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Sample records for z-score waist circumference

  1. Measuring Waist Circumference in Disabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; Ligthart, K. A. M.; Kramer, J.; Hoeve, S.; van der Schans, C. P.; Haisma, H. H.

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether waist circumference can be measured validly and reliably when a subject is in a supine position. This issue is relevant when international standards for healthy participants are applied to persons with severe intellectual, sensory, and motor disabilities. Thus, the aims of our study were (1) to determine the validity

  2. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  3. Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations. PMID:25479861

  4. Evaluation of Internet-Based Interventions on Waist Circumference Reduction: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions are more cost-effective than conventional interventions and can provide immediate, easy-to-access, and individually tailored support for behavior change. Waist circumference is a strong predictor of an increased risk for a host of diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, independent of body mass index. To date, no study has examined the effect of Internet-based lifestyle interventions on waist circumference change. Objective This study aimed to systematically review the effect of Internet-based interventions on waist circumference change among adults. Methods This meta-analysis reviewed randomized controlled trials (N=31 trials and 8442 participants) that used the Internet as a main intervention approach and reported changes in waist circumference. Results Internet-based interventions showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (mean change –2.99 cm, 95% CI −3.68 to −2.30, I2=93.3%) and significantly better effects on waist circumference loss (mean loss 2.38 cm, 95% CI 1.61-3.25, I2=97.2%) than minimal interventions such as information-only groups. Meta-regression results showed that baseline waist circumference, gender, and the presence of social support in the intervention were significantly associated with waist circumference reduction. Conclusions Internet-based interventions have a significant and promising effect on waist circumference change. Incorporating social support into an Internet-based intervention appears to be useful in reducing waist circumference. Considerable heterogeneity exists among the effects of Internet-based interventions. The design of an intervention may have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:26199208

  5. Waist circumference threshold values for type 2 diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2009-07-01

    Adult gains in body weight, excess adiposity, and intra-abdominal fat have each been associated with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), forming the basis for preventive medicine guidelines and actuarial predictions using practical indices of weight (e.g., body mass index [BMI]) and waist circumference (WC). As obesity-related disease spreads beyond affluent western countries, application of WC thresholds to other populations has highlighted issues of their generalizability. For example, U.S. national health goals based on BMI < 25 kg/m(2) and WC < 89 cm (women) and <102 cm (men) differ considerably with a recent law in Japan mandating intervention for older adults with WC exceeding 90 cm (women) and 85 cm (men). The U.S. military has also faced issues of generalizability of WC-based adiposity standards that are fair and achievable. Data from many studies indicate that WC is a reliable biomarker for T2DM risk, suggesting that, for adult men and women, action thresholds should be more stringent than current U.S. guidelines, and it would not be harmful to set worldwide targets somewhere below 90 cm for men and women, regardless of weight status. Medical technology has provided many great insights into disease, including modern imaging technologies that have differentiated fat depots that have the greatest influence on T2DM, but ultimately, an inexpensive measuring tape provides the most useful and cost-effective preventive measure for T2DM today. At some point in the future, a Star Trek-like abdominal body fat "tricorder" noninvasive assessment of tissue composition may provide an advantage over abdominal girth. PMID:20144326

  6. A Comparison between BMI, Waist Circumference, and Waist-To-Height Ratio for Identifying Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Grøntved, Anders; Andersen, Lars B.; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Background There is controversial evidence on the associations between anthropometric measures with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in pediatric ages. We aimed to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with clustered cardiometabolic risk factors and to determine whether these anthropometric variables can be used to discriminate individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and HOMA-IR). Methods The study sample of 4255 (2191 girls and 2064 boys) participants (8–17 years) was derived from pooled cross-sectional data comprising five studies. Outcomes included a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor z-score [corresponding to the sum of z-scores for triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mean arterial pressure), and HOMA-IR] and children with ≥1.0 SD in this score were defined as being at risk for clustering cardiometabolic risk factors.. Exposure variables were BMI, WC, WHtR. Statistics included mixed-effect regression and ROC analysis. Results All anthropometric variables were associated with clustered risk and the magnitudes of associations were similar for BMI, WC, and WHtR. Models including anthropometric variables were similar in discriminating children and adolescents at increased risk with areas under the ROC curve between 0.70 and 0.74. The sensitivity (boys: 80.5–86.4%; girls: 76.6–82.3%) was markedly higher than specificity (boys: 51.85–59.4%; girls: 60.8%). Conclusions The magnitude of associations for BMI, WC, and WHtR are similar in relation to clustered cardiometabolic risk factors, and perform better at higher levels of BMI. However, the precision of these anthropometric variables to classify increased risk is low. PMID:26901828

  7. Effect of Soymilk Consumption on Waist Circumference and Cardiovascular Risks among Overweight and Obese Female Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Nourieh, Zeinab; Attar, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Soy milk replacement in the diet might have beneficial effects on waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, we are going to determine the effects of soy milk replacements on the waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adults. Methods: In this crossover randomized clinical trail, 24 over weight and obese female adults were on a diet with soy milk or the diet with cow's milk for four weeks. In the diet with soy milk only one glass of soy milk (240 cc) was replaced instead of one glass of cow's milk (240 cc). Measurements were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Waist circumference reduced significantly following soy milk period (mean percent change in soy milk period for waist circumference: -3.79 ± 0.51 vs. -1.78 ± 0.55 %; P = 0.02 in the cow's milk period). Blood pressure, weight, liver enzymes and glycemic control indices did not changed significantly after soy milk period compared to the cow's milk period. Conclusion: Among over weight and obese patients, soy milk can play an important role in reducing waist circumference. However, soy milk replacement had no significant effects on weight, glycemic control indices, liver enzymes, fibrinogen and blood pressure in a short term trial. PMID:23189232

  8. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Henry S.; El ghormli, Laure; Jago, Russell; Foster, Gary D.; McMurray, Robert G.; Buse, John B.; Stadler, Diane D.; Trevio, Roberto P.; Baranowski, Tom; HEALTHY Study Group

    2014-01-01

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2) and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%28% among high-fatness and 8%13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%9% among high-fatness and 2%7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.130.20) than for WHtR (0.170.28). Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic) or girls (systolic and diastolic). In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart. PMID:25132986

  9. Correlation between waist and mid-thigh circumference and cardiovascular fitness in Korean college students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sung-Sik; Chung, Jae-Soon; So, Wi-Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated whether waist and mid-thigh circumference correlated with cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in a selected sample of Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 41 college students (25 males, 16 females; age, > 19?years) who visited the sports medicine laboratory at the Korea National University of Transportation in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea, to undergo measurements of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and waist and mid-thigh circumference. [Results] VO2max did not correlate with waist circumference or mid-thigh circumference in males, whereas VO2max was negatively correlated with mid-thigh circumference, but not waist circumference, in females. [Conclusion] Mid-thigh circumference was not associated with cardiovascular fitness or waist in male college students. However, it was associated with cardiovascular fitness in female college students. Well-designed studies are needed to investigate this further. PMID:26504348

  10. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Lus P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included

  11. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  12. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  13. Waist Circumference, Pedometer Placement, and Step-Counting Accuracy in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Mark G.; Hannon, James C.; Eisenman, Patricia A.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Pett, Marjorie; Williams, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in waist circumference (WC) and pedometer placement (anterior vs. midaxillary vs. posterior) affect the agreement between pedometer and observed steps during treadmill and self-paced walking. Participants included 19 pairs of youth (9-15 years old) who were matched for sex, race, and height and stratified by

  14. Are the Recent Secular Increases in Waist Circumference among Children and Adolescents Independent of Changes in BMI?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that the waist circumference of children and adolescents has increased over the last 25 years. However, given the strong correlation between waist circumference and BMI, it is uncertain if the secular trends in waist circumference are independent of those in BMI. Methods We analyzed data from 6- to 19-year-olds who participated in the 1988–1994 through 2011–2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess whether the trends in waist circumference were independent of changes in BMI, race-ethnicity and age. Results Mean, unadjusted levels of waist circumference increased by 3.7 cm (boys) and 6.0 cm (girls) from 1988–94 through 2011–12, while mean BMI levels increased by 1.1 kg/m2 (boys) and 1.6 kg/m2 (girls). Overall, the proportional changes in mean levels of both waist circumference and BMI were fairly similar among boys (5.3%, waist vs. 5.6%, BMI) and girls (8.7%, waist vs. 7.7%, BMI). As assessed by the area under the curve, adjustment for BMI reduced the secular increases in waist circumference by about 75% (boys) and 50% (girls) beyond that attributable to age and race-ethnicity. There was also a race-ethnicity interaction (p < 0.001). Adjustment for BMI reduced the secular trend in waist circumference among non-Hispanic (NH) black children (boys and girls) to a greater extent (about 90%) than among other children. Conclusions Our results indicate that among children in the U.S., about 75% (boys) and 50% (girls) of the secular increases in waist circumference since 1988–94 can be accounted for by changes in BMI. The reasons for the larger independent effects among girls and among NH blacks are uncertain. PMID:26506450

  15. Sitting Time and Waist Circumference Are Associated With Glycemia in U.K. South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jason M.R.; Bhopal, Raj; Douglas, Anne; Wallia, Sunita; Bhopal, Ruby; Sheikh, Aziz; Forbes, John F.; McKnight, John; Sattar, Naveed; Murray, Gordon; Lean, Michael E.J.; Wild, Sarah H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the independent contributions of waist circumference, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on glycemia in South Asians living in Scotland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 1,228 (523 men and 705 women) adults of Indian or Pakistani origin screened for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial. All undertook an oral glucose tolerance test, had physical activity and sitting time assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and had waist circumference measured. RESULTS Mean ± SD age and waist circumference were 49.8 ± 10.1 years and 99.2 ± 10.2 cm, respectively. One hundred ninety-one participants had impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, and 97 had possible type 2 diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, age (0.012 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ year−1 [95% CI 0.006–0.017]) and waist circumference (0.018 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ cm−1 [0.012–0.024]) were significantly independently associated with fasting glucose concentration, and age (0.032 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ year−1 [0.016–0.049]), waist (0.057 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ cm−1 [0.040–0.074]), and sitting time (0.097 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h−1 ⋅ day−1 [0.036–0.158]) were significantly independently associated with 2-h glucose concentration. Vigorous activity time had a borderline significant association with 2-h glucose concentration (−0.819 mmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ h−1 ⋅ day−1 [−1.672 to 0.034]) in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS These data highlight an important relationship between sitting time and 2-h glucose levels in U.K. South Asians, independent of physical activity and waist circumference. Although the data are cross-sectional and thus do not permit firm conclusions about causality to be drawn, the results suggest that further study investigating the effects of sitting time on glycemia and other aspects of metabolic risk in South Asian populations is warranted. PMID:21464463

  16. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies. PMID:24496996

  17. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    PubMed Central

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity) with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence), PA (physical activity), smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), CHOL (cholesterol), FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose), diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes). Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC). Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population. PMID:26770218

  18. Genome-wide association studies in East Asians identify new loci for waist-hip ratio and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wanqing; Kato, Norihiro; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Guo, Xingyi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Li, Huaixing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Yang, Xiaobo; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Li, Shengxu; Wu, Ying; Wu, Tangchun; Kim, Soriul; Guo, Xiuqing; Liang, Jun; Shungin, Dmitry; Adair, Linda S; Akiyama, Koichi; Allison, Matthew; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Cho, Yoon Shin; Choi, Bo Youl; Gao, Yutang; Go, Min Jin; Gu, Dongfeng; Han, Bok-Ghee; He, Meian; Hixson, James E; Hu, Yanling; Huang, Tao; Isono, Masato; Jung, Keum Ji; Kang, Daehee; Kim, Young Jin; Kita, Yoshikuni; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Nanette R; Lee, Jeannette; Wang, Yiqin; Liu, Jian-Jun; Long, Jirong; Moon, Sanghoon; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Rao, Dabeeru; Shi, Jiajun; Sull, Jae Woong; Tan, Aihua; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Wu, Chen; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Yao, Jie; Ye, Xingwang; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Lu; Rotter, Jerome I; Jee, Sun Ha; Lin, Dongxin; Mohlke, Karen L; He, Jiang; Mo, Zengnan; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Tai, E Shyong; Lin, Xu; Miki, Tetsuro; Kim, Bong-Jo; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    Sixty genetic loci associated with abdominal obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR), have been previously identified, primarily from studies conducted in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations of abdominal obesity with approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 53,052 (for WC) and 48,312 (for WHR) individuals of Asian descent, and replicated 33 selected SNPs among 3,762 to 17,110 additional individuals. We identified four novel loci near the EFEMP1, ADAMTSL3 , CNPY2, and GNAS genes that were associated with WC after adjustment for body mass index (BMI); two loci near the NID2 and HLA-DRB5 genes associated with WHR after adjustment for BMI, and three loci near the CEP120, TSC22D2, and SLC22A2 genes associated with WC without adjustment for BMI. Functional enrichment analyses revealed enrichment of corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling, GNRH signaling, and/or CDK5 signaling pathways for those newly-identified loci. Our study provides additional insight on genetic contribution to abdominal obesity. PMID:26785701

  19. Genome-wide association studies in East Asians identify new loci for waist-hip ratio and waist circumference

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wanqing; Kato, Norihiro; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Guo, Xingyi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Li, Huaixing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Yang, Xiaobo; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Li, Shengxu; Wu, Ying; Wu, Tangchun; Kim, Soriul; Guo, Xiuqing; Liang, Jun; Shungin, Dmitry; Adair, Linda S.; Akiyama, Koichi; Allison, Matthew; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Cho, Yoon Shin; Choi, Bo Youl; Gao, Yutang; Go, Min Jin; Gu, Dongfeng; Han, Bok-Ghee; He, Meian; Hixson, James E.; Hu, Yanling; Huang, Tao; Isono, Masato; Jung, Keum Ji; Kang, Daehee; Kim, Young Jin; Kita, Yoshikuni; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Nanette R.; Lee, Jeannette; Wang, Yiqin; Liu, Jian-Jun; Long, Jirong; Moon, Sanghoon; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Rao, Dabeeru; Shi, Jiajun; Sull, Jae Woong; Tan, Aihua; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Wu, Chen; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Yao, Jie; Ye, Xingwang; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Lu; Rotter, Jerome I.; Jee, Sun Ha; Lin, Dongxin; Mohlke, Karen L.; He, Jiang; Mo, Zengnan; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Tai, E. Shyong; Lin, Xu; Miki, Tetsuro; Kim, Bong-Jo; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    Sixty genetic loci associated with abdominal obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR), have been previously identified, primarily from studies conducted in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations of abdominal obesity with approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 53,052 (for WC) and 48,312 (for WHR) individuals of Asian descent, and replicated 33 selected SNPs among 3,762 to 17,110 additional individuals. We identified four novel loci near the EFEMP1, ADAMTSL3 , CNPY2, and GNAS genes that were associated with WC after adjustment for body mass index (BMI); two loci near the NID2 and HLA-DRB5 genes associated with WHR after adjustment for BMI, and three loci near the CEP120, TSC22D2, and SLC22A2 genes associated with WC without adjustment for BMI. Functional enrichment analyses revealed enrichment of corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling, GNRH signaling, and/or CDK5 signaling pathways for those newly-identified loci. Our study provides additional insight on genetic contribution to abdominal obesity. PMID:26785701

  20. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference. PMID:24257492

  1. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio cannot predict male semen quality: a report of 1231 subfertile Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Lu, J-C; Jing, J; Dai, J-Y; Zhao, A Z; Yao, Q; Fan, K; Wang, G-H; Liang, Y-J; Chen, L; Ge, Y-F; Yao, B

    2015-11-01

    There were controversial results between obesity-associated markers and semen quality. In this study, we investigated the correlations between age, obesity-associated markers including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC), the combination of age and obesity-associated markers, semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels in 1231 subfertile men. The results showed that BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR were positively related to age, and there were also positive relations between BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR and between sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), progressive motility (PR), sperm motility and per cent of normal sperm morphology (NSM). However, age, each of obesity-associated markers and the combination of obesity-associated markers and age were unrelated to any of semen parameters including total normal-progressively motile sperm count (TNPMS). Age, BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR were negatively related to serum testosterone and SHBG levels. However, only serum LH and FSH levels were negatively related to sperm concentration, NSM and sperm motility. In a conclusion, although age and obesity have significant impacts on reproductive hormones such as testosterone, SHBG and oestradiol, semen parameters related to FSH and LH could not be influenced, indicating that obesity-associated markers could not predict male semen quality. PMID:25418484

  2. Sleep Duration and Waist Circumference in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sperry, Susan D.; Scully, Iiona D.; Gramzow, Richard H.; Jorgensen, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has demonstrated a relation between insufficient sleep and overall obesity. Waist circumference (WC), a measure of central adiposity, has been demonstrated to improve prediction of health risk. However, recent research on the relation of insufficient sleep duration to WC in adults has yielded inconsistent findings. Objectives: To assess the magnitude and the consistency of the relation of insufficient sleep and WC Methods: A systematic search of Internet and research databases using Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO through July 2013 was conducted. All articles in English with adult human subjects that included measurements of WC and sleep duration were reviewed. A random effects meta-analysis and regression analyses were performed. Heterogeneity and publication bias were checked. Results are expressed as Pearson correlations (r; 95% confidence interval). Results: Of 1,376 articles, 30 met inclusion criteria and 21 studies (22 samples for a total of 56,259 participants) provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Results showed a significant negative relation between sleep duration and WC (r = ?0.10, P < 0.0001) with significant heterogeneity related to sleep comparison method. Potential moderators of the relation between sleep duration and WC were not significant. Funnel plots showed no indication of publication bias. In addition, a fail-safe N calculation indicated that 418 studies with null effects would be necessary to bring the overall mean effect size to a trivial value of r = ?0.005. Conclusions: Internationally, cross-sectional studies demonstrate a significant negative relation between sleep duration and waist circumference, indicating shorter sleep durations covary with central adiposity. Future research should include prospective studies. Citation: Sperry SD, Scully ID, Gramzow RH, Jorgensen RS. Sleep duration and waist circumference in adults: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2015;38(8):12691276. PMID:25581918

  3. Waist:height ratio, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome abnormalities in Colombian schooled adolescents: a multivariate analysis considering located adiposity.

    PubMed

    Agredo-Ziga, Ricardo Antonio; Aguilar-de Plata, Cecilia; Surez-Ortegn, Milton Fabian

    2015-09-14

    Very few large studies in Latin America have evaluated the association between waist:height ratio (W-HtR) and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Further, multivariable analyses verifying the independence of located subcutaneous fat have not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of W-HtR and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic syndrome abnormalities and high LDL-cholesterol levels in schooled adolescents before and after adjusting for trunk skinfolds and BMI. The sample consisted of 831 boys and 841 girls aged 10-17 years. Biochemical, blood pressure and anthropometrical variables were measured. Age- and sex-specific quartiles of W-HtR and WC were used in Poisson regression models to evaluate the associations. High WC values (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) were associated with high TAG levels in both sexes (prevalence ratio, boys: 257 (95 % CI 191, 344); girls: 192 (95 % CI 149, 247); P005). High W-HtR (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) was only independently associated with high TAG in female adolescents (199 (95 % CI 155, 256); P<005). In conclusion, WC showed better association with cardiometabolic risk than W-HtR in the children of this study. This observation does not support W-HtR as a relevant adiposity marker for cardiovascular and metabolic risk in adolescence. PMID:26279413

  4. Appropriate Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for Persons with Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Japan: a Large Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Narisawa, Sachiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Kato, Kiminori; Yamada, Kazumi; Sasaki, Juei; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2008-01-01

    Background In Japan, the current standard waist circumference cutoff value for persons with multiple cardiovascular risk factors remains controversial. In this study we aimed to analyze the health-check examination data from a large Japanese population and propose a revised waist circumference cutoff value. Methods Subjects of this study were 12,725 adults who underwent a health-check by thorough medical examination between April 2006 and March 2007. Medical examinations included measurement of waist circumference, fasting blood triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose concentrations, blood pressure and collection of demographic characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to multiple cardiovascular risk factors with two or more of the following: dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia or low HDL cholesterol), hypertension, and hyperglycemia defined by the Japanese criteria of metabolic syndrome. Results The average age of the subjects was 50.7 years (standard deviation [SD]: 8.8) for men and 49.7 years (SD: 8.6) for women. ROC curve analysis showed maximum sensitivity plus specificity at a waist circumference of 87 cm in men (0.66 and 0.62, respectively) and 83 cm in women (0.73 and 0.70). When analyzed by ten-year age groups, the ROC curves for younger age groups were shifted up and to the left compared to older age groups, but associations between cutoff values and age were not clear. Conclusion In Japan, the appropriate cutoff value of waist circumference for persons with multiple cardiovascular risk factors is 87cm for men and 83 cm for women. PMID:18305365

  5. Association of waist circumference with impaired six-minute walk in type 2 diabetes mellitus is independent of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Hong; Nolan, Mark; Negishi, Kazuaki; Burgess, John; Marwick, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction has been associated with impaired exercise capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this community-based study of 274 asymptomatic T2DM patients (71±4years, 55% men) with preserved ejection fraction, a comprehensive resting echocardiogram was performed to gather sensitive systolic and diastolic function parameters (including speckle tracking echocardiography), and a standard six-minute walk test was performed. Tertiles of increasing waist circumference were associated with worsening walk distance. In this community-based study, we found an association of waist circumference with impaired exercise capacity, independent of age, gender, diabetes duration, insulin and angiotensin blockade, LV mass, systolic and diastolic function. PMID:26785712

  6. Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of macrovascular complications and morbidities associated to metabolic syndrome are increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The combination of T1DM with features of insulin resistance similar to that of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), sometimes called “double diabetes”, has been associated with central obesity. Since the most methods to accurately detect body fat and insulin resistance are not readily available, we propose that certain indirect indexes for detecting obesity as waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index, may be useful when screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM. Methods We performed a transversal evaluation (clinical and biochemical) in all the patients of the T1DM Clinic (n = 120). We determined the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Statement Criteria by the American Heart Association/ National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation and the utility of certain anthropometric indexes for predicting double diabetes was evaluated. Results Thirty seven percent of the patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome using these criteria (n = 30). These patients were significantly older (p = 0.002), have a higher glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.036), cholesterol (p < 0.012) and triglyceride concentration (p < 0.01) as well as body mass index (p = 0.004), waist circumference (p = 0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.01) than the group without metabolic syndrome. Also their c-HDL is lower (p < 0.01). A value of 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio correctly classified the largest number of patients (68% of correctly classified) well as the waist circumference (66% of correctly classified) with an adequate specificity and sensibility. Meanwhile the most precise body mass index value only classified correctly to 61% of patients. Conclusion Our data show that waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio indexes are useful to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24594198

  7. Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and metabolic syndrome in a Congolese community: further research is still to be undertaken

    PubMed Central

    Katchunga, Philippe Bianga; Hermans, Michel; Bamuleke, Bertrand Akonkwa; Katoto, Patrick Cimusa; Kabinda, Jeff Maotela

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The criteria of positivity of waist circumference to define the metabolic syndrome as currently recommended for the population of sub-Saharan Africa do not take into account specific ethnic or regional variation. Methods The predictive value of different values of waist circumference compared with visceral fat as determined by OMRON BF510 body composition in 360 indigenous patients from Bukavu city between June 1, 2010 and May 30, 2011 was studied. Results The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a threshold value of 95 cm for men (sensitivity = 72.4%, specificity = 91.1%, area under the curve (99% CI) = 0.899 (0.833 to 0.965)) and 99 cm in women (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 78.3%, AUC (99% CI) = 0.844 (0.777 to 0.911)). This test also showed an independent effect on the probability of accumulation of visceral fat (Odd adjusted OR = 5.0 (99% CI: 2.1 to 11.7), p <0.0001). Conclusion The threshold value for pathological waist circumference currently used for black African populations may overpredict abdominal fat excess in women. Further studies are needed to provide adequate cutoffs in sub-Saharan populations. PMID:23503103

  8. Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy foods are nutrient dense and may be protective against long-term weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and annualized changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort who participa...

  9. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  10. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded to 85th WHtR percentile irrespective of age and gender. Twelve percent children (95% CI 10.1-13.0) had a WC ≥90th percentile and 16.5% children (95% CI 14.7-18.1) had a WHtR ≥0.5 while 11% children (95% CI 8.9-11.6) had both WC ≥90th percentile and WHtR ≥0.5. Significant predictors of central obesity included higher grade, urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES), high-income neighborhood and higher parental education. Children studying in higher grade (aOR 5.11, 95% CI 1.76-14.85) and those living in urban area with high SES (aOR 82.34, 95% CI 15.76-430.31) showed a significant independent association. Urban area with high SES and higher parental education showed a significant independent association with higher WC and higher WHtR while higher grade showed a significant independent association with higher WC. Conclusions Comprehensive worldwide reference values are needed to define central obesity and the present study is the first one to report anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity for Pakistani school-aged children. Eleven percent children were centrally obese and strong predictors included higher grade, urban area with high SES and higher parental education. These findings support the need for developing a National strategy for childhood obesity and implementing targeted interventions, prioritizing the higher social class and involving communities. PMID:22104025

  11. Independent effects of waist circumference and physical activity on all-cause mortality in Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Craig, Cora L

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent effects of waist circumference (WC) and physical inactivity on the risk of mortality in women. This prospective cohort study included 5421 female participants 20-69 years of age in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. WC was measured with an anthropometric tape and leisure-time physical activity levels over the previous 12 months were assessed with a questionnaire. Mortality surveillance was conducted by data linkage with the Canadian Mortality Database through 31 December, 1993. The hazard ratios (HR) of mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption included as covariates in all models. A total of 225 deaths occurred over an average of 12.4 years of follow up (67 500 person-years of follow up). Physical activity (HR = 0.78; 95% C.I.: 0.64-0.95) and WC (HR = 1.17; 95% C.I.: 1.05-1.31) were associated with mortality when included in separate regression models. When included in the same model, both physical activity (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.96) and WC (HR = 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04-1.30) remained independent significant predictors of mortality. In conclusion, physical inactivity and high WC have significant independent risks of premature mortality among women. PMID:16770355

  12. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

  13. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 9 vs. 61.6 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 0.8 vs. 61.5 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (weight: 44.9 9.3 vs. 51.4 10.6, P < 0.01; WC: 59.9 8 vs. 64 7.9, P < 0.01; BMI: 18.6 3.1 vs. 20.6 3.5, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The current study findings suggest that the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern is directly associated with waist circumference (marker of central obesity), while lacto vegetarian dietary pattern is reversely associated with weight, waist circumference and BMI. Special obesity pattern in Iranian young females can be justified by Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern. PMID:26082846

  14. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  15. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hexing; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 20112012. According to the physical examination data in October, 2011, 124 normal weight, 53 overweight, and 82 obese students 815 years of age were randomly chosen from these schools on the basis of BMI-based age- and sex-specific criterion. First morning urine was collected in January, 2012, and fourteen urine phthalate metabolites (free plus conjugated) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the associations between naturally log-transformed urine phthalate metabolites and BMI or WC. Results The urine specific gravity-corrected concentrations of nine urine phthalate metabolites and five molar sums were positively associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children after adjustment for age and sex. However, when other urine phthalate metabolites were included in the models together with age and sex as covariables, most of these significant associations disappeared except for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, some associations showed sex- or age-specific differences. Conclusions Some phthalate exposures were associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study and lack of some important obesity-related covariables, further studies are needed to confirm the associations. PMID:23437242

  16. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87years. It was registered the patients weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. Results After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r?=?0.20), glycemia (r?=?0.20), triglycerides (r?=?0.32), LDL (r?=?0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r?=?0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r?=??0.21) (p?

  17. Waist circumference, body mass index, and disability among older adults in Latin American and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sanggon; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) on disability among older adults from Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods Cross-sectional, multicenter city study of 5,786 subjects aged 65 years and older from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE) (1999-2000). Sociodemographic variables, smoking status, medical conditions, BMI, WC, and activities of daily living (ADL) were obtained. Results Prevalence of high WC (>88 cm) in women ranged from 48.5% (Havana) to 72.7% (Mexico City), while among men (>102 cm) it ranged from 12.5% (Bridgetown) to 32.5% (Santiago). The associations between WC and ADL disability were J shaped, with higher risks of ADL disability observed above 110 cm for women in Bridgetown, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo. The association in Sao Paulo is plateau with higher risk above 100 cm, and the association in Mexico City is closer to linear. Among men the associations were U (Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and Havana), J shaped (Montevideo), plateau (Santiago), and closer to linear in Mexico City (Figure 3). When WC and BMI were analyzed together, we found that participants from Sao Paolo, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo in the overweight or obese category with high WC were significantly more likely to report ADL disability after adjusting for all covariates. Conclusion The findings of this study suggests that both general and abdominal adiposity are associated with disability and support the use of WC in addition to BMI to assess risk of disability in older adults. PMID:22564360

  18. Ability of body mass index to predict abnormal waist circumference: receiving operating characteristics analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are the most used anthropometric measures to identify obesity. While BMI is considered to be a simple and accurate estimate of general adiposity, WC is an alternative surrogate measure of visceral obesity. However, WC is subject to significant inter-examiner variation. The aim of the present study was to correlate BMI and WC measures in a group of Brazilian adults to determine the most accurate BMI values for predicting abnormal WC. Methods BMI and WC were measured in 1184 volunteers (45.6??17.3yrs; 69% female) using standard procedures. Abnormal WC was defined as ?88cm in women and ?102cm in men using the traditional criteria, and ?80cm in women and ?90cm in men using the new criteria. Statistical analysis involved the calculation of Pearsons correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results BMI was strongly correlated with WC (women: r?=?0.87, p?

  19. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jrgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Vlzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jrgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity. PMID:26256530

  20. Changes in Individual Weight Status Based on Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lai Ming; Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight change predicted diseases and mortality. We investigate 3-year changes in individual body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in Hong Kong Chinese adults. Methods In the Population Health Survey, 7084 adults in 2003 (baseline) were followed up in 2006. Longitudinal anthropometric data were available in 2941 (41.5%) for BMI and 2956 for waist circumference. Weight status and central obesity were based on objectively measured BMI and waist circumference using Asian standards. Results Mean BMI (SD) increased from 22.8 (3.62) to 23.1 (3.95) (p<0.001) with 1.3 percentage point increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity (from 44.3% to 45.6%). One in 5 (22.0%) normal or underweight baseline respondents became overweight or obese and a similar proportion (24.8%) of overweight and obese respondents became normal or underweight. Prevalence of central obesity increased from 28.3% to 32.4% (p<0.001) with a non-significantly greater increase in women (30.0% to 38.1%) than men (23.0% to 26.1%) (p=0.63). A higher proportion of centrally obese respondents returned to normal (29.4%) than normal respondents developing central obesity (17.4%). Conclusions This is one of the few studies in Chinese, which found dynamic longitudinal changes (increase/stable/decrease) in individual weight status and waist circumference. Future studies with better follow-up and investigating the causes of such changes are warranted. PMID:25775476

  1. Built Environment and 1-Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M.; Acock, Alan; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50–75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006–2007 to 2007–2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard deviation, 4.3) and mean waist circumference increased by 1.76 cm (standard deviation, 5.6). Multilevel analyses revealed that neighborhoods with a high density of fast-food outlets were associated with increases of 1.40 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 2.04 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who visited fast-food restaurants frequently. In contrast, high-walkability neighborhoods were associated with decreases of 1.2 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 1.57 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who increased their levels of vigorous physical activity during the 1-year assessment period. Findings point to the negative influences of the availability of neighborhood fast-food outlets and individual unhealthy eating behaviors that jointly affect weight gain; however, better neighborhood walkability and increased levels of physical activity are likely to be associated with maintaining a healthy weight over time. PMID:19153214

  2. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 122:687–694; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307115 PMID:24800763

  3. Fatty liver index vs waist circumference for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Motamed, Nima; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Ajdarkosh, Hossein; Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Maadi, Mansooreh; Sayeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Pirzad, Reza; Abedi, Khadijeh; Aghapour, Sivil; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Zamani, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the discriminatory performance of fatty liver index (FLI) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The data of 5052 subjects aged over 18 years were analyzed. FLI was calculated from body mass index, waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and gamma glutamyl transferase data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between FLI and NAFLD. The discriminatory performance of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Area under the curves (AUCs) and related confidence intervals were estimated. Optimal cutoff points of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD were determined based on the maximum values of Youden’s index. RESULTS: The mean age of men and women in the study population were 44.8 ± 16.8 and 43.78 ± 15.43, respectively (P = 0.0216). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40.1% in men and 44.2% in women (P < 0.0017). FLI was strongly associated with NAFLD, so that even a one unit increase in FLI increased the chance of developing NAFLD by 5.8% (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.054-1.063, P < 0.0001). Although FLI showed good performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD (AUC = 0.8656 (95%CI: 0.8548-0.8764), there was no significant difference with regards to WC (AUC = 0.8533, 95%CI: 0.8419-0.8646). The performance of FLI was not significantly different between men (AUC = 0.8648, 95%CI: 0.8505-0.8791) and women (AUC = 0.8682, 95%CI: 0.8513-0.8851). The highest performance with regards to age was related to the 18-39 age group (AUC = 0.8930, 95%CI: 0.8766-0.9093). The optimal cutoff points of FLI were 46.9 in men (sensitivity = 0.8242, specificity = 0.7687, Youden’s index = 0.5929) and 53.8 in women (sensitivity = 0.8233, specificity = 0.7655, Youden’s index = 0.5888). CONCLUSION: Although FLI had acceptable discriminatory power in the diagnosis of NAFLD, WC was a simpler and more accessible index with a similar performance. PMID:26973398

  4. Is the association of type II diabetes with waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio stronger than that with body mass index?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Q; Nyamdorj, R

    2010-01-01

    In total, 17 prospective and 35 cross-sectional studies in adults aged 18-74 years, with the aim of comparing betweenbody mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in their relation to the incidence and prevalence of type II diabetes, were reviewed. Among these studies, only a few have used C-statistic, paired homogeneity test or log-likelihood ratio test for formally comparing the differences. Five prospective studies, in which formal statistic tests have been made, came out with inconsistent findings: two results were in favour of WC in Mexicans African Americanss, respectively, one result was in favour of BMI in Pima Indians, and no difference was found in the other 2 studies. Among the 11 cross-sectional studies that have formally tested the differences, most found a higher odds ratio or slightly larger area under the ROC curve (AUC) for WC than for BMI. A meta-analysis based on the individual data of the Asian cohorts using a paired homogeneity test showed, however, that there was no difference in odds ratio between BMI and WC in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Mongolian and Filipino men. In conclusion, all studies included in this review showed that either BMI or WC (WHR) predicted or was associated with type II diabetes independently, regardless of the controversial findings on which of these obesity indicators is better. PMID:19724291

  5. Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50 ± 8.8 years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2) was 27.8 ± 3.7 and 25.5 ± 4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm) 94.1 ± 9.7 and 84.3 ± 10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5 hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r = −0.280 and r = −0.377, respectively, p > 0.05 for both) and in women (r = −0.514 and r = −0.491, respectively, p > 0.05 for both). In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:23317009

  6. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Schrder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Design Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ?0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC?90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). Results IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR?0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC?90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. Conclusion The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice. PMID:24475305

  7. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, Mara Lola; Apolinar-Jimnez, Evelia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n = 110) Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC) of 0.651 (P = 0.008), cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P < 0.001), cut-off point of ?90?cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P = 0.008), cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ?0.62 and WHtR ?0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P = 0.006) and AUC of 0.717 (P = 0.014) for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ? 0.6) could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents. PMID:25574166

  8. Reliability and practicality of measuring waist circumference to monitor cardiovascular risk among community mental health center patients.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jessica; Palmese, Laura; Chwastiak, Lydia A; Ratliff, Joseph C; Reutenauer, Erin L; Jean-Baptiste, Michel; Tek, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of measuring waist circumference (WC) in obese individuals with severe psychiatric disabilities. Reliability of the measure and researchers' comfort were assessed. Thirty outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from an urban community mental health center and WC was measured using two methods by three different raters. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was calculated. Raters reported on their comfort with obtaining WC. There was good inter-rater reliability and an acceptable rate of error independent of measurement location. Overall, raters were not comfortable with the WC measurement process for multiple reasons and reported difficulty with the measurement process. Our findings suggest that non-medical staff can reliably and validly measure WC within a typical outpatient mental health treatment setting, but discomfort with the procedure and difficulty with the measurement process may interfere with this practice as part of usual care. PMID:23306677

  9. Food Composition of the Diet in Relation to Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Forouhi, Nita G.; Halkjær, Jytte; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van der A, Daphne L.; Masala, Giovanna; Steffen, Annika; Palli, Domenico; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio; Sørensen, Thorkild I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in “waist circumference for a given BMI” (WCBMI), a proxy for abdominal adiposity. Design We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WCBMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WCBMI (ΔWCBMI, cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWCBMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Results Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WCBMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWCBMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score – indicating a more favourable dietary pattern –showed a ΔWCBMI of −0.11 (95% CI −0.09 to −0.14) cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusion A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:21858094

  10. Waist circumference is positively correlated with markers of inflammation and negatively with adiponectin in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Daniela; Jones, Jennifer; Barona, Jacqueline; Calle, Mariana C; Kim, Jung Eun; LaPia, Branden; Volek, Jeff S; McIntosh, Mark; Kalynych, Colleen; Najm, Wadie; Lerman, Robert H; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS), with markers of inflammation and macronutrient intake in 89 women (25-72 years) with MetS. We hypothesized that waist circumference (WC) would have the stronger correlations with inflammatory parameters and would correlate with carbohydrate intake. Values for WC (108.7 11.1 cm) and plasma triglycerides (202.7 52.1 mg/dL) were elevated, whereas plasma glucose levels varied from 66 to 179 mg/dL, with 42% of women having insulin resistance. Plasma levels of interleukin 6 (0.2-15.9 mg/L), tumor necrosis factor ? (1.47-12.3 mg/L), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.06-3.08 mg/dL) varied widely, with most women being above values considered normal. Subjects had high intake of total sugar (92.3 56.4 g/d), high glycemic index (59.8 6.5), and glycemic load (127.2 56.1), whereas dietary fiber (17.1 9.1 g/d) was below recommended intake. Waist circumference was positively correlated with insulin (r = 0.275, P < .01) and with the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (r = 0.307, P < .01) and tumor necrosis factor ? (r = 0.228, P < .05) and negatively correlated with plasma adiponectin (r = -0.309, P < .0001). In addition, WC was positively correlated with total carbohydrate, added sugar, and glycemic load (P < .05) but not with fat or protein. These results are consistent with central obesity being a key marker of the inflammatory state, and they also suggest that carbohydrates, particularly those that are digested rapidly, contribute to increased risk of central obesity and development of MetS. PMID:21481713

  11. AB164. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio can not predict male semen quality: a report of 1,231 infertile Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin-Chun; Jing, Jun; Dai, Jia-Yin; Zhao, Allan Z.; Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background There were controversial results between obesity-associated markers and semen quality. Methods In this study, we investigated the correlations between age, obesity-associated markers including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC), the combination of age and obesity-associated markers, semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels in 1,231 infertile men. Results The results showed that BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR were positively related to age, and there were also positive relations between BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR and between sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), PR, sperm motility and percent of normal sperm morphology (NSM). However, age, each of obesity-associated markers, and the combination of obesity-associated markers and age were unrelated to any of semen parameters including total normal-progressively motile sperm count (TNPMS). Age, BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR were negatively related to serum testosterone and SHBG levels. However, only serum LH and FSH levels were negatively related to sperm concentration, NSM and sperm motility. Conclusions Although age and obesity have significant impacts on reproductive hormones such as testosterone, SHBG and estradiol, semen parameters related to FSH and LH could not be influenced, indicating that obesity-associated markers could not predict male semen quality.

  12. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    PubMed Central

    Gmez-Arbelez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A.; Cohen, Daniel D.; Rincn-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzn, Sandra; Duperly, John; Lpez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current epidemic of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income familys ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food. PMID:24514426

  13. Increases in Waist Circumference and Weight As Predictors of Type 2 Diabetes in Individuals With Impaired Fasting Glucose: Influence of Baseline BMI

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Alain; Roussel, Ronan; Ducluzeau, Pierre H.; Lange, Cline; Vol, Sylviane; Balkau, Beverley; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) the relative importance of increases in waist circumference and weight on progression to type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The 9-year incidence of diabetes was studied in 979 men and women with baseline IFG, from the Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort. RESULTS Increases in both waist circumference and weight were significantly associated with diabetes incidence. Standardized odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.79 (1.452.21) and 1.86 (1.512.30), respectively, after controlling for baseline risk factors. The impact of waist circumference increase was greater for BMI <25 kg/m2 (2.40 [1.633.52]) than for BMI ?25 kg/m2 (1.66 [1.282.16]) and persisted after adjusting for concurrent changes in either insulinemia or the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. Weight change had a similar impact in both BMI groups. CONCLUSIONS In individuals with IFG, it is important to monitor and prevent increases in waist circumference, in particular for those with BMI <25 kg/m2. PMID:20484131

  14. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

  15. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National

  16. Association Between Perceived Interpersonal Everyday Discrimination and Waist Circumference Over a 9-Year Period in the Midlife Development in the United States Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunte, Haslyn E. R.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between perceived interpersonal experiences of discrimination and measures of obesity is of great interest to many. This study examined the relation between changes in waist circumference and changes in perceived interpersonal everyday discrimination using the 19952004 Midlife Development in the United States cohort study (N = 1,452). After controlling for potential confounding variables that assessed behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics, sex-stratified ordinary least squares regression analyses suggested that the waist circumference of adult males who reported consistently high levels of interpersonal everyday discrimination increased 2.39 cm more than that of adult males who consistently reported low levels of interpersonal everyday discrimination (P < 0.05). Similarly, the waist circumference of adult females who reported an increase in interpersonal everyday discrimination increased 1.88 cm more than that of adult females who reported consistently low levels of interpersonal everyday discrimination (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that perceived interpersonal everyday discrimination may be associated with an increase in waist circumference over time among adults in the United States. PMID:21354988

  17. Interaction between Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity and Dietary Protein in Relation to Subsequent Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference

    PubMed Central

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Larsen, Sofus C.; ngquist, Lars; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjr, Jytte; Tjnneland, Anne; Linneberg, Allan; Toft, Ulla; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Heitmann, Berit L.; Astrup, Arne; Srensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. Objective To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (?BW) or change in WC (?WC). Design Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ?5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ?BW or ?WC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses. Results When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ?BW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: ?32.3; 114.3]) or ?WC (

  18. Effect of phosphorus supplementation on weight gain and waist circumference of overweight/obese adults: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, J J; Samra, M J A; Hlais, S A; Bassil, M S; Obeid, O A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phosphorus status is inversely correlated with body weight; however, the effect of phosphorus supplementation on body weight in a controlled design has not been studied. Methods: This is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 63 adults aged 18–45 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ⩾25 kg m−2 and normal kidney function at the American University of Beirut. Participants were randomly assigned to the placebo or phosphorus group where daily placebo or phosphorus supplements were ingested with three main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) for a period of 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in anthropometric measures, blood metabolites (including lipid profile, glucose and insulin) and subjective appetite scores. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial.gov, NCT02329990. Results: Body weight was significantly lower in the phosphorus group when compared with the placebo group (−0.65 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) −1.69 to 0.40) vs 1.13 kg (95% CI 0.19 to 2.06), P=0.01). Similarly, BMI and waist circumference were significantly lower in the phosphorus group when compared with the placebo group (−0.24 kg m−2 (95% CI −0.59 to 0.12) vs 0.42 kg m−2 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.78), P=0.01; −3.62 cm (95% CI−4.90 to −2.33) vs 0.38 cm ( 95% CI−0.44 to 1.20), P<0.001; respectively). Several parameters of subjective appetite scores were decreased in the phosphorus-supplemented group. Conclusions: Phosphorus supplementation for 12 weeks significantly decreases body weight, BMI, waist circumference and subjective appetite scores. These findings support a promising role of the mineral phosphorus in the prevention and management of obesity, especially abdominal adiposity. The exact mechanisms of action and longer-term effects still need to be elucidated. PMID:26690287

  19. Dietary Determinants of Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index a Proxy Measure of Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Romaguera, Dora; ngquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Forouhi, Nita G.; Halkjr, Jytte; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van der A, Daphne L.; Masala, Giovanna; Steffen, Annika; Palli, Domenico; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Overvad, Kim; Tjnneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio; Srensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype waist circumference for a given body mass index (WCBMI), a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WCBMI. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WCBMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WCBMI (?WCBMI, cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED), macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), fibre and ?WCBMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WCBMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a ?WCBMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13) in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21) in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a ?WCBMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12) in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10) in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher ?WCBMI. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WCBMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake. PMID:20644647

  20. Waist Circumference, Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Renal Function Decline in Korean Population: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyunju; Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Soong-Nang; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective investigation of obesity and renal function decline in Asia is sparse. We examined the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with renal function decline in a prospective study of Korean population. Methods A total of 454 participants who had baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels of more than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Hallym Aging Study (HAS) were included and followed for 6 years. Renal function decline was defined as follows: (1) an eGFR decline ?3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n?=?82 cases); (2) an eGFR decrease of 20% or greater (n?=?87 cases) at follow-up; (3) an eGFR decrease of 20% greater at follow-up or eGFR decline ?3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n?=?91 cases); and (4) an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up (n?=?54 cases). eGFR was determined based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between obesity and renal function decline. Results We found that central obesity was associated with faster renal function decline. Comparing WC of >95 cm in men or >90 cm in women with ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women, ORs (95% CIs) ranged from 2.31 (1.144.69) to 2.78 (1.196.50) for the 4 definitions of renal function decline (all p-values for trend <0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) also was associated with renal function decline. There was no significant association of BMI with renal function decline. Conclusions Central obesity, but not BMI, is associated with faster renal function decline in Korean population. Our results provide important evidence that simple measurement of central fat deposition rather than BMI could predict decline in renal function in Korean population. PMID:23536858

  1. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Elvestad Gabrielsen, Maiken; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. Participants 148 731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Primary outcome measures Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. Results The data included up to 66 809 never-smokers, 43 009 former smokers and 38 913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by −0.40% (95% CI −0.57% to −0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being −0.31% (95% CI −0.42% to −0.19), −0.08% (−0.19% to 0.03%) and −0.74% (−0.96% to −0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (−0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (−0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. Conclusions For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity. PMID:26264275

  2. Sensitivity and Specificity Improvement in Abdominal Obesity Diagnosis Using Cluster Analysis during Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Añez, Roberto; Toledo, Alexandra; Bello, Luis; Apruzzese, Vanessa; González, Robys; Chacín, Maricarmen; Cabrera, Mayela; Cano, Clímaco; Velasco, Manuel; López-Miranda, José

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of metabolic phenotypes during the construction of ROC curves for waist circumference (WC) cutpoint selection. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,902 subjects of both genders were selected from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study database. Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TSCA) was applied to select metabolically healthy and sick men and women. ROC curves were constructed to determine WC cutoff points by gender. Results. Through TSCA, metabolic phenotype predictive variables were selected: HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-βcell for women and HOMA2-IR, HOMA2-βcell, and TAG for men. Subjects were classified as healthy normal weight, metabolically obese normal weight, healthy and metabolically disturbed overweight, and healthy and metabolically disturbed obese. Final WC cutpoints were 91.50 cm for women (93.4% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity) and 98.15 cm for men (96% sensitivity, 99.5% specificity). Conclusions. TSCA in the selection of the groups used in ROC curves construction proved to be an important tool, aiding in the detection of MOWN and MHO which cannot be identified with WC alone. The resulting WC cutpoints were <91.00 cm for women and <98.00 cm for men. Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter subjects during classification. PMID:25945356

  3. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  4. Trajectories of Fat Mass Index, Fat Free-Mass Index, and Waist Circumference in Children Project HeartBeat!

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, Mona A.; Dai, Shifan; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.; Day, R. Sue; Harrist, Ronald B.; Labarthe, Darwin R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Body composition and fat distribution change dramatically during adolescence. Data based on longitudinal studies to describe these changes are limited. The aim of this study was to describe age-related changes in fat freemass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI), which are components of BMI, and waist circumference (WC) in participants of Project HeartBeat!, a longitudinal study of children. Methods Anthropometric measurements and body composition data were obtained in a mixed longitudinal study of 678 children (49.1% female, 20.1% black), initially aged 8, 11, and 14 years, every 4 months for 4 years (19911995). Trajectories of change from ages 8 to 18 years were measured for FFMI, FMI, and WC. Because of the small number of observations for black participants, trajectories for this group were limited to ages 8.515 years. Results Body mass index, FFMI, and WC increased steadily with age for all racegender cohorts. However, in nonblack girls, FFMI remained constant after about age 16 years. For black boys and girls, FFMI was similar at age 8.5 years but increased more steeply for black boys by age 15 years. In girls, FMI showed an upward trend until shortly after age 14 years, when it remained constant. In boys, FMI increased between age 8 years and age 10 years, and then decreased. Conclusions The extent to which each component of BMI contributes to the changes in BMI depends on the gender, race, and age of the individual. Healthcare providers need to be aware that children who show upward deviation of BMI or BMI percentiles may have increases in their lean body mass rather than in adiposity. PMID:19524154

  5. The Relationship of Waist Circumference and BMI to Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat: Sex and Race Differences

    PubMed Central

    Camhi, Sarah M.; Bray, George A.; Bouchard, Claude; Greenway, Frank L.; Johnson, William D.; Newton, Robert L.; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H.; Smith, Steven R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (1839 and 4064 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI. PMID:20948514

  6. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. PMID:20851311

  7. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001). W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P < 0.0001). SSCB intake was positively associated with poor dietary choices in both males and females. Fast food meal intake, savory snacks, iced desserts and total sugar consumption correlated with SSCB intake in both boys (r = 0.39, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.52 respectively, P < 0.001) and girls (r = 0.45, 0.23, 0.16 and 0.55 respectively, P < 0.001). Older children reported eating significantly less fruit and vegetables than younger children; and less eggs, fish and cereals. Conversely, consumption of SSCB and sugar-sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also showed the lowest frequency of exercise. Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact. PMID:20459689

  8. Increased waist circumference is independently associated with hypothyroidism in Mexican Americans: replicative evidence from two large, population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans are at an increased risk of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus it is conceivable that some components of the MS may be associated with the risk of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals. Our objective was to investigate and replicate the potential association of MS traits with thyroid dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Methods We conducted association testing for 18 MS traits in two large studies on Mexican Americans the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 200710. A total of 907 participants from 42 families in SAFHS and 1633 unrelated participants from NHANES 200710 were included in this study. The outcome measures were prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid function index (TFI) a measure of thyroid function. For the SAFHS, we used polygenic regression analyses with multiple covariates to test associations in setting of family studies. For the NHANES 200710, we corrected for the survey design variables as needed for association analyses in survey data. In both datasets, we corrected for age, sex and their linear and quadratic interactions. Results TFI was an accurate indicator of clinical thyroid status (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve to detect clinical hypothyroidism, 0.98) in both SAFHS and NHANES 200710. Of the 18 MS traits, waist circumference (WC) showed the most consistent association with TFI in both studies independently of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). In the SAFHS and NHANES 200710 datasets, each standard deviation increase in WC was associated with 0.13 (p?

  9. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Children Selected for Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Using Mid Upper Arm Circumference and/or Weight-for-Height Z-Score

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Guesdon, Benjamin; Labar, Amy S.; Hanson, Kerstin; Langendorf, Celine; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Debate for a greater role of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measures in nutritional programming continues, but a shift from therapeutic feeding programs admitting children using MUAC and/or weight-for-height Z (WHZ) to a new model admitting children using MUAC only remains complicated by limited information regarding the clinical profile and response to treatment of children selected by MUAC vs. WHZ. To broaden our understanding of how children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ may differ, we aimed to investigate differences between children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ in terms of demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory and treatment response characteristics. Methods Using secondary data from a randomized trial in rural Niger among children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition, we compared children that would be admitted to a therapeutic feeding program that used a single anthropometric criterion of MUAC< 115 mm vs. children that are admitted under current admission criteria (WHZ< -3 and/or MUAC< 115 mm) but would be excluded from a program that used a single MUAC< 115 mm admission criterion. We assessed differences between groups using multivariate regression, employing linear regression for continuous outcomes and log-binomial regression for dichotomous outcomes. Results We found no difference in terms of clinical and laboratory characteristics and discharge outcomes evaluated between children that would be included in a MUAC< 115 mm therapeutic feeding program vs. children that are currently eligible for therapeutic feeding but would be excluded from a MUAC-only program. Conclusions A single anthropometric admission criterion of MUAC < 115 mm did not differentiate well between children in terms of clinical or laboratory measures or program outcomes in this context. If nutritional programming is to use a single MUAC-based criterion for admission to treatment, further research and program experience can help to identify the most appropriate criterion in a broad range of contexts to target children in most urgent need of treatment. PMID:26376281

  10. Changes in skinfold thickness and waist circumference after 12 and 24 months resulting from the NHF-NRG In Balance-project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of weight gain prevention programmes. The present study tested the 12-and 24-month effectiveness of the 'Netherlands Research programme weight Gain prevention' (NHF-NRG)-In Balance-project, a worksite-based intervention aimed at the prevention of weight gain. Methods Twelve worksites (n = 553 participants) were matched and assigned to either intervention or control group. The worksites and employees of the intervention group received individual (i.e. pedometer, computer-tailored advice) and environmental (i.e. changes in worksite canteen) interventions, directed at physical activity and food intake over 1-year. Differences between the intervention and control group in changes in body weight, BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference at 12 and 24 months were examined using multilevel linear regression analyses adjusting for various baseline characteristics (age, gender, BMI, marital status, education and smoking status). Results A significant greater reduction in skinfold thickness was found in the intervention group than in the control group, both after 12-and 24 months (Unstandardized regression coefficients (B) = -2.52, 95% C.I. -4.58, -0.45; p = 0.018; B = -4.83, 95% C.I. 6.98, -2.67; p < 0.001 respectively). Significant differences were also observed for changes in waist circumferences both at 12 months (B = -1.50, 95% C.I. -2.35, -0.65; p < 0.001) and at 24 months (B = -1.30, 95% C.I. -2.18, -0.42; p = 0.005). No significant changes were observed for weight and BMI. Conclusions The project was effective with regard to changes in skinfold thickness and waist circumference both at 12 and 24 months. It supports the usefulness of worksite-based prevention, especially regarding maintenance of behavioral changes. PMID:20370934

  11. Impact of body mass index and waist circumference on the long-term risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiac organ damage.

    PubMed

    Bombelli, Michele; Facchetti, Rita; Sega, Roberto; Carugo, Stefano; Fodri, Danilo; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Giannattasio, Cristina; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The present study assessed in the general population the impact of body weight and visceral obesity on the development of alterations in glucose metabolism and cardiac structure, as well as of elevation in blood pressure. In 1412 subjects randomly selected and representative of the general population of Monza, we assessed twice (in 1990/1991 and 2000/2001) body mass index (BMI); waist circumference; office, home, and 24-hour ambulatory (24-hour) blood pressure, fasting glycemia, and left ventricular mass (echocardiography). New-onset high-risk conditions were DM; impaired fasting glucose; office, home, and 24-hour HT; and LVH. The incidence of new-onset DM; impaired fasting glucose; office, home, and 24-hour HT; and LVH increased progressively from the quintile with the lowest to the quintile with the highest BMI values. Adjusting for confounders, the risk of developing new-onset DM; impaired fasting glucose; office, home, and 24-hour HT; and LVH increased significantly for an increase of 1 kg/m(2) of BMI and 1 cm of waist circumference (respectively, 8.4% [P<0.01], 9.5% [P<0.0001], 4.2% [P<0.0001], 3.9% [P<0.001], 2.5% [P<0.05], and 5.1% [P<0.001] for BMI and 3.2% [P<0.001], 3.5% [P<0.0001], 1.8% [P<0.0001], 1.5% [P<0.0001], 1.4% [P<0.001], and 2.6% [P<0.0001]). These data provide evidence that an increase in BMI and waist circumference is associated with a linearly increased adjusted risk of developing conditions with high cardiovascular risk, such as DM, impaired fasting glucose, in- and out-of-office HT, and LVH. PMID:22025375

  12. Dietary Fiber and Whole Grain Intake Lessen Gains in Weight and Waist Circumference in Normal Weight Individuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods rich in dietary fiber, such as whole grains, may play an important role in maintaining a healthy body weight and preventing obesity because of their lower energy density. We examined the relationship between dietary fiber and whole grain consumption and changes in body weight and waist circumf...

  13. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference: associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity - a prospective study of three independent cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight (?BW) and waist circumference (?WC). Methods A total of 7,569 participants from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ?BW or ?WC. SNP-score??ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. Results We found no significant associations between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC. Regarding SNP-score??ascorbic acid interactions, each additional risk allele of the 14 WHR associated SNPs associated with a ?WC of 0.039?cm/year (P?=?0.02, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.073) per 100?mg/day higher ascorbic acid intake. However, the association to ?WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ?BW. Conclusion In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically predisposed to a high WHR. However, given the quite limited association any public health relevance is questionable. PMID:24886192

  14. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O’Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374 PMID:26418677

  15. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity. PMID:20377915

  16. Waist-to-height ratio as an indicator of ‘early health risk’: simpler and more predictive than using a ‘matrix’ based on BMI and waist circumference

    PubMed Central

    Ashwell, Margaret; Gibson, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is now good evidence that central obesity carries more health risks compared with total obesity assessed by body mass index (BMI). It has therefore been suggested that waist circumference (WC), a proxy for central obesity, should be included with BMI in a ‘matrix’ to categorise health risk. We wanted to compare how the adult UK population is classified using such a ‘matrix’ with that using another proxy for central obesity, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), using a boundary value of 0.5. Further, we wished to compare cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with ‘healthy’ BMI divided according to whether they have WHtR below or above 0.5. Setting, participants and outcome measures Recent data from 4 years (2008–2012) of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (n=1453 adults) were used to cross-classify respondents on anthropometric indices. Regression was used to examine differences in levels of risk factors (triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), TC: HDL, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)) according to WHtR below and above 0.5, with adjustment for confounders (age, sex and BMI). Results 35% of the group who were judged to be at ‘no increased risk’ using the ‘matrix’ had WHtR ≥0.5. The ‘matrix’ did not assign ‘increased risk’ to those with a ‘healthy’ BMI and ‘high’ waist circumference. However, our analysis showed that the group with ‘healthy’ BMI, and WHtR ≥0.5, had some significantly higher cardiometabolic risk factors compared to the group with ‘healthy’ BMI but WHtR below 0.5. Conclusions Use of a simple boundary value for WHtR (0.5) identifies more people at ‘early health risk’ than does a more complex ‘matrix’ using traditional boundary values for BMI and WC. WHtR may be a simpler and more predictive indicator of the ‘early heath risks’ associated with central obesity. PMID:26975935

  17. The Age-Specific Association of Waist Circumference and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingling; Yu, Weihong; Huang, Ping; Li, Chunying; Li, Yan; Wang, Meng; Xu, Qun; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Caixia; Qu, Bin; Zhao, Yanping; Niu, Meng; Wang, Ou; Gong, Fengying

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association of three most common obesity measures including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Design. Cross-sectional evaluation of the effect of anthropometric measures on CKD risk. Setting. Outpatient Department. Subjects. T2D patients who were treated between October 2012 and May 2013. Intervention. None. Main Outcome Measure. CKD risk. Results. On average, the patients had a mean age of 60.2 years, and 40% were males. CKD was present in 46% of all the patients. In multivariate logistic regression using the imputed data, higher WC was associated with greater odds of CKD (OR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.0021.006, P = 0.030), but not BMI and WHR. Interestingly, we found that patients with very small WC seemed to have greater odds of CKD. We observed age-specific effect of WC such that the effect of WC on CKD risk is significant only in middle-aged T2D patients. Conclusion. Our study provides evidence for the association of WC with CKD in Chinese patients with T2D. T2D patients, especially middle-aged T2D patients, should reduce their WC to decrease CKD risk. PMID:26442120

  18. Surrogate Markers of Visceral Adiposity in Young Adults: Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index Are More Accurate than Waist Hip Ratio, Model of Adipose Distribution and Visceral Adiposity Index

    PubMed Central

    Borruel, Susana; Moltó, José F.; Alpañés, Macarena; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F.

    2014-01-01

    Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), model of adipose distribution (MOAD), visceral adiposity index (VAI), and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression), and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88–0.99) and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85–0.98) probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis. PMID:25479351

  19. Measurement of Waist and Hip Circumference with a Body Surface Scanner: Feasibility, Validity, Reliability, and Correlations with Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jaeschke, Lina; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Pischon, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body surface scanners (BS), which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC). However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM) and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) compared to traditional manual measurements (MM). Methods As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL). Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Results Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0cm; r = 0.98). Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98). Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively. Conclusions Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data indicate good validity, excellent reliability, and similar correlations to parameters of the MetS. PMID:25749283

  20. Nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring: a file audit of risk factor prevalence and impact of an intervention to enhance measurement of waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Nijjar, Sukh; Watkins, Andrew; Garwood, Natasha; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to: (i) document the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among mental health consumers (inpatients) with various diagnoses; and (ii) audit the frequency of waist circumference (WC) documentation before and after an intervention that involved a single nurse-education session, and change in assessment-form design. The study was undertaken in a private psychiatric hospital in Sydney, Australia. Twenty-five nurses participated in the educational intervention. File audits were performed prior to intervention delivery (n = 60), and 3 months' (n = 60), and 9 months' (n = 60) post-intervention. Files were randomly selected, and demographic (age, diagnosis) and risk factor (WC, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, blood pressure) data were extracted. WC was higher in this cohort compared to published general population means, and only 19% of patients had a BMI within the healthy range. In total, 37% of patients smoked, while 31% were hypertensive. At baseline, none of the audited files reported WC, which increased to 35 of the 60 (58%) files audited at the 3-month follow up. At the 9-month follow up, 25 of the 60 (42%) files audited reported a WC. In the 120 post-intervention files audited, only two patients refused measurement. These results illustrate the poor physical health of inpatients, and suggest that nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring can be enhanced with minimal training. PMID:24393271

  1. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    PubMed Central

    EL Mabchour, Asma; Delisle, Hélène; Vilgrain, Colette; Larco, Philippe; Sodjinou, Roger; Batal, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in groups of African (Benin) and African ancestry (Haiti) Black subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin) and Port-au-Prince (Haiti), 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men); insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR); and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Youden’s index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results High atherogenicity index (59.5%), high blood pressure (23.2%), and insulin resistance (25% by definition) were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly the reverse of the generic cut-offs. The standard 0.50 cut-off of WHtR appeared valid for men, but it had to be increased to 0.59 in women. Conclusion CMR was widespread in these population groups. The present study suggests that in order to identify Africans with high CMR, WC thresholds will have to be increased in women and lowered in men. Data on larger samples are needed. PMID:26604808

  2. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Three Different Diagnostic Criteria among Low Earning Nomadic Kazakhs in the Far Northwest of China: New Cut-Off Points of Waist Circumference to Diagnose MetS and Its Implications

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Heng; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Jingyu; Ma, Rulin; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Xu, Shangzhi; Li, Shugang; Yan, Yizhong; Mu, Lati; Rui, Dongsheng; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has aroused wide public concern, most studies on MetS tend to examine urban and high income settings, and few studies cover nomadic areas and low earning populations. This research aims to investigate the prevalence of MetS and explore the cut-off point of waist circumference in a nomadic minority typical of low income populations in the remote northwest region of China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3900 Kazakh adults aged 18–84 years from 2009–2010. Three widely used criteria (ATP III\\IDF\\JIS) were employed to estimate the prevalence of MetS in Kazakhs to compare them with other populations. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to explore the optimal cut-off values of waist circumference. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 13.8%, 20.9%, and 24.8% based on the ATP III, IDF, and JIS criteria, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was higher in women and increased with age. Except for reduced HDL-cholesterol, the risk of other components of MetS increased with waist circumference enlargement. The cut-off point of waist circumference in screening at least two other components of MetS was 88 cm in men (Sensitivity = 61.1%, Specificity = 62.1%, ROC Curve Distance = 0.54) and 83 cm in women (Sensitivity = 60.0%, Specificity = 59.6%, ROC Curve Distance = 0.57). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS in Kazakhs is higher than the national level of China and falls in between the Euro-American and Asia levels, as their cut-off points of waist circumference differ from that recommended for Chinese. We suggest a cost-effective strategy to screen for MetS and prevent cardiovascular disease using new cut-off points of waist circumference in low earning nomadic Kazakhs. PMID:26901035

  3. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K; Sandling, Johanna K; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10(-7); Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches. PMID:25935004

  4. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost–effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes. PMID:26640442

  5. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players.

    PubMed

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A W; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost-effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes. PMID:26640442

  6. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years. PMID:26458747

  7. Usefulness of measuring both body mass index and waist circumference for the estimation of visceral adiposity and related cardiometabolic risk profile (from the INSPIRE ME IAA study).

    PubMed

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Borel, Anne-Laure; Aschner, Pablo; Barter, Phil; Van Gaal, Luc; Tan, Chee Eng; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ross, Robert; Brulle-Wohlhueter, Claire; Almras, Natalie; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Desprs, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Despite its well-documented relation with visceral adiposity (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk (CMR), whether waist circumference (WC) should be measured in addition to body mass index (BMI) remains debated. This study tested the relevance of adding WC to BMI for the estimation of VAT and CMR. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship with Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4,504 patients (29 countries). Both BMI and WC were measured, whereas VAT and liver fat were assessed by computed tomography. A composite CMR score was calculated. From the 4,109 patients included in the present analyses (20 ? BMI < 40 kg/m(2), 47% women), about 30% displayed discordant values for WC and BMI quintiles, despite a strong correlation between the 2 anthropometric variables (r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for men and women, respectively, p <0.001). Within each single BMI unit, VAT and WC showed substantial variability between subjects (mean difference between 90th and 10th percentiles: 175 cm(2)/16 cm and 137 cm(2)/18 cm for VAT/WC in men and women, respectively). Within each BMI category, increasing gender-specific WC tertiles were associated with significantly higher VAT, liver fat, and with a more adverse CMR profile. In conclusion, this large international cardiometabolic study highlights the frequent discordance between BMI and WC, driven by the substantial variability in VAT for a given BMI. Within each BMI category, WC was cross-sectionally associated with VAT, liver fat, and CMR factors. Thus, WC allows a further refinement of the CMR related to any given BMI. PMID:25499404

  8. Optimal waist circumference cutoff points for the determination of abdominal obesity and detection of cardiovascular risk factors among adult Egyptian population

    PubMed Central

    Assaad-Khalil, Samir H.; Mikhail, Magued M.; Aati, Talaat Abdel; Zaki, Adel; Helmy, Myriam A.; Megallaa, Magdy H.; Hassanien, Rehab; Rohoma, Kamel H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best anthropometric measurement of obesity, and its optimal cutoff, that best predicts the presence of cardiovascular risk factors among adult Egyptian population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including a representative randomly chosen sample of the adult Egyptian population from all Alexandria Districts (the second largest governorate in Egypt) based on the multistage random technique. It included 3209 subjects (1567 men, 1642 women) aged 1880 years from urban and rural areas. The response rate was 80.2%. History, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Laboratory investigations included fasting lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, and serum uric acid. Different criteria of metabolic syndrome were used and compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve and Youden index were used to determine predictability and cutoffs. Results: Waist circumference (WC) is the best to predict at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The optimal WC cutoffs were 100.5 and 96.25 cm for Egyptian men and women, respectively. The Joint Interim Statement definition (JIS) of metabolic syndrome was the best to predict cardiovascular disease in both genders and diabetes mellitus in women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity was 42.5%, 61%, respectively (ATPIII definition); 43.8%, 61% (American Heart Association definition); 44.3%, 76.4% (IDF definition); 33.8%, 51.7% (IDF definition with Egyptian cutoffs); and 41.5%, 51.7% (JIS with Egyptian cutoffs). Conclusion: WC cutoffs in Egyptians differ from those currently recommended. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity is high in Egypt, despite being lower on using the Egyptian cutoffs.

  9. Association between dietary phytochemical index and 3-year changes in weight, waist circumference and body adiposity index in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have favorable effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI) in relation to 3-year change in weight, waist circumference (WC), body adiposity index (BAI) among Tehranian adults. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1938 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary PI was calculated. Anthropometric measures were assessed both at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple regression models were used to estimate mean difference changes in anthropometrics associated with various dietary PI. Results The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 y, at baseline, respectively. Mean weight gain was 1.49 ± 5.06 kg (1.65 ± 5.3 kg in men and 1.34 ± 4.9 kg in women) during 3-year period. After adjustment for potential confounding variables including age at baseline, sex, BMI, educational levels, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein, dietary intakes of whole grains in the highest quartile category of PI were inversely associated with 3-year changes in weight and WC (P for trend <0.05). Dietary intake of fruits in the highest quartile was also associated with lower weight gain during the study period (P for trend <0.05). There was significant inverse association between the highest quartile category of dietary PI with the 3-year changes in weight and BAI (P for trend <0.05). Conclusion Higher dietary PI could have favorable effects on prevention of weight gain and reduction of body adiposity in adults. PMID:23206375

  10. The effects of fat and protein on glycemic responses in nondiabetic humans vary with waist circumference, fasting plasma insulin, and dietary fiber intake.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Elham; Vogt, Janet A; Wolever, Thomas M S

    2006-10-01

    The effects of protein and fat on glycemic responses have not been studied systematically. Therefore, our aim was to determine the dose-response effects of protein and fat on the glycemic response elicited by 50 g glucose in humans and whether subjects' fasting plasma insulin (FPI) and diet influenced the results. Nondiabetic humans, 10 with FPI < [corrected] or =40 pmol/L and 10 with FPI >40 pmol/L, were studied on 18 occasions after 10 14-h overnight fasts. Subjects consumed 50 g glucose dissolved in 250 mL water plus 0, 5, 10, or 30 g fat and/or 0, 5, 10, or 30 g protein. Each level of fat was tested with each level of protein. Dietary intake was measured using a 3-d food record. Gram per gram, protein reduced glucose responses approximately 2 times more than fat (P < 0.001) with no significant fat x protein interaction (P = 0.051). The effect of protein on glycemic responses was related to waist circumference (WC) (r = -0.56, P = 0.011) and intake of dietary fiber (r = -0.60, P = 0.005) but was unrelated to FPI or other nutrient intakes. The effect of fat on glycemic responses was related to FPI (r = 0.49, P = 0.029) but was unrelated to WC or diet. We conclude that, across the range of 0-30 g, protein and fat reduced glycemic responses independently from each other in a linear, dose-dependent fashion, with protein having approximately 3-times the effect of fat. A large protein effect was associated with high WC and high dietary-fiber intake, whereas a large fat effect was associated with low FPI. These conclusions may not apply to solid meals. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms for these effects. PMID:16988118

  11. Increased waist circumference and prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Chinese adults: two population-based cross-sectional surveys in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ye; Mo, Miao; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Li, Yan Yun; Yang, Qun Di; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Hua; Li, Rui; Xu, Wang Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and their associations with the prevalence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Chinese adults. Design 2 consecutive population-based cross-sectional surveys. Setting A total of 12 districts and seven counties in Shanghai, China. Participants 12 329 randomly selected participants of the survey in 2002–2003, and 7423 randomly selected participants of the survey in 2009. All participants were residents of Shanghai aged 35–74 years. Outcome measures Measured BMI and WC. Previously diagnosed and newly identified hypertension and T2DM by measured blood pressure, fasting and postload glucose. Results While the participants of the two surveys were comparable in BMI in each age group, the participants of the 2009 survey had significantly larger WC than those of the 2002–2003 survey, with an annual percentage change being higher among participants aged 45–49 years in men and women. The increase in prevalence of T2DM was observed in all age groups and also appeared more evident in participants aged 45–49 years. The prevalence of hypertension was observed to increase more rapidly in elderly men and middle-aged women. Obesity, both overt and central, was associated with the risk of the two diseases, but BMI was more strongly linked to hypertension while WC appeared more evidently related with T2DM. Conclusions The prevalence of central obesity and related chronic diseases has been increasing in Shanghai, China. Our findings provide useful information for the projection of the growing burden of T2DM and hypertension in Chinese adults. PMID:24165029

  12. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Prevalence of Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults of Age 30 Years and Older without Diabetes, Hypertension, Renal Failure, or Overt Proteinuria: The 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Gong-Myung; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Mi-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background Microalbuminuria and obesity markers are known risk factors for cardiovascular or renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria according to body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity criteria. Methods The study subjects included 3,979 individuals aged 30 years or older who did not have diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, or overt proteinuria, from among those who participated in The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013, a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. BMI and waist circumference were classified according to the Asia-Pacific criteria. Results The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 5.1%. In the normoalbuminuria group, 3.4%, 41.7%, 24%, 27.6%, and 3.2% of participants were included in the underweight, normal, overweight, obesity 1, and obesity 2 groups, respectively. These percentages in the microalbuminuria group were 7.1%, 34.5%, 19.2%, 28.6%, and 10.6%, respectively (P<0.001). The waist circumference in men was 21.4% in the normoalbuminuria group and 36.5% in the microalbuminuria group (P=0.004). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of microalbuminuria and BMI or waist circumference groups. The risk of microalbuminuria was significant only in the underweight group (odds ratio, 13.22; 95% confidence interval, 2.5568.63; P=0.002) after adjusting for confounding factors, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with microalbuminuria. Conclusion The prevalence of microalbuminuria in a general population in Korea was associated with underweight in men and was not associated with waist circumference in either men or women. PMID:26885324

  13. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lim, Sun Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population. Materials and Methods A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The cutoff value of waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance from the ROC analysis was 84.4 cm for men and 80.6 cm for women. Sensitivity and specificity were 70.0% and 54.2% in men and 71.1% and 59.3% in women, respectively. After being controlled for other covariates, the odds ratio for the risk of insulin resistance using < 70 cm of waist circumference as a reference increased significantly in the category of 85.0-89.9 cm for men and 80.0-84.9 cm for women. In addition, statistically significant associations were consistently observed over the category of 85.0-89.9 cm for men and 80.0-84.9 cm for women. Conclusion The optimal cutoff value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women, suggesting that the Asian criterion of abdominal obesity (90 cm for men and 80 cm for women) as a component of metabolic syndrome (MetS) might not be applicable for middle-aged to older men in Korea. PMID:20499415

  14. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (? = ?0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (? = ?0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (? = ?0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (? = ?0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (? = ?0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (? = ?0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (? = ?0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Conclusion. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.) PMID:26064983

  15. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 19992002

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Elizabeth E; Nelson, Jessica W; Qureshi, M Mustafa; Weinberg, Janice; Moore, Lynn L; Singer, Martha; Webster, Thomas F

    2008-01-01

    Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants aged 680. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 19992002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP), mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP), mono-n-butyl (MBP), and mono-benzyl (MBzP) phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP) phthalate (20012002). Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 2059; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002), and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03), and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 2059 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02) and females aged 2059 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02). There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 6080 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different biologic and hormonal effects. Although our study has limitations, both of these factors could explain some of the variation in the observed associations. These preliminary data support the need for prospective studies in populations at risk for obesity. PMID:18522739

  16. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA) to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ?63 years (308 men, 381 women) were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE) cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels) were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ?2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) value for VFA to predict the presence of ?2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively). The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ?2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be considered to identify subjects at risk for MetS. PMID:19951442

  17. Influence of central and extremity circumferences on all-cause mortality in men and women.

    PubMed

    Mason, Caitlin; Craig, Cora L; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2008-12-01

    For a given level of adiposity, greater lower body circumferences appear to exert a protective effect on several disease outcomes including cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, the independent associations between extremity circumferences and mortality have not been widely investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and shared influences of upper- and lower-body circumferences on the risk of mortality in a population-based sample of adults. The sample included 10,638 adults 20-69 years of age (5,012 men; 5,626 women) from the nationally representative 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS), who were monitored for over 12 years for mortality. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. Waist, hip, thigh, calf, and upper arm circumferences were measured using a flexible, nonelastic anthropometric tape. Sex-specific proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between standardized values (Z-scores) of extremity circumference measures, waist circumference (WC) and mortality. Age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity were collected by questionnaire and were included as covariates. During 131,563 person-years of follow-up, there were 340 deaths in men and 231 in women. After mutual adjustment, WC was positively associated with mortality whereas arm, thigh, and calf circumferences were significantly protective in men, and arm and thigh circumferences were protective in women. In conclusion, waist and extremity circumferences appear to have opposite, independent effects on mortality in this sample of Canadians. Independent of BMI and WC, men and women with larger extremity circumferences had a lower risk of mortality. PMID:18927548

  18. Does Neck-to-Waist Ratio Predict Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sherri Lynne; Vaccani, Jean-Philippe; Barrowman, Nick; Momoli, Franco; Bradbury, Carol L.; Murto, Kimmo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Central adiposity and large neck circumference are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults but have not been evaluated in children as predictors of OSA. Study objectives were to determine whether (1) anthropometric measures including neck-to-waist ratio are associated with OSA in older children; (2) body fat distribution, measured by neck-to-waist ratio, is predictive of OSA in overweight/obese children. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving children 7-18 years scheduled to undergo polysomnography at a tertiary care children's hospital. OSA was defined as total apnea-hypopnea index > 5 events/h and/or obstructive apnea index > 1 event/h. Recursive partitioning was used to select candidate predictors of OSA from: age, sex, height and weight percentile, body mass index (BMI) z-score, neck-to-waist ratio, tonsil size, and Mallampati score. These were then evaluated using log binomial models and receiver operator characteristic analysis. Results: Two hundred twenty-two participants were included; 133 (60%) were overweight/obese, 121 (55%) male,47 (21%) had OSA. Neck-to-waist ratio (relative risk [RR] 1.97 per 0.1 units, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.84) and BMI z-score (RR 1.63 per unit, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.05) were identified as independent predictors of OSA. Considering only overweight/obese children, neck-to-waist ratio (RR 2.16 per 0.1 units, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.59) and BMI z-score (RR 2.02 per unit, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.26) also independently predicted OSA. However, in children not overweight/obese, these variables were not predictive of OSA. Conclusions: Neck-to-waist ratio, an index of body fat distribution, predicts OSA in older children and youth, especially in those who were overweight/obese. Citation: Katz SL, Vaccani JP, Barrowman N, Momoli F, Bradbury CL, Murto K. Does neck-to-waist ratio predict obstructive sleep apnea in children? J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(12):1303-1308. PMID:25325606

  19. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e.g. relatively tall or short children) to identify and monitor overweight in children. This may improve early identification and prevention of overweight and overweight-related health problems in children. PMID:23617233

  20. High Discrepancy in Abdominal Obesity Prevalence According to Different Waist Circumference Cut-Offs and Measurement Methods in Children: Need for Age-Risk-Weighted Standardized Cut-Offs?

    PubMed Central

    Prodam, Flavia; Fuiano, Nicola; Diddi, Giuliana; Petri, Antonella; Bellone, Simonetta; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs. Methods We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 714 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ?90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts. Results We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%. Conclusions On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed. PMID:26745148

  1. Diet soda intake is associated with long-term increases in waist circumference in a bi-ethnic cohort of older adults: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Sharon PG; Williams, Ken; Hazuda, Helen P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet soda (DS) intake (DSI) has been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but its specific impact in older adults has not been addressed. Because central obesity increases cardiovascular risk, we examined the relationship between DSI and long-term waist circumference (WC) change (ΔWC) in the bi-ethnic San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING San Antonio, Texas, neighborhoods PARTICIPANTS SALSA examined 749 Mexican-American and European-American individuals ≥ 65 years old at baseline (BL: 1992-1996); 79.1% of survivors completed follow-up 1 (FU1) (2000-2001, n=474); 73.4%, FU2 (2001-2003, n=413); and 71.0%, FU3 (2003-2004, n=375). Participants completed a mean of 2.64 follow-up intervals, for 9.41 total follow-up years. MEASUREMENTS DSI, WC, height and weight were measured at outset and conclusion of each interval: BL-FU1, FU1-FU2, and FU2-FU3. RESULTS Adjusted for initial WC, demographics, physical activity, diabetes, and smoking, mean interval ΔWC (95% confidence interval) for all DS users was almost triple that among non-users: 2.11 (1.45-2.76) vs. 0.77 (0.29-1.23) cm, respectively (p < 0.001). For non-, occasional, and daily DS users, adjusted interval ΔWCs were 0.77 (0.29-1.23), 1.76 (0.96-2.57), and 3.04 (1.82-4.26) cm, respectively (p=0.002 for trend). This translates to ΔWCs of 0.80, 1.83, and 3.16 inches, respectively, for these groups, over the total SALSA follow-up. In sub-analyses stratified separately by key covariates, ΔWC point estimates were consistently higher among DS users. CONCLUSION In a striking dose-response relationship, increasing diet soda intake was associated with escalating abdominal obesity, a potential pathway for heightened cardiometabolic risk in this aging population. PMID:25780952

  2. Effects of whole and refined grains in a weight-loss diet on markers of metabolic syndrome in individuals with increased waist circumference: a randomized controlled-feeding trial123

    PubMed Central

    Harris Jackson, Kristina; West, Sheila G; Vanden Heuvel, John P; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Ross, Alastair B; Hill, Alison M; Grieger, Jessica A; Lemieux, Susan K; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Higher whole-grain (WG) intake is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, there is inconsistent clinical evidence with regard to the benefit of WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on MetS. Objective: We hypothesized that consuming WGs in the place of RGs would improve MetS criteria in individuals with or at risk of MetS. Design: A randomized, controlled, open-label parallel study was conducted in 50 overweight and obese individuals with increased waist circumference and one or more other MetS criteria. Participants consumed a controlled weight-loss diet containing either WG or RG (control) products for 12 wk. Body composition, MetS criteria and related markers, and plasma alkylresorcinols (compliance marker of WG intake) were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 wk. A subgroup (n = 28) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (AT). Results: Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups; however, the RG group tended to have higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.06). Alkylresorcinols increased with consumption of the WG diet and did not change with consumption of the RG diet (time treatment, P < 0.0001), which showed dietary compliance. There were no differences in anthropometric changes between groups; however, weight, body mass index, and percentage of body AT decreased at both 6 and 12 wk (P < 0.05), and reductions in percentage of abdominal AT occurred by 6 wk and did not change between 6 and 12 wk (P = 0.09). Both glucose (P = 0.02) and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) were lower with the consumption of the WG compared with the RG diet. However, when noncompliant individuals (n = 3) were removed, the glucose effect was stronger (P = 0.01) and the HDL-cholesterol effect was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions: Replacing RGs with WGs within a weight-loss diet does not beneficially affect abdominal AT loss and has modest effects on markers of MetS. WGs appear to be effective at normalizing blood glucose concentrations, especially in those individuals with prediabetes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00924521. PMID:24944054

  3. Z-Score-Based Modularity for Community Detection in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Atsushi; Kawase, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given partition with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function. PMID:26808270

  4. Head circumference

    MedlinePLUS

    ... head around its largest area. It measures the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around ... During routine checkups, the distance is measured in centimeters or inches ... of a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a ...

  5. Neck Circumference May Be a Better Alternative to Standard Anthropometric Measures.

    PubMed

    Joshipura, Kaumudi; Muñoz-Torres, Francisco; Vergara, José; Palacios, Cristina; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates neck circumference as a metabolic risk marker. Overweight/obese, nondiabetic Hispanics, 40-65 years old, who are free of major cardiovascular diseases, were recruited for the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS). Baseline exams were completed by 1,206 participants. Partial correlation coefficients (r) and logistic models adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and physical activity were computed. Neck circumference was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.64), BMI (r = 0.66), and body fat % (r = 0.45). Neck circumference, highest (compared to lowest) tertile, had higher association with prediabetes: multivariable OR = 2.30 (95% CI: 1.71-3.06) compared to waist circumference OR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.48-2.66) and other anthropometric measures. Neck circumference showed higher associations with HOMA, low HDL-C, and triglycerides, multivariable OR = 8.42 (95% CI: 5.43-13.06), 2.41 (95% CI: 1.80-3.21), and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03), but weaker associations with hs-CRP and hypertension, OR = 3.61 (95% CI: 2.66-4.90) and OR = 2.58 (95% CI: 1.90-3.49), compared to waist circumference. AIC for model fit was generally similar for neck or waist circumference. Neck circumference showed similar or better associations with metabolic factors and is more practicable than waist circumference. Hence, neck circumference may be a better alternative to waist circumference. PMID:26981543

  6. Adipose Tissue Characteristics Related to Weight Z-Score in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Haro-Mora, Juan Jesus; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Porras, Nuria; Alcazar, Dolores; Gaztambide, Joaquin; Ruiz-Orpez, Antonio; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan M.; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo; Lopez-Siguero, Juan P; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has grown very fast over recent decades and now it represents a serious public health problem. The number of adipocytes is set in childhood and adolescence and then, an effective understanding of the development of adipose tissue during these periods will help in the prevention of this pathology. Objectives The current study aimed to determine which adipose tissue characteristics are related to a high weight Z-score in childhood. Patients and Methods The current study included 82 children aged 5-130 months who underwent inguinal hernia surgery. Anthropometric variables were measured, and a nutritional and physical activity questionnaire was completed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples, taken during the operation, were analyzed for preadipocyte number, adipocyte volume, fatty acid composition (gas chromatography of FAME), and relative gene expression of various genes (real time PCR). Results The results showed that children with a higher weight Z-score spend more time in sedentary activities and less time running or involved in active games. SCD-1 activity index, arachidonic/linoleic index, and adipocyte volume were significantly higher in children with a weight Z-score greater than 0. The preadipocyte number and the genetic expression of the studied genes did not differ between the groups. A multiple regression analysis was done to determine which variables were related to the weight Z-score. R2 values indicated that the model which included adipocyte volume, SREBP-1c, SCD-1 expression, and activity index, predicted 59% of the variability in the weight Z-score among the children. The main variables associated with adipocyte volume were PPAR?, Adiponectin, CB1R expressions, as well as the SCD-1 activity and normalized weight. Conclusions It was concluded that in childhood, the weight Z-score is related to adipocyte volume and adipose tissue gene expression. PMID:23825978

  7. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This

  8. Reducing Inter-Laboratory Differences between Semen Analyses Using Z Score and Regression Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Leushuis, Esther; Wetzels, Alex; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; van Trooyen, Netty; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Horst, Frans A.L.; Hompes, Peter G.A. Hompes; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2016-01-01

    Background Standardization of the semen analysis may improve reproducibility. We assessed variability between laboratories in semen analyses and evaluated whether a transformation using Z scores and regression statistics was able to reduce this variability. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study. We calculated between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CVB) for sperm concentration and for morphology. Subsequently, we standardized the semen analysis results by calculating laboratory specific Z scores, and by using regression. We used analysis of variance for four semen parameters to assess systematic differences between laboratories before and after the transformations, both in the circulation samples and in the samples obtained in the prospective cohort study in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004. Results The mean CVBwas 7% for sperm concentration (range 3 to 13%) and 32% for sperm morphology (range 18 to 51%). The differences between the laboratories were statistically significant for all semen parameters (all P<0.001). Standardization using Z scores did not reduce the differences in semen analysis results between the laboratories (all P<0.001). Conclusion There exists large between-laboratory variability for sperm morphology and small, but statistically significant, between-laboratory variation for sperm concentration. Standardization using Z scores does not eliminate between-laboratory variability. PMID:26985342

  9. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  10. Z-Score Linear Discriminant Analysis for EEG Based Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Xu, Peng; Guo, Lanjin; Zhang, Yangsong; Li, Peiyang; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA), which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy. PMID:24058565

  11. Neck Circumference May Be a Better Alternative to Standard Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Joshipura, Kaumudi; Muñoz-Torres, Francisco; Vergara, José; Palacios, Cristina; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates neck circumference as a metabolic risk marker. Overweight/obese, nondiabetic Hispanics, 40–65 years old, who are free of major cardiovascular diseases, were recruited for the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS). Baseline exams were completed by 1,206 participants. Partial correlation coefficients (r) and logistic models adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and physical activity were computed. Neck circumference was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.64), BMI (r = 0.66), and body fat % (r = 0.45). Neck circumference, highest (compared to lowest) tertile, had higher association with prediabetes: multivariable OR = 2.30 (95% CI: 1.71–3.06) compared to waist circumference OR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.48–2.66) and other anthropometric measures. Neck circumference showed higher associations with HOMA, low HDL-C, and triglycerides, multivariable OR = 8.42 (95% CI: 5.43–13.06), 2.41 (95% CI: 1.80–3.21), and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14–2.03), but weaker associations with hs-CRP and hypertension, OR = 3.61 (95% CI: 2.66–4.90) and OR = 2.58 (95% CI: 1.90–3.49), compared to waist circumference. AIC for model fit was generally similar for neck or waist circumference. Neck circumference showed similar or better associations with metabolic factors and is more practicable than waist circumference. Hence, neck circumference may be a better alternative to waist circumference. PMID:26981543

  12. [Study of the normal database that affects 3D-SSP Z-score mapping].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Haramoto, Masuo; Komatsu, Akio; Uchida, Kouji

    2004-03-01

    The effects of image reconstruction conditions and devices used on 3D-SSP analysis (Z-score mapping) were investigated. Images of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom were taken with the IRIX device or E.CAM. Using two methods of image reconstruction (FBP and OSEM), several kinds of phantom normal databases (PNDB) and signal data, with or without correction for attenuation, were obtained at varying Butterworth filter cutoff frequencies. The results of 3D-SSP analyses were compared between combinations of PNDB and signal data obtained under the same conditions of image reconstruction and combinations obtained under different conditions. The results of PNDB obtained with different devices were also analyzed. For combinations of PNDB and signal data both obtained with OSEM, the Z-score of signals was high. When FBP was used to obtain both PNDB and signal data, the Z-score and signal size tended to become greater and the false-positive rate tended to decrease as the Butterworth filter cutoff frequency became lower. Whether or not correction for attenuation was incorporated did not affect the results of analysis when the same method was used to collect both PNDB and signal data. If the method for image reconstruction differed between PNDB and signal data, the false-positive rate was relatively high. Using a different device to obtain PNDB resulted in a relatively high false-positive rate. We therefore recommend that the conditions for image reconstruction from signal data should be matched to the conditions for image reconstruction from PNDB. It seems impossible to share the same NDB among different devices. PMID:15131511

  13. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ2) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (χ2 = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (χ2 = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD. PMID:26509145

  14. Mapping Inundation Uncertainty with a Standard Score (Z-Score) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, B. C.; Schmid, K. A.; Waters, K. J.; Marcy, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Vertical error in the topographic data is the most important factor affecting the accuracy of single value surface model inundation maps (NRC, 2009). A single value surface model, often referred to as a ‘bathtub’ model, requires two primary topographic input variables: (1) the water surface (i.e. tidal datum + inundation level), and (2) the ground elevation. Unfortunately, both variables include spatially varying vertical error that introduces uncertainty into the resultant map for a given inundation scenario. More sophisticated hydraulic and geomorphic models have their own error budgets, which can be quite complex depending on model assumptions. Standard scores, or z-scores, measure the number of standard deviations an observation falls above or below the mean. This investigation employs z-scores to map the uncertainty introduced by the propagated error associated with the topographic variables. The technique permits greater flexibility than existing uncertainty methods which map the horizontal extension of the elevation data at the 95% confidence level. The vertical error in the water surface variable is due to uncertainties and spatial variability in the hydrodynamic models which drive the tidal datum conversions. The National Geodetic Survey’s (NGS) Vertical Datum Transformation Tool (VDatum) software can be used to convert between tidally referenced and orthometric elevations, but depending on location, results in errors on the order of 5-20 cm. An additional source of uncertainty is the elevation data itself. Most inundation mapping applications employ Digital Elevation Models (DEM) derived from topographic lidar data. Although lidar is among the most accurate large area elevation collection techniques, it has limitations in certain land cover types (e.g. forest or estuarine marsh), and its vertical accuracy can vary both within and between collections. To quantify this variability, accuracy assessments are performed to determine the vertical root mean square error (RMSEZ) of the lidar data. After combining the RMSEZ with the water surface error, a z-score can be calculated for each grid cell in the DEM. The resultant z-scores can then be expressed as a cumulative probability, or rank of ‘uncertainty’. Because the two error sources are not correlated, the propagated error can be calculated using the square root of the sum of the squared errors. An important assumption is that the propagated error has a normal and non-biased distribution; the error is assumed to equal the standard deviation and the computation of z-scores requires a normal distribution. An elevation related error that is not included in the model is the inaccuracy of extending the tidal corrections landward and will vary with modeled inundation levels; VDatum grids are currently limited to a short distance landward from the shoreline. The result is a map of ‘uncertainty’ as opposed to depths or elevations, which can be mapped at any desired level of probability. The technique can accommodate various spatial and non-spatial error estimates. Incorporation of ‘geomorphic uncertainty’ is also explored and may provide a link between the often-used and simple ‘bath tub’ model and more complex geomorphic models.

  15. Designing Protein β-Sheet Surfaces by Z-Score Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Arthur G.; Datta, Deepshikha; Gordon, D. Benjamin; Mayo, Stephen L.

    2000-05-01

    Studies of lattice models of proteins have suggested that the appropriate energy expression for protein design may include nonthermodynamic terms to accommodate negative design concerns. One method, developed in lattice model studies, maximizes a quantity known as the `` Z-score,'' which compares the lowest energy sequence whose ground state structure is the target structure to an ensemble of random sequences. Here we show that, in certain circumstances, the technique can be applied to real proteins. The resulting energy expression is used to design the β-sheet surfaces of two real proteins. We find experimentally that the designed proteins are stable and well folded, and in one case is even more thermostable than the wild type.

  16. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePLUS

    Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the widest part of the skull is larger than expected ... A newborn's head is usually about 2 cm (centimeters) larger than the chest size. Between 6 months and 2 years, both ...

  17. Characteristics of Walkable Built Environments and BMI z-Scores in Children: Evidence from a Large Electronic Health Record Database

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Melly, Steven J.; Marshall, Richard; Sequist, Thomas D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity remains a prominent public health problem. Walkable built environments may prevent excess weight gain. Objectives: We examined the association of walkable built environment characteristics with body mass index (BMI) z-score among a large sample of children and adolescents. Methods: We used geocoded residential address data from electronic health records of 49,770 children and adolescents 4 to < 19 years of age seen at the 14 pediatric practices of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates from August 2011 through August 2012. We used eight geographic information system (GIS) variables to characterize walkable built environments. Outcomes were BMI z-score at the most recent visit and BMI z-score change from the earliest available (2008–2011) to the most recent (2011–2012) visit. Multivariable models were adjusted for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood median household income. Results: In multivariable cross-sectional models, living in closer proximity to recreational open space was associated with lower BMI z-score. For example, children who lived in closest proximity (quartile 1) to the nearest recreational open space had a lower BMI z-score (β = –0.06; 95% CI: –0.08, –0.03) compared with those living farthest away (quartile 4; reference). Living in neighborhoods with fewer recreational open spaces and less residential density, traffic density, sidewalk completeness, and intersection density were associated with higher cross-sectional BMI z-score and with an increase in BMI z-score over time. Conclusions: Overall, built environment characteristics that may increase walkability were associated with lower BMI z-scores in a large sample of children. Modifying existing built environments to make them more walkable may reduce childhood obesity. Citation: Duncan DT, Sharifi M, Melly SJ, Marshall R, Sequist TD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM. 2014. Characteristics of walkable built environments and BMI z-scores in children: evidence from a large electronic health record database. Environ Health Perspect 122:1359–1365; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307704 PMID:25248212

  18. Waist related anthropometric measures - simple and useful predictors of coronary artery disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sharanjit; Sharma, Anand; Singh, Harinder Jot

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the waist related anthropometric measures like waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. Methods: The study included 88 women aged 40-80 years. Waist circumference, hip circumference, height, weight, age, and other covariates were collected by questionnaire. The primary endpoint was incident coronary heart disease that was reported by physician. The data was analyzed statistically using ?2-test for quantitative data and student t-test. The significance of the results as determined in 95.0% confidence interval. Results: The mean age was 59.07 11.53 in the study group and 54.36 10.84 in the control group. The waist circumference in the study group was higher (95.443 11.187) than the control group (74.886 6.672) (p < 0.001). The mean waist to hip ratio (WHR) was 0.96 0.08 in the study group and 0.78 0.06 in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean waist to height ratio (WHtR) was 0.62 0.07 in the study group and 0.48 0.04 in the control group (p < 0.001). Waist derived measures were superior to BMI in predicting CAD. The unadjusted AUC (95% Confidence Interval) was 0.008 (0.006-0.095) for WHtR, 0.001 (0.00 0.002) for waist hip ratio, and 1 (0.323-1.766) for body mass index. Conclusion: Waist related anthropometric measures are important predictors as CAD risk factors among middle-aged and older women, as compared to BMI. PMID:25755843

  19. Potential role of IGF-1 z score to predict permanent linear growth impairment in children with IBD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hood, Helen C; Grand, Richard J; Cohen, Laurie E

    2014-04-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)- and IGF-binding protein-3-for-age z scores from 54 inflammatory bowel disease children with no, temporary, or permanent growth impairment. Although our findings did not reach statistical significance, patients with permanent linear growth impairment had lower IGF-1-for-age z scores (-1.76 [-2.25 to -0.43]) compared with those with no or temporary growth impairment (-0.84 [-1.49 to -0.3]) and -1.16 [-1.59 to -1.51], respectively). IGF-binding protein-3 levels were similar across the 3 groups. In the absence of significant inflammation and malnutrition, lower IGF-1-for-age z scores may help distinguish patients likely to have permanent growth impairment from those whose growth impairment is likely to be temporary. PMID:24663033

  20. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Dayse Christina Rodrigues; de Arajo, Mrcio Flvio Moura; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Jnior Freire; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lcia; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C. RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered neck circumference (p<0.006). As neck circumference decreases, pressure levels improve (p<0.001). Additionally, college students with high fasting blood sugar (p=0.003) and high triglyceride levels (p<0.001) presented higher values of neck circumference. CONCLUSION: neck circumference is a potential predictive marker in the detection of metabolic syndrome and its components among college students. PMID:25591092

  1. Low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, Calf Circumference, and Body Mass Index and Mortality in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Heymans, Martijn W.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Kruizenga, Hinke M.; Twisk, Jos W.; Visser, Marjolein

    2010-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index is a general measure of thinness. However, its measurement can be cumbersome in older persons and other simple anthropometric measures may be more strongly associated with mortality. Therefore, associations of low mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and body mass index with mortality were examined in older persons. Methods. Data of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands, were used. The present study included community-dwelling persons 65 years and older in 19921993 (n = 1,667), who were followed until 2007 for their vital status. Associations between anthropometric measures and 15-year mortality were examined by spline regression models and, below the nadir, Cox regression models, transforming all measures to sex-specific Z scores. Results. Mortality rates were 599 of 826 (73%) in men and 479 of 841 (57%) in women. Below the nadir, the hazard ratio of mortality per 1 standard deviation lower mid-upper arm circumference was 1.79 (95% confidence interval, 1.482.16) in men and 2.26 (1.713.00) in women. For calf circumference, the hazard ratio was 1.45 (1.221.71) in men and 1.30 (1.151.48) in women and for body mass index 1.38 (1.171.61) in men and 1.56 (1.102.21) in women. Excluding deaths within the first 3 years after baseline did not change these associations. Excluding those with a smoking history, obstructive lung disease, or cancer attenuated the associations of calf circumference (men) and body mass index (women). Conclusions. Based on the stronger association with mortality and given a more easy assessment in older persons, mid-upper arm circumference seems a more feasible and valid anthropometric measure of thinness than body mass index in older men and women. PMID:20547497

  2. Measuring Large Circumferences More Precisely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Louis E.; Rogers, Ernest E.

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectromechanical gauge measures circumference of large object with resolution of 10 to the negative 4th power inches. Measuring wheel held by spring against cylindrical surface to be measured. Laser reader detects code marks on side of wheel. Marks indicate distance traveled around circumference. Measures inside or outside circumference. Also measures distance between two marks on edge of plate or along beam or track.

  3. Computer-assisted lateralization of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using Z-score parametric F-18 FDG PET images

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ching-yee Oliver; Gannon, James; Bong, Jeffrey; Wong, Christiana O; Saha, Gopal B

    2007-01-01

    Background To evaluate the use of unbiased computer-assisted lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by z-score parametric PET imaging (ZPET). Methods 38 patients with histologically proven unilateral TLE due to pure hippocampal sclerosis, referred for pre-surgical PET evaluation of intractable seizure over a 5-year period, were included. The F-18 FDG images were oriented along temporal long axis and then transformed into ZPET images on a voxel by voxel basis. Multiple regions of interests (21 in total) were placed on cortical, subcortical and cerebellar structures on twenty-eight out of 38 patients with totally seizure-free (class I) outcome. Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used to determine the location of the most asymmetric regions as variables for subsequent discriminant analysis of the entire group of the patients. Results The computer program identified the anterior half of the temporal lobe (p < 0.0005) and thalami (p = 0.021) as the most asymmetric regions in TLE patients with Class I outcome. Discriminant analysis using z-scores from a total of 8 ROIs (in 4 pairs) on these structures correctly lateralized thirty-seven out of 38 (97%) patients (sensitivity = 94%; specificity = 100%). The only false localization came from a patient with equivocal z-scores on the temporal lobes and this patient turned out to have poor outcome. Conclusion The computer-assisted lateralization of TLE using ZPET provides an accurate, fast and objective way of seizure evaluation. PMID:17980040

  4. Measuring head circumference

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide an evidence-based update emphasizing the importance of measuring head circumference (HC) in infants, with a focus on microcephaly. Quality of evidence PubMed and EMBASE (OvidSP) were searched. Search terms used were head circumference and infants and measurement; microcephaly and infants and measurement; idiopathic microcephaly and infants; and congenital microcephaly and infants. Most of the references for this review were published in 2000 or later. Most evidence is level II. Main message Serial measurement of HC should be incorporated into routine well-child care. Measure the distance around the back of the childs head with a nonelastic tape measure held above the eyebrows and ears, and plot the measurement on an age- and sex-appropriate growth chart. Microcephaly is HC more than 2 SD below the mean. The most common disability associated with microcephaly is intellectual delay; other common concomitant conditions include epilepsy, cerebral palsy, language delay, strabismus, ophthalmologic disorders, and cardiac, renal, urinary tract, and skeletal anomalies. An interdisciplinary approach to microcephaly is warranted. Although there are no specific interventions to enhance brain growth, dietary or surgical interventions might be helpful in some cases. Infants with microcephaly who show developmental delays might benefit from early intervention programs or developmental physical and occupational therapy. Conclusion Early identification of HC concerns by family physicians can be a critical first step in identifying disorders such as microcephaly, leading to referral to pediatric specialists and, as needed, provision of family-centred early intervention services. PMID:26505062

  5. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women.

    PubMed

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20-83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ? 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25-29.9 as overweight and with BMI ? 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P < 0.001) among all the circumferences tested. Hip circumference had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.89, P < 0.001) among the circumferences of individual body sites. Receiver-Operator Characteristic analysis showed that women with ABC > 44.0?cm could be recognized as having BMI ? 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1?cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ? 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  6. Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, Müller MJ, Plachta-Danielzik S, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, von Kries R. 2014. Differences in BMI z-scores between offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers: a longitudinal study of German children from birth through 14 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:761–767; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307139 PMID:24695368

  7. Wrist circumference as a novel predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: results of a decade follow up in a West Asian cohort.

    PubMed

    Mohebi, Reza; Mohebi, Ahmad; Sheikholeslami, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-11-01

    No study has yet evaluated the effect of wrist circumference on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an adult population. The present study included 3642 women, aged ?30 years, free of CVD at baseline, who had undergone health examinations between January 1999 and 2001 and were followed up until March 2010. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) of wrist circumference for CVD and hypertension events. During 10 years of follow-up, 284 cases of first CVD and 615 cases of incident hypertension occurred. In a model adjusted for conventional CVD risk factors, the HR of 1 cm increase in wrist circumference was 1.15 (1.06-1.25) for hypertension and was marginally significant for CVD (HR, 1.12 [1.00-1.25]; P-value 0.052). After considering body mass index and waist circumference in the model, we found significant interaction between waist circumference and wrist circumference in risk prediction of hypertension and CVD (P < .001). In non-centrally obese women (waist circumference <95 cm), in multivariable model plus body mass index and waist circumference, increase in wrist circumference was independently associated with both hypertension (HR, 1.17 [1.02-1.35]) and CVD (HR, 1.29 [1.03-1.61]). However, among centrally obese women (waist circumference ?95 cm), wrist circumference increase could not predict either hypertension (HR, 0.97 [0.84-1.18]) or CVD events (HR, 0.90 [0.75-1.07]). Wrist circumference as a novel anthropometric measure was an independent predictor for incident hypertension and CVD events among non-centrally obese women. PMID:25455005

  8. Parental use of restrictive feeding practices and child BMI z-score. A 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Hesketh, Kylie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Brennan, Leah; Corsini, Nadia; Timperio, Anna

    2010-08-01

    This study examines associations between parental feeding restriction at baseline and child body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3-year follow-up. Parents of 204 5-6-year-old and 188 10-12-year-old children completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire at baseline (2002/3). In 2002/3 and 2005/6, children's BMI z-score was calculated from measured height and weight. Analyses were stratified by age-group. The association of follow-up zBMI and baseline feeding restriction score was explored using (i) linear regression with adjustment for baseline zBMI and (ii) with further adjustments for baseline maternal BMI, maternal education level and child sex. Baseline restriction was associated with follow-up zBMI at 3 years in 5-6-year-old children and was largely unchanged when adjusting for child sex, maternal BMI and education. Restriction was not associated with follow-up zBMI in 10-12-year-old children. This longitudinal study adds important depth to our understanding of associations between restrictive feeding and change in zBMI, suggesting that restriction of energy-dense foods and drinks may be protective of unhealthy weight gain in younger children but may have no effect among older children. These findings support a reconsideration of the notion that restriction is likely to result in increased child weight. PMID:20420869

  9. Defining the relationship between fetal Doppler indices, abdominal circumference and growth rate in severe fetal growth restriction using functional linear discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talmor, Alon; Daemen, Anneleen; Murdoch, Edile; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Giussani, Dino A.; Lees, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between Doppler measurements, size and growth rate in fetal growth restriction has not been defined. We used functional linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) to investigate these parameters taking account of the difficulties inherent in exploring relationships between repeated observations from a small number of cases. In 40 fetuses with severe growth restriction, serial abdominal circumference (AC), umbilical, middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus Doppler pulsatility index measurements were recorded. In 11 singleton fetuses with normal growth, umbilical artery pulsatility index only was measured. Data were expressed as z-scores in relation to gestation and analysed longitudinally using FLDA. In severe growth restriction, the Spearman correlation coefficients between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC z-score, MCA pulsatility index and AC z-score and ductus venosus pulsatility index z-score and AC z-score were, respectively: ?0.36, p = 4.4 10?7; 0.70, p = 1.1 10?17 and ?0.50, p = 8.1 10?4. No relationship was seen between Doppler parameters and growth rate. There was no relationship between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC nor growth rate in normally grown fetuses. In severe fetal growth restriction, Doppler changes are related to absolute fetal AC size, not growth rate. PMID:23966615

  10. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  11. Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters. PMID:23378952

  12. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries123

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline HD; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. Objective: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. Design: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from −0.6 (Brazil) to −2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3–0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: −0.3 (Brazil) to −1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. Conclusions: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. PMID:25008854

  13. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  14. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Spaziani, Gaia; Calabri, Giovanni B.; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV) longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1–17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female) underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s'), early diastole (e'), and late diastole (a') was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e' was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s' (β = 0.491, p < 0.0001) and the strongest determinant of e' (β = 0.334, p < 0.0001) and E/e' (β = −0.369, p < 0.0001). Heart rate was the main determinant of a' (β = 0.265, p < 0.0001). Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s', suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations. PMID:26759729

  15. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist and Metabolic Abnormalities in Brazilian Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and its association with metabolic abnormalities in schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 241 students aged 10 to 14 years from public schools (4 schools) and private (2 schools) from Paranavai town, in Parana State, Brazil. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference) and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL and LDL-C were analyzed. In statistical tests of Pearson partial correlation and multivariate logistic regression, considering p<0,05. Results The prevalence of HTW was 20,7% among schoolchildren, 14,1% in males and 6,6% among females with higher proportions aged 10–12 years old. Multivariate analysis indicated that the students who attended private schools were nearly three times more likely (95% CI: 1,2–5,6), to be diagnosed with HTW compared with those who attended public schools (p = 0,006), and LDL-C was the only metabolic variable positively associated with the outcome (p = 0,001), where the students categorized with elevated serum levels had odds 4,2 times (95% CI: 1,6–10,9) having the HTW compared to students in appropriate levels. Conclusion This study showed higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in students when compared to prospective studies in Brazil and worldwide. It also showed that the only metabolic alteration associated with HTW phenotype was LDL-C (low density lipoprotein). PMID:25397885

  16. Crab Waist Collision at DAFNE

    SciTech Connect

    Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; Pellegrino, L.; /Frascati /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Rome U. /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Rome3 /SLAC

    2011-11-30

    DAFNE is an accelerator complex consisting of a double ring lepton collider working at the c.m. energy of the {Phi}-resonance (1.02 GeV) and an injection system. In its original configuration the collider consisted of two independent rings, each {approx}97 m long, sharing two 10 m long interaction regions (IR1 and IR2) where the KLOE and FINUDA or DEAR detectors were respectively installed. A full energy injection system, including an S-band linac, 180 m long transfer lines and an accumulator/damping ring, provides fast and high efficiency electron positron injection also in topping-up mode during collisions. Recently the DAFNE collider has been upgraded in order to implement a new collision scheme based on large Piwinski angle and cancellation of the synchro-betatron resonances by means of electromagnetic sextupoles (Crab-Waist compensation). The novel approach has proved to be effective in improving beam-beam interaction and collider luminosity.

  17. Neck Circumference, along with Other Anthropometric Indices, Has an Independent and Additional Contribution in Predicting Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bi-xia; Zhu, Ming-fan; Wu, Ting; Zhou, Jing-ya; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhou, Rui-fen; Wang, Li-jun; Chen, Yu-ming; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Previous studies have indicated that neck circumference is a valuable predictor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but little evidence is available for fatty liver disease. We examined the association of neck circumference with fatty liver disease and evaluated its predictive value in Chinese adults. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 4053 participants (1617 women and 2436 men, aged 20-88) recruited from the Health Examination Center in Guangzhou, China between May 2009 and April 2010. Anthropometric measurements were taken, abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Covariance, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed. Results The mean neck circumference was greater in subjects with fatty liver disease than those without the disease in both women and men after adjusting for age (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of fatty liver disease for quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1) of neck circumference were 7.70 (4.95-11.99) for women and 12.42 (9.22-16.74) for men. After further adjusting for other anthropometric indices, both individually and combined, the corresponding ORs remained significant (all P-trends<0.05) but were attenuated to 1.94-2.53 for women and 1.45-2.08 for men. An additive interaction existed between neck circumference and the other anthropometric measures (all P<0.05). A high neck circumference value was associated with a much greater prevalence of fatty liver disease in participants with both high and normal BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values. Conclusions Neck circumference was an independent predictor for fatty liver disease and provided an additional contribution when applied with other anthropometric measures. PMID:25679378

  18. Neck Circumference as a Predictive Indicator of CKD for High Cardiovascular Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Fang; Chang, Shih-Tai; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Hsu, Jen-Te; Chung, Chang-Min; Chang, Jung-Jung; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Chen, Kang-Hua; Chang, Chi-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chi; Shih, Yun-Wen; Chu, Chi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neck circumference (NC) is an anthropometric measure of obesity for upper subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution which is associated with cardiometabolic risk. This study investigated whether NC is associated with indicators of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for high cardiometabolic risk patients. Methods. A total of 177 consecutive patients who underwent the outpatient departments of cardiology were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were aged >20 years with normal renal function or with stages 14 CKD. A linear regression was performed using the Enter method to present an unadjusted R2, standardized coefficients, and standard error, and the Durbin-Watson test was used to assess residual independence. Results. Most anthropometric measurements from patients aged ?65 were lower than those from patients aged <65, except for women's waist circumference (WC) and waist hip ratio. Female NC obtained the highest R2 values for 24?hr CCR, uric acid, microalbuminuria, hsCRP, triglycerides, and HDL compared to BMI, WC, and hip circumference. The significances of female NC with 24?hr CCR and uric acid were improved after adjusted age and serum creatinine. Conclusions. NC is associated with indicators of CKD for high cardiometabolic risk patients and can be routinely measured as easy as WC in the future. PMID:26295050

  19. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleliani de Cassia; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Camilo, Daniella Fernandes; Antonio, Maria Ângela R. de G. M.; Cassani, Roberta Soares L.; Geloneze, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve. RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services. PMID:25119754

  20. Neck circumference and central obesity are independent predictors of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zen, Vanessa; Fuchs, Flvio D; Wainstein, Marco V; Gonalves, Sandro C; Biavatti, Karina; Riedner, Charles E; Fuchs, Felipe C; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Rhoden, Ernani L; Ribeiro, Jorge P; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Excess of adiposity is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, but it remains unclear if the distribution of fat is an effect modifier or if the risk is mediate by hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. We investigated the association of central in addition to general obesity with coronary artery disease (CAD). A case-control study was conducted in 376 patients, aged 40 years or more, with chronic coronary disease, undergoing elective coronary angiography. Excess of adiposity was evaluated by the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and neck circumference. Cases (n=155) were patients referred for coronary angiography with at least 50% of coronary stenosis in at least one epicardial vessels or their branches, with diameter greater than 2.5 mm. Controls (n=221) were patients referred for coronary angiography without significant coronary disease. Odds ratios and 95%CI for significant coronary stenosis were calculated using multiple logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, years at school, smoking, hypertension, HDL-cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and an adiposity index. There was a predominance of men and individuals older than 50 years among cases. The waist-hip ratio increased four times the chance of CAD, even after the control for confounding factors, including BMI. Neck circumference above the 90th Percentile doubled the chance of CAD, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Neck circumference and waist-hip ratio are independent predictors of CAD, even taking into account traditional risk factors for CAD. These findings highlight the need of anthropometric assessment among patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:23173107

  1. Reference values and Z-scores for subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness results from a large population-based sample (Framingham) and comparison with the non-exposed Osteoarthritis Initiative reference cohort

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, F.; Yang, M.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.W.; Hudelmaier, M.; Picha, K.; Baribaud, F.; Wirth, W.; Felson, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To establish sex-specific (subregional) reference values of cartilage thickness and potential maximal Z-scores in the femorotibial joint. Methods The mean cartilage thickness (ThCtAB.Me) in femorotibial compartments, plates and subregions was determined on coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from a population-based sample (Framingham) and from a healthy reference sample of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Results 686 Framingham participants (309 men, 377 women, age 62 8 years) had no radiographic femorotibial osteoarthritis (OA) (normals) and 376 (156 men, 220 women) additionally had no MRI features of cartilage lesions (supernormals). The Framingham normals had thinner cartilage in the medial (3.59 mm) than in the lateral femorotibial compartment (3.86 mm). Medially, the femur displayed thicker cartilage (1.86 mm) than the tibia (1.73 mm), and laterally the tibia thicker cartilage (2.09 mm) than the femur (1.77 mm). The thickest cartilage was observed in central, and the thinnest in external femorotibial subregions. Potential maximal Z-scores ranged from 5.6 to 9.8 throughout the subregions; men displayed thicker cartilage but similar potential maximal Z-scores as women. Mean values and potential maximal Z-scores in Framingham supernormals and non-exposed OAI reference participants (112 participants without symptoms or risk factors of knee OA) were similar to Framingham normals. Conclusions We provide reference values and potential maximal Z-scores of cartilage thickness in middle aged to elderly non-diseased populations without radiographic OA. Results were similar for supernormal participants without MRI features of cartilage lesions, and in a cohort without OA symptoms or risk factors. A cartilage thickness loss of around 27% is required for attaining a Z-score of ?2. PMID:20691798

  2. Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone. PMID:20708427

  3. The Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors Of Body Composition in Post CSCI Wheelchair Rugby Players (Preliminary Investigations)

    PubMed Central

    Zwierzchowska, Anna; G?owacz, Marta; Batko-Szwaczka, Agnieszka; Dudzi?ska-Griszek, Joanna; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Drozd, Mi?osz; Szewieczek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The enforced sedentary lifestyle and muscle paresis below the level of injury are associated with adipose tissue accumulation in the trunk. The value of anthropometric indicators of obesity in patients with spinal cord injuries has also been called into question. We hypothesized that the Body Mass Index recommended by the WHO to diagnose obesity in general population has too low sensitivity in case of wheelchair rugby players. The study group comprised 14 wheelchair rugby players, aged 32.6 5.1 years, who had sustained CSCI (paralysis of lower limbs and upper extremities). The research tool was the Tanita Viscan visceral and trunk fat analyzer AB140 using the abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate the visceral fat level (Vfat) and trunk fat percentage (Tfat). The AB140 analyzer also allowed the measurement of body composition of those individuals who could not assume an upright position. Our analyses revealed high and very high correlation coefficients between Vfat and WC (r=0.9), WHtR (r=0.7) and Tfat (r=0.9) whereas the correlation between Vfat and the BMI was weak, especially in the subgroup with Vfat < 13.5% (r=0.2). The subgroup with Vfat>13.5 exhibited a moderate-level relationship between the BMI and visceral fat increase. It was concluded that the BMI had a low sensitivity for predicting obesity risk in wheelchair rugby players after CSCI. The sensitivity of WC measurement was higher and thus, it may be stated that it constitutes an objective tool for predicting obesity risk in post-CSCI wheelchair rugby players. PMID:25713660

  4. The Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors Of Body Composition in Post CSCI Wheelchair Rugby Players (Preliminary Investigations).

    PubMed

    Zwierzchowska, Anna; G?owacz, Marta; Batko-Szwaczka, Agnieszka; Dudzi?ska-Griszek, Joanna; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Drozd, Mi?osz; Szewieczek, Jan

    2014-09-29

    The enforced sedentary lifestyle and muscle paresis below the level of injury are associated with adipose tissue accumulation in the trunk. The value of anthropometric indicators of obesity in patients with spinal cord injuries has also been called into question. We hypothesized that the Body Mass Index recommended by the WHO to diagnose obesity in general population has too low sensitivity in case of wheelchair rugby players. The study group comprised 14 wheelchair rugby players, aged 32.6 5.1 years, who had sustained CSCI (paralysis of lower limbs and upper extremities). The research tool was the Tanita Viscan visceral and trunk fat analyzer AB140 using the abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate the visceral fat level (Vfat) and trunk fat percentage (Tfat). The AB140 analyzer also allowed the measurement of body composition of those individuals who could not assume an upright position. Our analyses revealed high and very high correlation coefficients between Vfat and WC (r=0.9), WHtR (r=0.7) and Tfat (r=0.9) whereas the correlation between Vfat and the BMI was weak, especially in the subgroup with Vfat < 13.5% (r=0.2). The subgroup with Vfat>13.5 exhibited a moderate-level relationship between the BMI and visceral fat increase. It was concluded that the BMI had a low sensitivity for predicting obesity risk in wheelchair rugby players after CSCI. The sensitivity of WC measurement was higher and thus, it may be stated that it constitutes an objective tool for predicting obesity risk in post-CSCI wheelchair rugby players. PMID:25713660

  5. Effect of Breastfeeding on Head Circumference of Children from Impoverished Communities

    PubMed Central

    Xavier Jnior, Antonio Fernando Silva; de Assuno, Monica Lopes; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study investigated the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on head circumference (HC) among children living in impoverished communities. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among children 1260 months old from the 39 quilombos located in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. HC deficit was defined by a z-score of less than ?2 from the median (based on the 2006 World Health Organization growth standards). Prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance, and estimates were adjusted for possible confounders (anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related variables). Results We evaluated 725 children (365 boys and 360 girls). The prevalence of HC deficit was 13.3% among those children who were exclusively breastfed for less than 30 days, 10.6% among those exclusively breastfed for 30119 days, and 5.8% among those who were exclusively breastfed for 120 days or more. Even after controlling for possible confounding variables, exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months decreased the risk of HC deficit (prevalence ratio, 0.48; 95% CI 0.24, 0.99). Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months was associated with a larger HC in children exposed to great social vulnerability in impoverished communities. PMID:23414229

  6. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  7. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was −1.25 (1.14) (n  =  801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n  =  797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  8. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglyceride (TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Urinary albumin (UAlb) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore the relationship between NC and other measurements. Furthermore, the best cutoff values of NC for central obesity identification were determined by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: NC correlated positively with BMI, SBP and WC In both sexes. Both WC and NC correlated significantly positively with IR. A positive correlation between NC and FPG as well as a negative correlation between NC and HDL were found in obese men. NC≥38.5 cm for men and ≥34.5 cm for women were determined to be the best cutoff levels for identifying subjects with central obesity, with 82.9% accuracy for men and 79.9% accuracy for women. Conclusions: NC correlated positively with BMI and WC in both genders, indicating that NC could be used as a valid marker for both overall obesity and central obesity. In addition, measuring NC was shown to be a useful test for IR identification. Large number of NC is suggested to be associated with high risk of developing metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:26770540

  9. Relationship Between Blood Mercury Concentration and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Elderly Korean Individuals Living in Coastal Areas

    PubMed Central

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Jung-Man; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Yu-Mi; Kim, Rock-Bum; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between the blood mercury concentration and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly Korean individuals living in coastal areas. Methods The sample consisted of 477 adults (164 males, 313 females) aged 40 to 65 years who visited a Busan health promotion center from June to September in 2009. The relationship between blood mercury concentration and cardiovascular risk factors including metabolic syndrome, cholesterol profiles, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), was investigated. Variables related to blood mercury concentration were further evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Results The blood mercury concentration of the study population was 7.99 (range, 7.60 to 8.40) g/L. In males, the blood mercury concentration was 9.74 (8.92 to 10.63) g/L, which was significantly higher than that in females (7.21, [6.80 to 7.64] g/L). The blood mercury concentration of the study population was related to several cardiovascular risk factors including low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p=0.044), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p=0.034), BMI (p = 0.006), waist circumference (p = 0.031), and WHR (p < 0.001). In males, the blood mercury concentration was significantly correlated with WHR in the multiple regression analysis. Conclusions In males, the blood mercury concentration was related to waist-to-hip ratio, which is a central obesity index and cardiovascular risk factor. Our finding suggests that cardiovascular disease risk in males was increased by mercury exposure via an obesity-related mechanism. PMID:22020187

  10. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  11. Association between the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, prediabetes and diabetes mellitus among adults in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Santana, MV; Suárez, E; Ortiz, AP; Guzmán, M; Pérez, CM

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype with prediabetes and diabetes (DM) in a group of Hispanics. Methods Analysis of a cross-sectional study of 858 adults residing in Puerto Rico that collected data on blood pressure, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements was performed. HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. Prediabetes was defined as a fasting glucose of 100–125 mg/dL and DM as a fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or prior diagnosis. Results Prevalence of HTGW, prediabetes and DM was 27.9%, 38.0% and 21.6%, respectively. Subjects with the HTGW phenotype had higher adjusted odds of prediabetes (POR=5.55; 95% CI=3.38–9.13) and DM (POR=7.28; 95% CI=3.63–14.63) compared to those without the phenotype. The association for prediabetes was stronger for women than among men. Discussion HTGW phenotype was strongly associated with prediabetes and DM, reinforcing the need to further assess its performance as a screening tool to identify at-risk individuals for cardiometabolic conditions. PMID:24519258

  12. Association Between the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype, Prediabetes, and Diabetes Mellitus Among Adults in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Santana, Mary Vanellys; Suárez Pérez, Erick L; Ortiz Martínez, Ana P; Guzmán Serrano, Manuel; Pérez Cardona, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the association of the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype with prediabetes and diabetes (DM) in a group of Hispanics. Analysis of a cross-sectional study of 858 adults residing in Puerto Rico that collected data on blood pressure, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements was performed. HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. Prediabetes was defined as a fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL and DM as a fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or prior diagnosis. Prevalence of HTGW, prediabetes, and DM was 27.9, 38.0, and 21.6 %, respectively. Subjects with the HTGW phenotype had higher adjusted odds of prediabetes (POR 5.55; 95 % CI 3.38-9.13) and DM (POR 7.28; 95 % CI 3.63-14.63) compared to those without the phenotype. The association for prediabetes was stronger for women than among men. HTGW phenotype was strongly associated with prediabetes and DM, reinforcing the need to further assess its performance as a screening tool to identify at-risk individuals for cardiometabolic conditions. PMID:24519258

  13. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  14. Measuring chest circumference change during respiration with an electromagnetic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an off-the-shelf DC motor is modified into a chest belt and used to successfully measure circumference change on a mechanical chest model, while simultaneously harvesting significant power. Chest circumference change can provide information on tidal volume, which is vital in assessing lung function. The chest circumference change is calculated from the motor's voltage output. Calculated values are within 0.95mm of measured circumference changes, with a standard deviation of 0.37mm. The wearable motor can also harvest at least 29.4W during normal breathing. PMID:24110093

  15. Efficacy of mid-upper arm circumference in identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children during nutrition rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Saeed, Hibbah Araba; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although it is crucial to identify those children likely to be treated in an appropriate nutrition rehabilitation programme and discharge them at the appropriate time, there is no golden standard for such identification. The current study examined the appropriateness of using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children. We also assessed its discrepancy with the Weight-for-Height based diagnosis, the rate of recovery, and the discharge criteria of the children during nutrition rehabilitation. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study present findings from 156 children (aged 6-59 months) attending a supplementary feeding programme at Makadara and Jericho Health Centres, Eastern District of Nairobi, Kenya. Records of age, weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference were selected at three stages of nutrition rehabilitation: admission, follow-up and discharge. The values obtained were then used to calculate z-scores as defined by WHO Anthro while estimating different diagnostic indices. RESULTS Mid-upper arm circumference single cut-off (< 12.5 cm) was found to exhibit high values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio at both admission and discharge. Besides, children recorded higher rate of recovery at 86 days, an average increment of 0.98 cm at the rate of 0.14mm/day, and a weight gain of 13.49gm/day, albeit higher in female than their male counterparts. Nevertheless, children admitted on basis of low MUAC had a significantly higher MUAC gain than WH at 0.19mm/day and 0.13mm/day respectively. CONCLUSIONS Mid-upper arm circumference can be an appropriate tool for identifying malnourished children for admission to nutrition rehabilitation programs. Our results confirm the appropriateness of this tool for monitoring recovery trends and discharging the children thereafter. In principle the tool has potential to minimize nutrition rehabilitation costs, particularly in community therapeutic centres in developing countries. PMID:26060539

  16. Modern Replication of Eratosthenes' Measurement of the Circumference of Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes' experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38,874?km, measured at Rosebud,…

  17. Modern Replication of Eratosthenes' Measurement of the Circumference of Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes' experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38,874?km, measured at Rosebud,

  18. Head circumference and IQ of children with sex chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, S G; Masera, N; Pan, H; McKie, M

    1994-06-01

    At all ages XXX girls had significantly smaller head circumferences than control girls. Their IQ deficit was 24 points and IQ at age seven correlated significantly with head circumference at birth. In XXY boys, head circumference was significantly reduced at birth and up to nine years of age. The XXY boys' IQ deficit was 22 points, but IQ did not correlate with head circumference, as reductions in the two parameters did not always occur in tandem. The ratio of height-to-head circumference differed most in this group and could be useful in clinical recognition of this condition. XYY boys' head size did not differ from controls, despite their greater height, lower IQ scores indicating an adverse effect of an additional Y chromosome on brain development. The major factor affecting IQ outcome in the cohort was abnormal karyotype, with smaller effects from social class and head growth. PMID:8005365

  19. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaofei; Liu, Xinyu; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the HW phenotype and risk for CKD in a community population aged 40 years and older. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1, Waist circumference >90 cm in men or >85 cm in women and triglycerides ?2 mmol/l; Group 3, Waist circumference ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women and triglycerides <2 mmol/l; Group 2, The remaining participants. The prevalence of the three subgroups and CKD were determined. The association between HW phenotype and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 13.0). Results After adjusting for age and sex, Group 1 was associated with CKD (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.01, 4.73, P<0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders and unlikely to be in the causal pathway between the HW phenotype and CKD, Group 1 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 2.65 (95% CI 1.65, 4.26, P<0.001). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association of Group 1 and CKD was still significant (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26, 3.45, P?=?0.004). Group 2 was associated with CKD (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29, 2.53, P?=?0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders, Group 2 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 1.75 (95% CI 1.22, 2.51, P?=?0.002). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association between Group 2 and CKD still existed. The OR for CKD was 1.48 (95% CI 1.01, 2.16, P?=?0.046). Conclusion Our results showed that HW phenotype was associated with CKD in the population aged 40 years and older. PMID:24663403

  20. Particle Beam Waist Location in Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Down, Adrian; Mori, Warren; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2007-03-01

    The role of beam waist location in interactions between a plasma and a particle beam is not yet fully understood. Nonlinear effects within the plasma make an analysis of such interactions difficult. I present five simulations in which I vary the waist location of a beam of ultra-relativistic electrons propagating through one meter of self-ionized lithium plasma. The simulation parameters are chosen to model the recent experiment 167 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator, relevant to the design of future plasma wakefield accelerating afterburners. I find that beams focused near the point of entry into the plasma propagate further into the plasma and accelerates witness particles to a greater maximum energy before disintegrating. These results could indicate that ion channel formation is dependent on the drive beam waist location and that the plasma accelerating medium can have an observable effect on the focusing of the drive beam.

  1. Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; Lpez, Antonio; Gonzlez, Rafael C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

  2. Preferred women's waist-to-hip ratio variation over the last 2,500 years.

    PubMed

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men's mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men's preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25886537

  3. Modern replication of Eratosthenes measurement of the circumference of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38?874?km, measured at Rosebud, Victoria, Australia, and Jimboomba, Queensland, Australia with an error of 2.9%. This exceeds the accuracy of Eratosthenes, although not of the modern recreation of his experiment between Syene and Alexandria. The experiment described in this paper might form a useful model for cooperation between schools in different countries.

  4. Alternative Class Ranks Using Z-Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip H.; Van Niel, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in

  5. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  6. Treatment of scaphoid waist fractures with the HCS screw

    PubMed Central

    Gehrmann, Sebastian V.; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Wild, Michael; Jungbluth, Pascal; Kaufmann, Robert A.; Windolf, Joachim; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical results of the Headless Compression Screw (HCS, Synthes) when used for treatment of acute scaphoid waist fractures. The new screw design generates interfragmentary compression with use of a compression sleeve. Twenty-one patients were treated for acute scaphoid waist fractures type B2 with HCS screws. The average time to the final follow-up examination was 12.8 months. All 21 fractures united after a mean time of 7.2 weeks. The mean DASH score was 7.1. The average motion of the wrist in extension was 61, flexion was 46, radial abduction reached 25 and the ulnar abduction was 31. The maximally achieved grip strength was 86% compared to the uninjured side. Treatment of type B2 scaphoid fractures with the Headless Compression Screw showed good functional and radiographic results. The results are similar to those identified using other screw fixation systems. PMID:26504721

  7. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  8. Association of Waist-Height Ratio with Diabetes Risk: A 4-Year Longitudinal Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Hye-Jeong; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of various baseline adiposity indices, including WHtR, with the development of diabetes over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean individuals. Methods A total of 2,900 nondiabetic participants (mean age, 44.3 years; 2,078 men) in a health screening program, who repeated the medical check-up in 2005 and 2009, were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups according to development of diabetes after 4 years. The cut-off values of baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and WHtR for the development of diabetes over 4 years were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and mean area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of each index were assessed. The odds ratio (OR) for diabetes development was analyzed for each of the three baseline adiposity indices. Results During the follow-up period, 101 new cases (3.5%) of diabetes were diagnosed. The cut-off WHtR value for diabetes development was 0.51. Moreover, WHtR had the highest AUROC value for diabetes development among the three adiposity indices (0.716, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.669 to 0.763; 0.702, 95% CI, 0.655 to 0.750 for WC; 0.700, 95% CI, 0.651 to 0.750 for BMI). After adjusting for confounding variables, the ORs of WHtR and WC for diabetes development were 1.95 (95% CI, 1.14 to 3.34) and 1.96 (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.49), respectively. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding BMI. Conclusion Increased baseline WHtR and WC correlated with the development of diabetes after 4 years. WHtR might be a useful screening measurement to identify individuals at high risk for diabetes. PMID:26754587

  9. Efficacy of a First Course of Ibuprofen for Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure in Extremely Preterm Newborns According to Their Gestational Age-Specific Z-Score for Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Madeleneau, Doriane; Aubelle, Marie-Stephanie; Pierron, Charlotte; Lopez, Emmanuel; Patkai, Juliana; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Gascoin, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns. Study design This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+027+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea): 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA) were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes. Results The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.212.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.370.5] p=0.003). Conclusion There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction. PMID:25875583

  10. Changes in Parent Motivation Predicts Changes in Body Mass Index z-Score (zBMI) and Dietary Intake Among Preschoolers Enrolled in a Family-Based Obesity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Clifford, Lisa M.; Connor, Jared M.; Stark, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether changes in parent motivation over the course of a pediatric obesity intervention are significantly associated with long-term changes in treatment outcomes. Methods Study hypotheses were tested with a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial (N = 42). Study analyses tested whether baseline to posttreatment change in total score for a self-report parent motivation measure (Parent Motivation Inventory [PMI]) was significantly associated with baseline to 6-month follow-up changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI), dietary variables, and physical activity. Results Increases in PMI were significantly associated with decreased zBMI, decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets, and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Conclusions Given that increases in parent motivation were associated with some treatment benefits, future research should evaluate the impact of directly assessing and targeting parent motivation on weight outcomes for preschoolers participating in a weight management program. PMID:25016604

  11. Relationships of sire scrotal circumference to offspring reproduction and growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, B A; Brinks, J S; Richardson, G V

    1989-11-01

    Reproductive and growth data were obtained on 779 and 564 yearling beef heifers and bulls, respectively, that had sires with yearling scrotal circumference data at the San Juan Basin Research Center, Hesperus, CO. Partial regression coefficients of reproductive and growth traits on inbreeding (FXC) and age of the individual and adjusted scrotal circumference of sire (SCSI) were obtained. Growth and reproductive traits of heifers and growth and breeding soundness traits of bulls were analyzed. Separate analyses for each sex were performed, but least squares models were similar. Models included fixed effects of breed, birth year (BY), age of dam (AOD) and the covariates FXC, age (day of birth in heifer analyses) and SCSI. Scrotal circumference of sire was adjusted for age, FXC, AOD and BY using values obtained in a separate analysis. Seminal traits improved as age increased, and there was a seasonal effect present for age of puberty. Inbreeding had a detrimental effect on reproductive traits. Partial regression coefficients for the reproductive traits on SCSI were: age of puberty, -.796 d/cm; age of first calving, -.826 d/cm; julian day of first calving, -.667 d/cm; julian day of second calving, .597 d/cm; most probable producing ability, .132 %/cm; percent sperm motility, -.74 %/cm; percent primary sperm abnormalities, .08 %/cm; percent secondary sperm abnormalities, .92 %/cm; percent normal sperm, -1.28 %/cm; total breeding soundness examination score, .28 units/cm and scrotal circumference, .306 cm/cm. A heritability of .39 was obtained for scrotal circumference. PMID:2592276

  12. Measuring abdominal circumference and skeletal muscle from a single cross-sectional CT image: a step-by-step guide for clinicians using National Institutes of Health ImageJ

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L.; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral and intermuscular) and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, however this tutorial utilizes ImageJ, a free public domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). PMID:26392166

  13. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  14. Association between waist circumference (WC) values and hypertension, heart disease (HD) and diabetes, reported by the elderly--SABE Survey: Health, Wellness and Aging, 2000 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Luiza A G; Marucci, Maria de Fátima N; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The positive association between WC and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus (DM) and HD calls for investigation in the elderly. The objective of the present study was to identify WC values, so as better to determine the risk of these diseases. This was a longitudinal study using the data of 405 elderly participants of the SABE Survey: Health, Well-being and Aging, undertaken in São Paulo, in 2000 and 2006. The study variables were WC, sex, age group, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) (2000) and SAH, DM and HD (2006). The area under the Receiver Operating Caracteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) and confidence intervals of 95% was used to estimate the performance of WC values in correctly discriminating among the elderly, according to the reference or not to diseases associated with WC. WC critical values were identified by the highest positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) equal to zero. The AUC showed the satisfactory performance of WC critical values in discriminating between reports of DM in individuals of 60-74 years of age. The WC critical values identified were ≥87 cm for women and ≥99 cm for men, which presented a better performance in relation to the AUC value than to the WC values commonly used. The WC critical values identified in this study showed better discriminatory power of foretelling reference to DM than did the WC values commonly used. PMID:24708903

  15. A micronutrient powder with low doses of highly absorbable iron and zinc reduces iron and zinc deficiency and improves weight-for-age Z-scores in South African children.

    PubMed

    Troesch, Barbara; van Stuijvenberg, Martha E; van Stujivenberg, Martha E; Smuts, Cornelius M; Kruger, H Salom; Biebinger, Ralf; Hurrell, Richard F; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in a single serving. The aim was to test the efficacy of a low-iron and -zinc (each 2.5 mg) MNP containing iron as NaFeEDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), and an exogenous phytase active at gut pH. In a double-blind controlled trial, South African school children with low iron status (n = 200) were randomized to receive either the MNP or the unfortified carrier added just before consumption to a high-phytate maize porridge 5 d/wk for 23 wk; primary outcomes were iron and zinc status and a secondary outcome was somatic growth. Compared with the control, the MNP increased serum ferritin (P < 0.05), body iron stores (P < 0.01) and weight-for-age Z-scores (P < 0.05) and decreased transferrin receptor (P < 0.05). The prevalence of iron deficiency fell by 30.6% (P < 0.01) and the prevalence of zinc deficiency decreased by 11.8% (P < 0.05). Absorption of iron from the MNP was estimated to be 7-8%. Inclusion of an exogenous phytase combined with NaFeEDTA and AA may allow a substantial reduction in the iron dose from existing MNP while still delivering adequate iron and zinc. In addition, the MNP is likely to enhance absorption of the high native iron content of complementary foods based on cereals and/or legumes. PMID:21178093

  16. Union of Scaphoid Waist Fractures Assessed by CT Scan

    PubMed Central

    Clementson, Martin; Jørgsholm, Peter; Besjakov, Jack; Björkman, Anders; Thomsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background Union of a scaphoid fracture is difficult to assess on a standard series of radiographs. An unnecessary and prolonged immobilization is inconvenient and may impair functional outcome. Although operative treatment permits early mobilization, its influence on time to union is still uncertain. Purpose To assess union of scaphoid waist fractures based on computed tomography (CT) scan at 6 weeks, and to compare time to union between conservative treatment and arthroscopically assisted screw fixation. Patients and methods CT scan in the longitudinal axis of the scaphoid was used to provide fracture characteristics, and to assess bone union at 6 weeks in 65 consecutive patients with scaphoid waist fractures. In a randomized subgroup from this cohort with nondisplaced fractures, we compared time to union between conservative treatment (n = 23) and arthroscopically assisted screw fixation (n = 15). Results Overall, at 6 weeks we found a 90% union rate for non- or minimally displaced fracture treated conservatively, and 82% for those who underwent surgery. In the randomized subgroup of nondisplaced fractures, no significant difference in time to union was demonstrated between those treated conservatively and those who underwent surgery. The conservatively treated fractures from this subgroup with prolonged time to union (10 to 14 weeks) were comminuted, demonstrating a radial cortical or corticospongious fragment. Conclusion The majority of non- or minimally displaced scaphoid waist fractures are sufficiently treated with 6 weeks in a cast. Screw fixation does not reduce time to fracture union compared with conservative treatment. Level of Evidence level II, Therapeutic study PMID:25709879

  17. Measurement of Gastric Circumference in Foetuses with Oesophageal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hoopmann, M.; Kagan, K. O.; Borgmeier, F.; Seitz, G.; Arand, J.; Wagner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The specific recognition of oesophageal atresia (OA) with or without a tracheal fistula in a foetus is a diagnostic challenge for prenatal medicine. The aim of the present work is to analyse the value of the measurement of gastric size in the diagnosis of this significant malformation. Materials and Methods: Altogether, the examinations of 433 pregnancies between the 18.4 and 39.1 weeks of gestation were retrospectively analysed. 59 of these foetuses exhibited an OA. By means of a linear regression analysis with normal foetuses, significant parameters influencing gastric size were examined. Subsequently the gastric sizes were transformed into z values and a comparison was made between OA with and without fistulae with the help of t tests. Results: In the normal foetuses there was a significant association between the gastric circumference and the abdominal circumference (circumference = 6.809 + 0.179 × abdominal circumference, r = 0.686, p < 0.0001). In the normal group the average was 43.0 (standard deviation [SD] 13.7) mm and those in foetuses with and without fistuale were 33.8 (SD 22.7) and 0.9 (SD 3.7) mm. In 34 (57.6 %) foetuses with an OA, the gastric circumference was below the 5th percentile. In detail, there were 13 (34.2 %) foetuses with a fistula and 21 (100 %) without a fistula. The average z values in the normal group and in the groups of OA with fistula and without fistula amounted to 0.0 (SD 1.0), −1.3 (SD 2.2) and −4.5 (SD 1.0). Conclusion: Measurements of the gastric circumference below the 5th percentile should lead to further diagnostic measures, especially when associated with polyhydramnios. Although OA without a fistula is always conspicuous, only about one in three OAs with fistula are associated with a significantly smaller stomach. PMID:26719598

  18. Adiposity indices in the prediction of insulin resistance in prepubertal Colombian children

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T; Pereira, Mark A; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Rodrguez, Diana C; Duran, Alvaro E; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Villa-Roel, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare BMI with abdominal skinfold thickness (ASF), waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) in prepubertal Colombian children. Design We calculated age- and sex-specific Z-scores for BMI, ASF, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and three other skinfold-thickness sites. Logistic regression with stepwise selection (P = 080 for entry and P = 005 for retention) was performed to identify predictors of IR and extreme IR, which were determined by age- and sex-specific Z-scores to identify the ? 90th and ? 95th percentile of homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR), respectively. We used receiver operating characteristic curves to compare the area under the curve between models. Setting Bucaramanga, Colombia. Subjects Children (n 1261) aged 610 years in Tanner stage 1 from a population-based study. Results A total of 127 children (seventy girls and fifty-seven boys) were classified with IR, including sixty-three children (thirty-three girls and thirty boys) classified with extreme IR. Only ASF and BMI Z-scores were retained as predictors of IR by stepwise selection. Adding ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0794 (95% CI 0752, 0837) to 0811 (95% CI 0770, 0851; P for contrast = 001). In predicting extreme IR, the addition of ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0837 (95% CI 0790, 0884) to 0864 (95% CI 0823, 0905; P for contrast = 001). Conclusions ASF Z-score predicted IR independent of BMI Z-score in our population of prepubertal children. ASF and BMI Z-scores together improved IR risk stratification compared with BMI Z-score alone, opening new perspectives in the prediction of cardiometabolic risk in prepubertal children. PMID:22916737

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics in the SPEAR 3 Double-Waist Chicane

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, J.A.; Huang, X.; Terebilo, A.; /SLAC

    2007-08-08

    One of the two 7.6 m long straight sections in SPEAR3 has been divided into two short straights to provide places for two new small-gap insertion devices (IDs). A chicane generates an angular separation of 10 mrad between the two straights. A quadrupole triplet has been added in the center of the 7.6 m long chicane to create a 'double-waist chicane' optics with {beta}{sub {gamma}}=1.6 m at the center of each of two future IDs. The new optics also reduces {beta}{sub {gamma}}to 2.5 m in the four 4.8 m straight sections. In this paper, the authors discuss nonlinear dynamic studies associated with design and implementation of the new optics. They present tracking results generated during the design stage and compare them to nonlinear dynamics measurements made with the quadrupole triplet installed in SPEAR3.

  20. [Weight/head circumference ratio at birth for assessing fetal growth].

    PubMed

    Gonalves, Fabiana Cristina Lima da Silva Pastich; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marilia de Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to use weight/head circumference ratio at birth to assess fetal growth. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco State, Brazil, with 915 term infants. Infants' anthropometric measurements and data on prenatal care, smoking during pregnancy, family income, and maternal schooling and nutritional status were collected in the first 24 hours after birth. Infants were classified as proportionate (weight/head circumference ratio ? 0.90) versus disproportionate (< 0.90). Lower mean weight/head circumference ratio was associated with maternal smoking, younger age, inadequate prenatal care, and low BMI, height, and triceps skinfold thickness. Mean weight, length, head and chest circumference, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were lower among infants with disproportionate weight/head circumference ratio, independently of sex. In conclusion, weight/head circumference ratio and birth weight are important indicators of fetal growth. PMID:26578023

  1. Preferred Women’s Waist-to-Hip Ratio Variation over the Last 2,500 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men’s mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men’s preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25886537

  2. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ? 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol exposure, but raise concerns about the predictive value of this metric at an individual-subject level. PMID:26928125

  3. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E.; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5–19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol exposure, but raise concerns about the predictive value of this metric at an individual-subject level. PMID:26928125

  4. Measuring Abdominal Circumference and Skeletal Muscle From a Single Cross-Sectional Computed Tomography Image: A Step-by-Step Guide for Clinicians Using National Institutes of Health ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis, including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular), and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings, and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross-sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole-body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole-body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, but this tutorial uses ImageJ, a free public-domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health. PMID:26392166

  5. Anthropometry of the Human Scaphoid Waist by Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer; Hofmeister, Eric P; Renninger, Christopher; Kroonen, Leo T

    2015-01-01

    Published measurements for the scaphoid are scarce. The purpose of this study is to define anthropometric norms for the waist of the scaphoid to assist in optimizing bone graft quantity and implant use. Computed tomography images of the wrist were reviewed by three surgeons. Anthropometric data were gathered, including the scaphoid waist diameter in two dimensions and the scaphoid waist volume. Each study was measured twice, allowing for determination of inter- and intraobserver reliability. Forty-three studies were examined (23 female and 20 male). Average measurements of the scaphoid waist were 11.28 0.26 mm in the sagittal plane and 8.70 0.17 mm in the coronal plane, and the waist volume was 715 33.0 mm3. Specific measures of the narrowest portion of the scaphoid are provided by this study. Measurements of the scaphoid waist through the use of three-dimensional imaging are an accurate method with good inter- and intraobserver reliability. The measurements obtained from this study can be applied to guide graft and implant selection for treatment of scaphoid waist fractures and nonunions. PMID:26688990

  6. The effect of waist twisting on walking speed of an amphibious salamander like robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin-Yan; Jia, Li-Chao; Wang, Chen; Xie, Guang-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Amphibious salamanders often swing their waist to coordinate quadruped walking in order to improve their crawling speed. A robot with a swing waist joint, like an amphibious salamander, is used to mimic this locomotion. A control method is designed to allow the robot to maintain the rotational speed of its legs continuous and avoid impact between its legs and the ground. An analytical expression is established between the amplitude of the waist joint and the step length. Further, an optimization amplitude is obtained corresponding to the maximum stride. The simulation results based on automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS) and physical experiments verify the rationality and validity of this expression.

  7. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  8. Measuring the Circumference of the Earth at Primary School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Folco, Emmanuel; Jasmin, David; Hibon-Hartmann, Mireille

    The French program ""La main a la pate"" is leading an international and cooperative project gathering each year more than 100 schools all over the world. Following in the footsteps of Eratosthenes invites teachers and pupils at primary schools to measure the circumference of the Earth following the first method developed by the Greek scientist Eratosthenes 2 200 years ago. The protocol consists in a series of experimental activities which allow a progressive approach of the various scientific notions at play (light rays and shadows the shape of the Earth the solar noon etc). Pupils are invited to reproduce the observations of Eratosthenes and to adapt its method by developing their own instruments. Finally they can compute their own estimation of the size of our planet by exchanging easily their measurements through Internet with others classes from many countries. We will present the progressive protocol and its entertaining activities as well as the specific cooperative tools which have been created to help and follow up the teachers in the course of the project: a scientists' and trainers' network an Internet forum and a data base where all the measurements gathered can be exchanged between the participants.

  9. Brief Report: Cognitive Correlates of Enlarged Head Circumference in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Joseph, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the frequency and cognitive correlates of enlarged head circumference in 63 children with autism (ages 4-14). Macrocephaly occurred at a significantly higher frequency. Children with discrepantly high nonverbal abilities had a mean standardized head circumference that was more than 1 standard deviation greater than the reference

  10. Supine Length, Weight and Head Circumference at Birth in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean plus or minus standard deviation of boys' and girls' (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 plus or minus 30 and…

  11. Childhood wrist circumference is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ashley N; Kelly, Aaron S; Prineas, Ronald J; Marlatt, Kara L; Dengel, Donald R; Sinaiko, Alan R; Moran, Antoinette; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine whether childhood wrist circumference predicts insulin resistance in adulthood. Measures were taken in prepubertal children and then approximately 30 years later in the same subjects as adults. Our findings suggest that wrist circumference in childhood is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood. PMID:25596104

  12. Supine Length, Weight and Head Circumference at Birth in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean plus or minus standard deviation of boys' and girls' (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 plus or minus 30 and

  13. Experimental stress-strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2014-04-01

    We experimentally determine tensile force-elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force-elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress-strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

  14. Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist

    SciTech Connect

    Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2014-04-21

    We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

  15. Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

    2014-06-01

    'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate. PMID:24755099

  16. Mid-arm circumference: an alternative measure for screening low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, Jagadish C; Afroze, Ainun; Khanam, S T; Paul, Nibedita

    2005-04-01

    Birth weight is a reliable and sensitive indicator for predicting the immediate or later outcome of a newborn child. In a developing country like Bangladesh, where more than 75% of deliveries occur in rural community and are mostly attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) or relatives, birth weight cannot be recorded mainly due to paucity of suitable weighing scale. To overcome the problem associated with weighing the newborn, it was considered justified to find out other simpler measurements that could be used as substitute of weighing, in order to identify low birth weight babies. A cross sectional, analytical, hospital based study was conducted at Dhaka city on 560 newborn babies born during a period of 18 months in 2000-2001 to examine relative validity of mid-arm circumference as a screening measure of low birth weight babies. Mid-arm circumference, length, head circumference, chest circumference, abdominal girth, and calf circumference were considered. The study showed a strong correlation (p < 0.001) between mid-arm circumference (r = 0.956) and birth weight, followed by calf circumference (r = 0.946) and birth weight. Other parameters were also strongly correlated (p < 0.001). The study showed that in identifying newborns of <2500 gm a mid-arm circumference of <9 cm had the best sensitivity (96.2%) and specificity (97.3%). A value of <8 cm and <6.8 cm for mid-arm circumference showed highest validity for picking up newborns weighing <2000 gm and <1500 gm respectively. Measurement of arm circumference is easier, convenient and statistically superior to other anthropometrical parameters in this work. The researchers recommend designing of simple 'Tri-colored tape' for early detection of 'At Risk' newborns in rural community for their timely management. PMID:16689134

  17. Waist location and Rayleigh range for higher-order mode laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.; Karkheck, J.

    1984-07-01

    Self has presented simple equations for Gaussian-mode laser beams for calculating focused waist location and beam waist magnification in terms of the Rayleigh range. Since the Rayleigh range is a purely geometrical quantity. Self's equations can also be applied to higher-order mode beams. A convenient form of the Rayleigh range for Hermite-Gaussian modes is presented along with representative results for Co/sub 2/ laser industrial processing facilities.

  18. Apparatus for precision focussing and positioning of a beam waist on a target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Dana H. (Inventor); Gunter, William D. (Inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to optical focussing apparatus and, more particularly, to optical apparatus for focussing a highly collimated Gaussian beam which provides independent and fine control over the focus waist diameter, the focus position both along the beam axis and transverse to the beam, and the focus angle. A beam focussing and positioning apparatus provides focussing and positioning for the waist of a waisted beam at a desired location on a target such as an optical fiber. The apparatus includes a first lens, having a focal plane f sub 1, disposed in the path of an incoming beam and a second lens, having a focal plane f sub 2 and being spaced downstream from the first lens by a distance at least equal to f sub 1 + 10 f sub 2, which cooperates with the first lens to focus the waist of the beam on the target. A rotatable optical device, disposed upstream of the first lens, adjusts the angular orientation of the beam waist. The transverse position of the first lens relative to the axis of the beam is varied to control the transverse position of the beam waist relative to the target (a fiber optic as shown) while the relative axial positions of the lenses are varied to control the diameter of the beam waist and to control the axial position of the beam waist. Mechanical controllers C sub 1, C sub 2, C sub 3, C sub 4, and C sub 5 control the elements of the optical system. How seven adjustments can be made to correctly couple a laser beam into an optical fiber is illustrated. Prior art systems employing optical techniques to couple a laser beam into an optical fiber or other target simply do not provide the seven necessary adjustments. The closest known prior art, a Newport coupler, provides only two of the seven required adjustments.

  19. Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Sedentary Bouts and Breaks in Sedentary Time with Cardiometabolic Risk in Children with a Family History of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Travis John; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Mathieu, Marie-Ève; Henderson, Mélanie; O’Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. Purpose To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8–11 years with a family history of obesity. Methods Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort) were collected from 2005–2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score. Results After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1–4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all p<0.05). The number of sedentary bouts lasting 5–9 minutes was negatively associated with waist circumference in girls only, while the number of bouts lasting 10–14 minutes was positively associated with fasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all p<0.05). Leisure time computer/video game use was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk score and waist circumference in boys, while TV viewing was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, waist circumference, and BMI Z-score in girls (all p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that frequent interruptions in sedentary time are associated with a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile and highlight the deleterious relationship between screen time and cardiometabolic risk among children with a family history of obesity. PMID:24278117

  20. Built environment associations with adiposity parameters among overweight and obese Hispanic youth

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Stephanie; Klassen, Ann C.; Curriero, Frank C.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Davis, Jaimie N.; Goran, Michael I.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to establish neighborhood built environment correlates of adiposity as measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The utility and methodological gains of using this measure for built environment research were further investigated by comparing model fit across parallel models on body mass index z-scores and waist circumference. Methods Pre-existing data collected from 2001 to 2011 on 576 overweight and obese Hispanic youth were compiled with built environment data, and 2000 census data for analyses conducted in 2012. Walking-distance buffers were built around participants' residential locations. Variables for park space, food access, walkability, and neighborhood socio-cultural aspects were entered into a multivariate regression model predicting percent body fat. Parallel models were built for body mass index z-score, and waist circumference. Results Significant associations were found between percent body fat and supermarket access for boys, and percent body fat and increased park space and decreased neighborhood linguistic isolation for girls. Neighborhood socio-cultural characteristics accounted for more variance in obesity compared to body mass index z-score or waist circumference. Conclusion Park access, food environment, and neighborhood socio-cultural characteristics are independent contributors to body fat in children, and the contribution of these risks differs by gender. There are incremental gains to using a more accurate measure of body fat in built environment obesity studies. PMID:26339570

  1. Growth of "waist" ZnO twin rods through hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lixia; Yu, Xianjin; Zhang, Lipeng; Yang, Ping

    2014-04-01

    The factors that govern the deposition and structure of "waist" ZnO twin rods from aqueous solution through hydrothermal synthesis were discussed in details. Pencil-like ZnO hexagonal twin rods were obtained in Zn(2+) + HMTA system on ITO glass substrates with ZnO buffer layer deposited in advance. As a contrast, a series of experiments were preceded with TBAB or on bare Cu sheet, Zn sheet, and Al sheet to research lattice-match influences on ZnO nucleation. A series of "waist" ZnO hexagonal twin rods were synthesized and the morphology of each "waist" was shown. The forming of different waists results from the different lattice-match effects between substrates and ZnO crystal. We demonstrated ZnO hexagonal twin rods synthesis on Cu, Al, Zn sheet by normal hydrothermal synthesis and revealed different forming schemes of these varying "waists" of the twin structures. On the basis of our research, not only some new ways of synthesizing ZnO twin rods were proposed but a new idea of applying metal to nano-devices used in piezoelectric area. PMID:24734760

  2. Inability of waist-to-height ratio to predict new onset diabetes mellitus among older adults in Taiwan: a five-year observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ren-Jieh; Wu, Yung-Hung; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal obesity plays a significant role in cardiometabolic health. Due to the difficulties to quantify abdominal obesity, a number of proxy indicators have been developed, including waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip (WTH) ratio, and waist-to-height (WHtR) ratio. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of WHtR predicting new onset diabetes mellitus (NOD) among older adults in rural Taiwan. In 2000, 372 subjects (mean age=61.811.3 years, 57.8% females) living in the Tou-Cheng Township of I-Lan County participated in the study and 250 of them (6 deceased, mean age of survivors=67.110.7 years, 58.9% females) were successfully followed in 2005. The mean BMI of the primary cohort was 25.03.6 kg/m(2); the proportion of obesity and overweight was 47.8% and 21.0%, respectively. The mean WHtR was 0.570.07, and the prevalence of high WHtR (>0.5) was 83.9%. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 18.5% and 19.6%, respectively. Comparisons between subjects with high WHtR (>0.5) and low WHtR (<0.5) showed significant cardiovascular risk factor clustering in high WHtR group, but serum cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol similar in both groups. In 2005, the prevalence of DM and IFG among 244 survivors was 24.9% and 24.1%, respectively. Overall, the cumulative incidence of NOD during the 5-year follow-up was 8.2% (20/244), which was 8.7% (18/206) in high WHtR group and 5.3% (2/38) in low WHtR group (p=0.489). Adjusted for age and sex, IFG was the only independent risk factor for NOD in this study (odds ratio=OR=9.21, 95% confidence interval=CI=2.70-31.46), but not the high WHtR. In conclusion, high WHtR is a common phenomenon (83.9%) of community-living older adults in rural Taiwan and it did not predict significantly NOD in 5-year follow-up. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the predictability of WHtR in NOD among older adults and to compare the effectiveness of WHtR with other conventional risk factors. PMID:20627333

  3. Body mass index and waist: hip ratio are not enough to characterise female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Leszek; Cabrić, Milan; Krakowiak, Helena

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of characteristic body features of Miss Poland beauty contest finalists compared with the control group, can contribute to recognising the contemporary ideal of beauty promoted by the mass media. The studies of Playboy models and fashion models conducted so far have been limited to the following determinants of attractiveness: body mass index, waist:hip ratio, and waist:chest ratio, which only partially describe the body shape. We compared 20 body features of the finalists of Miss Poland 2004 beauty contest with those of the students of Medical Academy in Bydgoszcz. Discriminant analysis showed that the thigh girth-height index, waist: chest ratio, height, and body mass index had the greatest discrimination power distinguishing the two groups. A model of Miss Poland finalists figure assessment is presented which allows one to distinguish super-attractive women from the control group. PMID:17283934

  4. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW) in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls) from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds) were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004) were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex) and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL). The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%), without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence. PMID:25913494

  5. Development of biomimetic quadruped walking robot with 2-DOF waist joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Se-Hoon; Lee, Yun-Jung

    2005-12-01

    This paper presented a novel bio-mimetic quadruped walking robot with 2-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) waist joint, which connects the front and the rear parts of the body. The waist-jointed walking robot can guarantee more stable and more animal-like gait than that of a conventional single-rigid-body walking robot. The developed robot, called ELIRO-II (Eating LIzard RObot version 2), can bend its body from side to side by using 1-DOF passive waist joint while the legs is transferred, thereby increasing the stride and speed of the robot. In addition, ELIRO-II has one more active DOF to bend its body up and down, which increases the mobility in irregular terrain such as slope and stairs. We design the mechanical structure of the robot, which is small and light to have high mobility. This research described characteristics of the 2-DOF waists joint and leg mechanism as well as a hardware and software of the controller of ELIRO-II.

  6. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  7. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions In DA$\\Phi$NE With KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Zobov, M.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Milardi, C.; Shatilov, D.; Valishev, A.

    2015-06-24

    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron-positron collider DAΦNE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DAΦNE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DAΦNE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DAΦNE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e- ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  8. Stable Isotope Analysis Challenges Wasp-Waist Food Web Assumptions in an Upwelling Pelagic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as ‘wasp-waist’ ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for δ13C and δ15N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007–2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729

  9. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination

  10. Anthropometric Measures and Fasting Insulin Levels in Children Before and after Cure of Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Margaret F; Graf, Jennifer; Gokarn, Nirmal; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Children with Cushing syndrome present with growth delay and excess adiposity that tends to be generalized rather than centripetal. There are no prospective studies of this phenotype as it evolves before and after treatment in children. The aims of this study were to evaluate children prior to and one-year after surgical cure compared to controls and to determine fasting insulin levels and their possible association with waist circumference and waist-height ratio, pre- and post-cure of Cushing syndrome. Methods 30 children with Cushing syndrome were evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment and compared to 14 age and body mass index-matched controls. Results Only triceps skin fold z- score showed a significant difference between patients with active Cushing syndrome and controls. A positive correlation between fasting insulin levels and waist circumference z- score was found for children with Cushing syndrome; this association persisted one-year following cure. Conclusions Unlike adults affected with Cushing syndrome, upper arm muscle area of children with Cushing syndrome did not differ from obese children without Cushing syndrome. The persistence of a positive correlation between waist circumference and fasting insulin despite remission of Cushing syndrome suggests that children with a history of Cushing syndrome may have an increased risk for adverse long-term effects of increased abdominal fat mass. Clinical Trial numbers: NCT00001595, NCT00001452, NCT00005927 PMID:22154461

  11. Hypertriglyceridemic waist may explain ethnic differences in hypertension among patients with type 2 diabetes in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypertension is common among persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between ethnicity and hypertension prevalence after adjusting for age, sex, Hba1c, total cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist. The study population consisted of 354 primary health care patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (173 Assyrians/Syrians and 181 Swedes) residing in Sdertlje, Sweden. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Hypertension prevalence was higher among Swedes than Assyrians/Syrians, (77% versus 58%; p?=?0.001). In the unadjusted logistic regression model, the odds ratio for hypertension in Swedes was twice as high than that in Assyrians/Syrians (OR?=?2.44; 95% CI =1.54-3.86). In the age- and sex-adjusted model, odds ratio of hypertension was 2.25 (95% CI 1.41-3.60). After adjustments for total cholesterol was made, the odds ratio of hypertension decreased slightly to 1.73. When elevated triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist were separately introduced, the odds ratio of hypertension was no longer significant between the ethnic groups (1.60 and 1.43 for triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist respectively). In addition, advanced age 6069 years old (OR?=?1.80, CI 95% 1.00-3.20) and???70 years old (OR?=?2.88, CI 95% 1.40-5.93), elevated total cholesterol (OR?=?1.48, CI 95% 1.12-1.95) and presents of hypertriglyceridemic waist (those with high WC and high TG) were significant confounding factors for the increased risk of hypertension independent of ethnicity. Conclusions The crude differences in prevalence of hypertension between the Swedes and Assyrians/Syrians in our study population with type 2 diabetes were no longer significant when adjusting for high triglycerides levels or the presence of hypertriglyceridemic waist. PMID:22937746

  12. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  13. Long-Term Effects of the RealFit Intervention on Body Composition, Aerobic Fitness, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Maria W.J.; Kremers, Stef P.J.; Mulkens, Sandra; Mujakovic, Suhreta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: RealFit is a 13-week weight reduction program for youth that focuses on nutrition, physical activity (PA), psychology, and parental participation. The short-term effectiveness of the RealFit intervention, in terms of body composition, aerobic fitness, and dietary and PA behavior, having been proven, the present study evaluated the long-term effects of the intervention. Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design. Height, weight, waist circumference, aerobic fitness, and self-reported dietary and PA behavior were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after the 13-week RealFit intervention (T1), after 5 months (T2), and 1 year (T3) of follow-up. A total of 86 adolescents participated in the intervention group. The control group (n=32) comprised overweight adolescents who did not receive any treatment. Results: One year after the RealFit intervention, significant decreases in BMI z-score (mean difference [MD]: ?0.39) and waist circumference (MD, ?3.24) were found. The comparison between the intervention and control groups, controlling for confounders, resulted in a significant difference (BMI z-score: ?0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.67 to ?0.15; waist circumference: ?8.07; 95% CI: ?11.58 to ?4.56). The results for dietary and PA behavior consistently showed favorable changes in the intervention group. Conclusions: The RealFit intervention appears to have significant favorable long-term effects on BMI z-score and waist circumference. These changes in body composition obviously represent changes in adolescents' energy balance-related behavior. Taking all results and limitations into account, it may cautiously be concluded that RealFit is an effective weight loss intervention. PMID:25302441

  14. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing.

    PubMed

    Zorko, Martin; Nemec, Bojan; Babi?, Jan; Lenik, Blaz; Supej, Matej

    2015-09-01

    Recently alpine skis with a wider waist width, which medially shifts the contact between the ski edge and the snow while turning, have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to determine the knee joint kinematics during turning while using skis of different waist widths (65mm, 88mm, 110mm). Six highly skilled skiers performed ten turns on a predefined course (similar to a giant slalom course). The relation of femur and tibia in the sagital, frontal and coronal planes was captured by using an inertial motion capture suit, and Global Navigation Satellite System was used to determine the skiers' trajectories. With respect of the outer ski the knee joint flexion, internal rotation and abduction significantly decreased with the increase of the ski waist width for the greatest part of the ski turn. The greatest abduction with the narrow ski and the greatest external rotation (lowest internal rotation) with the wide ski are probably the reflection of two different strategies of coping the biomechanical requirements in the ski turn. These changes in knee kinematics were most probably due to an active adaptation of the skier to the changed biomechanical conditions using wider skis. The results indicated that using skis with large waist widths on hard, frozen surfaces could bring the knee joint unfavorably closer to the end of the range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as potentially increasing the risk of degenerative knee injuries. Key pointsThe change in the skis' waist width caused a change in the knee joint movement strategies, which had a tendency to adapt the skier to different biomechanical conditions.The use of wider skis or, in particular, skis with a large waist width, on a hard or frozen surface, could unfavourably bring the knee joint closer to the end of range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as may potentially increase the risk of degenerative knee injuries.The overall results of the abduction and internal rotation in respect to turn radii and ground reaction forces indicated that the knee joint movements are likely one of the key points in alpine skiing techniques. However, the skiing equipment used can still significantly influence the movement strategy. PMID:26336348

  15. Separating bedtime rest from activity using waist or wrist-worn accelerometers in youth.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Dustin J; Xu, Zhiyi; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari; Chen, Kong Y; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA) over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week) in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10-18 years old, 47 females) during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n?=?41) were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer, respectively. The selected optimal activity cut points were 500 and 3,000 counts/min for waist and wrist-worn accelerometers, respectively. Bedtime rest and activity were correctly classified by the algorithm in the validation group (n?=?40) by both waist- (sensitivity: 0.983, specificity: 0.946, area under ROC curve: 0. 872) and wrist-worn (0.999, 0.980 and 0.943) accelerometers. The decision tree classified bedtime rest correctly with higher accuracy than commonly used automated algorithm for both waist- and wrist-warn accelerometer (all p<0.001). We concluded that cut points developed and validated for waist- and wrist-worn uniaxial accelerometer have a good power for accurate separation of time spent in bedtime rest from activity in youth. PMID:24727999

  16. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Zorko, Martin; Nemec, Bojan; Babič, Jan; Lešnik, Blaz; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Recently alpine skis with a wider waist width, which medially shifts the contact between the ski edge and the snow while turning, have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to determine the knee joint kinematics during turning while using skis of different waist widths (65mm, 88mm, 110mm). Six highly skilled skiers performed ten turns on a predefined course (similar to a giant slalom course). The relation of femur and tibia in the sagital, frontal and coronal planes was captured by using an inertial motion capture suit, and Global Navigation Satellite System was used to determine the skiers’ trajectories. With respect of the outer ski the knee joint flexion, internal rotation and abduction significantly decreased with the increase of the ski waist width for the greatest part of the ski turn. The greatest abduction with the narrow ski and the greatest external rotation (lowest internal rotation) with the wide ski are probably the reflection of two different strategies of coping the biomechanical requirements in the ski turn. These changes in knee kinematics were most probably due to an active adaptation of the skier to the changed biomechanical conditions using wider skis. The results indicated that using skis with large waist widths on hard, frozen surfaces could bring the knee joint unfavorably closer to the end of the range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as potentially increasing the risk of degenerative knee injuries. Key points The change in the skis’ waist width caused a change in the knee joint movement strategies, which had a tendency to adapt the skier to different biomechanical conditions. The use of wider skis or, in particular, skis with a large waist width, on a hard or frozen surface, could unfavourably bring the knee joint closer to the end of range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as may potentially increase the risk of degenerative knee injuries. The overall results of the abduction and internal rotation in respect to turn radii and ground reaction forces indicated that the knee joint movements are likely one of the key points in alpine skiing techniques. However, the skiing equipment used can still significantly influence the movement strategy. PMID:26336348

  17. Growth of Head Circumference in Autistic Infants during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumoto, Aya; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiromichi; Nishimura, Mio; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Miyazaki, Masahito; Mori, Kenji; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kagami, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the increase in head circumference (HC) of 85 autistic infants (64 boys and 21 girls) during their first year of life. The data were collected from their "mother-and-baby" notebooks. This notebook is a medical record of the baby's growth and development delivered to the parents of all babies born in Japan. This is a

  18. In the Spirit of Eratosthenes: Measuring the Circumference of the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charischak, Ihor

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the mathematics and science underlying Eratosthenes' measurement of the circumference of Earth in about 200 B.C. and provides a lesson plan so that small groups of high school students can duplicate the measurements. Equipment needed and related Web sites are listed, and a model chart to record measurements is provided. (PEN)

  19. Brief Report: A Preliminary Study of Fetal Head Circumference Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Hickey, Martha; Stanley, Fiona J.; Newnham, John P.; Pennell, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal head circumference (HC) growth was examined prospectively in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD participants (N = 14) were each matched with four control participants (N = 56) on a range of parameters known to influence fetal growth. HC was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation and again at birth

  20. Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M; Kaakinen, Marika; Kreiner-Mller, Eskil; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Freathy, Rachel M; Geller, Frank; Guxens, Mnica; Cousminer, Diana L; Kerkhof, Marjan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ikram, M Arfan; Beilin, Lawrence J; Bnnelykke, Klaus; Buxton, Jessica L; Charoen, Pimphen; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Eriksson, Johan; Evans, David M; Hofman, Albert; Kemp, John P; Kim, Cecilia E; Klopp, Norman; Lahti, Jari; Lye, Stephen J; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Mller, Martina; OReilly, Paul F; Prokopenko, Inga; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Steegers, Eric A P; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiesler, Carla; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Breteler, Monique M B; Debette, Stephanie; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Vernooij, Meike W; Blakemore, Alexandra IF; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fernandez-Benet, Julio; Grant, Struan F A; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; van der Heijden, Albert J; Iiguez, Carmen; Lathrop, Mark; McArdle, Wendy L; Mlgaard, Anne; Newnham, John P; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pouta, Annneli; Ring, Susan M; Sovio, Ulla; Standl, Marie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wichmann, H-Erich; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; DeCarli, Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia M; McCarthy, Mark I; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Estivill, Xavier; Hattersley, Andrew T; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Pennell, Craig E; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-01-01

    To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association (GWA) studies (N=10,768 from European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N=19,089). Rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P=8.110?9), and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P=2.810?10) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height1, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P=3.810?7 for rs7980687, P=1.310?7 for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P=3.910?6). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal show genome-wide association with adult intra cranial volume2, Parkinsons disease and other neurodegenerative diseases3-5, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life. PMID:22504419

  1. Is Mid-upper Arm Circumference Alone Sufficient to Identify Severe Acute Malnutrition Correctly?

    PubMed

    Tripathy, J P; Sharma, A; Prinja, S

    2016-02-01

    Anthropometric data of 2466 children in Haryana revealed low sensitivity (6.9%) and positive predictive value (14.3%) of Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) at 115 mm cut-off for identifying Severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This raises concerns regarding the reliability of MUAC as a screening tool to identify SAM at the community-level. PMID:26897156

  2. Least restrictive or least understood? Waist restraints, provider practices, and risk of harm.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L; Won, Regina M; Wagner, Laura M; Lawson, William T

    2008-01-01

    Since implementation of The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, restraint use in American nursing homes has reduced dramatically. The reduction in vest restraints has resulted in an increase in "least restrictive" devices such as waist restraints. Although this analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting Data Files found that waist devices pose the same potential risk for asphyxial death as vest restraints, few health professionals and consumers are aware of this outcome. Post-marketing device reporting needs better data quality and surveillance, which can certainly benefit the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in their efforts to regulate and enforce standards of care that reduce deaths and injuries to vulnerable nursing home residents. PMID:19024030

  3. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth weight, suggesting that limb proportions at birth do not index factors relevant to prenatal life. PMID:25162658

  4. Cross-validation of Waist-Worn GENEA Accelerometer Cut-Points

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Whitney A.; Bassett, David R.; Freedson, Patty S.; John, Dinesh; Steeves, Jeremy A.; Conger, Scott A.; Ceaser, Tyrone G.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Sasaki, Jeffer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the classification accuracy of the waist GENEA cut-points developed by Esliger et al. for predicting intensity categories across a range of lifestyle activities. Methods Each participant performed one of two routines, consisting of seven lifestyle activities (home/office, ambulatory, and sport). The GENEA was worn on the right waist and oxygen uptake was continuously measured using the Oxycon mobile. A one-way chi-square was used to determine the classification accuracy of the GENEA cut-points. Cross tabulation tables provided information on under- and over-estimations, and sensitivity and specificity analyses of the waist cut-points were also performed. Results Spearmans rank order correlation for the GENEA SVMgs and Oxycon mobile MET values was 0.73. For all activities combined, the GENEA accurately predicted intensity classification 55.3% of the time, and increased to 58.3% when stationary cycling was removed from the analysis. The sensitivity of the cut-points for the four intensity categories ranged from 0.244 to 0.958 and the specificity ranged from 0.576 to 0.943. Conclusion In this cross-validation study, the proposed GENEA cut-points had a low overall accuracy rate for classifying intensity (55.3%) when engaging in 14 different lifestyle activities. PMID:24496118

  5. Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  6. Dependence of media cross-sectional area on circumference of aortic rings from normal and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Price, J M; Moher, T J; Wilmoth, F R

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if cross-sectional area and media thickness depend on circumference in excised vessels. Measurements were obtained from rat aortic rings chemically fixed after excision. Rings were fixed without distention or after mounting on circular rods of different diameters. Media cross-sectional area increased with circumference but thickness decreased. Thickness and area were significantly greater in the SHR than the WKY rat at all circumferences. Results of a theoretical analysis predict that cross-sectional area and thickness will depend on circumference in excised rings. Best-fit curves of the experimental data to the theoretical relationships show that neither thickness nor cross-sectional area of the aorta is consistently better correlated with circumference in SHRs and WKY rats. The following conclusions are made: (i) Media cross-sectional area and thickness depend on circumference in excised-aortic rings, and (ii) for a specific method of preparation, thickness and cross-sectional area are equally accurate when comparing aortic rings from normal and hypertensive rats. If an experimental determination of the relationship between circumference and cross-sectional area (or thickness) cannot be done, we suggest that a reasonable alternative is to compare these measurements at the same circumference. PMID:3186760

  7. Lattice design for an ILC damping ring with 3 km circumference

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2004-10-11

    We describe a simple lattice that meets the specifications for the damping times and horizontal and longitudinal emittances for the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings. The circumference of a little over 3 km leads to a bunch spacing of around 3 ns, which will require advances in kicker technology for injection and extraction. We present the lattice design, and initial results of studies of the acceptance and collective effects. With the high bunch charge and close spacing, the ion and electron cloud effects are expected to be severe; however, the simple structure of the lattice allows for easy variation of the circumference and bunch spacing, which may make it useful for future investigations.

  8. Head circumference and brain size in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-11-30

    Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and statistical significance for both head circumference and total brain volume in autism. Our literature search strategy identified 261 and 391 records, respectively; 27 studies defining percentages of macrocephalic patients and 44 structural brain imaging studies providing total brain volumes for patients and controls were included in our meta-analyses. Head circumference was significantly larger in autistic compared to control individuals, with 822/5225 (15.7%) autistic individuals displaying macrocephaly. Structural brain imaging studies measuring brain volume estimated effect size. The effect size is higher in low functioning autistics compared to high functioning and ASD individuals. Brain overgrowth was recorded in 142/1558 (9.1%) autistic patients. Finally, we found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Our results provide conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this endophenotype in multi-biomarker diagnostic panels for clinical use. PMID:26456415

  9. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Hatano, Taku; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Satoh, Katsuya; Kimura, Akio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of autopsy-verified MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 46-year-old patient with a 16-month history of abnormal behavior, progressive dementia, insomnia, and speech disturbances without family history. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, insomnia, speech disturbance, gait disturbance and bilaterally exaggerated tendon reflexes. Both brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, including 14-3-3 protein, yielded normal results. An easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis for (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata. PRNP gene analysis revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Neuropathological examinations revealed severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. A slight depletion of Purkinje cells was observed. PrP immunostaining showed no obvious PrP deposits in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, or brainstem; however, mild synaptic-type PrP deposits with some smaller plaque-like structures were only partially observed in the localized region of the frontal lobe with the spongiform change. Western blot analyses of protease-resistant PrP showed a type 2 pattern. In conclusion, eZIS analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images is useful for detecting both thalamic and medullary lesions. This is the first case of medullary lesions detected in a live patient with MM2-thalamic-type sCJD using SPECT. PMID:26421831

  10. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue; Bai, Mei; Duan, Zhe; Luo, Yun; Marusic, Aljosa; Robert-Demolaize, Guillaume; Shen, Xiaozhe

    2015-05-03

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  11. Assessment of waist-to-hip ratio attractiveness in women: an anthropometric analysis of digital silhouettes.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    The low proportion of waist to hip size in females is a unique and adaptive human feature. In contemporary human populations, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is negatively associated with women's health, fecundity, and cognitive ability. It is, therefore, hypothesized that men will prefer women with low WHR. Although this prediction is supported by many studies, considerable disagreement persists about which WHR values are the most attractive and the importance of WHR for attractiveness of the female body. Unfortunately, the methods applied thus far are flawed in several ways. In the present study, we investigated male preferences for female WHR using a high precision assessment procedure and digitally manufactured, high quality, anthropometrically informed stimuli which were disentangled from body mass covariation. Forty men were requested to choose the most attractive silhouette consecutively from six series (2 levels of realism × 3 levels of body mass), each consisting of 26 female images that varied in WHR (from .60 to .85 by .01). Substantial inter-individual variation in the choices made was observed. Nevertheless, low and average WHR values were chosen more frequently than above-average values or values below the normal variation of the trait. This preference pattern mirrors the relationship between WHR and mate value, suggesting that the preferences are adaptive. PMID:23975738

  12. Hemolymphangioma of the waist: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LI, YONGCHAO; PANG, XIAODONG; YANG, HONG; GAO, CHUNHUA; PENG, BAOGAN

    2015-01-01

    Hemolymphangioma is a malformation of the lymphatic and blood vessels. To the best of our knowledge, only a limited number of hemolymphangioma cases have been reported in the literature thus far, with no cases developed in the waist region. The present study reported the case of a 17-year-old male patient with hemolymphangioma growing on the waist, presented with back pain for four months. Upon physical examination, the lesion was identified to be oval in shape, soft and compressible, with mild tenderness. No abnormalities were detected in the results of laboratory examinations. However, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a tumor with low signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging (WI) and high signal intensity on T2-WI. The mass was successfully removed during surgery. During the seven-month follow-up period, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrence. The present study discussed the imaging findings and pathological features of this uncommon case and reviewed the relevant literature. PMID:26137118

  13. Effect of waist diameter and twist on tapered asymmetrical dual-core fiber MZI filter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yang; Yan, Xiaojun; Li, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    A compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) filter fabricated from custom-designed asymmetrical dual-core fiber is numerically analyzed in detail and experimentally verified. The asymmetrical dual-core fiber has core diameters and a core pitch of 6.9, 6, and 19.9 ?m, respectively. The fiber tapering technique is introduced to fuse the originally uncoupled cores into strong coupling tapered regions. The length and diameter of the waist region have a close impact on the splitting ratio, which further affects the spectral properties of the MZI filter. The field evolution with varied waist parameters is characterized by the finite element method and beam propagation method. Repeatable comb filters with ?15??dB extinction ratio are successfully achieved under the guidance of simulated optimum conditions. The twist-induced circular birefringence gives rise to a retardance that causes the spectral shifts of the MZI filter. The theoretical and experimental results confirm that the relative wavelength shift is proportional to the retardance, which follows a sinc function in the limit of a large twist rate. PMID:26479591

  14. 432- ?m laser's beam-waist measurement for the polarimeter/interferometer on the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. X.; Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Wu, M. Q.; Lan, T.; Zhu, X.; Zou, Z. Y.; Yang, Y.; Wei, X. C.; Zeng, L.; Li, G. S.; Gao, X.

    2014-10-01

    A far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter/interferometer (PI) system is under development for measurements of the current-density and the electron-density profiles in the EAST tokamak. The system will utilize three identical 432- ?m CHCOOH lasers pumped by a CO2 laser. Measurements of the laser beam's waist size and position are basic works. This paper will introduce three methods with a beam profiler and several focusing optical elements. The beam profiler can be used to show the spatial energy distribution of the laser beam. The active area of the profiler is 12.4 12.4 mm2. Some focusing optical elements are needed to focus the beam in order for the beam profiler to receive the entire laser beam. Two principles and three methods are used in the measurement. The first and the third methods are based on the same principle, and the second method adopts an other principle. Due to the fast and convenient measurement, although the first method is a special form of the third and it can only give the size of beam waist, it is essential to the development of the experiment and it can provide guidance for the choices of the sizes of the optical elements in the next step. A concave mirror, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) lens and a polymethylpentene (TPX) lens are each used in the measurement process. The results of these methods are close enough for the design of PI system's optical path.

  15. Nonlinear relationship between waist to hip ratio, weight and strength in elders: is gender the key?

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Carnicero, Jos A; de la Torre, Mari ngeles; Amor, Solange; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodrguez-Maas, Leocadio; Garca-Garca, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Visceral fat has a high metabolic activity with deleterious effects on health contributing to the risk for the frailty syndrome. We studied the association between waist to hip ratio (an indirect measure of visceral fat stores) on upper and lower extremities strength. 1741 individuals aged ?65 participated in this study. The data was obtained from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging. For each gender, we studied the relationship between the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and regional muscle strength (grip, shoulder, knee and hip) using multivariate linear regression and kernel regression statistical models. WHR was higher in men than in women (0.980.07 vs. 0.910.08, respectively, P<0.05). In women with high WHR, we observed a decrease in strength especially in those with a normal BMI. As the WHR lowered, the strength increased regardless of the BMI. In men, lower strength was generally related to the lowest and highest WHR's. Maximum strength in men corresponded at a WHR around 1 and the highest BMI. Muscle strength depends on the joined distribution of WHR and BMI according to gender. In consequence, sex, WHR and BMI should be analyzed conjointly to study the relationship among fat distribution, weight and muscle strength. PMID:25966877

  16. Investigation on pressure-tapping methods of long waist cone flow meter using CFD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Can; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng; Yu, Xuelian

    2012-03-01

    Differential pressure (DP) flow meters are playing an increasingly important role in multiphase flow in petroleum industry. The long waist cone flow meter, as a new type of DP flow meter, is introduced in this paper. And its flow field in a horizontal pipe of 50mm diameter is numerically simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), in search of the optimum pressure-tapping method. The results of numerical simulations indicate that the long waist cone flow meter has the merits of the annular channel flow meters by forming an annular flow in annular channel region, which makes it possible to improve the repeatability and accuracy of measurement. The high pressure port at the 1D upstream of the cone's entrance section and the low pressure port at the middle of annular channel region and 3D downstream of the cone's exit section are the optimum pressure-tapping methods. The relative error of discharge coefficient is within 0.5%. This investigation will provide a theoretical and design basis for the development of new DP flow meters.

  17. Corpus Callosum Segment Circumference Is Associated With Response Control in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Melanie A.; Crocetti, Deana; Mahone, E. Mark; Denckla, Martha B.; Suskauer, Stacy J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Response control is impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the corpus callosum's role in response control, we compared callosal morphology in 64 children with ADHD and 64 typically developing children, aged 7 to 13 years, and investigated the relationships between callosal morphology and response control. Area and circumference of 5 callosal segments (genu, rostral body, midbody, isthmus, and splenium) were normalized for cerebral volume and examined for correlation with mean reaction time, intrasubject variability, and/or commission error rate from a go/no-go task. There were no between-group differences in segment areas or circumferences. Reaction time correlated with midbody circumference for boys with ADHD and isthmus circumference for girls with ADHD. For the entire cohort, rostral body circumference correlated with intra-subject variability. Impaired response control in ADHD is associated with anomalies in frontal interhemispheric connections. Future studies examining callosal shape will illuminate the anatomic basis of correlations between callosal segment circumference and response control. PMID:20139403

  18. Measurement of power density distribution and beam waist simulation for electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chunlong; Peng, Yong; Wang, Kehong; Zhou, Qi

    2013-02-01

    The study aims to measure the power density distribution of the electron beam (EB) for further estimating its characteristics. A compact device combining deflection signal controller and current signal acquisition circuit of the EB was built. A software modelling framework was developed to investigate structural parameters of the electron beam. With an iterative algorithm, the functional relationship between the electron beam power and its power density was solved and the corresponding contour map of power density distribution was plotted through isoline tracking approach. The power density distribution of various layers of cross-section beam was reconstructed for beam volume by direct volume rendering technique. The further simulation of beam waist with all-known marching cubes algorithm reveals the evolution of spatial appearance and geometry measurement principle was explained in detail. The study provides an evaluation of promising to replace the traditional idea of EB spatial characteristics.

  19. Femur flap for tibial reconstruction: percent circumference required to convey a mechanical advantage over the fibula.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Genevieve; Lalikos, Janice; Chowaniec, Matthew; Collins, Meghan; Wilson, Elias; Babbitt, Russell; O'Brien, Julie; Billiar, Kristen; Dunn, Raymond M

    2010-09-01

    The fibula flap is commonly used to reconstruct the tibia. This has risk of postoperative fracture despite long-term non-weight bearing. A flap using noncircumferential distal femur is proposed. This study is to determine the circumference of femur required to produce greater strength than the fibular flap. Femurs and fibulas were harvested from eight cadavers. The structural strength of fibula and femur flaps was assessed using three-point bend. Compression testing was performed on osteotomized and whole femurs to assess donor site morbidity. The 35% flap (mean maximum force at fracture 869 N) was not significantly stronger than the fibula flap (626 N; P > 0.05). The 40% flap (1225 N) was significantly stronger than the fibula flap ( P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between forces at fracture for whole femurs (3978 N), femurs with 35% osteotomies (3604 N), and femurs with 40% osteotomies (3493 N; P = 0.87). Change occurred in the fracture pattern of femurs following osteotomies. Whole femurs consistently fractured at the femoral neck, and osteotomized femurs consistently fractured obliquely from the osteotomy. A flap consisting of 40% of the circumference of the distal femur exceeds the structural strength of the fibular flap. Taking such a flap changes the femur's structural integrity; fixation may be prudent following harvest. PMID:20593345

  20. Circumference imaging for optical based identification of cylindrical and conical objects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.A.; Sitter, D.N.; Ferrell, R.K.; Breeding, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    Inspection and identification of cylindrical or conical shaped objects presents a unique challenge for a machine vision system. Due to the circular nature of the objects it is difficult to image the whole object using traditional area cameras and image capture methods. This work describes a unique technique to acquire a two dimensional image of the entire surface circumference of a cylindrical/conical shaped object. The specific application of this method is the identification of large caliber (155 mm) ammunition rounds in the field as they are transported between or within vehicles. The proposed method utilizes a line scan camera in combination with high speed image acquisition and processing hardware to acquire images from multiple cameras and generate a single, geometrically accurate, surface image. The primary steps involved are the capture of multiple images as the ammunition moves by on the conveyor followed by warping to correct for the distortion induced by the curved projectile surface. The individual images are then tiled together to form one two-dimensional image of the complete circumference. Once this image has been formed an automatic identification algorithm begins the feature extraction and classification process.

  1. Persistently High Hip Circumference after Bariatric Surgery Is a Major Hurdle to Successful Hip Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Menachem M.; Courville, Amber B.; Sumner, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of class III obesity (BMI ? 40?kg/m2) in black women is 18%. As class III obesity leads to hip joint deterioration, black women frequently present for orthopedic care. Weight loss associated with bariatric surgery should lead to enhanced success of hip replacements. However, we present a case of a black woman who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with the expectation that weight loss would make her a better surgical candidate for hip replacement. Her gastric bypass was successful as her BMI declined from 52.0?kg/m2 to 33.7?kg/m2. However, her hip circumference after weight loss remained persistently high. Therefore, at surgery the soft tissue tunnel geometry presented major challenges. Tunnel depth and immobility of the soft tissue interfered with retractor placement, tissue reflection, and surgical access to the acetabulum. Therefore a traditional cup placement could not be achieved. Instead, a hemiarthroplasty was performed. After surgery her pain and reliance on external support decreased. But her functional independence never improved. This case demonstrates that a lower BMI after bariatric surgery may improve the metabolic profile and decrease anesthesia risk, but the success of total hip arthroplasties remains problematic if fat mass in the operative field (i.e., high hip circumference) remains high. PMID:24711820

  2. Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem dynamics: Navigating the predator pit topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Many marine ecosystems exhibit a characteristic wasp-waist structure, where a single species, or at most several species, of small planktivorous fishes entirely dominate their trophic level. These species have complex life histories that result in radical variability that may propagate to both higher and lower trophic levels of the ecosystem. In addition, these populations have two key attributes: (1) they represent the lowest trophic level that is mobile, so they are capable of relocating their area of operation according to their own internal dynamics; (2) they may prey upon the early life stages of their predators, forming an unstable feedback loop in the trophic system that may, for example, precipitate abrupt regime shifts. Experience with the typical boom-bust dynamics of this type of population, and with populations that interact trophically with them, suggests a predator pit type of dynamics. This features a refuge from predation when abundance is very low, very destructive predation between an abundance level sufficient to attract interest from predators and an abundance level sufficient to satiate available predators, and, as abundance increases beyond this satiation point, decreasing specific predation mortality and population breakout. A simple formalism is developed to describe these dynamics. Examples of its application include (a) a hypothetical mechanism for progressive geographical habitat expansion at high biomass, (b) an explanation for the out-of-phase alternations of abundances of anchovies and sardines in many regional systems that appear to occur without substantial adverse interactions between the two species groups, and (c) an account of an interaction of environmental processes and fishery exploitation that caused a regime shift. The last is the example of the Baltic Sea, where the cod resource collapsed in concert with establishment of dominance of that ecosystem by the cods wasp-waist prey, herring and sprat.

  3. Increased periosteal circumference remains present 12 months after an exercise intervention in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    We previously reported that calcium intake enhanced the leg bone response to physical activity of preschool children in a 12-month randomized trial of calcium supplementation and physical activity. To determine whether the intervention-induced changes in leg bone mineral content and size were maintained through the subsequent 12-month follow-up period, total body bone measurements by DXA and 20% distal tibia pQCT bone measurements were obtained at 24 months (12 months post-intervention). Children also were measured for height and weight, and accelerometer readings were obtained in a subset of children at 18 and 24 months (6 and 12 months post-intervention). Regression analyses were performed controlling for covariates and indicated that increases from 12 to 24 months were greater in the gross motor (GM) activity group (bone loading, large muscle exercises) vs. fine motor (FM) activity group (arts and crafts program) for arm bone area (BA) (P <0.01), total body (P=0.04) and arm (P <0.01) bone mineral content (BMC). There were no differences in BA or BMC changes from 12 to 24 months by calcium supplementation. Differences in tibia periosteal circumference by pQCT persisted at 24 months (GM 51.4 +/- 0.4 mm vs. FM 50.2 +/- 0.4 mm, P=0.03) with a trend for greater endosteal circumferences in the children in the GM vs. FM groups at both 12 and 24 months (both, P=0.08). There were no significant differences in cortical area or thickness by activity or supplement group at 24 months. Children in the GM group had greater accelerometer counts/day (P=0.04) and more time in vigorous activity (P=0.05) at 18 months compared to FM group. No differences in accelerometer readings were noted at 24 months. In conclusion, we found higher activity levels in children randomized to gross motor vs. fine motor activities 6 months after the intervention program ceased. Whether the greater periosteal circumference that was observed 12 months post-intervention was a persistent biological bone effect or due to persistently higher activity levels is not known. PMID:15589220

  4. Comparison of head circumference in an Israeli child population with United States and British standards.

    PubMed

    Palti, H; Peritz, E; Flug, D; Gitlin, M; Adler, B

    1983-01-01

    The head circumference (HC) growth pattern of infants from 1 to 24 months of age was studied in a Jerusalem community. The means of HC of the study population are smaller for each age and sex group than those of the National Center of Health Statistics, USA reference population, London children and the Nellhaus standard. The regression of HC on length explains about 20% of the variance. In an analysis of variance controlling for social class, birth order and length, the differences by region of origin of the mother were not significant. The smaller HC of the study population is probably due to these children being shorter and lighter than the above-mentioned western populations. Malnutrition as a factor for small HC was excluded. PMID:6838166

  5. Ultrasonic fetal weight prediction: role of head circumference and femur length.

    PubMed

    Weiner, C P; Sabbagha, R E; Vaisrub, N; Socol, M L

    1985-06-01

    The accurate sonographic estimate of fetal weight is helpful in those instances when the fetal weight estimate might alter clinical management. Most sonographic weight predicting formulas have been based predominantly on measurements from the term fetus and then applied to the preterm fetus. Yet, the morphology of the preterm and term fetus differs considerably. The authors have examined the predictive accuracy of three published sonographic formulas in 69 preterm fetuses scanned within 48 hours of delivery. The mean birth weight was 1396 g. Thirty-nine of the infants were less than 1500 g. Sixty-two percent were products of pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. The results were compared with new equations derived from combinations of head and abdominal circumferences, biparietal diameter, and femur length obtained from the first 33 fetuses and then tested on the remaining 36. Whereas each formula correlated highly with birth weight, the selected new formula was more accurate than the published formulas by each criteria examined. In contrast to the latter, the mean error (actual minus predicted weight) of most new equations did not significantly differ from zero when tested prospectively. In addition, it appeared that the accuracy of two new formulas not incorporating femur length could be further enhanced in the group of fetuses whose femur length differed from the mean by at least 2 standard deviations by multiplying the predicted weight by the ratio of actual to mean femur length. The authors conclude that the use of head circumference and femur length coupled with a population restricted to the preterm fetus enhances the accuracy of sonographic weight predictions. PMID:3889747

  6. Relationship between the surrogate anthropometric measures, foot length and chest circumference and birth weight among newborns of Sarlahi, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, LC; Darmstadt, GL; Khatry, SK; LeClerq, SC; Tielsch, JM

    2008-01-01

    Background Classification of infants into low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) or very low birth weight (VLBW, <2000 g) categories is a crucial step in targeting interventions to high-risk infants. Objective To compare the validity of chest circumference and foot length as surrogate anthropometric measures for the identification of LBW and VLBW infants. Subjects and setting Newborn infants (n = 1640) born between March and June 2004 in 30 Village Development Committees of Sarlahi district, Nepal. Design Chest circumference, foot length and weight (SECA 727, precise to 2 g) of newborns were measured within 72 h after birth. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for a range of cutoff points of the anthropometric measures were estimated using the digital scale measurements as the gold standard. Results Among LBW infants (469/1640, 28.6%), chest circumference measures <30.3 cm were 91% sensitive and 83% specific. Similar levels of sensitivity for foot length were achieved only with considerable loss of specificity (<45%). Foot length measurements <6.9 cm were 88% sensitive and 86% specific for the identification of VLBW infants. Conclusion Chest circumference was superior to foot length in classification of infants into birth weight categories. For the identification of VLBW infants, foot length performed well, and may be preferable to chest circumference, as the former measure does not require removal of infant swaddling clothes. In the absence of more precise direct measures of birth weight, chest circumference is recommended over foot length for the identification of LBW infants. Sponsorship The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the Saving Newborn Lives Initiative, Save the Children US and the Office of Heath and Nutrition, United States Agency for International Development (see Acknowledgements). PMID:16885929

  7. A finite element analysis of two novel screw designs for scaphoid waist fractures.

    PubMed

    Varga, Peter; Zysset, Philippe K; Schefzig, Philip; Unger, Ewald; Mayr, Winfried; Erhart, Jochen

    2016-02-01

    The scaphoid is the most often fractured carpal bone. Scaphoid fracture repair with a headless compression screw allows for early functional recovery. The rotational stability of a single screw may be limited, having a potential negative impact on the healing process. Two novel screws have been designed to provide improved rotational stability compared to the existing ones. Using a computational finite element model of a scaphoid osteotomy, we compared the efficacy of one simple screw and the two new screws in restricting inter-fragmentary motion (IFM) in three functional positions of the wrist and as a function of inter-fragmentary compression force. The in-plane IFM was primary rotational and was better restricted by the new screws compared to the conventional one when the inter-fragmentary compression force was below 15-20 N, but provided no clear benefit in total flexion independently of the compression force. To better understand the differences in the non-compressed case, we analyzed the acting moments and investigated the effects of the bending and torsional screw stiffness on IFM. By efficiently restricting the inter-fragmentary shear, the new screws may be clinically advantageous when the inter-fragmentary compression force is partially or completely lost and may provide further benefits toward earlier and better healing of transverse waist fractures of the scaphoid. PMID:26654577

  8. DAFNE Setup And Operation With the Crab-Waist Collision Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /SLAC

    2011-10-21

    In the second half of 2007 a major upgrade has been implemented on the Frascati DA{Phi}NE collider in order to test the novel idea of Crab-Waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, built and installed to realize the new configuration. At the same time the performances of relevant hardware components, such as fast injection kickers and shielded bellows have been improved relying on new design concepts. The collider has been successfully commissioned in this new configuration. The paper describes several experimental results about linear and non-linear optics setup and optimization, damping of beam-beam instabilities and discusses the obtained luminosity performances. DA{Phi}NE [1] is the Frascati lepton collider working at the c m. energy of the {Phi} meson resonance (1020). It came in operation in 2001 and till summer 2007 provided luminosity, in sequence, to three different experiments which logged a total integrated luminosity of {approx} 4.4 fb{sup -1}. During these years the collider reached its best performances in terms of luminosity and background (L{sub peak} = 1.6 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} L{sub day} {approx} 10 pb{sup -1}) by means of several successive upgrades, relying on the experience gathered during the collider operations and implemented exploiting the shutdowns required for the experiment change over [2, 3, 4].

  9. A closed-loop stepper motor waist-pull system for inducing protective stepping in humans.

    PubMed

    Pidcoe, P E; Rogers, M W

    1998-04-01

    Past approaches for inducing protective stepping to preserve standing balance in humans have either lacked the flexibility of control over the initial conditions of falling, or involved considerable mass which limits mobility of the system. This report describes the design and function of a stepper motor closed-loop waist-pull system for evoking protective stepping responses. Bench testing with applied load-motion profile combinations indicated performance degradation for force levels greater than 204 N which was well within the levels encountered in human experiments. An optical encoder feedback design allowed a positional accuracy of 0.00225 mm per step. A regression analysis of specified versus recorded velocities resulted in an acceptable fit (r2 = 0.99). The mean rise time was 63.0+/-18.0 (SD) ms and was consistent up to the load limits of the device. In human experiments repeated perturbations were consistently realized. Applied motion profiles were generally comparable at the pelvic level for subjects of different geometry, weight, and inertia despite a tendency for slight positional lag. The method allows flexible and accurate control of the initial conditions of a perturbation-induced fall to elicit steps. The system dimensions and moveability allow it to be implemented into clinical environments. PMID:9672092

  10. Interplay between top-down, bottom-up, and wasp-waist control in marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; McKinnell, Skip

    2006-02-01

    In October 2004, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) sponsored a symposium to consider Mechanisms that regulate North Pacific ecosystems: Bottom up, top down, or something else? It sought to examine how marine populations, particularly the upper-trophic-level species, are regulated and to understand how energy flows through marine ecosystems. This introductory essay examines aspects of control mechanisms in pelagic marine ecosystems and some of the issues discussed during the symposium and in the 11 papers that were selected for this special issue. At global scales, the greatest biomass of fishes, seabirds and marine mammals tends to occur in regions of the world ocean with high primary production, e.g., the sub-arctic seas and up-welling regions of continental shelves. These large-scale animal distribution patterns are driven by food availability, not the absence of predators. At regional scales however, it is likely that current predation or past predation events have shaped local distributions, at least in marine birds and pinnipeds. Wasp-waist control occurs when one of the intermediate trophic levels is dominated by a single species, as occurs with small pelagic fishes of the worlds up-welling zones. Processes in these ecosystems may have features that result in a switch from bottom-up to top-down control.

  11. Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: role of waist-to-hip ratio.

    PubMed

    Singh, D

    1993-08-01

    Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60 years. Study 2 shows that college-age men find female figures with low WHR more attractive, healthier, and of greater reproductive value than figures with a higher WHR. In Study 3, 25- to 85-year-old men were found to prefer female figures with lower WHR and assign them higher ratings of attractiveness and reproductive potential. It is suggested that WHR represents an important bodily feature associated with physical attractiveness as well as with health and reproductive potential. A hypothesis is proposed to explain how WHR influences female attractiveness and its role in mate selection. PMID:8366421

  12. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in maternal breast milk and newborn head circumference.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tawara, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Honda, Ryumon; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao; Saito, Shigeru

    2008-05-01

    Dioxins are known to affect infant growth and neurodevelopment in both humans and animals. In this study, we examined the relationship between neonatal head circumference, which is related to fetal brain development, and the concentration of dioxins in breast milk as an indicator of maternal exposure. A total of 42 milk samples were obtained on the fifth to eighth postpartum day from mothers in Japan exposed to dioxins in the environment. The levels of seven dioxins and 10 furan isomers were measured in each milk sample using an HR-GC/MS system. The relationships between the concentration of each dioxin isomer and newborn size, including head circumference, were then investigated after adjustment for confounding factors. The concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic dioxin isomer, negatively correlated with newborn head circumference, even after adjustment for gestational age, infant sex, parity and other confounding factors. However, there were no significant relationships between the concentration of other dioxin and furan isomers in maternal breast milk and infant height, weight and chest circumference at birth. These facts suggested that fetal brain development might be influenced by maternal exposure to TCDD in the environment. PMID:17551544

  13. Serum albumin concentration, arm circumference, and oedema and subsequent risk of dying in children in central Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Dramaix, M; Hennart, P; Brasseur, D; Bahwere, P; Mudjene, O; Tonglet, R; Donnen, P; Smets, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the prognostic value of clinical, anthropometric, and biological indicators of protein energy malnutrition in hospitalised children. DESIGN--Hospital based follow up study from admission to discharge or death of a cohort of children. SETTING-Paediatric hospital in Zaire. SUBJECTS--1129 children consecutively admitted between August 1986 and October 1988. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Height, weight, arm circumference, skinfold thicknesses, serum albumin concentration, and mortality. RESULTS--Mortality was higher in wasted children and in those with a mid-upper arm circumference < 125 mm, a serum albumin concentration < 16 g/l, and oedema. After multivariate analysis, serum albumin concentration was the best predictor of subsequent risk of dying. Mid-upper arm circumference and oedema, however, still contributed considerably to evaluation of mortality. CONCLUSIONS--In this specific environment of central Africa an isolated clinical sign such as oedema is not enough to detect children with a high risk of dying among those admitted to paediatric wards with severe protein energy malnutrition. Measurement of additional indicators such as arm circumference and serum albumin concentration seems to be of crucial importance. PMID:8401093

  14. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  15. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2

  16. Genetic contribution to variation in body configuration in Belgian nuclear families: a closer look at body lengths and circumferences.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Alaitz; Jelenkovic, Aline; Susanne, Charles; Rebato, Esther

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the contribution of genetic factors on body configuration related phenotypes. The sample consisted of 119 Belgian nuclear families including 231 males and 229 females. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to analyse 13 length and circumference measures and the resulting two synthetic traits (LF and CF; linear and circumference factors, respectively) were used as summary variables. Univariate quantitative genetic analysis indicated that variation in anthropometric as well as in synthetic traits was significantly dependent on additive genetic effects, with heritabilities ranging from 0.55 to 0.88. Narrow sense heritability estimates were higher for measurements principally characterizing skeletal mass than in variables that also involve soft-tissues. Sex, age and their interactions explained 11-67% of the total phenotypic variance. This report also examined the covariations between pairs of anthropometric and synthetic traits (length measurements and LF vs. height; circumference measures and CF vs. weight and BMI; LF vs. CF). Significant genetic correlations among all the studied traits (except for middle finger length vs. height) confirmed the influence of pleiotropy on genetic determination of these phenotypes. Bivariate analysis showed that pleiotropic effects had a great influence in determining body traits variation within body length measurements, as well as between body circumferences and weight or BMI. In relation to the two synthetic traits, even the variation of body lengths and circumferences was highly determined by genetic factors, shared genetic influences were unlikely to explain much of the observed variation between LF and CF. The results of the present study allow us to conclude that in this population body configuration related traits are subject to a strong genetic control and that shared genes also contribute to this genetic structure. PMID:20698125

  17. Increased waist/hip ratio, metabolic disturbances, and family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Widgren, B R; Herlitz, H; Wikstrand, J; Sjstrm, L; Berglund, G; Andersson, O K

    1992-10-01

    To test whether nonhypertensive subjects with a two-generation positive family history of hypertension (PFH) are characterized by disturbed glucose metabolism, 16 men (38 +/- 6 years old) with PFH and 25 subjects matched for age and with negative family histories of hypertension (NFH) were recruited. Blood pressure; serum lipids; erythrocyte transmembrane sodium transport; and the glucose, plasma insulin, and C-peptide responses to an oral glucose tolerance test were investigated. Subjects with PFH had higher blood pressure, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), and abdominal sagittal diameter than subjects with NFH. Baseline blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum lipids, and transmembrane sodium transport did not differ between the two groups. Blood glucose levels at 90 and 120 minutes after oral glucose were significantly higher in subjects with PFH than in controls. Blood glucose adjusted for BMI and WHR at 90 minutes was significantly related to a PFH. Plasma insulin level at 90 minutes during the glucose load was significantly higher in subjects with PFH. In multivariate analysis, WHR was significantly related to baseline blood pressure, insulin, and cholesterol, whereas BMI was significantly associated with the insulin response to the oral glucose tolerance test. Transmembrane sodium transport was significantly related to blood pressure only. In conclusion, subjects with PFH are characterized by increased body weight and BMI, increased visceral fat accumulation, and an altered blood glucose response to an oral glucose load. It was also shown that WHR was related to blood pressure and that BMI was more related to cholesterol and response to glucose loading than a PFH was. PMID:1398891

  18. Center of pressure control for balance maintenance during lateral waist-pull perturbations in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masahiro; Bair, Woei-Nan; Rogers, Mark W

    2015-04-13

    When balance is disturbed, location of the center of pressure (COP) contributes to a person's ability to recover from a perturbation. This study investigated COP control prior to first step lift-off (FSLO) during lateral perturbations in older non-fallers and fallers. 38 non-fallers and 16 fallers received lateral waist-pulls at 5 different intensities. Crossover stepping responses at the intensity level where the largest number of subjects responded with crossover steps were analyzed. Whole-body center of mass (COM) and COP positions in the medio-lateral (ML) direction with respect to the base of support (BOS), and COP velocity were calculated. An inverted pendulum model was used to define the BOS stability boundary at FSLO, which was also adjusted using the COP position at FSLO (functional boundary). No significant differences were found in the COP velocities between fallers and non-fallers (p>.093). However, the COP positions for fallers were located significantly more medial at FSLO (p?.01), resulting in a significantly reduced functional boundary. Although the stability margins, measures of stability based on the BOS, were significantly larger than zero for fallers (p?.004), they were not significantly different from zero for the functional boundary, i.e., reaching the functional stability limit. Fallers had reduced functional limits of stability in the ML direction, which would predispose them to more precarious stability conditions than non-fallers. This could be a cause for taking more steps than non-fallers for balance recovery as we observed. The functional boundary estimation may be a more sensitive marker of balance instability than the BOS boundary. PMID:25728580

  19. Apolipoprotein Epsilon 4 Allele Modifies Waist-to-Hip Ratio Effects on Cognition and Brain Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zade, David; Beiser, Alexa; McGlinchey, Regina; Au, Rhoda; Seshadri, Sudha; Palumbo, Carole; Wolf, Philip A.; DeCarli, Charles; Milberg, William

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether relationships between obesity, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and cognition and brain structure were modified by the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele (apoE4). The sample included 1,969 stroke and dementia-free participants from the Framingham Offspring Cohort who underwent neuropsychological (NP) testing and structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) between 19992002. WHR was categorized into sex-specific quartiles with those in Q4 representing central obesity. Multivariate linear regression estimated the relationships between Q4-WHR, cognitive and MRI measures; interaction terms examined modification of these relationships by the presence of apoE4. All analyses were cross sectional. ApoE4 status significantly modified a number of associations. Specifically, we observed a significant negative relationship between Q4-WHR and a measure of executive function in the apoE4+ group but not in the apoE4? group. Similarly, we observed a stronger negative relationship between Q4-WHR and a measure of memory function for those in the apoE4+ group compared to those in the apoE4? group. Additionally, apoE4 status modified the relationship between Q4-WHR and two measures of structural brain integrity. First, a paradoxical finding of a negative association between WHR and frontal brain volume that was significant only for those in the apoE4- group, and a second finding that WHR was significantly associated with greater white matter hyperintensity volume only in the apoE4+ group. These findings suggest that associations between central adiposity and both neuropsychological performance and underlying brain structure are highly complex and must be considered in the context of possible modifying genetic influences. PMID:21835633

  20. Early cranial ultrasound lesions predict head circumference at age 2 in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S.; Kuban, Karl CK; OShea, T. Michael; Westra, Sjirk; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To assess how well early ultrasound lesions in preterm newborns predict reduced head circumference at two years, we followed 923 children born before the 28th week of gestation who were not microcephalic then until they were 2 years old. Two independent sonologists agreed on the presence/absence of four lesions, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), moderate/severe ventriculomegaly, an echodense lesion, and an echolucent lesion. Each also recorded the size, laterality and location. 6% of children who had a normal ultrasound scan were microcephalic compared to 15% who had IVH, 19% who had an echolucent lesion, and in 20% who had ventriculomegaly. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for microcephaly associated with different ultrasound images were IVH: 1.5 (0.9, 2.4), ventriculomegaly: 2.7 (1.6, 4.8), an echodense lesion 1.4 (0.8, 2.3), and an echolucent lesion: 2.8 (1.4, 5.4). Ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion had very similar low positive predictive values (24% and 27%) and high negative predictive values (91% and 90%) for microcephaly. Ventriculomegaly had a higher sensitivity for microcephaly than did an echolucent lesion (24% vs 16%). Focal white-matter damage, as characterized by an echolucent lesion, and diffuse white-matter damage, as suggested by ventriculomegaly, predict an increased risk of microcephaly. PMID:20724751

  1. Use of mid upper arm circumference for evaluation of nutritional status of OSMF patients

    PubMed Central

    Yallamraju, Suryanarayana R.; Mehrotra, Rachit; Sinha, Abhishek; Gattumeedhi, Shashank Reddy; Gupta, Abhishek; Khadse, Smita V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is always associated with juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibroblastic changes in lamina propria, with epithelial atrophy leading to stiffness of oral mucosa and causing trismus and inability to eat. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a useful tool for a fast assessment of the nutritional status. Aims: The study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation of MUAC as a nutritional status indicator in OSMF patients. Patients and Methods: The study group comprised 50 clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of OSMF. MUAC was recorded using a plastic measuring tape. The right upper arm was measured at the midpoint between the tip of the shoulder and the tip of the elbow (olecranon process and the acromium). Results: Out of 50 subjects, 76% (38) were having MUAC value <23 cm, which shows an inverse relation between MUAC and clinical staging. The relation of MUAC with clinical staging was significant. Conclusion: The patient with OSMF becomes unable to eat due to burning, ulcers, and inability to open mouth, which affects the health of the individual. Thus, it is crucial to access the nutritional status to improve the survival rate of patients. PMID:25558452

  2. Neck circumference and early stage atherosclerosis: the cardiometabolic risk in Chinese (CRC) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neck circumference (NC) has been previously related to cardiometabolic risk factors. In this study we examined the association between NC and early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. Methods The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 2,318 men and women (18-64 y) were included in the final analyses. Carotid radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV), carotid femoral PWV (cfPWV), carotid artery dorsalis pedis PWV (cdPWV) and NC were measured. Results After adjustment for age, sex, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index (BMI), high NC was significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV, cdPWV and crPWV (P = 0.001, 0.049, and 0.038; respectively). In addition, we found significant interaction between hypertension status and NC level in relation to cfPWV, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, lipids and heart rate(P for interaction = 0.034). The associations between NC and cfPWV were significant (P = 0.02) among those with hypertension, but not significant among those without hypertension. Conclusions Our data showed that high NC was associated with an increased risk of early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults, independent of other metabolic risk factors. Hypertension might modify the association between NC and cfPWV. PMID:25001365

  3. Biosocial comparison of mid-upper arm circumference in the two Koreas.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Anthropometric differences between the two Koreas are of considerable public and scientific interest given the unique socio-political status of North Korea and the fact that the nations share the same genetic ancestry. This study provides new biosocial evidence on these differences by analysing mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) as a human welfare indicator. This is the first study to compare the nutritional status of adults surveyed inside North Korea with South Koreans. The MUAC measurements of 2793 North Korean women obtained through a household survey conducted in 2002 were compared with those of 1428 South Korean women surveyed around 2003. Comparative analysis was conducted by plotting centiles and calculating mean differences in MUAC by age. This paper finds that the MUAC of the South Koreans was on average 2.8 cm greater than that of their North Korean peers, with MUAC gaps ranging from 1.6 cm to 3.9 cm and becoming more pronounced with age. This research confirms previous studies on height and weight in the two Germanies and in the two Koreas that have shown that biosocial performance is worse in socialist economies as compared with free-market regimes. PMID:23279746

  4. Genome-Wide Mapping of Loci Explaining Variance in Scrotal Circumference in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Mrcia C.; Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Ito, Pier K. R. K.; Prez O'Brien, Ana M.; Slkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Schenkel, Flvio S.; McEwan, John; Cole, John B.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, Jos Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility. PMID:24558400

  5. Heat Transfer Over the Circumference of a Heated Cylinder in Transverse Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Ernst; Wenner, Karl

    1943-01-01

    A method for recording the local heat-transfer coefficients on bodies in flow was developed. The cylinder surface was kept at constant temperature by the condensation of vapor except for a narrow strip which is heated separately to the same temperature by electricity. The heat-transfer coefficient at each point was determined from the electric heat output and the temperature increase. The distribution of the heat transfer along the circumference of cylinders was recorded over a range of Reynolds numbers of from 5000 to 426,000. The pressure distribution was measured at the same time. At Reynolds numbers up to around 100,000 high maximums of the heat transfer occurred in the forward stagnation point at and on the rear side at 180C, while at around 80 the heat-transfer coefficient on both sides of the cylinder behind the forward stagnation point manifested distinct minimums. Two other maximums occurred at around 115 C behind the forward stagnation point between 170,000 and 426,000. At 426,000 the heat transfer at the location of those maximums was almost twice as great as in the forward stagnation point, and the rear half of the cylinder diffused about 60 percent of the entire heat, The tests are compared with the results of other experimental and theoretical investigations.

  6. Head Circumference of Infants Born to Mothers with Different Educational Levels; The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouthoorn, Selma H.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Objective Head circumference (HC) reflect growth and development of the brain in early childhood. It is unknown whether socioeconomic differences in HC are present in early childhood. Therefore, we investigated the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and HC in early childhood, and potential underlying factors. Methods The study focused on Dutch children born between April 2002 and January 2006 who participated in The Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Maternal educational level was used as indicator of SEP. HC measures were concentrated around 1, 3, 6 and 11 months. Associations and explanatory factors were investigated using linear regression analysis, adjusted for potential mediators. Results The study included 3383 children. At 1, 3 and 6 months of age, children of mothers with a low education had a smaller HC than those with a high education (difference at 1 month: −0.42 SD; 95% CI: −0.54,−0.30; at 3 months: −0.27 SD; 95% CI −0.40,−0.15; and at 6 months: −0.13 SD; 95% CI −0.24,−0.02). Child’s length and weight could only partially explain the smaller HC at 1 and 3 months of age. At 6 months, birth weight, gestational age and parental height explained the HC differences. At 11 months, no HC differences were found. Conclusion Educational inequalities in HC in the first 6 months of life can be mainly explained by pregnancy-related factors, such as birth weight and gestational age. These findings further support public health policies to prevent negative birth outcomes in lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:22768125

  7. Adjusting head circumference for covariates in autism: clinical correlates of a highly heritable continuous trait

    PubMed Central

    Chaste, Pauline; Klei, Lambertus; Sanders, Stephan J.; Murtha, Michael T.; Hus, Vanessa; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Yu, Timothy W.; Fombonne, Eric; Geschwind, Daniel; Grice, Dorothy E.; Ledbetter, David H.; Lord, Catherine; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa Lese; Martin, Donna M.; Morrow, Eric M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Sutcliffe, James S.; State, Matthew W.; Devlin, Bernie; Cook, Edwin H.; Kim, Soo-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brain development follows a different trajectory in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) than in typically developing children. A proxy for neurodevelopment could be head circumference (HC), but studies assessing HC and its clinical correlates in ASD have been inconsistent. This study investigates HC and clinical correlates in the Simons Simplex Collection cohort. METHODS We used a mixed linear model to estimate effects of covariates and the deviation from the expected HC given parental HC (genetic deviation). After excluding individuals with incomplete data, 7225 individuals in 1891 families remained for analysis. We examined the relationship between HC/genetic deviation of HC and clinical parameters. RESULTS Gender, age, height, weight, genetic ancestry and ASD status were significant predictors of HC (estimate of the ASD effect=0.2cm). HC was approximately normally distributed in probands and unaffected relatives, with only a few outliers. Genetic deviation of HC was also normally distributed, consistent with a random sampling of parental genes. Whereas larger HC than expected was associated with ASD symptom severity and regression, IQ decreased with the absolute value of the genetic deviation of HC. CONCLUSIONS Measured against expected values derived from covariates of ASD subjects, statistical outliers for HC were uncommon. HC is a strongly heritable trait and population norms for HC would be far more accurate if covariates including genetic ancestry, height and age were taken into account. The association of diminishing IQ with absolute deviation from predicted HC values suggests HC could reflect subtle underlying brain development and warrants further investigation. PMID:23746936

  8. Birth weight, length, head circumference and bilirubin level in Indian newborns in the Sioux Lookout Zone, northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, M; Shah, C P; Badgley, R; Bain, H W

    1984-01-01

    The norms for birth weight, length, head circumference and bilirubin level for native newborns have not been available. To develop appropriate norms, data were obtained from the charts on all live births in the Sioux Lookout Zone, northwestern Ontario, in 1968-69 and 1974-77. These data were correlated to maternal age and parity as well as sex of the infant. Despite impoverished living conditions, the birth weights of the study population were significantly higher than the Canadian norms; length and head circumference, however, were not significantly different. Over one third of the infants had serum bilirubin levels greater than 12 mg/dL (205 mumol/L). Increased maternal age was associated with increased birth weight and length and a lower bilirubin level. PMID:6467118

  9. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES).

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam H; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n?=?3521, age range?=?42-71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1-Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with ?-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P?circumference in the development of DM. PMID:26681338

  10. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam H.; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 3521, age range = 42–71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1–Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with β-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P < 0.001). After adjusting for most risk factors related with DM, the relative risks of DM development were 0.989 (95% confidence interval, 0.638–1.578), 1.660 (1.025–2.687), and 1.746 (1.037–2.942) in men and 0.939 (0.540–1.769), 1.518 (0.808–2.853), and 2.077 (1.068–4.038) in women in Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively when compared to Q1. This finding indicates negative impact from large neck circumference in the development of DM. PMID:26681338

  11. Growth of infants’ length, weight, head and arm circumferences in relation to low levels of blood lead measured serially

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D.; Parsons, Patrick; Schulte, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether levels of blood lead during gestation and infancy that are below the CDC action of level of 10 μg/dL affect infant growth, we studied 211 disadvantaged mother-infant pairs from Albany, NY. Mothers’ lead levels were low (2nd trimester x=2.8 μg/dL) as were infants’ (x= 3.3 μg/dL at 6 months; 6.4 μg/dL at 12 months). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that 2nd trimester lead levels were related to reduced head circumference at 6 and 12 months. Infants of mothers with 2nd trimester lead at or above the median (≥ 3 ug/dL) exhibited negative associations between blood lead and head circumference at 6 and 12 months, and with weight-for-age, weight-for-length and upper arm circumference at 6 months, but those below the median did not. Infants’ 6 month lead level was related to head circumference at 12 months in the total sample, and in the sub-sample of infants whose blood lead was above the infants’ 6 month blood lead median. Infants also were grouped by changes in their relative blood lead status, i.e., above vs. below the median, from 2nd trimester to 12 months of age. Infants whose lead levels changed from above to below the median were larger than infants whose lead levels went from below to above the median. The results suggest that lead may affect some dimensions of infant growth at levels below 10 ug/dL, but effects of lead levels less than 3 ug/dL are not evident in this sample. PMID:18991336

  12. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Thi, Hai Nguyen; Khanh, Dung Khu Thi; Thu, Ha Le Thi; Thomas, Emma G.; Lee, Katherine J.; Russell, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW) and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age. Materials and Methods An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8) were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared. Results 485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.960.99), and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.920.96). The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ?7.4cm for foot length; ?30.4cm for chest circumference; and ? 9.0cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements) but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm). Conclusions All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure that the application of these measures is reliable in community settings. PMID:26555356

  13. Dynamic Association of Mortality Hazard with Body Shape

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Krakauer, Jesse C.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Body Shape Index (ABSI) had been derived from a study of the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 19992004 mortality data to quantify the risk associated with abdominal obesity (as indicated by a wide waist relative to height and body mass index). A national survey with longer follow-up, the British Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS), provides another opportunity to assess the predictive power for mortality of ABSI. HALS also includes repeat observations, allowing estimation of the implications of changes in ABSI. Methods and Findings We evaluate ABSI z score relative to population normals as a predictor of all-cause mortality over 24 years of follow-up to HALS. We found that ABSI is a strong indicator of mortality hazard in this population, with death rates increasing by a factor of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.091.16) per standard deviation increase in ABSI and a hazard ratio of 1.61 (1.401.86) for those with ABSI in the top 20% of the population compared to those with ABSI in the bottom 20%. Using the NHANES normals to compute ABSI z scores gave similar results to using z scores derived specifically from the HALS sample. ABSI outperformed as a predictor of mortality hazard other measures of abdominal obesity such as waist circumference, waist to height ratio, and waist to hip ratio. Moreover, it was a consistent predictor of mortality hazard over at least 20 years of follow-up. Change in ABSI between two HALS examinations 7 years apart also predicted mortality hazard: individuals with a given initial ABSI who had rising ABSI were at greater risk than those with falling ABSI. Conclusions ABSI is a readily computed dynamic indicator of health whose correlation with lifestyle and with other risk factors and health outcomes warrants further investigation. PMID:24586394

  14. Estimating the relative contributions of maternal genetic, paternal genetic and intrauterine factors to offspring birth weight and head circumference

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors and the prenatal environment contribute to birth weight. However, very few types of study design can disentangle their relative contribution. Aims To examine maternal genetic and intrauterine contributions to offspring birth weight and head circumference. To compare the contribution of maternal and paternal genetic effects. Study design Mothers and fathers were either genetically related or unrelated to their offspring who had been conceived by in vitro fertilization. Subjects 423 singleton full term offspring, of whom 262 were conceived via homologous IVF (both parents related), 66 via sperm donation (mother only related) and 95 via egg donation (father only related). Measures Maternal weight at antenatal booking, current weight and maternal height. Paternal current weight and height were all predictors. Infant birth weight and head circumference were outcomes. Results Genetic relatedness was the main contributing factor between measures of parental weight and offspring birth weight as correlations were only significant when the parent was related to the child. However, there was a contribution of the intrauterine environment to the association between maternal height and both infant birth weight and infant head circumference as these were significant even when mothers were unrelated to their child. Conclusions Both maternal and paternal genes made contributions to infant birth weight. Maternal height appeared to index a contribution of the intrauterine environment to infant growth and gestational age. Results suggested a possible biological interaction between the intrauterine environment and maternal inherited characteristics which suppresses the influence of paternal genes. PMID:20646882

  15. Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-03-01

    During the reign of King Sejong (??, 1418-1450) in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(?), Jin(?), and Yuan(?) dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak), and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (??) based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree) like Honsang (a celestial globe). We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial) has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter). This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.

  16. Use of nonlinear models for describing scrotal circumference growth in Guzerat bulls raised under grazing conditions.

    PubMed

    Loaiza-Echeverri, A M; Bergmann, J A G; Toral, F L B; Osorio, J P; Carmo, A S; Mendona, L F; Moustacas, V S; Henry, M

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to use various nonlinear models to describe scrotal circumference (SC) growth in Guzerat bulls on three farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The nonlinear models were: Brody, Logistic, Gompertz, Richards, Von Bertalanffy, and Tanaka, where parameter A is the estimated testis size at maturity, B is the integration constant, k is a maturating index and, for the Richards and Tanaka models, m determines the inflection point. In Tanaka, A is an indefinite size of the testis, and B and k adjust the shape and inclination of the curve. A total of 7410 SC records were obtained every 3 months from 1034 bulls with ages varying between 2 and 69 months (<240 days of age = 159; 241-365 days = 451; 366-550 days = 1443; 551-730 days = 1705; and >731 days = 3652 SC measurements). Goodness of fit was evaluated by coefficients of determination (R(2)), error sum of squares, average prediction error (APE), and mean absolute deviation. The Richards model did not reach the convergence criterion. The R(2) were similar for all models (0.68-0.69). The error sum of squares was lowest for the Tanaka model. All models fit the SC data poorly in the early and late periods. Logistic was the model which best estimated SC in the early phase (based on APE and mean absolute deviation). The Tanaka and Logistic models had the lowest APE between 300 and 1600 days of age. The Logistic model was chosen for analysis of the environmental influence on parameters A and k. Based on absolute growth rate, SC increased from 0.019 cm/d, peaking at 0.025 cm/d between 318 and 435 days of age. Farm, year, and season of birth significantly affected size of adult SC and SC growth rate. An increase in SC adult size (parameter A) was accompanied by decreased SC growth rate (parameter k). In conclusion, SC growth in Guzerat bulls was characterized by an accelerated growth phase, followed by decreased growth; this was best represented by the Logistic model. The inflection point occurred at approximately 376 days of age (mean SC of 17.9 cm). We inferred that early selection of testicular size might result in smaller testes at maturity. PMID:23290432

  17. Luminosity and background measurements at the e +e -DA?NE collider upgraded with the crab waist scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; Raimondi, P.; Sensolini, G.; Schioppa, M.; Iacoangeli, F.; Valente, P.; Arnaud, N.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Viaud, B.; Branchini, P.

    2010-09-01

    The crab waist collision scheme has been successfully tested at the e +e - Frascati collider during the 2008-2009 runs: the gain in luminosity is consistent with the predictions while the background remains sustainable. Among the various inputs used by the DA?NE accelerator team to steer this new machine and improve its performances, key online information, absolute luminosity and background level measurements, has been provided by the LUMI detectors: a Bhabha calorimeter and two gamma bremsstrahlung proportional counters. This paper focuses on the results achieved with this experimental setup, described in details in another article.

  18. Modified Taylor-Couette Flow in Multiply-Waisted Hourglass Geometries Simulations based upon Reaction-Diffusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Hou, Yu; Kowalski, Adam; Wiener, Richard

    2006-05-01

    The Reaction-Diffusion model predicted a period doubling cascade to chaos in a situation analagous Taylor- Couette flow with hourglass geometry. This cascade to chaos was discovered in the actual fluid flow experiments. We model Taylor-Couette flow in a cylindrical geometry with multiple waists of super-critical flow connected by regions of barely super-critical flow by corresponding Reaction-Diffusion models. We compare our results to the findings of an ongoing experimental program. H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991). Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).

  19. Refractive index sensor based on combination of tilted fiber Bragg grating and waist-enlarged fusion bitaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohang; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Jingyi; Li, Yi; Dong, Xinyong

    2015-12-01

    Refractive index measurement by using the combination of a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) and a waist-enlarged fusion bitaper (WEFBT) is proposed and demonstrated. The both devices can couple light between core and cladding modes with coupling coefficients depending on ambient refractive index. It is found that the proposed refractive index sensor offers two measurement ranges respectively from 1.333 to 1.428 and from 1.383 to 1.453 when different sensing segment is used, in addition to advantages of reflection operation mode and intensity-modulated measurement.

  20. Assessing the short-term outcomes of a community-based intervention for overweight and obese children: The MEND 5-7 programme

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L R; Chadwick, P; Radley, D; Kolotourou, M; Gammon, C S; Rosborough, J; Sacher, P M

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to report outcomes of the UK service level delivery of MEND (Mind,Exercise,Nutrition...Do it!) 5-7, a multicomponent, community-based, healthy lifestyle intervention designed for overweight and obese children aged 5–7 years and their families. Design Repeated measures. Setting Community venues at 37 locations across the UK. Participants 440 overweight or obese children (42% boys; mean age 6.1 years; body mass index (BMI) z-score 2.86) and their parents/carers participated in the intervention. Intervention MEND 5-7 is a 10-week, family-based, child weight-management intervention consisting of weekly group sessions. It includes positive parenting, active play, nutrition education and behaviour change strategies. The intervention is designed to be scalable and delivered by a range of health and social care professionals. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was BMI z-score. Secondary outcome measures included BMI, waist circumference, waist circumference z-score, children's psychological symptoms, parenting self-efficacy, physical activity and sedentary behaviours and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables. Results 274 (62%) children were measured preintervention and post-intervention (baseline; 10-weeks). Post-intervention, mean BMI and waist circumference decreased by 0.5 kg/m2 and 0.9 cm, while z-scores decreased by 0.20 and 0.20, respectively (p<0.0001). Improvements were found in children's psychological symptoms (−1.6 units, p<0.0001), parent self-efficacy (p<0.0001), physical activity (+2.9 h/week, p<0.01), sedentary activities (−4.1 h/week, p<0.0001) and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables per day (both p<0.0001). Attendance at the 10 sessions was 73% with a 70% retention rate. Conclusions Participation in the MEND 5-7 programme was associated with beneficial changes in physical, behavioural and psychological outcomes for children with complete sets of measurement data, when implemented in UK community settings under service level conditions. Further investigation is warranted to establish if these findings are replicable under controlled conditions. PMID:23645925

  1. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo; García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Hernández-López, Leonor Estela

    2015-01-01

    We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs) and body mass indices (BMIs). Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b ± s.e. = −0.000003 ± 0.000001;  t94 = −2.12, adjusted R2 = −0.008,  P = 0.03). Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days. PMID:26351453

  2. Association between muscular strength and metabolic risk in Japanese women, but not in men.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Tomoko; Asaka, Meiko; Ishijima, Toshimichi; Kawano, Hiroshi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO(2)max) and muscular strength (grip strength) are associated with individual and clustered metabolic risk factors independently of abdominal adiposity in Japanese men (n=110) and women (n=110) aged 20-69 years. Blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were assessed and metabolic risk score was calculated, which is the sum of the z scores for each individual risk factor. Waist circumference was measured and the area of visceral fat was assessed by MRI. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that VO(2)max was inversely associated with TG in men (p<0.05) and grip strength was negatively associated with FPG and metabolic risk score in women (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively), independently of waist circumference. Adjusting for visceral fat instead of waist circumference, similar results were obtained in women (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), but the association between VO(2)max and TG in men was attenuated to nonsignificant. This cross-sectional study demonstrates that muscular strength is inversely associated with plasma glucose levels and clustered metabolic risk factors independently of abdominal adiposity in Japanese women, but not in men. PMID:21804295

  3. Seven tenths incorrect: heterogeneity and change in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners.

    PubMed

    Freese, Jeremy; Meland, Sheri

    2002-05-01

    Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation in waist-to-hip ratios among these women is greater than reported. Second, the center of the distribution of waist-to-hip ratios is not 0.70, but less than this. Third, the average waist-to-hip ratio within both samples has changed over time in a manner that is statistically significant and can be regarded as mutually consistent. Taken together, the findings undermine some of the evidence given for the repeated suggestion that there is something special--evolutionarily hard-wired or otherwise--about a specific female waist-to-hip ratio of 0.70 as a preference of American heterosexual males. PMID:12476245

  4. Identification of a dietary pattern associated with greater cardiometabolic risk in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Appannah, G.; Pot, G.K.; Huang, R.C.; Oddy, W.H.; Beilin, L.J.; Mori, T.A.; Jebb, S.A.; Ambrosini, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Energy dense, high fat, low fibre diets may contribute to obesity in young people, however their relationships with other cardiometabolic risk factors are unclear. We examined associations between an ‘energy-dense, high-fat and low-fibre’ dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors, and the tracking of this DP in adolescence. Methods and results Data was sourced from participants in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort Study. At 14 and 17 y, dietary intake, anthropometric and biochemical data were measured and z-scores for an ‘energy dense, high fat and low fibre’ DP were estimated using reduced rank regression (RRR). Associations between DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined using regression models. Tracking of DP z-scores was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A 1 SD unit increase in DP z-score between 14 and 17 y was associated with a 20% greater odds of high metabolic risk (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) and a 0.04 mmol/L higher fasting glucose in boys (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08); a 28% greater odds of a high-waist circumference (95% CI: 1.00, 1.63) in girls. An increase of 3% and 4% was observed for insulin and HOMA (95% CI: 1%, 7%), respectively, in boys and girls, for every 1 SD increase in DP z-score and independently of BMI. The DP showed moderate tracking between 14 and 17 y of age (r = 0.51 for boys, r = 0.45 for girls). Conclusion An ‘energy dense, high fat, low fibre’ DP is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and tends to persist throughout adolescence. PMID:26026208

  5. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Metabolic Risk and Quality of Life in Hong Kong Chinese Adults with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention to improve metabolic risk profiles and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We conducted a controlled trial within an university-affiliated hospital. 173 Chinese men and women aged 18 or above were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the control group (n = 86). Primary outcomes included 12-week change in metabolic risk factors and MetS z score. Secondary outcome was HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey at 12 weeks). Results The mean age of participants was 52.0 (SD 7.4, range 31-71) years. Analysis involving the entire study population revealed that the yoga group achieved greater decline in waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05), and MetS z score (p<0.01). Yoga training also improved general health perceptions (p<0.01), physical component score (p<0.01), and social functioning (p<0.01) domains score of HRQoL. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the mean change of systolic/diastolic blood pressures or high-density lipid protein cholesterol (all p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the intervention effects on waist circumference and MetS z score between the MetS subgroups (both p>0.05). Conclusion A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention improves metabolic risk profiles and HRQoL in Chinese adults with and without MetS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000816752 PMID:26111165

  6. Added impact of obesity and insulin resistance in nocturnal blood pressure elevation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Torro, Isabel; Aguilar, Francisco; Alvarez, Julio; Alcon, Jose; Pascual, Jose Maria; Redon, Josep

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between insulin resistance and the ambulatory blood pressure components in obese children and adolescents. Eighty-seven overweight and obese white children and adolescents of both sexes, of European origin from 6 to 18 years of age (mean age: 10.9+/-2.7 years), were selected. Obesity was defined on the basis of a threshold body mass index z score >2 (Cole's least mean square method) and overweight with a body mass index from the 85th to 97th percentile. A validated oscillometric method was used to measure ambulatory BP (Spacelabs 90207) during 24 hours. Fasting glucose and insulin were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment index was calculated. Subjects were grouped into tertiles of homeostasis model assessment index. No significant differences in terms of age, sex, and body mass index z score distribution were observed among groups. When adjusted by age, sex, and height, nocturnal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher in subjects in the highest homeostasis model assessment index tertile (>4.7) as compared with those of the other groups, whereas no differences were observed for awake systolic blood pressure or heart rate. Whereas body mass index z score was more closely related with blood pressure and heart rate values, waist circumference was strongly related with insulin resistance. Moreover, both waist circumference and insulin resistance were mainly associated with higher nocturnal but not with awake blood pressure. The early increment of nocturnal blood pressure and heart rate associated with hyperinsulinemia may be a harbinger of hypertension-related insulin resistance and may contribute to heightened cardiovascular risk associated with this condition. PMID:18195166

  7. Stunting, adiposity, and the individual-level dual burden among urban lowland and rural highland peruvian children

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Background The causes of the dual burden of stunting and obesity remain unclear, and its existence at the individual level varies between populations. We investigate whether the individual dual burden differentially affects low socioeconomic status Peruvian children from contrasting environments (urban lowlands and rural highlands), and whether tibia length can discount the possible autocorrelation between adiposity proxies and height due to height measurement error. Methods Stature, tibia length, weight, and waist circumference were measured in children aged 38.5 years (n?=?201). Height and body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated using international reference data. Age-sex-specific centile curves were also calculated for height, BMI, and tibia length. Adiposity proxies (BMI z score, waist circumference-height ratio (WCHtR)) were regressed on height and also on tibia length z scores. Results Regression model interaction terms between site (highland vs. lowland) and height indicate that relationships between adiposity and linear growth measures differed significantly between samples (P?

  8. Does a waist-worn accelerometer capture intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior among persons with multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Suh, Yoojin; Goldman, Myla

    2010-12-01

    The valid application of accelerometry and interpretation of its output (i.e., counts per unit time) for the measurement of walking behavior in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) rests upon multiple untested assumptions. This study tested the assumption that a waist-worn accelerometer should capture the intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior. Twenty-four participants with a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of MS and who were ambulatory with minimal assistance undertook three 6-min periods of over-ground walking that involved comfortable (CWS) and then slower (SWS) and faster (FWS) walking speeds while wearing ActiGraph, model 7164, accelerometers around the waist and ankle. The experimental manipulation of walking was successful such that the CWS was 76.7±13.0m/min (range=55.6-105.14), whereas the SWS and FWS were 64.3±12.3m/min (range=44.5-90.1) and 89.1±13.8m/min (range=60.9-116.4), respectively. Movement counts from the waist and ankle-worn accelerometer were strongly associated with the manipulation of speed, but the association was stronger for the waist than ankle based on both eta-squared estimates (η(2) values=.78 and .46) and the average squared multiple correlations from individual regression analyses (R(2) values=.97±.04 and .88±.21). The bivariate correlation between movement counts from the waist-worn accelerometer and speed of walking (r=.823, p=.001) was large in magnitude and significantly different (z=3.22, p=.001) from that between movement counts from the ankle-worn unit and walking speed (r=.549, p=.001). This study provides novel evidence that an accelerometer worn around the waist captures intra- and inter-person variation in over-ground walking behavior in those with MS. PMID:20875952

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltn; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietilinen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Vlzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

  10. A Preliminary Investigation into the Potential Role of Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Preference within the Assortative Mating Hypothesis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Walker, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Of particular interest to studying the etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is the potential for multiple risk factors to combine through non-random mechanisms--assortative mating. Both genetic influences and a high-testosterone prenatal environment have been implicated in the etiology of ASDs, and given that waist-hip ratio (WHR) is…

  11. X-linked mental retardation with variable stature, head circumference, and testicular volume linked to Xq12-q21.

    PubMed

    Abidi, F; Hall, B D; Cadle, R G; Feldman, G L; Lubs, H A; Ouzts, L V; Arena, J F; Stevenson, R E; Schwartz, C E

    1999-07-30

    Clinical and molecular studies are reported on a family with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in which there are eight affected males in three generations. Although the males have somatic manifestations, these are variable and in most cases do not allow clear distinction of affected and unaffected males. Affected males are shorter and have a smaller head circumference. Several also have a sloping forehead (5/8), hearing loss (3/8), cupped ears (2/8), and small testes (4/6). An LOD score of 4.41 with zero recombination was obtained at locus DXS1166 in Xq13.2. This family highlights the difficulty in classifying XLMR conditions as either nonsyndromic or syndromic because of the variable somatic manifestations observed in the affected males. PMID:10398233

  12. Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

  13. Treatment of Scaphoid Waist Nonunion Using Olecranon Bone Graft and Stryker Asnis Micro Cannulated Screw: A Retrospective Study-80 Case Studies and 6 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Poggetti, Andrea; Rosati, Marco; Castellini, Iacopo; Evangelisti, Gisberto; Battistini, Pietro; Parchi, Paolo; Lisanti, Michele

    2015-08-01

    Background?Screw fixation and bone grafting are the gold standard for scaphoid waist nonunion without avascular necrosis. Question/Purpose?Assesses the scaphoid waist nonunion healing rate with use of an uncommon cancellous bone graft (olecranon) and an unusual fixation system (Asnis Micro Cannulated Screw System; Stryker Inc., Kalamazoo, MI, USA). Material and Methods?A series of 102 consecutive patients were treated for scaphoid waist nonunion (without deformity). Of these, 80 patients subjected to clinical (Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), Jamar hydraulic dynamometer) and radiographic examination before and after surgery were evaluated. Ipsilateral olecranon cancellous bone graft and the ASNIS Micro 3.0-mm diameter screw, were used. The average follow up was 6 years (min 3; max 10). Results?Radiographic consolidation was achieved in 90% of patients; dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI) deformities were corrected in 71.4% of cases. Ninety percent improved the range of motion of the wrist and grip strength. All patients showed a significant reduction of peak force in the operated hand. In 6.25% we observed clinical and radiographic screw head-trapezium impingement. Twenty-six patients developed a degenerative wrist sign. The MMWS yielded 68 optimal, 8 good, and 4 bad results. Conclusions?To treat scaphoid waist nonunions without misalignment, low-profile headed screw and olecranon bone graft allowed a high consolidation rate with positive results to long-term follow-up. The Asnis Micro 3.0 mm diameter screw may be a suitable option for treating scaphoid waist nonunion. Level of Evidence?IV. PMID:26261746

  14. The association between "hypertriglyceridemic waist" and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in a multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background "Hypertriglyceridemic waist" (HTGW) phenotype, an inexpensive early screening tool for detection of individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease was found to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in various patient populations such as those with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, less is known regarding an association between HTGW and subclinical atherosclerosis in the apparently healthy, multiethnic population. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore the association between HTGW and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in an apparently healthy, multiethnic population; and to investigate whether the effect of HTGW on sub-clinical atherosclerosis persists over and above the traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. Methods We studied 809 individuals of Aboriginal, Chinese, European and South Asian origin who were assessed for indices of sub-clinical atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness (IMT), total area and presence of carotid plaques), socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometrics, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Results We found that, compared to individuals without HTGW and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, smoking, and physical activity; men and women with HTGW had a significantly higher: IMT (men: B (95%CI?=?0.084 (0.037, 1.133), p?waist and presence of plaques was significant for men (OR (95%CI)?=?1.904 (1.040, 3.486), p?=?0.037 vs. men without HTGW), but not for women (p?=?0.284). Once analyses were adjusted for additional, traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, the effect of HTGW on sub-clinical atherosclerosis was no longer significant. Conclusions In conclusion, HTGW may serve as an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in men and women, irrespective of ethnicity. However, once individuals are assessed for all traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, the additional assessment for HTGW is not warranted. PMID:24558974

  15. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  16. Disruption of the gastroesophageal junction by central obesity and waist belt: role of raised intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; McColl, K E L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major reason for the recent increase in incidence of reflux disease and cancers at the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) and is mediated through a rise in the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) but the exact mechanisms are unclear. Raised IAP from obesity and with application of waist belt produces mechanical distortion of the GOJ through formation of partial hiatus hernia. Even though there is no trans-sphincteric acid reflux, there is increased ingress of acid into the lower sphincter (intra-sphincteric reflux) as a consequence of raised IAP. In addition, short segment acid reflux is more evident in obese subjects with a belt on. Acid pocket is also enlarged in hiatus hernia, and acts as a reservoir of acid available to reflux whenever the sphincter fails. Above mechanisms may explain the common occurrence of cardiac lengthening and inflammation found in asymptomatic obese subjects. The inflamed cardia is also immunohistochemically similar to non-intestinal Barrett's mucosa, which is of etiological importance for cancers at the GOJ. Interventions that can reduce the mechanical distortion and acid exposure at the GOJ, including diet, exercise, drugs, sphincter augmentation therapy, and surgery, are clinically relevant in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease but more data are needed whether if these strategies are also effective in preventing cancer. As a conclusion, raised IAP produces silent mechanical disruption of the GOJ, which may explain the high occurrence of cancers in this region and it is potentially reversible with early interventions. PMID:24575877

  17. Adenovirus 36 infection: a role in dietary intake and response to inpatient weight management in obese girls.

    PubMed

    Zamrazilov, H; Aldhoon-Hainerov, I; Atkinson, R L; Dutkov, L; Sedl?kov, B; Lee, Z P; Kuneov, M; Hill, M; Hainer, V

    2015-12-01

    Human adenovirus 36 (Adv36) increases adiposity and is more prevalent in overweight and obese children. Dietary intake in animal models is comparable regardless of Adv36 status. The effects of Adv36 on obesity treatment outcomes have not been clarified. The aim of this study is to investigate the pre-treatment dietary intake and the response to a 4-week inpatient weight management in 184 obese adolescent girls aged 13.0-17.9 years with respect to the presence of Adv36 antibodies. Evaluation of 3-day dietary records did not show any difference in daily intake of energy and essential nutrients between Adv36 antibody positive and negative girls. After the intervention Adv36 positive girls presented with significantly greater decrease of waist circumference (P=0.020), z-score of waist circumference (P=0.024), waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.007) and weight-to-height ratio (P=0.019) compared with Adv36 negative girls. On the contrary, the sum of four skinfolds decreased significantly more in Adv36 negative than in Adv36 positive individuals (P=0.013). Neither body fat percentage nor metabolic and hormonal parameters showed any significant relevance to Adv36 status in response to weight loss intervention. In conclusion, energy restriction in Adv36 antibody positive girls was associated with greater decrease of abdominal obesity and preservation of subcutaneous fat tissue than in those antibody negative. PMID:26303351

  18. Dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Lebanese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6-19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

  19. Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

  20. Ability of different measures of adiposity to identify high metabolic risk in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Santos, Paula C; Abreu, Sandra; Marques, Ana I; Soares-Miranda, Luísa; Mota, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the screening performance of different measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for high metabolic risk in a sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 517 adolescents aged 15-18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. HOMA and TC/HDL-C ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was constructed by summing the Z-scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥1SD of this score. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) were used. Results. Linear regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for age and pubertal stage, all different measures of adiposity are positively and significantly associated with MRS in both sexes, with exception of WHtR for boys. BMI, WC, and WHtR performed well in detecting high MRS, indicated by areas under the curve (AUC), with slightly greater AUC for BMI than for WC and WHtR in both sexes. Conclusion. All measures of adiposity were significantly associated with metabolic risk factors in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. PMID:21792387

  1. Body Mass and Circumference of Upper Arm Are Associated with Race Performance in Ultraendurance Runners in a Multistage Race--The Isarrun 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Welzel, Ulrich; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association of anthropometric parameters with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage ultraendurance run, in which athletes had to run 338 km within 5 consecutive days. In 17 male successful finishers, calculations of body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, extremity circumference,…

  2. Genetic and Environmental Relationships between Head Circumference Growth in the First Year of Life and Sociocognitive Development in the Second Year: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Ozaki, Koken; Suzuki, Kunitake; Yamagata, Shinji; Kawahashi, Ikko; Ando, Juko

    2012-01-01

    Although growth in head circumference (HC) during infancy is known to predict later childhood outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this association with later sociocognitive abilities remain undetermined. Thus, using a sample of 241 pairs of normally developing Japanese twins, this study investigated the underpinnings of the association between HC

  3. Body Mass and Circumference of Upper Arm Are Associated with Race Performance in Ultraendurance Runners in a Multistage Race--The Isarrun 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Welzel, Ulrich; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association of anthropometric parameters with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage ultraendurance run, in which athletes had to run 338 km within 5 consecutive days. In 17 male successful finishers, calculations of body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, extremity circumference,

  4. Cross-sectional associations between high-deprivation home and neighbourhood environments, and health-related variables among Liverpool children

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Robert J; Boddy, Lynne M; Knowles, Zoe R; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To investigate differences in health-related, home and neighbourhood environmental variables between Liverpool children living in areas of high deprivation (HD) and medium-to-high deprivation (MD) and (2) to assess associations between these perceived home and neighbourhood environments and health-related variables stratified by deprivation group. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 10 Liverpool primary schools in 2014. Participants 194 children aged 9–10 years. Main outcome measures Health-related variables (self-reported physical activity (PA) (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, PAQ-C), cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) z-scores, waist circumference), home environment variables: (garden/backyard access, independent mobility, screen-based media restrictions, bedroom media) and neighbourhood walkability (Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth, NEWS-Y). Explanatory measures Area deprivation. Results There were significant differences between HD and MD children's BMI z-scores (p<0.01), waist circumference (p<0.001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p<0.01). HD children had significantly higher bedroom media availability (p<0.05) and independent mobility scores than MD children (p<0.05). MD children had significantly higher residential density and neighbourhood aesthetics scores, and lower crime safety, pedestrian and road traffic safety scores than HD children, all of which indicated higher walkability (p<0.01). HD children's BMI z-scores (β=−0.29, p<0.01) and waist circumferences (β=−0.27, p<0.01) were inversely associated with neighbourhood aesthetics. HD children's PA was negatively associated with bedroom media (β=−0.24, p<0.01), and MD children's PA was positively associated with independent mobility (β=0.25, p<0.01). MD children's independent mobility was inversely associated with crime safety (β=−0.28, p<0.01) and neighbourhood aesthetics (β=−0.24, p<0.05). Conclusions Children living in HD areas had the least favourable health-related variables and were exposed to home and neighbourhood environments that are unconducive to health-promoting behaviours. Less access to bedroom media equipment and greater independent mobility were strongly associated with higher PA in HD and MD children, respectively. Facilitating independent mobility and encouraging outdoor play may act as effective strategies to enhance PA levels and reduce sedentary time in primary school-aged children. PMID:26769779

  5. One reason why waist-to-height ratio is usually better related to chronic disease risk and outcome than body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Henneberg, Maciej; Henry, C J K

    2013-05-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (wtHR) has been proposed as an alternative to body mass index (BMI) as a simple anthropometric measure of body fatness. Both measures retain residual correlations with height, which causes them to over- or under-adjust for height (and thus misestimate nutritional state) when relating these measures to chronic disease risk, morbidity or mortality. The possibility that BMI has greater misadjustment than wtHR relative to waist/height (p) and weight/height (p) (where p is the optimal exponent for each population and sex group) is examined here. Analysis of anthropometric data for groups in Thailand, Papua New Guinea and Australia shows that this is the case, especially over-adjustment. This may contribute to the weaker relationships of chronic disease markers and outcomes with BMI than with wtHR. PMID:23067297

  6. Template-free synthesis of Nd0.1Bi0.9FeO3 nanotubes with large inner diameter and wasp-waisted hysteresis loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Guo, F.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, X.; Xu, X. L.; Gao, J.; Liu, W. F.

    2015-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanotubes of Nd0.1Bi0.9FeO3 (NBFO) with an inner diameter of ˜50 nm were synthesized via sol-gel based electrospinning without template assistant. The phases, morphologies, crystalline structures, and magnetic properties of these 1D nanostructures were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and SQUID, respectively. It was found that the calcination condition plays a crucial role in determining the morphologies and the magnetic properties. Interestingly, these 1D NBFO nanotubes exhibit wasp-waisted magnetic hysteresis with a lower coercivity and larger saturation magnetization, which were prevalent in natural rocks and artificial composite materials. The origin of these wasp-waisted hysteresis loops was discussed.

  7. A kinematic human-walking model for the normal-gait-speed estimation using tri-axial acceleration signals at waist location.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Sun, Kuan-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at estimating the human walking speed using wearable accelerometers by proposing a novel virtual inverted pendulum model. This model not only keeps the important characteristics of both the biped rolling-foot and the inverted pendulum model, but also makes the speed estimation feasible using human body acceleration. Rather than using statistical methods, the proposed kinematic walking model enables calibration of the parameters during walking using only one tri-axial accelerometer on the waist that collects the user's body acceleration. In addition, this model also includes the effect of rotation of the waist within a walking cycle, which improves the estimation accuracy. Experimental results for a group of humans show a 0.58% absolute error mean and 0.72% error deviation, which is far better than the results of other known studies with accelerometers mounted on the upper body. PMID:23529073

  8. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P<0.05 was significant. The calving difficulty score (1-5) was greater in heifers (median, 3.0) than in cows (median, 1.0). Median intrapelvic area immediately before parturition was smaller in heifers (268cm(2)) than in cows (332cm(2)), whereas front hoof circumference and birth weight of the calf were similar in both groups. The calving difficulty score was positively associated with calf birth weight in heifers (rs=0.39) and cows (rs=0.24). Binary logistic regression using both dam and calf data indicated that the ratio of front hoof circumference of the calf to the maternal intrapelvic area provided the best predictor of dystocia (calving difficulty score=4 or 5), with sensitivity=0.50 and specificity=0.93 at the optimal cutpoint for the ratio (>0.068cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:26474687

  9. Relationship of Early Pregnancy Waist-to-Hip Ratio versus Body Mass Index with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Basraon, Sanmaan K; Mele, Lisa; Myatt, Leslie; Roberts, James M; Hauth, John C; Leveno, Kenneth J; Varner, Michael W; Wapner, Ronald J; Thorp, John M; Peaceman, Alan M; Ramin, Susan M; Sciscione, Anthony; Tolosa, Jorge E; Sorokin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and insulin resistance (IR) in obesity defined by body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or both combined. Methods Secondary analysis of a randomized multicenter trial of antioxidant supplementation versus placebo in nulliparous low-risk women to prevent pregnancy associated hypertension. Women between 9 and 16 weeks with data for WHR and BMI were analyzed for GDM (n = 2,300). Those with fasting glucose and insulin between 22 and 26 weeks (n = 717) were analyzed for IR by homeostatic model assessment of IR (normal, ≤ 75th percentile). WHR and BMI were categorized as normal (WHR, < 0.80; BMI, < 25 kg/m(2)); overweight (WHR, 0.8-0.84; BMI, 25-29.9 kg/m(2)); and obese (WHR, ≥ 0.85; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression models were used. Results Compared with normal, the risks of GDM or IR were higher in obese by BMI or WHR. The subgroup with obesity by WHR but not by BMI had no increased risk of GDM. BMI was a better predictor of IR (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.71 [BMI], 0.65 [WHR], p = 0.03) but similar to WHR for GDM (AUC: 0.68 [BMI], 0.63 [WHR], p = 0.18). Conclusion Increased WHR and BMI in early pregnancy are associated with IR and GDM. BMI is a better predictor of IR compared with WHR. Adding WHR to BMI does not improve its ability to detect GDM or IR. PMID:26352680

  10. A modified matti-russe technique for the treatment of scaphoid waist non-union and pseudarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zoubos, Aristides B.; Triantafyllopoulos, Ioannis K.; Babis, George C.; Soucacos, Panayiotis N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of a modified Matti-Russe technique for the treatment of scaphoid non-union and pseudarthrosis. The modification was based on the use of bone graft taken from the ipsilateral distal radius, rather than from the iliac crest, as originally described. Material/Methods Between 1987 and 2000, 23 consequent male patients with scaphoid waist non-union or pseudarthrosis underwent surgery by a modified Matti-Russe technique. During the 5-year follow-up, patient evaluation was based on radiological findings and the Green & O’Brien scoring system. Results Anatomy was restored and healing of the non-union was achieved in 21 (91.3%) patients. The other 2 patients failed to achieve union and underwent the same operation a second time, which was successful. According to the Green & O’Brien scoring system, 82.6% (19/23) of patients showed excellent results and 17.4% (4/23) showed good results at 2-year follow-up. At 5-year follow-up, 73.9% of patients (19/23) had excellent results and 26.0% (4/23) had good results. No early postoperative complications developed. Two patients demonstrated mild radiological radio-scaphoid arthritis at 2.5 years postoperatively. All patients returned to previous levels of activity. Conclusions The standard Matti-Russe technique is an old but reliable and inexpensive method for the treatment of long-standing or neglected scaphoid non-unions or pseudarthroses. The modification of this established method, based on use of the distal radius as a donor site, reduces operative time, can be performed through a single approach, does not show donor site morbidity, and allows the use of regional anaesthesia. PMID:21278699

  11. Correlates of longitudinal changes in the waist-to-height ratio of primary school children: Implications for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Traub, Meike; Lauer, Romy; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate correlates of changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in primary school children in order to identify modifiable factors usable for prevention. Methods Outcome evaluation of a statewide health promotion program in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011) measurements provided data for the calculation of changes in WHtR. Further information on the health and living conditions of the children were assessed in parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measures were taken in 1733 (50.8% male) first and second grade children (age at baseline 7.1 ± 0.6 years) by staff trained according to ISAK-standards. Stepwise linear regression analysis was applied to identify variables with influence on changes in WHtR. Results According to the resulting regression model, changes in WHtR towards an increase were influenced by at least one parent being overweight/obese, at least one parent who smoked, low household income, higher age of the child and the skipping of breakfast. There was no clustering effect in schools observed. Conclusion A promising target for prevention of gain in WHtR in primary school children is to ensure the regularity of breakfast. Smoking cessation as well as dietary improvements would not only help children's health but also the health of their parents. The socioeconomic influence on the development of an unhealthy weight status has already been acknowledged and should be extensively targeted by all of society and policy makers. PMID:26844178

  12. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S.; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Bell, Nicholas P.; Lee, David A.; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750?m were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (15) years (range 2079). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (SD) value of 4.75?L (2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (SD) value of 8.90?L (3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter. PMID:25210623

  13. Circumference and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Katie; White, David

    The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the

  14. Association between leg length-to-height ratio and metabolic syndrome in Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gongshu; Liu, Jian; Li, Nan; Tang, Zheying; Lan, Fengrong; Pan, Lei; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between leg-length-to-height ratio (LLHR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese children. Methods 1236 children (619 obese and 617 nonobese children) aged 3–6 years participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2005 in Tianjin, China. Information on body adiposity, metabolic traits, and related covariates was obtained using a standardized protocol. LLHR was calculated as the ratio of leg length to stature. Results In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quartile, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of MetS among children in the second through the highest quartiles of LLHR Z-score were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64–1.25), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.32–0.63), and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.26–0.53), respectively, (Pfor trend < 0.0001 across LLHR Z-score quartiles). Compared with children with both higher levels of LLHR and lower levels of adipose indices, the corresponding ORs of MetS for those with both lower levels of LLHR and higher levels of anthropometric indices were 4.51 (95% CI, 3.08–6.62) for BMI Z-score, 3.86 (95% CI, 2.60–5.73) for waist circumference, and 2.75 (95% CI, 1.85–4.10) for waist-to-hip ratio, respectively. Conclusions Greater LLHR is inversely associated with MetS in Chinese children. PMID:26844042

  15. Young at Heart: Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you if you carry extra fat. A waist circumference of more than 35 inches for women or ... BMI and learn more about measuring your waist circumference. Healthy Weight Why is keeping a healthy weight ...

  16. Association of Body Mass Index of HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and Infant Weight, Body Mass Index, Length, and Head Circumference: The NISDI Perinatal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Letcia S.; Harris, D. Robert; Read, Jennifer S.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Succi, Regina C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) of HIV-1-infected women and their infants perinatal outcomes. The study population consisted of women enrolled in the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal Study with data allowing calculation of the BMI adjusted for length of gestation (adjBMI), who delivered singleton infants. Outcome variables included infant growth parameters at birth (weight, BMI, length and head circumference) and gestational age. Of 697 women from Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil and Mexico who were included in the analysis, the adjBMI was classified as underweight for 109 (15.6%), normal for 418 (60.0%), overweight for 88 (12.6%) and obese for 82 (11.8%). Median infant birth weight, BMI, birth length and head circumference differed significantly according to maternal adjBMI (P?0.0002). Underweight mothers gave birth to infants with lower weight, lower BMI, shorter length and smaller head circumference, while infants born to normal, overweight and obese mothers were of similar size. PMID:19081829

  17. The effects of bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction on isokinetic knee muscular function and thigh circumference in college students

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Yeon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Lee, Kyung Soon; Kim, Young Mi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction on isokinetic muscular function and thigh circumference in college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 17 college students who were recruited and randomly assigned to bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction and bodyweight-based exercise groups. Participants performed front lunges and squats at ratings of perceived exertion of 1113 three times a week during a 6-week training period. The peak torque/ body weight (%) of the knee flexor and extensor was measured using a HUMAC NORM System (Cybex 770-NORM, Cybex International, Medway, MA, USA), and the circumference of the thigh was measured. PASW Statistics was used for data analysis. [Results] There were significant differences in the peak torque/ body weight (%) of the flexors in both thighs (at 180/sec) after bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction. In addition, the circumference changes in both thighs were significant after bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction and between the two groups. [Conclusion] This study suggests that bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction may be an effective method to improve the muscle power and hypertrophy of the lower extremity in a clinical setting. PMID:26504274

  18. The effects of bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction on isokinetic knee muscular function and thigh circumference in college students.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Yeon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Lee, Kyung Soon; Kim, Young Mi

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction on isokinetic muscular function and thigh circumference in college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 17 college students who were recruited and randomly assigned to bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction and bodyweight-based exercise groups. Participants performed front lunges and squats at ratings of perceived exertion of 11-13 three times a week during a 6-week training period. The peak torque/ body weight (%) of the knee flexor and extensor was measured using a HUMAC NORM System (Cybex 770-NORM(), Cybex International, Medway, MA, USA), and the circumference of the thigh was measured. PASW Statistics was used for data analysis. [Results] There were significant differences in the peak torque/ body weight (%) of the flexors in both thighs (at 180/sec) after bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction. In addition, the circumference changes in both thighs were significant after bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction and between the two groups. [Conclusion] This study suggests that bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction may be an effective method to improve the muscle power and hypertrophy of the lower extremity in a clinical setting. PMID:26504274

  19. Association of Body Composition with Curve Severity in Children and Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS).

    PubMed

    Matusik, Edyta; Durmala, Jacek; Matusik, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The link between scoliotic deformity and body composition assessed with bioimpedance (BIA) has not been well researched. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the anthropometrical status of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) based on standard anthropometric measurements and BIA. The study encompassed 279 IS patients (224 girls/55 boys), aged 14.21 ± 2.75 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb's angle was categorized as moderate (10°-39°) or severe (≥40°). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height z-score, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The mean Cobb angle was 19.96° ± 7.92° in the moderate group and 52.36° ± 12.54° in the severe group. The corrected body heights, body weights and BMIs were significantly higher in the severe IS group than in the moderate group (p < 0.05). Significantly higher FAT and lower FFM and PMM were observed in the severe IS group (p < 0.05). The corrected heights and weights were significantly higher in patients with severe IS and normal weight (p < 0.01). Normal and overweight patients with a severe IS had significantly higher adiposity levels assessed by FAT, FFM and PMM for normal and BMI, BMI z-score, WHtR, FAT and PMM for overweight, respectively. Overweight IS patients were significantly younger and taller than underweight and normal weight patients. The scoliotic curve severity is significantly related to the degree of adiposity in IS patients. BMI z-score, WHtR and BIA seem to be useful tools for determining baseline anthropometric characteristics of IS children. PMID:26828519

  20. Association of Body Composition with Curve Severity in Children and Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS)

    PubMed Central

    Matusik, Edyta; Durmala, Jacek; Matusik, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The link between scoliotic deformity and body composition assessed with bioimpedance (BIA) has not been well researched. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the anthropometrical status of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) based on standard anthropometric measurements and BIA. The study encompassed 279 IS patients (224 girls/55 boys), aged 14.21 ± 2.75 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as moderate (10°–39°) or severe (≥40°). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height z-score, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The mean Cobb angle was 19.96° ± 7.92° in the moderate group and 52.36° ± 12.54° in the severe group. The corrected body heights, body weights and BMIs were significantly higher in the severe IS group than in the moderate group (p < 0.05). Significantly higher FAT and lower FFM and PMM were observed in the severe IS group (p < 0.05). The corrected heights and weights were significantly higher in patients with severe IS and normal weight (p < 0.01). Normal and overweight patients with a severe IS had significantly higher adiposity levels assessed by FAT, FFM and PMM for normal and BMI, BMI z-score, WHtR, FAT and PMM for overweight, respectively. Overweight IS patients were significantly younger and taller than underweight and normal weight patients. The scoliotic curve severity is significantly related to the degree of adiposity in IS patients. BMI z-score, WHtR and BIA seem to be useful tools for determining baseline anthropometric characteristics of IS children. PMID:26828519

  1. Effects of long-term treatment with testosterone on weight and waist size in 411 hypogonadal men with obesity classes I-III: observational data from two registry studies

    PubMed Central

    Saad, F; Yassin, A; Doros, G; Haider, A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Long-term testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) up to 5 years has been shown to produce progressive and sustainable weight loss (WL) in hypogonadal men. This study investigated effects of long-term TRT up to 8 years in hypogonadal men with different obesity classes. Subjects/Methods: From two independent observational registries we identified a total of 411 obese, hypogonadal men receiving TRT in urological clinics. The effects of TRT on anthropometric as well as metabolic parameters were studied for a maximum duration of 8 years, mean follow-up: 6 years. All men received long-acting injections of testosterone undecanoate in 3-monthly intervals. Results: In all three classes of obesity, T therapy produced significant WL, decrease in waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). In patients with class I obesity, mean weight decreased from 102.6±6.4 to 84.1±4.9 kg, change from baseline: −17.4±0.5 kg and −16.8±0.4%. WC in this group of patients decreased from 106.8±7.4 to 95.1±5.3 cm, change from baseline: −10.6±0.3 cm. BMI decreased from 32.69±1.4 to 27.07±1.57, change from baseline: −5.52±0.15 kg m−2. In patients with class II obesity, weight decreased from 116.8±6.9 to 91.3±6.3 kg, change from baseline: −25.3±0.5 kg and −21.5±0.4%. WC decreased from 113.5±7.5 to 100.0±5.4 cm, change from baseline: −13.9±0.4 cm. BMI decreased from 37.32±1.45 to 29.49±1.71, change from baseline: −8.15±0.17 kg m−2. In patients with class III obesity, weight decreased from 129.0±5.6 to 98.9±4.8 kg, change from baseline: −30.5±0.7 kg and −23.6±0.5%. WC decreased from 118.5±5.6 to 103.8±4.9 cm, change from baseline: −14.3±0.4 cm. BMI decreased from 41.93±1.48 to 32.46±1.59, change from baseline −9.96±0.29 kg m−2. Conclusions: Testosterone therapy appears to be an effective approach to achieve sustained WL in obese hypogonadal men irrespective of severity of obesity. Based on these findings we suggest that T therapy offers safe and effective treatment strategy of obesity in hypogonadal men. PMID:26219417

  2. Pilot intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary urban middle school girls: a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek, Stacey M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine if girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school Physical Activity Club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions controlling for baseline measures showed no statistically significant group differences, but directionality of differences was consistent with greater intervention group improvement for minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity/hour (t = 0.95, p = .35), cardiovascular fitness (t = 1.26, p = .22), body mass index (BMI; t = −1.47, p = .15), BMI z-score (t = −1.19, p = .24), BMI percentile (t = −0.59, p = .56), percent body fat (t = −0.86, p = .39), and waist circumference (t = −0.19, p = .85). Findings support testing with a larger sample. PMID:22472632

  3. Fetal head circumference, operative delivery, and fetal outcomes: a multi-ethnic population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Operative delivery procedures, such as primary cesarean section, vacuum-assisted, and forceps-assisted vaginal delivery increase maternal and fetal morbidity, and the cost of care. We evaluated whether large fetal head circumference (FHC) independently increases risk of such interventions, as well as fetal distress or low Apgar score, in anatomically normal infants. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data. We included singleton, term infants born to nulliparous mothers from 20032009. We compared mode of delivery and fetal outcomes in 10,750 large-FHC (37-41cm) infants relative to 10,750 average-FHC (34cm) infants, frequency matched by birth-year. Results Large-FHC infants were nearly twice as likely to be delivered by primary cesarean section as average-FHC infants (unadjusted relative risk [RR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.77, 1.92). The RR for primary cesarean section associated with large-FHC was largest for mothers aged 19years or less (RR 2.28; 95% CI: 1.99, 2.61), and smallest for mothers aged 35years or greater (RR 1.51; 95% CI: 1.37, 1.66) [test of homogeneity, p?

  4. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P < 0.001], BMI [-1.38 kg · m(‒)(2), P < 0.001], BMI-Z [-0.5 z-scores, P < 0.001], sit and reach [+3.0 cm, P < 0.001], standing jump [+0.1 m, P = 0.021] and shuttle run [+10.3 laps, P = 0.019]. Retention rate was 82.3%. All programme sessions were delivered and participants' mean satisfaction scores ranged from 4.2 to 4.6 out of 5. The findings demonstrate that CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents. PMID:25972203

  5. Effect of a hands-free wire on specific absorption rate for a waist-mounted 1.8 GHz cellular telephone handset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troulis, S. E.; Scanlon, W. G.; Evans, N. E.

    2003-06-01

    A common feature of cellular telephony is the use of a 'hands-free' audio extension lead connected to a waist-worn handset. Interaction between the transmitting antenna, the wire and the user's body can occur, with detrimental effects including polar pattern degradation, reduced efficiency and localized increases in specific absorption rate (SAR). Using a realistic full-body model of an adult male, finite difference time domain analysis was employed to investigate the coupling between a hip-mounted 1.8 GHz handset fitted with a monopole antenna and a 1 m long wire representing a hands-free wire. Conduction current densities were computed for three identifiable coupling modes: magnetic-only, conductive-only and combined conductive-and-magnetic. Magnetic-only coupling was dominant. Without the lead, placing the handset at waist height led to a 42.8% increase in the total energy deposited in the body, compared to use at the head. Introducing the lead further increased the body loss, with a reduction in system radiation efficiency from 52% to 43.7%. Without the hands-free lead, the peak 1 g and 10 g SARs were 0.450 W kg-1 and 0.265 W kg-1, respectively, for 125 mW transmit power. With the hands-free lead connected, these values increased to 1.14 W kg-1 and 0.430 W kg-1, respectively.

  6. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  7. Peer-Supported Diabetes Prevention Program for Turkish- and Arabic-Speaking Communities in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Hadj, Elaine; Hussein, Amal; Young, Doris

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are more prevalent in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities than mainstream Australians. Purpose. To develop, implement, and evaluate culturally sensitive peer-supported diabetes education program for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk middle-aged Turkish- and Arabic-speaking people. Methods. A two-day training program was developed. Ten bilingual peer leaders were recruited from existing health and social networks in Melbourne and were trained by diabetes educators. Each leader recruited 10 high-risk people for developing diabetes. Questionnaires were administered, and height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and three months after the intervention. The intervention comprised two 2-hour group sessions and 30 minutes reinforcement and support telephone calls. Results. 94 individuals (73% women) completed the program. Three months after the program, the participants' mean body weight (before?=?78.1?kg, after?=?77.3; Z score?=??3.415, P = 0.001) and waist circumference (Z?=??2.569, P = 0.004) were reduced, their diabetes knowledge was enhanced, and lifestyle behaviours were significantly improved. Conclusions. A short diabetes prevention program delivered by bilingual peers was associated with improved diabetes awareness, changed lifestyle behaviour, and reduction in body weight 3 months after intervention. The findings are encouraging and should stimulate a larger control-designed study. PMID:24959573

  8. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  9. Effects of a Culturally Grounded Community-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Obese Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Konopken, Yolanda; Hoppin, Erica; Keller, Colleen S.; Ortega, Rocio; Castro, Felipe González

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and preliminary effects of a culturally grounded, community-based diabetes prevention program among obese Latino adolescents. Methods Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (body mass index [BMI] percentile = 96.3 ± 1.1, age = 15.0 ± 0.9 years) completed a 12-week intervention that included weekly lifestyle education classes delivered by bilingual/bicultural promotoras and three, 60-minute physical activity sessions per week. Participants were assessed for anthropometrics (height, weight, BMI, and waist circumference), cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity/inactivity, nutrition behaviors, and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results The intervention resulted in significant decreases in BMI z score, BMI percentile, and waist circumference; increases in cardiorespiratory fitness; and decreases in physical inactivity and dietary fat consumption. In addition to these changes, the intervention led to significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in 2-hour glucose levels. Conclusions These results support the feasibility and efficacy of a community-based diabetes prevention program for high-risk Latino youth. Translational approaches that are both culturally grounded and biologically meaningful represent a novel and innovative strategy for closing the obesity-related health disparities gap. PMID:22585870

  10. Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother–Child Study (NewGeneris)

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hardie, Laura J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Merlo, Domenico F.; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Rydberg, Per; Segerbäck, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Törnqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. Objectives: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006–2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was –132 g (95% CI: –207, –56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was –0.33 cm (95% CI: –0.61, –0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women. PMID:23092936

  11. The significance of macrocephaly or enlarging head circumference in infants with the triad: further evidence of mimics of shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller, David; Barnes, Patrick; Miller, Marvin

    2015-06-01

    Infants with the triad (neurologic dysfunction, subdural hematoma [SDH], and retinal hemorrhage) are often diagnosed as victims of shaken baby syndrome. Medical conditions/predisposing factors to developing the triad are often dismissed: short falls, birth-related SDH that enlarges, macrocephaly, sinus/cortical vein thrombosis, and others. Six infants with the triad are described in which child abuse was diagnosed, but parents denied wrongdoing. All 6 had either macrocephaly or enlarging head circumference, which suggested medical explanations. Three infants incurred short falls, 1 had a difficult delivery in which there was likely a rebleed of a birth-related SDH, 1 had a spontaneous SDH associated with increased extra-axial fluid spaces, and 1 had a sinus thrombosis. Following legal proceedings, all 6 infants were returned to their parents, and there has been no child maltreatment in follow-up, suggesting child abuse never happened. The results indicate that alternative medical explanations for causing the triad should be considered and that macrocephaly or an enlarging head circumference raises the possibility of a medical explanation. PMID:25893912

  12. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Prez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time. PMID:19721903

  13. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyung-Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram

    2016-01-01

    Background The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. Methods A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. Results During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Conclusion Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:26912156

  14. Population-Referenced Percentiles for Waist-Worn Accelerometer-Derived Total Activity Counts in U.S. Youth: 2003 2006 NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Wolff-Hughes, Dana L.; Bassett, David R.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA) and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC) per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual's total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6 19 y. Methods Data from the 2003 2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6 19 years with at least 4 d of ? 10 hours of accelerometer wear time (N?=?3698). MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ?4 metabolic equivalents (METs) for youth 6 17 y or minutes with ?2020 counts for youth 18 19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days. Results For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA. Conclusion Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents. PMID:25531290

  15. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue; Xue, Hongmei; Duan, Ruonan; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Lishi; Harvey, Louise; Cheng, Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI) and dietary energy density (ED) were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 814 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR) were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI) (p ? 0.04). However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China. PMID:26151177

  16. A new approach to define and diagnose cardiometabolic disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Brnd, Jan Christian; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Sardinha, Luis B; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; McMurray, Robert G; Barros, Mauro V G; Kriemler, Susi; Mller, Niels Christian; Bugge, Anna; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grntved, Anders; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the performance of a new definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which better describes metabolic dysfunction in children. Methods. 15,794 youths aged 6-18 years participated. Mean z-score for CVD risk factors was calculated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters best described the metabolic dysfunction by analysing the score against independent variables not included in the score. Results. More youth had clustering of CVD risk factors (>6.2%) compared to the number selected by existing MetS definitions (International Diabetes Federation (IDF) < 1%). Waist circumference and BMI were interchangeable, but using insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) instead of fasting glucose increased the score. The continuous MetS score was increased when cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and leptin were included. A mean z-score of 0.40-0.85 indicated borderline and above 0.85 indicated clustering of risk factors. A noninvasive risk score based on adiposity and CRF showed sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and an area under the curve of 0.92 against IDF definition of MetS. Conclusions. Diagnosis for MetS in youth can be improved by using continuous variables for risk factors and by including CRF and leptin. PMID:25945355

  17. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zhou X; Xue H; Duan R; Liu Y; Zhang L; Harvey L; Cheng G

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI) and dietary energy density (ED) were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China.DESIGN AND METHODS: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8-14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR) were used to describe body composition.RESULTS: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI) (p ? 0.04). However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender.CONCLUSIONS: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.

  18. Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This pragmatic evaluation investigated the effectiveness of the Childrens Health, Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE!) Project, a cluster randomised intervention to promote healthy weight using an educational focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Methods Participants (n = 318, aged 1011 years) from 6 Intervention and 6 Comparison schools took part in the 20 weeks intervention between November 2010 and March/April 2011. This consisted of a teacher-led curriculum, learning resources, and homework tasks. Primary outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-scores. Secondary outcomes were objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and food intake. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at post-intervention (20 weeks), and at follow-up (30 weeks). Data were analysed using 2-level multi-level modelling (levels: school, student) and adjusted for baseline values of the outcomes and potential confounders. Differences in intervention effect by subgroup (sex, weight status, socio-economic status) were explored using statistical interaction. Results Significant between-group effects were observed for waist circumference at post-intervention (? for intervention effect =?1.63 (95% CI = ?2.20, -1.07) cm, p<0.001) and for BMI z-score at follow-up (?=?0.24 (95% CI = ?0.48, -0.003), p=0.04). At follow-up there was also a significant intervention effect for light intensity physical activity (?=25.97 (95% CI = 8.04, 43.89) min, p=0.01). Interaction analyses revealed that the intervention was most effective for overweight/obese participants (waist circumference: ?=?2.82 (95% CI = ?4.06, -1.58) cm, p<0.001), girls (BMI: ?=?0.39 (95% CI = ?0.81, 0.03) kg/m2, p=0.07), and participants with higher family socioeconomic status (breakfast consumption: ?=8.82 (95% CI = 6.47, 11.16), p=0.07). Conclusions The CHANGE! intervention positively influenced body size outcomes and light physical activity, and most effectively influenced body size outcomes among overweight and obese children and girls. The findings add support for the effectiveness of combined school-based physical activity and nutrition interventions. Additional work is required to test intervention fidelity and the sustained effectiveness of this intervention in the medium and long term. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03863885. PMID:23819701

  19. Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Obesity: NHANES (20012006)

    PubMed Central

    Buser, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens and suspected endocrine disruptors. Prenatal exposure to PAHs has been associated with obesity in early childhood. Objective: We examined the association of urinary PAH metabolites with adiposity outcomes [body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference (WC), and rate of obesity] in children and adolescents. Methods: We performed whole-sample analyses of 3,189 individuals 619 years of age who participated in the 20012006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We performed multivariate linear and logistic regression to analyze the association of BMI z-score, WC, and obesity with concentrations of single urinary PAH compounds and the sum of PAHs. Furthermore, the analyses were stratified by developmental stage [i.e., children (611 years) and adolescents (1219 years)]. Results: BMI z-score, WC, and obesity were positively associated with the molecular mass sum of the PAHs and the total sum of naphthalene metabolites. Most associations increased monotonically with increasing quartiles of exposure among children 611 years of age, whereas doseresponse trends were less consistent for adolescents (1219 years of age). Neither total PAHs nor total naphthalene metabolites were associated with overweight in either age group, and there was little evidence of associations between the outcomes and individual PAHs. Conclusions: Total urinary PAH metabolites and naphthalene metabolites were associated with higher BMI, WC, and obesity in children 611 years of age, with positive but less consistent associations among adolescents. Citation: Scinicariello F, Buser MC. 2014. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood obesity: NHANES (20012006). Environ Health Perspect 122:299303;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307234 PMID:24380973

  20. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Conceio, Miguel Soares; Bonganha, Valria; Vechin, Felipe Cassaro; de Barros Berton, Ricardo Paes; Lixandro, Manoel Emlio; Nogueira, Felipe Romano Damas; de Souza, Giovana Vergnia; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 3.95 years, 64.58 9.22 kg) or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 5.7 years, 64.03 5.03 kg). In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 8?10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162). Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001), and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%), reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, ?6.75%) and noticeable increases in muscle strength after resistance training to leg press (P = 0.004, 41.29%) and bench press (P = 0.0001, 27.23%). Conclusion It was concluded that resistance training performed three times a week may reduce the metabolic syndrome Z-score with concomitant decreases in fasting blood glucose, improvements in body composition, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. PMID:24072967

  1. Aplasia cutis congenita in a setting of fetus papyraceus associated with small fetal abdominal circumference and high alpha-fetoprotein and amniotic acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Joni M; Klein, Janice F; Christopher, Kurt; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-01-01

    Fetus papyraceus is the fetal death of one or more fetuses in a multiparous pregnancy. The surviving infants can experience extensive aplasia cutis in an H-shaped distribution over the flanks and abdomen as a consequence of the loss of their fetal sibling. We report the case of a monochorionic, diamniotic pregnancy complicated by a single fetal death at 13 weeks of gestational age. Aplasia cutis of the surviving twin was suggested in utero by three criteria: high amniotic and maternal alpha-fetoprotein, detectable acetylcholinesterase, and small abdominal circumference on prenatal ultrasound. This constellation of findings in the setting of fetus papyraceus can be an indicator of aplasia cutis in the surviving fetus. PMID:24118049

  2. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mgi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, JianAn; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tnu; Kilpelinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltn; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, sa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proena, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Drr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grler, Jrgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Par, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietilinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstrle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Khnen, Mika; Lehtimki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tnjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jrgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, Andr; Vlzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Wright, Alan F; Abecasis, Gonalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; North, Kari E; Oconnell, Jeffrey R; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Assimes, Themistocles L; Wichmann, H-Erich; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Stefansson, Kari; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Ins; McCarthy, Mark I; Fox, Caroline S; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2011-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 10?9 to P = 1.8 10?40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 10?3 to P = 1.2 10?13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

  3. Preference for women's body mass and waist-to-hip ratio in Tsimane' men of the Bolivian Amazon: biological and cultural determinants.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Kościński, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N = 66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation. PMID:25148034

  4. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mgi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian'an; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tnu; Kilpelinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltn; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Lango Allen, Hana; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proena, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Drr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grssler, Jrgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Par, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietilinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstrle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Khnen, Mika; Lehtimki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tnjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jrgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, Andr; Vlzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Wright, Alan F; Abecasis, Gonalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; North, Kari E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Assimes, Themistocles L; Wichmann, H-Erich; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Stefansson, Kari; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Ins; McCarthy, Mark I; Fox, Caroline S; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2010-11-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 10?? to P = 1.8 10???) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 10? to P = 1.2 10?). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

  5. The interaction of waist-hip ratio and conicity index with subcutaneous adiposity in two ethnic groups: native British and migrant Pakistani men.

    PubMed

    Bose, K

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the relationship between two indices of abdominal fatness, the waist-hip ratio (WHR) und conicity index (CI), with subcutaneous adiposity (5 trunk and 4 extremity skinfolds) in adult native British (n = 262) and migrant Pakistani (n = 100) men, resident in Peterborough, East Anglia, England. Both groups had similar body mass index (BMI), WHR and CI. Significant ethnic differences (age controlled) were observed in mean values for all trunk as well as forearm skinfolds between the two groups. The results indicated that, in general, there was no ethnic heterogeneity in the relationship (age controlled) of both the indices of abdominal adiposity with the skinfolds. However, the distributions, age, age2 and WHR controlled; and age, age2 and CI controlled, of subscapular (SUBSF), suprailiac (SUPSF), abdomen (ASF), midaxillary (MIDSF), chest (CSF), forearm (FSF) and medial calf (MCSF) skinfolds were significantly different between the two groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Pakistanis had significantly higher mean SUBSF, SUPSF, ASF, MIDSF, CSF and significantly lower mean FSF and MCSF than Whites, after controlling the effect of WHR. Similar significant ethnic differences were observed when the effect of CI was controlled for. This significant association of ethnicity remained even when the combined effects of WHR and CI were removed. PMID:11591053

  6. Association of body mass index, sagittal abdominal diameter and waist-hip ratio with cardiometabolic risk factors and adipocytokines in Arab children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a novel anthropometric measure hypothesized to be a surrogate measure of visceral abdominal obesity in adults. This study aims to determine whether SAD is superior to other anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) in terms of association to cardiometabolic risk and circulating adipocytokine concentrations in a cohort of Saudi children and adolescents. Methods A total of 948 (495 boys and 453 girls) apparently healthy children with varying BMI, aged 10–17 years, were included in this cross sectional study. Fasting glucose, lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin, TNF-α and aPAI-1 were measured in serum and HOMA-IR was calculated. MetS components were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results BMI was superior to SAD as well as WHR, and had the highest number of significant associations to MetS components and adipocytokines even after adjustment for age and gender, including blood pressure, lipids, glucose and leptin. Conclusion In conclusion, while SAD is significantly associated with components of MetS among children and adolescents, it is not superior to BMI. The use of SAD therefore may not be practical for use in the pediatric clinical setting. Follow-up studies are needed to determine whether SAD has clinical significance in terms of harder outcomes such as predicting diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22871266

  7. Preference for Women's Body Mass and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Tsimane' Men of the Bolivian Amazon: Biological and Cultural Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Kościński, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N = 66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation. PMID:25148034

  8. Association of early childhood abdominal circumference and weight gain with blood pressure at 36?months of age: secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl A; Crozier, Sarah R; Robinson, Sin M; Godfrey, Keith M; Lawrence, Wendy T; Law, Catherine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether changes in measures of fat distribution and body size during early life are associated with blood pressure at 36?months of age. Design Analysis of data collected from a prospective cohort study. Setting Community-based investigation in Southampton, UK. Participants 761 children with valid blood pressure measurements, born to women participating in the Southampton Womens Survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Anthropometric measurements were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36?months and conditional changes between the time points calculated. Blood pressure was measured at 36?months. Factors possibly influencing the blood pressure were assessed using linear regression. All independent variables of interest and confounding variables were included in stepwise multiple regression to identify the model that best predicted blood pressure at 36?months. Results Greater conditional gains in abdominal circumference (AC) between 06 and 2436?months were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures at 36?months (p<0.001). Subscapular skinfold and height gains were weakly associated with higher blood pressures, while greater weight gains between 06, 1224 and 2436?months were more strongly associated, but the dominant influences were AC gains, particularly from 06 to 2436?months. Thus one SD score increases in AC between 06 and 2436?months were associated with 1.59?mm?Hg (95% CI 0.97to 2.21) and 1.84?mm?Hg (1.24to 2.46) higher systolic blood pressures, respectively, and 1.04?mm?Hg (0.57 to 1.51) and 1.02?mm?Hg (0.56, 1.48) higher diastolic pressures, respectively. Conclusions Conditional gains in abdominal circumference, particularly within 6?months of birth and in the year preceding measurement, were more positively associated with blood pressure at 36?months than gains in other anthropometric measures. Above-average AC gains in early childhood may contribute to adult hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24993768

  9. Height and height Z-score are related to calcium absorption in five- to fifteen-year-old girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CONTEXT: Understanding the relationship between calcium absorption and growth has been limited. We have developed a database of calcium absorption measurements in 315 girls aged 5.0-15.0 yr. DESIGN: We have used this database to assess the relationship between height, its age- and gender-normalized...

  10. Genetic and environmental relationships between head circumference growth in the first year of life and sociocognitive development in the second year: a longitudinal twin study.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Keiko K; Ozaki, Koken; Suzuki, Kunitake; Yamagata, Shinji; Kawahashi, Ikko; Ando, Juko

    2012-01-01

    Although growth in head circumference (HC) during infancy is known to predict later childhood outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this association with later sociocognitive abilities remain undetermined. Thus, using a sample of 241 pairs of normally developing Japanese twins, this study investigated the underpinnings of the association between HC growth (difference between HC at birth and at 10 months) and sociocognitive abilities at 19 months as measured by 10 items from the M-CHAT. Phenotypic correlations between HC at birth and sociocognitive abilities and between HC growth and sociocognitive abilities were marginal and not significant. However, multivariate genetic analyses using Cholesky decomposition revealed that genetic influences on HC growth and those on sociocognitive abilities were negatively associated. On the other hand, shared and nonshared environmental influences on HC growth were positively associated with influences on sociocognitive abilities. Genetic and environmental influences on HC at birth were not significantly associated with influences on sociocognitive abilities. These results help to clarify the role of brain growth during infancy in the subsequent development of sociocognitive abilities and highlight the importance of examining the different roles of genetic and environmental influences in studies of these areas. PMID:22251296

  11. Association Between Waist-to-Height Ratio, Isolated and Combined Morbidities and C-Reactive Protein in the Elderly: A Clinical-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jousianny Patrcio; Lima, Raquel Patrcia Atade; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; da Conceio Rodrigues Gonalves, Maria; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Roslia Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria Jos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

  12. Association between waist-to-height ratio, isolated and combined morbidities and C-reactive protein in the elderly: a clinical-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jousianny Patrcio; Lima, Raquel Patrcia Atade; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; Gonalves, Maria da Conceio Rodrigues; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Roslia Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria Jos

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

  13. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 30.0 and Above Waist Circumference Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks that come with overweight and obesity. If most of your fat is around your waist rather than at your hips, you’re at a higher risk for heart ...

  14. Assessment of Under Nutrition of Bangladeshi Adults Using Anthropometry: Can Body Mass Index Be Replaced by Mid-Upper-Arm-Circumference?

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Tania; Karim, Md. Nazmul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Md. Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Body-mass-index (BMI) is widely accepted as an indicator of nutritional status in adults. Mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC) is another anthropometric-measure used primarily among children. The present study attempted to evaluate the use of MUAC as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition, and thus to suggest a suitable cut-off value. Methods A cross-sectional study in 650 adult attendants of the patients of Dhaka-Hospital, of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) was conducted during 2012. Height, weight and MUAC of 260 male and 390 female aged 1960 years were measured. Curve estimation was done to assess the linearity and correlation of BMI and MUAC. Sensitivity and specificity of MUAC against BMI<18.5 was determined. Separate Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for male and female. Area under ROC curve and Youden's index were generated to aid selection of the most suitable cut-off value of MUAC for undernutrition. A value with highest Youden's index was chosen for cut-off. Results Our data shows strong significant positive correlation (linear) between MUAC and BMI, for males r = 0.81, (p<0.001) and for females r = 0.828, (p<0.001). MUAC cut-off <25.1 cm in males (AUC 0.930) and <23.9 cm in females (AUC 0.930) were chosen separately based on highest corresponding Youden's index. These values best correspond with BMI cut-off for under nutrition (BMI <18.5) in either gender. Conclusion MUAC correlates closely with BMI. For the simplicity and easy to remember MUAC <25 cm for male and <24 cm for female may be considered as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition. PMID:25875397

  15. The effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on arm volume and arm circumference in women treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lane, K; Jespersen, D; McKenzie, D C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on changes in arm volume in breast cancer survivors. A total of 16 female breast cancer survivors with no clinical history of lymphoedema volunteered. The 20-week exercise programme consisted of resistance and aerobic exercise with the addition of dragon boat training at week 8. Arm circumference at two sites (CIRC10, CIRC15), arm volume (VOL), and upper body strength (1-RM) were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2), and week 20 (T3). All statistical tests were two-sided (alpha < or = 0.05). No significant differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities at any of the three time points were found. All variables significantly increased from T1 to T3 (CIRC10: difference, d = 0.49 cm, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.25-0.73, P = 0.000; CIRC15: d = 1.33 cm, CI = 0.78-1.88, P = 0.000; VOL: d = 100 mL, CI = 69-130, P = 0.000). As well, 1-RM significantly increased from T1 to T3 (d = 10.8 kg, CI = 5.6-16.1; P = 0.000). In summary, participation in a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training resulted in a significant increase in upper extremity volume over time. However, the changes were consistent for both arms and the significant gain in upper body muscular strength likely accounted for the increase in arm volume. PMID:16098120

  16. Cardiometabolic Outcomes in Children and Adolescents Following Discontinuation of Long-Term Risperidone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Ginger; Schlechte, Janet A.; Burns, Trudy L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) cause weight gain and cardiometabolic abnormalities in children and adolescents. Less well-investigated is the outcome of these adverse events following SGA discontinuation, which we examined. Methods: Medically healthy 7 to 17-year-old patients treated with risperidone for ≥6 months were enrolled and returned for follow-up, 1.5 years later. Treatment history was extracted from the medical and pharmacy records. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were obtained at each research visit. Multivariable linear regression analysis and Fisher's exact test were used to compare participants who remained on risperidone at follow-up (Risp Cont Group) with those who had discontinued SGA treatment (SGA Disc Group) and those who had switched to another SGA (SGA Cont Group). Correlational analyses examined the association between change in age-sex specific body mass index (BMI) z score between study entry and follow-up and change in cardiometabolic outcomes. Results: The sample consisted of 101 participants (93% male) with a mean age of 11.7±2.6 years at study entry. The majority had an externalizing disorder and received 0.03±0.02 mg/kg/day of risperidone, for 2.5±1.6 years. At follow-up, 18% (n=18) were in the SGA Disc Group and 9% (n=9) were in the SGA Cont Group. BMI z score decreased in the SGA Disc Group, remained unchanged in the Risp Cont Group (n=74), and increased in the SGA Cont Group. Importantly, the change in BMI z score between study entry and follow-up was significantly correlated with the change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure z scores, heart rate, waist circumference, percent body fat, inflammatory markers, fasting total insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), C-peptide, total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, triglycerides/HDL ratio, and leptin. Conclusions: Following several years of treatment, risperidone discontinuation is associated with a reversal of the excessive weight gain, mediated by a negative energy balance, and a corresponding improvement in cardiometabolic parameters. PMID:24725198

  17. Genotype environment interaction for age at first calving, scrotal circumference, and yearling weight in Nellore cattle using reaction norms in multitrait random regression models.

    PubMed

    Chiaia, H L J; de Lemos, M V A; Venturini, G C; Aboujaoude, C; Berton, M P; Feitosa, F B; Carvalheiro, R; Albuquerque, L G; de Oliveira, H N; Baldi, F

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of genotype environment interaction (GE) on age at first calving (AFC), scrotal circumference (SC), and yearling weight (YW) and to estimate genetic correlations between these traits in Nellore cattle using reaction norms in multitrait random regression models. In this study, 28,871, 41,386, and 89,152 records of Nellore cattle for AFC, SC, and YW, respectively, were used. The data were obtained from farms located in the north, northeast, midwest, and southeast regions of Brazil that participate in the DeltaGen Breeding Program. Environmental levels were defined as a function of contemporary groups, that is, animals born in the same herd and year, from the same management group (from birth to yearling), and of the same sex. Postweaning weight gain was used as a criterion to evaluate the environmental conditions for all traits. For reaction norm analyses, residual variances were modeled with homogeneous and heterogeneous classes. The model for SC and YW included the fixed effects of contemporary group and age of the animal as a covariate as well as random direct additive genetic and residual effects. The same model, excluding the covariate age of the animal, was used for AFC. The heritability estimates were low to high for AFC (0.09 to 0.50), high for SC (0.51 to 0.67), and moderate to high for YW (0.33 to 0.71). The genetic correlations (within each trait) along the environmental levels varied from -0.27 to 1.0 for AFC, from 0.73 to 1.0 for SC, and from 0.26 to 1.0 for YW. The genetic correlations between different traits in different environments varied from -0.14 to -0.60 between AFC and SC, from -0.05 to -0.32 between AFC and YW, and from -0.05 to 0.72 between YW and SC. The genetic correlations have had different magnitudes for AFC, SC, and YW, which could indicate the presence of GE. The present results should support researchers and farmers in defining selection criteria to improve growth traits and sexual precocity. Our results suggest that animals for breeding have to be selected in the same environment and management conditions as their progeny will be reared. PMID:26020172

  18. A pilot study of preemptive morphine analgesia in preterm neonates: effects on head circumference, social behavior, and response latencies in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Ward, Wendy L; Paule, Merle G; Hall, R Whit; Anand, K J S

    2012-01-01

    Use of preemptive analgesia in Neonatal Intensive Care Units is recommended for severe and/or invasive procedures. However, the potential long-term consequences of such analgesia, which may be prolonged, are only beginning to be studied. In this pilot study, a subset of subjects previously enrolled in the Neurological Outcomes and Preemptive Analgesia in Neonates (NEOPAIN) trial was assessed at early childhood. These ex-preterm infants (born at 23-32 weeks of gestational age) required intubation within 72 h postpartum and were randomized to receive either preemptive morphine analgesia (maximum of 14 days) or placebo within 8h post-intubation. At 5-7 years of age, neuropsychological outcomes, morphometrics, adaptive behavior, parent-rated behavior, motivation, and short-term memory were measured. Although overall IQ and academic achievement did not differ between the morphine treated (n=14) and placebo (n=5) groups, preemptive morphine analgesia was associated with distinct differences in other outcome variables. Head circumference of morphine treated children was approximately 7% smaller (Cohen'sd: 2.83, effect size large) and body weight was approximately 4% less (Cohen'sd: 0.81, effect size large); however, height did not differ. In the short-term memory task (delayed matching to sample), morphine treated children exhibited significantly longer choice response latencies than placebo children (3.860.33 and 2.710.24 s, respectively) (p<0.03) and completed approximately 27% less of the task than placebo children (Cohen'sd: 0.96, effect size large). Parents described morphine treated children as having more social problems, an effect specific to creating and maintaining friendships (Cohen'sd: -0.83, effect size large). Despite the small sample size and the preliminary nature of this study, these results are strongly suggestive of long-lasting effects of preemptive morphine analgesia. A larger investigation with more comprehensive assessments of some of these key features will enable a more complete understanding of the relationship between preemptive morphine treatment and long-term neurocognitive, behavioral, and adaptive outcomes. PMID:22094261

  19. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... goal. Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks. If most of your fat is around your ... measure your waist, visit Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk . For more information about losing weight or maintaining ...

  20. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Costigan, S.A.; Eather, N.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Taaffe, D.R.; Pollock, E.; Kennedy, S.G.; Lubans, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6) years) were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP) (n = 21), resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP) (n = 22) and control (n = 22). The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session), delivered during physical education (PE) lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run), muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests), body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI), BMI-z scores, waist circumference) and physical activity motivation (questionnaire), by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024), BMI-z (p = 0.037) and BMI (not significant) in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group. PMID:26844177

  1. Pharmacogenetics of Risperidone and Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos-Jnior, Amilton; Henriques, Taciane Barbosa; de Mello, Maricilda Palandi; Della Torre, Osmar Henrique; Paes, Lcia Arisaka; Ferreira-Neto, Adriana Perez; Sewaybricker, Letcia Esposito; Fontana, Thiago Salum; Celeri, Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler; Guerra-Jnior, Gil; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8-20 years old) were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7%) patients were overweight and 5 (4.2%) obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%), metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%), and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%). The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%), while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7%) and 41 (34.2%) patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations. PMID:26880915

  2. Mild Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Long-Term Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Madeline Murguia; Varner, Michael W.; Casey, Brian M.; Reddy, Uma M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Biggio, Joseph R.; Thorp, John M.; Chien, Edward K.; Saade, George; Peaceman, Alan M.; Blackwell, Sean C.; VanDorsten, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) confers sustained offspring health benefits, including a lower frequency of obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Follow-up study of children (ages 5–10) of women enrolled in a multicenter trial of treatment versus no treatment of mild GDM. Height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were measured. RESULTS Five hundred of 905 eligible offspring (55%) were enrolled. Maternal baseline characteristics were similar between the follow-up treated and untreated groups. The frequencies of BMI ≥95th (20.8% and 22.9%) and 85th (32.6% and 38.6%) percentiles were not significantly different in treated versus untreated offspring (P = 0.69 and P = 0.26). No associations were observed for BMI z score, log waist circumference, log triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, or log HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The effect of treatment was different by sex for fasting glucose and log HOMA-IR (P for interaction = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively) but not by age-group (5–6 and 7–10 years) for any outcomes. Female offspring of treated women had significantly lower fasting glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS Although treatment for mild GDM has been associated with neonatal benefits, no reduction in childhood obesity or metabolic dysfunction in the offspring of treated women was found. However, only female offspring of women treated for mild GDM had lower fasting glucose. PMID:25414152

  3. A School-Based Intervention for Diabetes Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [±SD] age, 11.3±0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS There was a decrease in the primary outcome — the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity — in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P = 0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P = 0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. CONCLUSIONS Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.) PMID:20581420

  4. Pharmacogenetics of Risperidone and Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos-Júnior, Amilton; Henriques, Taciane Barbosa; de Mello, Maricilda Palandi; Della Torre, Osmar Henrique; Paes, Lúcia Arisaka; Ferreira-Neto, Adriana Perez; Sewaybricker, Letícia Esposito; Fontana, Thiago Salum; Celeri, Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8–20 years old) were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7%) patients were overweight and 5 (4.2%) obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%), metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%), and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%). The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%), while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7%) and 41 (34.2%) patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations. PMID:26880915

  5. Dose Effect of Cardiorespiratory Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Conrad P.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Swift, Damon L.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    As an ancillary report to a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)funded trial, we examined the effects of 6 months of exercise training at 50%, 100%, and 150% of the NIH Consensus Recommendations for physical activity (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure/wk [KKW]) versus a nonexercise control group on the metabolic syndrome (MS) in sedentary, overweight, moderately hypertensive, postmenopausal women. We examined the clinically defined National Cholesterol Education Program MS, individual components scores, and summed z-scores, expressed as a continuous variable (zMS), using chi-square and general linear models to assess the clinical and progressive nature of MS, respectively. Our results showed significant improvements in zMS for all exercise groups and MS for the 8- and 12 KKW groups only (all, p for trend = 0.02). Post hoc analyses showed that 12 KKW for zMS and 8 and 12 KKW for MS was significant versus the control group (all, p <0.05). When examining the composite scores, we observed significant trends for improvement in waist circumference (p for trend = 0.001), fasting glucose (p for trend = 0.01), and systolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.02), which appeared to be dose dependent, given the additive nature for incorporating the within-group improvements in waist circumference (4, 8, and 12 KKW), fasting glucose (8 and 12 KKW), and systolic blood pressure (12 KKW). Our results suggest that low-to-moderate intensity cardiorespiratory exercise appears to improve components of the MS in postmenopausal women at levels at or greater than NIH recommendations and that zMS improves at half the NIH recommendations. Greater levels of energy expenditure appear to enhance this effect by incorporating a greater number of requisite MS composite scores. PMID:23578351

  6. Associations between diet, lifestyle factors, and telomere length in women123

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Aedn; De Vivo, Immaculata; Liu, Yan; Han, Jiali; Prescott, Jennifer; Hunter, David J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length is associated with diseases of aging, but there is limited knowledge of diet and lifestyle determinants. Objective: The objective was to examine cross-sectionally the association between diet, body composition, and lifestyle factors on leukocyte telomere length in women. Design: Leukocyte telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 2284 female participants from the Nurses Health Study, who were selected as controls for an investigation of biological predictors of cancer. Diet, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were assessed by questionnaire. Results: After multivariate adjustment, dietary fiber intake was positively associated with telomere length (z score), specifically cereal fiber, with an increase of 0.19 units between the lowest and highest quintiles (P = 0.007, P for trend = 0.03). Although total fat intake was not associated with telomere length, polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (?0.26 units, quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: P = 0.002, P for trend = 0.02), specifically linoleic acid intake, was inversely associated with telomere length after multivariate adjustment (?0.32 units; P = 0.001, P for trend = 0.05). Waist circumference was inversely associated with telomere length [0.15-unit difference in z score in a comparison of the highest (?32 in, 81.28 cm) with the lowest (?28 in, 71.12 cm) category (P = 0.01, P for trend = 0.02) in the multivariate model]. We found no association between telomere length and smoking, physical activity, or postmenopausal hormone use. Conclusion: Although the strength of the associations was modest in this population of middle- and older-age women, our results support the hypothesis that body composition and dietary factors are related to leukocyte telomere length, which is a potential biomarker of chronic disease risk. PMID:20219960

  7. Longitudinal Associations of Sleep Curtailment with Metabolic Risk in Mid-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Redline, Susan; Gillman, Matthew W.; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of chronic insufficient sleep with mid-childhood cardio-metabolic health. Design and methods At 6 months and yearly from 1–7 years, mothers participating in the Project Viva cohort reported children’s 24-hour sleep duration. The main exposure was a sleep curtailment score, ranging from 0 (maximal curtailment) to 13 (never having curtailed sleep). The main outcome was a mid-childhood metabolic risk score, derived as the mean of 5 sex- and cohort-specific z-scores for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol (scaled inversely), and log-transformed triglycerides and HOMA-IR; higher scores indicate higher risk. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD]) sleep score was 10.0 (2.8); 5.1% scored 0–4, 13.9% scored 5–7, 14.1% scored 8–9, 28.7% scored 10–11, and 38.3% scored 12–13. Mean (SD, range) metabolic risk score was −0.03 (0.6, −1.8 to 2.6). In multivariable models, the metabolic risk score difference for children with most versus least curtailed sleep was 0.29 units (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.57). Further adjustment for mid-childhood BMI-z score attenuated this difference to 0.08 units (95% CI: −0.14, 0.30). Conclusions Chronic insufficient sleep from infancy to school-age was associated with higher mid-childhood metabolic risk. This association was explained by sleep duration’s influence on mid-childhood adiposity. PMID:25234485

  8. Impact of nutritional recovery with linear growth on the concentrations of adipokines in undernourished children living in Brazilian slums.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vinicius J B; Neves, Andrea P O; Franco, Maria do C P; Clemente, Ana P G; Sawaya, Ana L

    2014-09-28

    Undernutrition in early life has been reported to be closely associated with the development of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Adequate treatment is important for reversing these effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of undernutrition and anthropometric recovery on the weights and heights of children in relation to the concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A total of 119 children (aged 6-16 years) from the slums of So Paulo were selected according to their nutritional status and divided into three groups as follows: control (healthy without intervention, n 38) with a height-for-age Z score (HAZ) and a BMI-for-age Z score (BAZ) > -16; undernourished (HAZ and/or BAZ < -16, n 54); recovered from undernutrition (after treatment in a rehabilitation centre; HAZ and BAZ > -16, n 27). Blood samples were collected to determine insulin, glucose, leptin, adiponectin and PAI-1 concentrations. Leptin concentrations in the undernourished group were lower than those in the control and recovered groups (mean 092 (95% CI 067, 125), 203 (95% CI 146, 282) and 166 (95% CI 115, 244) ng/ml, P=0003), which had similar leptin concentrations. There were no differences in adiponectin and PAI-1 concentrations among the groups. A positive correlation between waist circumference and leptin concentrations was observed in all the girls and boys of the control group (control: r 0729, P<001; undernourished: r 0490, P<005; and recovered: r 0829, P<001; r 0673, P<005). Stronger correlations between leptin and insulin concentrations were observed in the recovered group. The results of the present study indicate that normal leptin concentrations are found when normal height and weight are achieved. PMID:25069062

  9. Metabolic syndrome risk assessment in children: use of a single score

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate a score of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and set a cutoff point of this score for the prediction of MetS risk. METHODS: The study included a random sample of 348 children aged 8 and 9 years of Viçosa, Southeast Brazil. Factor analysis by principal components (PCA) was used to determine, among various risk factors, those with higher degrees of intercorrelation. The chosen variables were: waist circumference (PC), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TAG) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Z-scores were created for each one of these parameters and the sum of these z-scores constituted the MetS score. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the cutoff of MetS score, using as gold standard the presence or absence of MetS determined according to criteria age-modified. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS in the sample was 8.9% by adopting specific criteria for age, and 24% when considering the cutoff of MetS score. The selected cutoff point of 1.86 was accurate to predict the MetS risk in this sample due to its high sensitivity (96.7%), specificity (82.7%) and AUC of 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: This original Brazilian study presents the MetS score as a suitable alternative for the study of Metabolic Syndrome in children, given the lack of consensus for the definition of this syndrome in childhood. PMID:25649382

  10. Shared care obesity management in 3-10 year old children: 12 month outcomes of HopSCOTCH randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether general practice surveillance for childhood obesity, followed by obesity management across primary and tertiary care settings using a shared care model, improves body mass index and related outcomes in obese children aged 3-10 years. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 22 family practices (35 participating general practitioners) and a tertiary weight management service (three paediatricians, two dietitians) in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Children aged 3-10 years with body mass index above the 95th centile recruited through their general practice between July 2009 and April 2010. Intervention Children were randomly allocated to one tertiary appointment followed by up to 11 general practice consultations over one year, supported by shared care, web based software (intervention) or “usual care” (control). Researchers collecting outcome measurements, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Main outcome measures Children’s body mass index z score (primary outcome), body fat percentage, waist circumference, physical activity, quality of diet, health related quality of life, self esteem, and body dissatisfaction and parents’ body mass index (all 15 months post-enrolment). Results 118 (60 intervention, 56 control) children were recruited and 107 (91%) were retained and analysed (56 intervention, 51 control). All retained intervention children attended the tertiary appointment and their general practitioner for at least one (mean 3.5 (SD 2.5, range 1-11)) weight management consultation. At outcome, children in the two trial arms had similar body mass index (adjusted mean difference −0.1 (95% confidence interval −0.7 to 0.5; P=0.7)) and body mass index z score (−0.05 (−0.14 to 0.03); P=0.2). Similarly, no evidence was found of benefit or harm on any secondary outcome. Outcomes varied widely in the combined cohort (mean change in body mass index z score −0.20 (SD 0.25, range −0.97-0.47); 26% of children resolved from obese to overweight and 2% to normal weight. Conclusions Although feasible, not harmful, and highly rated by both families and general practitioners, the shared care model of primary and tertiary care management did not lead to better body mass index or other outcomes for the intervention group compared with the control group. Improvements in body mass index in both groups highlight the value of untreated controls when determining efficacy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000055303. PMID:23751902

  11. Associations of PON1 and genetic ancestry with obesity in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Beckman, Kenneth; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genotype and arylesterase levels (ARYase, measure of PON1 enzyme quantity), to characterize the relationship between PON1 and obesity in young Mexican-American children (n = 373) living in an agricultural community in California. Since PON1 polymorphisms and obesity both vary between ethnic groups, we estimated proportional genetic ancestry using 106 ancestral informative markers (AIMs). Among children, PON1192 allele frequencies were 0.5 for both alleles, and the prevalence of obesity was high (15% and 33% at ages two and five, respectively). The average proportion of European, African, and Native American ancestry was 0.40, 0.09, and 0.51, yet there was wide inter-individual variation. We found a significantly higher odds of obesity (9.3 and 2.5- fold) in PON1192QQ children compared to PON1192RR children at ages two and five, respectively. Similar relationships were seen with BMI Z-scores at age two and waist circumference at age five. After adjusting for genetic ancestry in models of PON1 and BMI Z-score, effect estimates for PON1192 genotype changed 15% and 9% among two and five year old children, respectively, providing evidence of genetic confounding by population stratification. However even after adjustment for genetic ancestry, the trend of increased BMI Z-scores with increased number of PON1192 Q alleles remained. Our findings suggest that PON1 may play a role in obesity independent of genetic ancestry and that studies of PON1 and health outcomes, especially in admixed populations, should account for differences due to population stratification. PMID:23658746

  12. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease body weight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8 weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P < 0.01), fat mass (METABO -7.8 vs. placebo -2.8%, P < 0.001), lean mass (METABO +3.4% vs. placebo +0.8%, P < 0.03), waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P < 0.0007), hip girth (METABO -1.7% vs. placebo -0.4%, P < 0.003), and energy levels per anchored visual analogue scale (VAS) (METABO +29.3% vs. placebo +5.1%, P < 0.04). During the first 4 weeks, effects/trends for maintaining elevated serum leptin (P < 0.03) and decreased serum resistin (P < 0.08) in the METABO group vs. placebo were also observed. No changes in systemic hemodynamics, clinical blood chemistries, adverse events, or dietary intake were noted between groups. Conclusions METABO administration is a safe and effective adjunct to an eight-week diet and exercise weight loss program by augmenting improvements in body composition, waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted. PMID:23601452

  13. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Hkkinen, K; Kyrlinen, H

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (255 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

  14. Endothelial Function as Measured by Peripheral Arterial Tonometry Increases during Pubertal Advancement

    PubMed Central

    Bhangoo, Amrit; Sinha, Sunil; Rosenbaum, Michael; Shelov, Steven; Ten, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims:Sex steroids, such as estrogens, are known to influence endothelial function by their vasodilator action. The aim of this study was to study the relation of puberty and sex steroids with endothelial function using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). Methods: In 89 healthy school boys and girls, we determined height, weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, BMI, BMI z-score, blood pressure (BP), BP percentiles, lipid profile, insulin, and glucose levels after overnight fast. Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), DHEAS and E1-sulfate were measured using ultrasensitive assays. Participants were divided into 3 pubertal groups on the basis of their estrogen levels: group 1 (Tanner stage I), group 2 (Tanner stages II–III), and group 3 (Tanner stages IV–V). Endothelial function was measured by Endo-PAT 2000® and expressed as PAT index. A higher PAT index represents a higher reactive hyperemia response. Results: The PAT index was lowest at 1.42 ± 0.44 (mean ± SD) in group 1 and significantly increased in group 2 at 1.71 ± 0.35 (p = 0.02) and group 3 at 1.92 ± 0.38 (p < 0.001). The PAT index correlated positively with E2, DHEAS and age. Conclusion: Enhancement of the PAT index was associated with an increment in Tanner stages. The changes in E2 and DHEAS levels may contribute to increasing endothelial response to shear stress or arterial blood flow. PMID:21778688

  15. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Márcia; Melges, Ana Paula B.; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel S.; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz A.; Sarni, Roseli Oselka S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2). Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room) for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL), lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides), oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes) and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62%) and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57%) subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10%) and 36/61 (59%), respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001)]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents. PMID:24676190

  16. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in obese children.

    PubMed

    Carolan, E; Hogan, A; O'Connell, J; Fallon, M; Byrne, D; O'Shea, D; Cody, D

    2015-05-01

    Childhood Obesity poses a public health problem in Ireland. Complications associated include metabolic disease and cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of obese Irish children. Assessments were performed on obese children attending weight management clinic. Pedometers and self report physical activity questionnaires were administered to each participant to determine physical activity levels. Fifty-nine children (21 prepubertal and 38 pubertal/post-pubertal) were metabolically profiled. Mean SD of z scores for BMI, Waist Circumference and Body Fat % were +3.29 0.48, +3.98 0.73 and +2.75 0.50 respectively. 43% (n = 9) prepubertal and 68% (n = 26) pubertal/postpubertal children had at least one other cardiovascular risk factor in addition to obesity. Increased moderate-vigorous physical activity levels correlated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors. There is a significant prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among obese pre-pubertal children and pubertal/post-pubertal adolescents attending an Irish obesity clinic. PMID:26062237

  17. Influence of Body Composition on Lung Function and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Children With Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Costa Junior, Dirceu; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana S.; Araujo, Poliane N.; Barbalho-Moulin, Marcela C.; Alves, Viviane C.; Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Costa, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity affects lung function and respiratory muscle strength. The aim of the present study was to assess lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children with obesity and determine the influence of body composition on these variables. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 75 children (40 with obesity and 35 within the ideal weight range) aged 6 - 10 years. Body mass index, z score, waist circumference, body composition (tetrapolar bioimpedance), respiratory muscle strength and lung function (spirometry) were evaluated. Results Children with obesity exhibited larger quantities of both lean and fat mass in comparison to those in the ideal weight range. No significant differences were found between groups regarding the respective reference values for respiratory muscle strength. Male children with obesity demonstrated significantly lower lung function values (forced expiratory volume in the first second % (FEV1%) and FEV1/forced vital capacity % (FVC%) : 93.76 ± 9.78 and 92.29 ± 3.8, respectively) in comparison to males in the ideal weight range (99.87 ± 9.72 and 96.31 ± 4.82, respectively). The regression models demonstrated that the spirometric variables were influenced by all body composition variables. Conclusion Children with obesity demonstrated a reduction in lung volume and capacity. Thus, anthropometric and body composition characteristics may be predictive factors for altered lung function. PMID:26767078

  18. Obesity parameters as predictors of early development of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Miria Suzana; Reuter, Cézane Priscila; Possuelo, Lia Gonçalves; Valim, Andréia Rosane de Moura; Renner, Jane Dagmar Pollo; Tornquist, Luciana; Tornquist, Debora; Gaya, Anelise Reis

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this study was to verify the association between different overweight and obesity parameters and the metabolic risk profile among school-age students. The randomized cross-sectional study included 1254 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 17, from a city in southern Brazil. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of fat (PF), measured at the triceps and based on subscapular skinfold thickness, were used as the parameters to evaluate overweight/obesity status. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density protein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides were also measured. The metabolic risk profile was calculated based on the sum of the z score of the metabolic variables adjusted by age. A three-model Poisson analysis was used to verify the association between BMI, WC and PF with metabolic risk profile. BMI showed the highest probability for developing metabolic risk compared with WC (overweight - PR: 1.63 and obesity - PR: 3.87) and PF (overweight - PR: 1.62 and obesity - PR: 2.92). In conclusion, BMI seems to be a better parameter of overweight/obesity than WC and PF in the assessment of metabolic risk among youths. PMID:26221803

  19. The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Tomlin, Dona; Naylor, PJ; McKay, Heather; Zorzi, Alexandra; Mitchell, Marc; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC) over the 20072008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.52.2 yrs). Methods We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC), aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run), physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry), healthy eating (dietary recall) and cardiovascular risk (CV risk). Results zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.461.07 to 0.571.04 (p<0.05). No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.415.8 to 30.920.0 laps; p<0.01). There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.101.18 to 1.451.24; p<0.05) but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.1 PMID:22456048

  20. Central Adiposity and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Penelope; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Joseph, Parveen Nedra; Dorn, Joan M.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the associations between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), we evaluated a related but less well-established association between waist circumference and brachial artery reactivity (BAR), a functional measurement of subclinical CVD, where lower levels indicate dysfunction. Regression models examined trends in mean BAR across waist circumference tertiles in police officers, a high-stress occupational group with increased risk for CVD. Mean BAR decreased across increasing waist tertiles among men, but not women, and this association was stronger among officers who consumed more alcohol. Larger waist circumference may be associated with lower BAR, providing an opportunity for intervention prior to disease development. PMID:24555157

  1. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those <18 years were determined using International Obesity Task Force BMI cut-offs, while adult cut-offs of BMI ≥ 25 and ≥ 30 kg/m2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile relates to changes in nutrition and diet, but variation in factors such as infectious disease burden and physical activity patterns, as well as social influences, need to be investigated. As obesity and adult short stature are risk factors for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes, this combination of early stunting and adolescent obesity may be an explosive combination. PMID:20338024

  2. Neuronal T-Cell Autoreactivity Is Amplified in Overweight Children With New-Onset Insulin-Requiring Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Buryk, Melissa A.; Dosch, H-Michael; Libman, Ingrid; Arena, Vincent C.; Huang, Yihe; Cheung, Roy K.; Trucco, Massimo; Pietropaolo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Disease-associated T-cell autoreactivities are seen in most type 1 diabetic patients and are thought to emerge before islet autoantibodies, but host factors that impact autoimmune elements remain uncertain. We assessed if adiposity and measures of insulin sensitivity impact T- and B-cell autoimmunity in children with insulin-requiring diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin-requiring children and adolescents diagnosed between January 2004 and June 2008 were studied (n = 261): age 9.7 ± 4 years, 92% white, and 60% male. T-cell responses to 10 diabetes-associated antigens, β-cell autoantibodies (GADA, IA-2A, IAA, and ICA), BMI z score (BMIz), and waist percentile were measured at onset and 3 months later. RESULTS All but one subject had either T- or B-cell autoimmunity. Diabetes-associated T-cell autoreactivities were found in 92% of subjects. Higher amplitude T-cell autoreactivities to neuronal diabetes-associated autoantigens were seen in those with the highest BMIz quintile, BMI ≥85th percentile (P < 0.05), and waist circumference ≥85th percentile (P < 0.05). There were no relationships between the number of T-cell reactivities or T-cell diversity with adiposity measures or autoantibody number or type. Patients with positive T-cell reactivities but without autoantibodies had the highest BMIz (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Our observations link obesity and diabetes-related autoimmunity, suggesting an amplification of neuronal T-cell autoimmunity associated with adiposity and/or insulin resistance, with obesity-related inflammation possibly enhancing islet autoimmunity. PMID:25414154

  3. DRD4 and SLC6A3 gene polymorphisms are associated with food intake and nutritional status in children in early stages of development.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Crisciele; Vitolo, Mrcia R; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Mattevi, Vanessa S; Genro, Jlia P; Almeida, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    Variants of dopamine system genes such as the DRD4 and the SLC6A3 genes may be involved in food intake regulation because the dopaminergic system influences food reward. We investigated an association of polymorphisms in the DRD4 (exon 3 VNTR) and SLC6A3 (3'UTR VNTR, rs2550948, rs2652511 and rs1048953) genes with food intake and nutritional status in children. This prospective cohort study recruited 359 children at birth. Dietary data and nutritional status were collected at 1 year, 3-4 years, and 7-8 years of age. The polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction based techniques. Food intake and nutritional status were compared among the different SNP genotypes. In the first year of life, DRD4.7R- children showed higher BMI Z-scores (P=.019) than the DRD4.7R+ cohort. At 3-4 years old, DRD4.7R- and SLC6A3.10R/10R children showed a higher intake of palatable foods (P=.024) and a higher waist circumference (P=.017). The rs1048953 SLC6A3 polymorphism was associated with average daily energy intake (P=.003) at 3-4 years and with a waist-to-height ratio of children at 7-8 years (P=.041). Carriers of high dopamine activity alleles of the VNTRs studied in DRD4 and SLC6A3 genes and carriers of T/T genotype of the variant rs1048953 SLC6A3 can present an increased risk for obesity related to overeating because high dopamine activity can increase the perceived incentive value of food reward. PMID:26350252

  4. Changes in weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index at birth of healthy term newborns in nine cities in China during the period of rapid social development 1985-2005.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-qin; Li, Hui

    2015-12-01

    The changes in the anthropometric parameters at birth of healthy singleton term newborns in nine cities in China were analyzed by means of the data collected in three large-scale cross-sectional physical growth surveys in 1985, 1995, and 2005 (n=6660, 7109 and 6144). Between 1985 and 2005, average increases in body weight (BW), body length (BL), ponderal index (PI), and head circumference (HC) of newborns were statistically significant: 107g, 0.2cm, 0.6kg/m(3) and 0.4cm, respectively. The relative increase in BW was more than that in BL (3.4% vs 0.4%) in the last two decades, leading to an increase in PI. The distribution of birth size shifted slightly to the right, and the proportion of macrosomia increased from 3.2% in 1985 to 3.4% in 1995 and to 4.3% in 2005. The increases in BW and PI and the increase in rate of macrosomia are concerns from public health perspectives. PMID:26277527

  5. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the mouth. Chewing parsley can have the same effect because it also increases saliva production. ; Sugar-free gum with xylitol can also help prevent cavities. Xylitol is a natural sweetener found in plants and fruits, and research shows it inhibits the ...

  6. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  7. IRS Scan-mapping of the Wasp-waist Nebula (IRAS 16253-2429). I. Derivation of Shock Conditions from H2 Emission and Discovery of 11.3 ?m PAH Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.; O'Linger, JoAnn

    2010-09-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a ~1' 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H2 lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 ?m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 ?m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 ?m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of ~1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H2 transitions is found to be 1.94 0.05 10-5 L sun in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 0.04 10-5 L sun in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T ~ 1000 K) H2 gas is 7.95 0.19 10-7 M sun in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 0.17 10-7 M sun in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10-3, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H2 ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H2 data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 104 cm-3<= n H <= 105 cm-3 are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n H <= 103 cm-3 for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s-1 <= vs <= 10 km s-1 for the redshifted gas and vs = 10 km s-1 for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 ?G, and just 3 ?G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

  8. Does bone resorption stimulate periosteal expansion? A cross-sectional analysis of ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), genetic markers of the RANKL pathway, and periosteal circumference as measured by pQCT.

    PubMed

    Kemp, John P; Sayers, Adrian; Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Deere, Kevin; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ring, Susan M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lehtimki, Terho; Eriksson, Joel; Khnen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievnen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma; Lyytikinen, Leo-Pekka; Smith, George Davey; Fraser, William D; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Ohlsson, Claes; Tobias, Jon H

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that bone resorption acts to increase bone strength through stimulation of periosteal expansion. Hence, we examined whether bone resorption, as reflected by serum ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), is positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC), in contrast to inverse associations with parameters related to bone remodeling such as cortical bone mineral density (BMDC ). CTX and mid-tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans were available in 1130 adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, time of sampling, tanner stage, lean mass, fat mass, and height. CTX was positively related to PC (?=0.19 [0.13, 0.24]) (coefficient=SD change per SD increase in CTX, 95% confidence interval)] but inversely associated with BMDC (?=-0.46 [-0.52,-0.40]) and cortical thickness [?=-0.11 (-0.18, -0.03)]. CTX was positively related to bone strength as reflected by the strength-strain index (SSI) (?=0.09 [0.03, 0.14]). To examine the causal nature of this relationship, we then analyzed whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within key osteoclast regulatory genes, known to reduce areal/cortical BMD, conversely increase PC. Fifteen such genetic variants within or proximal to genes encoding receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were identified by literature search. Six of the 15 alleles that were inversely related to BMD were positively related to CTX (p<0.05 cut-off) (n=2379). Subsequently, we performed a meta-analysis of associations between these SNPs and PC in ALSPAC (n=3382), Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) (n=938), and the Young Finns Study (YFS) (n=1558). Five of the 15 alleles that were inversely related to BMD were positively related to PC (p<0.05 cut-off). We conclude that despite having lower BMD, individuals with a genetic predisposition to higher bone resorption have greater bone size, suggesting that higher bone resorption is permissive for greater periosteal expansion. PMID:24014423

  9. IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H{sub 2} EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 {mu}m PAH ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.

    2010-09-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a {approx}1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H{sub 2} lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 {mu}m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of {approx}1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H{sub 2} transitions is found to be 1.94 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T {approx} 1000 K) H{sub 2} gas is 7.95 {+-} 0.19 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10{sup -3}, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H{sub 2} ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H{sub 2} data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3{<=}} n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub s} {<=} 10 km s{sup -1} for the redshifted gas and v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 {mu}G, and just 3 {mu}G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

  10. Effects of parental origins and length of residency on adiposity measures and nutrition in urban middle school students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in U.S. has been rising at an alarming rate, particularly among Hispanic, African, and Asian minority groups. This trend is due in part to excessive calorie consumption and sedentary lifestyle. We sought to investigate whether parental origins influence eating behaviors in healthy urban middle school students. Methods A multiethnic/racial population of students (N = 182) enrolled in the ROAD (Reduce Obesity and Diabetes) Study, a school-based trial to assess clinical, behavioral, and biochemical risk factors for adiposity and its co-morbidities completed questionnaires regarding parental origins, length of US residency, and food behaviors and preferences. The primary behavioral questionnaire outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, attitude, intention and behavior, which were then related to anthropometric measures of waist circumference, BMI z-scores, and percent body fat. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the joint effects of number of parents born in the U.S. and ethnicity on food preference and knowledge score. The Tukey-Kramer method was used to compute pairwise comparisons to determine where differences lie. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the joint effects of number of parents born in the US and student ethnicity, along with the interaction term, on each adiposity measure outcome. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between maternal and paternal length of residency in the US with measures of adiposity, food preference and food knowledge. Results African Americans had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Neither ethnicity/race nor parental origins had an impact on nutrition behavior. Mothers’ length of US residency positively correlated with students’ nutrition knowledge, but not food attitude, intention or behavior. Conclusions Adiposity measures in children differ according to ethnicity and race. In contrast, food behaviors in this middle school sample were not influenced by parental origins. Longer maternal US residency benefited offspring in terms of nutrition knowledge only. We suggest that interventions to prevent obesity begin in early childhood. PMID:24134822

  11. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

  12. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Andersen, Rikke; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Sjdin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Objective To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. Results 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P<0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, low physical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all P<0.005); however, after mutual adjustments for movement behaviors, physical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P<0.03). Further adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (all P>0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P?=?0.005). Conclusion The present findings indicate that physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration should all be targeted to improve cardio-metabolic risk markers in childhood; this is possibly mediated by adiposity. PMID:25102157

  13. Association of Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Brazil: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Villamor, Eduardo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Background Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. Methods 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children <60 months who participated in the 2006 Brazilian Demographic Health Survey. We compared the distributions of two nutritional indexes of children, height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for age (BAZ) z-scores, by categories of maternal height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Adjusted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from linear regression, taking into account the complex survey design. We also examined the associations of maternal anthropometry with the prevalence of child stunting (HAZ<−2) and overweight/obesity (BAZ>2). Results HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height was<145 cm had 1.2 lower HAZ than children whose mothers were ≥160 cm tall (p-trend<0.0001). After further adjustment for maternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WC<80 cm (p-trend<0.01). Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI for stunting by the categories of maternal height (<145, 145–149, 150–154, 155–159 and ≥160 cm) were, respectively, 2.95 (1.51;5.77), 2.29 (1.33;3.93), 1.09 (0.63;1.87), and 0.89 (0.45;1.77), (p-trend = 0.001). BAZ was positively associated with maternal BMI and WC. Conclusion We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ. PMID:24475297

  14. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D; Foster, Meredith C; Greenawalt, Danielle M; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for VAT in women. More refined phenotypes for body composition and fat distribution can detect new loci not previously uncovered in large-scale GWAS of anthropometric traits. PMID:22589738

  15. Genome-Wide Association for Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Reveals a Novel Locus for Visceral Fat in Women

    PubMed Central

    White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V.; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D.; Foster, Meredith C.; Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B.; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ?2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p?=?3.110E-09), previously identified in association with waisthip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p?=?5.910E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p?=?1.610-08), but not men (p?=?0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p?=?0.006) but not men (p?=?0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p?=?0.04 [women], p?=?0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waisthip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for VAT in women. More refined phenotypes for body composition and fat distribution can detect new loci not previously uncovered in large-scale GWAS of anthropometric traits. PMID:22589738

  16. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    PubMed

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Abderrahmane, Abderraouf Ben; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents. PMID:26701117

  17. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p < 0.01, respectively). At follow-up, sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = -0.08, p < 0.05). There was a significant positive relationship between consumption of sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results suggest that strategies for reducing sugar intake need to target particular food groups. Consequently, this information could be of value to obesity- and metabolic disease-prevention strategies. PMID:26729156

  18. Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

  19. Association of Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants with Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits in Early Childhood: The Rhea Mother–Child Cohort (Crete, Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Vaggelis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Karachaliou, Marianna; Fthenou, Eleni; Venihaki, Maria; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Oken, Emily; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase risk of obesity later in life. Objective We examined the relation of in utero POPs exposure to offspring obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors at 4 years of age in the Rhea mother–child cohort in Crete, Greece (n = 689). Methods We determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in first-trimester maternal serum. We measured child weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, blood pressure (BP), blood levels of lipids, C-reactive protein, and adipokines at 4 years of age. Childhood obesity was defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for body mass index (BMI) as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results On multivariable regression analyses, a 10-fold increase in HCB was associated with a higher BMI z-score (adjusted β = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.86), obesity [relative risk (RR) = 8.14; 95% CI: 1.85, 35.81], abdominal obesity (RR = 3.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 11.28), greater sum of skinfold thickness (β = 7.71 mm; 95% CI: 2.04, 13.39), and higher systolic BP (β = 4.34 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.63, 8.05) at 4 years of age. Prenatal DDE exposure was associated with higher BMI z-score (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.5), abdominal obesity (RR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.70, 8.30), and higher diastolic BP (β = 1.79 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.13, 3.46). PCBs were not significantly associated with offspring obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to DDE and HCB was associated with excess adiposity and higher blood pressure levels in early childhood. Citation Vafeiadi M, Georgiou V, Chalkiadaki G, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Karachaliou M, Fthenou E, Venihaki M, Sarri K, Vassilaki M, Kyrtopoulos SA, Oken E, Kogevinas M, Chatzi L. 2015. Association of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants with obesity and cardiometabolic traits in early childhood: the Rhea mother–child cohort (Crete, Greece). Environ Health Perspect 123:1015–1021; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409062 PMID:25910281

  20. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = −0.10, p = 0.02 and β = −0.78, p < 0.01, respectively). At follow-up, sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = −0.08, p < 0.05). There was a significant positive relationship between consumption of sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results suggest that strategies for reducing sugar intake need to target particular food groups. Consequently, this information could be of value to obesity- and metabolic disease-prevention strategies. PMID:26729156

  1. Enhancing of Women Functional Status with Metabolic Syndrome by Cardioprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Alsamir Tibana, Ramires; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; Frade de Sousa, Nuno Manuel; de Souza, Vinicius Carolino; Durigan, Joo; Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; de Toledo Nbrega, Otvio; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Navalta, James Wilfred; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Prestes, Jonato

    2014-01-01

    These data describe the effects of combined aerobic plus resistance training (CT) with regards to risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), quality of life, functional capacity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in women with MetS. In this context, thirteen women (35.46.2 yr) completed 10 weeks of CT consisting of three weekly sessions of ?60 min aerobic training (treadmill at 6570% of reserve heart rate, 30 min) and resistance training (3 sets of 812 repetitions maximum for main muscle groups). Dependent variables were maximum chest press strength; isometric hand-grip strength; 30 s chair stand test; six minute walk test; body mass; body mass index; body adiposity index; waist circumference; systolic (SBP), diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP); blood glucose; HDL-C; triglycerides; interleukins (IL) 6, 10 and 12, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and serum nitric oxide metabolite (NOx); quality of life (SF-36) and Z-Score of MetS. There was an improvement in muscle strength on chest press (p?=?0.009), isometric hand-grip strength (p?=?0.03) and 30 s chair stand (p?=?0.007). There was a decrease in SBP (p?=?0.049), MBP (p?=?0.041), Z-Score of MetS (p?=?0.046), OPG (0.420.26 to 0.380.19 ng/mL, p<0.05) and NOx (13.32.3 mol/L to 9.12.3 mol/L; p<0.0005). IL-10 displayed an increase (13.67.5 to 17.212.3 pg/mL, p<0.05) after 10 weeks of training. Combined training also increased the perception of physical capacity (p?=?0.011). This study endorses CT as an efficient tool to improve blood pressure, functional capacity, quality of life and reduce blood markers of inflammation, which has a clinical relevance in the prevention and treatment of MetS. Trial Registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec) - RBR-6gdyvz - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/?q=RBR-6gdyvz PMID:25379699

  2. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Whyatt, R; Hoepner, L; Oberfield, S; Dominguez-Bello, MG; Widen, EM; Hassoun, A; Perera, F; Rundle, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cesarean section (CS) and antibiotic use during pregnancy may alter normal maternal-offspring microbiota exchange, thereby contributing to aberrant microbial colonization of the infant gut and increased susceptibility to obesity later in life. We hypothesized that (i) maternal use of antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) CS are independently associated with higher risk of childhood obesity in the offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS Of the 727 mothers enrolled in the Northern Manhattan Mothers and Children Study, we analyzed the 436 mother–child dyads followed until 7 years of age with complete data. We ascertained prenatal antibiotic use by a questionnaire administered late in the third trimester, and delivery mode by medical record. We derived age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores using the CDC SAS Macro, and defined obesity as BMI z ≥ 95th percentile. We used binary regression with robust variance and linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-gravid BMI, maternal receipt of public assistance, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding in the first year and gestational antibiotics or delivery mode. RESULTS Compared with children not exposed to antibiotics during the second or third trimester, those exposed had 84% (33–154%) higher risk of obesity, after multivariable adjustment. Second or third trimester antibiotic exposure was also positively associated with BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat (all P<0.05). Independent of prenatal antibiotic usage, CS was associated with 46% (8–98%) higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Associations were similar for elective and non-elective CS. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort, CS and exposure to antibiotics in the second or third trimester were associated with higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Future studies that address the limitations of our study are warranted to determine if prenatal antibiotic use is associated with offspring obesity. Research is also needed to determine if alterations in neonatal gut microbiota underlie the observed associations. PMID:25298276

  3. Energy Balance and Obesity

    Cancer.gov

    Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

  4. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical conditions: Traits and Medical Conditions Elevated waist circumference Elevated levels of triglycerides Low levels of HDL ( ... of a TIA are sudden weakness, loss of balance, numbness, confusion, blindness in one or both eyes, ...

  5. Healthy Weight -- It's Not a Diet, It's a Lifestyle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find out if you are at a healthy weight; BMI and waist circumference. More > Finding a Balance How to balance the calories you consume with the calories your body uses; also includes a video. More > HEALTHY EATING ...

  6. Deficits in Bone Density and Structure in Children and Young Adults Following Fontan Palliation

    PubMed Central

    Avitabile, Catherine M.; Goldberg, David J.; Zemel, Babette S.; Brodsky, Jill L.; Dodds, Kathryn; Hayden-Rush, Christina; Whitehead, Kevin K.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Rychik, Jack; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survival of patients with congenital heart disease has improved such that there are now more adults than children living with these conditions. Complex single ventricle congenital heart disease requiring Fontan palliation is associated with multiple risk factors for impaired bone accrual. Bone density and structure have not been characterized in these patients. Methods Tibia peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical dimensions, and calf muscle area in 43 Fontan participants (533 years old), a median of 10 years following Fontan palliation. pQCT outcomes were converted to sex- and race-specific Z-scores relative to age based on >700 healthy reference participants. Cortical dimensions and muscle area were further adjusted for tibia length. Results Height Z-scores were lower in Fontan compared to reference participants (meanSD: ?0.291.00 vs. 0.250.93, p<0.001); BMI Z-scores were similar (0.160.88 vs. 0.351.02, p=0.1). Fontan participants had lower trabecular vBMD Z-scores (?0.850.96 vs. 0.011.02, p<0.001); cortical vBMD Z-scores were similar (?0.170.98 vs. 0.001.00, p=0.27). Cortical dimensions were reduced with lower cortical area (?0.590.84 vs. 0.000.88, p<0.001) and periosteal circumference (?0.500.82 vs. 0.000.84, p<0.001) Z-scores, compared to reference participants. Calf muscle area Z-scores were lower in the Fontan participants (?0.450.98 vs. 0.000.96, p=0.003) and lower calf muscle area Z-scores were associated with smaller periosteal circumference Z-scores (R=0.62, p<0.001). Musculoskeletal deficits were not associated with age, Fontan characteristics, parathyroid hormone or vitamin D levels. Conclusions Children and young adults demonstrate low trabecular vBMD, cortical structure and muscle area following Fontan. Muscle deficits were associated with smaller periosteal dimensions. Future studies should determine the fracture implications of these deficits and identify interventions to promote musculoskeletal development. PMID:25882907

  7. A shared-care model of obesity treatment for 310?year old children: Protocol for the HopSCOTCH randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite record rates of childhood obesity, effective evidence-based treatments remain elusive. While prolonged tertiary specialist clinical input has some individual impact, these services are only available to very few children. Effective treatments that are easily accessible for all overweight and obese children in the community are urgently required. General practitioners are logical care providers for obese children but high-quality trials indicate that, even with substantial training and support, general practitioner care alone will not suffice to improve body mass index (BMI) trajectories. HopSCOTCH (the Shared Care Obesity Trial in Children) will determine whether a shared-care model, in which paediatric obesity specialists co-manage obesity with general practitioners, can improve adiposity in obese children. Design Randomised controlled trial nested within a cross-sectional BMI survey conducted across 22 general practices in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Children aged 310?years identified as obese by Centers for Disease Control criteria at their family practice, and randomised to either a shared-care intervention or usual care. Intervention A single multidisciplinary obesity clinic appointment at Melbournes Royal Childrens Hospital, followed by regular appointments with the childs general practitioner over a 12?month period. To support both specialist and general practice consultations, web-based shared-care software was developed to record assessment, set goals and actions, provide information to caregivers, facilitate communication between the two professional groups, and jointly track progress. Outcomes Primary - change in BMI z-score. Secondary - change in percentage fat and waist circumference; health status, body satisfaction and global self-worth. Discussion This will be the first efficacy trial of a general-practitioner based, shared-care model of childhood obesity management. If effective, it could greatly improve access to care for obese children. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000055303 PMID:22455381

  8. The Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids): Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Janicke, David M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Perri, Michael G.; Bobroff, Linda B.; Mathews, Anne E.; Brumback, Babette A.; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Silverstein, Janet H.

    2010-01-01

    The Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids) is a three-arm, randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of two behavioral weight management interventions in an important and at-risk population, overweight and obese children and their parents in rural counties. Participants will include 240 parent-child dyads from nine rural counties in north central Florida. Dyads will be randomized to one of three conditions: (a) a Family-Based Behavioral Group Intervention, (b) a Parent-Only Behavioral Group Intervention, and (c) an Education Control Condition. Child and parent participants will be assessed at baseline (month 0), post-treatment (month 12) and follow-up (month 24). Assessment and intervention sessions will be held at Cooperative Extension Service offices within each participating county. The primary outcome measure is change in child BMI z-score. Additional key outcome measures include child body fat, waist circumference, dietary intake, physical activity, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, physical fitness, quality of life, and program and participants costs. Parent BMI, dietary intake, and physical activity also will be assessed. Randomized controlled trials testing the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions in real-world community-based settings are extremely valuable, but much too rare. The E-FLIP for Kids trial will evaluate the impact of a community based intervention delivered to families in rural settings utilizing the existing Cooperative Extension Service network on long-term child behavior, weight status and biological markers of diabetes and early cardiovascular disease. If successful, a Parent-Only intervention program may provide a cost-effective and practical intervention for families in underserved rural communities. PMID:20708715

  9. Retinol binding protein 4 is associated with adiposity-related co-morbidity risk factors in children

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Rushika; Espinal, Yomery; Fennoy, Ilene; Accacha, Siham; Boucher-Berry, Claudia; Carey, Dennis E.; Close, Sharron; DeSantis, Deborah; Gupta, Rishi; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Iazzetti, Loretta; Jacques, Fabean J.; Jean, Amy M.; Michel, Lesly; Pavlovich, Katherine; Rapaport, Robert; Rosenfeld, Warren; Shamoon, Elisabeth; Shelov, Steven; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Ten, Svetlana; Rosenbaum, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective In adults, elevated levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) have been associated with biochemical markers of adiposity-related co-morbidities including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. This study examined the relationship between RBP4 and risk factors for co-morbidities of adiposity in a population of ethnically diverse children in early- to mid-adolescence in the public school system of New York City. Materials/methods We analyzed anthropometric (body mass index, % body fat, waist circumference), metabolic (lipids, glucose), and inflammatory (TNF-α, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, adiponectin) markers for adiposity-related co-morbidities and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 106 school children (65 males, 41 females) 11–15 years of age (mean ± SD = 13.0 ± 0.1 years) who were enrolled in the Reduce Obesity and Diabetes (ROAD) project. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. Insulin secretory capacity was measured as acute insulin response and glucose disposal index. Results Serum RBP4 was significantly correlated directly with ALT, triglycerides, and triglyceride z-score, and inversely correlated with adiponectin. Correlations with ALT and adiponectin remained significant when corrected for % body fat, age, and gender. There were significant ethnic differences in the relationship of RBP4 to ALT, glucose disposal index and adiponectin. Conclusions In early- to mid-adolescents, circulating concentrations of RBP4 are correlated with multiple risk factors for adiposity-related co-morbidities. The observation that many associations persisted when corrected for % body fat, suggests that RBP4 can be viewed as an independent marker of adiposity-related co-morbidity risk in children. PMID:22308842

  10. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  11. Xanthine Oxidase and Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Harrison K.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Metzig, Andrea M.; Steinberger, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pathological mechanisms of how childhood obesity leads to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not fully characterized. Oxidative-stress–related enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase (XO), have been linked to obesity, endothelial dysfunction, and CVD in adults, but little is known about this pathway in children. The aim of this study was to determine whether differential XO activity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, CVD risk factors, or cytokine levels. Methods: Fasting plasma samples were obtained from obese (BMI ≥95th percentile; n=20) and age- and gender-matched healthy weight (BMI >5th and <85th percentile; n=22) children and adolescents (mean age, 12±3 years) to quantify XO activity. In addition, fasting cholesterol, insulin, glucose, blood pressure, endothelial function, and cytokine levels were assessed. Results: We observed a 3.8-fold increase in plasma XO activity in obese, compared to healthy weight, children (118±21 vs. 31±9 nU/mg of protein; p<0.001). Plasma XO activity was correlated with BMI z-score (r=0.41), waist circumference (r=0.41), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.32), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (r=0.57), adiponectin (r=−0.53), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (r=−0.59). Conclusion: XO activity is highly elevated in obese children and correlates with CVD risk factors, suggesting that XO may play a role in increasing cardiovascular risk early in life in the context of obesity. PMID:24568669

  12. Weight Status Measures Collected in the Healthy Communities Study: Protocols and Analyses.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Christopher J; McIver, Kerry L; Sagatov, Robyn D F; Arteaga, S Sonia; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is one of the largest studies to assess the relationship between characteristics of community programs and policies to prevent childhood obesity and obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol that was developed for collecting the anthropometric data for the study and the procedures for analyzing the data. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyses will be completed by mid-2016. During in-home visits, Healthy Communities Study staff collected height, weight, and waist circumference measurements from child participants and height and weight measurements from adult participants. The protocol for obtaining these measurements was adapted from the protocol used by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with modifications to accommodate assessments conducted in homes rather than in a Mobile Examination Center. In addition to anthropometric data from in-home visits, the Healthy Communities Study collected retrospective height and weight measurements from the medical records of child participants. These data were used to calculate trajectories of BMI and BMI z-scores. The study implemented procedures for ensuring the accuracy of the in-home measurements and abstracted medical data. These procedures included automatically checking the ranges on entered data, reviewing data for end-digit patterns, and abstracting selected medical records using two independent abstractors to assess agreement. The collection of longitudinal height and weight measures will allow researchers to address several pressing questions related to how characteristics of community programs and policies are associated with obesity-related outcomes among children. PMID:26384935

  13. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.31.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  14. Anthropometrics to Identify Overweight Children at Most Risk for the Development of Cardiometabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Labyak, Corinne A.; Janicke, David M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Colee, James; Mathews, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a novel anthropometric that correlates more strongly with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cardiometabolic disease risk in adults compared with body mass index (BMI). However, little research has evaluated this measurement in children. Objective To evaluate SAD as a measure of cardiometabolic risk compared with other anthropometrics in overweight/obese children. Methods This study was a cross-sectional subset analysis of 8- to 12-year-old overweight/ obese children. SAD was compared to BMI, waist circumference (WC), BMI z-score, and percent body fat to determine which measurement was most closely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. A total cardiometabolic risk score comprising all biochemical markers and blood pressure was also compared to these same anthropometrics. Results Overweight/obese children (n = 145, mean age 10 1.4 years, mean BMI percentile 97.9 0.02) were included in the analysis. SAD correlated with the greatest number of biochemical markers/blood pressure values including triglycerides (r = .18, P = .03), HgbA1c (r = .21, P = .01), and systolic blood pressure (r = .38, P < .0001). SAD was more strongly correlated to total risk score (r = .25, P = .002) than WC (r = .22, P = .006), BMI (r = .17, P = .04), BMI-z (r = .18, P = .03), and percent body fat (r = .18, P = .03). Conclusion This is the first study to evaluate SAD in overweight/obese American children as a marker of cardiometabolic disease risk. The results suggest a slightly stronger correlation between SAD and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese children; however, all correlations were weak. As this was a pilot study, additional research is needed prior to recommending the use of this measurement in clinical practice. PMID:25485038

  15. Indirect measure of visceral adiposity ‘A Body Shape Index’ (ABSI) is associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bouchi, Ryotaro; Asakawa, Masahiro; Ohara, Norihiko; Nakano, Yujiro; Takeuchi, Takato; Murakami, Masanori; Sasahara, Yuriko; Numasawa, Mitsuyuki; Minami, Isao; Izumiyama, Hajime; Hashimoto, Koshi; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Among indirect measures of visceral adiposity, A Body Shape Index (ABSI), which is defined as waist circumference (WC)/(body mass index (BMI)2/3×height1/2), is unique in that ABSI is positively correlated with visceral adiposity and is supposed to be independent of BMI. ABSI has been also shown to be linearly and positively associated with visceral fat mass and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. It is, however, uncertain whether ABSI could be associated with arterial stiffness in patients with diabetes. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 607 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 64±12 years; 40.0% female). Visceral fat area (VFA, cm2) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA, cm2) were assessed with a dual-impedance analyzer. In order to estimate the risk for CVD, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, cm) was used for the assessment of arterial stiffness. Results ABSI was significantly and positively correlated with VFA (r=0.138, p=0.001) and negatively associated with BMI (r=−0.085, p=0.037). The correlation of z-score for ABSI with VFA remained significant (r=0.170, p<0.001) but not with BMI (r=0.009, p=0.820). ABSI (standardized β 0.095, p=0.043) but not WC (standardized β −0.060, p=0.200) was significantly and positively correlated with baPWV in the multivariate model including BMI as a covariate. Conclusions ABSI appears to reflect visceral adiposity independently of BMI and to be a substantial marker of arterial stiffening in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Metabolic syndrome, adipokines and ghrelin in overweight and obese schoolchildren: results of a 1-year lifestyle intervention programme.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Carla; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Albuquerque, Isabel; Simes-Pereira, Carlos; Vaz-de-Almeida, Maria Daniel; Correia, Flora

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a lifestyle intervention programme (nutrition and exercise counselling) on metabolic syndrome (MS) components, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin) and ghrelin levels in overweight children. A total of 61 overweight children aged 7-9 years (? 85th body mass index (BMI) percentile; 27 boys/34 girls) were randomly assigned and completed a 1-year individual (IT) or group-based treatment (GT). Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, at 6 months and at 1 year. Twenty-two normal weight children (<85th BMI percentile; 7-9 years old; 13 boys/nine girls) were also evaluated at baseline. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Overweight children presented significantly higher blood pressure, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin, C-reactive protein and homocysteine levels, while apolipoprotein A-I was significantly lower. At baseline, MS was present in ten overweight children, of which only five maintained it at 1 year. Leptin and ghrelin levels were associated with IR and MS components. MS was predicted by apolipoprotein A-I, insulin and pre-puberty. The lifestyle intervention led to a significant improvement in standard deviation score of BMI, waist circumference/height ratio and lipid profile. Changes in insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin and adiponectin were not significant. Ghrelin behaved differently between IT and GT. The GT intervention seems to be more successful, with a decrease in BMI Z-score and an improvement of metabolic parameters. In conclusion, overweight children have multiple risk factors associated with MS. A lifestyle intervention programme seems to be an effective mean for reducing obesity and MS components and improving adipokines concentrations. PMID:20957391

  17. Is the association of continuous metabolic syndrome risk score with body mass index independent of physical activity? The CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; shafiee, Gita; Kelishadi, Roya; Babaki, Amir Eslami Shahr; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Arefirad, Tahereh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Asayesh, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although the association of body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is well documented, there is little knowledge on the independent and joint associations of BMI and physical activity with MetS risk based on a continuous scoring system. This study was designed to explore the effect of physical activity on interactions between excess body weight and continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) in a nationwide survey of Iranian children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data on 5,625 school students between 10 and 18 years of age were analyzed. BMI percentiles, screen time activity (STA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) levels, and components of cMetS risk score were extracted. Standardized residuals (z-scores) were calculated for MetS components. Linear regression models were used to study the interactions between different combinations of cMetS, LTPA, and BMI percentiles. RESULTS Overall, 984 (17.5%) subjects were underweight, whereas 501 (8.9%) and 451 (8%) participants were overweight and obese, respectively. All standardized values for cMetS components, except fasting blood glucose level, were directly correlated with BMI percentiles in all models (P-trend < 0.001); these associations were independent of STA and LTPA levels. Linear associations were also observed among LTPA and standardized residuals for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, and waist circumference (P-trend < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that BMI percentiles are associated with cMetS risk score independent of LTPA and STA levels. PMID:26244080

  18. Screening for Dysglycemia in Overweight Youth Presenting for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Katherine M.; Xu, Liqin; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Yusuf, Zaheera; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the performance of current screening recommendations for detecting dysglycemia in children and adolescents with obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study, an oral glucose tolerance test and demographic (age, sex, family history of diabetes, and ethnicity), clinical (BMI z score, waist circumference, and pubertal stage), and laboratory variables used in current pediatric screening criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus were measured in 259 overweight or obese youth aged 517 years. Glycemic status was based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) thresholds. The performance (sensitivity and specificity) of current screening criteria and newly developed models to identify isolated IGT were compared. RESULTS Dysglycemia was present in 20.8% of the cohort. Of the 54 participants with dysglycemia, 68% had a normal fasting glucose and were identified with the 2-h glucose test. Current ADA criteria had low sensitivity (41.7% [95% CI 25.657.8]) and moderate specificity (69.5% [63.575.6]) to identify IGT. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the addition of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or FPG did not improve the ROC area under the curve (AUC) (HbA1c: 0.64 vs. 0.63; P = 0.54; HbA1c + FPG: 0.66; P = 0.42), but adding triglyceride level did (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.63; P = 0.03). A simple model with fasting triglyceride level >1.17 mmol/L improved AUC compared with ADA screening criteria (0.68 vs. 0.57; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of IGT is high among obese children and youth. Current screening criteria have low sensitivity to detect isolated IGT. Although adding nonfasting laboratory values to history and physical measures does not improve diagnostic accuracy, adding fasting lipid profile improves predictive value. PMID:22271926

  19. A cross-sectional study of food group intake and C-reactive protein among children

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, M Mustafa; Singer, Martha R; Moore, Lynn L

    2009-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of sub-clinical inflammation, is a predictor of future cardiovascular diseases. Dietary habits affect serum CRP level however the relationship between consumption of individual food groups and CRP levels has not been established. Methods This study was designed to explore the relation between food intake and CRP levels in children using data from the cross-sectional 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. CRP level was classified as low, average or high (<1.0, 1.0-3.0, and >3.0 mg/L, respectively). Adjusted mean daily intakes of dairy, grains, fruit, vegetables, and meat/other proteins in each CRP category were estimated using multivariate analysis of covariance modeling. The effect modification by age (5-11 years vs. 12-16 years), gender and race/ethnicity was explored. We examined whether total or central body fat (using BMI Z-scores and waist circumference) explained any of the observed associations. Results A total of 4,010 children and adolescents had complete information on diet, CRP and all covariates of interest and were included in the analyses. Individuals with high CRP levels had significantly lower intake of grains (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.0002). Selected individual food subgroups (e.g., fluid milk and "citrus, melon and berry" consumption) were more strongly associated with lower CRP than were their respective major food groups. Consumption of meat/other proteins did not influence CRP levels. The addition of body composition variables to the models attenuated the results for all food groups to varying degrees. Conclusion Children and adolescents with higher CRP levels had significantly lower intakes of grains and vegetables. The associations between selected childhood dietary patterns and CRP levels seem largely mediated through effects on body composition. PMID:19822004

  20. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene association with overweight and asthma in children and adolescents and its relationship with physical fitness

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Neiva; Lazarotto, Leilane; Milano, Gerusa Eisfeld; Titski, Ana Claudia Kapp; Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; de Mattos, Fernanda; de Andrade, Fabiana Antunes; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) with the occurrence of asthma and overweight and the gene's influence on anthropometric, clinic, biochemical and physical fitness variables in children and adolescents. Methods: Subjects were evaluated for allelic frequencies of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist circumference (WC), pubertal stage, resting heart rate (HRres), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), Homeostasis Metabolic Assessment (HOMA2-IR), Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The participants were divided in four groups: overweight asthmatic (n=39), overweight non-asthmatic (n=115), normal weight asthmatic (n=12), and normal weight non-asthmatic (n=40). Results: Regarding the Gln27Glu polymorphism, higher total cholesterol was observed in usual genotype individuals than in genetic variant carriers (p=0.04). No evidence was found that the evaluated polymorphisms are influencing the physical fitness. The Arg16 allele was found more frequently among the normal weight asthmatic group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.02), and the Glu27 allele was more frequently found in the overweight asthmatics group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.03). Conclusions: The association of Arg16 allele with the occurrence of asthma and of the Glu27 allele with overweight asthmatic adolescents evidenced the contribution of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene to the development of obesity and asthma. PMID:26409918

  1. Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    de Assuno, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilrio da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antnio Carlos Moreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

  2. School environment, socioeconomic status and weight of children in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Slabber-Stretch, Marthinette; Walsh, Corinna M.; Kruger, Salome H.; Nel, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    Background The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention programmes to be planned. Aim To determine the nutritional status of 13–15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors. Setting Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006). Methods This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415) completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children's weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease. Results Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0%) were wasted than girls (10%) and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively). Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4%) and medium (30.4%) socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1%). Conclusion A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status. PMID:26245592

  3. Morphometric variables related to metabolic profile in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcia C R; Higgins, Paul B; Mattern, Vicki L; De La Garza, Melissa A; Brasky, Kathleen M; Voruganti, V Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of waist circumference and body weight with circulating markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and hepatic function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After a 12-h fast, blood was collected from 39 adult captive chimpanzees for measurement of serum glucose, BUN, creatinine, albumin, cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total and direct bilirubin, triglyceride, and insulin, and waist circumference and body weight were measured. Waist circumference was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostatic model assessment method, and albumin in female chimpanzees and with triglyceride in female and male chimpanzees. Body weight was correlated significantly with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in female chimpanzees and triglyceride in male chimpanzees. Male chimpanzees were heavier and had lower diastolic blood pressure, greater creatinine, albumin, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin values than did female chimpanzees. The relationships between waist circumference and blood pressure and triglyceride are consistent with those reported in humans and other primate species. In conclusion, our study is the first work to demonstrate a relationship between waist circumference and metabolic risk factors in chimpanzees. Results demonstrated that waist circumference was associated with more metabolic risk factors than was body weight, particularly in female chimpanzees. PMID:22330355

  4. Morphometric Variables Related to Metabolic Profile in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marcia CR; Higgins, Paul B; Mattern, Vicki L; Garza, Melissa A De La; Brasky, Kathleen M; Voruganti, V Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of waist circumference and body weight with circulating markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and hepatic function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After a 12-h fast, blood was collected from 39 adult captive chimpanzees for measurement of serum glucose, BUN, creatinine, albumin, cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total and direct bilirubin, triglyceride, and insulin, and waist circumference and body weight were measured. Waist circumference was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostatic model assessment method, and albumin in female chimpanzees and with triglyceride in female and male chimpanzees. Body weight was correlated significantly with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in female chimpanzees and triglyceride in male chimpanzees. Male chimpanzees were heavier and had lower diastolic blood pressure, greater creatinine, albumin, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin values than did female chimpanzees. The relationships between waist circumference and blood pressure and triglyceride are consistent with those reported in humans and other primate species. In conclusion, our study is the first work to demonstrate a relationship between waist circumference and metabolic risk factors in chimpanzees. Results demonstrated that waist circumference was associated with more metabolic risk factors than was body weight, particularly in female chimpanzees. PMID:22330355

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  6. Body mass index, recreational physical activity and female urinary incontinence in Gansu, China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jie; Lv, Ling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Long, Lixia; Zhu, Daling; Xu, Ruifeng; Deng, Xiaohui; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Lan; Kim, Christopher; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2011-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the influence of recreational physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference on the risk of specific types of urinary incontinence. Study design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Gansu, China among 2603 women aged 20 years or older. Results The study found that BMI was positively associated with urinary incontinence (P for trend = 0.008) and the association was mainly observed for stress urinary incontinence (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9 for BMI = 24.027.9 kg/m2; OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.6 for BMI ? 28.0 kg/m2; P for trend = 0.0005). A positive association between stress incontinence (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.5) and waist circumference was observed for women who had waist circumference between 70 cm and 75 cm compared to waist circumference less than 70 cm. Recreational physical activity was inversely associated with overall and mixed urinary incontinence (P for trend <0.0001 for both). A significant interaction between physical activity and waist circumference was found for overall (P = 0.0007) and stress incontinence (P = 0.001). Conclusions The findings that physical activity inversely associated with urinary incontinence and its interaction with waist circumference warrant further investigation, particularly in prospective studies. PMID:21821342

  7. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to cardiometabolic risk in children: cross-sectional findings from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk among children. However, little is known about the independent and combined associations of PA and SB as well as different types of these behaviours with cardiometabolic risk in children. We therefore investigated these relationships among children. Methods The subjects were a population sample of 468 children 68 years of age. PA and SB were assessed by a questionnaire administered by parents and validated by a monitor combining heart rate and accelerometry measurements. We assessed body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma lipids and lipoproteins and blood pressure and calculated a cardiometabolic risk score using population-specific Z-scores and a formula waist circumference?+?insulin?+?glucose?+?triglycerides - HDL cholesterol?+?mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We analysed data using multivariate linear regression models. Results Total PA was inversely associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (??=?-0.135, p?=?0.004), body fat percentage (??=?-0.155, p?waist circumference (??=?0.097, p?=?0.033) and systolic blood pressure (??=?0.096, p?=?0.039). Resting was directly associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (??=?0.092, p?=?0.049), triglycerides (??=?0.131, p?=?0.005), VLDL triglycerides (??=?0.134, p?=?0.009), VLDL cholesterol (??=?0.147, p?=?0.004) and LDL cholesterol (??=?0.105, p?=?0.023). Other types of PA and SB had less consistent associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions The results of our study emphasise increasing total and unstructured PA and decreasing watching TV and videos and other sedentary behaviours to reduce cardiometabolic risk among children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01803776. PMID:24766669

  8. Assessment of the growth of children and physical status of adults in two Aboriginal communities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Henneberg, M; Schilitz, A; Lambert, K M

    2001-01-01

    Growth of children and physical status of adults in two Aboriginal communities, Gerard and Raukkan, South Australia, were assessed. Height, weight, biepicondylar breadth of humerus, the triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and arm circumferences were measured on 110 children and 77 adults annually between 1996 and 2000. Data were transformed to z scores, using American reference data. In all groups height z scores are negative. In all but Raukkan boys, the z scores are significantly smaller than the reference. Body weight z scores lie above the reference, with the only exceptions being Gerard children. Still, in all cases BMI lies above the reference, being significantly greater than the reference, except in Gerard girls. z scores for the triceps skinfold are not consistently positive, but those for the subscapular skinfold are positive in all groups, indicating centralized fat accumulation. In both boys and girls, Raukkan men and Gerard women, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus is below the reference. Increased BMI and trunk fatness suggest that members of these communities are not only receiving adequate nutrition, but that in many cases there is also a caloric surplus, sometimes leading to obesity. Inadequate skeletal growth indicated by short stature and small biepicondylar breadths, on the other hand, suggests that the environment is less than optimal for growth. Factors such as disease load, psychosocial pressures, or specific nutrient shortages may be involved. PMID:11505468

  9. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to d...

  10. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  11. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by

  12. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies of SAE Recommended Practice.... Hip breadth (sitting) 325 mm 419 mm. Hip circumference (sitting) 925 mm 1199 mm. Waist circumference... subject to the requirements of S5.1 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208) by virtue of any provision...

  13. Adherence to an overweight and obesity treatment: how to motivate a patient?

    PubMed Central

    Rizo, Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore anthropometric changes in normal-weight, overweight and obese subjects who did not dropout or fail a weight loss program over the 16 treatment weeks to improve patient motivation and treatment adherence. Methods. A clinical intervention study was conducted among 271 (including 100 dropouts and/or failures) obese and overweight patients who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for the purpose of nutritional assessment. They were subject to a personalized weekly follow-up consultation over the course of 16 weeks in which initial and the final Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2), photographs, food consumption patterns, percentage weight loss, waist and hip circumference were registered and grouped according to BMI, measuring treatment response. Data’s nonparametric statistical comparison was made. Results. In 62 patients from the BMI < 25 group, there is weight loss of 2.6% (3.1 SD), 5.5% (3.3 SD) in waist circumference and 3.0% (2.5 SD) in hip circumference. In 67 patients from the 25 ≥ BMI < 30 group, there is weight loss of 3.8% (4.1 SD), 5.7% (4.5 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.7% (3.0 SD) in hip circumference loss. In 42 patients from the BMI > 30 group, there is weight loss of 4.8% (3.7 SD), 7.0% (3.6 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.9% (2.4 SD) in hip circumference loss. Monitoring is done every 4 weeks by the Friedman test, with significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.001). Patients do not drop out of treatment because they start to see physical results in waist decrease. When comparing final values of initial waist/hip circumference ratios and waist/height ratios, a clear decrease in the three BMI groups was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion. After three weeks of continuous treatment patients improved in all overweight and obesity parameter indicators; there were not statistically significant differences in hip circumference (HC) and waist loss (WC) (%) among the three BMI groups (normal-weight, overweight, and obesity). In contrast, there were statistically significant differences in weight loss (%) and waist-to-hip ratios. Based on anthropometric outcomes and patient perception of their body image it can be concluded that the waist circumference loss is the parameter that retains obese patients in the weight loss program. PMID:25101227

  14. Neither a zinc supplement nor phytate-reduced maize nor their combination enhance growth of 6- to 12-month-old Guatemalan infants.

    PubMed

    Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K Michael; Westcott, Jamie E; Solomons, Noel W; Raboy, Victor; Das, Abhik; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L; Krebs, Nancy F

    2010-05-01

    After age 6 mo, the combination of breast-feeding and unfortified plant-based complementary feeding provides inadequate zinc (Zn). Additionally, high phytate intakes compromise the bioavailability of zinc. Our principal objective in this randomized controlled, doubly masked trial was to determine the effect of substituting low-phytate maize, a daily 5-mg zinc supplement, or both, in infants between ages 6-12 mo on impaired linear growth velocity, a common feature of zinc deficiency. In the Western Highlands of Guatemala, 412 infants were randomized to receive low-phytate or control maize. Within each maize group, infants were further randomized to receive a zinc supplement or placebo. Length, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. There were no significant differences between the 2 maize groups or between the Zn supplement and placebo groups and no treatment interaction was observed for length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) or head circumference Z-scores. Overall mean (+/- SD) Z-scores at 6 mo for combined treatment groups were: LAZ, -2.1 +/- 1.1; WLZ, 0.7 +/- 1.0; and head circumference Z-score, -0.7.0 +/- 1.0. At 12 mo, these had declined further to: LAZ, -2.5 +/- 1.1; WLZ, -0.0 +/- 0.9; and head circumference Z-score, -0.9 +/- 1.1; 83.3% were stunted and 2% were wasted. Low linear growth in older Guatemalan infants was not improved with either low-phytate maize or a daily 5-mg zinc supplement. Low contribution of maize to the complementary food of the infants negated any potential advantage of feeding low-phytate maize. PMID:20335626

  15. Role of overweight and obesity in low back disorders among men: a longitudinal study with a life course approach

    PubMed Central

    Frilander, Heikki; Solovieva, Svetlana; Mutanen, Pertti; Pihlajamki, Harri; Helivaara, Markku; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between being overweight or obese with low back pain (LBP) and clinically defined low back disorders across the life course. Design A longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Setting A nationwide health survey supplemented with data from records of prior compulsory military service. Participants Premilitary health records (baseline) were searched for men aged 3050?years (n=1385) who participated in a national health examination survey (follow-up). Methods and outcome measures Height and weight were measured at baseline and follow-up, and waist circumference at follow-up. Weight at the ages of 20, 30, 40 and 50?years were ascertained, when applicable. Repeated measures of weight were used to calculate age-standardised mean body mass index (BMI) across the life course. The symptom-based outcome measures at follow-up included prevalence of non-specific and radiating LBP during the previous 30?days. The clinically defined outcome measures included chronic low back syndrome and sciatica. Results Baseline BMI (20?years) predicted radiating LBP in adulthood, with the prevalence ratio (PR) being 1.26 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.46) for one SD (3.0?kg/m2) increase in BMI. Life course BMI was associated with radiating LBP (PR=1.23; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.48 per 1?unit increment in Z score, corresponding to 2.9?kg/m2). The development of obesity during follow-up increased the risk of radiating LBP (PR=1.91, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.53). Both general and abdominal obesity (defined as waist-to-height ratio) were associated with radiating LBP (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.65 and 1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.04). No associations were seen for non-specific LBP. Conclusions Our findings imply that being overweight or obese in early adulthood as well as during the life course increases the risk of radiating but not non-specific LBP among men. Taking into account the current global obesity epidemic, emphasis should be placed on preventive measures starting at youth and, also, measures for preventing further weight gain during the life course should be implemented. PMID:26297359

  16. Effects of low glycaemic index/low glycaemic load vs. high glycaemic index/ high glycaemic load diets on overweight/obesity and associated risk factors in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hobl, Lisa Patricia; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the available literature data investigating the effects of low glycaemic index/low glycamic load dietary regimens on anthropometric parameters, blood lipid profiles, and indicators of glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of trials with restrictions to randomized controlled trials, but no limitations concerning language and publication date. Parameters taken into account were: body weight, body mass index, z-score of body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, height, waist cicrumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, HOMA-index, glycosylated haemoglobin, and C-reactive protein. Meta-analyses were performed for each parameter to assess pooled effect in terms of weighted mean differences between the post-intervention (or differences in means) of the low glycaemic index diets and the respective high glycaemic index counterparts. Data analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.3. software. Nine studies enrolling 1.065 children or adolescents met the inclusion criteria. Compared to diets providing a high gylcaemic index, low glycaemic index protocols resulted in significantly more pronounced decreases in serum triglycerides [mean differences -15.14 mg/dl, 95%-CI (-26.26, -4.00)] and HOMA-index [mean difference -0.70, 95%-CI (-1.37, -0.04), fixed-effects model only]. Other parameters under investigation were not affected by either low or high glycaemic indices. The present systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence of a beneficial effect of a low glycaemic index/load diet in children and adolescents being either overweight or obese. Regarding the limitations of this analysis, further studies adopting a homogenous design are necessary to assure the present findings. Since low glycaemic index/load regimens were not associated with a deterioration of the outcome parameters, these diets should not be categorically excluded when looking for alternatives to change lifestyle habits in this age group. PMID:26489667

  17. Relation of Anthropometric Obesity and Computed Tomography Measured Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Tison, Geoffrey H; Blaha, Michael J; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Szklo, Moyses; Ding, Jingzhong; Budoff, Matthew J

    2015-08-15

    We hypothesized that anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity would have a stronger positive association with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) measured by noncontrast computed tomography versus general measures of obesity. The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis comprised participants aged 45 to 84years free of known cardiovascular disease. We studied 4,088 participants with adequate liver and spleen computed tomography imaging and no previous use of oral steroids, class 3 antiarrhythmics, moderately heavy alcohol use, or cirrhosis. Prevalent NAFLD was defined as a liver:spleen Hounsfield attenuation ratio of <1. Multivariable log-linear regression modeled the association of 4 obesity measures-weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio-with prevalent NAFLD. Receiver-operator curve analysis compared NAFLD discrimination. Median age was 63years, and 55% were women. For each obesity measure, adjusted prevalence ratios for NAFLD were fourfold to fivefold greater in the highest versus the lowest quartile (p <0.001). Waist circumference and BMI had the highest prevalence ratios, and waist circumference had the best discrimination, for NAFLD in the total population, although an abnormal BMI categorized subjects with NAFLD as well if not better than waist circumference. In ethnic-specific analysis, whites and Chinese had the strongest association of obesity and NAFLD compared with other ethnicities. In conclusion, although waist circumference provided the best discrimination for NAFLD, BMI may perform similarly well in clinical settings to screen for NAFLD. PMID:26070222

  18. Hydroxyurea and Growth in Young Children With Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Patricia E.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Goldsmith, Jonathan; Casella, James F.; Reed, Caroline K.; Rogers, Zora R.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Thompson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growth impairment is a known complication of sickle cell disease. Effects of hydroxyurea (HU) on growth in very young children are not known. METHODS: Height, weight, BMI, and head circumference (HC) were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards in BABY HUG, a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 2-year clinical trial of HU in 193 children 9 to 18 months of age. Anthropometric data were closely monitored and converted to z scores by using WHO standardized algorithms for descriptive analyses. The treatment and placebo groups were compared longitudinally by using a mixed model analysis. RESULTS: At entry, the z scores of BABY HUG children were higher than WHO norms. After 2 years of HU or placebo treatment, there were no significant differences between the groups, except for the mean HC z scores at study exit (HU: +0.8 versus placebo: +1.0, P = .05). Baseline z scores were the best predictors of z scores at study exit. The absolute neutrophil count, absolute reticulocyte count, and total white blood cell count had significant negative correlations with growth measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both groups had normal or near normal anthropometric measures during the study. The HC z scores at study entry and exit were slightly greater than WHO norms. Higher baseline white blood cell count, absolute reticulocyte count, and absolute neutrophil count were associated with poorer growth. The significance of the slightly lower HC in the treatment group at study exit is not clear. Trends toward normalization of weight and height and effects on HC will be monitored in ongoing BABY HUG follow-up studies. PMID:25157002

  19. Does the brain shrink as the waist expands?

    PubMed Central

    Willette, Auriel A.; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that being overweight or obese is related to worse cognitive performance, particularly executive function. Obesity may also increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Consequently, there has been increasing interest in whether adiposity is related to gray or white matter (GM, WM) atrophy. In this review, we identified and critically evaluated studies assessing obesity and GM or WM volumes either globally or in specific regions of interest (ROIs). Across all ages, higher adiposity was consistently associated with frontal GM atrophy, particularly in prefrontal cortex. In children and adults < 40 years of age, most studies found no relationship between adiposity and occipital or parietal GM volumes, whereas findings for temporal lobe were mixed. In middle-aged and aged adults, a majority of studies found that higher adiposity is associated with parietal and temporal GM atrophy, whereas results for precuneus, posterior cingulate, and hippocampus were mixed. Higher adiposity had no clear association with global or regional WM in any age group. We conclude that higher adiposity may be associated with frontal GM atrophy across all ages and parietal and temporal GM atrophy in middle and old age. PMID:24768742

  20. Does the brain shrink as the waist expands?

    PubMed

    Willette, Auriel A; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that being overweight or obese is related to worse cognitive performance, particularly executive function. Obesity may also increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, there has been increasing interest in whether adiposity is related to gray or white matter (GM, WM) atrophy. In this review, we identified and critically evaluated studies assessing obesity and GM or WM volumes either globally or in specific regions of interest (ROIs). Across all ages, higher adiposity was consistently associated with frontal GM atrophy, particularly in prefrontal cortex. In children and adults <40 years of age, most studies found no relationship between adiposity and occipital or parietal GM volumes, whereas findings for temporal lobe were mixed. In middle-aged and aged adults, a majority of studies found that higher adiposity is associated with parietal and temporal GM atrophy, whereas results for precuneus, posterior cingulate, and hippocampus were mixed. Higher adiposity had no clear association with global or regional WM in any age group. We conclude that higher adiposity may be associated with frontal GM atrophy across all ages and parietal and temporal GM atrophy in middle and old age. PMID:24768742

  1. Wasp-Waist Interactions in the North Sea Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Fauchald, Per; Skov, Henrik; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Johns, David; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-01-01

    Background In a “wasp-waist” ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus), suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that “wasp-waist” interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades. PMID:21829494

  2. Prenatal Phthalate Exposure and Childhood Growth and Blood Pressure: Evidence from the Spanish INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Romaguera, Dora; Monfort, Nuria; Ventura, Rosa; Martinez, David; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background Human evidence on the effects of early life phthalate exposure on obesity and cardiovascular disease risks, reported by experimental studies, is limited to a few cross-sectional studies. Objectives We evaluated the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and childhood growth and blood pressure in a Spanish birth cohort study. Methods We assessed exposure using the average of two phthalate metabolite spot-urine concentrations collected from the mothers in the first and third pregnancy trimesters (creatinine-adjusted, n = 391). Study outcomes were the difference in age- and sex-specific z-scores for weight between birth and 6 months of age; and repeated age- and sex-specific z-scores for body mass index (BMI) at 1, 4, and 7 years; waist-to-height ratio at 4 and 7 years; and age- and height-specific z-scores for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 4 and 7 years. Results The sum of five high-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (ΣHMWPm) was associated with lower weight z-score difference between birth and 6 months (β per doubling of exposure = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.75, –0.06) and BMI z-scores at later ages in boys (β = –0.28; 95% CI: –0.60, 0.03) and with higher weight z-score difference (β = 0.24; 95% CI: –0.16, 0.65) and BMI z-scores in girls (β = 0.30; 95% CI: –0.04, 0.64) (p for sex interaction = 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). The sum of three low-molecular-weight phthalates (ΣLMWPm) was not significantly associated with any of the growth outcomes. ΣHMWPm and ΣLMWPm were associated with lower systolic blood pressure z-scores in girls but not in boys. Conclusions This study suggests that prenatal phthalate exposure may be associated with postnatal growth and blood pressure in a sex-specific manner. Inconsistencies with previous cross-sectional findings highlight the necessity for evaluating phthalate health effects in prospective studies. Citation Valvi D, Casas M, Romaguera D, Monfort N, Ventura R, Martinez D, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposure and childhood growth and blood pressure: evidence from the Spanish INMA-Sabadell birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 123:1022–1029; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408887 PMID:25850106

  3. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

  4. Anthropometric trends and the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in a Lithuanian urban population aged 45–64 years

    PubMed Central

    Luksiene, Dalia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Bernotiene, Gailute; Peasey, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate trends in anthropometric indexes from 1992 to 2008 and to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in relation to anthropometric indexes (body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio). Methods: Data from the three surveys (1992–2008) are presented. A random sample of 5147 subjects aged 45–64 years was selected for statistical analysis. During follow-up there were 141 deaths from cardiovascular disease (excluding those with cardiovascular disease at entry). Cox’s regression was used to estimate the associations between anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular disease mortality. Results: During a 17-year period among men, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ⩾30 kg/m2) increased from 18.4% to 32.1% (p<0.001) and a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.9) from 59.3% to 72.9% (p<0.001). The risk profile of obesity did not change in women, but prevalence of a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.85) increased from 25.9% to 41.5% (p<0.001). Multivariable-adjusted Cox’s regression models showed that body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio were associated with cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men (hazard ratios 1.40, 1.45, 1.49, 1.46 respectively (p<0.01)). Conclusions: Our data indicate that anthropometric measures such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio and waist:height ratio are good indicators of cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men aged 45–64 years. PMID:26261188

  5. A cross-sectional study of prevalence of overweight and obesity among bus drivers and conductors of North-West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) in Belgaum Division, Belgaum.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B A; Joshi, A V; Katti, S M; Mallapur, M D; Karikatti, S S

    2013-03-01

    Obesity has become a major chronic disorder affecting a large population more than any other disease in the world. To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among bus drivers and conductors of North-West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) in Belgaum, and to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them the study had been undertaken in Belgaum. Randomly selected 365 drivers and 370 conductors were personally interviewed using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire. Physical examination was done to measure height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference. Body mass index was measured to assess overweight and obesity. Waist circumference and waist hip ratio were used to assess central obesity. Summary figures like rates were calculated. Chi- square test was used to test the difference of prevalence between drivers and conductors. The study showed that in drivers 43.3% were overweight, 22.2% were obese and 23.8% were having a waist circumference > or = 102 cm. Among conductors 28.1% were overweight, 16.2% were obese and 18.1% were having a waist circumference of > or = 102cm.The prevalence of over-weight and obesity was high among drivers compared to conductors. Drivers were also more centrally obese than conductors.These differences were found to be statistically significant. Considering the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among drivers and conductors, necessary preventive measures need to be promoted. PMID:24592753

  6. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI) and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 0.3 years) and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Results We found a direct correlation (p < 0.001) between children's BMI z-score and their mothers' BMI, both in boys (Spearman rho = 0.26) and girls (rho = 0.30). A direct association was also found between children's BMI z-score with scores of the subscale "concern for child's weight" (Spearman rho = 0.26 in boys and rho = 0.37 in girls; p < 0.001) and "food restriction" (rho = 0.19 in boys and rho = 0.27 in girls; p < 0.001). A reverse significant association was found between children's BMI z-score with scores of "pressure to eat" (rho = -0.30 in boys and rho = -0.36 in girls; p < 0.001). Analyses of the combined categories of childhood obesity and/or maternal obesity showed an important influence of children's weight status on CFQ scores. Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study