants may enhance the process of exploring the function\\u000a and practical application of some root-specific expressed genes. The effects of cytokinin, auxin, sucrose, maltose, and glucose\\u000a on development of shoots and tuberous roots and plantlet regeneration of in vitro cultured cassava were investigated in this\\u000a study. The cytokinin

Mingxia Fan; Zaochang Liu; Liguo Zhou; Tian Lin; Yunhua Liu; Lijun Luo

2011-01-01

53

Phenylpropanoids, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase and Peroxidases in Elicitor?challenged Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Suspension Cells and Leaves  

PubMed Central

• Background and aims Control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components. • Methods Phenylalanine ammonia?lyase (PAL), phenylpropanoids and peroxidases (POD) were investigated in elicited cassava suspension cells and leaves. Yeast elicitor was the most effective of several microbial and endogenous elicitors. Fungitoxicity was determined against the cassava pathogens Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and the saprotroph Trichoderma harzianum. • Key results A single and rapid (?2–3 min) oxidative burst, measured as hydrogen peroxide, occurred in elicited cells. PAL activity was induced maximally at 15 h and was preceded by PAL mRNA accumulation, which peaked at 9 h. Symplasmic POD activity increased four?fold in cells, 48 h post?elicitation. POD isoforms (2–7 isoforms, pI 3·1–8·8) were detected in elicited and unelicited cells, extracellular medium and leaves but two extracellular isoforms were enhanced post?elicitation. Also expression of a cassava peroxidase gene MecPOD1 increased in elicited cells. Only anionic forms oxidized scopoletin, with highest activity by isoform pI 3·6, present in all samples. Unidentified phenolics and possibly scopolin increased post?elicitation, but there was no enhancement of scopoletin, rutin or kaempferol?3?O?rutinoside concentration. Fungal germ tube elongation was inhibited more than germination by esculetin, ferulic acid, quercetin and scopoletin. T. harzianum was generally more sensitive than the pathogens and was inhibited by ?50 µg mL–1 of ferulic acid and quercetin and ?10 µg mL–1 of scopoletin. • Conclusions Phenolic levels in cells were not enhanced and were, theoretically, too low to be inhibitory. However, in combination and when oxidized they may contribute to defence, because oxidation of esculetin and scopoletin by peroxidase and of esculetin by tyrosinase enhanced their fungitoxicity up to 20?fold. PMID:15145789

GÓMEZ?VÁSQUEZ, ROCÍO; DAY, ROBERT; BUSCHMANN, HOLGER; RANDLES, SOPHIE; BEECHING, JOHN R.; COOPER, RICHARD M.

2004-01-01

54

Mercury in the surface soil and cassava, Manihot esculenta (flesh, leaves and peel) near goldmines at Bogoso and Prestea, Ghana.  

PubMed

Mercury amalgamation is used indiscriminately in the recovery of gold by small-scale native gem winners in Ghana. Mercury is released into the environment in the form of wastewater, tailing and vapor from the roasting of amalgam to separate gold. The study looked at the levels of total mercury concentration in surface soil and cassava crop from farms located within the vicinities of Bogoso and Prestea Goldmines. The surface soil total mercury concentrations ranged between 125.29 and 352.52 ?g/kg whiles cassava had between 66.60 and 195.47 ?g/kg. The results showed proportionately more deposits at higher distances in 15-30 cm soil zone and less deposits at higher distances on leaves with relatively high uptake of the metal occurred at higher distances from the mines into the peels. These results suggest serious mercury pollution to the surface soil and the cassava crop but the speciation exercise showed that mercury is not in the free state, rather bound to hydroxides and organic compounds as complexes. PMID:23052587

Adjorlolo-Gasokpoh, A; Golow, A A; Kambo-Dorsa, J

2012-12-01

55

Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. PMID:23721067

Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

2014-06-01

56

Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrate: ammonium ratios on gas exchange and growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated how different nitrogen forms affect growth and photosynthetic responses of cassava to CO2 concentration. Cassava was grown in 12-L pots in a greenhouse (30/25o C day / night) at 390 or 750 ppm of CO2. Three nitrogen treatments were applied: (a) 12 mM NO3-, (b) 6 mM NO3- + 6 mM N...

57

Cassava about-FACE: Greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential for tuber crops such as cassava, yams and potatoes to enhance food security in the future is underestimated. In tuber crops there is the potential for a much higher ratio of edible to non-edible components than in above ground grain and bean crops such as rice, wheat, maize or soybean....

58

Effect of resistant starch on the cooking quality of yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) based paste products.  

PubMed

Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 ?m) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak. PMID:23215529

Kouadio, Olivier Kouadio; N'dri, Denis Yao; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Marti, Alessandra; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Faoro, Franco; Erba, Daniela; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Amani, N'guessan Georges

2013-06-01

59

Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?

Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

2014-10-01

60

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.  

PubMed

The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80?% (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2?µM for 3 and 6.3?µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3?µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

2014-12-01

61

Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (Taro)  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, that has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung colonizing ability as well as spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic ER, PR and Her-2/neu negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphologic changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable to stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kD contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins; 12 kD storage protein, tarin and lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, post-translational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing a compound(s) derived from taro, that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X. Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M.

2013-01-01

62

Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (taro).  

PubMed

Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M

2012-02-01

63

Estudo de apomixia em diferentes níveis de ploidia no Manihot spp.  

E-print Network

??Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Botânica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Botânica, 2011. A apomixia em Manihot vem sendo estudada pelo… (more)

Ferreira, Adalgisa Maria Chaib

2011-01-01

64

Production and characterization of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta flours.  

PubMed

The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids. PMID:17995692

Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M

2007-08-01

65

Characterization of 11 new microsatellite loci in taro (Colocasia esculenta).  

PubMed

Eleven new microsatellite markers were isolated from taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, a root crop widely distributed all over the world. Forty-eight primer pairs were designed from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library, of which 11 primer pairs have polymorphisms in 30 individuals tested from a population in China, which revealed two to six alleles per locus with the observed and expected heterozygosity levels ranging from 0 to 0.733 and from 0.381 to 0.731, respectively. These new genetic markers will be useful for the study of taro germplasm management and population evolution in the future. PMID:21564697

Hu, Kan; Huang, Xing Fang; Ke, Wei Dong; Ding, Yi

2009-03-01

66

Vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with two epigeic earthworm species.  

PubMed

The bioconversion potential of two epigeic species (Eisenia foetida Sav. and Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (Linn) Schott in Schott and Endl). In different vermireactors, each run in triplicates with one of the two species of earthworms, and 60 g of 6:1 Colocasia:cowdung as feed, vermicasts were produced with steadily increasing output in all the reactors. E. eugeniae was found to be more efficient producer of vermicasts than E. foetida. In all reactors, the earthworms grew well, increasing their weights and number. PMID:16051486

Kurien, J; Ramasamy, E V

2006-07-01

67

Isozymes analysis of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM) show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (P<0.99). The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianmin; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Rucai; Wang, Shidang; Zhou, Weiwu

2004-04-01

68

Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.  

PubMed

Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

2013-08-01

69

Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava. PMID:20336312

Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

2010-05-01

70

Studies on variation of carotenoid-proteins content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root reveal implications for breeding and the use of induced mutations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein content in storage roots of cassava is low but variable and characterization of this variability is lacking. Total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP) content in pigmented cassava landraces varied from 0.9-7.5 (mg/gDWt.) and correlated with total carotenoid content (R2=0.4757). More than 3x T...

71

Unmanaged sexual reproduction and the dynamics of genetic diversity of a vegetatively propagated crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), in a traditional farming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of intervarietal or interspecific natural crosses has been reported for many crop plants in traditional farming systems, underlining the potential importance of this source of genetic exchange for the dynamics of genetic diversity of crop plants. In this study, we use microsatellite loci to investigate the role of volunteer seedlings (plants originating from unmanaged sexual reproduction) in the dynamics

M. Elias; L. Penet; P. Vindry; D. McKey; O. Panaud; T. Robert

2001-01-01

72

Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

73

Genome-wide identification, 3D modeling, expression and enzymatic activity analysis of cell wall invertase gene family from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  

PubMed

The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a ?-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a ?-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker. PMID:24786092

Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

2014-01-01

74

Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.  

PubMed

Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions. PMID:24837923

Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

2014-10-15

75

Cloning, expression, and characterization of soluble starch synthase I cDNA from taro (Colocasia esculenta Var. esculenta).  

PubMed

Soluble starch synthase I (SSSI) cDNA was isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends reaction. The transcript of this single-copy gene is 2340 bp and encodes 642 amino acids protein containing a putative transit peptide of 54 residues. Recombinant SSSI protein displayed both primer-dependent and primer-independent activities of starch synthase. More SSSI transcript was expressed in taro leaves than in tubers, with no evident expression in petioles; and more transcript and protein were found in tubers of 597 +/- 37 g of fresh weight than in smaller or larger ones. Two forms of SSSI, i.e., 72 and 66 kDa, exist in leaves, and only the 66 kDa form was found in tubers. The taro SSSI, proposed as a novel member, was located only in the soluble fraction of tuber extract, while SSSI from other sources exist in both soluble and granule-bound forms. PMID:16190660

Lin, Da-Gin; Jeang, Chii-Ling

2005-10-01

76

Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot-tips of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by vitrification.  

PubMed

In vitro shoot-tips of three cultivars of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Different conditioning treatments were required for each of the cultivars, while the vitrification protocol was constant for all. For the cultivars E399 and CPUK, shoot-tips from three-month-old in vitro plants grown on solidified MS were preconditioned on MS with 0.3 M sucrose in the dark for 16 h at 25 degree C. For the cultivar TNS, donor plants were preconditioned on solid MS with 90 g per liter sucrose for seven weeks before cryopreservation. For vitrification, the shoot-tips were loaded with a solution of 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degree C, dehydrated with PVS2 for 12 min at 25 degree C and plunged in liquid nitrogen. Vials were warmed by rapid shaking in a water bath at 40 degree C for 1 min 30. Shoot-tips were rehydrated in liquid MS with 1.2 M sucrose for 15 min at 25 degree C then plated on recovery medium. Shoot-tips resumed growth within a week and developed into plantlets six to eight weeks later without any callus formation. The best mean recoveries for the three cultivars were 21, 29 and 30 percent for E399, CPUK and TNS, respectively. This protocol was evaluated with five other taro cultivars with no success. However, this study has shown that vitrification has potential for cryopreserving tropical taro. PMID:16892162

Sant, Rajnesh; Taylor, Mary; Tyagi, Anand

2006-01-01

77

Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.  

PubMed

Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-04-15

78

Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracellular polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta.  

PubMed

Morchella esculenta, an edible medicinal mushroom native to China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. This study firstly investigated the antioxidant activity of Morchella esculenta extracellular polysaccharides (MEEP). An in vitro antioxidant assay showed that MEEP exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reductive power. For antioxidant testing in vivo, MEEP were orally administered over a period of 60 days in a d-galactose induced aged mice model. Administration of the polysaccharides inhibited significantly the formation of malondialdehyde livers and serums, and raised the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we also observed that MEEPs markedly enhanced the body's immune system by measuring macrophage phagocytosis and splenocyte proliferation in d-galactose induced mice. These findings suggest that EPs from Morchella esculenta are a promising source of natural antioxidants and immunoenhancing drugs. PMID:23598461

Fu, Lihong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jinju; Yang, Yanrui; Hao, Limin

2013-06-01

79

Influence of Casearia esculenta root extract on glycoprotein components in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of the indigenous antidiabetic medicinal plant Casearia esculenta on glycoprotein components in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in plasma, liver, kidney and cardiac tissues. Streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg body weight) caused massive elevation of glycoprotein components such as hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose in plasma and tissues of diabetic control and experimental animals. Oral administration of C. esculenta root extract (200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 45 days significantly reverted the hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose levels to near normal values. These results suggest a normalizing effect of C. esculenta on glycoprotein components in STZ diabetic rats. PMID:15801680

Prakasam, A; Sethupathy, S; Pugalendi, K V

2005-03-01

80

Detection and Identification of Dasheen mosaic virus Infecting Colocasia esculenta in India.  

PubMed

Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the infected leaf samples of Colocasia esculenta plants showing severe whitish feathery symptoms were carried out using Potyvirus group specific primers, resulting in an amplicon of 327 bp, encoding the core region of the coat protein gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis showed that the virus is distinct, closely related to Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV). Sequence analysis revealed 86 and 96% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level respectively with the DsMV isolate SY1(accession Number AJ628756). This is the first molecular level characterisation of the DsMV infecting C. esculenta in India. PMID:23637503

Babu, Binoy; Hegde, Vinayaka; Makeshkumar, T; Jeeva, M L

2011-06-01

81

Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.  

PubMed

The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals. PMID:21554124

Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

2011-09-01

82

Influence of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott) growth conditions on the phenolic composition and biological properties.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly known as taro, is an essential food for millions of people. The leaves are consumed in sauces, purees, stews, and soups, being also used in wound healing treatment. Nowadays, the consumers' demand for bioactive compounds from the diet led to the development of new agricultural strategies for the production of health-promoting constituents in vegetables. In this work, two strategies (variety choice and irrigation conditions) were considered in the cultivation of C. esculenta. The effect on the phenolic composition of the leaves was evaluated. Furthermore, a correlation between the biological activity of the different varieties and their chemical composition was established. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the phenolic composition were observed between varieties; furthermore, the irrigation conditions also influenced the composition. C. esculenta varieties were able to scavenge several oxidant species and to inhibit hyaluronidase, but data suggest that metabolites other than phenolics are involved. The results show that cultivation strategies can effectively modulate the accumulation of these types of bioactive compounds. Furthermore C. esculenta wound healing potential can be attributed, at least in part, to the protection of the wound site against oxidative/nitrosative damage and prevention of hyaluronic acid degradation. PMID:23993510

Gonçalves, Rui F; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Ana Margarida; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

2013-12-15

83

The nutritional composition and anti-hypertensive activity on spontaneously hypertensive rats of sipuncula Phascolosoma esculenta.  

PubMed

Recent studies have investigated anti-hypertensive peptides derived from natural food products. In this work, we focus on Phascolosoma esculenta as a resource of anti-hypertensive peptides, which is also a seafood with high nutritive value. Compared with FAO/WHO requirements, P. esculenta was confirmed to contain high contents of amino acids and minerals. To investigate the anti-hypertensive activity of P. esculenta, water-soluble and insoluble proteins were extracted and hydrolysed by pepsin and trypsin, respectively. The hydrolysates of water-soluble proteins derived by pepsin and pepsin-trypsin exhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.67 and 0.24 mg ml(-1), respectively, and those of water-insoluble proteins presented IC50 values of 0.4 and 0.1 mg ml(-1), respectively. Experiments on 'spontaneously hypertensive rats' (SHRs) were carried out to test the anti-hypertension activity in vivo, which confirmed that the hydrolysates played a significant role in reducing both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Consistently, the in vivo anti-hypertensive activity of the hydrolysis products of pepsin and trypsin used together was also higher than that by using pepsin hydrolysis products alone. As stated in both sets of results, we believe that P. esculenta is an excellent resource of antihypertensive peptides and warrants further investigation. PMID:25075455

Wu, Yanling; Fang, Ming; Du, Lei; Wu, Hongxi; Liu, Yalan; Guo, Mingrong; Xie, Jingli; Wei, Dongzhi

2014-09-01

84

Variations of intestinal calcium absorption in adult frogs (Rana esculenta). Effect of lysine  

E-print Network

Variations of intestinal calcium absorption in adult frogs (Rana esculenta). Effect of lysine Mammifères (EPHEJ, Physiologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 92290 Chatenay-Malabry, France. Summary. Intestinal increased in the whole intestine during the first 2 h of treatment (1 h : 21 % ; 2 h : 55 %) and remained

Boyer, Edmond

85

Antiperoxidative and antioxidant effects of Casearia esculenta root extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play as a pathogenesis in the development of diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Casearia esculenta root extract on oxidative stress-related parameters in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Antidiabetic treatment with C. esculenta root extract (45 days) significantly (p < .05) decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and remarkably improved tissue antioxidants status such as glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in liver and kidney of STZ-diabetic rats. In diabetics rats, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.11.1.1) catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) were decreased significantly while the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) decreased in the liver and increased in the kidney. The treatment of diabetic rats with C. esculenta root extract over a 45-day period returned these levels close to normal. These results suggest that C. esculenta root extracts exhibit antiperoxidative as well as antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:16197726

Prakasam, A; Sethupathy, S; Pugalendi, K V

2005-01-01

86

Arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) in Tarkwa a mining community.  

PubMed

Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) have gained increased importance in the diets of majority of people in developing countries such as Ghana. The concentration levels of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in Cocoyam (X. sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (C. esculenta) in Tarkwa and its surrounding villages a mining community in Ghana were measured in this study. From the results of the study, the levels of arsenic, cadmium and mercury in X. sagititolium and C. esculenta were higher than the WHO recommended levels. These root tubers absorb or uptake toxic chemicals from the soil as a result of the mining operations. This means that, the consumption of X. sagititolium and C. esculenta by humans from such environments may pose a serious health risk. There is therefore the need for a concerted effort by all to minimize the negative impact of gold mining in the study area. PMID:17673943

Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Obiri, S; Yaney, J Y

2007-10-01

87

Evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infection in Water Frogs of the Rana esculenta Complex in Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (phylum Chytridiomycota, order Chytridiales) is the causative organism of chytridiomycosis in amphibians, a disease associated\\u000a with their population decline worldwide. In this work, we report a cutaneous infection in water frogs of the Rana esculenta complex in agricultural areas of Umbria, central Italy. Histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular\\u000a analyses demonstrated for the first time the presence of the

Francesca Simoncelli; Anna Fagotti; Raffaele Dall’Olio; Daniela Vagnetti; Rita Pascolini; Ines Di Rosa

2005-01-01

88

Inhibitory effects of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott constituents on aldose reductase.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the rat lens aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of 95% ethanol extracts from the leaves of C. esculenta and, its organic solvent soluble fractions, including the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) layers, using dl-glyceraldehyde as a substrate. Ten compounds, namely tryptophan (1), orientin (2), isoorientin (3), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (7), rosmarinic acid (8), 1-O-feruloyl-d-glucoside (9) and 1-O-caffeoyl-d-glucoside (10) were isolated from the EtOAc and BuOH fractions of C. esculenta. The structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previous reports. All the isolates were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. Among tested compounds, compounds 2 and 3 significantly inhibited rat lens aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 1.65 and 1.92 ?M, respectively. Notably, the inhibitory activity of orientin was 3.9 times greater than that of the positive control, quercetin (4.12 ?M). However, the isolated compounds showed only moderate ABTS+ [2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] activity. These results suggest that flavonoid derivatives from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott represent potential compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25255750

Li, Hong Mei; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Beom Goo; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon Sung

2014-01-01

89

Further knowledge on the phenolic profile of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly called taro, is an ancient species selected for its edible tuber. Its huge "elephant ear" like leaves are also consumed in sauces and stews or as soups. Forty-one phenolic metabolites (11 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and 30 glycosylated flavonoids) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) in the leaves of two C. esculenta varieties cultivated in Azores Islands. To our knowledge, 34 of the 41 phenolic compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. Phenolics quantification was achieved by an HPLC-DAD accurate and sensitive validated method. Although the qualitative profile of the two varieties is quite similar, quantitative differences were observed between them. "Giant white" and "red" varieties (local denomination) contain, respectively, ca. 14 and 21% of phenolic acids, 37 and 28% of flavones mono-C-glycosides, 42 and 43% of flavones di-C-glycosides, 3 and 4% of flavones mono-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides, and both of them ca. 2% of flavones di-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides and 2% of flavones-O-glycosides. Luteolin-6-C-hexoside was the compound present in higher amounts in both varieties. The established phenolic profile is an added value for the authenticity and quality control of C. esculenta and may be useful in the discrimination of its varieties. PMID:22724554

Ferreres, Federico; Gonçalves, Rui F; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

2012-07-18

90

Modulating role of 'Saptarangi' (Casearia esculenta) on membrane bound ATPase in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

PubMed

We have studied the activities of adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ATPase, Mg2+ATPase, Ca2+ATPase and Total ATPase) in erythrocyte, liver, kidney and cardiac tissues of control and Casearia esculenta treated streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The activity of Na+/K+ATPase plays a central role in the regulation of intra and extra cellular homeostasis and alteration of this transport system is thought to be linked to several complications of diabetes mellitus. An Mg2+ dependent ATPase activity is responsible for controlling the energy requiring process in cells whereas Ca2+ATPase is responsible for the signal transduction pathways and membrane fluidity. Activities of these enzymes were significantly altered (p < 0.05) in STZ diabetic rats. Oral administration of C. esculenta root extract for a period of 45 days resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reversal of these enzymes' activities to near normal. Thus the results suggest that C. esculenta protects the membrane integrity and functional status in STZ diabetic rats. PMID:16320953

Prakasam, A; Sethupathy, S; Pugalendi, K V

2005-11-01

91

Influence of Casearia esculenta root extract on protein metabolism and marker enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the possible protective effects of Casearia esculenta root extract on certain biochemical markers in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ treatment (50 mg/kg, ip) caused a hyperglycemic state, that led to various physiological and biochemical alterations. Blood levels of glucose, urea, uric acid and creatinine, plasma levels of albumin and albumin/globulin ratio and the activities of diagnostic marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT) in plasma, liver and kidney were markedly altered in STZ diabetic rats. Oral administration of C. esculenta (200 and 300 mg/kg) for 45 days restored all these biochemical parameters to near normal levels. Thus, the present results have shown that C. esculenta root extract has the antihyperglycemic effect and consequently may alleviate liver and renal damage associated with STZ-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:15591647

Prakasam, A; Sethupathy, S; Pugalendi, K V

2004-01-01

92

Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

93

Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.  

PubMed

Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively). PMID:20359228

Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

2010-04-28

94

Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

2012-07-01

95

[Impacts of digging Phascolosoma esculenta on the growth of mangrove Avicennia marina seedlings: a simulation study].  

PubMed

Digging Phascolosoma esculenta to increase income is one of the main causes leading to the degradation of China mangroves. In order to understand the impact mechanisms of digging P. esculenta on the mangrove growth and to select indicators to evaluate the mangrove health, a simulative study was conducted to clarify the impacts of digging depth, radian, and frequency on the growth of 1-year old Avicennia marina seedlings, with the indices seedling height, basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, total biomass, and dead root dry mass measured. The results showed that digging activities decreased the increment of seedling height and basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, and total biomass significantly, and increased the dead root dry mass markedly. Digging depth and radian had obvious effects on the growth of A. marina seedlings, but digging frequency had minor effects. When the digging depth was < 5 cm, digging radian was < 240 degrees, and digging frequency was < 2 times per month, the damage to the seedlings was slighter; but when the digging depth was > 5 cm, the damage was quite serious. PMID:22803458

He, Qin-Fei; Fan, Hang-Qing; Mo, Zhu-Cheng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Wen-Hui

2012-04-01

96

Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.  

PubMed

The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804

Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

2013-01-01

97

Effects of environmental factors on sperm motility and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of environmental factors (salinity, pH, ions and activation media) on sperm motility (activation rate, duration of quick movement, and lifespan) and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. The results showed that spermatozoa in the coelom and nephridium are able to move quickly. The optimal salinity was 14.64 to 43.35 and the optimal pH was 6.46 to 9.53 for sperm activation and motility, whereas the ranges for fertilization were narrower (18.56 to 30.3 for salinity and 6.46 to 8.61 for pH). Of the ions studied, Na+ was indispensable for sperm motility and fertilization, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ were necessary for fertilization. P. esculenta sperm could not fertilize eggs and have short lifespans in 200 to 600 mmol/L NaCl and KCl solutions. Furthermore, they could not be activated or move in 200 to 600 mmol/L CaCl2, MgSO4, and sucrose solutions. PMID:25194731

Sheng, Z; Jiang, J-H; Jin, C-H; Xu, S-J; Zhu, J-Q

2014-09-01

98

Influence of light and darkness on secretory activity of the subcommissural organ and on growth rate of reissner's fibre in Rana esculenta L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of long daily photoperiods and of continuous darkness on the secretory activity of the subcommissural organ (SCO) and on the growth rate of Reissner's fibre (RF) in Rana esculenta was studied in winter.

J. H. B. Diederen

1973-01-01

99

Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

100

Inhibition of human lanosterol synthase by the constituents of Colocasia esculenta (taro).  

PubMed

Ethanol extracts of lyophilized vegetables were tested for inhibition of human lanosterol synthase (hOSC) in order to find the compounds to suppress cholesterol biosynthesis. Of 130 samples tested, twelve samples showed significant inhibition. Among them, Colocasia esculenta (taro) showed the highest inhibition (55% inhibition at 300 microg/ml). Examination of activity variation among eight taro cultivars indicated that "Aichi-wase" and "Yatsugashira" had the most potent activity for hOSC inhibition. In order to identify the active constituent of taro, ethanol extracts of "Aichi-wase" were partitioned with hexane and aqueous methanol, and fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. Inhibitory activity was concentrated in two major active fractions. Further purification of these fractions by preparative HPLC gave three monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and five digalactosyldiacylglycerols as active compounds that showed 28 to 67% inhibitory activities at the concentration 300 microg/ml. PMID:15684488

Sakano, Yuichi; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanaka, Rie; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Toyoda, Masatake; Goda, Yukihiro; Shibuya, Masaaki; Ebizuka, Yutaka

2005-02-01

101

Identification and some properties of anthocyanin isolated from Zuiki, stalk of Colocasia esculenta.  

PubMed

Zuiki, a stalk of taro (Colocasia esculenta), is a traditional vegetable in Japan. Raw zuiki is often boiled and vinegared to eat. The surface color of zuiki is reddish. Here, we isolated a red pigment from zuiki and identified it as cyanidin 3-rutinoside using instrumental analyses. The color of zuiki disappeared by boiling, but the zuiki turned red again in an acetic acid solution. It seems that the cyanidin 3-rutinoside that exists on the surface of zuiki elutes in boiling water and then, the pigment that seeps out from the inside of the zuiki is exposed to an acid solution, and its surface turns red again. The radical scavenging activity of purified zuiki anthocyanin was 114 mg equivalent to BHT/g. About half of the anthocyanin in fresh zuiki was washed out by boiling, and the radical scavenging activity of zuiki was definitely reduced. PMID:17447784

Terasawa, Naoko; Saotome, Ayako; Tachimura, Yuki; Mochizuki, Ayumi; Ono, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Makiko; Murata, Masatsune

2007-05-16

102

Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

2007-10-01

103

Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12049788

Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

2002-06-01

104

Isolation and characterization of phytoferritin from pea (Pisum sativum) and Lentil (Lens esculenta).  

PubMed Central

Ferritin was isolated from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and lentil (Lens esculenta). The homogeneity of the phytoferritins was established by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The subunit molecular weights were respectively 20 300 and 21 400 for hte pea and lentil proteins. A neutron low-angle scattering study established the molecular weight of the oligomer as 480 000 for pea apoferritin and 510 000 for lentil apoferritin. Although the quaternary structure of 24 polypeptide chains is preserved, the phytoferritins have a larger cavity in the interior than mammalian ferritins and can thus potentially store 1.2-1.4 times as much iron. The amino acid composition of the phytoferritins show some similarities to those of mammalian apoferritins; tryptic 'fingerprinting' reveals that there are many differences in the amino acid sequence of plant and mammalian apoferritins. Images Fig. 1. PMID:656049

Crichton, R R; Ponce-Ortiz, Y; Koch, M H; Parfait, R; Stuhrmann, H B

1978-01-01

105

Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.  

PubMed

Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-? plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24960143

Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

2014-07-25

106

Physicochemical, thermal properties and microstructure of six varieties of taro ( Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) flours and starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) flours were prepared from six varieties of taro corms coded as RIN, RIE, CN, CE, KW1 and KW2. Starch yields prepared from the flours varied between 66.5% for KW2 to 86.6% for RIE. The proteins content varied from 2.9% for KW1 to 4.9% for CN in the flours. Taro starch had irregular, polygonal shapes and

Aboubakar; Y. N. Njintang; J. Scher; C. M. F. Mbofung

2008-01-01

107

Effect of accessions of Colocasia esculenta-based diets on the hepatic and renal functional indices of weanling Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The liver and kidney functional indices of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphological characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days were investigated. All the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets did not significantly (P?>?.05) alter the serum levels of albumin, globulin, inorganic phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and uric acid of the animals.The total protein and total bilirubin levels decreased only in the UFCe3- and UFCe4-fed animals, respectively. Whereas UFCe1 and UFCe2 significantly decreased the conjugated bilirubin levels, UFCe3 and UFCe6 increased it. While all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diet decreased the serum alkaline phosphatase activity, ?-glutamyl transferase activity was increased. UFCe1 and UFCe5 increased the serum alanine aminotransferase activity, whereas UFCe4 decreased the activity of the enzyme. Again, UFCe3 and UFCe1 increased the serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase activity of the animals. Furthermore, the computed blood urea nitrogen:creatinine ratio was higher in animals maintained on UFCe1-, UFCe3-, UFCe4-, and UFCe5-based diets. Whereas UFCe6 and UFCe7 increased the level of sodium in the serum of the animals, UFCe4 and UFCe5 decreased the chloride level. The serum urea level was decreased by UFCe1, UFCe3, UFCe4, and UFCe5, whereas the potassium level increased in the UFCe4-, UFCe6-, and UFCe7-fed animals. Overall, the results revealed that all the accessions of C. esculenta produced selective effects on the hepatic and renal functional indices of the weanling rats. The highest alterations were produced by UFCe4, whereas the least was from UFCe2. These alterations may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. UFCe2 exhibited the least toxicity risk among the accessions of C. esculenta growing in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. PMID:20828320

Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Musa T; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

2010-10-01

108

Effects of Cd and Zn on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in sipuncula (Phascolosoma esculenta).  

PubMed

Physiological responses (oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) of the sipuncula (Phascolosoma esculenta) exposed to four concentrations of Cd (0.45, 0.96, 2.04, and 4.46 mg L(-1)) and four concentrations of Zn (1.09, 2.34, 4.96, and 10.91 mg L(-1)) were monitored for 21 days, respectively. Oxygen consumption rates of sipuncula at all concentrations of Cd decreased from day 1 to day 6. At low concentrations of Cd (0.45 and 0.96 mg L(-1)), the oxygen consumption rate was promoted. Time and concentration were significant in affecting oxygen consumption rate, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate decreased significantly with time for Zn-exposed individuals and also decreased significantly with the interaction between the concentration of Cd and time for Cd-exposed individuals. Changes occurred in the ammonia excretion rates and O:N ratios with individual sipuncula experiencing different metal concentrations over time. Although low O:N ratios (<30) were obtained in most of the treatments, no predictable correlation was found between concentrations of metals and values of O:N obtained. The value of using O:N ratio as a stress index is questioned. PMID:18272221

Chen, XiXiang; Lu, ChangYi; Ye, Yong

2009-02-01

109

Zn tolerance of novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein and its domains in Escherichia coli and tobacco.  

PubMed

Contrary to extensive researches on the roles of metallothioneins (MTs) in metal tolerance of animals, the roles of plant MTs in metal tolerance are largely under investigation. In this study, we evaluated the functional role of type 2 MT from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. Under Zn-stress conditions, transgenic tobacco overexpressing CeMT2b displayed much better seedling growth, a significant decrease in the levels of H(2)O(2) and an increase in Zn accumulation compared with the wild type. Overexpression of CeMT2b in E. coli greatly enhanced Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation under Zn stresses compared with control cells. CeMT2b bound 5.38 ± 0.29 atoms of Zn per protein. To identify a structural domain of CeMT2b for Zn binding, we investigated the growth of E. coli expressing each of the N-terminal, C-terminal, and central linker domains or a CNC motif deletion from the C-terminus of full-length CeMT2b. The results showed that the CNC motif is required for Zn tolerance, and the N-terminal domain is more effective in Zn tolerance than the C-terminal domain. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence for functional contributions of CeMT2b in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. PMID:22610130

Kim, Yeon-Ok; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Patel, Darshan H; Kim, Ho Myeong; Ahn, Sung-Ju; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

2012-11-01

110

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

111

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

112

Recovery of energy from Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs).  

PubMed

We present studies on solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs) in which chopped Colocasia esculenta was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop an efficient means of utilizing the semi-aquatic weed that is otherwise an environmental nuisance. Two types of SOFADs were studied. The first type had a single vessel with two compartments. The lower portion of the digester, 25% of the total volume, was separated from the upper by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cow dung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the digester led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The bioleachate, rich in the VFAs, passed through the perforated PVC disk and was collected in the lower compartment of the digester. The other type of digesters, referred to as anaerobic multi-phase high-solids digesters (AMHDs), had the same type of compartmentalized digester unit as the first type and an additional methaniser unit. Up-flow anaerobic filters (UAFs) were used as methaniser units, which converted the bioleachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 60% methane. All SOFADs developed a consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 20 weeks from the start. Among the two types of digesters studied, the AMHDs were found to perform better with a twofold increase in biogas yield compared to the first type of digesters. PMID:17382532

Bindu, T; Ramasamy, E V

2008-01-01

113

Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.  

PubMed

Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro. PMID:16022332

Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

2005-06-01

114

Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.  

PubMed

Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r?=?-0.87; p?

Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

2014-05-01

115

Rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for the rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality. Chemical analyses were conducted on 315 accessions for major constituents (starch, total sugars, cellulose, proteins, and minerals). NIRS calibration equations, developed on a calibration set composed of 243 accessions, showed high explained variances in cross-validation (r(2)(cv)) for starch (0.89), sugars (0.90), proteins (0.89), and minerals (0.90) but poor response for amylose (0.44) and cellulose (0.61). The predictions were tested on an independent set of 58 randomly selected accessions. The r(2)(pred) values for starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals were, respectively, of 0.76, 0.74, 0.85, and 0.85 with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of 3.41, 4.01, 3.78, and 3.64. New calibration equations developed on 303 accessions confirmed good RPD values for starch (3.30), sugars (4.13), proteins (3.61), and minerals (3.74). NIRS could be used to predict starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals contents in taro corms with reasonably high confidence. PMID:21806061

Lebot, Vincent; Malapa, Roger; Bourrieau, Marion

2011-09-14

116

Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate with Colocasia esculenta, Gynerum sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorum in Constructed Wetlands.  

PubMed

This study assessed the accumulation of Cd (II), Hg (II), Cr (VI) and Pb (II) in Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) planted in constructed wetlands treating synthetic landfill leachate. Sixteen bioreactors were operated in two experimental blocks. Metal concentrations in the influent and effluent; root, stem, branch and leaves of plants were analysed, as well as COD, N-NH4(+), TKN, T, pH, ORP, DO, and EC. Average removal efficiencies of COD, TKN and NH4(+)-N were 66, 67 and 72%, respectively and heavy metal removal ranged from 92 to 98% in all units. Cr (VI) was not detected in any effluent sample. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 10(0) -10(2). The BCF of Cr (VI) was the lowest: 0.59 and 2.5 (L kg(-1)) for Gs and He respectively; whilst Cd (II) had the highest (130-135 L kg(-1)) for Gs. Roots showed a higher metal content than shoots. Translocation factors (TF) were lower, He was the plant exhibiting TFs >1 for Pb (II), Cr (T) and Hg (II) and 0.4-0.9 for Cd (II) and Cr (VI). The evaluated plants demonstrate their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate and all of them can be categorized as metals accumulators. PMID:25174421

Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Salamanca, E J; Peña, M R; Rousseau, D P L; Lens, P N L

2015-01-01

117

Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation.  

PubMed

In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4?C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.3±4.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 µg/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector?to?target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 µg/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 µg/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 µg/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 µg/mouse Taro-4-I. PMID:23292184

Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2013-02-01

118

Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be conducted by using a broader genetic base. This is the first study assessing the relationship of hybrid vigour with the genetic distances between parents, conducted on a tropical root crop. PMID:19363661

Quero-García, José; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

2009-07-01

119

Changes in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase under anaerobiosis in cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in the cormels of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum) immediately after harvest and in storage under anaerobiosis for one and three weeks, respectively. During stress condition in plants, hydrogen peroxide is released and mechanisms to detoxify it must be maintained. The cocoyam tubers that were neither damaged nor affected by disease were harvested from a local farm in Ugbogui, Ovia North Local Government Area in Edo State, Nigeria. The selected cocoyam tubers were peeled manually, washed with ice cold water and cut into pieces. The root tissues (50 g) were homogenised with 100 mL of ice cold 0.05 M phosphate buffer. The extract obtained was clarified by centrifugation for 15 min at 8000 g at 4 degrees C. Ascorbate-peroxidising activity was assayed using the initial rate of decrease in ascorbate concentration as measured by its absorbance at 290 nm using Milton Roy Spectron 21D. Results showed the weight of the cormels decreased all through during storage. Immediately after harvest the activity of ascorbate peroxidase was 15.49 unit mL(-1) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) after one week to 73.05 U mL(-1). Thereafter there was a significant decrease in activity of the enzyme after three weeks of storage to 33.33 U mL(-1). This increase in activity of ascorbate peroxidase after three weeks of storage may be related to increase in response to various biotic stresses. Therefore, manipulation of the capacity of cocoyam to tolerate anaerobiosis is a function of its ability to modulate the antioxidant enzymes' armory in case of need. PMID:24783794

Chibueze, Nwose

2014-01-01

120

Assessment of Antioxidant Properties in Fruits of Myrica esculenta: A Popular Wild Edible Species in Indian Himalayan Region  

PubMed Central

Crude extract of Myrica esculenta fruits, a wild edible species of Indian Himalayan Region, was evaluated for phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Results revealed significant variation in total phenolic and flavonoid contents across populations. Among populations, total phenolic content varied between 1.78 and 2.51?mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight (fw) of fruits and total flavonoids ranged between 1.31 and 1.59?mg quercetin equivalent/g fw. Antioxidant activity determined by 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) exhibited considerable antioxidant potential and showed significant positive correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoids content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed significant variation (P esculenta fruits while providing relished taste would also help in reduction of free radicals. Therefore, this wild edible species deserves promotion in the region through horticulture and forestry interventions. PMID:21785629

Rawat, Sandeep; Jugran, Arun; Giri, Lalit; Bhatt, Indra D.; Rawal, Ranbeer S.

2011-01-01

121

Characterisation and evaluation of a novel feedstock, Manihot glaziovii, Muell. Arg, for production of bioenergy carriers: Bioethanol and biogas.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterise and evaluate a wild inedible cassava species, Manihot glaziovii as feedstock for bioenergy production. Tubers obtained from 3 different areas in Tanzania were characterised and evaluated for bioethanol and biogas production. These bioenergy carriers were produced both separately and sequentially and their energy values evaluated based on these two approaches. Composition analysis demonstrated that M. glaziovii is a suitable feedstock for both bioethanol and biogas production. Starch content ranged from 77% to 81%, structural carbohydrates 3-16%, total crude protein ranged from 2% to 8%. Yeast fermentation achieved ethanol concentration of up to 85g/L at a fermentation efficiency of 89%. The fuel energy of the bioethanol and methane from flour-peels mix ranged from 5 to 13 and 11 to 14MJ/kgVS, respectively. Co-production of bioethanol and biogas in which the peels were added to the fermentation residue prior to anaerobic digestion produced maximum fuel energy yield of (15-23MJ/kgVS). PMID:25237774

Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Ken M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Elisante, Emrode; Mattiasson, Bo

2014-11-01

122

Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 ?m×12.2 ?m. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 ?m2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 ?m×12.1 ?m. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 ?m×5.5 ?m. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231

Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

2014-03-01

123

Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of seven accessions of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott tubers growing in South Africa.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (cocoyam) is cultivated mainly for its edible tubers. The effect of cooking the tubers on the proximate composition of seven accessions (UFCe1-UFCe7) of the crop growing in South Africa was investigated. When compared with the uncooked, the ash and crude fibre contents of the accessions significantly decreased after cooking. The moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate and caloric contents increased with cooking in all the accessions, except UFCe1 and UFCe5 where the crude lipid content reduced. The results indicate that cooking enhanced the carbohydrate, energy and protein contents of the tubers. They further showed that the tubers could be used for allergic infants, old people and invalids since the fibre contents were still appreciably high despite the slight reduction after cooking the tubers. PMID:19468953

Lewu, Muinat N; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

2009-01-01

124

Role of pCeMT, a putative metallothionein from Colocasia esculenta, in response to metal stress.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins (MTs) play a major role in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification in plants. In this study, a novel gene, pCeMT, was isolated from Colocasia esculenta and characterized. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli cells expressing pCeMT exhibited enhanced Cd, Cu, and Zn tolerance and accumulation compared with control cells. Furthermore, pCeMT-overexpressing tobacco seedlings displayed better growth under Cd, Cu, and Zn stresses and accumulated more Cd and Zn compared with the wild type. Interestingly, transgenic tobacco displayed markedly decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation levels under Cd, Cu, and Zn treatments. These results suggest that pCeMT could play an important role in the protection of plant cells from oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and in the detoxification of free metals by metal binding, leading to improved plant metal tolerance. PMID:23344478

Kim, Yeon-Ok; Jung, Sera; Kim, Kyounghyoun; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

2013-03-01

125

TiO2 Immobilized on Manihot Carbon: Optimal Preparation and Evaluation of Its Activity in the Decomposition of Indigo Carmine.  

PubMed

Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2014-01-01

126

TiO2 Immobilized on Manihot Carbon: Optimal Preparation and Evaluation of Its Activity in the Decomposition of Indigo Carmine  

PubMed Central

Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture. PMID:25588214

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M.; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M.; Elizalde-González, María P.; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-01-01

127

Comparison of amino acid sequences of the trypsin inhibitors from taro (Colocasia esculenta), giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza) and giant swamp taro (Cyrtosperma chamissonis).  

PubMed

The amino acid sequences of the trypsin inhibitors from taro Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta and giant swamp taro Cyrtosperma chamissonis have been determined and are compared with the protein sequence of the trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor from giant taro Alocasia macrorrhiza. Both inhibitors display polymorphism and there is evidence of two components in the giant swamp taro. The positional identity between the proteins is highest at 73-75% for the comparison of the giant taro (GT) with the polymorphic forms of the taro (T) inhibitors and lowest at 56-58% for the pairs of taro and giant swamp taro (GST) proteins. The comparisons show that the inhibitors from T and GT are more related to each other than to GST, which supports their taxonomic classification into different tribes. Location of the P1 site for the trypsin inhibitors of aroids is different from that of other Kunitz-type inhibitors and could be at Leu56. PMID:8260948

Peng, L; Bradbury, J H; Hammer, B C; Shaw, D C

1993-09-01

128

A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta  

PubMed Central

Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%). All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid clade (including echiurans and pogonophorans). Hence annelid "key-characters" including segmentation may be more labile than previously assumed. PMID:19327168

Shen, Xin; Ma, Xiaoyin; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

2009-01-01

129

Impact of soil quality on elemental uptake by, and distribution in, Colocasia esculenta (Amadumbe), an edible root.  

PubMed

In this study the elemental distribution of selected essential (Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn, Ni and Se) and the non-essential (Pb, Hg and As) elements were determined in the bulb and peel of Amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta) samples from eight different sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The concentration of Se and As in the soil and in the Amadumbe bulbs were below the detection limit of 0.09 ?g g?¹. The total and bioavailable concentrations of the elements in conjunction with pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined in the soil samples from the eight sites. Statistical analysis was done to evaluate the impact of soil quality parameters on the chemical composition of the Amadumbe root. The results show accumulation or exclusion of certain elements by the bulb as evidenced by the noticeable increase or decrease of the concentrations of elements, respectively. Ca and Mg were found to be major elements in the range (2000-12000 ?g g?¹), whilst Mn, Zn, Fe and Al were found to be minor elements in the range (20-400 ?g g?¹). A general trend observed was that the plant favours the absorption of Zn over Cu. A positive correlation between Mg & Ca, Cu & Fe and Co & Ni was also observed. Statistical analysis revealed that the plant tended to accumulate Mg, Ca, Co, Cr and Pb whilst it excluded Hg and Fe, to a lesser extent. PMID:21462052

Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

2011-01-01

130

Molecular cloning, recombinant gene expression, and antifungal activity of cystatin from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaosiung no. 1).  

PubMed

A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms (Colocasia esculenta) using both degenerated primers/RT-PCR amplification and 5'-/3'-RACE extension. The full-length cDNA gene is 1,008 bp in size, encodes 206 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kDa. It contains a conserved reactive site motif Gln-Val-Val-Ser-Gly of cysteine protease inhibitors, and another consensus ARFAV sequence for phytocystatin. Sequence analysis revealed that CeCPI is phylogenetically closely related to Eudicots rather than to Monocots, despite taro belonging to Monocot. Recombinant GST-CeCPI fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and its inhibitory activity against papain was identified on gelatin/SDS-PAGE. These results confirmed that recombinant CeCPI protein exhibited strong cysteine protease inhibitory activity. Investigation of its antifungal activity clearly revealed a toxic effect on the mycelium growth of phytopathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. etc., at a concentration of 80 microg recombinant CeCPI/ ml. Moreover, mycelium growth was completely inhibited and the sclerotia lysed at a concentration of 150-200 microg/ml. Further studies have demonstrated that recombinant CeCPI is capable of acting against the endogenous cysteine proteinase in the fungal mycelium. PMID:15647900

Yang, A H; Yeh, K W

2005-06-01

131

High cadmium-binding ability of a novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein increases cadmium tolerance in Escherichia coli and tobacco.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence in vivo as to the functional roles and binding properties to cadmium (Cd) of type-2 plants metallothionein (MT) has been limited thus far. We investigated the biological role of metallothionein from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Escherichia coli and tobacco, and developed a new model for the relationship between Cd tolerance and Cd-binding ability. Heterologous expression of CeMT2b in Escherichia coli greatly enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulated Cd content as compared to control cells. The molecular weight of CeMT2b increased with Cd, and CeMT2b bound up to 5.96±1 molar ratio (Cd/protein). Under Cd stress, transgenic tobacco plants displayed much better seedling growth and high Cd accumulation than the wild type. The presence of an extra CXC motif in CeMT2b contributed to the enhanced Cd-tolerance. The present study provides the first insight into the ability of type-2 plant MT to bind physiological Cd. PMID:21979068

Kim, Yeon-Ok; Patel, Darshan H; Lee, Dae-Seok; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

2011-01-01

132

Structural insights regarding an insecticidal Talisia esculenta protein and its biotechnological potential for Diatraea saccharalis larval control.  

PubMed

Talisin is a seed-storage protein from Talisia esculenta that presents lectin-like activities, as well as proteinase-inhibitor properties. The present study aims to provide new in vitro and in silico biochemical information about this protein, shedding some light on its mechanistic inhibitory strategies. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of Talisin bound to trypsin was constructed in order to determine the relative interaction mode. Since the structure of non-competitive inhibition has not been elucidated, Talisin-trypsin docking was carried out using Hex v5.1, since the structure of non-competitive inhibition has not been elucidated. The predicted non-coincidence of the trypsin binding site is completely different from that previously proposed for Kunitz-type inhibitors, which demonstrate a substitution of an Arg(64) for the Glu(64) residue. Data, therefore, provide more information regarding the mechanisms of non-competitive plant proteinase inhibitors. Bioassays with Talisin also presented a strong insecticide effect on the larval development of Diatraea saccharalis, demonstrating LD50 and ED50 of ca. 2.0% and 1.5%, respectively. PMID:21983187

Freire, Maria das Graças M; Franco, Octávio L; Kubo, Carlos Eduardo G; Migliolo, Ludovico; Vargas, Rodrigo H; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Parra, José Roberto P; Macedo, Maria Ligia R

2012-01-01

133

A new cutaneous nerve fiber connection with the frontal nerve in the frog Rana esculenta: a morphological study.  

PubMed

The frontal nerve arises from the frontal organ, which represents the extracranial component of the pineal complex in some lower vertebrates, and interconnects the frontal organ with the epiphysis and the brain. The existence of a previously unreported nerve branch of the frontal nerve is described here in the frog Rana esculenta and called the lateral nerve. The course of the lateral nerve and its junction with the frontal nerve have been consistently detected by means of different techniques: toluidine blue staining in semithin sections, the Landau-Ignesti method for myelinated nerve fibers, the methylene blue intravital staining for peripheral nerves, and in vitro tracing with the carbocyanine Dil. A method to preserve intact the delicate lateral nerve during dissection is also described. The lateral nerve was consistently found to be unilateral, and to join the frontal nerve at one end (either on the left or the right side), whereas the other extremity was found to be dispersed in the dermis. Thus, the lateral nerve could represent a new pathway interconnecting the skin and the brain and/or the frontal organ in the frog. PMID:7542543

Guglielmotti, V; Fiorino, L; Sada, E

1995-01-01

134

Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta).  

PubMed

Tarocystatin from Colocasia esculenta, a group-2 phytocystatin, is a defense protein against phytopathogenic nematodes and fungi. It is composed of a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is homological to group-1 cystatin, and a repetitive peptide at the C-terminus. The purified recombinant proteins of tarocystatin, such as full-length (FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL peptide exhibited mixed type inhibition (K(ia) = 0.098 microM and K(ib) = 0.252 microM) and Nt peptide showed competitive inhibition (K(i) = 0.057 microM), whereas Ct peptide possessed weak papain activation properties. A shift in the inhibitory pattern from competitive inhibition of Nt peptide alone to mixed type inhibition of FL peptide implied that the Ct peptide has an regulatory effect on the function of FL peptide. Based on the inhibitory kinetics of FL (group-2) and Nt (group-1) peptides on papain activity, an inhibitory mechanism of group-2 phytocystatins and a regulatory mechanism of extended Ct peptide have each been proposed. By contrast, the antifungal activity of Nt peptide appeared to be greater than that of FL peptide, and the Ct peptide showed no effect on antifungal activity, indicating that the antifungal effect is not related to proteinase inhibitory activity. The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase. PMID:18785929

Wang, Ke-Ming; Kumar, Senthil; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Venkatagiri, Shripathi; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Yeh, Kai-Wun

2008-10-01

135

Identification of chloroplast genome loci suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic studies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) and closely related taxa.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic loci. The primers have been tested in a range of intra-specific to intergeneric comparisons, including ten taro samples (Colocasia esculenta) from diverse geographical locations, four other Colocasia species (C. affinis, C. fallax, C. formosana, C. gigantea) and three other aroid genera (represented by Remusatia vivipara, Alocasia brisbanensis and Amorphophallus konjac). Multiple sequence alignments for the intra-specific comparison revealed nucleotide substitutions (point mutations) at all 30 loci and microsatellite polymorphisms at 14 loci. The primer pairs reported here reveal levels of genetic variation suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of taro and other closely related aroids. Our results confirm that information on repeat distribution can be used to identify loci suitable for such studies, and we expect that this approach can be used in other plant groups. PMID:23718317

Ahmed, Ibrar; Matthews, Peter J; Biggs, Patrick J; Naeem, Muhammad; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

2013-09-01

136

Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively. PMID:22939332

Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

2012-10-15

137

Patch Clamp on the Luminal Membrane of Exocrine Gland Acini from Frog Skin (Rana esculenta) Reveals the Presence of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator-like Cl Channels Activated by Cyclic AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride channels in the luminal membrane of exocrine gland acini from frog skin ( Rana esculenta ) constituted a single homogeneous population. In cell-attached patches, channels activated upon exposure to iso- proterenol, forskolin, or dibutyryl-cAMP and isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine rectified in the outward direction with a conductance of 10.0 6 0.4 pS for outgoing currents. Channels in stimulated cells reversed at 0

J. B. Sorensen; Erik Hviid Larsen

1998-01-01

138

Developmental plasticity and biomechanics of treelets and lianas in Manihot aff. quinquepartita (Euphorbiaceae): a branch-angle climber of French Guiana  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Most tropical lianas have specialized organs of attachment such as twining stems, hooks or tendrils but some do not. Many climbers also have an early self-supporting phase of growth and in some species this can produce treelet-sized individuals. This study focuses on how a liana can climb without specialized attachment organs and how biomechanical properties of the stem are modulated between self-supporting treelets and canopy-climbing lianas. Methods Biomechanics and stem development were investigated in self-supporting to climbing individuals of Manihot aff. quinquepartita (Euphorbiaceae) from tropical rain forest at Saül, central French Guiana. Bending tests were carried out close to the site of growth. Mechanical properties, including Young's elastic modulus, were observed with reference to habit type and changes in stem anatomy during development. Key Results This liana species can show a remarkably long phase of self-supporting growth as treelets with stiff, juvenile wood characterizing the branches and main stem. During the early phase of climbing, stiff but unstable stem segments are loosely held in a vertical position to host plants via petiole bases. The stiffest stems – those having the highest values of Young's modulus measured in bending – belonged to young, leaning and climbing stems. Only when climbing stems are securely anchored into the surrounding vegetation by a system of wide-angled branches, does the plant develop highly flexible stem properties. As in many specialized lianas, the change in stiffness is linked to the development of wood with numerous large vessels and thin-walled fibres. Conclusions Some angiosperms can develop highly effective climbing behaviour and specialized flexible stems without highly specialized organs of attachment. This is linked to a high degree of developmental plasticity in early stages of growth. Young individuals in either open or closed marginal forest conditions can grow as substantial treelets or as leaning/climbing plants, depending on the availability of host supports. The species of liana studied differs both in terms of development and biomechanics from many other lianas that climb via twining, tendrils or other specialized attachment organs. PMID:19351684

Ménard, Léa; McKey, Doyle; Rowe, Nick

2009-01-01

139

Physiological changes in Triticum durum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Lens esculenta cultivars, caused by irrigation with water contaminated with microcystins: a laboratory experimental approach.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a microcystin (MC)-containing extract from a cyanobacteria bloom on growth, development, mineral nutrient accumulation, and photosynthetic activity of Triticum durum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Lens esculenta cultivars. The MCs in the extract, identified by HPLC and/or mass spectrometry (MS) were: MC-RR, -LR, -YR, -(H4)YR, -WR, and -FR. Plant growth and development was tested along 30 exposure days. After this period, MC-extract caused a clear reduction in plant growth and productivity, as well as deleterious effects on development and Photosystem II activity, measured by Fv/Fm fluorescence. However, the chlorophyll (a + b) content hardly varied, and the accumulation of Na+, K+, Ca2+, P and N was enhanced. All the effects observed were plant species, MC concentration, and exposure-time dependent. Relative accumulation of each MC variant greatly varied among plant species and plant organ. The data obtained supports the idea that the use of surface water containing MCs for crop irrigation can affect both plant yield and quality, and secondly, that MC accumulation in edible plants might pose a potential risk for human and animal health, if the MC intake exceeded the recommended tolerable limits. PMID:19470329

Saqrane, Sana; Ouahid, Youness; El Ghazali, Issam; Oudra, Brahim; Bouarab, Lahcen; del Campo, Francisca F

2009-06-01

140

Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65?mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23971053

Eleazu, C. O.; Iroaganachi, M.; Eleazu, K. C.

2013-01-01

141

Binding of insecticidal lectin Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) to midgut receptors of Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi provides clues to its insecticidal potential.  

PubMed

The insecticidal potential of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins against hemipterans has been experimentally proven. However, the basis behind the toxicity of these lectins against hemipterans remains elusive. The present study elucidates the molecular basis behind insecticidal efficacy of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) against Bemisia tabaci and Lipaphis erysimi. Confocal microscopic analyses highlighted the binding of 25 kDa stable homodimeric lectin to insect midgut. Ligand blots followed by LC MS/MS analyses identified binding partners of CEA as vacuolar ATP synthase and sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum type Ca(2+) ATPase from B. tabaci, and ATP synthase, heat shock protein 70 and clathrin heavy chain assembly protein from L. erysimi. Internalization of CEA into hemolymph was confirmed by Western blotting. Glycoprotein nature of the receptors was identified through glycospecific staining. Deglycosylation assay indicated the interaction of CEA with its receptors to be probably glycan mediated. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed the interaction kinetics between ATP synthase of B. tabaci with CEA. Pathway prediction study based on Drosophila homologs suggested the interaction of CEA with insect receptors that probably led to disruption of cellular processes causing growth retardation and loss of fecundity of target insects. Thus, the present findings strengthen our current understanding of the entomotoxic potentiality of CEA, which will facilitate its future biotechnological applications. PMID:24753494

Roy, Amit; Gupta, Sumanti; Hess, Daniel; Das, Kali Pada; Das, Sampa

2014-07-01

142

Quantitative assessment of lactate and progerin production in normal human cutaneous cells during normal ageing: effect of an Alaria esculenta extract.  

PubMed

Anti-ageing products are of a great importance in cosmetic fields. However, even if numerous strategies have been proposed to fight against skin ageing or to minimize its aesthetic impact since the beginning of the 'scientific cosmetology' era, the products basing their efficacy on the observation of pathological situations are rare. The most obvious pathology linked to the ageing of skin (notably) consists in the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), a rare disorder characterized by accelerated ageing and early death. In this disease the lamin A, a protein participating (with others lamins) in the formation of the nuclear lamina and implicated in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression, is present in a truncated version called progerin. In this study, we have examined the lactate and the progerin production of human normal cutaneous cells issued from subjects of different ages. Using a sensitive and specific progerin ELISA assay developed in house, we so provide the first quantitative demonstration of an increased progerin expression and lactate production in skin during ageing. Moreover, we have also demonstrated that in the selected experimental conditions, it was possible to down-regulate the progerin production of aged cells by using an algae extract. As this extract, an Alaria esculenta extract, could be used in cosmetic formulations, we suggest that a better understanding of the skin pathologies could be a useful tool in developing efficient active compounds, attractive for but not limited to cosmetic purposes. PMID:21535442

Verdy, C; Branka, J-E; Mekideche, N

2011-10-01

143

Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P?

Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

2014-05-01

144

Purification and characterization of the lectin from taro (Colocasia esculenta) and its effect on mouse splenocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Lectins are proteins found in a wide range of organisms, with the ability to bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates. They can display important biological activities, such as the activation of the cell cycle in lymphocytes. Storage proteins with lectin activity have been reported in tuberous plant species, such as Colocasia esculenta, popularly known as taro. A simple strategy based on Cibacron Blue chromatography was used to purify a 12 kDa polypeptide 1.3-fold, with a recovery of 30 %. The purified protein was identified as tarin by mass spectrometry, which indicated that it was present in G1a/G1d isoforms. Tarin exhibited both agglutinating activity against hamster erythrocytes and mitogenic activity in vitro and in vivo toward mouse splenocytes. Optimum cellular proliferation in vitro was achieved by 625 ng of the crude extract or 500 ng of the purified tarin. Total mouse splenocyte proliferation measured after 5 days of intraperitoneal inoculation of purified tarin was increased 3.3-fold in comparison to the control group. Half of the proliferating cells were identified as B lymphocytes by flow cytometry. These results show that this is an efficient and simple strategy to purify tarin and aid in establishing this protein as a new therapeutic drug, able to promote cell proliferation in a murine model. PMID:24395119

Pereira, Patrícia Ribeiro; Del Aguila, Eduardo Mere; Verícimo, Maurício Afonso; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Silva, Joab Trajano

2014-02-01

145

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion. PMID:18301900

He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

2008-05-01

146

Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta  

PubMed Central

Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P < 0.0001). It also increased with acidosis, but in postmetamorphic tadpoles only (P < 0.05). The noise-titration technique evidenced low-dimensional nonlinearities in all the postmetamorphic brainstems, at both pH. Chaos-like complexity, assessed through the noise limit, increased from pH 7.8 to pH 7.4 (P < 0.01). In contrast, linear models best fitted the ventilatory rhythm in all but one of the premetamorphic preparations at pH 7.8 (P < 0.005 vs. postmetamorphic) and in four at pH 7.4 (not significant vs. postmetamorphic). Therefore, in a lower vertebrate model, the brainstem respiratory central rhythm generator accounts for ventilatory chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals. PMID:21325645

Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darré, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

2011-01-01

147

“Huay Bong 80” a new variety with high yield and high stability for starch content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Huay Bong 80 is a new cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) variety developed by researchers from Kasetsart University cooperating with the Thai Tapioca Development Institute (TTDI). This new variety has been protected by the Thai New Plant Variety Protection Act of B.E. 2542 (AD 1999) from January 4,...

148

Cassava biology and physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or

Mabrouk A. El-Sharkawy

2004-01-01

149

BEMISIA TABACI (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) BIOTYPES IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host plant performance, esterase, and virus transmission tests revealed cassava-strain and sweetpotato-strain populations of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotypes in India. Individuals from the sweetpotato-reared population did not breed on cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, and the cassava-s...

150

Improvement of somatic embryogenesis and plant recovery in cassava  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for improving the efficiency of plant recovery from somatic embryos of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were investigated by optimizing the maturation regime and incorporating a desiccation stage prior to inducing germination. Somatic embryos were induced from young leaf lobes of in vitro grown shoots of cassava on Murashige and Skoog medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. After 15 to 20

Helena Mathews; C. Schopke; R. Carcamo; P. Chavarriaga; C. Fauquet; R. N. Beachy

1993-01-01

151

Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) of host–plant resistance to the cassava mosaic disease (CMD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is a viral disease of the important tropical staple crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) and preferred management involves use of host–plant resistance. The best available resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to analyze the gene expression pattern in a bulk of 40 each of CMD resistant and

M. Fregene; H. Matsumura; A. Akano; A. Dixon; R. Terauchi

2004-01-01

152

The BioCassava Plus program: Biofortification of cassava for sub-Saharan Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav...

153

Genetic mapping using genotyping-by-sequencing in the clonally-propagated cassava  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) is one of the most important food crops in the tropics, but yields are far below their potential. The gene-pool of cassava contains natural genetic diversity relevant to many important breeding goals, but breeding progress has been slow, partly due to insufficient geno...

154

Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises ?6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). It is primarily of economic interest as a source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants because of its high proportion of the unusual

Agnes P Chan; Jonathan Crabtree; Qi Zhao; Hernan Lorenzi; Joshua Orvis; Daniela Puiu; Admasu Melake-Berhan; Kristine M Jones; Julia Redman; Grace Chen; Edgar B Cahoon; Melaku Gedil; Mario Stanke; Brian J Haas; Jennifer R Wortman; Claire M Fraser-Liggett; Jacques Ravel; Pablo D Rabinowicz

2010-01-01

155

GENETIC MODIFICATION OF CASSAVA FOR ENHANCED STARCH PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To date, transgenic approaches to biofortify orphan crops grown by subsistence farmers have been rather limited. This is particularly true for the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is a major source of calories for over 250 million persons living in sub-Saharan Africa and...

156

Molecular determination of the predator community of a cassava whitefly in Colombia: Pest-specific primer development and field validation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In South America, the whitefly Aleurotrachelus socialis is one of the principal pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), reaching high population levels throughout the Andean region. Management of this species is primarily based upon the use of insecticides, while biological control has received...

157

Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).  

PubMed

Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae. PMID:25416252

He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

2015-01-01

158

Synthesis of periclinal chimera in cassava.  

PubMed

We provide the first report on the synthesis of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera of cassava, with large and edible roots. The epidermal tissue of the chimera was formed by the cultivated species Manihot esculenta (E), and the subepidermis and internal tissue were formed by the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis (F). We used cytogenetics and morphological analyses to determine the origins of all tissues. These results may offer potential for the development of new lines for crop improvement based on the use of chimera composed of different combinations of wild species and cultivars. PMID:23512678

Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N

2013-01-01

159

Effect of food plants on the volume of repellent secretion obtained in adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).  

PubMed

The volume of secretion obtained from adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) was influenced by the type of food plants. Insects fed on leaves of cassava Manihot esculenta, bitter leaves Vernonia amygdalina, and a mixture of M. esculenta and Acalypha wilkesiana gave a good volume of secretion while Chromolaena odorata, Elaeis guinensis, Aspilia africana and Citrus sinensis did not favour secretion production. No significant difference was recorded in the volume of secretion obtained from Z. variegatus from the two seasons irrespective of the food plant. Similarly, food plants gave no significant difference on the volume of secretion between the two seasons. PMID:11935920

Idowu, A B; Idowu, O A

2001-06-01

160

Edible canna ( Canna edulis) as a complementary starch source to cassava for the starch industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible canna (Canna edulis Ker) as an alternative starch source was evaluated on the basis of genetic characteristics, agronomic traits and starch properties. Four canna varieties indigenous to Thailand were examined including Thai-green, Japanese-green, Thai-purple and Chinese-purple and compared with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique employing ten 10-base primers, four primers implied that

Kuakoon Piyachomkwan; Sunee Chotineeranat; Chukiet Kijkhunasatian; Ratchata Tonwitowat; Siripatr Prammanee; Christopher G Oates; Klanarong Sriroth

2002-01-01

161

Soil properties and crop performance on a kaolinitic Alfisol after 15 years of fallow and continuous cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term field experiment was established on a kaolinitic Alfisol in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 1972. The land was cleared manually from secondary forest and used for (i) continuous no-till cropping with maize (Zea mays L.) and maize\\/cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) intercropping, (ii) planted fallow of guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala de Wit), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan

Anthony S. R. Juo; Kathrin Franzluebbers; Adenike Dabiri; Benson Ikhile

1996-01-01

162

In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration system, initiated in somatic tissues, has been devised for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Somatic embryogenesis has been induced from shoot tips and immature leaves of in vitro shoot cultures of 15 cassava genotypes. Somatic embryos developed directly on the explants when cultured on a medium containing 4–16 mg\\/l 2,4-D. Differences were observed with respect

László Szabados; Rodrigo Hoyos; William Roca

1987-01-01

163

Occurrence of lace bug Vatiga illudens and Vatiga manihotae (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.  

PubMed

Nymphs and adults of the lace bug (Hemiptera: Tingidae) have been found in cassava crops (Manihot esculenta) in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The insects were collected in the field and taken to the laboratory where they were identified based on some morphological traits of the species Vatiga manihotae (Drake) and V. illudens (Drake), which are first reported in the aforementioned state. PMID:22886161

Bellon, Patrícia P; Wengrat, Ana P G S; Kassab, Samir O; Pietrowski, Vanda; Loureiro, Elisângela S

2012-09-01

164

Oxidative stress responses during cassava post-harvest physiological deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major constraint to the development of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a crop to both farmers and processors is its starchy storage roots' rapid post-harvest deterioration, which can render it unpalatable and unmarketable within 24–72 h. An oxidative burst occurs within 15 min of the root being injured, that is followed by the altered regulation of genes, notably for catalase

Kim Reilly; Rocío Gómez-Vásquez; Holger Buschmann; Joe Tohme; John R. Beeching

2003-01-01

165

The management of populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid-infertile soils of a savanna ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field trial was conducted at two sites in the savanna ecosystem of eastern Colombia to compare the effects of inoculation\\u000a with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) ofBrachiaria dictyoneura (a tropical grass), cassava (Manihot esculenta), the tropical forage legume kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) andSorghum sp., and two phosphate sources. The second stage of the trial studied the effect of these pre-crop treatments

J. C. Dodd; I. Arias; I. Koomen; D. S. Hayman

1990-01-01

166

Potentials and limitations of mycorrhizal inoculation illustrated by experiments with field-grown cassava  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Field inoculation trials with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were conducted in Quilichao (typic Dystropept soil) and Carimagua (Haplustox soil). In Quilichao, with a large and\\u000a effective native VA-mycorrhizal (VAM) population, inoculation withGlomus manihotis did not increase cassava yields significantly, neither when different sources and levels of inoculum material were used,\\u000a nor with different cassava cultivars, or after stabilizing soil temperature

R. H. Howeler; E. Sieverding

1983-01-01

167

The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation and mulch of contrasting chemical composition on the yield of cassava under humid tropical conditions.  

PubMed

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus deserticola, and leaf mulch from Gliricidia sepium and Senna siamea on the yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in a degraded alfisol of southwestern Nigeria was investigated. Inoculation in conjunction with mulching increased cassava tuber yield by 40-278% over the control. The highest yield was obtained with G. sepium and S. siamea mulch applied together in equal proportions. The results are explained in the light of the growth-enhancing effects of AMF, encouraged by the ameliorating effects of mulch on the soil structure and nutrient contents. PMID:20364236

Okon, Iniobong E; Solomon, Marian G; Osonubi, Oluwole

2010-01-01

168

Optical chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water based on ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine.  

PubMed

Ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose was functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine. The modified polymer was easily transformed in a film, which could be used as a highly selective chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water, with detection limits of 1.9 × 10(-5) and 1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The film was successfully applied to the detection of cyanide in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots, which are a well-known source of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:24805864

Nandi, Leandro G; Nicoleti, Celso R; Bellettini, Ismael C; Machado, Vanderlei G

2014-05-20

169

Apomixis in different ploidy levels of cassava.  

PubMed

Two polyploid hybrids between cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivar 307-2 and its wild relatives M. glaziovii and M. anomala, were studied to examine the relationship between ploidy level and the production of seeds without fertilization. A clearing method was applied to assess ovule sizes as an indication of multiembryony. The diploid cultivar 307-2 had regular 18 bivalents at meiotic metaphase 1 while the polyploid types showed chromosome configurations varying from 3 to 4 quadrivalents and 28 to 30 bivalents. A total of 14% of studied ovules of the polyploid hybrid involving M. glaziovii were multiebryonic, while the percentage of multiembryony was as low as 2% in the polyploid hybrid M. anomala×M. esculenta. Diploid hybrid types did not show any multi embryony. Adventitious embryos were found and documented for the first time in polyploid hybrids M. esculenta×M. glaziovii. The association of multiple embryo formation with ovary size and pollination showed that apomictic embryos form independently from fertilization. Simple iodized carmine stain for measuring pollen viability proved as efficient as the sophisticated Alexander method. PMID:22150824

Nassar, Nagib M A; Chaib, Adalgisa; Elsayed, Ahmed Y

2011-11-01

170

Glycaemic index of selected staples commonly eaten in the Caribbean and the effects of boiling v. crushing.  

PubMed

Integrating information about the glycaemic index (GI) of foods into the Caribbean diet is limited by the lack of data. Therefore, we determined the GI of eight staple foods eaten in the Caribbean and the effect on GI of crushing selected tubers. Groups of eight to ten healthy volunteers participated in three studies at two sites. GI was determined using a standard method with white bread and adjusted relative to glucose. The mean area under the glucose response curve elicited by white bread was similar for the different groups of subjects. In study 1, the GI of cassava (Manihot esculenta; 94 (sem 11)) was significantly higher than those of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis; 60 (sem 9)), cooking 'green' banana (Musa spp.; 65 (sem 11)) and sadha roti (65 (sem 9)) (P=0.018). There was no significant difference in the GI of the foods in study 2: dasheen (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta; 77 (sem 10)), eddoes (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum; 61 (sem 10)), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum; 71 (sem 8)), tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium; 60 (sem 5)) and white yam (Dioscorea alata; 62 (sem 6)), and, in study 3, crushing did not significantly affect the GI of dasheen, tannia or Irish potato. However, when the results from studies 2 and 3 were pooled, the GI of dasheen (76 (sem 7)) was significantly greater than that of tannia (55 (sem 5); P=0.015) with potato being intermediate (69 (sem 6)). We conclude that dasheen and cassava are high-GI foods, whereas the other tubers studied and sadha roti are intermediate-GI foods. Given the regular usage of cassava and dasheen in Caribbean diets we speculate that these diets would tend to be high GI, although this could be reduced by foods such as sadha roti and white yam. The range of GI between the staples is sufficiently large that health benefits may be accrued by replacing high-GI staples with intermediate-GI staples in the Caribbean diet. PMID:15182400

Ramdath, D Dan; Isaacs, Renée L C; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Wolever, Thomas M S

2004-06-01

171

Assessment of Attractiveness of Cassava as a Roosting Plant for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, B. dorsalis  

PubMed Central

Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its own (as opposed to castor bean) and, among prospective crops that could be used as a trap crop, has foliage more persistent than an annual trap crop such as corn. PMID:21526935

McQuate, Grant T.

2011-01-01

172

Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis.  

PubMed

Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its own (as opposed to castor bean) and, among prospective crops that could be used as a trap crop, has foliage more persistent than an annual trap crop such as corn. PMID:21526935

McQuate, Grant T

2011-01-01

173

Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.  

PubMed

Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas. The type habitat is flooded annually for about 6 months by the Amazon River. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. differs from the closely related species Xiphidorus yepesara Monteiro, 1976 by the larger size, by a, b, and c values, and by the rounded tail terminus. It also resembles Xiphidorus tucumanensis Chaves and Coomans, 1984, but can be distinguished by its larger size, larger a, b, and c values, more conical female tail, bilobed amphidial pouch, and the presence of a spermatheca full of sperm. PMID:19294098

Uesugi, C H; Huang, C S; Cares, J E

1985-07-01

174

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

175

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca Dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Erica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

176

Unexpected Outcomes of Thai Cassava Trade: A Case of Global Complexity and Local Unsustainability  

PubMed Central

Tracing the Thai cassava (Manihot esculenta) trade network, between 1960 and 2000, offers a compelling example of global complexity at work. The emergence of Thailand’s dominance of world export markets caught the world by surprise. The opening up of a European market for cassava was supposed to be met by Brazilian and Indonesian producers. Instead, Thailand took over the market by 1975. Several factors facilitated this emergence including: entrepreneurial diasporic networks of Thai-Chinese traders, local political economy conditions in both Europe and Thailand, and ecological conditions in Thailand. These same factors also shaped the subsequent timing of the closing of the European market, the emergence of a new industry association, the creation of new cassava products, and the expansion to other markets. Furthermore, the dynamic nature of cassava market yielded equivocal outcomes for both Europe and Thai farmers. PMID:25328444

CURRAN, SARA R.; COOKE, ABIGAIL M.

2014-01-01

177

Development of cassava periclinal chimera may boost production.  

PubMed

Plant periclinal chimeras are genotypic mosaics arranged concentrically. Trials to produce them to combine different species have been done, but pratical results have not been achieved. We report for the second time the development of a very productive interspecific periclinal chimera in cassava. It has very large edible roots up to 14 kg per plant at one year old compared to 2-3 kg in common varieties. The epidermal tissue formed was from Manihot esculenta cultivar UnB 032, and the subepidermal and internal tissue from the wild species, Manihot fortalezensis. We determined the origin of tissues by meiotic and mitotic chromosome counts, plant anatomy and morphology. Epidermal features displayed useful traits to deduce tissue origin: cell shape and size, trichome density and stomatal length. Chimera roots had a wholly tuberous and edible constitution with smaller starch granule size and similar distribution compared to cassava. Root size enlargement might have been due to an epigenetic effect. These results suggest a new line of improved crop based on the development of interspecific chimeras composed of different combinations of wild and cultivated species. It promises boosting cassava production through exceptional root enlargement. PMID:24615046

Bomfim, N; Nassar, N M A

2014-01-01

178

Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

2008-09-01

179

Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava. PMID:23661446

Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

2013-01-01

180

Purification and characterization of elicitor protein from Phytophthora colocasiae and basic resistance in Colocasia esculenta.  

PubMed

An elicitor was identified in the fungus Phytophthora colocasiae. The molecular weight of the purified elicitor was estimated by means of gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE and was estimated as 15kDa. Protease treatment severely reduced its activity, allowing the conclusion that the elicitor is proteinaceous. Infiltration of a few nanograms of this proteinaceous elicitor into taro leaves caused the formation of lesions that closely resemble hypersensitive response lesions. The elicitation of the cells was effective in the induction of the activity of lipoxygenase. Cellular damage, restricted to the infiltrated zone, occurred only several hours later, after the infiltration of the elicitor protein. After few days, systemic acquired resistance was also induced. Thus, taro plant cells that perceived the glycoprotein generated a cascade of signals acting at local, short, and long distances, and causing the coordinate expression of specific defence. The obtained results give important information regarding the plant-pathogen interactions, mainly as subsidy for taro improvement against Phytophthora leaf blight. PMID:18990553

Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Kamal; Misra, Raj Shekhar

2009-01-01

181

The anti-cancer effects of poi (Colocasia esculenta) on colonic adenocarcinoma cells In vitro.  

PubMed

Hawaiians tend to have lower incidence rates of colorectal cancer and it was hypothesized that this may be due to ethnic differences in diet, specifically, their consumption of poi, a starchy paste made from the taro (Colocasia esulenta L.) plant corm. Soluble extracts of poi were incubated at 100 mg/mL in vitro for antiproliferative activity against the rat YYT colon cancer cell line. (3)H-thymidine incorporation studies were conducted to demonstrate that the poi inhibited the proliferation of these cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest suppression of YYT colon cancer growth occurred when 25% concentration was used. When poi was incubated with the YYT cells after 2 days, the YYT cells underwent apoptotic changes as evidenced by a positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) stain. Poi enhanced the proliferation of normal mouse splenocyte control cells, suggesting that poi is not simply toxic to all cells but even has a positive immunostimulatory role. By flow cytometry, T cells (CD4+ and CD8+) were predominantly activated by the poi. Although numerous factors can contribute to the risk of colon cancer, perhaps poi consumption may contribute to the lower colon cancer rates among Hawaiians by two distinct mechanisms. First, by inducing apoptosis within colon cancer cells; second, by non-specifically activating lymphocytes, which in turn can lyse cancerous cells. Our results suggest for the first time that poi may have novel tumor specific anti-cancer activities and future research is suggested with animal studies and human clinical trials. PMID:16220568

Brown, Amy C; Reitzenstein, Jonathan E; Liu, Jessie; Jadus, Martin R

2005-09-01

182

Selection of Superior Lentil (Lens esculenta M.) Genotypes by Assessing Character Association and Genetic Diversity  

PubMed Central

Lentil is one of the most important pulse crops in the world as well as in Bangladesh. It is now considered a main component for training and body building practising in first world countries. Yield varies tremendously from year to year and location to location. Therefore, it is very important to find genotypes that perform consistently well even in ecological farming systems without any intercultural operations. Twenty lentil genotypes were tested during the period from November 2010 to March 2011 and from December 2011 to March 2012 with three replicates in each season to determine genetic variability, diversity, characters association, and selection indices for better grain yield. The experiment was conducted at the breeding field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study revealed that all the genotypes possess a high amount of genetic diversity. Plant height and 100-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield plant?1 that was also confirmed by path analysis as the highest direct effect on grain yield. The genotypes BM-513 and BM-941 were found to be the best performer in both the seasons and were considered as consistent genotype. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters based on Euclidean distance following Ward's method and RAPD analysis. However, discriminant function analysis revealed a progressive increase in the efficiency of selection and BM-70 ranked as the best followed by the genotypes BM-739, BM-680, BM-185, and BM-513. These genotypes might be recommended for farmers' cultivation in ecological farming in Bangladesh. PMID:25580457

Nath, U. K.; Rani, Santona; Paul, M. R.; Alam, M. N.; Horneburg, B.

2014-01-01

183

Selection of Superior Lentil (Lens esculenta M.) Genotypes by Assessing Character Association and Genetic Diversity.  

PubMed

Lentil is one of the most important pulse crops in the world as well as in Bangladesh. It is now considered a main component for training and body building practising in first world countries. Yield varies tremendously from year to year and location to location. Therefore, it is very important to find genotypes that perform consistently well even in ecological farming systems without any intercultural operations. Twenty lentil genotypes were tested during the period from November 2010 to March 2011 and from December 2011 to March 2012 with three replicates in each season to determine genetic variability, diversity, characters association, and selection indices for better grain yield. The experiment was conducted at the breeding field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study revealed that all the genotypes possess a high amount of genetic diversity. Plant height and 100-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield plant(-1) that was also confirmed by path analysis as the highest direct effect on grain yield. The genotypes BM-513 and BM-941 were found to be the best performer in both the seasons and were considered as consistent genotype. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters based on Euclidean distance following Ward's method and RAPD analysis. However, discriminant function analysis revealed a progressive increase in the efficiency of selection and BM-70 ranked as the best followed by the genotypes BM-739, BM-680, BM-185, and BM-513. These genotypes might be recommended for farmers' cultivation in ecological farming in Bangladesh. PMID:25580457

Nath, U K; Rani, Santona; Paul, M R; Alam, M N; Horneburg, B

2014-01-01

184

Polyphenol Content and Modulatory Activities of Some Tropical Dietary Plant Extracts on the Oxidant Activities of Neutrophils and Myeloperoxidase  

PubMed Central

Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection) that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin) were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health. PMID:22312276

Tsumbu, Cesar N.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Frederich, Michel; Kohnen, Stephane; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier; Franck, Thierry

2012-01-01

185

High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.  

PubMed

The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60°C. A raw starch degrading ?-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol. PMID:25594508

Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

2015-03-01

186

Effect of biocontrol agents and biofertilizers on root rot, yield, harvest index and nutrient uptake of cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava is an important subsidiary food and industrial raw material in the tropics. Root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, poses a serious threat to cassava cultivation in Tamil Nadu, India. Field experiments (2008–09) were conducted to study the effect of biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and biofertilizers (Azospirillum, vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) on root rot,

A. C. Hridya; G. Byju; Raj Sekhar Misra

2012-01-01

187

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-01-01

188

Tuber Storage Proteins  

PubMed Central

A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose?binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

SHEWRY, PETER R.

2003-01-01

189

Structural and functional analysis of hydroxynitrile lyase from Baliospermum montanum with crystal structure, molecular dynamics and enzyme kinetics.  

PubMed

Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) catalyze degradation of cyanohydrins to hydrogen cyanide and the corresponding ketone or aldehyde. HNLs can also catalyze the reverse reaction, i.e., synthesis of cyanohydrins. Although several crystal structures of S-selective hydroxynitrile lyases (S-HNLs) have been reported, it remains unknown whether and how dynamics at the active site of S-HNLs influence their broad substrate specificity and affinity. In this study, we analyzed the structure, dynamics and function of S-HNL from Baliospermum montanum (BmHNL), which has an ?/? hydrolase fold. Two crystal structures of BmHNL, apo1 and apo2, were determined at 2.55 and 1.9Å, respectively. Structural comparison between BmHNL (apo2) and S-HNL from Hevea brasiliensis with (S)-mandelonitrile bound to the active site revealed that hydrophobic residues at the entrance region of BmHNL formed hydrophobic interactions with the benzene ring of the substrate. The flexible structures of these hydrophobic residues were confirmed by a 15ns molecular dynamics simulation. This flexibility regulated the size of the active site cavity, enabling binding of various substrates to BmHNL. The high affinity of BmHNL toward substrates containing a benzene ring was also confirmed by comparing the kinetics of BmHNL and S-HNL from Manihot esculenta. Taken together, the results indicated that the flexibility and placement of the residues are important for the broad substrate specificity of S-HNLs. PMID:25220808

Nakano, Shogo; Dadashipour, Mohammad; Asano, Yasuhisa

2014-09-16

190

Molecular cloning and expression of a novel MYB transcription factor gene in rubber tree.  

PubMed

MYB family proteins regulate a variety of cellular processes in plants. Tapping panel dryness (TPD) in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) affects latex biosynthesis and causes serious losses to rubber producers. In this study, a novel SANT/MYB transcription factor gene down-regulated in TPD rubber tree, named as HbSM1, was isolated from rubber tree. The complete HbSM1 open reading frame (ORF) was 948 bp in length. The deduced HbSM1 protein is 315 amino acids. HbSM1 belonged to 1RMYB subfamily with a single SANT domain. Sequence alignment revealed that HbSM1 had high homology with MYB members from Ricinus communis and Manihot esculenta, with 72 and 78 % identity, respectively. Moreover, HbSM1 shared 56 % identity with Glycine max GmMYB176. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbSM1, GmMYB176, rice OsMYBS2, and OsMYBS3 fell into the same cluster with 93 % bootstrap support value. Comparing expression among different tissues demonstrated that HbSM1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, but it appeared to be preferentially expressed in leaf and latex. Furthermore, HbSM1 transcripts were significantly induced by various phytohormones (including gibberellic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid) and wounding treatments. These results suggested that HbSM1 might play multiple roles in plant development via different phytohormones signaling pathways. PMID:25195053

Qin, Bi; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Meng

2014-09-01

191

Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.  

PubMed

The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60?miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

2013-01-01

192

Transcriptional Response of Virus-Infected Cassava and Identification of Putative Sources of Resistance for Cassava Brown Streak Disease  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

Maruthi, M. N.; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A.; Mohammed, Ibrahim U.; Hillocks, Rory J.

2014-01-01

193

Phytic acid in green leaves.  

PubMed

Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

2014-07-01

194

Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama  

PubMed Central

The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800–7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400–5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J.; Cooke, Richard G.

2007-01-01

195

Determination of the specific growth of molds on semi-solid cultures  

SciTech Connect

The determination of growth constants of Aspergillus niger were obtained for semisolid cultures on cassava flour, Manihot esculenta, as a sole carbon source. As a consequence, a technique was developed that consisted of the use of a packed-bed microfermentor with a working volume of 16 cubic centimetres. The bed consisted of gelatinized and granulated cassava flour containing material nutrients and mold spores. The carbon dioxide produced during the respiration was drawn off with a current of air and then absorbed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The absorption of CO/sub 2/, P, was correlated with the specific growth rate mu by means of the equation P equals Kemut, where t is time and K is a constant. Ammonium nitrogen was used as a limiting substrate and its concentration was varied from 0.039 to 2.5% in dry base. The maximum growth rate, mu maximum, and the saturation constant, Ks, were 0.31/hour and 0.065 mmol (N/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4//g total dry solids. The proposed method is highly recommended for the evaluation of the semisolid fermentation of molds and for strictly aerobic bacteria and yeasts. It can be used especially in the evaluation of the growth of microorganisms on peanut shells, coffee residues, sugar cane bagasse, and other agricultural wastes.

Carrizalez, V.; Rodriguez, H.; Sardina, I.

1981-02-01

196

Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME in copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR) in growing pigs. Eight boars with an initial BW of 67.3 ± 5.8 kg were individually housed in metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design was used with 4 dietary treatments, 4 periods, and 8 animals. A basal diet mainly contained corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 30% of CM, PKM, and CR. All diets contained the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 4.14:1. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was 89.5, 84.1, 82.4, and 87.9% (P < 0.001) in the basal, CM, PKM, and CR diets, respectively. The DE in CM and PKM were greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3440 and 3238 vs. 2966 kcal/kg as-fed). The ME in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3340 vs. 2935 kcal/kg as-fed) but not different from the ME in PKM (3168 kcal/kg as-fed). In conclusion, CM and PKM have a higher DE value than CR, and CM has a higher ME value than CR. PMID:23365309

Son, A R; Ji, S Y; Kim, B G

2012-12-01

197

Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities. PMID:23417702

Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

2013-08-01

198

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-07-01

199

Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD. PMID:24846209

Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

2014-01-01

200

Acromyrmex octospinosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) management: effects of TRAMILs fungicidal plant extracts.  

PubMed

Leaf-cutting ants, Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich), are considering among the most important pest species of the New World. Until now, the main insecticides used for controlling these ants were synthetic chemicals. Leaf-cutting ants live in obligate symbiosis with abasidiomycete fungus, Leucocoprinus gongylophorus (Heim) Moeller. The crucial role of this symbiotic partner in the nest of leaf-cutting ants has prompted us to focus on A. octospinosus management through the use of fungicides in our study. Five parts of plants identified for their antifungal potential through TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys were tested: 1) bulbs of Allium cepa L.; 2) seed pods of Allium sativum L.; 3) green fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum L.; 4) leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz; and 5) leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxburgh. One plant extract with strong fungicidal activity (S. alata) against L. gongylophorus was found. The other extracts had lesser fungistatic or fungicidal effects depending on the concentrations used. The data presented in this study showed that TRAMILs fungicidal plant extracts have potential to control the symbiotic fungus of leaf cutting ants, in particular a foliage extract of S. alata. PMID:22928301

Boulogne, Isabelle; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry; Germosén-Robineau, Lionel; Desfontaines, Lucienne; Loranger-Merciris, Gladys

2012-08-01

201

Large-Scale Proteomics of the Cassava Storage Root and Identification of a Target Gene to Reduce Postharvest Deterioration.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We established a reliable method for image-based PPD symptom quantification and used label-free quantitative proteomics to generate an extensive cassava root and PPD proteome. Over 2600 unique proteins were identified in the cassava root, and nearly 300 proteins showed significant abundance regulation during PPD. We identified protein abundance modulation in pathways associated with oxidative stress, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (including scopoletin), the glutathione cycle, fatty acid ?-oxidation, folate transformation, and the sulfate reduction II pathway. Increasing protein abundances and enzymatic activities of glutathione-associated enzymes, including glutathione reductases, glutaredoxins, and glutathione S-transferases, indicated a key role for ascorbate/glutathione cycles. Based on combined proteomics data, enzymatic activities, and lipid peroxidation assays, we identified glutathione peroxidase as a candidate for reducing PPD. Transgenic cassava overexpressing a cytosolic glutathione peroxidase in storage roots showed delayed PPD and reduced lipid peroxidation as well as decreased H2O2 accumulation. Quantitative proteomics data from ethene and phenylpropanoid pathways indicate additional gene candidates to further delay PPD. Cassava root proteomics data are available at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch for easy access and comparison with other proteomics data. PMID:24876255

Vanderschuren, Hervé; Nyaboga, Evans; Poon, Jacquelyne S; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Nanni, Paolo; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2014-05-29

202

Genome-wide discovery and information resource development of DNA polymorphisms in cassava.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop that provides food security and income generation in many tropical countries, and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. Its draft genome sequence and many expressed sequence tags are now publicly available, allowing the development of cassava polymorphism information. Here, we describe the genome-wide discovery of cassava DNA polymorphisms. Using the alignment of predicted transcribed sequences from the cassava draft genome sequence and ESTs from GenBank, we discovered 10,546 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 647 insertions and deletions. To facilitate molecular marker development for cassava, we designed 9,316 PCR primer pairs to amplify the genomic region around each DNA polymorphism. Of the discovered SNPs, 62.7% occurred in protein-coding regions. Disease-resistance genes were found to have a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions. We identified 24 read-through (changes of a stop codon to a coding codon) and 38 premature stop (changes of a coding codon to a stop codon) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and found that the 5 gene ontology terms in biological process were significantly different in genes with read-through single-nucleotide polymorphisms compared with all cassava genes. All data on the discovered DNA polymorphisms were organized into the Cassava Online Archive database, which is available at http://cassava.psc.riken.jp/. PMID:24040164

Sakurai, Tetsuya; Mochida, Keiichi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Akiyama, Kenji; Ishitani, Manabu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2013-01-01

203

Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.  

PubMed

Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms. PMID:23144242

Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

2012-10-01

204

Metabolic Engineering of Valine- and Isoleucine-Derived Glucosinolates in Arabidopsis Expressing CYP79D2 from Cassava  

PubMed Central

Glucosinolates are amino acid-derived natural products that, upon hydrolysis, typically release isothiocyanates with a wide range of biological activities. Glucosinolates play a role in plant defense as attractants and deterrents against herbivores and pathogens. A key step in glucosinolate biosynthesis is the conversion of amino acids to the corresponding aldoximes, which is catalyzed by cytochromes P450 belonging to the CYP79 family. Expression of CYP79D2 from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) in Arabidopsis resulted in the production of valine (Val)- and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates not normally found in this ecotype. The transgenic lines showed no morphological phenotype, and the level of endogenous glucosinolates was not affected. The novel glucosinolates were shown to constitute up to 35% of the total glucosinolate content in mature rosette leaves and up to 48% in old leaves. Furthermore, at increased concentrations of these glucosinolates, the proportion of Val-derived glucosinolates decreased. As the isothiocyanates produced from the Val- and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates are volatile, metabolically engineered plants producing these glucosinolates have acquired novel properties with great potential for improvement of resistance to herbivorous insects and for biofumigation. PMID:12586901

Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Halkier, Barbara Ann

2003-01-01

205

Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama.  

PubMed

The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800-7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400-5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J; Cooke, Richard G

2007-02-27

206

Spatial distribution of mercury and arsenic levels in water, soil and cassava plants in a community with long history of gold mining in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study examined the spatial distribution of total mercury (THg) and total arsenic (TAs) in water, soil and cassava (Manihot esculenta) (leaves and roots) samples taken from areas in Rwamagasa village in northwestern Tanzania where daily living activities occur in close proximity to extensive artisanal and small scale gold mining. Results indicated that 33.3 % of the water sources had THg levels above the WHO guideline of 1.0 µg/L for safe drinking water, and 12.5 % had TAs levels above 10 µg/L. Cassava leaves were found to have higher THg (ranging from 8.3 to 167 µg/kg) and TAs (ranging from 60 to 1,120 µg/kg) levels than cassava roots, which ranged between 1.2-8.3 µg/kg for THg and 25-310 µg/kg for TAs. Concentrations of THg and TAs in soil samples ranged between 5.8-1,759 and 183-20,298 µg/kg, respectively. Both THg and TAs were found to be distributed throughout Rwamagasa village. PMID:24923470

Nyanza, Elias C; Dewey, Deborah; Thomas, Deborah S K; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

2014-12-01

207

Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

2015-01-01

208

Development of a cassava core collection based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in the largest cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm collection from Brazil to develop core collections based on the maximization strategy. Subsets with 61, 64, 84, 128, 256, and 384 cassava accessions were selected and named PoHEU, MST64, PoRAN, MST128, MST256, and MST384, respectively. All the 798 alleles identified by 402 SNP markers in the entire collection were captured in all core collections. Only small alterations in the diversity parameters were observed for the different core collections compared with the complete collection. Because of the optimal adjustment of the validation parameters representative of the complete collection, the absence of genotypes with high genetic similarity and the maximization of the genetic distances between accessions of the PoHEU core collection, which contained 4.7% of the accessions of the complete collection, maximized the genetic conservation of this important cassava collection. Furthermore, the development of this core collection will allow concentrated efforts toward future characterization and agronomic evaluation of accessions to maximize the diversity and genetic gains in cassava breeding programs. PMID:25158266

Oliveira, E J; Ferreira, C F; Santos, V S; Oliveira, G A F

2014-01-01

209

Cyanogenesis in Cassava1  

PubMed Central

In the cyanogenic crop cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), the final step in cyanide production is the conversion of acetone cyanohydrin, the deglycosylation product of linamarin, to cyanide plus acetone. This process occurs spontaneously at pH greater than 5.0 or enzymatically and is catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL). Recently, it has been demonstrated that acetone cyanohydrin is present in poorly processed cassava root food products. Since it has generally been assumed that HNL is present in all cassava tissues, we reinvestigated the enzymatic properties and tissue-specific distribution of HNL in cassava. We report the development of a rapid two-step purification protocol for cassava HNL, which yields an enzyme that is catalytically more efficient than previously reported (Hughes, J., Carvalho, F., and Hughes, M. [1994] Arch Biochem Biophys 311: 496–502). Analyses of the distribution of HNL activity and protein indicate that the accumulation of acetone cyanohydrin in roots is due to the absence of HNL, not to inhibition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the absence of HNL in roots and stems is associated with very low steady-state HNL transcript levels. It is proposed that the lack of HNL in cassava roots accounts for the high acetone cyanohydrin levels in poorly processed cassava food products. PMID:9536038

White, Wanda L.B.; Arias-Garzon, Diana I.; McMahon, Jennifer M.; Sayre, Richard T.

1998-01-01

210

Purification, partial amino acid sequence and structure of the product of raucaffricine-O-beta-D-glucosidase from plant cell cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina.  

PubMed

Plant cell suspension cultures of Rauwolfia produce within 1 week approximately 250 nkat/l of raucaffricine-O-beta-D-glucosidase. A five step procedure using anion exchange chromatography, chromatography on hydroxylapatite, gel filtration and FPLC-chromatography on Mono Q and Mono P delivered in a yield of 0.9% approximately 1200-fold enriched glucosidase. A short protocol employing DEAE sepharose, TSK 55 S gel chromatography and purification on Mono Q gave a 5% recovery of glucosidase which was 340-fold enriched. SDS-PAGE showed a Mr for the enzyme of 61 kDa. The enzyme is not glycosylated. Structural investigation of the enzyme product, vomilenine, demonstrated that the alkaloid exists in aqueous solutions in an equilibrium of 21(R)- and 21(S)-vomilenine in a ratio of 3.4:1. Proteolysis of the pure enzyme with endoproteinase Lys C revealed six peptide fragments with 6-24 amino acids which were sequenced. The two largest fragments showed sequences, of which the motif Val-Thr-Glu-Asn-Gly is typical for beta-glucosidases. Sequence alignment of these fragments demonstrated high homologies to linamarase from Manihot esculenta (81% identity) or to beta-glucosidase from Prunus avium (79% identity). Raucaffricine-O-beta-D-glucosidase seems to be a new member of the family 1 of glycosyl hydrolases. PMID:10234858

Warzecha, H; Obitz, P; Stöckigt, J

1999-04-01

211

Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Many edible plants are used in Cameroon since ancient time to control microbial infections. This study was designed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Methods The broth microdilution method was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and the Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) of the studied extracts. When chloramphenicol was used as a reference antibiotic, the MICs were also determined in the presence of Phenylalanine-Arginine ?-Naphtylamide (PA?N), an efflux pumps inhibitor (EPI). The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results All tested extracts exhibited antibacterial activities, with the MIC values varying from 128 to 1024 mg/L. The studied extracts showed large spectra of action, those from L. sativa, S. edule, C. pepo and S. nigrum being active on all the 29 bacterial strains tested meanwhile those from Amaranthus hybridus, Vernonia hymenolepsis, Lactuca.carpensis and Manihot esculenta were active on 96.55% of the strains used. The plant extracts were assessed for the presence of large classes of secondary metabolites: alkaloids, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenes. Each studied plant extract was found to contain compounds belonging to at least two of the above mentioned classes. Conclusion These results confirm the traditional claims and provide promising baseline information for the potential use of the tested vegetables in the fight against bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes. PMID:23368430

2013-01-01

212

Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (88)Y in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide (88)Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide (88)Y, although the uptake of (88)Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for (226)Ra and (232)Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 ?Sv y(-1)). PMID:24814722

Asaduzzaman, Kh; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M

2014-09-01

213

Characteristics of taro (Colocasia esculenta) starches planted in different seasons and their relations to the molecular structure of starch.  

PubMed

Physico-chemical properties and molecular structure of starches from three cultivars (Dog hoof, Mein, and KS01) of taro tubers planted in summer, winter, and spring were investigated. The effects of the planting season on the physico-chemical properties and the molecular structure of starch were determined, and the relations between the physico-chemical properties and the molecular structure of starch are discussed. Results indicate that taro starches from tubers planted in summer had the largest granule size, a low uniformity of gelatinization, and a high tendency to swell and collapse when heated in water. Taro starch planted in summer also showed an elasticity during gelatinization that was higher than that of starches planted in the other seasons. In addition to the planting season and the variety, rheological and pasting properties of taro starches studied are influenced not only by the amylose content but also by the chain-length distribution of amylopectin, whereas swelling power and solubility only depend on the amylose content of starch. Taro starch with relatively high amylose content, high short-to-long-chain ratio, and long average chain length of long-chain fraction of amylopectin displayed high elasticity and strong gel during heating. PMID:18293922

Lu, Ting-Jang; Lin, Jheng-Hua; Chen, Jia-Ci; Chang, Yung-Ho

2008-03-26

214

Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

1990-09-01

215

Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5?×?2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others. PMID:25190840

Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

2014-09-01

216

Empowering biotechnology in southern Africa: establishment of a robust transformation platform for the production of transgenic industry-preferred cassava.  

PubMed

Knowledge and technology transfer to African laboratories and farmers is an important objective for achieving food security and sustainable crop production on the sub-Saharan African continent. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for more than a billion people in developing countries, and its potential industrial use for starch and bioethanol in the tropics is increasingly being recognized. However, cassava production remains constrained by the susceptibility of the crop to several biotic and abiotic stresses. For more than a decade, biotechnology has been considered an attractive tool to improve cassava as it substantially circumvents the limitations of traditional breeding, which is particularly time-consuming and tedious because of the high heterozygosity of the crop. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite some success achieved in genetic modification of the model cassava cultivar Tropical Manihot Series (TMS), TMS 60444, in some European and U.S. laboratories, the lack of a reproducible and robust protocol has not allowed the establishment of a routine transformation system in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we optimized a robust and efficient protocol developed at ETH Zurich to successfully establish transformation of a commercially cultivated South African landrace, T200, and compared this with the benchmark model cultivar TMS 60444. Results from our study demonstrated high transformation rates for both T200 (23 transgenic lines from 100 friable embryogenic callus (FEC) clusters) compared with TMS 60444 (32 transgenic lines from 100 FEC clusters). The success in transforming landraces or farmer-preferred cultivars has been limited, and the high transformation rate of an industry-preferred landrace in this study is encouraging for a feasible transformation program for cassava improvement in South Africa (SA), which can potentially be extended to other countries in southern Africa. The successful establishment of a robust cassava transformation and regeneration system in SA demonstrates the relevance of technology transfer to sub-Saharan Africa and highlights the importance of developing suitable and reliable techniques before their transfer to laboratories offering less optimal conditions. PMID:22683498

Chetty, C C; Rossin, C B; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H; Rey, M E C

2013-01-25

217

Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest that TRP fed as pellets could be used to decrease methane production. PMID:25568379

Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

2015-01-01

218

Informal “Seed” Systems and the Management of Gene Flow in Traditional Agroecosystems: The Case of Cassava in Cauca, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Our ability to manage gene flow within traditional agroecosystems and their repercussions requires understanding the biology of crops, including farming practices' role in crop ecology. That these practices' effects on crop population genetics have not been quantified bespeaks lack of an appropriate analytical framework. We use a model that construes seed-management practices as part of a crop's demography to describe the dynamics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Cauca, Colombia. We quantify several management practices for cassava—the first estimates of their kind for a vegetatively-propagated crop—describe their demographic repercussions, and compare them to those of maize, a sexually-reproduced grain crop. We discuss the implications for gene flow, the conservation of cassava diversity, and the biosafety of vegetatively-propagated crops in centers of diversity. Cassava populations are surprisingly open and dynamic: farmers exchange germplasm across localities, particularly improved varieties, and distribute it among neighbors at extremely high rates vis-à-vis maize. This implies that a large portion of cassava populations consists of non-local germplasm, often grown in mixed stands with local varieties. Gene flow from this germplasm into local seed banks and gene pools via pollen has been documented, but its extent remains uncertain. In sum, cassava's biology and vegetative propagation might facilitate pre-release confinement of genetically-modified varieties, as expected, but simultaneously contribute to their diffusion across traditional agroecosystems if released. Genetically-modified cassava is unlikely to displace landraces or compromise their diversity; but rapid diffusion of improved germplasm and subsequent incorporation into cassava landraces, seed banks or wild populations could obstruct the tracking and eradication of deleterious transgenes. Attempts to regulate traditional farming practices to reduce the risks could compromise cassava populations' adaptive potential and ultimately prove ineffectual. PMID:22174952

Dyer, George A.; González, Carolina; Lopera, Diana Carolina

2011-01-01

219

Conversion of Sterically Demanding ?,?-Disubstituted Phenylacetonitriles by the Arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191  

PubMed Central

The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile, which contains a quaternary carbon atom in the ?-position toward the nitrile group, and also similar sterically demanding substrates, such as 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionitrile (acetophenone cyanohydrin) or 2-acetyloxy-2-methylphenylacetonitrile. 2-Methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile was hydrolyzed to almost stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding acid. Acetophenone cyanohydrin was transformed to the corresponding acid (atrolactate) and amide (atrolactamide) at a ratio of about 3.4:1. The (R)-acid and the (S)-amide were formed preferentially from acetophenone cyanohydrin. A homology model of the nitrilase suggested that steric hindrance with amino acid residue Tyr54 could impair the binding or conversion of sterically demanding substrates. Therefore, several enzyme variants that carried mutations in the respective residues were generated and subsequently analyzed for the substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of the reactions. Enzyme variants that demonstrated increased relative activities for the conversion of acetophenone cyanohydrin were identified. The chiral analysis of these reactions demonstrated peculiar reaction kinetics, which suggested that the enzyme variants converted the nonpreferred (S)-enantiomer of acetophenone cyanohydrin with a higher reaction rate than that of the (preferred) (R)-enantiomer. Recombinant whole-cell catalysts that simultaneously produced the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191 and a plant-derived (S)-oxynitrilase from cassava (Manihot esculenta) converted acetophenone plus cyanide at pH 4.5 to (S)-atrolactate and (S)-atrolactamide. These recombinant cells are promising catalysts for the synthesis of stable chiral quaternary carbon centers from ketones. PMID:22020513

Baum, Stefanie; Williamson, Dael S.; Sewell, Trevor

2012-01-01

220

Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage  

PubMed Central

Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

2012-01-01

221

Molecular and biochemical characterization of a cyanogenic ?-glucosidase in the inner bark tissues of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).  

PubMed

Tapping causes the loss of large amounts of latex from laticifers and subsequently enhances latex regeneration, a high carbon- and nitrogen-cost activity in rubber tree. It is suggested that a 67 kDa protein associated with protein-storing cells in the inner bark tissues of rubber tree plays an important role in meeting the nitrogen demand for latex regeneration. Here, the 67 kDa protein was further characterized by a combination of cell biological, molecular biological and biochemical techniques. Immunogold labeling showed that the 67 kDa protein was specifically localized in the central vacuole of protein-storing cells. A full-length cDNA, referred to as HbVSP1, was cloned. The HbVSP1 contained a 1584 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 527 amino acids. The putative protein HbVSP1 shared high identity with the P66 protein from rubber tree and proteins of the linamarase, and bg1A from cassava (Manihot esculenta). HbVSP1 contained the active site sequences of ?-glucosidase, TFNEP and I/VTENG. In vitro analysis showed that the 67 kDa protein exhibited the activity of both ?-glucosidase and linamarase and was thus characterized as a cyanogenic ?-glucosidase. Proteins immuno-related to the 67 kDa protein were present in leaves and lutoids of laticifers. Tapping down-regulated the expression of HbVSP1, but up-regulated the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes for rubber biosynthesis, while the effect of resting from tapping was the reverse. Taken together, the results suggest that the 67 kDa protein is a vacuole-localized cyanogenic ?-glucosidase encoded by HbVSP1 and may have a role in nitrogen storage in inner bark tissues of trunk during the leafless periods when rubber tree is rested from tapping. PMID:23510639

Tian, Wei-Min; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Shu-Guang; Shi, Min-Jing; Wang, Xu-Chu; Dai, Long-Jun; Chen, Yue-Yi

2013-05-15

222

Cassava Plants with a Depleted Cyanogenic Glucoside Content in Leaves and Tubers. Distribution of Cyanogenic Glucosides, Their Site of Synthesis and Transport, and Blockage of the Biosynthesis by RNA Interference Technology1  

PubMed Central

Transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, cv MCol22) plants with a 92% reduction in cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers and acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained by RNA interference to block expression of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2, the two paralogous genes encoding the first committed enzymes in linamarin and lotaustralin synthesis. About 180 independent lines with acyanogenic (<1% of wild type) leaves were obtained. Only a few of these were depleted with respect to cyanogenic glucoside content in tubers. In agreement with this observation, girdling experiments demonstrated that cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the shoot apex and transported to the root, resulting in a negative concentration gradient basipetal in the plant with the concentration of cyanogenic glucosides being highest in the shoot apex and the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Supply of nitrogen increased the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the shoot apex. In situ polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that CYP79D1 and CYP79D2 were preferentially expressed in leaf mesophyll cells positioned adjacent to the epidermis. In young petioles, preferential expression was observed in the epidermis, in the two first cortex cell layers, and in the endodermis together with pericycle cells and specific parenchymatic cells around the laticifers. These data demonstrate that it is possible to drastically reduce the linamarin and lotaustralin content in cassava tubers by blockage of cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in leaves and petioles. The reduced flux to the roots of reduced nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides did not prevent tuber formation. PMID:16126856

Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bak, Søren; Busk, Peter Kamp; Sørensen, Charlotte; Olsen, Carl Erik; Puonti-Kaerlas, Johanna; Møller, Birger Lindberg

2005-01-01

223

Influence of material structure on air-borne ultrasonic application in drying.  

PubMed

This work aims to contribute to the understanding of how the properties of the material being dried affect air-borne ultrasonic application. To this end, the experimental drying kinetics (40°C and 1m/s) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and apple (Malus domestica var. Granny Smith) were carried out applying different ultrasonic powers (0, 6, 12, 19, 25 and 31 kW/m(3)). Furthermore, the power ultrasound-assisted drying kinetics of different fruits and vegetables (potato, eggplant, carrot, orange and lemon peel) already reported in previous studies were also analyzed. The structural, textural and acoustic properties of all these products were assessed, and the drying kinetics modeled by means of the diffusion theory. A significant linear correlation (r>0.95) was established between the identified effective diffusivity (DW) and the applied ultrasonic power for the different products. The slope of this relationship (SDUP) was used as an index of the effectiveness of the ultrasonic application; thus the higher the SDUP, the more effective the ultrasound application. SDUP was well correlated (r ? 0.95) with the porosity and hardness. In addition, SDUP was largely affected by the acoustic impedance of the material being dried, showing a similar pattern with the impedance than the transmission coefficient of the acoustic energy on the interface. Thus, soft and open-porous product structures exhibited a better transmission of acoustic energy and were more prone to the mechanical effects of ultrasound. However, materials with a hard and closed-compact structure were less affected by acoustic energy due to the fact that the significant impedance differences between the product and the air cause high energy losses on the interface. PMID:24411471

Ozuna, César; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás; Riera, Enrique; Cárcel, Juan A; Garcia-Perez, Jose V

2014-05-01

224

A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

2014-01-01

225

Extending cassava root shelf life via reduction of reactive oxygen species production.  

PubMed

One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

2012-08-01

226

Enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging by overproduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase delays postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.  

PubMed

Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots is the result of a rapid oxidative burst, which leads to discoloration of the vascular tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. In this study, coexpression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) in transgenic cassava was used to explore the intrinsic relationship between ROS scavenging and PPD occurrence. Transgenic cassava plants integrated with the expression cassette p54::MeCu/ZnSOD-35S::MeCAT1 were confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. The expression of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeCAT1 was verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic activity analysis both in the leaves and storage roots. Under exposure to the ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen or to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the transgenic plants showed higher enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT than the wild-type plants. Levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll degradation, lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 accumulation were dramatically reduced in the transgenic lines compared with the wild type. After harvest, the storage roots of transgenic cassava lines show a delay in their PPD response of at least 10 d, accompanied by less mitochondrial oxidation and H2O2 accumulation, compared with those of the wild type. We hypothesize that this is due to the combined ectopic expression of Cu/ZnSOD and CAT leading to an improved synergistic ROS-scavenging capacity of the roots. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of the PPD process but also develops an effective approach for delaying the occurrence of PPD in cassava. PMID:23344905

Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R; Zhang, Peng

2013-03-01

227

A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

2014-01-01

228

Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.  

PubMed

In comparison with the technology platforms developed to localize transcripts and proteins, imaging tools for visualization of metabolite distributions in plant tissues are less well developed and lack versatility. This hampers our understanding of plant metabolism and dynamics. In this study, we demonstrate that desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) of tissue imprints on porous Teflon may be used to accurately image the distribution of even labile plant metabolites such as hydroxynitrile glucosides, which normally undergo enzymatic hydrolysis by specific ?-glucosidases upon cell disruption. This fast and simple sample preparation resulted in no substantial differences in the distribution and ratios of all hydroxynitrile glucosides between leaves from wild-type Lotus japonicus and a ?-glucosidase mutant plant that lacks the ability to hydrolyze certain hydroxynitrile glucosides. In wild-type, the enzymatic conversion of hydroxynitrile glucosides and the concomitant release of glucose were easily visualized when a restricted area of the leaf tissue was damaged prior to sample preparation. The gene encoding the first enzyme in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis in L. japonicus leaves, CYP79D3, was found to be highly expressed during the early stages of leaf development, and the hydroxynitrile glucoside distribution in mature leaves reflected this early expression pattern. The utility of direct DESI-MSI of plant tissue was demonstrated using cryo-sections of cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers. The hydroxynitrile glucoside levels were highest in the outer cell layers, as verified by LC-MS analyses. The unexpected discovery of a hydroxynitrile-derived di-glycoside shows the potential of DESI-MSI to discover and guide investigations into new metabolic routes. PMID:23551340

Li, Bin; Knudsen, Camilla; Hansen, Natascha Krahl; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Kannangara, Rubini; Bak, Søren; Takos, Adam; Rook, Fred; Hansen, Steen H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Janfelt, Christian; Bjarnholt, Nanna

2013-06-01

229

Molecular cloning and characterization of a cassava translationally controlled tumor protein gene potentially related to salt stress response.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important tropical crops showing tolerance to abiotic stress and adaptations to a wide range of environmental conditions. Here, we aimed to isolate and characterize the full-length cDNA and genomic sequences of a cassava translationally controlled tumor protein gene (MeTCTP), and evaluate its potential role in response to salt stress. The MeTCTP full-length cDNA sequence encodes for a deduced protein with 168 amino acid residues, with theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 4.53 and 19 kDa, respectively, containing two putative signatures of TCTP family and one site for myristoylation. The MeTCTP genomic sequence includes four introns and five exons within a 1,643 bp coding region, and a 264 bp partial promoter sequence containing several putative cis-acting regulatory elements, among them, two putative GT-1 motifs, which may be related to response to sodium chloride (NaCl) and pathogen infection. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeTCTP transcripts were higher in roots than leaves, and were significantly increased in detached leaves treated with NaCl. Furthermore, the recombinant MeTCTP conferred a protective function against salt stress in bacterial cells. We report for the first time the molecular cloning and characterization of a cassava TCTP with potential role in salt-stress response. Since salinity is one the most important abiotic factors affecting the production of crops worldwide, the MeTCTP gene could be a candidate gene for generation of salt tolerant crops. PMID:24413992

Santa Brígida, Ailton Borges; dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteirou; Cardoso, Cristina Michiko Yokoyama; Lima, Aline Medeiros; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

2014-03-01

230

Feed intake, digestibility, and N retention in cattle fed rice straw and para grass combined with different levels of protein derived from cassava foliage.  

PubMed

Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

Sath, K; Sokun, K; Pauly, T; Holtenius, K

2012-07-01

231

Improvement of the amides forming capacity of the arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 by site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed

The influence of different amino acid substitutions in the nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 (NitA) on the catalytical activity and the ability to form amides was investigated. The enzyme variant Glu137Ala was constructed because glutamate residues homologous to Glu137 are highly conserved among different members of the nitrilase superfamily and it has been suggested that these residues are indispensable for the hydrolysis of amides by enzymes belonging to the nitrilase superfamily. The enzyme variant Glu137Ala demonstrated less than 1 % of the wild-type activity but was still enzymatically competent to convert mandelonitrile to mandelic acid and mandeloamide. The tryptophan residue at position 188, which was previously identified as important for the amide forming capacity of the nitrilase, was exchanged by saturation mutagenesis for all other proteinogenic amino acids. Surprisingly, 18 of these 19 exchanges resulted in an increased formation of mandeloamide from (R,S)-mandelonitrile and three of these variants converted (R,S)-mandelonitrile to more than 90 % of mandeloamide. Furthermore, these modifications also resulted in a reversal of stereoselectivity and these variants formed in contrast to the wild-type enzyme and almost all other known nitrilases preferentially (S)-mandelic acid. The synthetic potential of one of these variants was demonstrated by the construction of recombinant E. coli clones which simultaneously expressed the nitrilase variant and the (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase (oxynitrilase) from the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). These "bienzymatic catalysts" converted benzaldehyde plus cyanide almost exclusively to (S)-mandeloamide and did not show any inhibition in the presence of cyanide in concentrations up to 200 mM. PMID:25248440

Sosedov, Olga; Stolz, Andreas

2014-09-24

232

Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi). Estimates of the individual broad-sense heritability of AML were low (hg(2) = 0.07 ± 0.02), medium for StYi and DMC, and high for CyC. The heritability of AML was substantially improved based on mean of accessions (hm(2) = 0.28), indicating that some strategies such as increasing the number of repetitions can be used to increase the selective efficiency. In general, the observed genotypic values were very close to the predicted average of the improved population, most likely due to the high accuracy (>0.90), especially for DMC, CyC, and StYi. Gains via selection of the 30 best genotypes for each trait were 4.8 and 3.2% for an increase and decrease for AML, respectively, an increase of 10.75 and 74.62% for DMC for StYi, respectively, and a decrease of 89.60% for CyC in relation to the overall mean of the genotypic values. Genotypic correlations between the quality traits of the cassava roots collected were generally favorable, although they were low in magnitude. The REML/BLUP method was adequate for estimating genetic parameters and predicting the genotypic values, making it useful for cassava breeding. PMID:25177949

Oliveira, E J; Santana, F A; Oliveira, L A; Santos, V S

2014-01-01

233

Cassava For Space Diet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

234

Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.  

PubMed

The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits. PMID:22610600

Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

2012-12-01

235

Morphofunctional Evidence of Changes in Principal and Mitochondria-Rich Cells in the Epidermis of the Frog Rana kl. esculenta Living in a Polluted Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermis of vertebrates is the body’s principal barrier against environment and its possible contaminants. The presence\\u000a of keratins, as well as specific detoxifying molecules or enzyme activities, in the various epidermis layers is believed to\\u000a be involved in providing protection from harmful environmental influences. Anuran integument is poorly hornified and thus\\u000a permeable to some endogenous and exogenous compounds and

C. Fenoglio; A. Grosso; E. Boncompagni; G. Milanesi; C. Gandini; S. Barni

2006-01-01

236

Premitotic DNA synthesis in the brain of the adult frog (Rana esculenta L. ): An autoradiographic sup 3 H-thymidine study  

SciTech Connect

Replicative synthesis of DNA in the brain of the adult frog was studied by light microscope autoradiography. Animals collected during the active period (May-June) and in hibernation (January) were used. In active frogs, 3H-thymidine labelling occurred mainly in the ependymal cells which line the ventricles. The mean labelling index (LI%) was higher in the ependyma of the lateral and fourth ventricles than in the ependyma of the lateral diencephalon and tectal parts of the mesencephalon. In the recessus infundibularis and preopticus the number of labelled cells (LCs) was several times greater than in the lateral parts of the third ventricle. LCs were seen subependymally only occasionally. The incidence of LCs in the parenchyma of the brain was much lower in most regions than in the ventricular ependyma; LCs were mainly small and, from their nuclear morphology, they were glial cells. The LI% reached the highest value in the septum hippocampi and in the nucleus entopeduncularis. In these locations, LCs were larger and closer in size to the nerve cells of these regions. From comparison with data obtained earlier in the brain of mammals, it is evident that the distribution of proliferating cells in the olfactory and limbic system is phylogenetically conservative. The occurrence of pyknotic cells in the same areas which contain LCs, suggests that cell division reflects in part the process of cell renewal observed in mammals. However, proliferating cells could also be linked to the continuous growth observed in non-mammalian vertebrates. In hibernating frogs, LCs and pyknoses were not seen or were found occasionally, which further indicates the functional significance of both processes.

Bernocchi, G.; Scherini, E.; Giacometti, S.; Mares, V. (Univ. of Pavia (Italy))

1990-12-01

237

A possible functional relationship between the subcommissural organ and the pineal complex and lateral eyes in Rana esculenta and Rana temporaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous publications (Diederen, 1972, 1973) evidence was presented that light and darkness hardly influence the secretory activity of the subcommissural organ (SCO) in intact frogs, i.e. frogs in which all photo-receptive organs are present. In the present study the influence of long daily photoperiods and of continuous darkness on the SCO of frogs in which the frontal organ, the

J. H. B. Diederen

1975-01-01

238

Food supply modifies the trade-off between past and future reproduction in a sexual parasite–host system ( Rana esculenta, Rana lessonae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history theory is concerned with the costs of survival, growth and reproduction under different ecological conditions\\u000a and the allocation of resources to meet these costs. Typical approaches used to address these topics include manipulation\\u000a of food resources, followed by measures of subsequent reproductive traits, and measures of the relationship between current\\u000a and future reproductive investment. Rarely, however, do studies

Marc Olivier Waelti; Heinz-Ulrich Reyer

2007-01-01

239

Number of mast cells in the harderian gland of the green frog, Rana esculenta: the annual cycle and its relation to environmental and hormonal factors.  

PubMed Central

The Harderian gland of the green frog contains mast cells. Their number shows annual variations, being more numerous in the winter months. The increase of mast cell number (MCN) is matched by a marked degranulation. No sex differences are found throughout the year. Manipulations of the photoperiod and temperature, either in winter or in summer, suggest that only the latter is responsible for the annual variations. Exposure to higher temperatures causes a decrease in the MCN in the winter frogs, while exposure of the summer frogs to low temperatures provokes the opposite effect. The pituitary gland also influences MCN. Hypophysectomy causes a decrease of MCN, with a return to normal following replacement therapy with homologous pars distalis homogenate. Among pituitary hormones, only ACTH mimics the effect of pars distalis homogenate. However, a possible link seems to exist between environmental (temperature) and hormonal (pituitary) factors, since hypophysectomy prevents the increase of MCN in the summer frogs exposed to low temperatures. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1817144

Chieffi Baccari, G; Minucci, S; Marmorino, C; Vitiello Izzo, I

1991-01-01

240

Feeding and lying behavior of heat-stressed early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing roughage and nonforage fiber sources.  

PubMed

In addition to reduced nutrient intake, an environmental thermal load may directly affect milk yield in heat-stressed dairy cows. Feeding and lying behaviors of early lactation cows fed low fiber diets containing neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from roughage and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Immediately after calving, 30 multiparous cows (87.5% Holstein × 12.5% Sahiwal) were randomly allocated to dietary treatments for 63 d in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments contained 25% of dry matter (DM) as dietary NDF. The control diet consisted of 13.9% roughage NDF from rice straw (RS). Two additional treatments were created by replacing 3.9% of DM with NDF from either soy hulls (SH) or cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) residues (CR), so that the roughage NDF content was reduced to 10%. During the experimental period, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity indices (THI) were 86.4±2.5 and 91.5±2.7 during the day and 74.2±2.1 and 81.0±2.5 during the night, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for induction of extreme heat stress. The duration of feeding and lying bouts decreased linearly with increasing THI. The DM intake during the day was greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR than for those fed the diet containing NDF from RS. The number of meals during the day and night was lower, whereas meal size and meal length during the day and night were greater for cows fed diets containing SH and CR. Cows fed diets containing SH and CR lay down less frequently and longer during the day. These results suggest that under the severe heat stress during the day, early lactation cows fed the diet containing NFFS increased DM intake by increasing meal length and meal size rather than by increasing meal frequency and they spent more time lying. Cows fed diets containing NDF from SH and CR produced more 4% fat-corrected milk, lost less body weight, and had lower rectal temperatures measured at the 1530h milking. Therefore, reducing the filling effect may contribute to reducing heat load derived from the change in feeding and lying behavior. This should be considered as a factor for impairing productivity of heat-stressed early lactation cows. PMID:25497805

Kanjanapruthipong, J; Junlapho, W; Karnjanasirm, K

2015-02-01

241

Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P < 0.05) and water ratio in the solvent mixture (r = 0.5299, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In general, BD-based methods showed better extraction yields compared to methods without the addition of water and, most interestingly, there was much greater method dependence of lipid yields in the starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and starches). PMID:24132804

Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

2014-01-01

242

Isolation and characterization of three cassava elongation factor 1 alpha (MeEF1A) promoters.  

PubMed

In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family. Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A4 and MeEF1A5 were successfully isolated. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5'UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

2014-01-01

243

Mineral status in cattle fed rice straw and para grass combined with different levels of protein derived from cassava foliage.  

PubMed

Eight male cattle of the Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage supplementation on mineral metabolism in growing cattle fed rice straw and para grass as basal diet. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cassava foliage intake was lower than the planned levels. DM consumption was significantly affected by cassava foliage supplementation, with the largest intake observed at the two highest levels of cassava foliage supplementation. Rice straw intake showed the opposite pattern, with lower intake at higher cassava foliage supplementation. No refusals occurred for para grass in any of the treatments. Ca, P, Mg, K, S and Mn intake increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage, but Na intake was not affected by treatment. Faecal excretion of Ca, Mg, S and Mn increased significantly with increasing cassava foliage intake. There were no differences between P, K and Na excretion in faeces. There was a significant diet effect on Mg, S and Mn digestibility. Mg and Mn digestibility increased with increasing cassava foliage supplementation, while S digestibility decreased. Ca, P, K and Na digestibility was not affected by diet. There was a significant effect of treatment on P retention, with the highest value observed for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. Ca and Mg showed similar trends, with the highest retention again for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. There were weak but significant positive correlations between nitrogen retention and the macro minerals Ca, P and Mg. Furthermore, retention of all these minerals was positively correlated. Mineral losses in urine were not affected by dietary treatment with the exception of P excretion, which was affected by treatment. In conclusion, cassava foliage is a good Ca source which compensates for the low Ca content in rice straw and para grass, but P deficiency appears to be exaggerated in cattle with higher cassava intake. The results suggest that under these conditions growing cattle on a high cassava intake would benefit from P and S supplementation. PMID:25049706

Sath, K; Pauly, T; Holtenius, K

2013-01-01

244

Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucosides Linamarin and Lotaustralin in Cassava: Isolation, Biochemical Characterization, and Expression Pattern of CYP71E7, the Oxime-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzyme1[OA  

PubMed Central

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a eudicotyledonous plant that produces the valine- and isoleucine-derived cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin with the corresponding oximes and cyanohydrins as key intermediates. CYP79 enzymes catalyzing amino acid-to-oxime conversion in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are known from several plants including cassava. The enzyme system converting oxime into cyanohydrin has previously only been identified in the monocotyledonous plant great millet (Sorghum bicolor). Using this great millet CYP71E1 sequence as a query in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool-p search, a putative functional homolog that exhibited an approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity was found in cassava. The corresponding full-length cDNA clone was obtained from a plasmid library prepared from cassava shoot tips and was assigned CYP71E7. Heterologous expression of CYP71E7 in yeast afforded microsomes converting 2-methylpropanal oxime (valine-derived oxime) and 2-methylbutanal oxime (isoleucine-derived oxime) to the corresponding cyanohydrins, which dissociate into acetone and 2-butanone, respectively, and hydrogen cyanide. The volatile ketones were detected as 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A KS of approximately 0.9 ?m was determined for 2-methylbutanal oxime based on substrate-binding spectra. CYP71E7 exhibits low specificity for the side chain of the substrate and catalyzes the conversion of aliphatic and aromatic oximes with turnovers of approximately 21, 17, 8, and 1 min?1 for the oximes derived from valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, respectively. A second paralog of CYP71E7 was identified by database searches and showed approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity. In tube in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that in nearly unfolded leaves, the CYP71E7 paralogs are preferentially expressed in specific cells in the endodermis and in most cells in the first cortex cell layer. In fully unfolded leaves, the expression is pronounced in the cortex cell layer just beside the epidermis and in specific cells in the vascular tissue cortex cells. Thus, the transcripts of the CYP71E7 paralogs colocalize with CYP79D1 and CYP79D2. We conclude that CYP71E7 is the oxime-metabolizing enzyme in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in cassava. PMID:21045121

Jørgensen, Kirsten; Morant, Anne Vinther; Morant, Marc; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Olsen, Carl Erik; Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

2011-01-01

245

Isolation and Characterization of Three Cassava Elongation Factor 1 Alpha (MeEF1A) Promoters  

PubMed Central

In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family. Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A4 and MeEF1A5 were successfully isolated. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5?UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

2014-01-01

246

Phytoremediation of Arsenic in Submerged Soil by Wetland Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130–172 mg As\\/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L.

Nateewattana Jomjun; Trichaiyaporn Siripen; Saeouy Maliwan; Nateewattana Jintapat; Thavornyutikarn Prasak; Choonluchanon Somporn; Pengchai Petch

2010-01-01

247

NOON TO MIDNIGHT SATURDAY, MARCH 23, 2013  

E-print Network

of the event. INFORMATION ABOUT ARTS, CRAFTS, FOOD, and INFORMATION BOOTHS For more information contact: lavst saltado, papa a la huancaina, yuca frita, tallarines verdes, and a variety of desserts. ariamgoes food (Cuban sandwiches, black beans and rice, and BBQ pork). (412) 621- 2326 www.blackbeancc.com BRAZIL

Sibille, Etienne

248

Estimation of proximate composition, micronutrients and phytochemical compounds in traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  

PubMed

In present study, 10 preferred traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, were analysed for nutritional profiles. Moisture content in their edible parts ranged from 83.43 to 94.78%. Maximum ash content was recorded in Portulaca oleracea, crude protein in Colocasia esculenta, crude fibre in Eryngium foetidum and fat in E. foetidum. Phosphorus was maximum in Ipomea aquatica, potassium in C. esculenta, zinc, calcium and manganese in Centella asiatica, copper in Sauropus androgynous, sodium and iron in P. oleracea, magnesium in Amaranthus viridi and cobalt in C. esculenta. Maximum polyphenol was recorded in Hibiscus sabdariffa, carotenoids in A. viridi, ascorbic acid in Saursops androgynus, anthocyanin in C. esculenta and chlorophyll in S. androgynus. Antioxidant activity was maximum in P. oleracea. Positive correlation was observed between polyphenol and tannin content and also between antioxidant activity and photochemicals. The developed nutritional profiles is being used in health and nutrition related schemes in Islands. PMID:21615278

Singh, Shrawan; Singh, D R; Salim, K M; Srivastava, Amit; Singh, L B; Srivastava, R C

2011-11-01

249

Studies on tuber starches. II. Molecular structure, composition and physicochemical properties of yam ( Dioscorea sp.) starches grown in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch from varieties of Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burkill (kukulala, java-ala, nattala) and Dioscorea alata L. (hingurala, raja-ala) tubers grown in Sri Lanka was isolated and its morphology, composition, structure and physicochemical properties were studied. The yield of starch was in the range 12.2–18.0% on a whole tuber basis. The shape and size of D. esculenta and D. alata starch granules

L. Jayakody; R. Hoover; Q. Liu; E. Donner

2007-01-01

250

Molecular characterization of Dasheen mosaic virus isolates infecting edible aroids in India.  

PubMed

Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) infecting three major edible aroids namely Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Colocasia esculenta, and Xanthosoma sagittifolium cultivated in India was characterized. Infected plants showing typical DsMV symptoms were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and an amplification of a 963 bp fragment which encoded the coat protein (CP) gene was obtained. BLAST analysis of the cloned DNA amplicon revealed the identity of the virus to be that of DsMV. Sequence identity matrix of the nucleotide sequences among the three isolates showed that the DsMV isolate infecting A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta shared an identity as high as 93%, while the DsMV isolate from X. sagittifolium shared an identity of only 73% and 76% with the DsMV isolates from A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta, respectively. Comparative analysis of the coat protein of the three DsMV isolates showed the presence of DVG motif (A. paeoniifolius and C. esculenta) and DTG motif in X. sagittifolium and several varying potential threonine and asparagine rich N-glycosylation motifs. Single amino acid substitution of the several conserved motifs occurs in all the three DsMV isolates. This is the first characterization of DsMV isolates infecting A. paeoniifolius, C. esculenta, and X. sagittifolium plants in India. PMID:24717027

Babu, B; Hegde, V

2014-01-01

251

Phytotoxic effects and chemical analysis of leaf extracts from three Phytolaccaceae species in South Korea.  

PubMed

We analyzed phenolic compounds and other elements in leaf extracts and compared morphology of three species of the Phytolaccaceae family found in South Korea. To test allelochemical effects of the three Phytolacca species, we also examined seed germination and dry weight of seedlings of Lactuca indica and Sonchus oleraceus treated with leaf extracts. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were exotic Phytolacca esculenta (3.9 mg/l), native Phytolacca insularis (4.4 mg/l), and exotic Phytolacca americana (10.2 mg/l). There was no significant difference in concentrations between P. esculenta and P. insularis, but the concentration of total phenolics in P. americana was two times higher than either P. esculenta or P. insularis. Analysis of aqueous extracts by HPLC showed seven phenolic compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid). Total phenolics in P. americana were eight to 16 times higher than either P. esculenta or P. insularis, respectively. P. americana inhibited seed germination and dry weight of the two assay species. The phytotoxic effects of the two Phytolacca species were different, despite the fact that P. esculenta and P. insularis had similar levels of total phenolic compounds. We also found that P. americana had invaded Ullung Island, which suggested that P. americana had excellent adaptability to the environment. The three species of Phytolaccaceae in South Korea can be distinguished by their different allelopathic potentials and morphologies. PMID:16124240

Kim, Yong Ok; Johnson, Jon D; Lee, Eun Ju

2005-05-01

252

Micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities of cassava plants grown in nutrient solutions. I. Critical tissue concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programmed nutrient addition technique was used in a series of 5 experiments to determine the response in growth and micronutrient content of cassava (Manihot esaulenta Crantz) cv. M Aus 10, to 8 supply levels of boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc respectively. The experiments were of 9 weeks duration and utilized 22 litre pots of nutrient solution. The supply

R. H. Howeler; D. G. Edvards; C. J. Asher

1982-01-01

253

Plant Cell Reports (2000) 19:535538 Q Springer-Verlag 2000 T. Joseph 7 H.-H. Yeoh 7 C.-S. Loh  

E-print Network

Somatic embryogenesis, plant regeneration and cyanogenesis in Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. (ceara rubber The report describes a system for somatic embryogenesis and direct plant regeneration from the embryos embryogenesis. For regen- eration, somatic embryos were cultured in medium supplemented with 10­4 M kinetin

Yeoh, Hock Hin

254

Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable is a vital component of human diet that should be eaten all year round, but they are scarce during dry season in Anyigba community in Kogi State, Nigeria. Available dry season vegetables such as the leaves of Manihot esculentum (Cassava), Piper guineese (Oziza), Chromolena odorata (Akintola), Solanum melanogaster (Garden egg) and Voandzeia subteranea (Babara-nut), are either not accepted as

A. Taiga; M. N. Suleiman; D. O. Aina; W. F. Sule; G. O. Alege

255

High-resolution mapping of resistance to cassava mosaic geminiviruses in cassava using genotyping-by-sequencing and its implications for breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by different species of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), is the most important disease of cassava in Africa and the Indian sub-continent. The cultivated cassava species is protected from CMD by polygenic resistance introgressed from the wild species Manihot g...

256

Pollen evidence for early settlement and agriculture in northern Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of fossil pollen from the Maya site of Colha, Belize, revealed a complex history of human?caused forest and land modification. Evidence of forest clearing, irrigation canal and raised field construction, and prehistoric domesticated plant use are apparent in the fossil pollen assemblages. Radiocarbon dates attest to a widespread clearing and the early cultivation of manioc (Manihot esculentum) and probably

John G. Jones

1994-01-01

257

Atomic force microscopy and thermodynamics on taro, a self-cleaning plant leaf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution-optimized leaves of Colocasia esculenta (taro) and Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) are the best optimized self-cleaning surfaces known to date. Using an atomic force microscope device equipped with a piezodriven sample stage which enables a z-range of 100 ?m we measured the surface morphology of dried and undried leaves of Colocasia esculenta. Thermodynamic calculations were done to investigate the interaction strength of a water droplet with the surfaces of the morphology shown in the images. The results show that the hierarchical structure produces a stable superhydrophobic state with optimal self-cleaning properties.

Hüger, E.; Rothe, H.; Frant, M.; Grohmann, S.; Hildebrand, G.; Liefeith, K.

2009-07-01

258

Molecular cloning, pharmacological characterization, and histochemical distribution of frog vasotocin and mesotocin receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurohypophysial nonapeptides vasotocin (VT) and mesotocin (MT) are the amphibian counterparts of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT). We have here reported the cloning and functional characterization of the receptors for vasotocin (VTR) and mesotocin (MTR) in two species of frog, Rana catesbeiana and Rana esculenta. The frog VTR and MTR cDNAs encode proteins of 419 and 384 amino

S Acharjee; J-L Do-Rego; D Y Oh; R S Ahn; K Lee; D G Bai; H Vaudry; H B Kwon; J Y Seong

2004-01-01

259

TOWARD IMPROVED FUNGAL RESISTANCE IN TARO THROUGH GENETIC TRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] is one of the most important food crops in many Pacific Islands in the tropical region, and it has grown widely throughout Africa, Asia, the West Indies and South America. Phytophthora leaf blight, caused by Phytophthora colocasiae is the major fungal disease ...

260

Rearing of Cuttlefishes and Squids  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE have succeeded (through improving the feed during the earlier stages after hatching) in rearing three species of the cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta Hoyle, Sepia subaculeata Sasaki and Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune) and two species of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson and Euprymna beryii Sasaki)1. The main points to note in rearing these animals are as follows:

Sang Choe; YASUO OHSHIMA

1963-01-01

261

Effect of heat-treatment and defatting on the proximate composition of some Nigerian local soup thickeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the effect of heat-treatment and defatting on the proximate composition of melon seeds (Colocynthis citrullus Linn.), dikanut seeds (Irvingia gabonensis) and cocoyam tuber (Colocasia esculenta), mostly used now as conventional soup thickeners in southern Nigeria, was carried out. There was generally no significant difference in proximate composition between raw and heat-processed samples at the 5% level

Eugene N. Onyeike; Tamunosiki Olungwe; Augustine A. Uwakwe

1995-01-01

262

Foods and predators of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in Newfoundland waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gut analyses of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O. F. Müller) demonstrated that perennial phaeophytes, mostly fucoids and Alaria esculenta, were predominant in the diet. Ephemeral species, coralline algae and animals, were consumed in smaller amounts when available. Grazing by the urchins is evidently responsible for the dearth of non-coralline sublittoral algae in Newfoundland waters. Lobsters, rock crabs, purple

J. H. Himmelman; D. H. Steele

1971-01-01

263

Protein, energy and mineral utilization in rats fed rice-legume diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein, energy and mineral utilization were examined in growing rats fed cooked, dry legume seeds in combination with polished rice. The legumes tested included 3 varieties of common beans, black, white and brown (Phaseolus vulgaris), lentils (Lens esculenta) and peas (Pisum sativum). The rice:legume mixtures (1:1 N ratio) were the only dietary sources of protein, Zn, Fe and Cu. The

Carmen M. Donangelo; Birthe Pedersen; B. O. Eggum

1986-01-01

264

Susceptibility of zoospores to UV radiation determines upper depth distribution limit of Arctic kelps: evidence through field experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 The UV susceptibility of zoospores of the brown seaweeds Saccorhiza dermatodea , Alaria esculenta and Laminaria digitata (Laminariales) was determined in field experi- ments in June 2004 on Spitsbergen (78 ° 55 ' N, 11 ° 56 ' E). 2 Freshly released zoospores were exposed for 1 or 2 days at various water depths to ambient solar radiation,

CHRISTIAN WIENCKE; MICHAEL Y. ROLEDA; ANSGAR GRUBER; MARGARET N. CLAYTON; KAI BISCHOF

2006-01-01

265

Studien an der Epiphysis cerebri und am Subcommissuralorgan der Frösche  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In anaesthetized frogs (Rana temporaria L., Rana esculenta L., Hyla arborea L.) an in vivo examination of the roof of the brain is possible after the removal of the skull.2.Under the microscope the pineal gland shows a dense capillary network, that is to be considered as part of the extensive periventricular network. The afferent arteries of this vascular system are

W. Mautner

1965-01-01

266

FORUM (FORO) NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION AND ELIMINATION OF TOXIC PRINCIPLES IN WILD YAM (Dioscorea spp.) (EVALUACIÓN NUTRICIONAL Y ELIMINACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS TÓXICOS EN Dioscorea spp. SILVESTRES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

g author SUMMARY Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is the staple of people in the tropics, but certain wild varieties are inedible because of the toxic substances present, some of which have pharmacological properties. The wild yam tubers consumed by the tribal Kanikkars of Kanyakumari district (Dioscorea alata, D. bulbifera, D. esculenta, D. oppositifolia, D. pentaphylla, D. tomentosa and D. wallichi) were

S. Shanthakumari; V. R. Mohan; John de Britto

2008-01-01

267

Adrenergic receptors of the frog myocardium as iron-containing complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHOD The hearts of winter frogs (Rana esculenta), isolated by Straub's method and perfused with Ringer's solution, were used in the experiments. The positive in, tropic effect of the substances used was assessed from the increase in amplitude of cardiac contractions above the initial value, taken as 100%. The mean value of the effect was determined by averaging the results

I. V. Komissarov; G. I. Reutskaya

1969-01-01

268

Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3) ferrocarbonatites. The concentrations of thorium, uranium, niobium, yttrium and rare earth elements increase with differentiation. Carbonatites are associated with up to 20000 times enrichment of lanthanum and cerium with respect to chondrite. Finally, the Mariana carbonatite breccia is associated with about 7,928,550 short tons of rock with a grade of 0.14% SigmaREE, and primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of carbonatites indicate a mantle origin of their parental melts.

Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

269

Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants.  

PubMed

Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants. PMID:21598766

Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai

2011-01-01

270

Different Patterns of Expression of Five Neuropeptides in the Adrenal Gland and Kidney of Two Species of Frog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to demonstrate in the adrenocortical and renal tissues of two species of frog, Rana italica and Rana esculenta, the presence and distribution of five neuropeptides: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Leu-enkephalin (Leu-ENK), neuropeptide\\u000a Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In anurans, the adrenal medulla is the site for the synthesis, storage

Maria De Falco; Vincenza Laforgia; Salvatore Valiante; Francesca Virgilio; Lorenzo Varano; Antonio De Luca

2002-01-01

271

Synthesis of digalactosyl diacylglycerols and their structure-inhibitory activity on human lanosterol synthase.  

PubMed

Digalactosyl and monogalactocyl diacylglycerols (DGDG and MGDG), which were identified as anti-hyperlipemia active components in Colocasia esculenta (Taro), were synthesized. The inhibitory activity of DGDG, MGDG and related compounds on human lanosterol synthase was evaluated as anti-hyperlipemic activity. DGDG with two myristoyl groups at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions and with an oleoyl group at the sn-1 position showed the most potent activity. PMID:15582431

Tanaka, Rie; Sakano, Yuichi; Nagatsu, Akito; Shibuya, Masaaki; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Goda, Yukihiro

2005-01-01

272

Weitere Untersuchungen über Chromosomenverhältnisse und DNS-Gehalt bei Anuren (Amphibia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The karyotypes of the toad Bufo marinus L. (2n=22) and the frogs Limnodynastes tasmaniensisGthr. (2n=24), Rana temporaria L., R. esculenta L. (both 2n=26) and R. arvalisNills. (2n=24) were analysed in colchicine treated leukocyte and spermatogonial metaphases and\\/or embryonic and larval mitoses. The DNA content of Feulgen stained erythrocyte nuclei was measured microspectrophotometrically. Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are absent in all species.

Fritz-Helmut Ullerich

1967-01-01

273

The rates of saxitoxin action and of saxitoxin-tetrodotoxin interaction at the node of Ranvier  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Voltage clamp experiments were done on single nodes of Ranvier ofRana esculenta. Equilibrium effects were obtained fromINa-V curves, the rates of action from changes inINa on changing solutions during repetitive depolarizing pulses.2.Saxitoxin (STX) exclusively and reversibly blocked Na channels, the effect being fully described by a one-to-one reaction between STX and a receptor at the channel with an equilibrium dissociation

H.-H. Wagner; W. Ulbricht

1975-01-01

274

Saxitoxin and procaine act independently on separate sites of the sodium channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Voltage clamp experiments were done on single myelinated nerve fibres of the frog,Rana esculenta.2.The time course of procaine action (1.0 mM at pH 7.2) was obtained from changes inINa on changing solutions during repetitive (1 Hz) depolarizing pulses of constant amplitude following hyperpolarizing prepulses. The mean half times of onset and offset of procaine block were 3.7 and 28

H. H. Wagner; W. Ulbricht

1976-01-01

275

Light- and electron-microscopic demonstration of immunoreactive opsin in the pinealocytes of various vertebrates.  

PubMed

An antibody to opsin isolated from rod outer segments of the frog retina was applied in light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical studies to the pineal organ of various vertebrates (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Rana esculenta, Emys orbicularis, Pseudemys scripta elegans, Lacerta agilis and viridis. Gallus domesticus, Columba livia, Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, Taeniopyga punctata, Didelphis virginiana, Erinaceus roumanicus, Myotis myotis, rabbit, rat, cat). PMID:6458362

Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I

1981-01-01

276

Stereospecificity of two plant diamine oxidases on 2-methyl-1,4-diaminobutane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic deamination of pure enantiomers of 2-methyl-1-4-diaminobutane catalyzed by diamine oxidases from two plants (Euphorbia characias latex and Lens esculenta seedlings) was studied to investigate the conformations of the active sites.The results suggest that, in 2-methyl-1-4-diaminobutane, the steric hindrance of methyl group is primarily involved in decreasing activity compared with 1-4-diaminobutane (Pu), the natural substrate of diamine oxidases.This approach

R. Medda; E. Santaniello; A. Manzocchi; A. Ioppolo; P. A. Biondi; G. Floris

1987-01-01

277

Secondary somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos isolated from mature seed-derived cotyledon cultures of cassava (Mannihot esculenta Crantz) underwent direct secondary somatic embryogenesis or plant development under appropriate incubation conditions. Isolated somatic embryos were subjected to a two-stage culture procedure similar to that which induced their development on cotyledon explants. This involved incubation for 24–30 days on Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with 2–8

James A. Stamp; Graham G. Henshaw

1987-01-01

278

A description of the cranial muscles of Eleutherodactylus rugulosus (Anura: Leptodactylidae)  

E-print Network

. depressor mandi- bulae. 74 Fig 34 Transverse section at the level of the operculum show- ing the posterior part of the insertion of the M. lev- atcr mandibulae anterior lateralis and the insertion of the N. depressor mandibulae to the i'ascia dorsalis...: the fascia dorsalis, overlying the scapula; the ventral surface of the crista parotica; and the median side of the 20 cartilaginous annulus tympanicus. In Bans esculenta, Gaupp (1904) found an attachment of the N. depressor mandibulae to the postero...

Ketchersid, Chesley Arthur

2012-06-07

279

The sensitivity of apical Na + permeability in frog skin to hypertonic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Na+ transport across abdominal skins of the frog speciesRana esculenta andRana pipiens was analyzed by recording short-circuit current (Isc), transepithelial conductance (Gt), and the current noise generated by the random blockage of apical Na+ channels by the diuretic, amiloride.2.Specific Na+ current (INa) and conductance (GNa), as reflected by the amiloride-sensitive part ofIsc andGt, respectively, were markedly depressed after addition of

Walfgang Zeiske; Willy Van Driessche

1984-01-01

280

Ocean acidification modulates the response of two Arctic kelps to ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

The combined effects of ocean acidification and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been studied in the kelps Alaria esculenta and Saccharina latissima from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), two major components of the Arctic macroalgal community, in order to assess their potential to thrive in a changing environment. Overall results revealed synergistic effects, however with a different amplitude in the respective species. Changes in growth, internal N, C:N ratio, pigments, optimum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and electron transport rates (ETR) following CO2 enrichment and/or UVR were generally more pronounced in S. latissima than in A. esculenta. The highest growth rates were recorded under simultaneous CO2 enrichment and UVR in both species. UVR-mediated changes in pigment content were partially prevented under elevated CO2 in both species. Similarly, UVR led to increased photosynthetic efficiency (?) and ETR only if CO2 was not elevated in A. esculenta and even under high CO2 in S. latissima. Increased CO2 did not inhibit external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) activity in the short-term but in the mid-term, indicating a control through acclimation of photosynthesis rather than a direct inhibition of eCA by CO2. The higher benefit of simultaneous CO2 enrichment and UVR for S. latissima respect to A. esculenta seems to involve higher C and N assimilation efficiency, as well as higher ETR, despite a more sensitive Fv/Fm. The differential responses shown by these two species indicate that ongoing ocean acidification and UVR could potentially change the dominance at lower depths (4-6m), which will eventually drive changes at the community level in the Arctic coastal ecosystem. These results support an existing consideration of S. latissima as a winner species in the global change scenario. PMID:25462077

Gordillo, Francisco J L; Aguilera, José; Wiencke, Christian; Jiménez, Carlos

2014-10-01

281

Heat and mass transfer in deep-frying of pumpkin, sweet potato and taro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat and mass transfer parameters, effective thermal diffusivity, heat transfer coefficient, effective moisture diffusivity\\u000a and moisture transfer coefficient—for pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) under deep-frying conditions were determined by fitting experimental data on transient values of temperature and moisture\\u000a content to the solution of the standard diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates as modified by

Araya Ahromrit; Prabhat K. Nema

2010-01-01

282

Paper Electrophoretic Separation of the Proteins of Some Leguminous Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE plant materials examined during this work were acetone powders prepared from lentils (Lens esculenta, Moench), `horse' beans (Vicia faba, L.), lupin seeds (Lupinus termis, Forsk) and fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum, L.). Each acetone powder was extracted separately with 0.1 N borax-phthalate buffer at pH 8.0, the proportion being 10 gm. of acetone powder to 60 ml. of buffer. Extracts

Esam M. Moustafa

1959-01-01

283

Studies on ?-amylase and trypsin inhibitors in legume seeds using agar diffusion and isoelectric focusing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylolytic and tryptic inhibitors of faba bean extracts were determined by an agar diffusion test. The amylolytic inhibitor had protein characters. Furthermore, water-soluble trypsin inhibitors ofCicer arietinum, Lens esculenta, Lupinus termis, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Trigonella foenum-graecum andVicia faba which were separated by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (PAGIF) in thin-layers, showed species specific patterns. Negative staining showed 10 bands for

Mahmoud A. Hamza; Ahmed M. El-Tabey Shehata; Hermann Stegemann

1986-01-01

284

The impact of LED illumination on antioxidant properties of sprouted seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the light emitting diode (LED) spectra on the antioxidant properties\\u000a of sprouted wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and lentil (Lens esculenta Moenh.) seeds. Lighting experiments were performed under controlled conditions (PPFD - 100 ?mol m?2 s?1; 12 h photoperiod; 27°C). The LED conditions used were: L1

Giedr? Samuolien?; Akvil? Urbonavi?i?t?; Aušra Brazaityt?; Gintar? Šabajevien?; Jurga Sakalauskait?; Pavelas Duchovskis

2011-01-01

285

Widespread unidirectional transfer of mitochondrial DNA: a case in western Palearctic water frogs  

PubMed Central

Interspecies transfer of mitochondrial (mt) DNA is a common phenomenon in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, normally linked with hybridization of closely related species in zones of sympatry or parapatry. In Central Europe, in an area north of 48° N latitude and between 08° and 22° E longitude, western Palearctic water frogs show massive unidirectional introgression of mtDNA: 33.7% of 407 R. ridibunda possessed mtDNA specific for R. lessonae. In contrast, no R. lessonae with R. ridibunda mtDNA was observed. That R. ridibunda with introgressed mitochondrial genomes were found exclusively within the range of the hybrid R. esculenta and that most hybrids had lessonae mtDNA (90.4% of 335 individuals investigated) is evidence that R. esculenta serves as a vehicle for transfer of lessonae mtDNA into R. ridibunda. Such introgression has occurred several times independently. The abundance and wide distribution of individuals with introgressed mitochondrial genomes show that R. lessonae mt genomes work successfully in a R. ridibunda chromosomal background despite their high sequence divergence from R. ridibunda mtDNAs (14.2–15.2% in the ND2/ND3 genes). Greater effectiveness of enzymes encoded by R. lessonae mtDNA may be advantageous to individuals of R. ridibunda and probably R. esculenta in the northern parts of their ranges. PMID:18373588

Plötner, Jörg; Uzzell, Thomas; Beerli, Peter; Spolsky, Christina; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich; Hotz, Hansjürg

2008-01-01

286

Mutagenicity study of weeds and common plants used in traditional medicine and for animal feed.  

PubMed

Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity potentials were tested using Ames' test in crude distilled water and absolute ethanol extracts from the stems and leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) Kunth, Eichhornia crassipes Solms, Colocasia esculenta Schott and Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf, and the stems of Musa sapientum Linn. No mutagenic effect was found in any of the 10 mg/plate crude extracts of these plants for either TA98 or TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium, in a direct test and a mutagenic induced test by S-9 mix. Both distilled water and absolute ethanol extract of 0.5-10 mg/plate B. mutica showed strong antimutagenicity to AFB1, B(a)P and 4NQO in two tester strains. Ethanol extract of 0.1-0.5 mg/plate C. esculenta also showed antimutagenicity to AFB1, B(a)P and 4NQO in two tester strains, but the 0.5-10 mg/plate water extract had an antimutagenic effect only for B(a)P in TA98. The ethanol extracts of 5 mg/plate B. mutica and 0.5 mg/plate C. esculenta are cytotoxic, as indicated by their partial killing effect. PMID:17547080

Thepouyporn, Apanchanid; Kwanbunjan, Karunee; Pooudong, Somchai; Changbumrung, Supranee

2006-01-01

287

Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of an apomictic cassava hybrid and its progeny.  

PubMed

An interspecific hybrid between cassava and Manihot glaziovii acquired an apomixis gene from the parent M. glaziovii. This hybrid was exposed to open pollination during three subsequent generations. Seven sibs and the maternal progenitor of the fourth generation were genotyped using six microsatellite loci previously developed for cassava. All sibs were identical with each other and with their maternal progenitor. Sibs of selfed M. glaziovii proved to be identical when examined with these microsatellite loci. The chromosome complement of the apomictic clone was 2n = 38. We observed multi-embryonic aposporic embryo sacs. PMID:19937588

Nassar, N M A; Gomes, P T C; Chaib, A M; Bomfim, N N; Batista, R C D; Collevatti, R G

2009-01-01

288

Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi. PMID:23095488

Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

2014-10-01

289

Pathogenicity, Internal Transcribed Spacer-rDNA Variation, and Human Dispersal of Ceratocystis fimbriata on the Family Araceae.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many cryptic, host-specialized species that causes wilt and canker of woody species and rot diseases of storage roots and corms of many economically important plants worldwide. With the exception of the family Araceae, all confirmed hosts of C. fimbriata are dicotyledonous plants. We hypothesized that the isolates from members of the family Araceae would form a monophyletic lineage specialized to infect these unique hosts. Analyses of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear rDNA indicate that isolates and herbarium specimens of C. fimbriata from the family Araceae represent three different groups: an Xanthosoma/Syngonium group on corms of Xanthosoma spp. from the Caribbean region and on ornamental S. podophyllum from greenhouses in Florida, Hawaii, Australia, and Brazil; an inhame group on corms of Colocasia esculenta in Brazil; and a distantly related taro group on Colocasia esculenta in Hawaii and China and on X. sagittifolium in Fiji. Inoculations of three species of Araceae (Caladium bicolor, S. podophyllum, and Colocasia esculenta) showed that isolates from all three groups are pathogenic to these three hosts. Brazilian isolates from Mangifera indica and Ficus carica were only weakly pathogenic to Caladium and Syngonium sp. and were not pathogenic to Colocasia sp. Syngonium plants appeared to be most susceptible to isolates of the Xanthosoma/Syngonium group, and Colocasia plants were least susceptible to isolates from Syngonium spp. Thus, it appears that adaptations to the family Araceae have evolved more than once in the C. fimbriata complex. It is hypothesized that the three groups of C. fimbriata on the family Araceae are native to the Caribbean, Brazil, and Asia, respectively, but they have been spread elsewhere by humans. PMID:18943126

Thorpe, Daniel J; Harrington, Thomas C; Uchida, Janice Y

2005-03-01

290

Mutational dynamics of aroid chloroplast genomes.  

PubMed

A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported. We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:23204304

Ahmed, Ibrar; Biggs, Patrick J; Matthews, Peter J; Collins, Lesley J; Hendy, Michael D; Lockhart, Peter J

2012-01-01

291

EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of ?-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

2010-12-01

292

Mutational Dynamics of Aroid Chloroplast Genomes  

PubMed Central

A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported. We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:23204304

Ahmed, Ibrar; Biggs, Patrick J.; Matthews, Peter J.; Collins, Lesley J.; Hendy, Michael D.; Lockhart, Peter J.

2012-01-01

293

Endocannabinoids and Endovanilloids: A Possible Balance in the Regulation of the Testicular GnRH Signalling  

PubMed Central

Reproductive functions are regulated both at central (brain) and gonadal levels. In this respect, the endocannabinoid system (eCS) has a very influential role. Interestingly, the characterization of eCS has taken many advantages from the usage of animal models different from mammals. Therefore, this review is oriented to summarize the main pieces of evidence regarding eCS coming from the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, with particular interest to the morphofunctional relationship between eCS and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Furthermore, a novel role for endovanilloids in the regulation of a testicular GnRH system will be also discussed. PMID:24072997

Ciaramella, Vincenza; Scarpa, Donatella; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo

2013-01-01

294

Management of arsenic-accumulated waste from constructed wetland treatment of mountain tap-water.  

PubMed

Arsenic-contaminated mountain tap water supply in Ron Phibun District, Nakorn Si Thammarat Province, Thailand poses a health hazard. Arsenic was removed using a constructed wetland (CW) system, in which the treated contaminated tap water was sedimented in 3 consecutive ponds before entering into the CW ponds, containing either Cyperus spp. or Colocasia esculenta. Following 1 year of operation both plants had similar ability to remove arsenic from mountain tap water. Arsenic was mostly concentrated at the roots of both plants. Arsenic in C. esculenta leaves was allowed to leach out in freshwater for 149 days, but the level (0.05 mg L(-1)) was much lower than standard guidelines for industrial discharge. For Cyperus spp., young shoots were utilized as ornamental plants. As the sediments contained high arsenic levels, they were converted by a solidification/stabilization (S/S) system into cement-containing blocks, which after curing for 21 days produced arsenic leaching at levels that did not require a secure landfill for storage. The success of this study demonstrated that CW combined with appropriate S/S system is a suitable approach for Thailand in removing arsenic from contaminated water. PMID:21036470

Nakwanit, Sannop; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Sangchoom, Wantana

2011-01-30

295

cDNA cloning, expression, and characterization of Taro SSII: a novel member of starch synthase II family.  

PubMed

A novel soluble starch synthase II (SSII) gene was isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) tubers. This 2939 bp SSII transcript encodes 804 amino acids with a putative transit peptide of 52 residues. It displays 58-63% identity and 63-69% similarity with SSIIs from other sources. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that taro SSII is more closely related with dicot SSIIs than with the monocot ones, though taro is a monocot. The identification of taro SSII clone as starch synthase was confirmed by the expression of its enzymatic activity in Escherichia coli. Genomic DNA blot analysis revealed a single copy or low number copies of SSII in taro. Expression profile showed that more transcript and protein were accumulated in tubers of 597 +/- 37 g fresh weight, that is, a stage of rapid starch synthesis, than tubers of other stages. By Western blot analysis, SSII was found in both soluble and granule bound portions of tuber extracts, and more SSII protein was found in aged leaves than in leaves of other stages. These results suggest that taro SSII is a novel starch synthase for the synthesis of both transit and storage starch. PMID:16190656

Lin, Da-Gin; Jeang, Chii-Ling

2005-10-01

296

Host Races of the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii, in Asexual Populations from Wild Plants of Taro and Brinjal  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554

Agarwala, B.K.; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

2013-01-01

297

Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.  

PubMed

Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded. PMID:23895554

Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

2013-01-01

298

In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.  

PubMed

Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions. PMID:23242587

Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

2013-05-01

299

Amine oxidase from Lathyrus cicera and Phaseolus vulgaris: purification and properties.  

PubMed

Cu-Amine oxidases (amine oxygen oxidoreductase deaminating, copper containing E.C. 1.4.3.6.) are found in all forms of life (1). They catalyze the following general reaction: R-CH2-NH2 + O2 + H2O----R-CHO + NH3 + H2O2. Cu-amine oxidases (Cu-AOs) have been extracted from different leguminosae: Pisum sativum (2-3), Lathyrus sativus (4), Lens esculenta (5), Vicia faba (6), Cicer arietinum (7), Glycine max (8) but not from Phaseolus vulgaris. Palavan and Galston (9), in a study of polyamine biosynthesis during developmental stages of Phaseolus vulgaris, did not detect diamine or polyamine oxidase activity in Phaseolus. The present paper describes the purification of Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings amine oxidase (PhSAO) and also compares the properties of this enzyme to the Lathyrus cicera enzyme (LcSAO), obtained with the same method of purification. PMID:2798365

Cogoni, A; Farci, R; Medda, R; Rinaldi, A; Floris, G

1989-01-01

300

Evaluation of innate immune stimulating activity of polysaccharides using a silkworm (Bombyx mori) muscle contraction assay.  

PubMed

In silkworm larvae, the mature form of paralytic peptide (PP), an insect cytokine, is produced from pro-PP in association with activation of innate immune responses, resulting in slow muscle contraction. We utilized this reaction, muscle contraction in silkworms coupled with innate immunity stimulation, to quantitatively measure the innate immune stimulating activity of various natural polysaccharides. ?-Glucan of Gyrophora esculenta (GE-3), fucoidan from sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida, and curldan induced silkworm muscle contraction. We further demonstrated that GE-3 had therapeutic effects on silkworms infected by baculovirus. Based on these findings, we propose that the silkworm muscle contraction assay is useful for screening substances that stimulate innate immunity before evaluating therapeutic effectiveness in mammals. PMID:22622018

Fujiyuki, T; Hamamoto, H; Ishii, K; Urai, M; Kataoka, K; Takeda, T; Shibata, S; Sekimizu, K

2012-04-01

301

Groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic contamination in farming villages of Bangladesh--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

To clarify the groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic (As) contamination, As concentration was measured in tubewell (TW) water, surface soil from farmyards and paddy fields, and fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves from farmyards in the farming villages of Bangladesh. The As concentration in TW water from farmyards was at least four times higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard, and the concentration in fresh taro leaves was equal to or higher than those reported previously for leafy vegetables in Bangladesh. As concentration of surface soils in both farmyards and paddy fields was positively correlated with that of the TW water. Further, the concentration in surface soil was positively correlated with levels in fresh taro leaves in the farmyard. This study, therefore, clarified the groundwater-soil-crop relationship in farmyards and the relationship between groundwater-soil in paddy fields to assess the extent of As contamination in Bangladeshi villages. PMID:18395311

Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Egashira, Kazuhiko; Tani, Masakazu; Jahiruddin, M; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md; Rahman, Zulfikar Md

2008-11-01

302

Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. PMID:16781033

Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

2007-01-01

303

Nanostructure on taro leaves resists fouling by colloids and bacteria under submerged conditions.  

PubMed

The antifouling and self-cleaning properties of plants such as Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and Colocasia esculenta (taro) have been attributed to the superhydrophobicity resulting from the hierarchical surface structure of the leaf and the air trapped between the nanosized epicuticular wax crystals. The reported study showed that the nanostructures on the taro leaf surfaces were also highly resistant to particle and bacterial adhesion under completely wetted conditions. Adhesion force measurements using atomic force microscopy revealed that the adhesion force on top of the papilla as well as the area around it was markedly lower than that on the edge of an epidermal cell. The decreased adhesion force and the resistance to particle and bacterial adhesion were attributed to the dense nanostructures found on the epidermal papilla and the area surrounding it. These results suggest that engineered surfaces with properly designed nanoscale topographic structures could potentially reduce or prevent particle/bacterial fouling under submerged conditions. PMID:21736298

Ma, Jianwei; Sun, Yuekai; Gleichauf, Karla; Lou, Jun; Li, Qilin

2011-08-16

304

Biocompatible novel starch/polyaniline composites: characterization, anti-cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Starch/polyaniline composites have been synthesized using oxidative polymerization of polyaniline in an aqueous dispersion of starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta corm. Scanning electron micrographs reveals the growth of polyaniline over the surface of the starch granules. DPPH scavenging and haemolysis prevention assay have been performed to estimate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the composites. Formation of new properties of the composites as compared to starch and poloyaniline was evident from the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Characterization done using UV-Vis, FTIR and DSC analysis provide evidence of composite formation. Composite possesses antioxidant nature which increases with the concentration of polyaniline. The haemolysis prevention activity of these novel composite materials is found to increase as compared to the pure polyaniline with minor compromise in the antioxidant activity. The materials show tremendous potential for biomedical applications. PMID:20674287

Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Banerjee, Somik; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

2010-11-01

305

Bacterial Communities of Two Parthenogenetic Aphid Species Cocolonizing Two Host Plants across the Hawaiian Islands ?  

PubMed Central

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

Jones, Ryan T.; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M.; Fierer, Noah

2011-01-01

306

Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-?1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

2012-01-01

307

Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

2011-12-01

308

Increase in liver pigmentation during natural hibernation in some amphibians  

PubMed Central

The amount/distribution of liver melanin in 3 amphibian species (Rana esculenta, Triturus a. apuanus, Triturus carnifex) was studied during 2 periods of the annual cycle (summer activity–winter hibernation) by light and electron microscopy, image analysis and microspectrofluorometry. The increase in liver pigmentation (melanin content) during winter appeared to be correlated with morphological and functional modifications in the hepatocytes, which at this period were characterised by a decrease in metabolic activity. These findings were interpreted according to the functional role (e.g. phagocytosis, cytotoxic substance inactivation) played by the pigment cell component in the general physiology of the heterothermic vertebrate liver and, in particular, in relation to a compensatory engagement of these cells against hepatocellular hypoactivity during the winter period. PMID:10473289

BARNI, SERGIO; BERTONE, VITTORIO; CROCE, ANNA CLETA; BOTTIROLI, GIOVANNI; BERNINI, FRANCO; GERZELI, GIUSEPPE

1999-01-01

309

Domain mobility as probed by small-angle X-ray scattering may account for substrate access to the active site of two copper-dependent amine oxidases.  

PubMed

Amine oxidases are a family of dimeric enzymes that contain one copper(II) ion and one 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenyalanine quinone per subunit. Here, the low-resolution structures of two Cu/TPQ amine oxidases from lentil (Lens esculenta) seedlings and from Euphorbia characias latex have been determined in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering. The active site of these enzymes is highly buried and requires a conformational change to allow substrate access. The study suggests that the funnel-shaped cavity located between the D3 and D4 domains is narrower within the crystal structure, whereas in solution the D3 domain could undergo movement resulting in a protein conformational change that is likely to lead to easier substrate access. PMID:25084330

Dainese, Enrico; Sabatucci, Annalaura; Pintus, Francesca; Medda, Rosaria; Angelucci, Clotilde Beatrice; Floris, Giovanni; Maccarrone, Mauro

2014-08-01

310

Immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.  

PubMed

The presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (Emys orbicularis, Pseudemys scripta elegans, Lacerta agilis et viridis, Gallus domesticus, Columba livia, Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, Taeniopyga punctate). The outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. The results were compared with those obtained in retinal photoreceptors of the same species as well as in the pineal organ of fishes and amphibians (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Rana esculenta). Corresponding to immunoreactive structures seen in the light microscope, we found typical outer segments on a large number of pinealocytes in most of the reptiles and birds studied. The presence of opsin in the numerous well developed pineal outer segments of these reptilian and avian species contradicts the earlier hypothesis on the gradual regression of pineal sensitive structures in the avian line of evolution. PMID:6213109

Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I; Röhlich, P; Aros, B

1982-01-01

311

Frogs and toads in front of a mirror: lateralisation of response to social stimuli in tadpoles of five anuran species.  

PubMed

Tadpoles of five anuran species were tested for preferences in the use of the eyes during inspection of their own visual image in a mirror. When tested in a tank with several small mirrors, tadpoles of five different species (Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana temporaria, Rana esculenta, Bombina variegata) preferentially approached and positioned themselves with the mirror located on their left side, thus looking at the image with the monocular field of their left eye. Similar results were obtained with tadpoles of R. temporaria tested in a simple task in which they had to choose approaching one or other of two large mirrors located on their left and right side. Control experiment showed that the behavioural asymmetry was not due to motor preferences and that it was independent of morphological asymmetries in the positions of the spiracles. This is the first demonstration of a functional visual lateralisation among juvenile amphibia before metamorphosis. PMID:12191829

Bisazza, Angelo; De Santi, Andrea; Bonso, Silvia; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

2002-08-21

312

[Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].  

PubMed

The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important. PMID:9601842

Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

1997-04-01

313

Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

Wolverton, B. C.

1988-01-01

314

Morama bean research in Texas: a technical report  

SciTech Connect

The search for drought-resistant crops has energy-saving as well as water-saving goals. The agricultural potential of morama beans (Bauhinea esculenta, also known as Tylosema esculentum), a plant that grows extensively across southern Africa was investigated. The beans are usually eaten roasted, like peanuts. Morama tubers, which store water to assure the plant's survival in drought years, may be uprooted and eaten as a source of moisture and some other nutrients. The goals of the morama project were specifically to discover the tolerance of morama for Texas agronomic conditions, to discover the ideal conditions and methods of cultivation, to demonstrate the productivity and forage potential of the plants grown at various sites in Texas, and to measure the nutritional quality of the edible parts of this plant.

Bousquet, J.E.

1982-07-01

315

Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

2014-05-01

316

Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

1989-01-01

317

Complete mitochondrial genome of Sipunculus nudus (Sipuncula, Sipunculidae).  

PubMed

Abstract In this paper, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Sipunculus nudus collected from the coast of southeast China was determined. The complete mt genome was 15,376?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 23 tRNA genes, and a putative control region (CR). The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.25% A, 28.78% T, 27.19% C, and 14.78% G, with an AT content of 58.03%. The mt DNA of Chinese S. nudus shared 73.6% and 60.2% identities with that of French S. nudus (GenBank accession number: FJ42,2961) and Chinese Phascolosoma esculenta (GenBank accession number: EF58,3817), respectively. PMID:24938083

Song, Su-Xia; Ding, Shao-Xiong; Yan, Qing-Pi; Qin, Ying-Xue

2014-06-18

318

Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

2011-03-01

319

Increased charge displacement in the membrane of myelinated nerve at reduced extracellular pH.  

PubMed Central

Asymmetry currents were measured in nodes of myelinated nerve fibers from Rana esculenta at extracellular pH values of 5.2, 7.0, and 8.1 by averaging the currents during and after 1-ms depolarizing and hyperpolarizing voltage pulses. The charge displacement in the nodal membrane was obtained by numerical integration of the asymmetry currents. Lowering the pH from 7.0 to 5.2 significantly slows down the kinetics of the fast charge displacement during depolarization but hardly affects the kinetics after repolarization. The pH reduction increases the maximum charge displacement during depolarization by 46%. No differences between asymmetry currents were found between pH 7.0 and 8.1. It is concluded that protonation by extracellular H+ ions may increase the net charge or the transition range of mobile subunits in the nerve membrane. PMID:6973369

Neumcke, B; Schwarz, W; Stämpfli, R

1980-01-01

320

Hypolipidaemic effect of chemically different mucilages in rats: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Different classes of fibres differ in their potential to lower lipid levels. In order to examine how chemically diverse fibres differ in their hypolipidaemic activity, mucilages of varying chemical composition isolated from three different sources were administered to experimental animals and the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins was studied. The mucilages used were a galactomannan isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, a glucomannan from Dioscorea esculenta tubers and an arabinogalactan from Colocasia esculenta tubers. Rats were fed these mucilages at a dose of 4 mg/100 g body weight per d for 8 weeks and the changes in the levels of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in serum, liver and aorta were analysed. All these mucilages decreased lipid levels both in serum and tissues. Among these mucilages, glucomannan showed the most hypolipidaemic effect followed by galactomannan and arabinogalactan. Further, hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of mucilage-fed rats and the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins were studied using metabolic labelling. There was a decrease in the synthesis and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins, mainly VLDL, by hepatocytes isolated from mucilage-fed rats when compared to control (P<0.05). This was further confirmed by pulse chase analysis. Among the different mucilages, mannose-rich glucomannan showed the most effect followed by galactomannan, and mannose-free arabinogalactan showed minimal effect. Comparison of relative viscosity and water-holding capacity showed that mannan-rich mucilages like galactomannan and glucomannan, which showed greater hypolipidaemic effect, had greater relative viscosity and water-holding capacity. The present results suggested that the hypolipidaemic effect of dietary fibre involves a decrease in hepatic production of VLDL and further that it varies with the nature of the fibre. PMID:17181876

Boban, Puthenpura T; Nambisan, Bala; Sudhakaran, Perumana R

2006-12-01

321

Floral thermogenesis of three species of Hydnora (Hydnoraceae) in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Floral thermogenesis occurs in at least 12 families of ancient seed plants. Some species show very high rates of respiration through the alternative pathway, and some are thermoregulatory, with increasing respiration at decreasing ambient temperature. This study assesses the intensity and regulation of respiration in three species of African Hydnora that represent the Hydnoraceae, an unusual family of holoparasitic plants from arid environments. Methods Long-term respirometry (CO2 production) and thermometry were carried out on intact flowers of H. africana, H. abyssinica and H. esculenta in the field, and short-term measurements were made on floral parts during the protogynous flowering sequence. Key Results For H. africana, there was no temperature elevation in either the osmophores or the gynoecial chamber in any phase, and mass-specific respiration rates of the flower parts were low (maximum 8·3 nmol CO2 g?1 s?1 in osmophore tissue). Respiration tracked ambient and floral temperatures, eliminating the possibility of the inverse relationship expected in thermoregulatory flowers. Hydnora abyssinica flowers had higher respiration (maximum 27·5 nmol g?1 s?1 in the osmophores) and a slight elevation of osmophore temperature (maximum 2·8 °C) in the female stage. Respiration by gynoecial tissue was similar to that of osmophores in both species, but there was no measurable elevation of gynoecial chamber temperature. Gynoecial chamber temperature of H. esculenta could reach 3·8 °C above ambient, but there are no respiration data available. Antheral tissue respiration was maximal in the male phase (4·8 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. africana and 10·3 nmol g?1 s?1 in H. abyssinica), but it did not raise the antheral ring temperature, which showed that thermogenesis is not a by-product of pollen maturation or release. Conclusions The exceptionally low thermogenesis in Hydnora appears to be associated with scent production and possibly gynoecial development, but has little direct benefit to beetle pollinators. PMID:19584128

Seymour, Roger S.; Maass, Erika; Bolin, Jay F.

2009-01-01

322

Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative to other regions of Europe.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published surveys of 10 Turkish provinces and the northern hemisphere in which DNA sequence data from 247 and 562 collections respectively were analyzed phylogenetically. Herein we report on phylogenetic analyses of 243 additional collections made in spring 2009 and 2010 from eight additional provinces in the Aegean, Black Sea, central Anatolia, eastern Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Our analysis revealed that five species within the Esculenta clade (yellow morels) and 15 species within the Elata clade (black morels) were present in Turkey. Our preliminary results also indicate that M. anatolica, recently described from a collection in Mu?la province in the Aegean region of Turkey, is a closely related sister of M. rufobrunnea; these two species comprise a separate evolutionary lineage from the Esculenta and Elata clades. Nine species of Morchella currently are known only from Turkey, four species were present in Turkey and other European countries and seven species might have been introduced to Turkey anthropogenically. Three of the putatively exotic species in Turkey appear to be endemic to western North America; they are nested within a clade of fire-adapted morels that dates to the late Oligocene, 25 000 000 y ago. Our results indicate that there are roughly twice as many Morchella species in Turkey compared with the other regions of Europe sampled. Knowledge of Morchella species diversity and their biogeographic distribution are crucial for formulating informed conservation policies directed at preventing species loss and ensuring that annual morel harvests are sustainable and ecologically sound. PMID:22123659

Taskin, Hatira; Büyükalaca, Saadet; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry

2012-01-01

323

The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: first records, potential distribution, and an identification key.  

PubMed

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

324

The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key  

PubMed Central

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

325

Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

326

Dietary secondary amines and liver hepatoma in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dietary secondary amines of some Nigerian foodstuffs were analyzed by Soxhlet extraction, using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80 degrees C); followed by thin layer chromatography developed in a solvent system; n-butanol: 95% ethanol: water (4:2:1) for the qualitative test. Each UV fluorescent band in the test chromatogram was scraped and eluted with distilled water, filtered and assayed for secondary amine content for the quantitative test. Quantitative estimations were by the colorimetric methods. The results show that Ugu--Telfairia occidentalo; millet--Panicum miliaceum; bitter leaf--Vernonia amygdalina; mushroom--Boletus spp; and Okro--Hibiscus esculentus contain diethylamine, dimethylamine, morpholine and ethylaniline. Garri--Manihot utilissima flour contains diethylamine and dimethylamine only; while fish (frozen) Tilapia malanopleura contains diethylamine, dimethylamine and piperidine and the smoked fish--Tilapia nilotica contains diethylamine, dimethylamine, ethylaniline, morpholine, piperidine and n-propylamine. Cocoyam--Xanthosoma sagittifolium contains diethylamine, dimethylamine, morpholine, ethylaniline and proline. The results also show that the secondary amine content of the various foodstuffs ranged between 0.80-0.91 microg N/kg. The public health implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9629865

Uhegbu, F O

1997-01-01

327

In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the species analysed is causing incipient domestication. This process could be acting on any of the 600–700 plant species documented to be under in situ management in Mesoamerica. In situ domestication of plants could be relevant to understand early processes of domestication and current conditions of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. PMID:17652338

Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

2007-01-01

328

Availability of in vitro vitellogenin assay for screening of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed

Vitellogenin (VTG) protein, VTG mRNA, other egg yolk proteins, vitelline envelope proteins and their mRNAs are produced in the liver of oviparous species by stimulation of endogenous estrogen and exogenous estrogenic chemicals. The VTG assay based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been widely used for many fish species to screen estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of chemicals and sewage effluents using immature fish and/or male fish. In order to reduce the number of fish for screening of estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of chemicals, primary cultured fish hepatocytes can be used. In fact, primary cultured hepatocytes have been successfully used for the detection of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of environmental chemicals in selected OECD fish species, e.g., medaka (Oryzias latipes) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchys mykiss) together with other fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), bream (Abramis brama), Carassius auratus, silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctanus). In terms of hepatocyte assays relating to other taxa, these include frogs such as Xenopus laevis and the common green frog (Rana esculenta), chickens (Gallus domesticus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus). VTG mRNA measurement by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction has also been successfully applied in the primary cultured hepatocytes of various species. PMID:16883298

Iguchi, Taisen; Irie, Fumi; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Tooi, Osamu; Kawashima, Yukio; Roberts, Mike; Norrgren, Leif; Hutchinson, Thomas

2006-01-01

329

Simulation of cupulolithiasis and canalolithiasis by an animal model.  

PubMed

The physical mechanisms responsible for cupulolithiasis and canalolithiasis have been investigated by two groups of experiments in isolated posterior semicircular canal (SCC) of frog (Rana esculenta L.). First, clouds of 10-30 isolated otoconia were let to fall (snowfall of otoconia) either through the ampulla onto the cupula, or inside the long arm of the canal, opposite to the cupula. Second, microspheres ranging 30 to 350 microm in diameter were gently moved to and fro inside the long arm of the canal by a micromanipulator. The effects were evaluated by recording the firing rate (Nfr) of the ampullary nerve. Snowfall of otoconia produced detectable changes of Nfr only when otoconia got in contact with the cupula, but not when falling through the endolymph. Movement of the microspheres in the canal long arm induced Nfr changes only if the microsphere diameter exceeded about 50 microm. Although the exact microsphere size needed for receptor stimulation may depend on the experimental conditions, these results strongly suggest that debris moving inside a SCC (canalolithiasis) can produce transcupular pressures able to stimulate ampullar receptors only if they have suitable size, whereas isolated otoconia cannot, except when lying on the cupula (cupulolithiasis). PMID:19126979

Valli, Paolo; Botta, Laura; Zucca, Gianpiero; Valli, Stefano; Buizza, Angelo

2008-01-01

330

Late Quaternary environments, vegetation and agriculture in northern New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sedimentological and plant microfossil history of the Late Quaternary is preserved in two sediment cores from early Polynesian ditch systems on southern Aupouri Peninsula. The study places human activities into a geomorphological and ecological context and allows comparison of natural and anthropogenic effects on two different geological settings: a floodplain and a relatively closed peat swamp. The data fill part of the current gap in the environmental record from northern New Zealand, namely MIS 3 (57k-26k yr BP). There is evidence for an increase in fire frequency in the region after 40k 14C yr BP, suggesting a shift to drier (and cooler) conditions. Pollen records show that conifer-hardwood forest dominated by podocarps (especially Dacrydium) prevailed prior to Polynesian arrival and deforestation within the last millennium, with Fuscopsora insignificant throughout. Both cores show sections with gaps in deposition or preservation, possible flood-stripping of peat during the pre-Holocene and mechanical disturbance by early Polynesians. The identification of prehistoric starch grains and other microremains of introduced Colocasia esculenta (taro) in both cores supports indirect evidence that the ditch systems of far northern New Zealand were used for the extensive cultivation of this crop. Copyright

Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S. L.; Augustinus, P. C.; Barber, I. G.

2007-03-01

331

Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241

Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

2013-02-01

332

Do epidermal lens cells facilitate the absorptance of diffuse light?  

PubMed

Many understory plants rely on diffuse light for photosynthesis because direct light is usually scattered by upper canopy layers before it strikes the forest floor. There is a considerable gap in the literature concerning the interaction of direct and diffuse light with leaves. Some understory plants have well-developed lens-shaped epidermal cells, which have long been thought to increase the absorption of diffuse light. To assess the role of epidermal cell shape in capturing direct vs. diffuse light, we measured leaf reflectance and transmittance with an integrating sphere system using leaves with flat (Begonia erythrophylla, Citrus reticulata, and Ficus benjamina) and lens-shaped epidermal cells (B. bowerae, Colocasia esculenta, and Impatiens velvetea). In all species examined, more light was absorbed when leaves were irradiated with direct as opposed to diffuse light. When leaves were irradiated with diffuse light, more light was transmitted and more was reflected in both leaf types, resulting in absorptance values 2-3% lower than in leaves irradiated with direct light. These data suggest that lens-shaped epidermal cells do not aid the capture of diffuse light. Palisade and mesophyll cell anatomy and leaf thickness appear to have more influence in the capture and absorption of light than does epidermal cell shape. PMID:21636475

Brodersen, Craig R; Vogelmann, Thomas C

2007-07-01

333

Heat and mass transfer in deep-frying of pumpkin, sweet potato and taro.  

PubMed

Heat and mass transfer parameters, effective thermal diffusivity, heat transfer coefficient, effective moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient-for pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) under deep-frying conditions were determined by fitting experimental data on transient values of temperature and moisture content to the solution of the standard diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates as modified by Dincer (Heat Mass Transfer 32:109-113, 1996). A case of Biot number in the range of 0< B i <100 was considered in this study. Remarkably good agreement was found between estimated and calculated values as the root mean square error between the measured and calculated temperature and moisture content values were only 5.0% and 1.3%, respectively. The model can be easily and effectively used to determine effective diffusion coefficients as well as transfer coefficients for heat and mass transfer. The oil uptake values for the above vegetables were lower than the values reported for other deep fried products. PMID:23572697

Ahromrit, Araya; Nema, Prabhat K

2010-12-01

334

[Study on identification of Gastrodia elata Bl. by Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

In the present article the FTIR spectra of the wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl. from different habitats and its confusable varieties such as Canna edulis Ker-Gawl, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Solanum tuberosum L. were obtained by horizontal attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR), and were all transformed by Fourier self-deconvolution. The authors investigated the discrepancy extent of Fourier self-deconvolution of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties under various bandwidth and enhancement, and found that the discrepancy extent of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties was the most obvious when the bandwidth was between 75.0 and 76.0 and enhancement was 3.2. By adopting Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy (FSD-IR) analytical method the samples were studied in detail. The results showed that we could find out the difference among them by means of Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy, although it was very difficult to find out the difference in FSD-IR spectra of wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl., and asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction Gastrodia elata Bl. The difference in FSD-IR spectra between Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties is also very great. Therefore, this method can be used to recognize different Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties simply, rapidly and accurately. PMID:18051513

Cheng, Ze-Feng; Xu, Rui; Cheng, Cun-Gui

2007-09-01

335

The effect of soaking and cooking on the oxalate content of taro leaves.  

PubMed

Pacific Island people commonly eat taro (Colocasia esculenta var. Schott) as a staple food in their home islands and also like to consume this familiar food when living in New Zealand. Some of these foods are imported from the islands and some attempts are, currently, being made to grow these crops in New Zealand. The taro leaves in this experiment were grown in a greenhouse in the North Island of New Zealand. The soluble oxalate content of the raw leaves was 236.10 mg oxalate/100 g wet matter (WM). Soaking the raw leaves in water for 30 min marginally reduces the soluble oxalate content by leaching into the tap water. Soaking for 18 h results in a 26% reduction in the soluble oxalate content of the raw leaves. During the soaking treatments the insoluble oxalate (calcium oxalate) content of the leaves remained constant (mean 171.64 mg oxalate/100 g WM). Boiling the taro leaves resulted in a 36% loss of soluble oxalates, while the soluble oxalate content of baked tissue was very similar to the raw tissue. The mean insoluble oxalate content of the raw, boiled and baked tissue was 226.28 mg oxalate/100 g WM. Overall, boiling the taro leaves was an effective way of reducing the soluble oxalate content of the cooked tissue. PMID:17135028

Savage, G P; Dubois, M

2006-01-01

336

SNP markers identify widely distributed clonal lineages of Phytophthora colocasiae in Vietnam, Hawaii and Hainan Island, China.  

PubMed

Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important food crop, and taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae can significantly affect production. Our objectives were to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for P. colocasiae and characterize populations in Hawaii (HI), Vietnam (VN) and Hainan Island, China (HIC). In total, 379 isolates were analyzed for mating type and multilocus SNP profiles including 214 from HI, 97 from VN and 68 from HIC. A total of 1152 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites were identified via restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of two field isolates. Genotyping with 27 SNPs revealed 41 multilocus SNP genotypes grouped into seven clonal lineages containing 2-232 members. Three clonal lineages were shared among countries. In addition, five SNP markers had a low incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) during asexual laboratory growth. For HI and VN, >95% of isolates were the A2 mating type. On HIC, isolates within single clonal lineages had A1, A2 and A0 (neuter) isolates. The implications for the wide dispersal of clonal lineages are discussed. PMID:24895424

Shrestha, Sandesh; Hu, Jian; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout; Mudge, Joann; Lamour, Kurt

2014-01-01

337

Cytokine-mimetic properties of some Philippine food and medicinal plants.  

PubMed

This study evaluated Philippine indigenous plants for cytokine-mimetic properties and partially characterized candidate mimetics for their stability as well as their sensitivity to variations in temperature and pH. Forty-five plant extract preparations were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of mouse spleen cells and bone marrow cells. Temperature and pH effects were determined by subjecting the extracts to different temperature and pH levels and measuring their residual proliferative activities. Results revealed that 24 and 14 extracts were able to stimulate proliferation of bone marrow cells and spleen cells, respectively. Extracts from yam (Dioscorea alata L.) (Dioscoreaceae) roots and leaves, taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) (Araceae) roots, and buyo (Piper betle L.) (Piperaceae) leaf were among the extracts that strongly stimulated proliferation of both bone marrow cells and splenocytes, significantly increasing cell concentrations. Heating the extracts beyond 40 degrees C markedly reduced their proliferative ability, while a pH level below 4.0 and above 8.0 also significantly decreased the extracts' activity. Three protein-mimetics with sizes of 26 kDa, 35 kDa, and 50 kDa were isolated from buyo leaf, yam root, and taro root extracts, respectively. All three molecules are biologically active and stimulate a dose-dependent proliferative response. PMID:17651065

Tulin, Edgardo E; Ecleo, Zenaida T

2007-06-01

338

Identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes in the resistance reaction in taro infected with Phytophthora colocasiae.  

PubMed

Leaf blight disease caused by Phytophthora colocasiae represents a major constraint to the growth and yield of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.). Ongoing research on model plant systems has revealed that defense responses are activated via signaling pathways mediated by endogenous signaling molecule such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Activation of plant defenses is associated with changes in the expression of large number of genes. To gain a better understanding of defense responses, virulent race of P. colocasiae was used to inoculate the taro cultivar UL-56 (compatible) and its nearly isogenic line Muktakeshi (incompatible). We have employed suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH), cDNA libraries, Northern blot analysis, high throughput DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics to identify the defense-related genes in taro induced by P. colocasiae infection. Two putative resistance genes and a transcription factor were identified among the upregulated sequences. The expression of several candidate genes including lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), and other pathogenesis-related genes were evaluated following 8-48 h of appearance of symptom in compatible and incompatible interactions. Results confirmed the higher overall expression of these genes in Muktakeshi (resistant) compared to UL-56 (susceptible). This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the taro differential transcriptome associated with host-pathogen interactions from different genotypes. All the generated ESTs have been submitted to GenBank for further functional studies. PMID:18622758

Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Misra, Raj Shekhar

2009-07-01

339

Heterologous expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation.  

PubMed

Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest of many plant species and cause global economic loss. A phytocystatin gene, Colocasia esculenta cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI), isolated from a local taro Kaosiang No. 1, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). When infected with Meloidogyne incognita, one of root-knot nematode (RKN) species, transgenic T1 lines overexpressing CeCPI suppressed gall formation as evidenced by a pronounced reduction in gall numbers. In comparison with wild-type plants, a much lower proportion of female nematodes without growth retardation was observed in transgenic plants. A decrease of RKN egg mass in transgenic plants indicated seriously impaired fecundity. Overexpression of CeCPI in transgenic tomato has inhibitory functions not only in the early RKN infection stage but also in the production of offspring, which may result from intervention in sex determination. PMID:20054551

Chan, Yuan-Li; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Tzu; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Chan, Ming-Tsair

2010-03-01

340

Antioxidative enzymes and isozymes analysis of taro genotypes and their implications in Phytophthora blight disease resistance.  

PubMed

Assessment of the differential expression of antioxidative enzymes and their isozymes, was done in 30 day-old ex vitro raised plants of three highly resistant (DP-25, Jhankri and Duradim) and one highly susceptible (N-118) genotypes of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott]. Antioxidative enzymes were assayed in the ex vitro plants, 7 days after inoculation with the spores (15,000 spores ml(-1) water) of Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski to induce taro leaf blight disease. Uninoculated ex vitro plants in each genotype were used as control. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) increased under induced blight condition when compared with control. Increase in antioxidative enzymes was more (67-92%) in the resistant genotypes than that (21-29%) of the susceptible genotype. The zymograms of SOD and GPX in the resistant genotypes, with pathogenic infection, showed increased activity for anodal isoform of SOD and increased expression and/or induction of either POX 1 or POX 2 isoforms of GPX. In susceptible genotype, expression of the above isoforms was faint for SOD and nearly absent for GPX under both blight free and induced blight conditions. Induction and/or increased activity of particular isoform of SOD and GPX against infection of Phytophthora colocasiae in the resistant genotypes studied led to the apparent conclusion of linkage of isozyme expression with blight resistance in taro. This might be an important criterion in breeding of taro for Phytophthora leaf blight resistance. PMID:17404895

Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; DasGupta, Madhumita; Kole, Paresh C; Bhat, Jayant S; Mukherjee, Archana

2007-04-01

341

Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding an elicitor of Phytophthora colocasiae.  

PubMed

The rapid and effective activation of disease resistance responses is essential for plant defense against pathogen attack. These responses are initiated when pathogen-derived molecules (elicitors) are recognized by the host. A cDNA encoding elicitor, the major secreted extracellular glycoprotein of Phytophthora colocasiae, a pathogen of taro (Colocasia esculenta) plants, was isolated, sequenced and characterized. The expression of the corresponding elicitor gene during the disease cycle of P. colocasiae was analyzed. Elicitor was shown to be expressed in mycelium grown in culture media, whereas it was not expressed in sporangiospores and zoospores. In planta, during infection of taro, particularly during the biotrophic stage, expression of elicitor was down-regulated compared to in vitro. The highest levels of expression of elicitor were observed in in vitro grown mycelium and in late stages of infection when profuse sporulation and leaf necrosis occur. The elicitation of the suspension-cultured taro cells was effective in the induction of the enzyme activity of l-phenylalanine-ammonia lyase, peroxidase and lipoxygenase as well as the expression of defense-related endochitinase gene. All these biological activities were exerted within a low concentration range. The glycoprotein represents a powerful tool to investigate further the signals and their transduction pathways involved in induced disease resistance. It may also be useful to engineer broad disease protection in taro plant against Phytophthora leaf blight. PMID:19230634

Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Kamal; Misra, Raj Shekhar

2010-02-28

342

Analysis of the mineral composition of taro for determination of geographic origin.  

PubMed

The mineral composition of taro ( Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) was analyzed to develop a method to distinguish taro produced in Japan and China. The concentrations of 15 elements (Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Zn) were assayed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), malate, and oxalate were measured by ion chromatography. The mean concentrations of H(2)PO(4)(-), Co, Cr, and Na significantly differed (P < 0.01) between taro grown in Japan and that grown in China. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify the most efficient combination of elements and compounds to discriminate the taro geographic origin. The highest percentage of correct classification was achieved with a two-variable model including H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co (100% for Japanese, 93.75% for Chinese). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using all of the assayed elements and compounds were also conducted to determine which elements significantly accounted for the variation of the taro mineral composition. We report on the potential of H(2)PO(4)(-) and Co concentrations to differentiate taro grown in China and Japan and discuss the sources of variability in the taro mineral composition of our samples. PMID:21425858

Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Noda, Akihiko; Iwata, Naoko; Nakano, Akimasa; Nakamura, Satoru; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

2011-05-11

343

Genomic cloning and characterization of a PPA gene encoding a mannose-binding lectin from Pinellia pedatisecta.  

PubMed

A gene encoding a mannose-binding lectin, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA), was isolated from leaves of Pinellia pedatisecta using genomic walker technology. The ppa contained an 1140-bp 5'-upstream region, a 771-bp open reading frame (ORF) and an 829-bp 3'-downstream region. The ORF encoded a precursor polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues with a 24-amino acid signal peptide. There were one putative TATA box and six possible CAAT boxes lying in the 5'-upstream region of ppa. The ppa showed significant similarity at the nucleic acid level with genes encoding mannose-binding lectins from other Araceae species such as Pinellia ternata, Arisaema hererophyllum, Colocasia esculenta and Arum maculatum. At the amino acid level, PPA also shared varying homology (ranging from 40% to 85%) with mannose-binding lectins from other plant species, such as those from Araceae, Alliaceae, Iridaceae, Lillaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Bromeliaceae. The cloning of the ppa gene not only provides a basis for further investigation of PPA's structure, expression and regulation mechanism, but also enables us to test its potential role in controlling pests and fungal diseases by transferring the gene into tobacco and rice in the future. PMID:16845824

Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuanwei; Fei, Jiong; Liao, Zhihua; Jin, Wang; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

2006-04-01

344

Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.  

PubMed

To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-? and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-? production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-? and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-? levels and high-level production of IFN-? in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

2012-12-01

345

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-01-01

346

Food processing methods influence the glycaemic indices of some commonly eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods.  

PubMed

Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were processed by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods processed by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet. PMID:16925852

Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N

2006-09-01

347

Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60?% similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4?% sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50?% DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) (?=?CNPSo 120(T)?=?LMG 27577(T)?=?IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24972614

Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

2014-09-01

348

Patterns of major metabolites biosynthesis by different mushroom fungi grown on glucose-based submerged cultures.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic potential of four basidiomycetes (Agrocybe aegerita, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum and Pleurotus pulmonarius) and one ascomycete (Morchella esculenta) was examined in regard to biomass, intracellular (endopolysaccharides and lipids) and extracellular (exopolysaccharides) compounds' production in liquid media with glucose as substrate, in static and agitated cultures. Exopolysaccharides' production presented significant negative correlation with biomass, endopolysaccharides and lipids, while biomass was positively related to the production of endopolysaccharides and lipids. Maximum values of biomass, endo- and exo-polysaccharides obtained were quite impressive: P. pulmonarius produced 22.5 g/L of biomass, A. aegerita 60.4 % (w/w) of endopolysaccharides and F. velutipes 1.2 g/L of exopolysaccharides. Polysaccharides and lipids synthesized at the early growth stages were subjected to degradation as the fermentation proceeded. Mycelial lipids of all strains were highly unsaturated, dominated by linoleic acid, whereas glucose was the main building block of endopolysaccharides. The ability of the examined mushroom fungi to synthesize in high quantities biomass and polysaccharides, products with biotechnological and medicinal interest, renders these fungi as potential candidates in sugar-based bio-refineries. PMID:24366161

Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

2014-07-01

349

Agricultural Encroachment: Implications for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical African Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical wetlands have been shown to exhibit high rates of net primary productivity and may therefore play an important role in global climate change mitigation through carbon assimilation and sequestration. Many permanently flooded areas of tropical East Africa are dominated by the highly productive C4 emergent macrophyte sedge, Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus). However, increasing population densities around wetland margins in East Africa are reducing the extent of papyrus coverage due to the planting of subsistence crops such as Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). We have assessed the impact of this land use change on the carbon cycle in theis wetland environment. Eddy covariance techniques were used, on a campaign basis, to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide over both papyrus and cocoyam dominated wetlands located on the Ugandan shore of Lake Victoria. The integration of flux data over the annual cycle shows that papyrus wetlands have the potential to act as a sink for significant amounts of carbon, in the region of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The cocoyam vegetation was found to assimilate ~7 t C ha-1 yr-1 but when carbon exports from crop biomass removal were taken into account these wetlands represent a significant net loss of carbon of similar magnitude. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required in order to promote the dual wetland function of crop production and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions especially under future climate change scenarios.

Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.; Kansiime, F.

2013-12-01

350

Reclassification of Rhizobium tropici type A strains as Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov.  

PubMed

Rhizobium tropici is a well-studied legume symbiont characterized by high genetic stability of the symbiotic plasmid and tolerance to tropical environmental stresses such as high temperature and low soil pH. However, high phenetic and genetic variabilities among R. tropici strains have been largely reported, with two subgroups, designated type A and B, already defined within the species. A polyphasic study comprising multilocus sequence analysis, phenotypic and genotypic characterizations, including DNA-DNA hybridization, strongly supported the reclassification of R. tropici type A strains as a novel species. Type A strains formed a well-differentiated clade that grouped with R. tropici, Rhizobium multihospitium, Rhizobium miluonense, Rhizobium lusitanum and Rhizobium rhizogenes in the phylogenies of the 16S rRNA, recA, gltA, rpoA, glnII and rpoB genes. Several phenotypic traits differentiated type A strains from all related taxa. The novel species, for which the name Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov. is proposed, is a broad host range rhizobium being able to establish effective root-nodule symbioses with Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Gliricidia sepium. Strain CFN 299(T) (?=?USDA 9039(T)?=?LMG 9517(T)?=?CECT 4844(T)?=?JCM 21088(T)?=?IAM 14230(T)?=?SEMIA 4083(T)?=?CENA 183(T)?=?UMR1026(T)?=?CNPSo 141(T)) is designated the type strain of Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov. PMID:21742822

Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Rogel, Marco A; López-López, Aline; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Martínez, Julio; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

2012-05-01

351

Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.  

PubMed

Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

2011-05-01

352

Soil properties and crop productivity as influenced by flyash incorporation in soil.  

PubMed

Field experiments were carried out during 1996-97 at Gulawathi, Muthiani and Salarpur Villages, IARI Farm, New Delhi and NCPP Campus, Dadri to evaluate changes in soil characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), lentil (Lence esculenta Moench.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) by varying amounts of flyash addition (up to 50t ha(-1)) in soils at sowing/transplanting time of crops. Flyash addition in areas adjoining NCPP Thermal Power Plant, Dadri, Ghaziabad, U.P. ranged from 5-12 t ha(-1)] yr(-1) in 1995-96. Shoot and root growth and yield of test crops at different locations after flyash incorporation resulted in beneficial effects of flyash addition in most cases. The silt dominant texture of flyash improved loamy sand to sandy loam textures of the surface soils at the farmers' fields. The increased growth in yield of crops with flyash incorporation was possibly due to modifications in soil moisture retention and transmission characteristics, bulk density, physico-chemical characters such as pH and EC and organic carbon content. The response of flyash addition in the soil on soil health and crop productivity needs to be evaluated on long-term sustainable aspects. PMID:12889638

Kalra, Naveen; Jain, M C; Joshi, H C; Chaudhary, R; Kumar, Sushil; Pathak, H; Sharma, S K; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Ravindra; Harit, R C; Khan, S A; Hussain, M Z

2003-09-01

353

Mineral composition of non-conventional leafy vegetables.  

PubMed

Six non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed largely by the rural populace of Nigeria were analyzed for mineral composition. Mineral contents appeared to be dependent on the type of vegetables. Amaranthus spinosus and Adansonia digitata leaves contained the highest level of iron (38.4 mg/100 g and 30.6 mg/100 g dw, respectively). These values are low compared to those for common Nigerian vegetables but higher than those for other food sources. All the vegetables contained high levels of calcium compared to common vegetables, thus they could be a rich source of this mineral. Microelement content of the leaves varied appreciably. Zinc content was highest in Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata and Cassia tora leaves (25.5 mg/100 g, 22.4 mg/100 g and 20.9 mg/100 g dw, respectively) while the manganese content was comparatively higher in Colocasia esculenta. The concentrations of the mineral elements in the vegetables per serving portion are presented and these values indicate that the local vegetables could be valuable and important contributors in the diets of the rural and urban people of Nigeria. The mean daily intake of P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn were lower than their recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). However, the manganese daily intake was found not to differ significantly (p = 0.05) from the RDA value. PMID:10890755

Barminas, J T; Charles, M; Emmanuel, D

1998-01-01

354

Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:21565018

Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P; Catanéo, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; García-Jiménez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, René; González, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mélodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

2010-01-01

355

[Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].  

PubMed

By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians). PMID:23789398

Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Va?shnora?te, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

2013-01-01

356

Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639

Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele

2011-01-01

357

Different modulation of steroidogenesis and prostaglandin production in frog ovary in vitro by ACE and ANG II.  

PubMed

Our aim was to study the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) on ovarian steroidogenesis and prostaglandin production of amphibian. Hormonal effects of ACE, ACE inhibitors, synthetic bullfrog angiotensin I (ANG I), and [Val5]ANG II were compared on frog ovaries of postreproductive and prereproductive periods. Very high ACE activity was found in ovary of water frog (Rana esculenta) compared with other frog tissues, and this activity was inhibited by the typical ACE inhibitors, captopril and lisinopril. Frog ovary tissue in postreproductive and prereproductive periods was incubated in vitro in the presence of ACE (2.5 mU/ml), captopril (0.1 mM), lisinopril (0.1 mM), [Val5]ANG II (1 microM), and synthetic bullfrog ANG I (1 microM). Production of 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone, androgens, and prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha was determined. The data showed a modulation of 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone, and prostaglandin E2 production by ovary ACE; on the other hand, [Val5]ANG II modulated the production of progesterone and prostaglandin F2 alpha, whereas androgen production was not influenced. The present in vitro studies suggest the existence of two pathways independently regulated by ACE and ANG II modulating ovarian steroidogenesis and prostaglandin production. PMID:9435665

Bramucci, M; Miano, A; Gobbetti, A; Zerani, M; Quassinti, L; Maccari, E; Murri, O; Amici, D

1997-12-01

358

Natural interspecies transfer of mitochondrial DNA in amphibians.  

PubMed Central

mtDNAs of two Central European water frog species, Rana ridibunda and Rana lessonae, were examined by electrophoresis of restriction enzyme fragments. Two types of mtDNA occur in R. ridibunda. One shares with mtDNA of R. lessonae 25.8% of 132 fragments generated by 19 enzymes, corresponding to a nucleotide sequence divergence of 8.1%; the other has diverged from R. lessonae mtDNA by only 0.3%. This latter type is a variant R. lessonae mtDNA that has been transferred into R. ridibunda; the introgression may have occurred via the hybridogenetic hybrid lineages collectively known as Rana esculenta. Of 37 R. ridibunda from Poland, 59% had the typical R. ridibunda mtDNA; 41% had the modified R. lessonae mtDNA as did a single individual from Switzerland (introduced). A single R. ridibunda from Turkey, outside the present range of R. lessonae, had the typical R. ridibunda mtDNA phenotype. Discordancies between inheritance of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes point up the danger of relying on a single molecular feature in reconstructing phylogeny. In addition, studies of mtDNA provide otherwise inaccessible information on complex evolutionary histories of closely related species. A knowledge of these complexities is important to an understanding of phylogenetic relationships and of the genetic processes that underlie the evolution of clonal taxa. Images PMID:6091109

Spolsky, C; Uzzell, T

1984-01-01

359

Radioactivity levels in some wild edible mushroom species in Turkey.  

PubMed

Eleven different wild-growing edible mushroom species collected from various regions of Turkey were analysed for their content of 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra and 232Th using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Specific activities of 226Ra and 232Th were generally below detection limits. The specific activities of 137Cs and 40K ranged from 2.4+/-0.3 to 109.0+/-7.3 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 28.4+/-27.2 Bq kg-1 (dry matter) and 715.5+/-50.1 to 1779.0+/-163.7 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 1150.8+/-315.2 Bq kg-1 (dry matter), respectively. The mean annual effective dose of 137Cs and 40K through mushrooms were estimated to be (7.0+/-6.0)x10(-3) microSv and 0.13+/-0.03 microSv, respectively. The overall intake of 137Cs is quite low and no significant contamination was found in collected mushroom species. The highest contents of 137Cs and 40K among the analysed mushrooms were in Morchella esculenta and Stropharia coronilla, respectively. PMID:17786670

Turhan, Seref; Köse, Abdullah; Varinlio?lu, Ahmet

2007-09-01

360

The medicinal uses of poi.  

PubMed

Poi is a pasty starch made from the cooked, mashed corm of the taro plant (Colocasia esculenta L.). Originating in Asia, this root crop is now found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions and was a major dietary staple in the Pacific islands. We hypothesize that poi has potential use as a probiotic-defined by FAO/WHO as, "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host." No scientific studies have explored the possibility of poi being used as a probiotic in medical nutrition therapy, however, an investigator determined that the predominant bacteria in poi are Lactococcus lactis (95%) and Lactobacilli (5%), both of which are lactic acid-producing bacteria. This investigator also reported that poi contains significantly more of these bacteria per gram than yogurt. To determine if poi is beneficial for certain health conditions, a literature search was conducted to find all available research studies in which poi was used as a complementary treatment. Documented evidence suggests that poi shows promise for use in infants with allergies or failure-to-thrive. However, to support previous findings, more research needs to be conducted with poi and its potential use as a probiotic. PMID:15481740

Brown, Amy C; Valiere, Ana

2004-01-01

361

The Medicinal Uses of Poi  

PubMed Central

Poi is a pasty starch made from the cooked, mashed corm of the taro plant (Colocasia esculenta L.). Originating in Asia, this root crop is now found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions and was a major dietary staple in the Pacific islands. We hypothesize that poi has potential use as a probiotic—defined by FAO/WHO as, “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host.” No scientific studies have explored the possibility of poi being used as a probiotic in medical nutrition therapy, however, an investigator determined that the predominant bacteria in poi are Lactococcus lactis (95%) and Lactobacilli (5%), both of which are lactic acid-producing bacteria. This investigator also reported that poi contains significantly more of these bacteria per gram than yogurt. To determine if poi is beneficial for certain health conditions, a literature search was conducted to find all available research studies in which poi was used as a complementary treatment. Documented evidence suggests that poi shows promise for use in infants with allergies or failure-to-thrive. However, to support previous findings, more research needs to be conducted with poi and its potential use as a probiotic. PMID:15481740

Brown, Amy C.; Valiere, Ana

2006-01-01

362

Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.  

PubMed

Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80?±?5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100?±?10 °C die temperature and 15?±?2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack. PMID:25190848

Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

2014-09-01

363

2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Palau and everywhere in the world, coastal coral reefs are threatened by sedimentation resulting from land clearing in the watersheds. Palau's largest island of Babeldaob is particularly susceptible to significant erosion due to its steep topography, high rainfall, and highly erodible volcanic soil. Previous studies have shown the damaging impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. Related studies conducted in Micronesia have also documented that mangroves can trap about 30% of the fine eroded sediment from land. This paper examines the sediment trapping capability of cultivated wetlands, in particular taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields, which are natural wetlands used to grow taro, a main staple crop for the population. A 7-months long field study was undertaken to quantify the sediment accumulation rate for taro fields and to determine their sediment trapping efficiency. The results showed that the taro fields were able to trap on average 90% of sediment, therefore sheltering coastal coral reefs and their fisheries from the negative impacts of terrestrial runoff. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the combined sediment trapping capacity of taro fields and mangroves helped reduce sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. This enabled human settlement for over 2000 years on a small Pacific Island with the main staple food being taro for starch and reef fish for protein. Even with a population of 30,000 people over Babeldaob Island, the living was sustainable for at least 1000 years, implying that the population was able to survive and prosper with its main food being the starch from taro fields and protein from reef fish. While there was intensive cultivation on land the sustainability of reef fisheries must have required that the reef be sheltered from excessive soil erosion.The structure of the taro field (mesei) initialized by the Palauan ancestors, has been maintained to this day. Their development, probably mostly after about A.D. 900 to 1100, was presumably the culmination of accelerated erosion in the island's interior following extensive clearing of the vegetation on slopes. Sediment analyses, radiocarbon dating, and archaeological investigations indicate substantial inland land disturbance starting around 2400 years ago (Liston and Tuggle, 2006; Liston, 2009). These findings almost certainly signify the use of the interior of Babeldaob Island by this time, including the onset of major earthwork (terrace) construction. Intensive and extensive inland use continued for about another 1200 years. The continuous deposition of inland erosional soils expanded the coastal plains and formed expansive fertile wetlands” (Athens, 2009).Culturally in Palau taro fields were tendered by women (Del Rosario and Esguerra, 2003). In other parts of Micronesia, taro is planted in well drained mixed gardens or ditches (Falanruw, 1980; Englberger et al., 2009). In Palau taro is commonly grown in swampy areas, often man-made, in the lowlands usually just upstream of the mangrove areas. Traditional management of taro cultivation in Palau can be considered a type of intensive agricultural method found in societies that possess a complex social structure that is reflected in traditional Palauan society. Taro cultivation in Palau is an amalgamation of skills and knowledge for both the plant and agricultural system.Palau taro field structure, regulations of water flow and management have persisted for many generations and have proven to an integral part of Palauan life which continues to be seen today. Taro fields are distinguished separately depending on cultivation methods and taro species being planted. To illustrate, an omrekongel is a marsh land in which giant taro (Cyrtosperma merkusii) is planted. A mesei is an irrigated wet land for planting taro (Colocasia esculenta) and dechel is a marsh land where taro and giant taro is cultivated (Palau Society of Historians, 2001). Culturally, Cyrtosperma is treated as a food source for famine where it has high r

Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

2014-05-01

364

Potential of trap crops for integrated management of the tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura in tobacco.  

PubMed

The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20-30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

2010-01-01

365

Crystal structure of tarocystatin-papain complex: implications for the inhibition property of group-2 phytocystatins.  

PubMed

Tarocystatin (CeCPI) from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaohsiung no. 1), a group-2 phytocystatin, shares a conserved N-terminal cystatin domain (NtD) with other phytocystatins but contains a C-terminal cystatin-like extension (CtE). The structure of the tarocystatin-papain complex and the domain interaction between NtD and CtE in tarocystatin have not been determined. We resolved the crystal structure of the phytocystatin-papain complex at resolution 2.03 Å. Surprisingly, the structure of the NtD-papain complex in a stoichiometry of 1:1 could be built, with no CtE observed. Only two remnant residues of CtE could be built in the structure of the CtE-papain complex. Therefore, CtE is easily digested by papain. To further characterize the interaction between NtD and CtE, three segments of tarocystatin, including the full-length (FL), NtD and CtE, were used to analyze the domain-domain interaction and the inhibition ability. The results from glutaraldehyde cross-linking and yeast two-hybrid assay indicated the existence of an intrinsic flexibility in the region linking NtD and CtE for most tarocystatin molecules. In the inhibition activity assay, the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused FL showed the highest inhibition ability without residual peptidase activity, and GST-NtD and FL showed almost the same inhibition ability, which was higher than with NtD alone. On the basis of the structures, the linker flexibility and inhibition activity of tarocystatins, we propose that the overhangs from the cystatin domain may enhance the inhibition ability of the cystatin domain against papain. PMID:21416241

Chu, Ming-Hung; Liu, Kai-Lun; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

2011-08-01

366

Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-related cell lines.  

PubMed

Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of agricultural plants on the proliferation of seven ATL-related human leukaemia cells, using three ATL cell lines (ED, Su9T01 and S1T), two human T-cell lines transformed by HTLV-I infection (HUT-102 and MT-2) and two HTLV-I-negative human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines (Jurkat and MOLT-4). A total of 52 samples of 80% ethanol extracts obtained from 30 types of agricultural plants were examined. On the basis of IC(50) values, we selected samples with greater activity than genistein, which was used as a positive control. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with extracts from leaves of Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (blueberry) on four cell lines (ED, Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat); seeds of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) exhibited the second highest activity. The bitter gourd seeds suppressed the proliferation of three cell lines (Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat). The extracts from edible parts of Ipomea batatas LAM. (sweet potato), edible parts of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (taro), skin of taro and seeds of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (mume) showed markedly greater inhibitory effects on Su9T01 than genistein. These findings suggest that ATL-preventative bioactive compounds may exist in these agricultural plants, which are considered to be functional foods. PMID:21293936

Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji

2011-07-01

367

A cytokine-inducing hemagglutinin from small taros.  

PubMed

A 22.4-kDa dimeric hemagglutinin was isolated from tubers of Colocasia esculenta cv. 'Small Taro' by employing a purification protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono Q, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was isolated from the fraction of the taro extract adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and subsequently adsorbed on Mono Q. The major absorbance peak from the Superdex 75 column constituted purified hemagglutinin. Its hemagglutinating activity could not be inhibited by simple sugars, and was stable after exposure for 30 minutes to temperatures up to 40 degrees C and to ambient pH in the range of pH 2 to pH 13. The activity decreased progressively when the ambient temperature was raised from 40 degrees C to 100 degrees C. Negligible activity was detected at 100 degrees C. The activity plummeted, with about 40% and 10% remaining, 4 minutes and 20 minutes after exposure to 100 degrees C, respectively. About half of the activity remained at pH 0 and pH 1 whereas the activity was completely abolished at pH 14. The hemagglutinin exhibited slight anti-tumor activity toward hepatoma HepG2 cells, and weak mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes. It induced expression of the cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, it was devoid of anti-fungal activity toward a number of fungal species. PMID:19807671

Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

2010-07-01

368

Phylogeny of selected Sepiidae (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) based on 12S, 16S, and COI sequences, with comments on the taxonomic reliability of several morphological characters.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among 11 species of sepiids from Japanese waters and Sepia officinalis from Mediterranean were studied using partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes. These three genes had been analyzed in an Atlantic species S. elagans and was obtained from database. In the two-gene set analysis (16S+COI), sequence data of another 4 species were added from database. We also studied morphological characters of radulae, tentacular clubs, and cuttlebones. The molecular phylogeny was not congruent with relationships detected by the number of rows in radulae and the arrangement of suckers on the tentacular club. As to the cuttlebone shape, the molecular phylogeny suggests the separation of two groups, Doratosepion species with a lanceolate cuttlebone and the others with a broad cuttlebone. Our molecular phylogenetic study revealed these sepiids are separated into four clades. The first clade includes Sepia officinalis, S. hierrendda, S. bertheloti, S. pharaonis and Sepiella japonica. The second clade consists of S. latimanus and Metasepia tullbergi from sub-tropical waters. The third clade includes Sepia esculenta, S. madokai, S. aculeata and S. lycidas, which have a cuttlebone with a prominent spine. The fourth clade consists of Doratosepion species complex, S. kobiensis, S. lorigera, S. pardex, S. peterseni, and S. sp., which are characterized by a narrow cuttlebone with a distinct outer cone at the posterior end. The lack of membranous structures in the cuttlebone is a synapomorphy for this clade. S. elegans did not clearly belong to any of these clades and might represent the fifth clade. PMID:16702767

Yoshida, Masa-aki; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko; Furuya, Hidetaka

2006-04-01

369

Quantifying Nitrogen Loss From Flooded Hawaiian Taro Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004 a field fertilization experiment showed that approximately 80% of the fertilizer nitrogen (N) added to flooded Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields could not be accounted for using classic N balance calculations. To quantify N loss through denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathways in these taro systems we utilized a slurry-based isotope pairing technique (IPT). Measured nitrification rates and porewater N profiles were also used to model ammonium and nitrate fluxes through the top 10 cm of soil. Quantitative PCR of nitrogen cycling functional genes was used to correlate porewater N dynamics with potential microbial activity. Rates of denitrification calculated using porewater profiles were compared to those obtained using the slurry method. Potential denitrification rates of surficial sediments obtained with the slurry method were found to drastically overestimate the calculated in-situ rates. The largest discrepancies were present in fields greater than one month after initial fertilization, reflecting a microbial community poised to denitrify the initial N pulse. Potential surficial nitrification rates varied between 1.3% of the slurry-measured denitrification potential in a heavily-fertilized site to 100% in an unfertilized site. Compared to the use of urea, fish bone meal fertilizer use resulted in decreased N loss through denitrification in the surface sediment, according to both porewater modeling and IPT measurements. In addition, sub-surface porewater profiles point to root-mediated coupled nitrification/denitrification as a potential N loss pathway that is not captured in surface-based incubations. Profile-based surface plus subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification estimates were between 1.1 and 12.7 times denitrification estimates from the surface only. These results suggest that the use of a ‘classic’ isotope pairing technique that employs 15NO3- in fertilized agricultural systems can lead to a drastic overestimation of in-situ denitrification rates and that root-associated subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification may be a major N loss pathway in these flooded agricultural systems.

Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Bruland, G. L.; Popp, B. N.; Engstrom, P.; Mueller, J. A.; Tiedje, J.

2010-12-01

370

Modulation of the reaction cycle of the Na+:Ca2+, K+ exchanger.  

PubMed

Ca(2+) concentration in retinal photoreceptor rod outer segment (OS) strongly affects the generator potential kinetics and the receptor light adaptation. The response to intense light stimuli delivered in the dark produce potential changes exceeding 40 mV: since the Ca(2+) extrusion in the OS is entirely controlled by the Na(+):Ca(2+), K(+) exchanger, it is important to assess how the exchanger ion transport rate is affected by the voltage and, in general, by intracellular factors. It is indeed known that the cardiac Na(+):Ca(2+) exchanger is regulated by Mg-ATP via a still unknown metabolic pathway. In the present work, the Na(+):Ca(2+), K(+) exchanger regulation was investigated in isolated OS, recorded in whole-cell configuration, using ionic conditions that activated maximally the exchanger in both forward and reverse mode. In all species examined (amphibia: Rana esculenta and Ambystoma mexicanum; reptilia: Gecko gecko), the forward (reverse) exchange current increased about linearly for negative (positive) voltages and exhibited outward (inward) rectification for positive (negative) voltages. Since hyperpolarisation increases Ca(2+) extrusion rate, the recovery of the dark level of Ca(2+) (and, in turn, of the generator potential) after intense light stimuli results accelerated. Mg-ATP increased the size of forward and reverse exchange current by a factor of approximately 2.3 and approximately 2.6, respectively, without modifying their voltage dependence. This indicates that Mg-ATP regulates the number of active exchanger sites and/or the exchanger turnover number, although via an unknown mechanism. PMID:17415556

Vedovato, Natascia; Rispoli, Giorgio

2007-09-01

371

Ca2+ current of frog vestibular hair cells is modulated by intracellular ATP but not by long-lasting depolarisation.  

PubMed

Some aspects of Ca(2+) channel modulation in hair cells isolated from semicircular canals of the frog (Rana esculenta) have been investigated using the whole-cell technique and intra and extracellular solutions designed to modify the basic properties of the Ca(2+) macrocurrent. With 1 mM ATP in the pipette solution, about 60% of the recorded cells displayed a Ca(2+) current constituted by a mix of an L and a drug-resistant (R2) component; the remaining 40% exhibited an additional drug-resistant fraction (R1), which inactivated in a Ca-dependent manner. If the pipette ATP was raised to 10 mM, cells exhibiting the R1 current fraction displayed an increase of both the R1 and L components by approximately 280 and approximately 70%, respectively, while cells initially lacking R1 showed a similar increase in the L component with R1 becoming apparent and raising up to a mean amplitude of approximately 44 pA. In both cell types the R2 current fraction was negligibly affect by ATP. The current run-up was unaffected by cyclic nucleotides, and was not triggered by 10 mM ATPgammaS, ADP, AMP or GTP. Long-lasting depolarisations (>5 s) produced a progressive, reversible decay in the inward current despite the presence of intracellular ATP. Ca(2+) channel blockade by Cd(2+) unmasked a slowly activating outward Cs(+) current flowing through a non-Ca(2+) channel type, which became progressively unblocked by prolonged depolarisation even though Cs(+) and TEA(+) were present on both sides of the channel. The outward current waveform could be erroneously ascribed to a Ca- and/or voltage dependence of the Ca(2+) macrocurrent. PMID:17516060

Martini, Marta; Farinelli, Federica; Rossi, Maria Lisa; Rispoli, Giorgio

2007-09-01

372

Characterization of an iridescent virus isolated from Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).  

PubMed

We have isolated an iridescent virus from commercially produced colonies of Gryllus bimaculatus in Germany, which showed apparent mortality. Transmission electron microscopy studies on adult cricket specimens revealed the paracrystalline assembly of icosahedral virus particles in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied abdominal fat body cells. The infecting agent could be cultivated in the lepidopteran cell line sf-9, where it caused cytopathogenic effects such as cell hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and cell death within 8 days postinfection. Infection titers of the first virus passage reached 10(7.5) TCID(50)/ml. Negatively stained virus particles (n = 100) had dimensions of 172 +/- 6 nm (apex to apex) and 148 +/- 5 nm (side to side). SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of virus proteins showed more than 20 distinct polypeptides with a major species of approximately 50 kDa. Analysis of the restriction fragment length profiles from digestion of purified viral DNA with the endonucleases EcoRI, BamHI, and HindIII showed marked differences from the profiles of iridoviruses of lower vertebrates (genus Ranavirus), e.g., Rana esculenta Iridovirus and Frog virus 3. Restriction enzyme digests with the endonucleases MspI and HpaII indicated the lack of methylation of viral DNA. Polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a 420-bp gene fragment with 97% sequence homology to the major capsid protein gene of Chilo iridescent virus. These data indicate that this new isolate, which we propose to be termed Gryllus bimaculatus iridescent virus, belongs to the genus Iridovirus of the family Iridoviridae. PMID:11161994

Just, F T; Essbauer, S S

2001-01-01

373

Sarcomere-length dependence of myosin filament structure in skeletal muscle fibres of the frog.  

PubMed

X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded at beamline ID02 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility from small bundles of skeletal muscle fibres from Rana esculenta at sarcomere lengths between 2.1 and 3.5 ?m at 4°C. The intensities of the X-ray reflections from resting fibres associated with the quasi-helical order of the myosin heads and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) decreased in the sarcomere length range 2.6-3.0 ?m but were constant outside it, suggesting that an OFF conformation of the thick filament is maintained by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. During active isometric contraction the intensity of the M3 reflection from the regular repeat of the myosin heads along the filaments decreased in proportion to the overlap between thick and thin filaments, with no change in its interference fine structure. Thus, myosin heads in the regions of the thick filaments that do not overlap with thin filaments are highly disordered during isometric contraction, in contrast to their quasi-helical order at rest. Heads in the overlap region that belong to two-headed myosin molecules that are fully detached from actin are also highly disordered, in contrast to the detached partners of actin-attached heads. These results provide strong support for the concept of a regulatory structural transition in the thick filament involving changes in both the organisation of the myosin heads on its surface and the axial periodicity of the myosin tails in its backbone, mediated by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. PMID:24344169

Reconditi, Massimo; Brunello, Elisabetta; Fusi, Luca; Linari, Marco; Martinez, Manuel Fernandez; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Irving, Malcolm; Piazzesi, Gabriella

2014-03-01

374

Potential of Trap Crops for Integrated Management of the Tropical Armyworm, Spodoptera litura in Tobacco  

PubMed Central

The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20–30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

2010-01-01

375

A promoter derived from taro bacilliform badnavirus drives strong expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants.  

PubMed

Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV) is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus which infects the monocotyledonous plant, taro ( Colocasia esculenta). A region of the TaBV genome spanning nucleotides 6,281 to 12 (T1200), including the 3' end of open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) and the intergenic region to the end of the tRNA(met)-binding site, was tested for promoter activity along with four different 5' deletion fragments (T600, T500, T250 and T100). In transient assays, only the T1200, T600, T500 fragments were shown to have promoter activity in taro leaf, banana suspension cells and tobacco callus. When these three promoters were evaluated in stably transformed, in vitro-grown transgenic banana and tobacco plants, all were found to drive near-constitutive expression of either the green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the stem (or pseudostem), leaves and roots, with strongest expression observed in the vascular tissue. In transgenic banana leaves, the T600 promoter directed four-fold greater GUS activity than that of the T1200, T500 and the maize polyubiquitin-1 promoters. In transgenic tobacco leaves, the levels of GUS expression directed by the three promoters was between four- and ten-fold lower than that of the double Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. These results indicate that the TaBV-derived promoters may be useful for the high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in either monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous species. PMID:12910370

Yang, I C; Iommarini, J P; Becker, D K; Hafner, G J; Dale, J L; Harding, R M

2003-08-01

376

Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

377

Effect of prolonged saline-exposure on sodium transport across frog-skin  

PubMed Central

1. Differences in Na transport between skins from Rana temporaria and R. esculenta maintained for up to several weeks in water or 0·7% saline (0·7 g NaCl in 100 ml. H2O), with and without daily injections of 4% saline (4 g NaCl in 100 ml. H2O), were measured, in vitro. 2. In saline-treated skins, the following changes were found: (a) An increased Na content. (b) A consistent decrease in short-circuit current (Isc). (c) An increased d.c. resistance, R, the consistency of which varied with the anion content of the Ringer solution. (d) A highly significant fall in Na influx, accounting for the reduced Isc; a small reduction in Na efflux was not significant, statistically. (e) The Pitressin-induced increment in Isc was usually considerably lower compared with that in water-exposed skins; considered relative to the pre-Pitressin values, however, there were no clear differences. (f) By calculation from the changes in resistance (R) caused by replacement of outer Na2SO4 Ringer by K2SO4 Ringer solution, I. E0, the electromotive force of the active sodium transport system, was moderately, but significantly, reduced, II. R shunt, the shunt path resistance, was moderately, but significantly, increased, and III. Rser, the series path resistance, was considerably, and highly significantly, increased. (g) K influx from outer K2SO4 Ringer solution was reduced. 3. Differences between skins from water-exposed and saline-treated frogs persisted, in vitro, despite the occurrence of anionic-dependent acute changes after mounting in Ringer solution. 4. There were seasonal changes in Isc, and in the effects of saline treatment. 5. The findings are discussed in terms of decreased permeability of outer barriers to ion-diffusion, and reduced activity of a Na pump. PMID:5764403

Hornby, R.; Thomas, S.

1969-01-01

378

Neuroanatomical Organization of the Brain Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Systems in the Frog Pelophylax esculentus.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) may play a key role in mediating vertebrate reproduction. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons as well as by directly regulating gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary. Whereas the presence of GnIH has been widely investigated in various classes of vertebrates, there are very few immunohistochemical reports focusing on GnIH in amphibians. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and neuroanatomical distribution of GnIH-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the anuran amphibian Pelophylax (Rana) esculentus (esculenta) and to explore any potential anatomical relationship with mammalian GnRH-immunoreactive (mGnRH-ir) elements. The GnIH-like immunoreactive (GnIH-ir) system constitutes two distinct subpopulations in the telencephalon and diencephalon, with the highest number of immunoreactive cells located in the preoptic and suprachiasmatic areas. GnIH-ir neurons were also observed in the medial septum, the anterior commissure, the dorsal hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the posterior tuberculum. Scattered GnIH-ir fibers were present in all major subdivisions of the brain but only occasionally in the median eminence. mGnRH-ir neurons were distributed in the mediobasal telencephalon, the medial septal area, and the anterior preoptic area. Double-label immunohistochemistry revealed that the GnRH and GnIH systems coexist and have overlapping distributions at the level of the anterior preoptic area. Some GnIH-ir fibers were in close proximity to mGnRH-ir cell bodies. Our results suggest that both the neuroanatomy and the functional regulation of GnRH release are conserved properties of the hypothalamic GnIH-ir system among vertebrate species. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25471728

Pinelli, Claudia; Jadhao, Arun G; Biswas, Saikat P; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; D'Aniello, Biagio

2014-11-29

379

Actinokineospora bangkokensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, strain 44EHW(T), was isolated from rhizospheric soil under an Elephant ear plant (Colocasia esculenta) in Bangkok, Thailand. Strain 44EHW(T) produced long branching hyphae and abundant aerial mycelia with chains of rod-shaped spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained galactose, glucose, arabinose, ribose, mannose and rhamnose as diagnostic sugars. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was the diamino acid and glycine, alanine and glutamic acid were present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan with the acyl type of the peptidoglycan being acetyl. Phospholipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine with hydroxy fatty acids and diphosphatidylglycerol, as well as other unknown phospholipids; however, no mycolic acids were detected. The predominant menaquinone observed was MK-9(H4) and major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and 2-OH iso-C16 : 0. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 74 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this isolate was most similar to Actinokineospora enzanensis NBRC 16517(T). However, DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low relatedness between this isolate and A. enzanensis NBRC 16517(T), indicating that this isolate represented a novel species in the genus Actinokineospora. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data, we propose that strain 44EHW(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actinokineospora, Actinokineospora bangkokensis. The type strain is 44EHW(T) ( = BCC 53155(T) = NBRC 108932(T)). PMID:23291892

Intra, Bungonsiri; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko; Panbangred, Watanalai

2013-07-01

380

The Protective Effect of Esculentoside A on Experimental Acute Liver Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory response and oxidative stress are considered to play an important role in the development of acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Esculentoside A (EsA), isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, has the effect of modulating immune response, cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as anti-inflammatory effects. The present study is to evaluate the protective effect of EsA on CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury. In vitro, CCK-8 assays showed that EsA had no cytotoxicity, while it significantly reduced levels of TNF-? and cell death rate challenged by CCl4. Moreover, EsA treatment up-regulated PPAR-? expression of LO2 cells and reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) challenged by CCl4. In vivo, EsA prevented mice from CCl4-induced liver histopathological damage. In addition, levels of AST and ALT were significantly decreased by EsA treatment. Furthermore, the mice treated with EsA had a lower level of TNF-?, Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in mRNA expression. EsA prevented MDA release and increased GSH-Px activity in liver tissues. Immunohistochemical staining showed that over-expression of F4/80 and CD11b were markedly inhibited by EsA. The western bolt results showed that EsA significantly inhibited CCl4-induced phosphonated IkBalpha (P-I?B) and ERK. Furthermore, EsA treatment also alleviated GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury on liver enzyme and histopathological damage. Unfortunately, our results exhibited that EsA had no effects on CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis which were showed by TUNEL staining and Bax, Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3 expression. Our results proved that EsA treatment attenuated CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice and its protective effects might be involved in inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress, but not apoptosis with its underlying mechanism associated with PPAR-?, NF-?B and ERK signal pathways. PMID:25405982

Wang, Junjie; Fang, He; Wang, Zhihong; Sun, Yu; Xia, Zhaofan

2014-01-01

381

Comparative assessment of the value of papyrus and cocoyams for the restoration of the Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nakivubo wetland, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, separates the city of Kampala from the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (the sole raw water supply for Kampala). It provides tertiary treatment for the secondary effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, and heavily polluted wastewater (run-off, domestic and industrial effluents) from the Nakivubo channel. However, more than half of the wetland has been drained for agriculture and the natural papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus) has been progressively replaced by cocoyams ( Colocasia esculenta). In order to provide information that could be used in the restoration of Nakivubo wetland, a pilot study was carried out to assess the ecological characteristics (nutrient retention and growth characteristics) of the two plants. The plants were grown in wastewater effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, in experimental buckets under floating and rooted conditions. The wastewater was replaced every seven days. Papyrus plants were more efficient at removing NH 4-N while growing floating in wastewater or rooted in gravel (maximum values being 89.4% and 79%, respectively) than were cocoyams (67.7% and 68.3%) or the controls without plants (11% and 9%, respectively). The removal of orthophosphate by papyrus was also greater under the two growing conditions (values being 80% and 73%) than by cocoyams (66% and 63%) or the controls (11% and 14%). Biomass densities of papyrus were also higher (16.9 kg Dw/m 2 for the floating plants and 18.7 kg Dw/m 2 for the rooted ones) than of yams (5.9 kg DW/m 2 and 6.8 kg DW/m 2, respectively). It was also observed that the rhizomes of yams did not develop well under the floating conditions and were often rotten. It is concluded that, since papyrus has better wastewater treatment efficiency and superior growth characteristics, it should be encouraged to grow again in the wetland. It was also noted that if encroachment of the wetland by agricultural activities is halted, papyrus would eventually out-compete the yams. Keeping Nakivubo wetland inundated would offer papyrus a competitive advantage, since yams grow poorly when floating in water.

Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Rukwago, S.

382

Measurement of the conductance of the sodium channel from current fluctuations at the node of Ranvier.  

PubMed Central

Single myelinated nerve fibres of Rana esculenta were investigated under voltage clamp conditions at 13 degrees C. Fluctuations of steady-state membrane current were measured during the last 152 msec of 190-225 msec pulses depolarizing the membrane by 8-48 mV. Noise power spectral densities were calculated in the frequency range of 6-6-6757 Hz. 2. External application of 150 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX) and/or 10 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) ion reduced the current fluctuations. The difference of current noise spectra measured in the presence and absence of TTX (TEA) was not changed by the presence of TEA (TTX) during both measurements, and was taken as the spectrum of the Na (K) current fluctuations. 3. Residual current noise during application of both TTX and TEA was, except for some excess noise at the low and high frequency ends of the spectrum, similar to the noise measured from a passive nerve model and could be understood in terms of Nyquist noise of the known resistances and the amplifier noise. 4. Na current fluctuation spectra were interpreted as the sum N/f+SNa(f) where SNa(F) represents the spectrum expected for a set of equal, independent Na channels with only two conductance states (open or closed) which follow Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. With values of hinfinity, tauh and minfinity measured from macroscopic Na currents, the measured spectra were fitted well by optimizing N, SNa(0) and taum. Values of taum obtained by this method were in fair agreement with values found from macroscopic currents. 5. The 1/f component of Na current noise was roughly proportional to the square of the steady-state Na current, I2. The mean value of N/I2 was (1-1 +/- 0-3) X 10(-4). 6. The current carried by a single Na channel was calculated from fitted spectra and steady-state Na currents measured simultaneously with the current fluctuations. The single channel conductance gamma normalized to zero absolute membrane potential was calculated. The average gamma from twelve measurements at depolarizations of 8-40 mV was 7-9 +/- 0-9 pS (S.E. of mean). The apparent value of gamma was smallest with small depolarizations. Variations of the assumed kinetic properties of the model did not drastically affect the single channel conductance. 7. External application of 0-1 mM-Ni ion lengthened taum in the macroscopic currents and in the fluctuation spectra and enhanced both the steady-state Na current and the current fluctuations. In Ni-treated nodes gamma was smaller than in normal nodes. PMID:1087643

Conti, F; Hille, B; Neumcke, B; Nonner, W; Stämpfli, R

1976-01-01