Sample records for z-score waist circumference

  1. Comparing Trends in BMI and Waist Circumference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen L. Walls; Christopher E. Stevenson; Haider R. Mannan; Asnawi Abdullah; Christopher M. Reid; John J. McNeil; Anna Peeters

    2011-01-01

    The nature of excess body weight may be changing over time to one of greater central adiposity. The aim of this study is to determine whether BMI and waist circumference (WC) are increasing proportionately among population subgroups and the range of bodyweight, and to examine the public health implications of the findings. Our data are from two cross-sectional surveys (the

  2. Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children?

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations. PMID:25479861

  3. Waist Circumference as an Independent Risk Factor for NODAT.

    PubMed

    Dedinská, Ivana; Laca, ?udovít; Miklušica, Juraj; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Žilinská, Zuzana; Galajda, Peter; Moká?, Marián

    2015-01-01

    Background New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) is a serious and frequent complication of solid organ transplantations. NODAT leads to 2-3 times higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Visceral obesity is a key factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 and metabolic syndrome development, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Material and Methods The series consisted of 167 patients after primary kidney transplantation from a dead donor (64 patients had developed NODAT), average age of the series was 46.1±11.6 years. We retrospectively examined waist circumference, body mass index, and weight gain in the 12th month after transplantation. We examined average level of triglycerides, cholesterol, and immunosuppression throughout the 12 monitored months. Results Patients with NODAT were significantly older (P=0.004) and had greater waist circumference (P<0.0001) and higher average sirolimus level (P=0.0262). We identified the following independent risk factors for NODAT by using multivariate analysis: age at the time of transplantation above 50 years (HR=2.5038, [95% CI: 1.7179 to 3.6492], P<0.0001), waist circumference in men greater than 94 cm (HR=1.9492, [95% CI: 1.1697 to 3.2480], P=0.0104) and in women greater than 80 cm (HR=4.5018, [95% CI: 1.8669 to 10.8553], P=0.009). By using correlation coefficient we have proved that greater waist circumference was related to higher incidence of NODAT (r=0.1935, [95% CI: 0.01156 to 0.3630], P=0.0374). Graft survival (death censored) 12 months after kidney transplantation was 97.1% in the control group and 95.3% in the NODAT group (P=0.5381). Patient survival 12 months after kidney transplantation in the control group was 98.1% and in the NODAT group it was 96.9% (P=0.6113). Conclusions We identified waist circumference as an independent risk factor for NODAT in our analysis. PMID:25791039

  4. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management.

    PubMed Central

    Lean, M. E.; Han, T. S.; Morrison, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that a single measurement, waist circumference, might be used to identify people at health risk both from being overweight and from having a central fat distribution. DESIGN--A community derived random sample of men and women and a second, validation sample. SETTING--North Glasgow. SUBJECT--904 men and 1014 women (first sample); 86 men and 202 women (validation sample). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Waist circumference, body mass index, waist:hip ratio. RESULTS--Waist circumference > or = 94 cm for men and > or = 80 cm for women identified subjects with high body mass index (> or = 25 kg/m2) and those with lower body mass index but high waist:hip ratio (> or = 0.95 for men, > or = 0.80 women) with a sensitivity of > 96% and specificity > 97.5%. Waist circumference > or = 102 cm for men or > or = 88 cm for women identified subjects with body mass index > or = 30 and those with lower body mass index but high waist:hip ratio with a sensitivity of > 96% and specificity > 98%, with only about 2% of the sample being misclassified. CONCLUSIONS--Waist circumference could be used in health promotion programmes to identify individuals who should seek and be offered weight management. Men with waist circumference > or = 94 cm and women with waist circumference > or = 80 cm should gain no further weight; men with waist circumference > or = 102 cm and women with waist circumference > or = 88 cm should reduce their weight. PMID:7613427

  5. IDEA: A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/31 R2 IDEA: A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in 168 Running head: Waist circumference, diabetes and CVD HALauthormanuscriptinserm-00186711,version1 HAL author (CVD) and diabetes in different regions around the world, and thus whether measuring waist

  6. Waist circumference percentiles for 7- to 17-year-old Turkish children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nihal Hatipoglu; Ahmet Ozturk; Mumtaz M. Mazicioglu; Selim Kurtoglu; Selda Seyhan; Fikret Lokoglu

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Waist circumference as a\\u000a measure of obesity may be clinically useful as a predictor of metabolic syndrome in children. To develop age- and sex-specific\\u000a reference values for waist circumference we evaluated the data obtained from Turkish children and adolescents. Waist circumference\\u000a measurements from 4,770 healthy schoolchildren

  7. Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference in men and women: The Scottish MONICA surveys 1989 –1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruoling Chen; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe

    2005-01-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference were measured in three Scottish MONICA cross-sectional surveys of 2233 men and 2516 women aged 25–64 years in 1989–1995. Means of waist circumference, waist\\/hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) increased with level of deprivation (measured by the Carstairs index) more significantly in women than in men, and more significantly in non-smokers than in

  8. Association of Dietary Antioxidants and Waist Circumference with Pulmonary Function and Airway Obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruoling Chen; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe; Caroline Bolton-Smith; Mary K. Hannah; Caroline Morrison

    Dietary antioxidants, waist circumference, and pulmonary function were measured in the Fourth Scottish MONICA cross-sectional survey of 865 men and 971 women aged 25-64 years. Waist circumference was inversely related to forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), even after adjustment for age, height, weight, working status, energy intake, and smoking variables in a

  9. Waist Circumference, Pedometer Placement, and Step-Counting Accuracy in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Mark G.; Hannon, James C.; Eisenman, Patricia A.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Pett, Marjorie; Williams, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in waist circumference (WC) and pedometer placement (anterior vs. midaxillary vs. posterior) affect the agreement between pedometer and observed steps during treadmill and self-paced walking. Participants included 19 pairs of youth (9-15 years old) who were matched for sex, race, and height and stratified by…

  10. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

  11. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  12. Waist circumference and obesity related abnormalities in French and Cameroonian adults: The role of urbanization and ethnicity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Waist circumference and obesity related abnormalities in French and Cameroonian adults: The role,version1-17Feb2010 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Obesity 2010 and ethnicity on correlations between waist circumference (WC) and obesity related cardiovascular risk factors

  13. Validity of self-measured waist and hip circumferences: results from a community study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measures of central adiposity are better predictors of adverse health events than BMI. Nonetheless, BMI is more widely used in health research. One reason for this may be the limited research supporting the self-measurement of waist and hip circumference. The lack of validity studies is particularly acute in Asia. The main objective was to establish the validity of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference in a community setting and the correlation of those measures with BMI, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels. Methods A community based, cross-sectional survey. A “healthy living expo” at a shopping mall in a rural town on peninsular Malaysia One hundred and thirty six (136) individuals volunteered to participate in the study, 125 of whom met the inclusion criteria. The ethnic distribution of the participants was 80% Chinese, 17% Malay and 3% Indian. Most participants were female (60%), with participants’ ages ranging from 18 to 78 years (mean, 47.2). Self and assisted measurements of waist and hip were taken. Blood pressure, non-fasting blood glucose, height, and weight were also measured. Bland Altman plots and Lin’s concordance coefficient were used to measure agreement between self and assisted measures. Pearson’s correlation was used to examine the association of self and assisted measures with blood pressure, blood glucose, and BMI. Results There was a downwards bias in self measured waist (-0.81 cm) and hip (-1 cm) circumferences compared with assisted measures. The concordance for the self and assisted measures of waist, hip and the ratio of the two were, respectively, .96, .93 , and .84. The correlation between measures of central adiposity and BMI, blood pressure and blood glucose were similar for self and assisted measures. Conclusion The results provide additional support for the use of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference studies of central adiposity, but is limited by the specificity of the setting. PMID:24093886

  14. Sitting Time and Waist Circumference Are Associated With Glycemia in U.K. South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jason M.R.; Bhopal, Raj; Douglas, Anne; Wallia, Sunita; Bhopal, Ruby; Sheikh, Aziz; Forbes, John F.; McKnight, John; Sattar, Naveed; Murray, Gordon; Lean, Michael E.J.; Wild, Sarah H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the independent contributions of waist circumference, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on glycemia in South Asians living in Scotland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 1,228 (523 men and 705 women) adults of Indian or Pakistani origin screened for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial. All undertook an oral glucose tolerance test, had physical activity and sitting time assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and had waist circumference measured. RESULTS Mean ± SD age and waist circumference were 49.8 ± 10.1 years and 99.2 ± 10.2 cm, respectively. One hundred ninety-one participants had impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, and 97 had possible type 2 diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, age (0.012 mmol ? L?1 ? year?1 [95% CI 0.006–0.017]) and waist circumference (0.018 mmol ? L?1 ? cm?1 [0.012–0.024]) were significantly independently associated with fasting glucose concentration, and age (0.032 mmol ? L?1 ? year?1 [0.016–0.049]), waist (0.057 mmol ? L?1 ? cm?1 [0.040–0.074]), and sitting time (0.097 mmol ? L?1 ? h?1 ? day?1 [0.036–0.158]) were significantly independently associated with 2-h glucose concentration. Vigorous activity time had a borderline significant association with 2-h glucose concentration (?0.819 mmol ? L?1 ? h?1 ? day?1 [?1.672 to 0.034]) in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS These data highlight an important relationship between sitting time and 2-h glucose levels in U.K. South Asians, independent of physical activity and waist circumference. Although the data are cross-sectional and thus do not permit firm conclusions about causality to be drawn, the results suggest that further study investigating the effects of sitting time on glycemia and other aspects of metabolic risk in South Asian populations is warranted. PMID:21464463

  15. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies. PMID:24496996

  16. Development of Health-Related Waist Circumference Thresholds Within BMI Categories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris I. Ardern; Ian Janssen; Robert Ross; Peter T. Katzmarzyk

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To develop and cross-validate waist circumference (WC) thresholds within BMI categories. The utility of the derived values was compared with the single WC thresholds (women, 88 cm; men, 102 cm) recommended by NIH and Health Canada.Research Methods and Procedures: The sample included adults classified as normal weight (BMI = 18.5 to 24.9), overweight (BMI = 25 to 29.9), obese

  17. Hypertension, Prehypertension, and Transient Elevated Blood Pressure in Children: Association With Weight Excess and Waist Circumference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simonetta Genovesi; Laura Antolini; Marco Giussani; Paolo Brambilla; Valerio Barbieri; Sara Galbiati; Silvana Mastriani; Valeria Sala; Maria Grazia Valsecchi; Andrea Stella

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundTo assess the prevalence of hypertension (H), prehypertension (PH), and transient elevated blood pressure (TH) and their relationship with weight class and waist circumference (WC) in an unselected population of Northern Italian children.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in 5,131 children (5–11 years). Weight class was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force references, H and PH according to the

  18. [Check your waist circumference! Overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity risk factors of type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, M

    2001-08-22

    The object with the present study was to present prevalence data in a rural area in Sweden regarding overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity presented by waist circumference. The study was population-based in primary health care. The target group was aged 20 years or more. A total of 91% (n = 6,686) participated. 45% of men and 32% of women were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2), 12% of men and 17% of women were obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). The programme found among men 25.8% with a waist circumference 94-101.9 cm and 18.0% > or = 102 cm and among women 22.7% with 80.0-87.9 cm and 27.2% > or = 88 cm. The relative risk for type 2 diabetes increased with waist circumference. Making health care personnel and patients aware of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and the risk of associated diseases and encourage a healthy life style is urgent in time of an obesity epidemic. PMID:11571793

  19. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip-ratio in the prediction of obesity in Turkish teenagers.

    PubMed

    Kavak, Vatan; Pilmane, Mara; Kazoka, Dzintra

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the usefulness of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in screening for obesity in teenagers by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). To select the sample set in this cross-sectional study, a stratified random sampling approach was utilized. Weight, height, WC, hip circumference and body fat percentage (BFP) were measured in 1118 children of both genders (597 boys and 521 girls), aged from 10 to 15 years old. Percentiles of BMI and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-United States (CDC-US)-growth chart for boys and girls aged from 10 to 15 years old were presented. ROC analyses were then used to evaluate the performances of three anthropometric indices; BMI, WC and WHR had strong positive correlations with BFP (r = 0.49-0.77) in both girls and boys within indicated age group. The area under the curves (AUCs) were high in both girls and boys for BMI, 0.795 and 0.893, respectively, and WC, 0.767 and 0.853, respectively, and were a little lower, 0.747 and 0.783, respectively, for WHR. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the prevalence of being overweight and obese among teenagers of both sexes in our data set does not differ from CDC-US-growth chart. In addition, BMI and WC are two important predictors for teenagers to become overweight and obese, while WHR is less useful for this purpose. PMID:25144972

  20. The inter-operator variability in measuring waist circumference and its potential impact on the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V F Panoulas; N Ahmad; A A Fazal; R H Kassamali; P Nightingale; G D Kitas; M Labib

    2008-01-01

    Objective:The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has proposed ethnicity specific cut-off values for waist circumference, as an essential criterion for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, before introducing waist circumference measurement as part of the clinical examination, or an obligatory criterion for MetS, it is important to ensure that the measurement is reliable and reproducible.Study design:The inter- and intra-operator

  1. Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of australian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is evident from previous research that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of childhood obesity remains inconclusive. Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and/or skin fold measurements with energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat) may play an important contributing role to obesity in childhood as it does in adults. This study investigated the possible relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage energy intake from macronutrients in Australian children and adolescents. Methods Height, weight and WC measurements, along with 24 h food and drink records (FDR) intake data were collected from 2460 boys and girls aged 5-17 years living in the state of Queensland, Australia. Results Statistically significant, yet weak correlations between BMI z-score and WC with total energy intake were observed in grades 1, 5 and 10, with only 55% of subjects having a physiologically plausible 24 hr FDR. Using Pearson correlations to examine the relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage macronutrient intake, no significant correlations were observed between BMI z-score or WC and percentage energy intake from protein, carbohydrate or fat. One way ANOVAs showed that although those with a higher BMI z-score or WC consumed significantly more energy than their lean counterparts. Conclusion No evidence of an association between percentage macronutrient intake and BMI or WC was found. Evidently, more robust longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship linking obesity and dietary intake. PMID:21615883

  2. Associations of hip and thigh circumferences independent of waist circumference with the incidence of type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieke B Snijder; Jacqueline M Dekker; Marjolein Visser; Lex M Bouter; Coen DA Stehouwer; Piet J Kostense; John S Yudkin; Robert J Heine; Giel Nijpels; Jacob C Seidell

    Background: The higher risk of type 2 diabetes in persons with a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) or waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR) has mostly been attributed to increased visceral fat accumulation. However, smaller hip or thigh circumference may also explain the predictive value of the WHR or WTR for type 2 diabetes. Objective: This study considered prospectively the association of hip and

  3. Optimal cut-off values of BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio for defining obesity in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; He, Yuan; Dong, Shengyong; Zhao, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhiheng; Song, Zhenya; Chang, Guang; Yang, Fang; Wang, Youjuan

    2014-11-28

    It has not been established which specific measures of obesity might be most appropriate for predicting CVD risk in Asians. The objectives of the present study were to determine the associations of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist:height ratio (WHtR) with CVD risk factors and to evaluate the optimal cut-off values to define overweight or obesity in Chinese adults. Data collected from seven nationwide health examination centres during 2008 and 2009 were analysed. The BMI, WC and WHtR of 244 266 Chinese adults aged ? 20 years included in the study were measured. Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to various anthropometric indices. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the optimal cut-off values to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and the metabolic syndrome. WHtR had the largest areas under the ROC curve for all CVD risk factors in both sexes, followed by WC and BMI. The optimal cut-off values were approximately 24·0 and 23·0 kg/m2 for BMI, 85·0 and 75·0 cm for WC, and 0·50 and 0·48 for WHtR for men and women, respectively. According to well-established cut-off values, BMI was found to be a more sensitive indicator of hypertension in both men and women, while WC and WHtR were found to be better indicators of diabetes and dyslipidaemia. A combination of BMI and central obesity measures was found to be associated with greater OR of CVD risk factors than either of them alone in both sexes. The present study demonstrated that WHtR and WC may be better indicators of CVD risk factors for Chinese people than BMI. PMID:25300318

  4. Anemia in relation to body mass index and waist circumference among chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the relationship of anemia and body mass index among adult women in Jiangsu Province, China. Data were collected in a sub-national cross-sectional survey, and 1,537 women aged 20 years and above were included in the analyses. Subjects were classified by body mass index (BMI) categories as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese according to the Chinese standard. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference???80 cm. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration?waist circumference were calculated using Poisson regression. Findings Overall, 31.1% of the Chinese women were anemic. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity was 34.2%, 5.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The obese group had the highest concentrations of hemoglobin compared with other BMI groups. After adjustment for confounders, overweight and obese women had a lower PR for anemia (PR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62-0.89; PR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43-0.79). Central obesity was inversely associated with anemia. Conclusion In this Chinese population, women with overweight/obesity or central obesity were less likely to be anemic as compared to normal weight women. No measures are required currently to target anemia specifically for overweight and obese people in China. PMID:23311667

  5. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoffs for Categorization of Overweight and Central Adiposity among Uighur Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Tong; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Chen, You; Chen, Bangdang; He, Chun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current overweight and central adiposity guidelines based on Western populations were not consistent with many studied based on the Asian populations. Uighur people live in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region which is located in the center of Asia. Their overweight and central cutoffs were largely unknown. We aimed to identify cutoffs for body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; in cm) for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Uighur adults in Xinjiang. Methods 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. The age of the participants were from 35 to 101 years old with the mean age of 50.09 years. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and fasting glucose were documented. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each BMI and waist circumference values were calculated. Results The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were higher with higher BMI for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were higher with higher waist circumference for both men and women. In women, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was noticed to increase as the waist circumference increased. The shortest distance in the receiver operating characteristic curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ? 2 of these risk factors suggested a BMI cutoff of 26 and a waist circumference cutoff of 90 cm for both men and women. Conclusions Higher cutoffs for BMI and waist circumference are needed in the identification of Uighur patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24244645

  6. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  7. Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of macrovascular complications and morbidities associated to metabolic syndrome are increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The combination of T1DM with features of insulin resistance similar to that of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), sometimes called “double diabetes”, has been associated with central obesity. Since the most methods to accurately detect body fat and insulin resistance are not readily available, we propose that certain indirect indexes for detecting obesity as waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index, may be useful when screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM. Methods We performed a transversal evaluation (clinical and biochemical) in all the patients of the T1DM Clinic (n?=?120). We determined the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Statement Criteria by the American Heart Association/ National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation and the utility of certain anthropometric indexes for predicting double diabetes was evaluated. Results Thirty seven percent of the patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome using these criteria (n?=?30). These patients were significantly older (p?=?0.002), have a higher glycated hemoglobin (p?=?0.036), cholesterol (p?waist circumference (p?=?0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (p?waist-to-height ratio correctly classified the largest number of patients (68% of correctly classified) well as the waist circumference (66% of correctly classified) with an adequate specificity and sensibility. Meanwhile the most precise body mass index value only classified correctly to 61% of patients. Conclusion Our data show that waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio indexes are useful to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24594198

  8. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  9. Cross-sectional comparisons of BMI and waist circumference in British children: mixed public health messages.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Claire; Gately, Paul; Marchant, Paul R; Cooke, Carlton B

    2012-06-01

    Research suggests that there has been a leveling off in obesity prevalence occurring in the child population. However, a concern with the evidence base is that all of the studies have relied upon the use of BMI. The purpose of this study was to compare waist circumference (WC), BMI, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) data in three different sample of children (total number: 14,697) typically aged 11-12 years. Obesity prevalence defined by BMI did not change significantly between measurement years (2005 boys 20.6%, girls 18.0%; 2006 boys 19.3%, girls 17.3%; 2007 boys 19.8%, girls 16.4%). Obesity prevalence defined by WC was considerably higher especially, in girls (2005 boys 26.3%, girls 35.6%; 2006 boys 20.3%, girls 28.2%; 2007 boys 22.1%, girls 30.1%). The prevalence of children defined as "at risk" according to WHtR (2005 boys 23.3%, girls 21.1%; 2006 boys 16.7%, girls 15.6%; 2007 boys 17.6%, girls 17.2%) was found to be between obesity prevalence, estimated using BMI and WC. This data are the most up to date collection that includes BMI and WC in three large samples of children and clearly demonstrates inconsistencies between different measurements based on current classification systems. There is a need to understand the relationship between BMI and WC, with growth and health risk to establish a consistent public health message that is easily understood by the public. PMID:21959348

  10. Changes in Individual Weight Status Based on Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lai Ming; Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight change predicted diseases and mortality. We investigate 3-year changes in individual body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in Hong Kong Chinese adults. Methods In the Population Health Survey, 7084 adults in 2003 (baseline) were followed up in 2006. Longitudinal anthropometric data were available in 2941 (41.5%) for BMI and 2956 for waist circumference. Weight status and central obesity were based on objectively measured BMI and waist circumference using Asian standards. Results Mean BMI (SD) increased from 22.8 (3.62) to 23.1 (3.95) (p<0.001) with 1.3 percentage point increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity (from 44.3% to 45.6%). One in 5 (22.0%) normal or underweight baseline respondents became overweight or obese and a similar proportion (24.8%) of overweight and obese respondents became normal or underweight. Prevalence of central obesity increased from 28.3% to 32.4% (p<0.001) with a non-significantly greater increase in women (30.0% to 38.1%) than men (23.0% to 26.1%) (p=0.63). A higher proportion of centrally obese respondents returned to normal (29.4%) than normal respondents developing central obesity (17.4%). Conclusions This is one of the few studies in Chinese, which found dynamic longitudinal changes (increase/stable/decrease) in individual weight status and waist circumference. Future studies with better follow-up and investigating the causes of such changes are warranted. PMID:25775476

  11. Associations between long-term physical activity, waist circumference and weight gain: a 30-year longitudinal twin study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Waller; J Kaprio; U M Kujala

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective:Physical activity level and obesity are both partly determined by genes and childhood environment. To determine the associations between long-term leisure-time physical activity, weight gain and waist circumference and whether these are independent of genes and childhood effects.Design and subjects:The study design is a 30-year follow-up twin study in Finland. For this study, 146 twin pairs were comprehensively

  12. Food Composition of the Diet in Relation to Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora Romaguera; Lars Ängquist; Huaidong Du; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Nita G. Forouhi; Jytte Halkjær; Edith J. M. Feskens; Daphne L. van der A; Giovanna Masala; Annika Steffen; Domenico Palli; Nicholas J. Wareham; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjønneland; Heiner Boeing; Elio Riboli; Thorkild I. Sørensen

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundDietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups\\/items contribute to these associations is necessary.ObjectiveTo ascertain the association of food groups\\/items consumption on prospective annual changes in “waist circumference for a given BMI” (WCBMI), a proxy for abdominal adiposity.DesignWe analyzed data from

  13. Changes in Waist Circumference and Mortality in Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in BMI. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 26,625 healthy men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study was analyzed. WC and BMI were assessed in 1993–97 and in 1999–02. Information on mortality was obtained by linkage to the Danish central Person Register. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated with Cox regression models. During 6.7 years of follow-up, 568 and 361 deaths occurred among men and women, respectively. Changes in WC were positively associated with mortality (HR per 5 cm for the sexes combined ?=?1.09 (1.02?1.16) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and changes in BMI), whereas changes in BMI were inversely associated with mortality (HR per kg/m2 for the sexes combined ?=?0.91 (0.86, 0.97) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and changes in WC). Associations between changes in WC and mortality were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to changes in BMI, baseline WC or when smokers or deaths occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance Changes in WC were positively associated with mortality in healthy middle-aged men and women throughout the range of concurrent changes in BMI. These findings suggest a need for development of prevention and treatment strategies targeted against redistribution of fat mass towards the abdominal region. PMID:20927346

  14. 24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P?=?0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of ?0.21 kg (P?=?0.041, CI: ?0.40 to ?0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM. PMID:23936079

  15. Waist Circumference Correlates with Metabolic Syndrome Indicators Better Than Percentage Fat

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Punyanitya, Mark; Chen, Jun; Gallagher, Dympna; Albu, Jeanine; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Lewis, Cora E.; Grunfeld, Carl; Heshka, Stanley; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Percent fat is often considered the reference for establishing the magnitude of adipose tissue accumulation and the risk of excess adiposity. However, the increasing recognition of a strong link between central adiposity and metabolic disturbances led us to test whether waist circumference (WC) is more highly correlated with metabolic syndrome components than percent fat and other related anthropometric measures such as BMI. Research Methods and Procedures BMI, WC, and percent fat, measured by DXA, were evaluated in 1010 healthy white and African-American men and women [age, 48.3 ± 17.2 (standard deviation) years; BMI, 27.0 ± 5.3 kg/m2]. The associations of BMI, WC, and percent fat with age and laboratory-adjusted health risk indicators (i.e., serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure) in each sex and ethnicity group were examined. Results For 18 of 24 comparisons, the age- and laboratory-adjusted correlations were lowest for percent fat and in 16 of 24 comparisons were highest for WC. Fifteen of the between-method differences reached statistical significance. With health risk indicator as the dependent variable and anthropometric measures as the independent variable, the contribution of percent fat to the WC regression model was not statistically significant; in contrast, adding WC to the percent fat regression model did make a significant independent contribution for most health risk indicators. Discussion WC had the strongest associations with health risk indicators, followed by BMI. Although percent fat is a useful measure of overall adiposity, health risks are best represented by the simply measured WC. PMID:16741276

  16. Risk Factors of Adolescent Obesity in Taiwan and Its Association with Physical activity, Blood Pressure and Waist Circumference

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yi-Chun; Pei, Jen-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate risk factors of obesity and its associated health problems in adolescence in Taiwan. Methods We enrolled 559 adolescent volunteers with equal numbers of females and males in 2008. Participants were divided into two groups: obese (body mass index [BMI] ?95th percentile) and normal-weight adolescents (BMI: 15th ? 85th percentile). Each of them completed a questionnaire about lifestyle and parents’ stature. Results Obese mother had high likelihood of having obese girls and boys (P=0.001). Obese girls spent more time in watching TV (P=0.03) and had higher frequency of having sweetened soft drinks (P=0.016) than normal-weight group. Girls spent more time in TV watching associated higher frequency of having sweetened soft drinks (P=0.012). In boys, this associated with higher frequency of eating snick (P=0.018) and larger waist circumference (P=0.011). Boys who had more frequent effective exercise had lower frequency of eating outside (P=0.01) and more services of vegetables (P=0.002). There was no relation between hypertension and adolescent physical activity. Regardless of gender, obese group had higher waist circumference and blood pressure than normal-weight group (P<0.001). Conclusion There was a strong association between obese mother and adolescent obesity. More physical activity in adolescents associated with healthier dietary behaviors. Obese adolescents have higher waist circumference and blood pressure. PMID:22375210

  17. Built Environment and 1-Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M.; Acock, Alan; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50–75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006–2007 to 2007–2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard deviation, 4.3) and mean waist circumference increased by 1.76 cm (standard deviation, 5.6). Multilevel analyses revealed that neighborhoods with a high density of fast-food outlets were associated with increases of 1.40 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 2.04 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who visited fast-food restaurants frequently. In contrast, high-walkability neighborhoods were associated with decreases of 1.2 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 1.57 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who increased their levels of vigorous physical activity during the 1-year assessment period. Findings point to the negative influences of the availability of neighborhood fast-food outlets and individual unhealthy eating behaviors that jointly affect weight gain; however, better neighborhood walkability and increased levels of physical activity are likely to be associated with maintaining a healthy weight over time. PMID:19153214

  18. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 122:687–694;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307115 PMID:24800763

  19. Association of lipid profile and waist circumference as cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obesity among school children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Nasser M; Yousef, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a national as well as worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight and obesity among Qatari children with lipid profile and waist circumference as adverse cardiovascular risk factors in children aged 6–11 years. International Obesity Task Force reference values were used to screen for overweight and obesity. Methods A cross-sectional study in a randomly selected sample was conducted in 315 Qatari primary school students aged 6–11 years. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated for 151 girls and 164 boys. Weight categories were based on International Obesity Task Force reference values. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were measured, and atherogenic index was calculated. Results In total, 31.71% of boys and 32.78% of girls were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children screened against International Obesity Task Force reference values had a significantly increased risk of high waist circumference (P < 0.0001), hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.002), low HDL-C (P = 0.017), and atherogenic index (P = 0.021) compared with children who were not overweight or obese. The partial correlation coefficient for the cardiovascular risk marker of waist circumference indicated a positive significant association with total cholesterol (r = 0.465, P = 0.003), triglycerides (r = 0.563, P < 0.001), and LDL-C (r = 0.267, P = 0.003), and a significant negative association with HDL-C (r = ?0.361, P = 0.004). Overweight and obesity significantly increase the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) of cardiovascular risk factors as follows: hypertriglyceridemia (OR 6.34, CI 2.49–13.44, P < 0.0001); LDL-C (OR 3.18, CI 1.04–9.75, P = 0.043); hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.88, CI 1.10–3.19, P = 0.020); and increased waist circumference (OR 1.40, CI 1.29–1.55, P = 0.022). Overweight and obesity significantly increased the risk of atherosclerosis (assessed by atherogenic index) by about two-fold (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.06–3.15, P = 0.025). Conclusion Overweight and obese children screened by International Obesity Task Force reference values are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. PMID:23277742

  20. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

  1. Is Waist Circumference A Better Predictor of Diabetes Than Body Mass Index Or Waist-To-Height Ratio In Iranian Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Bezad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several measures of adiposity have been used for predicting diabetes. The results of studies regarding superiority of waist circumference (WC) to body mass index (BMI) are inconsistent. This study designed to compare the ability of different anthropometric measures in predicting diabetes and to determine their optimal cut-off values. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,000 representative sample among adults aged 20–80 years in Babol, the Northern Iran. The demographic data were collected in a household survey, and the anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured with a standard method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) ?126 mg/dl was considered as diabetes. receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the predictive ability of different anthropometric indexes and their optimal cut-off values for high FBS. Results: The overall prevalence rate of diabetes was 14.0% (14.4% in men vs. 13.5% in women, P = 0.65). The prevalence rate was significantly higher in older age (>60 years), low educated and obese (P = 0.001). The mean of BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly higher among diabetic in both sexes (P = 0.001). Among men, WC (area under the ROC curve [AUC] =0.64) and WHtR (AUC = 0.63) have slightly higher accuracy index compared with BMI (AUC = 0.62) or WHR (AUC = 0.60). In contrast, among women, WHtR (AUC = 0.69) and WC (AUC = 0.68) yielded slightly better predictive than BMI (AUC = 0.67). The optimal cut-off values obtained for BMI and WHtR were similar between two sexes (BMI = 24.95 kg/m2 for men and BMI = 25.2 kg/m2 for women, WHtR = 0.51 for both sexes) whereas the optimal cut-off value for WC was higher in men than women (98.5 cm men vs. 89.5 cm women). Conclusions: Overall WC and WHtR exhibited a slightly better discriminate performance than BMI for diabetes in both sexes, particularly in women.

  2. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

  3. Changes in body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio and risk of all-cause mortality in men.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S V; Mohebi, R; Mozaffary, A; Sheikholeslami, F; Azizi, F; Hadaegh, F

    2014-11-01

    Background:There is a paucity of data about the impact of changes in anthropometric measurements on the risk of mortality events, especially in men.Methods:The study sample consists of 1805 Iranian men, aged?30 years, free from cardiovascular disease at baseline; they had undergone health examinations in both phases I (1999-2001) and II (2001-2003) and were followed up until March 2010. Participants were categorized by changes in anthropometric measurements into four groups: Group 1, change percentage<-5%; Group 2, -5% ?change percentages<+5%; Group 3, 5%?change percentage<10%; and Group 4, change percentage?10%. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) of the anthropometric changes for all-cause mortality, given group 2 as the reference.Results:During 6.6 years of follow-up, 88 cases of mortality events occurred. The confounder-adjusted multivariate HRs for the first, third and fourth groups of hip circumference (HC) changes were 3.13(1.28-7.64), 0.75(0.43-1.31) and 0.82(0.23-2.99); the corresponding values for waist to hip ratio (WHR) change were 1.80(0.75-4.33), 1.21(0.70-2.1) and 2.32(1.25-4.3). After further adjustment for mediator covariates, results did not change. The equivalent values for body mass index and waist circumference did not reach statistical significance.Conclusions:In Middle Eastern Caucasian men, increase in WHR was associated with incident mortality, which was more prominent in those with ?10% increase in the ratio. Moreover, decrease in HC was highly associated with excess risk of mortality.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.235. PMID:25369826

  4. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index With All-Cause Mortality in CKD: The REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Holly; Shoham, David; McClure, Leslie A.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Howard, George; Judd, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika; Warnock, David G.; McClellan, William

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity management requires understanding of the mortality risks associated with different adiposity measures. Study Design Prospective cohort Setting and Participants 5,805 adults with BMI ? 18.5 and stage 1–4 CKD defined by a spot urine albumin-creatinine ratio ? 30 mg/g and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 enrolled in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Predictor Body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 categorized as 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9 and ? 40 kg/m2 and waist circumference categorized as < 80, 80–87.9, 88–97.9, 98–107.9, and ? 108 cm in women and < 94, 94–101.9, 102–111.9, 112–121.9, and ?122 cm in men. Outcomes All cause mortality Measurements BMI and WC were measured using a standardized protocol during the home visit. Results A total of 686 deaths (11.8%) occurred during a median follow-up of 4 years. Compared to the referent BMI category 25–29.9 kg/m2, hazard ratios for mortality were 1.27 (95% CI, 0.96–1.69) for BMI < 25 kg/m2, and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62–1.13), 0.81 (0.52–1.26) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.54–1.65) for BMI categories 30–34.9, 35–39.9 and ? 40 kg/m2, respectively, after adjustment for covariates including waist circumference. In contrast, after adjustment for covariates including BMI, higher mortality rates were noted for all waist circumference categories compared to the referent (< 80 cm in women and < 94 cm in men) with hazard ratios 1.04 (95% CI, 0.77–1.41) for waist circumference 80–87.9 in women and 94–101.9 in men, 1.29 (95% CI, 0.92–1.81) for waist circumference 88–97.9 in women and 102–111.9 in men, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.12–2.62) for waist circumference 98–107.9 in women and 112–121.9 in men, and 2.09 (95% CI, 1.26–3.46) for waist circumference ? 108 in women and ? 122 in men. Limitations BMI and waist circumference measured at baseline only. Conclusions waist circumference should be considered in conjunction with BMI when assessing mortality risk associated with obesity in adults with CKD. PMID:21601327

  5. Changes in Weight, Waist Circumference and Compensatory Responses with Different Doses of Exercise among Sedentary, Overweight Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Church, Timothy S.; Martin, Corby K.; Thompson, Angela M.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that exercise training results in compensatory mechanisms that attenuate weight loss. However, this has only been examined with large doses of exercise. The goal of this analysis was to examine actual weight loss compared to predicted weight loss (compensation) across different doses of exercise in a controlled trial of sedentary, overweight or obese postmenopausal women (n?=?411). Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were randomized to a non-exercise control (n?=?94) or 1 of 3 exercise groups; exercise energy expenditure of 4 (n?=?139), 8 (n?=?85), or 12 (n?=?93) kcal/kg/week (KKW). Training intensity was set at the heart rate associated with 50% of each woman's peak VO2 and the intervention period was 6 months. All exercise was supervised. The main outcomes were actual weight loss, predicted weight loss (exercise energy expenditure/ 7700 kcal per kg), compensation (actual minus predicted weight loss) and waist circumference. The study sample had a mean (SD) age 57.2 (6.3) years, BMI of 31.7 (3.8) kg/m2, and was 63.5% Caucasian. The adherence to the intervention was >99% in all exercise groups. The mean (95% CI) weight loss in the 4, 8 and 12 KKW groups was ?1.4 (?2.0, ?0.8), ?2.1 (?2.9, ?1.4) and ?1.5 (?2.2, ?0.8) kg, respectively. In the 4 and 8 KKW groups the actual weight loss closely matched the predicted weight loss of ?1.0 and ?2.0 kg, respectively, resulting in no significant compensation. In the 12 KKW group the actual weight loss was less than the predicted weight loss (?2.7 kg) resulting in 1.2 (0.5, 1.9) kg of compensation (P<0.05 compared to 4 and 8 KKW groups). All exercise groups had a significant reduction in waist circumference which was independent of changes in weight. Conclusion In this study of previously sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women we observed no difference in the actual and predicted weight loss with 4 and 8 KKW of exercise (72 and 136 minutes respectively), while the 12 KKW (194 minutes) produced only about half of the predicted weight loss. However, all exercise groups had a significant reduction in waist circumference which was independent of changes in weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00011193 PMID:19223984

  6. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, María Lola; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n = 110) Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC) of 0.651 (P = 0.008), cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P < 0.001), cut-off point of ?90?cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P = 0.008), cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ?0.62 and WHtR ?0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P = 0.006) and AUC of 0.717 (P = 0.014) for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ? 0.6) could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents. PMID:25574166

  7. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Adiposity Index, and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Two Populations in Brazil: General and Amerindian

    PubMed Central

    Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Mourao-Junior, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Krieger, José E.; Mill, José G.; Pereira, Alexandre C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design and methods A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ?126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs. Results The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor. Conclusion Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations. PMID:24937307

  8. Impact of waist circumference versus adiponectin level on subclinical atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis in a sample from the general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Holewijn; M. den Heijer; D. W. Swinkels; A. F. H. Stalenhoef; J. de Graaf

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Waist circumference is a clinical marker of obesity and an established risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone and new biomarker of obesity, was recently proposed as the missing link between obesity and increased cardiovascular risk. We evaluated waist and adiponectin in a middle-aged population-based cohort to compare the impact of both obesity-markers on subclinical atherosclerosis,

  9. Associations Among Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Indicators in American Indian and Alaska Native Adults

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Edwards, Sandra; Ma, Khe-Ni; Etzel, Ruth A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about obesity-related health issues among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations. Approach A large cohort of AIAN people was assembled to evaluate factors associated with health. Setting The study was conducted in Alaska and on the Navajo Nation. Participants A total of 11,293 AIAN people were included. Methods We present data for body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and waist circumference (cm) to evaluate obesity-related health factors. Results Overall, 32.4% of the population were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), 47.1% were obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2), and 21.4% were very obese (BMI, ? 35 kg/m2). A waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men and greater than 88 cm for women was observed for 41.7% of men and 78.3% of women. Obese people were more likely to perceive their health as fair/poor than nonobese participants (prevalence ratio [PR]), 1.91; 95% CI, 1.71–2.14). Participants younger than 30 years were three times more likely to perceive their health as being fair or poor when their BMI results were 35 or greater compared with those whose BMI results were less than 25 kg/m2. A larger BMI was associated with having multiple medical conditions, fewer hours of vigorous activity, and more hours of television watching. Conclusions Given the high rates of obesity in AIAN populations and the association of obesity with other health conditions, it is important to reduce obesity among AIAN people. PMID:20232606

  10. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

  11. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth E Hatch; Jessica W Nelson; M Mustafa Qureshi; Janice Weinberg; Lynn L Moore; Martha Singer; Thomas F Webster

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. METHODS: We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES

  12. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A.; Cohen, Daniel D.; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food. PMID:24514426

  13. Ala54Thr Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 2 (FABP2) Polymorphism in Recurrent Depression: Associations with Fatty Acid Concentrations and Waist Circumference

    PubMed Central

    Assies, Johanna; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Visser, Ieke; Ruhé, Henricus G.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Schene, Aart H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid (FA)-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid–binding protein 2 (FABP2)-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I) more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II) associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III) associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. Methods We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. Results FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I) higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2?6; P=.009) and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II) lower waist circumference (P=.019). In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I) mediated by its effect on C20:2?6, and (II) different from controls. Conclusions Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment. PMID:24340071

  14. Interaction between Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity and Dietary Protein in Relation to Subsequent Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference

    PubMed Central

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Linneberg, Allan; Toft, Ulla; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Heitmann, Berit L.; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. Objective To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (?BW) or change in WC (?WC). Design Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ?5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ?BW or ?WC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses. Results When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ?BW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: ?32.3; 114.3]) or ?WC (

  15. The association of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and waist circumference in northern adults in Iran: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) level and Waist Circumference (WC) in men and women among 25–65 years old people in the north of Iran. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional and analytical research gender that carried out on the 1797 subjects (941 males and 856 females) between 25–65 years old using multistage cluster sampling technique. FBG was measured in the morning after a 12-hour fast and was determined by using laboratory kits (enzymatic methods) and spectrophotometry technique. Central obesity was defined based on World Health Organization criteria: waist circumference ?102 cm and ?88 cm in men and women, respectively. The SPSS.16 software was used for statistical analysis. Results As whole, the mean of FBG in women (98.3?±?40.1 mg/dl) was higher than in men (94.6?±?32.2 mg/dl). Also, the mean of WC in men 4.5 cm was lower than in women. In men, the mean of FBG statistically differs between normal and central obese subjects both in 35–45 year-age group (P?=?0.001) and in 45–55 year-age group (P?=?0.042). As whole, in men, the FBG level increased up 2.82 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC with the highest rate in 35–45 year-age group. In totally, in women, the FBG level increased up 3.48 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC and in 25–35 year-age group and it was higher than in other age groups. In men, the regression coefficients were constant with age increasing while in women it was decreased. Constant trend in men and decreasing trend in women with age was shown between FBG and WC. The cut-off point of WC for detecting of diabetes obtained 89 cm and 107 cm in men and women, respectively. Conclusion The positive correlation was seen between WC and FBG level and it was declined with age in women. Cut-off point for detecting of diabetes in men was less than in women. WC is useable as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among adults in the north of Iran. PMID:24393143

  16. Waist Circumference, Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Renal Function Decline in Korean Population: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyunju; Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Soong-Nang; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective investigation of obesity and renal function decline in Asia is sparse. We examined the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with renal function decline in a prospective study of Korean population. Methods A total of 454 participants who had baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels of more than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Hallym Aging Study (HAS) were included and followed for 6 years. Renal function decline was defined as follows: (1) an eGFR decline ?3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n?=?82 cases); (2) an eGFR decrease of 20% or greater (n?=?87 cases) at follow-up; (3) an eGFR decrease of 20% greater at follow-up or eGFR decline ?3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n?=?91 cases); and (4) an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up (n?=?54 cases). eGFR was determined based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between obesity and renal function decline. Results We found that central obesity was associated with faster renal function decline. Comparing WC of >95 cm in men or >90 cm in women with ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women, ORs (95% CIs) ranged from 2.31 (1.14–4.69) to 2.78 (1.19–6.50) for the 4 definitions of renal function decline (all p-values for trend <0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) also was associated with renal function decline. There was no significant association of BMI with renal function decline. Conclusions Central obesity, but not BMI, is associated with faster renal function decline in Korean population. Our results provide important evidence that simple measurement of central fat deposition rather than BMI could predict decline in renal function in Korean population. PMID:23536858

  17. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  18. The Association of Dementia With Upper Arm and Waist Circumference in Seven Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The 10/66 Cross-Sectional Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Emiliano; Stewart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background. Weight loss in dementia contributes to morbidity and mortality but the distribution of anthropometric change and its consistency between populations are less clear. Our aim was to investigate and compare the associations of dementia with waist and upper arm circumference in elders from seven low- and middle-income nations. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of 15,022 residents aged 65 years and older in Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Dominican Republic, China, and India. Dementia was assessed using a cross-culturally validated algorithm, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Associations with dementia and dementia severity (clinical dementia rating scale) were investigated in linear regression models, with fixed-effects meta-analyses used to investigate between-country heterogeneity. Results. Dementia and increased dementia severity were both associated with smaller arm and waist circumferences with little evidence of confounding by sociodemographic and health status. Associations between dementia/clinical dementia rating and arm circumference were homogeneous between countries (Higgins I2 0% and 7%, respectively), whereas those with waist circumference were more heterogeneous (Higgins I2 67% and 62%, respectively). Conclusions. Although cross-sectional, our findings are consistent with prospective observations of weight loss in dementia and suggest loss of both muscle and fat—the former being consistent across different settings and the latter being more context dependent. PMID:22389465

  19. The Relationship between Waist Circumference and Work-related Injury in Reference to the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between waist circumference and work-related injury in reference to the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods By analyzing data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the rate of injury experience according to socioeconomic status, including occupational property, of 8,261 subjects. We performed logistic regression analysis with work-related injury experience rate as dependent variable and waist circumference as an independent variable, Odds ratios (OR) were calculated, which reflect the likelihood of work-related injury experience rate, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) while controlling for relevant covariates with stratifying by sex, age, nature of injury, site of injury and occupational group. Results Among 797 persons who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 293 persons (36.8%) had work-related injury experience. After adjusting the confounding variables, the work-related injury was related to abnormal waist circumference (OR?=?1.35; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.78). In subgroups, ORs were higher in men (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.98), professional, manager, and administrator (OR?=?2.41; 95% CI: 1.10?~?5.28). Higher rate of injuries were noted in back and waist (OR?=?2.92; 95% CI: 1.49?~?5.73), and transport accident had increased risk (OR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.13?~?2.28). Conclusions Work-related injury rate differed depending on the waist circumference. The abdominal obesity was associated with higher risk of work-related injury. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for work-related injury management in Korea. PMID:24472303

  20. Dairy consumption and 6-y changes in body weight and waist circumference in middle-aged French adults1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Claire Vergnaud; Sandrine Péneau; Stacie Chat-Yung; Emmanuelle Kesse; Sébastien Czernichow; Pilar Galan; Serge Hercberg; Sandrine Bertrais

    Background:Somestudieshaveshownaninverserelationbetween calcium intake and body weight or fat mass. Objective:We aimed to investigate the relations of dairy consump- tion and calcium intake with 6-y changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC). Design: Multivariate analysis of variance according to dairy con- sumption or calcium intake quartile was presented, stratified by sex and body weight status at baseline, in 2267 middle-aged

  1. Superiority of waist circumference and body mass index in cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sobiczewski, Wojciech; Wirtwein, Marcin; Jarosz, Daniel; Gruchala, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Abstract Introduction. It has been reported in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients that mortality is inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), and directly associated with waist circumference (WC). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the general obesity parameter (BMI) and the adipose tissue discriminator (WC) with cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with CHD established by coronary angiography. Objectives. 1345 subjects with CHD were included in the PROGNOSIS (Prognostic Value of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Confirmed by Angiography) study. Patients and methods. A multivariate Cox proportional regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the relative risk of total and CV mortality according to the parameters of general obesity (BMI) and adipose tissue distribution (WC).The mean age of subjects was 63.2 ± 9.2 years, and 57% were men. Results. There was direct relationship between WC and both total mortality [hazard ratio, HR = 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.10), p < 0.01] and CV mortality [HR = 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.07), p < 0.03], but an inverse relationship between BMI and both total mortality [HR = 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.98), p < 0.03] and CV mortality [HR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.87-0.99), p < 0.05]. After combining WC with BMI, the group of subjects with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) and WC ? 104 cm had the highest rates of both total and CV mortality of all CHD patients. Conclusions. Assessment based on a combination of WC and BMI is superior to assessment based on a separate estimation of these parameters in both total and CV mortality risk evaluation. PMID:25668594

  2. Body mass index, waist circumference, and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective study among men and women

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan J.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Hu, Frank B.; Glynn, Robert J.; Caspard, Hervé; Manson, JoAnn E.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to assess the risk of CHD associated with excess weight measured by BMI and waist circumference (WC) in two large cohorts of men and women. Design, Setting, Subjects Participants in two prospective cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (N = 27,859 men; age range 39–75 years) and the Nurses’ Health Study (N = 41,534 women; 39–65 years) underwent 16-year follow-up through 2004. Results 1,823 incident cases of CHD among men and 1,173 cases among women were documented. Compared to men with BMI 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m2, those with a BMI > 30.0 kg/m2 had a multivariate-adjusted RR of CHD of 1.81 (95% CI 1.48 – 2.22). Among women, those with a BMI > 30.0 kg/m2 had a RR of CHD of 2.16 (95% CI 1.81 – 2.58). Compared to men with a WC < 84.0 cm, those with WC of greater than 102.0 cm had a RR of 2.25 (95% CI 1.77 – 2.84). Among women, the RR of CHD was 2.75 (95% CI 2.20 – 3.45) for those with WC of greater than 88.0 cm. Conclusions In these analyses from two large ongoing prospective cohort studies, both BMI and WC strongly predicted future risk of CHD. Furthermore, WC thresholds as low as 84.0 cm in men and 71.0 cm in women may be useful in identifying those at increased risk of developing CHD. The findings have broad implications in terms of CHD risk assessment in both clinical practice and epidemiologic studies. PMID:21116472

  3. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke P; Ritz, Christian; Hjorth, Mads F; Lauritzen, Lotte; Sørensen, Louise B; Petersen, Rikke A; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Mølgaard, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-12-14

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence. In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after each dietary period. The school meals did not affect the MetS score (P= 1.00). However, it was found that mean arterial pressure was reduced by 0.4 (95% CI 0.0, 0.8) mmHg (P= 0.04), fasting total cholesterol concentrations by 0.05 (95% CI 0.02, 0.08) mmol/l (P= 0.001), HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.04) mmol/l (both P< 0.05), and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance by 0.10 (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) points (P= 0.001) compared with the control diet in the intention-to-treat analyses. Waist circumference increased 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.7) cm (P< 0.001), but BMI z-score remained unaffected. Complete-case analyses and analyses adjusted for household educational level, pubertal status and physical activity confirmed the results. In conclusion, the school meals did not affect the MetS score in 8-11-year-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. PMID:25323030

  4. Body Mass Index, Waist-circumference and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Iranian Adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC alone. PMID:24288953

  5. Increased waist circumference is independently associated with hypothyroidism in Mexican Americans: replicative evidence from two large, population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans are at an increased risk of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus it is conceivable that some components of the MS may be associated with the risk of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals. Our objective was to investigate and replicate the potential association of MS traits with thyroid dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Methods We conducted association testing for 18 MS traits in two large studies on Mexican Americans – the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–10. A total of 907 participants from 42 families in SAFHS and 1633 unrelated participants from NHANES 2007–10 were included in this study. The outcome measures were prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid function index (TFI) – a measure of thyroid function. For the SAFHS, we used polygenic regression analyses with multiple covariates to test associations in setting of family studies. For the NHANES 2007–10, we corrected for the survey design variables as needed for association analyses in survey data. In both datasets, we corrected for age, sex and their linear and quadratic interactions. Results TFI was an accurate indicator of clinical thyroid status (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve to detect clinical hypothyroidism, 0.98) in both SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10. Of the 18 MS traits, waist circumference (WC) showed the most consistent association with TFI in both studies independently of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). In the SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10 datasets, each standard deviation increase in WC was associated with 0.13 (p?

  6. Balkau, 12/04/2007 1/7 Consequences of change in waist circumference on cardio-metabolic

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    syndrome were defined according to the NCEP criteria (16), except high blood pressure included anti. Stopping smoking was associated with a gain in waist, while smoking at baseline was associated with a gain

  7. An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S. D.; Islam, M.; Hydrie, M. Z. I.; Chaudhary, B.; Bellary, S.; Hashmi, S.; O’Hare, J. P.; Kumar, S.; Sanghera, D. K.; Chaturvedi, N.; Barnett, A. H.; Shera, A. S.; Weedon, M. N.; Basit, A.; Frayling, T. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Jafar, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian individuals, and to use meta-analyses to attempt to clarify to what extent BMI influences the association of FTO variants with diabetes in South Asians. Methods We analysed rs9939609 in two studies of Pakistani individuals: 1666 adults aged ? 40 years from the Karachi population-based Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study and 2745 individuals of Punjabi ancestry who were part of a Type 2 diabetes case–control study (UK Asian Diabetes Study/Diabetes Genetics in Pakistan; UKADS/DGP). The main outcomes were BMI, waist circumference and diabetes. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations between FTO alleles and outcomes. Summary estimates were combined in a meta-analysis of 8091 South Asian individuals (3919 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 4172 control subjects), including those from two previous studies. Results In the 4411 Pakistani individuals from this study, the age-, sex- and diabetes-adjusted association of FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24–0.67) kg/m2 per A-allele (P = 3.0× 10?5) and with waist circumference was 0.88 (95% CI 0.36–1.41) cm per A-allele (P = 0.001). The A-allele (30% frequency) was also significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes [per A-allele odds ratio (95% CI) 1.18 (1.07–1.30); P = 0.0009]. A meta-analysis of four South Asian studies with 8091 subjects showed that the FTO A-allele predisposes to Type 2 diabetes [1.22 (95% CI 1.14–1.31); P = 1.07× 10?8] even after adjusting for BMI [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 1.02× 10?5] or waist circumference [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 3.97× 10?5]. Conclusions The strong association between FTO genotype and BMI and waist circumference in South Asians is similar to that observed in Europeans. In contrast, the strong association of FTO genotype with diabetes is only partly accounted for by BMI. PMID:21294771

  8. Dietary Fiber and Whole Grain Intake Lessen Gains in Weight and Waist Circumference in Normal Weight Individuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods rich in dietary fiber, such as whole grains, may play an important role in maintaining a healthy body weight and preventing obesity because of their lower energy density. We examined the relationship between dietary fiber and whole grain consumption and changes in body weight and waist circumf...

  9. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

    Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

  10. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

    2002-01-01

    Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

  11. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference: associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity - a prospective study of three independent cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight (?BW) and waist circumference (?WC). Methods A total of 7,569 participants’ from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ?BW or ?WC. SNP-score?×?ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. Results We found no significant associations between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC. Regarding SNP-score?×?ascorbic acid interactions, each additional risk allele of the 14 WHR associated SNPs associated with a ?WC of 0.039?cm/year (P?=?0.02, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.073) per 100?mg/day higher ascorbic acid intake. However, the association to ?WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ?BW. Conclusion In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically predisposed to a high WHR. However, given the quite limited association any public health relevance is questionable. PMID:24886192

  12. Physical Environment May Modify The Association Between Depressive Symptoms And Change In Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Roux, Ana V Diez; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Schreiner, Pamela; Carnethon, Mercedes; Nettleton, Jennifer; Mujahid, Mahasin; Michos, Erin D.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Golden, Sherita H

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and adiposity has been recognized, the contribution of neighborhood factors to this relationship has not been assessed. This study evaluates whether physical and social neighborhood environment modify the bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and adiposity (measured by waist circumference and BMI). Methods Using data on 5,122 men and women (age 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) we investigated whether neighborhood physical (i.e. walking environment, availability of healthy food) and social (i.e. safety, aesthetics, social coherence) environments modified the association between: (1) baseline elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale score ? 16) and change in adiposity (as measured by waist circumference [WC] and body mass index [BMI]); and (2) baseline overweight/obesity (WC > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women, or BMI ? 25 kg/m2) and change in depressive symptoms using multilevel models. Neighborhood-level factors were obtained from the MESA Neighborhood Study. Results A greater increase in WC in participants with versus without EDS was observed in those living in poorly-rated physical environment, but not in those living in better-rated environments (interaction p-value=0.045). No associations were observed with BMI. Baseline overweight/obesity was not associated with change in depressive symptoms and there was no modification by neighborhood-level factors. Conclusions EDS were associated with greater increase in WC among individuals living in poor than in better-rated physical environments. No association was found between overweight/obesity and change in depressive symptoms. PMID:24388121

  13. Surrogate Markers of Visceral Adiposity in Young Adults: Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index Are More Accurate than Waist Hip Ratio, Model of Adipose Distribution and Visceral Adiposity Index

    PubMed Central

    Borruel, Susana; Moltó, José F.; Alpañés, Macarena; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F.

    2014-01-01

    Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), model of adipose distribution (MOAD), visceral adiposity index (VAI), and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression), and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88–0.99) and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85–0.98) probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis. PMID:25479351

  14. Measurement of Waist and Hip Circumference with a Body Surface Scanner: Feasibility, Validity, Reliability, and Correlations with Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jaeschke, Lina; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Pischon, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body surface scanners (BS), which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC). However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM) and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) compared to traditional manual measurements (MM). Methods As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL). Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Results Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0cm; r = 0.98). Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98). Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively. Conclusions Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data indicate good validity, excellent reliability, and similar correlations to parameters of the MetS. PMID:25749283

  15. The Associations of Month of Birth With Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Leg Length: Findings From the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Methods We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ? 18.5 kg/m2. A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). Results MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March–July for BMI and March–June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m2 for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February–August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). Conclusions These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena. PMID:25716579

  16. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and determination of optimal cut-off values of waist circumference in university employees from Angola

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Pedro; Capingana, Daniel P; Mill, José G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Africans may be inconsistent due to lack of African-specific cut-off values of waist circumference (WC). This study determined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and defined optimal values of WC in Africans. Methods This cross-sectional study collected demographic, anthropometric and clinical data of 615 Universitary employees, in Luanda, Angola. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to assess cut-off values of WC. Results The crude prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was higher with the JIS definition (27.8%, age-standardised 14.1%) than with the ATP III definition (17.6%, age-standardised 8.7%). Optimal cut-off values of WC were 87.5 and 80.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among our African subjects. Our data suggest different WC cut-off values for Africans in relation to other populations. PMID:24626517

  17. Waist Circumference and BMI in Relation to Serum High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in Cuban Americans With and Without Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Fatma G; Whisner, Suzanne; Zarini, Gustavo G; Nath, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiposity by diabetes status and gender in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) was studied. Adult subjects, 226 females, 129 males participated in a case control, single time point study. Subjects with T2D were older, had higher waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). WC and BMI were associated with ln hs-CRP (P < 0.001). An interaction with diabetes status was found for BMI (P = 0.037). Gender showed a strong relationship with ln hs-CRP (P < 0.001), which was moderated by diabetes status. Only males without diabetes exhibited a significant relationship for both WC and BMI with ln hs-CRP. In this sample of Cuban-Americans, WC and BMI had stronger associations with ln hs-CRP but not with diabetes status. Obesity prevention and controlling for CRP levels may be necessary to eliminate its contributions to develop diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:20617007

  18. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n?=?7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e.g. relatively tall or short children) to identify and monitor overweight in children. This may improve early identification and prevention of overweight and overweight-related health problems in children. PMID:23617233

  19. Exploring secular changes in the association between BMI and waist circumference in Mexican-origin and white women: a comparison of Mexico and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Sandra S.; Barquera, Simon; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives BMI and waist circumference (WC) tend to be highly correlated, but changes in lifestyle behaviors may promote greater accumulation of abdominal fat for the same BMI in recent years. We examined secular shifts in BMI and WC distributions, and investigated whether WC for a given BMI has changed over time among Mexican-origin women in Mexico and the U.S., and in U.S. white women as a comparison. Methods Nationally-representative surveys for women aged 20-49 years from Mexico (1988, 1999, and 2012) (n=37116) and the US (1988-1994, 1999-2002, and 2007-2010) (n=6985) were used. Quantile regressions estimated age-adjusted changes in BMI and WC across years; linear regression tested changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for age and BMI. Results In all women, BMI and WC at most centiles increased over time. WC was also significantly higher over time for the same BMI, though the increase was largest in Mexican women. For example, WC was 6.7 cm (standard error (SE): 0.17, p<0.0001) higher in 2012 than in 1999 among Mexican women, holding age and BMI constant. Estimates were smaller in magnitude for Mexican-American and white women (~3 cm, p<0.01), even when comparing over a longer timeframe (1988-1994 to 2007-2010). In all groups, WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent among younger cohorts. Conclusion WC for the same BMI has increased in Mexican-American, white, and Mexican women of reproductive age. These patterns may have implications for future cardio-metabolic burden in Mexico and the US. PMID:24917415

  20. Usefulness of measuring both body mass index and waist circumference for the estimation of visceral adiposity and related cardiometabolic risk profile (from the INSPIRE ME IAA study).

    PubMed

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Borel, Anne-Laure; Aschner, Pablo; Barter, Phil; Van Gaal, Luc; Tan, Chee Eng; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ross, Robert; Brulle-Wohlhueter, Claire; Alméras, Natalie; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Despite its well-documented relation with visceral adiposity (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk (CMR), whether waist circumference (WC) should be measured in addition to body mass index (BMI) remains debated. This study tested the relevance of adding WC to BMI for the estimation of VAT and CMR. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship with Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4,504 patients (29 countries). Both BMI and WC were measured, whereas VAT and liver fat were assessed by computed tomography. A composite CMR score was calculated. From the 4,109 patients included in the present analyses (20 ? BMI < 40 kg/m(2), 47% women), about 30% displayed discordant values for WC and BMI quintiles, despite a strong correlation between the 2 anthropometric variables (r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for men and women, respectively, p <0.001). Within each single BMI unit, VAT and WC showed substantial variability between subjects (mean difference between 90th and 10th percentiles: 175 cm(2)/16 cm and 137 cm(2)/18 cm for VAT/WC in men and women, respectively). Within each BMI category, increasing gender-specific WC tertiles were associated with significantly higher VAT, liver fat, and with a more adverse CMR profile. In conclusion, this large international cardiometabolic study highlights the frequent discordance between BMI and WC, driven by the substantial variability in VAT for a given BMI. Within each BMI category, WC was cross-sectionally associated with VAT, liver fat, and CMR factors. Thus, WC allows a further refinement of the CMR related to any given BMI. PMID:25499404

  1. Stronger Associations of Sagittal Abdominal Diameter with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions than Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged U.S. White and Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Katsumi; Choo, Jina; Hopson, Michael J.S.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Curb, J. David; Shin, Chol; Evans, Rhobert W.; Kadowaki, Takashi; Otake, Teruo; Kadota, Aya; Kadowaki, Syaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; El-Saed, Aiman; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis H.; Sekikawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Objective Both sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and waist circumference (WC) highly correlate with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) being linked to an atherogenic lipoprotein profile. However, it is uncertain whether SAD is a better correlate of atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions than WC. We examined relative associations of SAD versus WC with lipoprotein subfractions for U.S. white and Japanese men, concurrently examining the associations of VAT versus subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with lipoprotein subfractions. Methods A population-based sample of 260 white and 282 Japanese men aged 40–49 was examined for VAT and SAT by computed tomography, SAD and WC by a portable sliding-beam caliper and a measuring tape, respectively, and lipoprotein subfractions by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Both SAD and WC were significantly and positively associated with large VLDL and total and small LDL particle concentrations, and inversely associated with large HDL particle concentration for both white and Japanese men. In BMI-adjusted regression models, the significant associations of SAD remained for both white and Japanese men, whereas those of WC became non-significant for white men. When SAD and WC were simultaneously included into the BMI-adjusted models, the associations of SAD remained significant and statistically stronger than those WC for both white and Japanese men. Furthermore, the pattern of the associations of SAD with those lipoprotein subfractions showed comparable to that of the associations of VAT. Conclusion SAD showed comparable to VAT and stronger than WC in the associations with atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions for middle aged, nondiabetic, white and Japanese men. PMID:20580038

  2. Stronger associations of sagittal abdominal diameter with atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions than waist circumference in middle-aged US white and Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Katsumi; Choo, Jina; Hopson, Michael J S; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Curb, J David; Shin, Chol; Evans, Rhobert W; Kadowaki, Takashi; Otake, Teruo; Kadota, Aya; Kadowaki, Syaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; El-Saed, Aiman; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis H; Sekikawa, Akira

    2010-12-01

    Both sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and waist circumference (WC) highly correlate with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) being linked to an atherogenic lipoprotein profile. However, it is uncertain whether SAD is a better correlate of atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions than WC. We examined relative associations of SAD vs WC with lipoprotein subfractions for US white and Japanese men, concurrently examining the associations of VAT vs subcutaneous adipose tissue with lipoprotein subfractions. A population-based sample of 260 white and 282 Japanese men aged 40 to 49 years was examined for VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue by computed tomography; SAD and WC by a portable sliding-beam caliper and a measuring tape, respectively; and lipoprotein subfractions by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both SAD and WC were significantly and positively associated with large very low-density lipoprotein and total and small low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations, and inversely associated with large high-density lipoprotein particle concentration for both white and Japanese men. In body mass index-adjusted regression models, the significant associations of SAD remained for both white and Japanese men, whereas those of WC became nonsignificant for white men. When SAD and WC were simultaneously included into the body mass index-adjusted models, the associations of SAD remained significant and statistically stronger than those of WC for both white and Japanese men. Furthermore, the pattern of the associations of SAD with those lipoprotein subfractions was comparable to that of the associations of VAT. Sagittal abdominal diameter was comparable to VAT and stronger than WC in the associations with atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions for middle-aged, nondiabetic, white and Japanese men. PMID:20580038

  3. Changes in epidemiologic associations with different exposure metrics: a case study of phthalate exposure associations with body mass index and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista; Sobus, Jon; Phillips, Martin; Blessinger, Todd; Lorber, Matthew; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2014-12-01

    The use of human biomonitoring data to characterize exposure to environmental contaminants in epidemiology studies has expanded greatly in recent years. Substantial variability in effect measures may arise when using different exposure metrics for a given contaminant, and it is often not clear which metric is the best surrogate for the 'causal' or 'true' exposure. Here we evaluated variability and potential bias in epidemiologic associations resulting from the use of different phthalate exposure metrics in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We examined associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and the outcomes of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We examined each of the following NHANES-derived exposure metrics for metabolites of individual phthalates: molar excretion rate (nmol/min), molar amount (nmol), molar concentration (nmol/mL, with and without additional model adjustment for creatinine), creatinine corrected molar concentration (nmol/g creatinine), and reconstructed daily phthalate intake (nmol/kg/day). In order to investigate potential biasing effect of each metric, we first assumed that daily intake of the parent phthalate is the causal exposure. We then constructed a simulated population based on the 2009-2010 NHANES, and randomly assigned each individual a di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) intake dose based on a published distribution, but independent of any other factor. Accordingly, all associations between these randomly assigned intake doses and individuals' BMI and WC should be null. Next, demographic data in the NHANES were incorporated into a pharmacokinetic model to predict urinary molar excretions of five DEHP metabolites based on the randomly assigned DEHP intake. The predicted molar excretions were then used to calculate the same exposure metrics listed above. Three exposure metrics (randomly generated intake, excretion rate, urine concentration) showed no significant associations with BMI, which supports the null hypothesis stated above. In contrast, metrics adjusted for creatinine showed a significant negative correlation, and reconstructed daily intake showed a significant positive correlation, indicating the introduction of bias away from the true (i.e., null) association. Interestingly, trends in the simulation analysis were similar to those seen in the observed NHANES data. Our findings show that, at least in this example case, the choice of exposure metric can introduce significant bias of varying magnitude and direction into the calculation of epidemiologic associations. PMID:25090576

  4. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR) as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adult Population in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat; Chen, Cynthia; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Fallows, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and CVD risk factors in the local adult population. Methods and Findings This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%), aged 21–74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012) undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol). When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ?23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ?0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC. Conclusions BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore. PMID:25880905

  5. Physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat in 0.5 million adults: the China Kadoorie Biobank study123

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Derrick; Whitlock, Gary; Guo, Yu; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Bian, Zheng; Hong, Lai-San; Feng, Shixian; Chen, Xiaofang; Chen, Lingli; Zhou, Renxian; Mao, Enke; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few large studies in China have investigated total physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity. Objective: We investigated determinants of physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity in China. Design: A total of 466,605 generally healthy participants (age: 30–79 y, 60% female) in the China Kadoorie Biobank were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Self-reported information on a range of activities was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as metabolic equivalent task hours per day (MET-h/d) spent on work, transportation, housework, and nonsedentary recreation. Sedentary leisure time was quantified as hours per day. Adiposity measures included BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat (by bioimpedance analysis). Associations were estimated by linear and logistic regression. Results: The mean physical activity was 22 MET-h/d, and the mean sedentary leisure time was 3.0 h/d. For each sex, physical activity was about one-third lower among professionals/administrators than among factory workers, with intermediate levels for other occupational categories. A 1-SD (14 MET-h/d) greater physical activity was associated with a 0.15-unit (95% CI: 0.14, 0.16) lower BMI (in kg/m2), a 0.58-cm (95% CI: 0.55, 0.61) smaller waist circumference, and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.50) percentage points less body fat. In contrast, a 1-SD (1.5 h/d) greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a 0.19-unit higher BMI (95% CI: 0.18, 0.20), a 0.57-cm larger waist circumference (95% CI: 0.54, 0.59), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.46) percentage points more body fat. For any given physical activity level, greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a greater prevalence of increased BMI, as was lower physical activity for any given sedentary leisure time. Conclusions: In adult Chinese, physical activity varies substantially by occupation, and lack of physical activity and excess sedentary leisure time are independently and jointly associated with greater adiposity. PMID:23364014

  6. Larger Thigh and Hip Circumferences Are Associated with Better Glucose Tolerance: The Hoorn Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieke B. Snijder; Jacqueline M. Dekker; Marjolein Visser; John S. Yudkin; Coen D. A. Stehouwer; Lex M. Bouter; Robert J. Heine; Giel Nijpels; Jacob C. Seidell

    2003-01-01

    Objective: A higher waist-to-hip ratio, which can be due to a higher waist circumference, a lower hip circumference, or both, is associated with higher glucose levels and incident diabetes. A lower hip circumference could reflect either lower fat mass or lower muscle mass. Muscle mass might be better reflected by thigh circumference. The aim of this study was to investigate

  7. Neck Circumference and Cardio- Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nagendran Vijaya; Ismail, Mohammed H.; M, Girish; Tripathy, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Only few studies about neck circumference (NC) as a measure of cardio metabolic syndrome available from India. Study was conducted to establish an association between neck circumference and cardio metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. NCEP: ATPIII 2001 guideline was used for diagnosis of Cardio-metabolic syndrome among subjects. Neck circumference was measured and it was correlated with Cardio-metabolic syndrome. Results: Mean neck circumference was found to be 36.5 cms. Cardio-metabolic syndrome was present in 272 participants, of which 100 were females and 172 males. Among females 82(82%) had neck circumference >34cms, 18(18%) had <34cms and among males 117(68%)had NC >37cms and 55(32%) had NC<37cms. All individual parameter of cardio metabolic risk factor, i.e., BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, FBS, HDL & TG except waist/hip ratio were correlating with abnormal neck circumference when compared with those with normal neck circumference. Conclusion: Neck circumference with metabolic syndrome correlated better among females than males. Men with NC >37 cm and women with NC >34 cm are more prone for cardio metabolic syndrome and require additional evaluation. Measurement of NC is a simple, time saving, and least invasive measurement tool. PMID:25177592

  8. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  9. Comparison of Body Mass Index and Waist\\/Height Ratio in Predicting Definite Coronary Artery Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Siavash; M. Sadeghi; F. Salarifar; M. Amini; F. Shojaee-Moradie

    2008-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist\\/hip ratio, waist\\/height ratio (WHtR) and skin fold thickness are clinical tools enabling the evaluation of obesity. WHtR is a recently introduced index to assess central fat distribution. This study was performed to compare the prognostic value of WHtR and BMI for definite coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A cross-sectional study was

  10. Waist related anthropometric measures - simple and useful predictors of coronary artery disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sharanjit; Sharma, Anand; Singh, Harinder Jot

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the waist related anthropometric measures like waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist – hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. Methods: The study included 88 women aged 40-80 years. Waist circumference, hip circumference, height, weight, age, and other covariates were collected by questionnaire. The primary endpoint was incident coronary heart disease that was reported by physician. The data was analyzed statistically using ?2-test for quantitative data and student t-test. The significance of the results as determined in 95.0% confidence interval. Results: The mean age was 59.07 ± 11.53 in the study group and 54.36 ± 10.84 in the control group. The waist circumference in the study group was higher (95.443 ± 11.187) than the control group (74.886 ± 6.672) (p < 0.001). The mean waist to hip ratio (WHR) was 0.96 ± 0.08 in the study group and 0.78 ± 0.06 in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean waist to height ratio (WHtR) was 0.62 ± 0.07 in the study group and 0.48 ± 0.04 in the control group (p < 0.001). Waist derived measures were superior to BMI in predicting CAD. The unadjusted AUC (95% Confidence Interval) was 0.008 (0.006-0.095) for WHtR, 0.001 (0.00 0.002) for waist – hip ratio, and 1 (0.323-1.766) for body mass index. Conclusion: Waist related anthropometric measures are important predictors as CAD risk factors among middle-aged and older women, as compared to BMI.

  11. Comparison of Two Optimization Methods to Derive Energy Parameters for Protein Folding: Perceptron and Z Score

    E-print Network

    Mirny, Leonid

    Comparison of Two Optimization Methods to Derive Energy Parameters for Protein Folding: Perceptron on finding, by means of a perceptron learning scheme, energy parameters such that the native conformations distribution (Z- score). Whereas the perceptron method is sensitive mainly to "outlier" (i.e., extremal) decoys

  12. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePLUS

    Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the widest part of the skull is larger than expected ... A newborn's head is usually about 2 centimeters larger than the chest size. Between 6 months and 2 years, both measurements ...

  13. The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of elevated levels of small, dense LDL cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene F. Gazi; Theodosios D. Filippatos; Vasilis Tsimihodimos; Vasilios G. Saougos; Evangelos N. Liberopoulos; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis; Alexandros D. Tselepis; Moses Elisaf

    2006-01-01

    The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype (hypertriglyceridemia and increased waist circumference) has been proposed\\u000a as an inexpensive tool to monitor individuals with the atherogenic metabolic triad, hyperinsulinemia, hyperapobetalipoproteinemia,\\u000a and increased levels of small, dense LDL (sdLDL) particles. We assessed the association of the HTGW phenotype with the metabolic\\u000a syndrome (MetSyn) and the atherogenic metabolic triad in inhabitants (n=260) of northwestern Greece

  14. Mapping Inundation Uncertainty with a Standard Score (Z-Score) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, B. C.; Schmid, K. A.; Waters, K. J.; Marcy, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Vertical error in the topographic data is the most important factor affecting the accuracy of single value surface model inundation maps (NRC, 2009). A single value surface model, often referred to as a ‘bathtub’ model, requires two primary topographic input variables: (1) the water surface (i.e. tidal datum + inundation level), and (2) the ground elevation. Unfortunately, both variables include spatially varying vertical error that introduces uncertainty into the resultant map for a given inundation scenario. More sophisticated hydraulic and geomorphic models have their own error budgets, which can be quite complex depending on model assumptions. Standard scores, or z-scores, measure the number of standard deviations an observation falls above or below the mean. This investigation employs z-scores to map the uncertainty introduced by the propagated error associated with the topographic variables. The technique permits greater flexibility than existing uncertainty methods which map the horizontal extension of the elevation data at the 95% confidence level. The vertical error in the water surface variable is due to uncertainties and spatial variability in the hydrodynamic models which drive the tidal datum conversions. The National Geodetic Survey’s (NGS) Vertical Datum Transformation Tool (VDatum) software can be used to convert between tidally referenced and orthometric elevations, but depending on location, results in errors on the order of 5-20 cm. An additional source of uncertainty is the elevation data itself. Most inundation mapping applications employ Digital Elevation Models (DEM) derived from topographic lidar data. Although lidar is among the most accurate large area elevation collection techniques, it has limitations in certain land cover types (e.g. forest or estuarine marsh), and its vertical accuracy can vary both within and between collections. To quantify this variability, accuracy assessments are performed to determine the vertical root mean square error (RMSEZ) of the lidar data. After combining the RMSEZ with the water surface error, a z-score can be calculated for each grid cell in the DEM. The resultant z-scores can then be expressed as a cumulative probability, or rank of ‘uncertainty’. Because the two error sources are not correlated, the propagated error can be calculated using the square root of the sum of the squared errors. An important assumption is that the propagated error has a normal and non-biased distribution; the error is assumed to equal the standard deviation and the computation of z-scores requires a normal distribution. An elevation related error that is not included in the model is the inaccuracy of extending the tidal corrections landward and will vary with modeled inundation levels; VDatum grids are currently limited to a short distance landward from the shoreline. The result is a map of ‘uncertainty’ as opposed to depths or elevations, which can be mapped at any desired level of probability. The technique can accommodate various spatial and non-spatial error estimates. Incorporation of ‘geomorphic uncertainty’ is also explored and may provide a link between the often-used and simple ‘bath tub’ model and more complex geomorphic models.

  15. Characteristics of Walkable Built Environments and BMI z-Scores in Children: Evidence from a Large Electronic Health Record Database

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Melly, Steven J.; Marshall, Richard; Sequist, Thomas D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity remains a prominent public health problem. Walkable built environments may prevent excess weight gain. Objectives: We examined the association of walkable built environment characteristics with body mass index (BMI) z-score among a large sample of children and adolescents. Methods: We used geocoded residential address data from electronic health records of 49,770 children and adolescents 4 to < 19 years of age seen at the 14 pediatric practices of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates from August 2011 through August 2012. We used eight geographic information system (GIS) variables to characterize walkable built environments. Outcomes were BMI z-score at the most recent visit and BMI z-score change from the earliest available (2008–2011) to the most recent (2011–2012) visit. Multivariable models were adjusted for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood median household income. Results: In multivariable cross-sectional models, living in closer proximity to recreational open space was associated with lower BMI z-score. For example, children who lived in closest proximity (quartile 1) to the nearest recreational open space had a lower BMI z-score (? = –0.06; 95% CI: –0.08, –0.03) compared with those living farthest away (quartile 4; reference). Living in neighborhoods with fewer recreational open spaces and less residential density, traffic density, sidewalk completeness, and intersection density were associated with higher cross-sectional BMI z-score and with an increase in BMI z-score over time. Conclusions: Overall, built environment characteristics that may increase walkability were associated with lower BMI z-scores in a large sample of children. Modifying existing built environments to make them more walkable may reduce childhood obesity. Citation: Duncan DT, Sharifi M, Melly SJ, Marshall R, Sequist TD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM. 2014. Characteristics of walkable built environments and BMI z-scores in children: evidence from a large electronic health record database. Environ Health Perspect 122:1359–1365;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307704 PMID:25248212

  16. The reliability of weight-for-length/height Z scores in children

    PubMed Central

    Mwangome, Martha K; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends weight-for-length/height (WFL/H), represented as a Z score for diagnosing acute malnutrition among children aged 0 to 60 months. Under controlled conditions, weight, height and length measurements have high degree of reliability. However, the reliability when combined into a WFL/H Z score, in all settings is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of published studies assessing the reliability of WFL/Hz on PubMed and Google scholar. Studies were included if they presented reliability scores for the derived index of WFL/Hz, for children under 5 years. Meta-analysis was conducted for a pooled estimate of reliability overall, and for children above and below 24 months old. Twenty six studies on reliability of anthropometry were identified but only three, all community-based studies, reported reliability scores for WFL/Hz. The overall pooled intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) estimate for WFL/Hz among children aged 0 to 60 months was 0.81 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.99). Among children aged less than 24 months the pooled ICC estimate from two studies was 0.72 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.77) while the estimate reported for children above 24 months from one study was 0.97 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Although WFL/Hz is recommended for diagnosis of acute under nutrition among children below 5 years, information on its reliability in all settings is sparse. In community settings, reliability of WFL/Hz is considerably lower than for absolute measures of weight and length/height, especially in younger children. The reliability of WFL/Hz needs further evaluation. PMID:24785183

  17. Wrist circumference as a novel predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: results of a decade follow up in a West Asian cohort.

    PubMed

    Mohebi, Reza; Mohebi, Ahmad; Sheikholeslami, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-11-01

    No study has yet evaluated the effect of wrist circumference on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an adult population. The present study included 3642 women, aged ?30 years, free of CVD at baseline, who had undergone health examinations between January 1999 and 2001 and were followed up until March 2010. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) of wrist circumference for CVD and hypertension events. During 10 years of follow-up, 284 cases of first CVD and 615 cases of incident hypertension occurred. In a model adjusted for conventional CVD risk factors, the HR of 1 cm increase in wrist circumference was 1.15 (1.06-1.25) for hypertension and was marginally significant for CVD (HR, 1.12 [1.00-1.25]; P-value 0.052). After considering body mass index and waist circumference in the model, we found significant interaction between waist circumference and wrist circumference in risk prediction of hypertension and CVD (P < .001). In non-centrally obese women (waist circumference <95 cm), in multivariable model plus body mass index and waist circumference, increase in wrist circumference was independently associated with both hypertension (HR, 1.17 [1.02-1.35]) and CVD (HR, 1.29 [1.03-1.61]). However, among centrally obese women (waist circumference ?95 cm), wrist circumference increase could not predict either hypertension (HR, 0.97 [0.84-1.18]) or CVD events (HR, 0.90 [0.75-1.07]). Wrist circumference as a novel anthropometric measure was an independent predictor for incident hypertension and CVD events among non-centrally obese women. PMID:25455005

  18. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK. 

    E-print Network

    Unwin, Nigel; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, Raj; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    . METHODS: Population based samples of Chinese and European adults were recruited. Each subject had a standard WHO oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 375 Chinese and 610 Europid subjects. The age adjusted prevalences...

  19. Waist cancer: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Girish D; Borisa, Ashok; Tayade, Mukund B

    2011-11-01

    Saree is a type of female costume unique to Indian subcontinent. This includes a superficial cloth and a skirt underneath which is fastened securely to the waist by a cord. Persistent and long-term wearing of this costume has resulted in waist dermatoses. This waist dermatoses giving rise to malignancy is being reported here and 'saree cancer' is the term used to this entity of waist cancer. Here two cases of waist cancer are reported. PMID:22666941

  20. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist and Metabolic Abnormalities in Brazilian Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and its association with metabolic abnormalities in schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 241 students aged 10 to 14 years from public schools (4 schools) and private (2 schools) from Paranavai town, in Parana State, Brazil. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference) and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL and LDL-C were analyzed. In statistical tests of Pearson partial correlation and multivariate logistic regression, considering p<0,05. Results The prevalence of HTW was 20,7% among schoolchildren, 14,1% in males and 6,6% among females with higher proportions aged 10–12 years old. Multivariate analysis indicated that the students who attended private schools were nearly three times more likely (95% CI: 1,2–5,6), to be diagnosed with HTW compared with those who attended public schools (p?=?0,006), and LDL-C was the only metabolic variable positively associated with the outcome (p?=?0,001), where the students categorized with elevated serum levels had odds 4,2 times (95% CI: 1,6–10,9) having the HTW compared to students in appropriate levels. Conclusion This study showed higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in students when compared to prospective studies in Brazil and worldwide. It also showed that the only metabolic alteration associated with HTW phenotype was LDL-C (low density lipoprotein). PMID:25397885

  1. RESEARCH LETTERS waist/hip ratio accounted for only 18%. Waist/hip ratio

    E-print Network

    Cornelissen, Piers

    and waist/hip ratio alone. Previous studies have asked participants to rate line drawings of female figures body-mass index with narrower or wide waists. With images of real women, body-mass index and waist. Adaptive significance of female attractiveness: role of waist-to- hip ratio. J Pers Soc Psychol 1993; 65

  2. Ethnic Differences in Subcutaneous Adiposity and Waist Girth in Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan B. Sisson; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Sathanur R. Srinivasan; Wei Chen; David S. Freedman; Claude Bouchard; Gerald S. Berenson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic differences in adiposity as measured by sum of skinfolds (SKF) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents, after statistical adjustment for the BMI and age. A cross sectional sample of 3,218 (55% white, 49% male) children and adolescents aged 5–18 years who participated in the Bogalusa Heart Study (1992–1994) were

  3. Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, Müller MJ, Plachta-Danielzik S, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, von Kries R. 2014. Differences in BMI z-scores between offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers: a longitudinal study of German children from birth through 14 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:761–767;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307139 PMID:24695368

  4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in a young Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Behnam; Khashayar, Patricia; Rezai Homami, Mohsen; Pajouhi, Atieh; Soltani, Akbar; Larijani, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is considered the gold standard for non-invasive measurement of bone mass. T-scores and Z-scores are used to present the results of bone mass. The present study was designed to evaluate the discordance between T-scores and Z-scores calculated at a same level and its relation with age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of normal population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive survey, Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS), designed to assess bone health among healthy adults. Each individual underwent both L1–L4 antero-posterior lumbar spine and hip DXA scan. The difference between the T- and Z-scores measured at each of the four skeletal sites was then calculated. Results: A -1.21 to 1.21 point difference was noted in the Z- and T- scores measured at each site. While the difference between the T-and Z-scores was less than 0.5 SD in most of the cases, the difference was higher than 1 SD in about 5% of the subjects. Conclusion: Standardization of Z-score definition and calculation techniques as well as developing an ethnicity-matched reference population is needed to improve the reliability of DXA-generated Z-scores. PMID:25695009

  5. Circumference

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    aboutdifferences between first and secondseason Fraser and third/fourth seasonFraser. People are often very different intheir mannerism and behaviors, dependingon the company they?re keeping?and Iwas thinking about the way Fraser is withthe two Rays...?what harmwould it do to simply walk past, to see if the familiar flicker oftelevision lit Ray?s apartment window? The walk?a mere 37blocks?would do Diefenbaker good, and if Ray was asleep, if thetelevision light wasn?t on, then they could camp in the park...

  6. Pattern Alteration: Even Hip Circumference

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    . 4). Place tissue paper under it. To complete either alteration: 5. Tape the pattern in place. 6. Redraw the seamline, the cutting line and the hemline (Figs. 5 and 6). Princess Dress or Six-Gored Skirt Alterations for a basic skirt apply to a dress... without a waist seam. Divide the amount of alteration you need by the number of seams, excluding any center front and back seams. Divide this number by two to determine how much to alter each seam allowance. If the pattern has to be altered more than 6...

  7. Rate of Head Circumference Growth as a Function of Autism Diagnosis and History of Autistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Sara Jane; Nalty, Theresa; Munson, Jeff; Brock, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Dawson, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Several reports indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased rate of head growth in early childhood. Increased rate of growth may index aberrant processes during early development, may precede the onset of symptoms, and may predict severity of the disease course. We examined rate of change in occipitofrontal circumference measurements (abstracted from medical records) in 28 boys with ASD and in 8 boys with developmental delay without autism from birth to age 36 months. Only children who had more than 3 occipitofrontal circumference measurements available during this age period were included. All data were converted to z scores based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention norms. Rate of growth from birth to age 36 months was statistically significantly higher for the ASD group than the developmental delay group, with children with ASD showing a statistically significant increase in occipitofrontal circumference relative to norms between 7 and 10 months; this group difference in rate of growth was more robust when height was used as a covariate. Rate of growth was not found to be different for children with ASD whose parents reported a history of loss of skills (regression) vs those whose parents reported early onset of autism symptoms. Findings from this study suggest that the aberrant growth is present in the first year of life and precedes the onset of diagnosis in children with ASD with and without a history of autistic regression. PMID:17940244

  8. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  9. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, María-Isabel; Arós, Fernando; Wärnberg, Julia; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Díaz-López, Andrés; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. Results In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. Conclusions We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive abilities of waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference on the metabolic disease. PMID:22905246

  10. Scrotal circumference of Australian beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, Geoffry; McGowan, Michael R; Lisle, Allan; Muller, Tracy; Allen, Jack; Duff, Christian; Holroyd, Richard G; Corbet, Nicholas J; Burns, Brian M

    2014-04-01

    Normal range for scrotal circumference in Australian beef bulls was established using more than 300,000 measurements of breed, management group, age, liveweight, and scrotal circumference. The data used were derived from Australian bull breeders and two large research projects in northern Australia. Most bulls were within 250 to 750 kg liveweight and 300 to 750 days of age. The differences between breeds and variances within breeds were higher when scrotal circumference was predicted from age rather than liveweight, because of variance in growth rates. The average standard deviation for predicted scrotal circumference from liveweight and age was 25 and 30 mm, respectively. Scrotal circumference by liveweight relationships have a similar pattern across all breeds, except in Waygu, with a 50 to 70 mm range in average scrotal circumference at liveweights between 250 and 750 kg. Temperate breed bulls tended to have higher scrotal circumference at the same liveweight than tropically adapted breeds. Five groupings of common beef breeds in Australian were identified, within which there were similar predictions of scrotal circumference from liveweight. It was concluded that liveweight and breed are required to identify whether scrotal circumference is within normal range for Australian beef bulls that experience a wide range of nutritional conditions. PMID:24480481

  11. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleliani de Cassia; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Camilo, Daniella Fernandes; Antonio, Maria Ângela R. de G. M.; Cassani, Roberta Soares L.; Geloneze, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve. RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services. PMID:25119754

  12. Relationship of Circumference to Diameter ~ Understanding Pi

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cindy Speece

    2012-07-25

    In this lesson, students will develop an understanding of the meaning of pi and how it relates to the relationship to circumference and diameter. This is a hands-on activity where students measure circular objects and calculate the relationship of the circumference to the diameter.

  13. Attend To Precision: Circumference and Diameter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGHB Boston

    2013-01-01

    This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #6—attend to precision. The video clip shows two important instances of the idea of precision; that precision is important in their measurements of the circumference and diameter and in their use of vocabulary in context as they discover the relationship between circumference, diameter, circles, and pi. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

  14. Relationships between IGF-I and Weight Z Score, BMI, Tricipital Skin-Fold Thickness, Type of Feeding in Healthy Infants in the First 5 Months of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Savino; G. E. Nanni; S. Maccario; R. Oggero; G. C. Mussa

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in exclusively breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants in the first 5 months of life and to study the relationship between the IGF-I level and Z score for weight, body mass index (BMI) and tricipital skin-fold thickness. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in order to evaluate serum IGF-I in

  15. Two-Layer Appearance on Brain Perfusion SPECT in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Qualitative Analysis by Using Easy Z-Score Imaging System, eZIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiju Kobayashi; Masaru Tateno; Kumiko Utsumi; Akira Takahashi; Hidetoshi Morii; Toshikazu Saito

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: It is often difficult to distinguish idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) from other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To understand the characteristic pattern of blood flow in iNPH, we performed brain perfusion SPECT and analyzed the results by using the easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS). Methods: Subjects were 12 patients with probable iNPH and 10 probable AD

  16. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Bastien; Philippe Ortet; Sylvaine Roy; Eric Maréchal

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for

  17. Waist–hip ratio and attractiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sybil A. Streeter; Donald H. McBurney

    2003-01-01

    An evolutionary model of mate choice predicts that humans should prefer honest signals of health, youth, and fertility in potential mates. Singh and others have amassed substantial evidence that the waist–hip ratio (WHR) in women is an accurate indicator of these attributes, and proposed that men respond to WHR as an attractiveness cue. In response to a recent study by

  18. Correlation of Waist-to-hip Ratio (WHR) and Oxidative Stress in Patients of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Gulati, Rajiv; Tauheed, Nazia; Pervez, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation is thought to play a crucial role in the generation of atherosclerotic lesions of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: The case-control study contained 120 subjects divided in two groups, 60 patients with AMI and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Ratio of Waist Circumference (WC) to Hip Circumference (HC) (waist-to-hip ratio) of all the subjects was recorded. Antioxidant status of the individuals was determined by measuring the serum levels of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Estimation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation was used as a surrogate marker of free radical activity. Results: WHR was found to be significantly higher in patients of AMI as compared to controls. MDA levels were significantly high and antioxidants molecules GPx and SOD were significantly decreased in AMI patients as compared with control (p<0.001). WHR correlated positively to serum level of MDA and inversely to the serum level of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: High Waist-to-hip ratio is associated with high concentrations of malondialdehyde level and low concentration of antioxidant’s enzyme. This results in increased oxidative stress, a major causative factor of AMI. PMID:24596709

  19. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity and markers of body fat in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    España-Romero, Vanesa; Mitchell, Jonathan A.; O’Neill, Jennifer R.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sedentary behavior and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometry, with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 357 preschool children. Linear mixed models were used adjusting for race/ethnicity parental education, and preschool. Follow-up analyses were performed using quantile regression. Among boys, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score (? = 0.080, p = .04) but not with waist circumference; quantile regression showed that MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score at the 50th percentile (? = 0.097, p < .05). Among girls, no associations were observed between sedentary behavior and MVPA in relation to mean BMI z-score and mean waist circumference. Quantile regression indicated that, among girls at the 90th waist circumference percentile, a positive association was found with sedentary behavior (? = 0.441, p < .05), and a negative association was observed with MVPA (? = ?0.599, p < .05); no associations were found with BMI z-score. In conclusion, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score among boys, and MVPA was negatively associated and sedentary behavior was positively associated with waist circumference among girls at the 90th percentile. PMID:23406703

  20. Effect of Breastfeeding on Head Circumference of Children from Impoverished Communities

    PubMed Central

    Xavier Júnior, Antonio Fernando Silva; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study investigated the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on head circumference (HC) among children living in impoverished communities. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among children 12–60 months old from the 39 quilombos located in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. HC deficit was defined by a z-score of less than ?2 from the median (based on the 2006 World Health Organization growth standards). Prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance, and estimates were adjusted for possible confounders (anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related variables). Results We evaluated 725 children (365 boys and 360 girls). The prevalence of HC deficit was 13.3% among those children who were exclusively breastfed for less than 30 days, 10.6% among those exclusively breastfed for 30–119 days, and 5.8% among those who were exclusively breastfed for 120 days or more. Even after controlling for possible confounding variables, exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months decreased the risk of HC deficit (prevalence ratio, 0.48; 95% CI 0.24, 0.99). Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months was associated with a larger HC in children exposed to great social vulnerability in impoverished communities. PMID:23414229

  1. Built Environment and 1Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Moore; Alan Acock; Naruepon Vongjaturapat

    2009-01-01

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006-2007 to 2007-2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard

  2. Relationship Between Blood Mercury Concentration and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Elderly Korean Individuals Living in Coastal Areas

    PubMed Central

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Jung-Man; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Yu-Mi; Kim, Rock-Bum; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between the blood mercury concentration and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly Korean individuals living in coastal areas. Methods The sample consisted of 477 adults (164 males, 313 females) aged 40 to 65 years who visited a Busan health promotion center from June to September in 2009. The relationship between blood mercury concentration and cardiovascular risk factors including metabolic syndrome, cholesterol profiles, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), was investigated. Variables related to blood mercury concentration were further evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Results The blood mercury concentration of the study population was 7.99 (range, 7.60 to 8.40) µg/L. In males, the blood mercury concentration was 9.74 (8.92 to 10.63) µg/L, which was significantly higher than that in females (7.21, [6.80 to 7.64] µg/L). The blood mercury concentration of the study population was related to several cardiovascular risk factors including low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p=0.044), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p=0.034), BMI (p = 0.006), waist circumference (p = 0.031), and WHR (p < 0.001). In males, the blood mercury concentration was significantly correlated with WHR in the multiple regression analysis. Conclusions In males, the blood mercury concentration was related to waist-to-hip ratio, which is a central obesity index and cardiovascular risk factor. Our finding suggests that cardiovascular disease risk in males was increased by mercury exposure via an obesity-related mechanism. PMID:22020187

  3. “Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study”

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. Objective: To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Methods: Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as < 6hour/day (short sleep duration), 6-7hour/day and > 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. Results: No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. Conclusion: No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students. PMID:25386421

  4. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  5. Waist girth normalized to body build in obesity assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grete Heinz; Gary TC Ko FRCPI; Louis J Peterson

    Waist girth (WG) is regarded as the most significant anthropometric parameter associated with cardiovascular risk. The objective of the present study was to strengthen WG as an obesity marker by basing WG assessment not on gender but on individually measured body build characteristics that need not coincide with gender. We formulated a new marker, the Waist Reference Girth (WRG) and

  6. Associations between adiposity indicators and elevated blood pressure among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dong, B; Wang, Z; Wang, H-J; Ma, J

    2015-04-01

    Adiposity is closely related to elevated blood pressure (BP); however, which adiposity indicator is the best predictor of elevated BP among children and adolescents is unclear. To clarify this, 99?366 participants aged 7-17 years from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010 were included in this study. The adiposity indicators, including weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference, body adiposity index (BAI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and skinfold thickness, were converted into z-scores before use. The associations between elevated BP and adiposity indicators z-scores were assessed by using logistic regression model and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In general, BAI, BMI and WHtR z-scores were superior for predicting elevated BP compared with weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR and skinfold thickness z-scores. In both sexes, BMI z-score revealed slightly higher AUCs than other indicators. Our findings suggest that general adiposity indicators were equivalent, if not superior, to abdominal adiposity indicators to predict elevated BP. BMI could be a better predictor of elevated BP than other studied adiposity indicators in children. PMID:25339297

  7. Measuring chest circumference change during respiration with an electromagnetic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an off-the-shelf DC motor is modified into a chest belt and used to successfully measure circumference change on a mechanical chest model, while simultaneously harvesting significant power. Chest circumference change can provide information on tidal volume, which is vital in assessing lung function. The chest circumference change is calculated from the motor's voltage output. Calculated values are within 0.95mm of measured circumference changes, with a standard deviation of 0.37mm. The wearable motor can also harvest at least 29.4µW during normal breathing. PMID:24110093

  8. Agreement between body mass index, calf circumference, arm circumference, habitual energy intake and the MNA in hospitalized elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vânia Aparecida Leandro-Merhi; José Luiz Braga De Aquino; José Gonzaga Teixeira De Camargo

    Objectives  This study aimed to assess the agreement between body mass index, calf circumference, arm circumference, habitual energy intake\\u000a and the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and then assess the accuracy of these parameters in relation to the MNA.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  The nutritional status of 132 hospitalized elderly was assessed with the MNA, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC)\\u000a and arm circumference (AC).

  9. Antenatal antecedents of a small head circumference at age 24-months post-term equivalent in a sample of infants born before the 28th post-menstrual week

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Onderdonk, Andrew; O'Shea, T. Michael; McElrath, Thomas; Paneth, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the antecedents of microcephaly in early childhood among children born at extremely low gestational age. Aim To identify some of the antecedents of microcephaly at age two years among children born before the 28th week of gestation. Study design Observational cohort study. Subjects 1004 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Outcome measures Head circumference Z-scores of circumference decreased monotonically with increasing gestational age. After adjusting for gestational age and other potential confounders, the risk of microcephaly at age 2 years was increased if microcephaly was present at birth [odds ratio: 8.8 ((95% confidence interval: 3.7, 21)], alpha hemolytic Streptococci were recovered from the placenta parenchyma [2.9 (1.2, 6.9)], the child was a boy [2.8 (1.6, 4.9)], and the child's mother was not married [2.5 (1.5, 4.3)]. Antecedents associated not with microcephaly, but with a less extreme reduction in head circumference were recovery of Propionibacterium sp from the placenta parenchyma [2.9 (1.5, 5.5)], tobacco exposure [2.0 (1.4, 3.0)], and increased syncytial knots in the placenta [2.0 (1.2, 3.2)]. Conclusions Although microcephaly at birth predicts a small head circumference at 2 years among children born much before term, pregnancy and maternal characteristics provide supplemental information about the risk of a small head circumference years later. Two findings appear to be novel. Tobacco exposure during pregnancy, and organisms recovered from the placenta predict reduced head circumference at age two years. PMID:20674197

  10. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2014-09-16

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6-23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was -1·25 (1·14) (n ?=? 801). Mean (range) CFI was 6·7 (1-10) (n ?=? 797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9-11-months age group (7·93) and lowest for those aged 12-23 months (5·96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0·01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  11. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is More Predictive of Years of Life Lost than Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Ashwell, Margaret; Mayhew, Les; Richardson, Jon; Rickayzen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to compare the effect of central obesity (measured by waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) and total obesity (measured by body mass index, BMI) on life expectancy expressed as years of life lost (YLL), using data on British adults. Methods A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to data from the prospective Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) and the cross sectional Health Survey for England (HSE). The number of years of life lost (YLL) at three ages (30, 50, 70 years) was found by comparing the life expectancies of obese lives with those of lives at optimum levels of BMI and WHtR. Results Mortality risk associated with BMI in the British HALS survey was similar to that found in US studies. However, WHtR was a better predictor of mortality risk. For the first time, YLL have been quantified for different values of WHtR. This has been done for both sexes separately and for three representative ages. Conclusion This study supports the simple message “Keep your waist circumference to less than half your height”. The use of WHtR in public health screening, with appropriate action, could help add years to life. PMID:25198730

  12. Assessing the impact of the introduction of the WHO Growth Standards and weight-for-height Z score criterion on the response to treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children: secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Villamor, Eduardo; Shepherd, Susan; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of adopting the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHO standards) and weight-for-height (WFH) Z score criterion on the response to treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children, compared with the use of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO growth reference (NCHS reference) and WFH percent of the median criterion. Study Design We used data from children aged 6–59 months with acute malnutrition who were admitted to the Médecins sans Frontières malnutrition treatment program in Maradi, Niger during 2006 (n=56,214). Differences in weight gain, duration of treatment, recovery from malnutrition, mortality, loss to follow up, and need for inpatient care were compared for severely malnourished children identified according to the NCHS reference and percent of the median criterion vs. the WHO standards and the Z score criterion. Results A total of eight times more children (n=25,754) were classified as severely malnourished according to the WHO standards and weight-for-height (WFH) Z score criterion had shorter durations of treatment, greater rates of recovery, fewer deaths, and less loss to follow up or need for inpatient care. Conclusions The introduction of the WHO standards with the Z score criterion to identify children for admission into severe acute malnutrition treatment programs would imply the inclusion of children who are younger but have relatively higher WFH on admission, compared with the NCHS reference. These children have fewer medical complications requiring inpatient care and are more likely to experience shorter durations of treatment and lower mortality. The WHO standards with the Z score criterion might become a useful tool for the early detection of acute malnutrition in children, although further research on the resource implications of this transition is required. PMID:19117847

  13. Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

  14. Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

  15. Beam waist measurement for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Podzorov, Alexander; Wojdyla, Antoine; Gallot, Guilhem

    2010-04-01

    Classical masking aperture methods are found to be mostly inaccurate to determine the terahertz beam size in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) experiments, owing to complex diffraction effects. Here, we present a simple and reliable method for measuring beam waists in terahertz TDS. It is based on the successive diffraction by an opaque disk followed by a small circular aperture. PMID:20364163

  16. Diurnal deviation of the orbit circumference due to building distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Katsura, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Nakamura, H. (Photon Factory, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)); Fujita, Y. (Nuclear Power Division, Shimizu Corporation, No. 2-3, Shibaura 1-Chome, Minatoku, Tokyo 105-7 (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    Beam position stability was found to be largely affected by the distortion of the storage ring building, especially when the beam emittance was lowered. Building distortion in the horizontal direction was noticed as the diurnal deviation of the orbit circumference. The deviation was measured by reading the amount of rf frequency variation necessary to recover the horizontal central orbit. The deviation of the orbit circumference was interpreted to be induced from the ring floor expansion. Such diurnal expansion of the ring floor was evaluated by using a model simulation that dealt with the distortion of the ring building under thermal stress. To reduce such thermal stress, the rooftop of the building was insulated. The deviation of the ring circumference measured after insulation was reduced to one-half of that measured before. The simulation also gave the same amount of deviations as measured before and after insulation.

  17. Reduction in BMI z-score and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. The Oslo Adiposity Intervention Study - a hospital\\/public health nurse combined treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnhild L Pollestad Kolsgaard; Geir Joner; Cathrine Brunborg; Sigmund A Anderssen; Serena Tonstad; Lene Frost Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Background  Weight loss and increased physical fitness are established approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. We studied the\\u000a reduction in BMI z-score associated with improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese children and\\u000a adolescents treated with a combined hospital\\/public health nurse model. We also examined how aerobic fitness influenced the\\u000a results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 2004-2007, 307 overweight and obese children and

  18. Modern replication of Eratosthenes’ measurement of the circumference of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes’ experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38?874?km, measured at Rosebud, Victoria, Australia, and Jimboomba, Queensland, Australia with an error of 2.9%. This exceeds the accuracy of Eratosthenes, although not of the modern recreation of his experiment between Syene and Alexandria. The experiment described in this paper might form a useful model for cooperation between schools in different countries.

  19. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  20. Approximating the Circumference and Area of a Circle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Math Forum

    2001-01-01

    Geometry, difficulty level 2. Take a circle and circumscribe a square and inscribe a square. Constuct a square between the other two squares, and compare the area and the perimeter of the middle square with the area and circumference of the circle.

  1. Relationship between scrotal circumference and semen parameters in crossbred bulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Latif; J. U. Ahmed; M. M. U. Bhuiyan; M. Shamsuddin

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the scrotal circumference and semen volume, sperm concentration and number of sperm per ejaculate of 12 crossbred bulls (4 Local × Friesian, 4 Local × Sahiwal) was studied. Semen of three consecutive collections at seven day intervals was evaluated. The age of bulls at first collection varied between 15 and 20 months. Soon after collection, volume, sperm

  2. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  3. Reliability of the Mid Upper Arm Circumference for the Assessment of Wasting among Children Aged 12-59 Months in Urban Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dairo, M D; Fatokun, Modupeoluwa E; Kuti, Modupeoluwa

    2012-06-01

    Although the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as a proxy to assess wasting in children, its validity abounds in controversies. This study therefore assessed the validity of MUAC as a measure of nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in urban setting in western Nigeria. A cross sectional study of children aged 12-59 months in selected nursery schools in Moniya, Akinyele local government area, Oyo state was carried out between February to April 2010. The age, weight, length and MUAC, were obtained from the school children who were selected through total sampling. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the MUAC were determined using weight for age as gold standard (underweight). Z-Scores for anthropometric indicators were calculated using EPI-NUT programme. Receivers operating curve was prepared to determine the optimal cut off of MUAC for the sensitivity and specificity. The overall prevalence of under nutrition among the respondents was 5.6%. The mean mid upper arm circumference was 15.47 ± 1.4 cm and appears to increase with age from 11.49 ± 3.0 at 12-23 months and peaks at age five with a value of 18.05 ± 3.5. At 13.5 cm cut off, the sensitivity of MUAC is 20%, and the specificity is 95.3%, with a Kappa of 16.7%. The receivers operating curve reveals an optimum cut off of 15.5 cm with optimal but improved MUAC sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 53.5%. Thus MUAC was a poorly sensitive indicator of under nutrition at a cut-off below 13.5 cm but highly sensitive at 15.5 cm. A higher cut off value is therefore for recommended for screening for acute malnutrition among under five children. PMID:23675266

  4. Reliability of the Mid Upper Arm Circumference for the Assessment of Wasting among Children Aged 12-59 Months in Urban Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dairo, M. D.; Fatokun, Modupeoluwa E.; Kuti, Modupeoluwa

    2012-01-01

    Although the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as a proxy to assess wasting in children, its validity abounds in controversies. This study therefore assessed the validity of MUAC as a measure of nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in urban setting in western Nigeria. A cross sectional study of children aged 12-59 months in selected nursery schools in Moniya, Akinyele local government area, Oyo state was carried out between February to April 2010. The age, weight, length and MUAC, were obtained from the school children who were selected through total sampling. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the MUAC were determined using weight for age as gold standard (underweight). Z-Scores for anthropometric indicators were calculated using EPI-NUT programme. Receivers operating curve was prepared to determine the optimal cut off of MUAC for the sensitivity and specificity. The overall prevalence of under nutrition among the respondents was 5.6%. The mean mid upper arm circumference was 15.47 ± 1.4 cm and appears to increase with age from 11.49 ± 3.0 at 12-23 months and peaks at age five with a value of 18.05 ± 3.5. At 13.5 cm cut off, the sensitivity of MUAC is 20%, and the specificity is 95.3%, with a Kappa of 16.7%. The receivers operating curve reveals an optimum cut off of 15.5 cm with optimal but improved MUAC sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 53.5%. Thus MUAC was a poorly sensitive indicator of under nutrition at a cut-off below 13.5 cm but highly sensitive at 15.5 cm. A higher cut off value is therefore for recommended for screening for acute malnutrition among under five children. PMID:23675266

  5. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  6. A combination of glycosylated hemoglobin, impaired fasting glucose and waist circumference is effective in screening for individuals at risk for future type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Motta; Ettore Bennati; Elisabeth Cardillo; Laura Ferlito; Michela Passamonte; Marco Vacante; Mariano Malaguarnera

    2010-01-01

    The diabetes mellitus of type 2 (DMT2) is a disease of the elderly with multifactorial pathogenesis, characterized by interactions of genetic variations suspect for diabetes, as well as of the longevity and aging genes. Since today it is still not possible to obtain the diagnosis with laboratory methods of clinical genetics, we tried to identify the subjects of risk of

  7. Plasma Vitamin C Is Inversely Related to Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference but Not to Plasma Adiponectin in Nonsmoking Adults1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol S. Johnston; Bonnie L. Beezhold; Bo Mostow; Pamela D. Swan

    We examined the relationships between plasma vitamin C, adiposity, and the collagen-like adipokine, adiponectin. Of 118 sedentary, nonsmoking adults participating in the cross-sectional trial (35 men and 83 women aged 38.7 6 1.0 y with BMI of 30.4 6 0.6 kg\\/m2, plasma vitamin C concentrations of 43.5 6 1.3 mmol\\/L, and plasma adiponectin concentrations of 8.9 6 0.3 mg\\/L), 54%

  8. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  9. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European and African-American youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaifen Liu; Haidong Zhu; Vasiliki Lagou; Bernard Gutin; Inger S Stallmann-Jorgensen; Frank A Treiber; Yanbin Dong; Harold Snieder

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity,

  10. Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ?97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25395904

  11. Increased Risk of Diabetes Development in Subjects with the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ki Joong; Lee, Shin Yeoung; Kim, Nam Hee; Chae, Hyun Beom; Lee, Tae Hoon; Jang, Choel Min; Yoo, Kyung Mo; Park, Hae Jung; Lee, Min Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Background The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype is a simple and inexpensive screening parameter to identify people at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether the HTGW phenotype predicts diabetes in urban Korean adults. Methods A total of 2,900 nondiabetic subjects (mean age 44.3 years), comprising 2,078 males (71.7%) and 822 females (28.3%) who underwent annual medical check-ups at our center between January 2005 and December 2009, were recruited. The subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline serum triglyceride (TG) level and waist circumference (WC): normal WC-normal TG (NWNT) level, normal WC-high TG level, enlarged WC-normal TG level, and enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT) level. High serum TG level was defined as ?150 mg/dL and enlarged WC was defined as ?90 cm for men and ?85 cm for women. New cases of diabetes were determined according to questionnaires filled in by participants and the diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was used to assess the association of HTGW phenotype with the incidence of diabetes. Results A total of 101 (3.5%) new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the study period. The EWHT group had a higher incidence of diabetes (8.3%) compared with the NWNT group (2.2%). The adjusted hazard ratio for diabetes for subjects with the EWHT phenotype at baseline was 4.113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.397 to 7.059) after adjustment for age, and 2.429 (95% CI, 1.370 to 4.307) after adjustment for age, sex, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and alcohol drinking history. It was attenuated by inclusion of baseline fasting glucose level in the model. Conclusion Subjects with the HTGW phenotype showed the highest risk of incident diabetes. This tool could be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of diabetes. PMID:25325274

  12. Implementation of Double-Waist Chicane Optics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Dao, T.; Dell'Orco, D.; Rafael, F.; Harrington, D.; Hettel, R.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Rarback, H.; Ringwall, A.; Safranek,; Scott, B.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Widmeyer, M.; /SLAC, SSRL; Yoon, Moohyun; /POSTECH

    2006-08-16

    The SPEAR3 accelerator upgrade opened up two 7.6m racetrack straights in the magnet lattice. In one of these straights, we recently added a magnetic chicane to separate two insertion device (ID) beam lines by 10mrad. A quadrupole triplet in the center creates a ''double focus'' optics with {beta}y = 1.6m at the middle of each ID, hence the term ''double-waist chicane''. The new optics also reduced {beta}y in the four matching straights adjacent to the racetrack straights to 2.5m. In this paper, we outline design features of the optics and physical implementation of the lattice.

  13. Waist Compression in the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    E-print Network

    Younger, John G.

    2000-01-01

    . Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase Painters [Oxford 1956] 156, no. 80; Gundel Koch-Harnack, Knabenliebe und Tiergeschenke [Berlin 1983] figs. 24, 25, 43), a man gives a gift to a nude, white-painted hetaira [prostitute] whose body is actually that of a youth...John G. Younger Duke University WAIST COMPRESSION IN THE AEGEAN LATE BRONZE AGE* 1 INTRODUCTION Preclassical Aegean people practiced several types of body modification, but none has received much attention. In the Neopalatial period in Crete (ca...

  14. Reaction-Diffusion Simulations for Multiply-Waisted Hourglass Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard

    2005-11-01

    In previous work, the Reaction-Diffusion model ootnotetextH. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991). correctly predicted a period doubling cascade to chaos in Taylor-Couette flow with hourglass geometryootnotetextRichard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).. Our current calculations apply the model to Taylor-Couette flow in a cylindrical geometry with multiple waists of super-critical flow connected by regions of barely super-critical flow. We compare our results to the findings of an ongoing experimental program.

  15. Cardiac Circumference Measurement: Possible Screening Tool in Early Pregnancy for Anomalous Cardiac Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Guariglia; Paolo Rosati; Francesco Bartolozzi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In this study, cardiac circumference (CC), measured by transvaginal sonography, was analyzed to determine the growth during the early stage of pregnancy and its relationship to abdominal circumference and femur length (FL). Methods: Biometric measurements, including CC, were obtained in 1,182 euploid fetuses at 9–16 weeks’ gestation. The CC measurements were related to gestational age (GA), abdominal circumference, and

  16. Preferred Women’s Waist-to-Hip Ratio Variation over the Last 2,500 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men’s mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men’s preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25886537

  17. The Cross-Sectional Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio and Cognitive Performance in Postmenopausal Women Enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, Diana R.; Zhang, Yinghua; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Espeland, Mark A.; Van Horn, Linda; McTigue, Kathleen M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Powell, Lynda; Kooperberg, Charles; Coker, Laura H.; Hoffmann, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine if body weight (BMI) is independently associated with cognitive function in postmenopausal women and the relationship between body fat distribution as estimated by waist-hip-ratio (WHR) and cognitive function. DESIGN Cross-sectional data analysis SETTING Baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. PARTICIPANTS 8745 postmenopausal women aged 65–79 years, free of clinical evidence of dementia and completed baseline evaluation in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. MEASUREMENTS Participants completed a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), health and lifestyle questionnaires, and standardized measurements of height, weight, body circumferences and blood pressure. Statistical analysis of associations between 3MSE scores, BMI and WHR after controlling for known confounders. RESULTS With the exception of smoking and exercise, vascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, waist measurement, heart disease and diabetes, were significantly associated with 3MSE score and were included as co-variables in subsequent analyses. BMI was inversely related to 3MSE scores, for every 1 unit increase in BMI, 3MSE decrease 0.988 (p=.0001) after adjusting for age, education and vascular disease risk factors. BMI had the most pronounced association with poorer cognitive functioning scores among women with smaller waist measurements. Among women with the highest WHR, cognitive scores increased with BMI. CONCLUSION Increasing BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in women with smaller WHR. Higher WHR, estimating central fat mass, is associated with higher cognitive function in this cross-sectional study. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism for this association. PMID:20646100

  18. Optically Thick Radio Cores of Narrow-Waist Bipolar Nebulae

    E-print Network

    T. -H. Lee; J. Lim; S. Kwok

    2007-05-03

    We report our search for optically thick radio cores in sixteen narrow-waist bipolar nebulae. Optically thick cores are a characteristic signature of collimated ionized winds. Eleven northern nebulae were observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.3 cm and 0.7 cm, and five southern nebulae were observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 6 cm and 3.6 cm. Two northern objects, 19W32 and M 1-91, and three southern objects, He 2-25, He 2-84 and Mz 3, were found to exhibit a compact radio core with a rising spectrum consistent with an ionized jet. Such jets have been seen in M 2-9 and may be responsible for shaping bipolar structure in planetary nebulae.

  19. Least Restrictive or Least Understood? Waist Restraints, Provider Practices, and Risk of Harm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Capezuti; Barbara L. Brush; Regina M. Won; Laura M. Wagner; William T. Lawson

    2008-01-01

    Since implementation of The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, restraint use in American nursing homes has reduced dramatically. The reduction in vest restraints has resulted in an increase in “least restrictive” devices such as waist restraints. Although this analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting Data Files found that waist devices pose the same potential risk

  20. Effect and motion planning of waist for humanoid robot dynamatic stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Tiejun

    2010-01-01

    Dynamically stable motion and safety of humanoid robots is must achieved because they are expacted to cooperate and interact with human beings. The synthesis of mechanism of the waist is described and a new waist configuration with parallel driving motor is developed. The center of gravity position kinematics model is built to obtain its change situation. Because the dynamatic behavior

  1. Efficacy of a First Course of Ibuprofen for Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure in Extremely Preterm Newborns According to Their Gestational Age-Specific Z-Score for Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Madeleneau, Doriane; Aubelle, Marie-Stephanie; Pierron, Charlotte; Lopez, Emmanuel; Patkai, Juliana; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Gascoin, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns. Study design This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0–27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea): 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA) were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes. Results The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2–12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3–70.5] p=0.003). Conclusion There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction. PMID:25875583

  2. Head Circumferences in Twins With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4–18, were included. 20 % of males and 27 % of females with an ASD had macrocephaly. Unaffected co-twins showed similar rates (15 % of males and 22 % of females). Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in HCs between affected and unaffected twins. Twins with ASDs and unaffected co-twins have similar HCs and increased rates of macrocephaly. Correlations demonstrated partial inheritance of HCs. Thus, macrocephaly may represent an endophenotype in ASDs. PMID:23321801

  3. Alternative Class Ranks Using Z-Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip H.; Van Niel, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in…

  4. Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Sedentary Bouts and Breaks in Sedentary Time with Cardiometabolic Risk in Children with a Family History of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Travis John; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Mathieu, Marie-Ève; Henderson, Mélanie; O’Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. Purpose To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8–11 years with a family history of obesity. Methods Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort) were collected from 2005–2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score. Results After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1–4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all p<0.05). The number of sedentary bouts lasting 5–9 minutes was negatively associated with waist circumference in girls only, while the number of bouts lasting 10–14 minutes was positively associated with fasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all p<0.05). Leisure time computer/video game use was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk score and waist circumference in boys, while TV viewing was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, waist circumference, and BMI Z-score in girls (all p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that frequent interruptions in sedentary time are associated with a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile and highlight the deleterious relationship between screen time and cardiometabolic risk among children with a family history of obesity. PMID:24278117

  5. Additive Genetic Relationships Between Heifer Pregnancy and Scrotal Circumference in Hereford Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Evans; B. L. Golden; R. M. Bourdon; K. L. Long; J. B. S. Ferraz; F. Dias

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to deter- mine an appropriate method for using yearling scrotal circumference observations and heifer pregnancy ob- servations to produce EPD for heifer pregnancy. We determined the additive genetic effects of and relation- ship between scrotal circumference and heifer preg- nancy for a herd of Hereford cattle in Solano, New Mex- ico. The binary trait

  6. Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

    2014-06-01

    'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate. PMID:24755099

  7. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  8. Waist location and Rayleigh range for higher-order mode laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.; Karkheck, J.

    1984-07-01

    Self has presented simple equations for Gaussian-mode laser beams for calculating focused waist location and beam waist magnification in terms of the Rayleigh range. Since the Rayleigh range is a purely geometrical quantity. Self's equations can also be applied to higher-order mode beams. A convenient form of the Rayleigh range for Hermite-Gaussian modes is presented along with representative results for Co/sub 2/ laser industrial processing facilities.

  9. Association of the Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents: The Three Cities Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Robespierre C.; Coutinho, Mário; Bramorski, Marco A; Giuliano, Isabela C.; Pavan, Júlia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1) of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4) presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio) of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated systolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) above the upper tertile (Q3). WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00) presented the largest area under the curve (AUC) [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647)] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578)] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651)] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699)] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circumference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787)]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening programs. PMID:21677765

  10. SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE IN YEARLING HEREFORD BULLS: ADJUSTMENT FACTORS, HERITABILITIES AND GENETIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHENOTYPIC RELATIONSHIPS WITH GROWTH TRAITS 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Bourdon; J. S. Brinks

    2010-01-01

    Field data on 4,233 yearling Hereford bulls were analyzed using fixed and mixed model least- squares procedures to examine factors affecting scrotal circumference; determine appropriate adjustmaent factors; and study genetic, environmental and phenotypic relationships among scrota) circumference and growth traits. Scrotal circumference was affected by postweaning feed level; contemporary group\\/feed level; age of dam; and covariates age, weight and height.

  11. Stable Isotope Analysis Challenges Wasp-Waist Food Web Assumptions in an Upwelling Pelagic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as ‘wasp-waist’ ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for ?13C and ?15N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007–2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729

  12. Body mass index and waist/height ratio for prediction of severity of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine whether waist-to-height ratio correlates with coronary artery disease (CAD) severity better, than the body mass index (BMI) as assessed by coronary angiography in Bangladeshi population. Methods This cross sectional study was done on patients in Department of Cardiology in DMCH and those referred in the cath-lab of the Department of Cardiology for CAG during November 2009 to October 2010 involving 120 patients. They were divided into group-A (with coronary score ?7) and group-B (coronary score <7) depending on Gensisni score. Result There were no statistically significant difference regarding the distribution of age, sex and clinical diagnosis and parameters between the two groups. The mean age of patients was 51.7?±?8.2 years and 48.8?±?9.1 years in Group A and Group B respectively with a male predominance in both the groups. Patients in group A had higher BMI ?25 and waist to height ratio (?0.55) than Group B which showed a statistically significant association (p?Waist-to-height ratio and Waist-to-height ratio with BMI. Multivariate analysis also yeilded that a patient with BMI ?25 kg/m2 and waist-to height ratio of ?0.55 are 3.06 times and 6.77 times, more likely to develop significant coronary artery disease respectively. Conclusion The waist-to-height ratio showed better correlation with the severity of coronary artery disease than the BMI. PMID:24742250

  13. Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Based Nutrition Programming: Evidence for a New Approach in Regions with High Burden of Acute Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Sylvie; Bekele, Yodit; Yun, Oliver; Harczi, Géza; Ouannes, Marie; Shepherd, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background In therapeutic feeding programs (TFP), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) shows advantages over weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an independent criterion for screening children 6–59 months old. Here we report outcomes and treatment response from a TFP using MUAC ?118 mm or oedema as sole admission criteria for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Methods Patient data from September 2007 to March 2009 for children admitted by MUAC ?118 mm or oedema to a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) TFP in Burkina Faso were retrospectively analyzed. Analysis included anthropometric measurements at admission and discharge, program outcomes and treatment response. Results Of 24,792 patient outcomes analyzed, nearly half (48.8%; n?=?12,090) were admitted with MUAC 116–118 mm. Most patients (88.7%; n?=?21,983) were 6–24 months old. At admission, 52.7% (n?=?5,041) of those with MUAC 116–118 mm had a WHZ

  14. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF INCREMENTAL CHANGES IN WAIST-TO-HIP RATIO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Rempala; Kilian Garvey

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) differentially affects males and females in their preference for female images. A WHR of approximately .70 is considered an indicator of health and fertility for females, and previous research indicates that participants perceive images with WHRs closer to .70 as more attractive (Singh, 1993a; Singh & Young, 1994; Streeter & McBurney, 2003). A

  15. Endothelial inflammation correlates with subject triglycerides and waist size1 following a high fat meal2

    E-print Network

    Passerini, Tony

    1 Endothelial inflammation correlates with subject triglycerides and waist size1 following a high © 2010 by the American Physiological Society. #12;2 Abstract17 A rise in postprandial serum triglycerides triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (PP-TGRLs) in subjects ranging from normal to21 hypertriglyceridemic

  16. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  17. Waist-to-hip ratio and female attractiveness. Evidence from photographic stimuli and methodological considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Henss

    2000-01-01

    There are a large number of empirical studies supporting the evolutionary psychological prediction that the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is an important attribute of female attractiveness. In contrast to previous research, which is almost exclusively based on line drawings, the present study used color photographs as stimuli. For each of six attractive females there were the original photographs and two digitally

  18. The Predictive Value of Waist-To-Height Ratio for Ischemic Stroke in a Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study among Mongolian Men in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Juan; Xu, Tian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Peng, Hao; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yonghong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and risk of ischemic stroke among Mongolian men in China. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2003 to July 2012 in Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region in north China. A total of 1034 men aged 20 years and older free of cardiovascular disease were included in the cohort and followed up for an average of 9.2 years. The subjects were divided into four groups by WHtR levels (WHtR<0.40, 0.40?WHtR?0.50, 0.500.60). The cumulative survival rates of ischemic stroke among the four groups were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to evaluate the associations between obesity indices and ischemic stroke. Results A total of 47 ischemic stroke patients were observed during the follow-up period. The cumulative incidence and incidence density of ischemic stroke were 4.55% and 507.61/100 000 person-years, respectively. After the major risk factors were adjusted, individuals with WHtR>0.60 had a 3.56-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with those with 0.40?WHtR?0.50. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ischemic stroke for a 1-SD increase in WHtR was 1.34(95% CI: 1.00–1.81). After adding BMI or WC to models, higher WHtR remained significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the cumulative survival rate in the group with WHtR>0.60 was significantly lower than in the group with 0.40?WHtR?0.50 (log-rank test, P?=?0.025). The areas under the curve for each index were as follows: 0.586 for WHtR, 0.543 for WC; 0.566 for BMI. Conclusions Higher WHtR is associated with risk of ischemic stroke in Mongolian males. WHtR may be useful in predicting ischemic stroke incidence in males. PMID:25353632

  19. Using Forearm Circumference for Automatic Threshold Calibration for Simple EMG Control

    E-print Network

    Hu, Huosheng

    Using Forearm Circumference for Automatic Threshold Calibration for Simple EMG Control James Cannan of Electromyographic (EMG) control systems, which can require a lot of time and expertise. It is necessary to reduce training and calibration so that EMG control can be deployed in real-world applications, with minimal

  20. GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATES FOR SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF YEARLING LINE 1 HEREFORD BULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this research were to estimate heritability for scrotal circumference (SC) and semen traits, and genetic correlations among these traits and birth weight (BW). Phenotypes were recorded for Line 1 Hereford bulls (n = 841), born in 1963 or from 1967 to 2000 that had been either selected...

  1. Growth of Head Circumference in Autistic Infants during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumoto, Aya; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiromichi; Nishimura, Mio; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Miyazaki, Masahito; Mori, Kenji; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kagami, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the increase in head circumference (HC) of 85 autistic infants (64 boys and 21 girls) during their first year of life. The data were collected from their "mother-and-baby" notebooks. This notebook is a medical record of the baby's growth and development delivered to the parents of all babies born in Japan. This is a…

  2. Genome-wide mapping of loci explaining variance in scrotal circumference in Nellore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC...

  3. TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth

    E-print Network

    Pickett, Galen T.

    TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth On two dates during the year, the geometric relationship of Earth to the Sun produces "equinox", a word literally meaning and sunset is approximately 12 hours everywhere on Earth. b) The Sun is directly overhead at noon

  4. Observations of Film Thickness Profile and Cavitation Around a Journal Bearing Circumference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kasolang; R. S. Dwyer-Joyce

    2008-01-01

    The film formation in a journal bearing and the extent of the cavitated region is an important contribution to load carrying capacity. In the present work, an ultrasonic method has been used to measure the film thickness profile around the circumference of an operating journal bearing. The reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at an oil layer can be used to

  5. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel McConaghy

    1989-01-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but

  6. Brief Report: A Preliminary Study of Fetal Head Circumference Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Hickey, Martha; Stanley, Fiona J.; Newnham, John P.; Pennell, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal head circumference (HC) growth was examined prospectively in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD participants (N = 14) were each matched with four control participants (N = 56) on a range of parameters known to influence fetal growth. HC was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation and again at birth…

  7. Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary

    E-print Network

    Hu, Huosheng

    ), Acousticmyography (AMG), Circumference, Maximum Volun- tary Contraction (MVC), Bionics, Auto Calibration. 1 Introduction Bionic muscle interfaces such as electromyography(EMG),which measure the electrical properties arm- band already in development [4]. The majority of EMG systems are stuck in laboratories, when

  8. Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist-to-hip ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devendra Singh

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60

  9. Wholegrain intake and the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in Tehranian adults1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    Background: Although dietary guidelines recommend increased intake of grain products to prevent chronic diseases, no epidemio- logic data associate whole-grain intake with hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the relation between whole-grain intakes and the prevalence of HW phenotype in adults in Tehran, Iran. Design: Whole-grain intake, serum triacylglycerol concentration, andwaistcircumference(WC)wereassessedinapopulation-based, cross-sectional study of 827 Iranian subjects

  10. Effect of 635nm Low-level Laser Therapy on Upper Arm Circumference Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a noninvasive method for reducing upper arm circumference. Design: Randomized, double-blind study whereby healthy subjects (N=40) with a body mass index of 20 to 35kg/m2 received three 20-minute low-level laser therapy (N=20) or sham treatments (N=20) each week for two weeks. Measurements: Upper arm circumference was measured after three and six treatments and two weeks post-treatment. Primary success criterion was the proportion of subjects achieving a combined reduction in arm circumference of ?1.25cm measured at three equally spaced points between the elbow and the shoulder. Secondary outcomes included total measurement change at each time point and subjective satisfaction ratings. Results: After six treatments, the low-level laser therapy group showed a combined reduction in arm circumference of 3.7cm versus 0.2cm in the sham treatment group (p<0.0001). Significantly more subjects in the low-level laser therapy group (N=12; 60%) achieved ?1.5cm total decrease in upper arm circumference versus sham-treated subjects (N=0; 0%) (p<0.0005). Low-level laser therapy treatment resulted in a combined reduction in arm circumference of 2.2cm after three treatments and 3.7cm after six treatments (for each, p<0.0001) indicating a progressive and cumulative treatment effect. Body mass index remained unchanged for all subjects. A significantly greater number of subjects in the low-level laser therapy treatment group were satisfied with their results (p<0.05), believed their upper arm appearance improved (p<0.0005), and indicated the results exceeded expectations (p<0.05). The treatments were painless and no adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Noninvasive low-level laser therapy is safe, painless, and effective in reducing upper arm circumference and is associated with a high degree of subject satisfaction. PMID:22468172

  11. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth weight, suggesting that limb proportions at birth do not index factors relevant to prenatal life. PMID:25162658

  12. Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon.

  13. Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  14. Frequency of intensive, prolonged exercise as a determinant of relative coronary circumference index.

    PubMed

    Haslam, R W; Cobb, R B

    1982-05-01

    This study determined the effects of 10 weeks of intensive swimming 0, 1, 5, and 10 times per week on relative coronary circumference index (RCCI), which was calculated as the ratio of cardiac ventricular weight to the sum of the circumferences of the right and left main coronary arteries. Sixty-nine Wistar rats swam continuously for 30 to 51 min per session while carrying 1.0% to 1.25% of their individual body weights. Hearts were prepared using routine histological methods and were analyzed for RCCI, coronary circumference, heart mass, and regressed heart mass. Data were analyzed for linear, quadratic, and cubic trends relative to exercise frequency. Mean values for wet weight RCCI were 98.82, 99.16, 91.04, and 90.21 mg per planimeter unit for groups exercising 0, 1, 5, and 10 times weekly (P less than 0.01 for linear trend). Regressed mean ventricular dry weights exhibited expected significant linear increases of 4.89%, 5.66%, and 6.12% over sedentary control rats. The RCCI was clearly shown to undergo a significant linearly graded decrease with increasing frequencies of exercise. PMID:7107104

  15. Fatal accidental hanging by a high-chair waist strap in a 2-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Souheil, Mlayeh; Audrey, Farrugia; Anny, Geraut; Sebastien, Raul J; Bertrand, Ludes

    2011-03-01

    High chairs are commonly used to feed children after 6 months. Related injuries are oftentime minor and rarely leading to death. We describe a case of a 2-year-old female child who used to jump alone on her high chair and also had the habit to fasten the straps by herself. Her mother found her hanging by the waist straps. A thorough investigation showed that she climbed her high chair and fastened the waist straps but not the crotch one. The girl slid down into the seat, trapping her neck in the waist straps and thus resulting in hanging. In here, we concluded that the victim's death was caused by asphyxia, itself, caused by accidental hanging. The present case is of a special interest because of the rare similar cases reported. This case suggests that a correct restraint use and a close supervision would have prevented such a fatal issue. PMID:21265834

  16. Associations of Youth and Adulthood Body-Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio with Attachment Styles and Dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirka Hintsanen; Markus Jokela; Laura Pulkki-Råback; Jorma S. A. Viikari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

    2010-01-01

    The current cross-sectional study examined whether body-mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio are associated with adult attachment.\\u000a Participants were 1,570 men and women participating in Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. BMI was measured in youth\\u000a and in adulthood and waist-hip ratio in adulthood. A single measure of attachment style was conducted when participants were\\u000a aged 24–39 years. In age and

  17. Test of ``Crab-Waist'' Collisions at the DA?NE ? Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, M.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M. E.; Biscari, C.; Bocci, A.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Demma, T.; di Pasquale, E.; di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Milardi, C.; Murtas, F.; Pellegrino, L.; Preger, M. A.; Quintieri, L.; Raimondi, P.; Ricci, R.; Rotundo, U.; Sanelli, C.; Serio, M.; Sgamma, F.; Spataro, B.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.; Tomassini, S.; Vaccarezza, C.; Schioppa, M.; Esposito, M.; Branchini, P.; Iacoangeli, F.; Valente, P.; Levichev, E.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; Smaluk, V.; Arnaud, N.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Viaud, B. F.; Bettoni, S.; Ohmi, K.; Teytelman, D.

    2010-04-01

    The electron-positron collider DA?NE, the Italian ? factory, has been recently upgraded in order to implement an innovative collision scheme based on large crossing angle, small beam sizes at the crossing point, and compensation of beam-beam interaction by means of sextupole pairs creating a “crab-waist” configuration in the interaction region. Experimental tests of the novel scheme exhibited an increase by a factor of 3 in the peak luminosity of the collider with respect to the performances reached before the upgrade. In this Letter we present the new collision scheme, discuss its advantages, describe the hardware modifications realized for the upgrade, and report the results of the experimental tests carried out during commissioning of the machine in the new configuration and standard operation for the users.

  18. Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem dynamics: Navigating the “ predator pit” topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Many marine ecosystems exhibit a characteristic “wasp-waist” structure, where a single species, or at most several species, of small planktivorous fishes entirely dominate their trophic level. These species have complex life histories that result in radical variability that may propagate to both higher and lower trophic levels of the ecosystem. In addition, these populations have two key attributes: (1) they represent the lowest trophic level that is mobile, so they are capable of relocating their area of operation according to their own internal dynamics; (2) they may prey upon the early life stages of their predators, forming an unstable feedback loop in the trophic system that may, for example, precipitate abrupt regime shifts. Experience with the typical “boom-bust” dynamics of this type of population, and with populations that interact trophically with them, suggests a “predator pit” type of dynamics. This features a refuge from predation when abundance is very low, very destructive predation between an abundance level sufficient to attract interest from predators and an abundance level sufficient to satiate available predators, and, as abundance increases beyond this satiation point, decreasing specific predation mortality and population breakout. A simple formalism is developed to describe these dynamics. Examples of its application include (a) a hypothetical mechanism for progressive geographical habitat expansion at high biomass, (b) an explanation for the out-of-phase alternations of abundances of anchovies and sardines in many regional systems that appear to occur without substantial adverse interactions between the two species groups, and (c) an account of an interaction of environmental processes and fishery exploitation that caused a regime shift. The last is the example of the Baltic Sea, where the cod resource collapsed in concert with establishment of dominance of that ecosystem by the cod’s ‘wasp-waist” prey, herring and sprat.

  19. Persistently high hip circumference after bariatric surgery is a major hurdle to successful hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Meller, Menachem M; Courville, Amber B; Sumner, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of class III obesity (BMI ? 40?kg/m(2)) in black women is 18%. As class III obesity leads to hip joint deterioration, black women frequently present for orthopedic care. Weight loss associated with bariatric surgery should lead to enhanced success of hip replacements. However, we present a case of a black woman who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with the expectation that weight loss would make her a better surgical candidate for hip replacement. Her gastric bypass was successful as her BMI declined from 52.0?kg/m(2) to 33.7?kg/m(2). However, her hip circumference after weight loss remained persistently high. Therefore, at surgery the soft tissue tunnel geometry presented major challenges. Tunnel depth and immobility of the soft tissue interfered with retractor placement, tissue reflection, and surgical access to the acetabulum. Therefore a traditional cup placement could not be achieved. Instead, a hemiarthroplasty was performed. After surgery her pain and reliance on external support decreased. But her functional independence never improved. This case demonstrates that a lower BMI after bariatric surgery may improve the metabolic profile and decrease anesthesia risk, but the success of total hip arthroplasties remains problematic if fat mass in the operative field (i.e., high hip circumference) remains high. PMID:24711820

  20. Always bend from the knees, never from the waist (Figure 5). Follow these suggestions when lifting a

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Always bend from the knees, never from the waist (Figure 5). Follow these suggestions when lifting to the object, · squat or bend at the knees, · tighten stomach muscles, · roll the object onto bent knees of the work, and · slowly lift by straightening knees. · lower loads by reversing this process. Be careful

  1. Head circumference and height abnormalities in autism revisited: the role of pre- and perinatal risk factors.

    PubMed

    Schrieken, Margo; Visser, Janne; Oosterling, Iris; van Steijn, Daphne; Bons, Daniëlle; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Donders, Rogier; Rommelse, Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Pre/perinatal risk factors and body growth abnormalities have been studied frequently as early risk markers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their interrelatedness in ASD has received very little research attention. This is surprising, given that pre/perinatal risk factors can have a substantial impact on growth trajectories in the first years of life. We aimed to determine which pre/perinatal factors were more prevalent in ASD children and if these factors differentially influenced body growth in ASD and control children. A total of 96 ASD and 163 control children matched for gender participated. Data of growth of head size and body length during the first 13 months of life were collected. Data on pre/perinatal risk factors were retrospectively collected through standardized questionnaires. Results indicated that after matching for SES, prematurity/low birth weight and being first born were more prevalent in the ASD versus the control group. In addition, with increasing age children with ASD tended to have a proportionally smaller head circumference compared to their height. However, the effect of prematurity/low birth weight on head growth corrected for height was significantly different in ASD and control children: premature/low birth weight control children showed a disproportionate larger head circumference in relation to height during their first year of life, whereas this effect was absent in premature/low birth weight ASD children. This may suggest that the etiology of abnormal growth is potentially different in ASD and control children: where abnormal growth in control children is related to suboptimal conditions in the uterus, abnormal growth in ASD may be more strongly related to the causal factors that also increase the risk for ASD. However, prospective studies measuring growth and ASD characteristics in both premature/low birth weight and a terme children are necessary to support this conclusion. PMID:22923066

  2. DAFNE Setup And Operation With the Crab-Waist Collision Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /SLAC

    2011-10-21

    In the second half of 2007 a major upgrade has been implemented on the Frascati DA{Phi}NE collider in order to test the novel idea of Crab-Waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, built and installed to realize the new configuration. At the same time the performances of relevant hardware components, such as fast injection kickers and shielded bellows have been improved relying on new design concepts. The collider has been successfully commissioned in this new configuration. The paper describes several experimental results about linear and non-linear optics setup and optimization, damping of beam-beam instabilities and discusses the obtained luminosity performances. DA{Phi}NE [1] is the Frascati lepton collider working at the c m. energy of the {Phi} meson resonance (1020). It came in operation in 2001 and till summer 2007 provided luminosity, in sequence, to three different experiments which logged a total integrated luminosity of {approx} 4.4 fb{sup -1}. During these years the collider reached its best performances in terms of luminosity and background (L{sub peak} = 1.6 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} L{sub day} {approx} 10 pb{sup -1}) by means of several successive upgrades, relying on the experience gathered during the collider operations and implemented exploiting the shutdowns required for the experiment change over [2, 3, 4].

  3. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  4. Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of…

  5. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: A response to McAnulty and Adams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel McConaghy

    1992-01-01

    In replying to my review of the validity and ethics of penile circumference responses (PCRs) as measures of sexual arousal McAnulty and Adams misinterpreted the review as claiming penile volume responses (PVRs) were superior to PCRs in assessing rapists and child molesters. No such claim was made. The lack of validity of PCR assessment of individual rapists and child molesters

  6. Eye-Tracking of Men’s Preferences for Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Breast Size of Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barnaby J. Dixson; Gina M. Grimshaw; Wayne L. Linklater; Alan F. Dixson

    2011-01-01

    Studies of human physical traits and mate preferences often use questionnaires asking participants to rate the attractiveness\\u000a of images. Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), breast size, and facial appearance have all been implicated in assessments by\\u000a men of female attractiveness. However, very little is known about how men make fine-grained visual assessments of such images.\\u000a We used eye-tracking techniques to measure

  7. Functional group biodiversity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems questions the wasp-waist trophic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréon, Pierre; Arístegui, Javier; Bertrand, Arnaud; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Field, John C.; Gibbons, Mark J.; Tam, Jorge; Hutchings, Larry; Masski, Hicham; Mullon, Christian; Ramdani, Mohamed; Seret, Bernard; Simier, Monique

    2009-12-01

    The species diversity of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems (EBUEs) is studied and compared with the aim of better understanding their functioning. Functional groups (FGs) of organisms were defined according to their taxonomy, body size and trophic level (TL), and span from plankton to top predators. Four large sub-divisions are defined in each system: two latitudinal sub-divisions (north and south) and two zonal sub-divisions (inshore and offshore), resulting in four sub-ecosystems per EBUE. A semi-quantitative approach is used in which only the dominant species (contributing 90% of overall biomass) are considered. EBUEs are compared in regard to their species composition, dominant species richness and evenness within FGs. The data are interpreted, focusing on latitudinal, zonal and depth gradients of diversity. Trophic flows (inflow and outflow) through the small pelagic fish FG are derived from different Ecopath models. This analysis of the four ecosystems and their sub-divisions does not provide support for the expected wasp-waist food web structure and functioning, with a single or several species of small pelagic fish primarily channelling the energy flow from lower to higher TL. Instead, similar low levels of richness were observed in many FGs of intermediate TL, allowing several energy transfer pathways. The gamma diversity is high due to the geographical distance between EBUEs and the presence or absence of rivers, but not to differences in their latitudinal position. The beta diversity is also high, due to the same factors plus the variation in shelf width and the contrast between inshore and offshore sub-divisions. The differences in richness and evenness among EBUEs are minor and do not explain the higher secondary and tertiary productivity of the Humboldt ecosystem.

  8. Center of pressure control for balance maintenance during lateral waist-pull perturbations in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masahiro; Bair, Woei-Nan; Rogers, Mark W

    2015-04-13

    When balance is disturbed, location of the center of pressure (COP) contributes to a person's ability to recover from a perturbation. This study investigated COP control prior to first step lift-off (FSLO) during lateral perturbations in older non-fallers and fallers. 38 non-fallers and 16 fallers received lateral waist-pulls at 5 different intensities. Crossover stepping responses at the intensity level where the largest number of subjects responded with crossover steps were analyzed. Whole-body center of mass (COM) and COP positions in the medio-lateral (ML) direction with respect to the base of support (BOS), and COP velocity were calculated. An inverted pendulum model was used to define the BOS stability boundary at FSLO, which was also adjusted using the COP position at FSLO (functional boundary). No significant differences were found in the COP velocities between fallers and non-fallers (p>.093). However, the COP positions for fallers were located significantly more medial at FSLO (p?.01), resulting in a significantly reduced functional boundary. Although the stability margins, measures of stability based on the BOS, were significantly larger than zero for fallers (p?.004), they were not significantly different from zero for the functional boundary, i.e., reaching the functional stability limit. Fallers had reduced functional limits of stability in the ML direction, which would predispose them to more precarious stability conditions than non-fallers. This could be a cause for taking more steps than non-fallers for balance recovery as we observed. The functional boundary estimation may be a more sensitive marker of balance instability than the BOS boundary. PMID:25728580

  9. Associations between sperm abnormalities, breed, age, and scrotal circumference in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ajitkumar G; Barkema, Herman W; Wilde, Randy; Kastelic, John P; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the associations of breed, age, and scrotal circumference (SC), and their interaction, on the prevalence of sperm abnormalities in beef bulls in Alberta, Canada, and the percentage of satisfactory potential breeders identified during breeding soundness examination solely due to normal sperm morphology. Eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears and evaluation reports of 1642 bull breeding soundness evaluations were procured from 6 veterinary clinics in Alberta. Sperm morphology was determined for at least 100 sperm per bull. The most common defects were detached head [4.86% ± 5.71%; mean ± standard deviation (s)], distal midpiece reflex (6.19% ± 9.13%), and bent tail (1.01% ± 1.54%). Although breed, age, and SC did not significantly affect the prevalence of head or midpiece defects, morphologically normal or abnormal sperm, tail defects were more prevalent in Angus and Hereford bulls compared with other breeds. Overall, solely on the basis of sperm morphology, 1363 (83.0%) bulls were classified as satisfactory potential breeders and the remainder 279 (17.0%) as unsatisfactory (> 30% abnormal sperm, > 20% defective heads, or both). Although not significantly different, the breed with the highest percentage of satisfactory potential breeders was Limousin (90.6%) and the lowest was Hereford (78.8%). That 17% of bulls subjected to breeding soundness evaluation were designated as unsatisfactory solely on the basis of sperm morphology highlights its importance. PMID:22468020

  10. Biosocial comparison of mid-upper arm circumference in the two Koreas.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Anthropometric differences between the two Koreas are of considerable public and scientific interest given the unique socio-political status of North Korea and the fact that the nations share the same genetic ancestry. This study provides new biosocial evidence on these differences by analysing mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) as a human welfare indicator. This is the first study to compare the nutritional status of adults surveyed inside North Korea with South Koreans. The MUAC measurements of 2793 North Korean women obtained through a household survey conducted in 2002 were compared with those of 1428 South Korean women surveyed around 2003. Comparative analysis was conducted by plotting centiles and calculating mean differences in MUAC by age. This paper finds that the MUAC of the South Koreans was on average 2.8 cm greater than that of their North Korean peers, with MUAC gaps ranging from 1.6 cm to 3.9 cm and becoming more pronounced with age. This research confirms previous studies on height and weight in the two Germanies and in the two Koreas that have shown that biosocial performance is worse in socialist economies as compared with free-market regimes. PMID:23279746

  11. An inexpensive, MRI compatible device to measure tidal volume from chest-wall circumference.

    PubMed

    Binks, Andrew P; Banzett, Robert B; Duvivier, Claude

    2007-02-01

    Mouthpieces and masks change breathing, and distract the subject. Accepted non-invasive methods avoid this problem, inductive plethysmographs and respiratory magnetometers, but are expensive and unusable in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. Because changes in ventilation affect arterial gases, and thus cerebral blood flow, measurement of breathing is desirable during many functional MRI studies. Using an old principle, we constructed an inexpensive, non-invasive device unaffected by magnetic fields. We adapted a simple calibration method to reduce error and make the method accessible to more users. 'Pneumobelts' consist of flexible corrugated silicon tubes worn around the rib cage (RC) and the abdomen (AB). Changes in RC and AB are determined from pressure changes within the 'pneumobelts'. Estimates of tidal volume are generated from the sum of the RC and AB changes. We empirically determined the appropriate RC weighting as 1.3:1 (RC:AB). Volume estimation was tested (n = 9) in different body positions and during different breathing maneuvers. The weighted sum of the two signals gave an accurate estimate of tidal volume with tidal volumes less than 1200 ml (mean error = 6-7%). Breaths over 1900 ml produced larger errors (mean error = 11-16%). Our results are generalizable to any linear circumference measuring device. PMID:17237587

  12. Waist to Height Ratio Is an Independent Predictor for the Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Odagiri, Keiichi; Mizuta, Isagi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Uehara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. The association between waist to height ratio (WheiR) and CKD is unclear. This study evaluated the association between WheiR and CKD. Design and Methods In this longitudinal cohort study, 4841 Japanese workers (3686 males, 1155 females) 18 to 67 years of age in 2008 were followed up until 2011. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese) or dipstick proteinuria (?1+). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship between WheiR and development of CKD. Results A total of 384 (7.9%) participants (300 men and 84 women) were found to have new CKD. The incidence of CKD was 13.7, 24.2, 37.9 and 43.7 per 1000 person-years of follow-up in the lowest, second, third and highest quartiles of WheiR, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for CKD were 1.00 (reference), 1.23 (0.85, 1.78), 1.59 (1.11, 2.26) and 1.62 (1.13, 2.32) through the quartiles of WheiR, respectively. WheiR had a significant predictive value for the incidence of both proteinuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After subdivision according to gender, the relationship between WheiR and the incidence of CKD was statistically significant in the unadjusted model. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, WheiR was significantly associated with the incidence of CKD in females, whereas it was not significant in males. Conclusions WheiR, which is commonly used as an index of central obesity, is associated with CKD. There was a significant gender difference in the relationship between CKD and WheiR. PMID:24533159

  13. Adjusting head circumference for covariates in autism: clinical correlates of a highly heritable continuous trait

    PubMed Central

    Chaste, Pauline; Klei, Lambertus; Sanders, Stephan J.; Murtha, Michael T.; Hus, Vanessa; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Yu, Timothy W.; Fombonne, Eric; Geschwind, Daniel; Grice, Dorothy E.; Ledbetter, David H.; Lord, Catherine; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa Lese; Martin, Donna M.; Morrow, Eric M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Sutcliffe, James S.; State, Matthew W.; Devlin, Bernie; Cook, Edwin H.; Kim, Soo-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brain development follows a different trajectory in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) than in typically developing children. A proxy for neurodevelopment could be head circumference (HC), but studies assessing HC and its clinical correlates in ASD have been inconsistent. This study investigates HC and clinical correlates in the Simons Simplex Collection cohort. METHODS We used a mixed linear model to estimate effects of covariates and the deviation from the expected HC given parental HC (genetic deviation). After excluding individuals with incomplete data, 7225 individuals in 1891 families remained for analysis. We examined the relationship between HC/genetic deviation of HC and clinical parameters. RESULTS Gender, age, height, weight, genetic ancestry and ASD status were significant predictors of HC (estimate of the ASD effect=0.2cm). HC was approximately normally distributed in probands and unaffected relatives, with only a few outliers. Genetic deviation of HC was also normally distributed, consistent with a random sampling of parental genes. Whereas larger HC than expected was associated with ASD symptom severity and regression, IQ decreased with the absolute value of the genetic deviation of HC. CONCLUSIONS Measured against expected values derived from covariates of ASD subjects, statistical outliers for HC were uncommon. HC is a strongly heritable trait and population norms for HC would be far more accurate if covariates including genetic ancestry, height and age were taken into account. The association of diminishing IQ with absolute deviation from predicted HC values suggests HC could reflect subtle underlying brain development and warrants further investigation. PMID:23746936

  14. Evaluation of the optimal washing conditions for dioxin-contaminated soils from the circumference of an incinerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunichika Nakamiya; Tohru Furuichi; Kazuei Ishii

    2003-01-01

    The optimal soil-washing conditions for dioxins were estimated on a soil sample from the circumference of an incinerator\\u000a in Nose City, Osaka, Japan. The solvents ethanol, methanol, and acetone, together with a surfactant (100% of each) could extract\\u000a 40% of the dioxins from contaminated soil at room temperature. From among these solvents, ethanol was chosen for a study on\\u000a how

  15. The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J Barker; C Osmond; S J Simmonds; G A Wield

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine how fetal growth is related to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. DESIGN--A follow up study of men born during 1907-24 whose birth weights, head circumferences, and other body measurements were recorded at birth. SETTING--Sheffield, England. SUBJECTS--1586 Men born in the Jessop Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Standardised mortality ratios for cardiovascular disease fell from

  16. Relationship between the surrogate anthropometric measures, foot length and chest circumference and birth weight among newborns of Sarlahi, Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L C Mullany; G L Darmstadt; S K Khatry; S C LeClerq; J M Tielsch

    2007-01-01

    Background:Classification of infants into low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) or very low birth weight (VLBW, <2000 g) categories is a crucial step in targeting interventions to high-risk infants.Objective:To compare the validity of chest circumference and foot length as surrogate anthropometric measures for the identification of LBW and VLBW infants.Subjects and setting:Newborn infants (n=1640) born between March and June 2004

  17. Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-03-01

    During the reign of King Sejong (??, 1418-1450) in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(?), Jin(?), and Yuan(?) dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak), and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (??) based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree) like Honsang (a celestial globe). We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial) has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter). This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.

  18. Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoendemic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Uttah, EC

    2010-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder) were taken from 1024 individuals examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population). An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Windows package was used for entering and analysis of data. Results Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females). The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip) than females (14 mf/skin snip) (p<0.01). A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient=+0.90; p<0.01), and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities. Conclusion Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch. PMID:22347242

  19. Modified Taylor-Couette Flow in Multiply-Waisted Hourglass Geometries Simulations based upon Reaction-Diffusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Hou, Yu; Kowalski, Adam; Wiener, Richard

    2006-05-01

    The Reaction-Diffusion model predicted a period doubling cascade to chaos in a situation analagous Taylor- Couette flow with hourglass geometry. This cascade to chaos was discovered in the actual fluid flow experiments. We model Taylor-Couette flow in a cylindrical geometry with multiple waists of super-critical flow connected by regions of barely super-critical flow by corresponding Reaction-Diffusion models. We compare our results to the findings of an ongoing experimental program. H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991). Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).

  20. Percutaneous screw fixation versus conservative treatment for fractures of the waist of the scaphoid: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    McQueen, M M; Gelbke, M K; Wakefield, A; Will, E M; Gaebler, C

    2008-01-01

    We randomly allocated 60 consecutive patients with fractures of the waist of the scaphoid to percutaneous fixation with a cannulated Acutrak screw or immobilisation in a cast. The range of movement, the grip and pinch strength, the modified Green/O'Brien functional score, return to work and sports, and radiological evidence of union were evaluated at each follow-up visit. Patients were followed sequentially for one year. Those undergoing percutaneous screw fixation showed a quicker time to union (9.2 weeks vs 13.9 weeks, p < 0.001) than those treated with a cast. There was a trend towards a higher rate of nonunion in the non-operative group, although this was not statistically significant. Patients treated by operation had a more rapid return of function and to sport and full work compared with those managed conservatively. There was a very low complication rate. We recommend that all active patients should be offered percutaneous stabilisation for fractures of the waist of the scaphoid. PMID:18160502

  1. Stunting, adiposity, and the individual-level “dual burden” among urban lowland and rural highland peruvian children

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Background The causes of the “dual burden” of stunting and obesity remain unclear, and its existence at the individual level varies between populations. We investigate whether the individual dual burden differentially affects low socioeconomic status Peruvian children from contrasting environments (urban lowlands and rural highlands), and whether tibia length can discount the possible autocorrelation between adiposity proxies and height due to height measurement error. Methods Stature, tibia length, weight, and waist circumference were measured in children aged 3–8.5 years (n?=?201). Height and body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated using international reference data. Age-sex-specific centile curves were also calculated for height, BMI, and tibia length. Adiposity proxies (BMI z score, waist circumference-height ratio (WCHtR)) were regressed on height and also on tibia length z scores. Results Regression model interaction terms between site (highland vs. lowland) and height indicate that relationships between adiposity and linear growth measures differed significantly between samples (P?

  2. Does a waist-worn accelerometer capture intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior among persons with multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Suh, Yoojin; Goldman, Myla

    2010-12-01

    The valid application of accelerometry and interpretation of its output (i.e., counts per unit time) for the measurement of walking behavior in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) rests upon multiple untested assumptions. This study tested the assumption that a waist-worn accelerometer should capture the intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior. Twenty-four participants with a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of MS and who were ambulatory with minimal assistance undertook three 6-min periods of over-ground walking that involved comfortable (CWS) and then slower (SWS) and faster (FWS) walking speeds while wearing ActiGraph, model 7164, accelerometers around the waist and ankle. The experimental manipulation of walking was successful such that the CWS was 76.7±13.0m/min (range=55.6-105.14), whereas the SWS and FWS were 64.3±12.3m/min (range=44.5-90.1) and 89.1±13.8m/min (range=60.9-116.4), respectively. Movement counts from the waist and ankle-worn accelerometer were strongly associated with the manipulation of speed, but the association was stronger for the waist than ankle based on both eta-squared estimates (?(2) values=.78 and .46) and the average squared multiple correlations from individual regression analyses (R(2) values=.97±.04 and .88±.21). The bivariate correlation between movement counts from the waist-worn accelerometer and speed of walking (r=.823, p=.001) was large in magnitude and significantly different (z=3.22, p=.001) from that between movement counts from the ankle-worn unit and walking speed (r=.549, p=.001). This study provides novel evidence that an accelerometer worn around the waist captures intra- and inter-person variation in over-ground walking behavior in those with MS. PMID:20875952

  3. Does a waist-worn accelerometer capture intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior among persons with multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Suh, Yoojin; Goldman, Myla

    2011-01-01

    The valid application of accelerometry and interpretation of its output (i.e., counts per unit time) for the measurement of walking behavior in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) rests upon multiple untested assumptions. This study tested the assumption that a waist-worn accelerometer should capture the intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior. Twenty-four participants with a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of MS and who were ambulatory with minimal assistance undertook three 6-min periods of over-ground walking that involved comfortable (CWS) and then slower (SWS) and faster (FWS) walking speeds while wearing ActiGraph, model 7164, accelerometers around the waist and ankle. The experimental manipulation of walking was successful such that the CWS was 76.7 ± 13.0 m/min (range = 55.6–105.14), whereas the SWS and FWS were 64.3 ± 12.3 m/min (range = 44.5–90.1) and 89.1 ± 13.8 m/min (range = 60.9–116.4), respectively. Movement counts from the waist and ankle-worn accelerometer were strongly associated with the manipulation of speed, but the association was stronger for the waist than ankle based on both eta-squared estimates (?2 values = .78 and .46) and the average squared multiple correlations from individual regression analyses (R2 values = .97 ± .04 and .88 ± .21). The bivariate correlation between movement counts from the waist-worn accelerometer and speed of walking (r = .823, p = .001) was large in magnitude and significantly different (z = 3.22, p = .001) from that between movement counts from the ankle-worn unit and walking speed (r = .549, p = .001). This study provides novel evidence that an accelerometer worn around the waist captures intra- and inter-person variation in over-ground walking behavior in those with MS. PMID:20875952

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

  5. A Preliminary Investigation into the Potential Role of Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Preference within the Assortative Mating Hypothesis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Walker, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Of particular interest to studying the etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is the potential for multiple risk factors to combine through non-random mechanisms--assortative mating. Both genetic influences and a high-testosterone prenatal environment have been implicated in the etiology of ASDs, and given that waist-hip ratio (WHR) is…

  6. Seven tenths incorrect: Heterogeneity and change in the waist?to?hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Freese; Sheri Meland

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist?to?hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation

  7. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’s education, maternal age, parity, BMI, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference respectively (p<0.05 for all) and Kohs’ block design score (visuo-spatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p<0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities and attention and concentration. In conclusion higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuo-spatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  8. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K; Fall, Caroline H D; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South India, cognitive function was assessed using three core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, and visuospatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7 y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socioeconomic status, parent's education, maternal age, parity, body mass index, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference, respectively (p < 0.05 for all), and Kohs' block design score (visuospatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p < 0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities, and attention and concentration. In conclusion, higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuospatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  9. Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

  10. Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

  11. Disruption of the gastroesophageal junction by central obesity and waist belt: role of raised intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; McColl, K E L

    2014-02-28

    Obesity is a major reason for the recent increase in incidence of reflux disease and cancers at the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) and is mediated through a rise in the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) but the exact mechanisms are unclear. Raised IAP from obesity and with application of waist belt produces mechanical distortion of the GOJ through formation of partial hiatus hernia. Even though there is no trans-sphincteric acid reflux, there is increased ingress of acid into the lower sphincter (intra-sphincteric reflux) as a consequence of raised IAP. In addition, short segment acid reflux is more evident in obese subjects with a belt on. Acid pocket is also enlarged in hiatus hernia, and acts as a reservoir of acid available to reflux whenever the sphincter fails. Above mechanisms may explain the common occurrence of cardiac lengthening and inflammation found in asymptomatic obese subjects. The inflamed cardia is also immunohistochemically similar to non-intestinal Barrett's mucosa, which is of etiological importance for cancers at the GOJ. Interventions that can reduce the mechanical distortion and acid exposure at the GOJ, including diet, exercise, drugs, sphincter augmentation therapy, and surgery, are clinically relevant in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease but more data are needed whether if these strategies are also effective in preventing cancer. As a conclusion, raised IAP produces silent mechanical disruption of the GOJ, which may explain the high occurrence of cancers in this region and it is potentially reversible with early interventions. PMID:24575877

  12. Genetic and Environmental Relationships between Head Circumference Growth in the First Year of Life and Sociocognitive Development in the Second Year: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Ozaki, Koken; Suzuki, Kunitake; Yamagata, Shinji; Kawahashi, Ikko; Ando, Juko

    2012-01-01

    Although growth in head circumference (HC) during infancy is known to predict later childhood outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this association with later sociocognitive abilities remain undetermined. Thus, using a sample of 241 pairs of normally developing Japanese twins, this study investigated the underpinnings of the association between HC…

  13. Evaluation of a Chest Circumference-Adapted Protocol for Low-Dose 128-Slice Coronary CT Angiography with Prospective Electrocardiogram Triggering

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chenying; Wang, Zufei; Wang, Hailin; Hu, Xianghua; Chen, Chunmiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol on radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Materials and Methods One hundred-eighty-five consecutive patients, who had undergone prospective ECG triggering CCTA with a 128-slice CT, were included in the present study. Nipple-level chest circumference, body weight and height were measured before CT examinations. Patients were divided into four groups based on kV/ref·mAs = 100/200, 100/250, 120/200, and 120/250, when patient's chest circumference was ? 85.0 (n = 56), 85.0-90.0 (n = 53), 90.0-95.0 (n = 44), and > 95.0 (n = 32), respectively. Image quality per-segment was independently assessed by two experienced observers. Image noise and attenuation were also measured. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The effective radiation dose was calculated using CT dose volume index and the dose-length product. Results A significant correlation was observed between patients' chest circumference and body mass index (r = 0.762, p < 0.001). Chest circumference ranged from 74 to 105 cm, and the mean effective radiation dose was 1.9-3.8 mSv. Diagnostic image quality was obtained in 98.5% (2440/2478) of all evaluated coronary segments without any significant differences among the four groups (p = 0.650). No significant difference in image noise was observed among the four groups (p = 0.439), thus supporting the validity of the chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol. However, vessel attenuation, SNR and CNR were significantly higher in the 100 kV groups than in the 120 kV groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion A measure of chest circumference can be used to adapt tube voltage and current for individualized radiation dose control, with resultant similar image noise and sustained diagnostic image quality. PMID:25598671

  14. Does a waist-worn accelerometer capture intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior among persons with multiple sclerosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Motl; Jacob J. Sosnoff; Deirdre Dlugonski; Yoojin Suh; Myla Goldman

    2010-01-01

    The valid application of accelerometry and interpretation of its output (i.e., counts per unit time) for the measurement of walking behavior in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) rests upon multiple untested assumptions. This study tested the assumption that a waist-worn accelerometer should capture the intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior. Twenty-four participants with a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of MS and

  15. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris M Heid; Anne U Jackson; Joshua C Randall; Thomas W Winkler; Lu Qi; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Gudmar Thorleifsson; M Carola Zillikens; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Reedik Magi; Tsegaselassie Workalemahu; Charles C White; Nabila Bouatia-Naji; Tamara B Harris; Sonja I Berndt; Erik Ingelsson; Cristen J Willer; Michael N Weedon; Jian'an Luan; Sailaja Vedantam; Tonu Esko; Tuomas O Kilpelainen; Zoltan Kutalik; Shengxu Li; Keri L Monda; Anna L Dixon; Christopher C Holmes; Lee M Kaplan; Liming Liang; Josine L Min; Miriam F Moffatt; Cliona Molony; George Nicholson; Eric E Schadt; Krina T Zondervan; Mary F Feitosa; Teresa Ferreira; Hana Lango Allen; Robert J Weyant; Eleanor Wheeler; Andrew R Wood; Karol Estrada; Michael E Goddard; Guillaume Lettre; Massimo Mangino; Dale R Nyholt; Shaun Purcell; Albert Vernon Smith; Peter M Visscher; Jian Yang; Steven A McCarroll; James Nemesh; Benjamin F Voight; Devin Absher; Najaf Amin; Thor Aspelund; Lachlan Coin; Nicole L Glazer; Caroline Hayward; Nancy L Heard-Costa; Jouke-Jan Hottenga; Asa Johansson; Toby Johnson; Marika Kaakinen; Karen Kapur; Shamika Ketkar; Joshua W Knowles; Peter Kraft; Aldi T Kraja; Claudia Lamina; Michael F Leitzmann; Barbara McKnight; Andrew P Morris; Ken K Ong; John R B Perry; Marjolein J Peters; Ozren Polasek; Inga Prokopenko; Nigel W Rayner; Samuli Ripatti; Fernando Rivadeneira; Neil R Robertson; Serena Sanna; Ulla Sovio; Ida Surakka; Alexander Teumer; Sophie van Wingerden; Veronique Vitart; Jing Hua Zhao; Christine Cavalcanti-Proenca; Peter S Chines; Eva Fisher; Jennifer R Kulzer; Cecile Lecoeur; Narisu Narisu; Camilla Sandholt; Laura J Scott; Kaisa Silander; Klaus Stark; Mari-Liis Tammesoo; Tanya M Teslovich; Nicholas John Timpson; Richard M Watanabe; Ryan Welch; Daniel I Chasman; Matthew N Cooper; John-Olov Jansson; Johannes Kettunen; Robert W Lawrence; Niina Pellikka; Markus Perola; Liesbeth Vandenput; Helene Alavere; Peter Almgren; Larry D Atwood; Amanda J Bennett; Reiner Biffar; Lori L Bonnycastle; Stefan R Bornstein; Thomas A Buchanan; Harry Campbell; Ian N M Day; Mariano Dei; Marcus Dorr; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Johan G Eriksson; Nelson B Freimer; Mao Fu; Stefan Gaget; Eco J C Geus; Anette P Gjesing; Harald Grallert; Jurgen Graszler; Christopher J Groves; Candace Guiducci; Anna-Liisa Hartikainen; Neelam Hassanali; Aki S Havulinna; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Andrew A Hicks; Jennie Hui; Wilmar Igl; Pekka Jousilahti; Antti Jula; Eero Kajantie; Leena Kinnunen; Ivana Kolcic; Seppo Koskinen; Peter Kovacs; Heyo K Kroemer; Vjekoslav Krzelj; Johanna Kuusisto; Kirsti Kvaloy; Jaana Laitinen; Olivier Lantieri; G Mark Lathrop; Marja-Liisa Lokki; Robert N Luben; Barbara Ludwig; Wendy L McArdle; Anne McCarthy; Mario A Morken; Mari Nelis; Matt J Neville; Guillaume Pare; Alex N Parker; John F Peden; Irene Pichler; Kirsi H Pietilainen; Carl G P Platou; Anneli Pouta; Martin Ridderstrale; Nilesh J Samani; Jouko Saramies; Juha Sinisalo; Jan H Smit; Rona J Strawbridge; Heather M Stringham; Amy J Swift; Maris Teder-Laving; Brian Thomson; Gianluca Usala; Joyce B J van Meurs; Gert-Jan van Ommen; Vincent Vatin; Claudia B Volpato; Henri Wallaschofski; G Bragi Walters; Elisabeth Widen; Sarah H Wild; Gonneke Willemsen; Daniel R Witte; Lina Zgaga; Paavo Zitting; John P Beilby; Alan L James; Mika Kahonen; Terho Lehtimaki; Markku S Nieminen; Claes Ohlsson; Lyle J Palmer; Olli Raitakari; Paul M Ridker; Michael Stumvoll; Anke Tonjes; Jorma Viikari; Beverley Balkau; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Richard N Bergman; Heiner Boeing; George Davey Smith; Shah Ebrahim; Philippe Froguel; Torben Hansen; Christian Hengstenberg; Kristian Hveem; Bo Isomaa; Torben Jorgensen; Fredrik Karpe; Kay-Tee Khaw; Markku Laakso; Debbie A Lawlor; Michel Marre; Thomas Meitinger; Andres Metspalu; Kristian Midthjell; Oluf Pedersen; Veikko Salomaa; Peter E H Schwarz; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Timo T Valle; Nicholas J Wareham; Alice M Arnold; Jacques S Beckmann; Sven Bergmann; Eric Boerwinkle; Dorret I Boomsma; Mark J Caulfield; Francis S Collins; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason; Ulf Gyllensten; Anders Hamsten; Andrew T Hattersley; Albert Hofman; Frank B Hu; Thomas Illig; Carlos Iribarren; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; W H Linda Kao; Jaakko Kaprio; Lenore J Launer; Patricia B Munroe; Ben Oostra; Brenda W Penninx; Peter P Pramstaller; Bruce M Psaty; Thomas Quertermous; Aila Rissanen; Igor Rudan; Alan R Shuldiner; Nicole Soranzo; Timothy D Spector; Ann-Christine Syvanen; Manuela Uda; Andre Uitterlinden; Henry Volzke; Peter Vollenweider; James F Wilson; Jacqueline C Witteman; Alan F Wright; Goncalo R Abecasis; Michael Boehnke; Ingrid B Borecki; Panos Deloukas

    2010-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an

  16. Waist-to-height ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence: findings from a prospective birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Graves, L; Garnett, S P; Cowell, C T; Baur, L A; Ness, A; Sattar, N; Lawlor, D A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) measured in childhood and adolescence and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence. Methods Secondary data analysis of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population based cohort. Data from 2858 adolescents aged 15.5 (standard deviation 0.4) years and 2710 of these participants as children aged 7–9 years were used in this analysis. Outcome measures were cardiometabolic risk factors, including triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, glucose and blood pressure at 15 years of age. Results Both BMI and WHtR measured at ages 7–9 years and at age 15 years were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. A WHtR ?0.5 at 7–9 years increased the odds by 4.6 [95% confidence interval 2.6 to 8.1] for males and 1.6 [0.7 to 3.9] for females of having three or more cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence. Cross-sectional analysis indicated that adolescents who had a WHtR ?0.5, the odds ratio of having three or more cardiometabolic risk factors was 6.8 [4.4 to 10.6] for males and 3.8 [2.3 to 6.3] for females. The WHtR cut-point was highly specific in identifying cardiometabolic risk co-occurrence in male children and adolescents as well as female children (90 to 95%), but had poor sensitivity (17 to 53%). Similar associations were observed when BMI was used to define excess adiposity. Conclusions WHtR is a simple alternative to age and sex adjusted BMI for assessing cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. PMID:23894119

  17. Safety and antioxidant activity of a pomegranate ellagitannin-enriched polyphenol dietary supplement in overweight individuals with increased waist size.

    PubMed

    Heber, David; Seeram, Navindra P; Wyatt, Holly; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Ogden, Lorraine G; Dreher, Mark; Hill, James O

    2007-11-28

    The consumption of pomegranate juice (PJ), a rich source of antioxidant polyphenols, has grown tremendously due to its reported health benefits. Pomegranate extracts, which incorporate the major antioxidants found in pomegranates, namely, ellagitannins, have been developed as botanical dietary supplements to provide an alternative convenient form for consuming the bioactive polyphenols found in PJ. Despite the commercial availability of pomegranate extract dietary supplements, there have been no studies evaluating their safety in human subjects. A pomegranate ellagitannin-enriched polyphenol extract (POMx) was prepared for dietary supplement use and evaluated in two pilot clinical studies. Study 1 was designed for safety assessment in 64 overweight individuals with increased waist size. The subjects consumed either one or two POMx capsules per day providing 710 mg (435 mg of gallic acid equivalents, GAEs) or 1420 mg (870 mg of GAEs) of extracts, respectively, and placebo (0 mg of GAEs). Safety laboratory determinations, including complete blood count (CBC), chemistry, and urinalysis, were made at each of three visits. Study 2 was designed for antioxidant activity assessment in 22 overweight subjects by administration of two POMx capsules per day providing 1000 mg (610 mg of GAEs) of extract versus baseline measurements. Measurement of antioxidant activity as evidenced by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma were measured before and after POMx supplementation. There was evidence of antioxidant activity through a significant reduction in TBARS linked with cardiovascular disease risk. There were no serious adverse events in any subject studied at either site. These studies demonstrate the safety of a pomegranate ellagitannin-enriched polyphenol dietary supplement in humans and provide evidence of antioxidant activity in humans. PMID:17966977

  18. Head circumference in the clinical detection of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome in a clinic population at high-risk of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacey Shiovitz; Jessica Everett; Shu-chen Huang; Mohammed S. Orloff; Charis Eng; Stephen B. Gruber

    2010-01-01

    PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS) is often recognized by the presence of macrocephaly and associated mucocutaneous features,\\u000a and is notable for a profound predisposition to breast and thyroid cancers. Head circumference (HC) is rarely measured when\\u000a evaluating women at high risk for breast cancer, but may offer insight into characterizing cancer risk. Patients enrolled\\u000a in the University of Michigan Cancer

  19. Monitoring the Adequacy of Catch-Up Growth Among Moderately Malnourished Children Receiving Home-Based Therapy Using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference in Southern Malawi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas E. ConnorMark; Mark J. Manary

    Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic\\u000a Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts\\u000a to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) measurements collected by community-based health aides have the potential\\u000a to monitor changes in nutritional status among moderately malnourished Malawian children

  20. No evidence that polymorphisms of brain regulator genes Microcephalin and ASPM are associated with general mental ability, head circumference or altruism.

    PubMed

    Rushton, J Philippe; Vernon, Philip A; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2007-04-22

    We test the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the brain regulator genes MCPH1 and ASPM contribute to variations in human brain size and its correlates. We measured general mental ability, head circumference and social intelligence in 644 Canadian adults (496 Caucasians, 36 Orientals, 84 Mixed Race/Other and 28 Blacks; 257 men and 387 women). The gene polymorphisms were assessed from buccal DNA; mental ability by Wonderlic Personnel Test and Multidimensional Aptitude Battery; head circumference by stretchless tape; and social intelligence by prosocial attitude questionnaires. Although all measures were construct valid and the allele frequencies showed expected population differences, no relationship was found between the genes and any of the criteria. Among Caucasian 18-25 year olds, for example, the two mental ability tests correlated with each other (r=0.78, N=476, p<0.001), with head circumference (r=0.17, N=182, p<0.05) and with prosocial attitudes (r=0.23, N=182, p<0.001). PMID:17251122

  1. Association of Body Mass Index of HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and Infant Weight, Body Mass Index, Length, and Head Circumference: The NISDI Perinatal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Letícia S.; Harris, D. Robert; Read, Jennifer S.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Succi, Regina C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) of HIV-1-infected women and their infants’ perinatal outcomes. The study population consisted of women enrolled in the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal Study with data allowing calculation of the BMI adjusted for length of gestation (adjBMI), who delivered singleton infants. Outcome variables included infant growth parameters at birth (weight, BMI, length and head circumference) and gestational age. Of 697 women from Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil and Mexico who were included in the analysis, the adjBMI was classified as underweight for 109 (15.6%), normal for 418 (60.0%), overweight for 88 (12.6%) and obese for 82 (11.8%). Median infant birth weight, BMI, birth length and head circumference differed significantly according to maternal adjBMI (P?0.0002). Underweight mothers gave birth to infants with lower weight, lower BMI, shorter length and smaller head circumference, while infants born to normal, overweight and obese mothers were of similar size. PMID:19081829

  2. Short-pulse three-dimensional scattering from moderately rough surfaces: a comparison between narrow-waisted Gaussian beam algorithms and FDTD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Galdi; Panagiotis Kosmas; Carey M. Rappaport; Leopold B. Felsen; David A. Castañon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, with reference to short-pulse three-dimensional scattering from moderately rough surfaces, we present a comparison between Gabor-based narrow-waisted Gaussian beam (NW-GB) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms. NW-GB algorithms have recently emerged as an attractive alternative to traditional (ray-optical) high-frequency\\/short-pulse approximate methods, whereas FDTD algorithms are well-established full-wave tools for electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering. After presentation of relevant

  3. Genetic parameters for intramuscular fat percentage, marbling score, scrotal circumference, and heifer pregnancy in Red Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    McAllister, C M; Speidel, S E; Crews, D H; Enns, R M

    2011-07-01

    Selection criteria for yearling bulls commonly include indicators of fertility and carcass merit, such as scrotal circumference (SC) and intramuscular fat percentage (IMF). Genetic correlation estimates between ultrasound traits such as IMF and carcass marbling score (MS) with fertility traits SC and heifer pregnancy (HP) have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters among the indicator traits IMF and SC, and the economically relevant traits MS and HP. Records for IMF (n=73,051), MS (n=15,260), SC (n=43,487), and HP (n=37,802) were obtained from the Red Angus Association of America, and a 4-generation ancestral pedigree (n=10,460) was constructed from the 8,915 sires represented in the data. (Co)variance components were estimated using a multivariate sire model and average information REML to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations. Fixed effects included contemporary group and the linear effect of age at measurement for all traits, and an additional effect of age of dam for both HP and SC. The random effect of sire was included to estimate additive genetic effects, which were assumed to be continuous for IMF, MS, and SC, but a probit threshold link function was fitted for HP. Generally moderate heritability estimates of 0.29 ± 0.01, 0.35 ± 0.06, 0.32 ± 0.02, and 0.17 ± 0.01 were obtained for IMF, MS, SC, and HP on the underlying scale, respectively. The confidence interval for the estimated genetic correlation between MS and HP (0.10 ± 0.15) included zero, suggesting a negligible genetic association. The genetic correlation between MS and IMF was high (0.80 ± 0.05), but the estimate for HP and SC (0.05 ± 0.09) was near zero, as were the estimated genetic correlations of SC with MS (0.01 ± 0.08) and IMF (0.05 ± 0.06), and for HP with IMF (0.13 ± 0.09). These results suggest that concomitant selection for increased fertility and carcass merit would not be antagonistic. PMID:21278121

  4. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  5. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  6. Effects of a Culturally Grounded Community-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Obese Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Konopken, Yolanda; Hoppin, Erica; Keller, Colleen S.; Ortega, Rocio; Castro, Felipe González

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and preliminary effects of a culturally grounded, community-based diabetes prevention program among obese Latino adolescents. Methods Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (body mass index [BMI] percentile = 96.3 ± 1.1, age = 15.0 ± 0.9 years) completed a 12-week intervention that included weekly lifestyle education classes delivered by bilingual/bicultural promotoras and three, 60-minute physical activity sessions per week. Participants were assessed for anthropometrics (height, weight, BMI, and waist circumference), cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity/inactivity, nutrition behaviors, and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results The intervention resulted in significant decreases in BMI z score, BMI percentile, and waist circumference; increases in cardiorespiratory fitness; and decreases in physical inactivity and dietary fat consumption. In addition to these changes, the intervention led to significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in 2-hour glucose levels. Conclusions These results support the feasibility and efficacy of a community-based diabetes prevention program for high-risk Latino youth. Translational approaches that are both culturally grounded and biologically meaningful represent a novel and innovative strategy for closing the obesity-related health disparities gap. PMID:22585870

  7. Why is low waist-to-chest ratio attractive in males? The mediating roles of perceived dominance, fitness, and protection ability.

    PubMed

    Coy, Anthony E; Green, Jeffrey D; Price, Michael E

    2014-06-01

    Past research suggests that a lower waist-to-chest ratio (WCR) in men (i.e., narrower waist and broader chest) is viewed as attractive by women. However, little work has directly examined why low WCRs are preferred. The current work merged insights from theory and past research to develop a model examining perceived dominance, fitness, and protection ability as mediators of to WCR-attractiveness relationship. These mediators and their link to both short-term (sexual) and long-term (relational) attractiveness were simultaneously tested by having 151 women rate one of 15 avatars, created from 3D body scans. Men with lower WCR were perceived as more physically dominant, physically fit, and better able to protect loved ones; these characteristics differentially mediated the effect of WCR on short-term, long-term, and general attractiveness ratings. Greater understanding of the judgments women form regarding WCR may yield insights into motivations by men to manipulate their body image. PMID:24958664

  8. The Effect of Two Different Hand Exercises on Grip Strength, Forearm Circumference, and Vascular Maturation in Patients Who Underwent Arteriovenous Fistula Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Sangwon; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Junho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of two different hand exercises on hand strength and vascular maturation in patients who underwent arteriovenous fistula surgery. Methods We recruited 18 patients who had chronic kidney disease and had undergone arteriovenous fistula surgery for hemodialysis. After the surgery, 10 subjects performed hand-squeezing exercise with GD Grip, and other 8 subjects used Soft Ball. The subjects continued the exercises for 4 weeks. The hand grip strength, pinch strength (tip, palmar and lateral pinch), and forearm circumference of the subjects were assessed before and after the hand-squeezing exercise. The cephalic vein size, blood flow velocity and volume were also measured by ultrasonography in the operated limb. Results All of the 3 types of pinch strengths, grip strength, and forearm circumference were significantly increased in the group using GD Grip. Cephalic vein size and blood flow volume were also significantly increased. However, blood flow velocity showed no difference after the exercise. The group using Soft Ball showed a significant increase in the tip and lateral pinch strength and forearm circumference. The cephalic vein size and blood flow volume were also significantly increased. On comparing the effect of the two different hand exercises, hand-squeezing exercise with GD Grip had a significantly better effect on the tip and palmar pinch strength than hand-squeezing exercise with Soft Ball. The effect on cephalic vein size was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion The results showed that hand squeezing exercise with GD Grip was more effective in increasing the tip and palmar pinch strength compared to hand squeezing exercise with soft ball. PMID:25379494

  9. Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This pragmatic evaluation investigated the effectiveness of the Children’s Health, Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE!) Project, a cluster randomised intervention to promote healthy weight using an educational focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Methods Participants (n = 318, aged 10–11 years) from 6 Intervention and 6 Comparison schools took part in the 20 weeks intervention between November 2010 and March/April 2011. This consisted of a teacher-led curriculum, learning resources, and homework tasks. Primary outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-scores. Secondary outcomes were objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and food intake. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at post-intervention (20 weeks), and at follow-up (30 weeks). Data were analysed using 2-level multi-level modelling (levels: school, student) and adjusted for baseline values of the outcomes and potential confounders. Differences in intervention effect by subgroup (sex, weight status, socio-economic status) were explored using statistical interaction. Results Significant between-group effects were observed for waist circumference at post-intervention (? for intervention effect =?1.63 (95% CI = ?2.20, -1.07) cm, p<0.001) and for BMI z-score at follow-up (?=?0.24 (95% CI = ?0.48, -0.003), p=0.04). At follow-up there was also a significant intervention effect for light intensity physical activity (?=25.97 (95% CI = 8.04, 43.89) min, p=0.01). Interaction analyses revealed that the intervention was most effective for overweight/obese participants (waist circumference: ?=?2.82 (95% CI = ?4.06, -1.58) cm, p<0.001), girls (BMI: ?=?0.39 (95% CI = ?0.81, 0.03) kg/m2, p=0.07), and participants with higher family socioeconomic status (breakfast consumption: ?=8.82 (95% CI = 6.47, 11.16), p=0.07). Conclusions The CHANGE! intervention positively influenced body size outcomes and light physical activity, and most effectively influenced body size outcomes among overweight and obese children and girls. The findings add support for the effectiveness of combined school-based physical activity and nutrition interventions. Additional work is required to test intervention fidelity and the sustained effectiveness of this intervention in the medium and long term. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03863885. PMID:23819701

  10. The combination of daily breakfast consumption and optimal breakfast choices in childhood is an important public health message.

    PubMed

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Briassoulis, George; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Savva, Savvas C; Solea, Tonia; Hebestreit, Antje; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Kourides, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Tornaritis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with children's diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors. Study sample consisted of 1558 children aged 4-8 years from Cyprus. Breakfast frequency was assessed through a parental questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and blood pressure were examined in relation to breakfast frequency consumption. Habitual breakfast consumers' daily nutrient intake was assessed through a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, according to their breakfast choices. Girls who have breakfast on a daily basis had lower mean BMI and BMI z-score; they were also less likely of having abnormal levels of serum triglycerides, atheromatic index (total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio) and diastolic blood pressure after controlling for several confounding factors. Within regular breakfast consumers, of both boys and girls, those having ready to eat cereals had a superior nutrient intake profile. Daily breakfast consumption along with good breakfast choices is an important public health message for Cypriot children. PMID:24512299

  11. Postanesthesia patients with large upper arm circumference: is use of an "extra-long" adult cuff or forearm cuff placement accurate?

    PubMed

    Watson, Sheri; Aguas, Marita; Bienapfl, Tracy; Colegrove, Pat; Foisy, Nancy; Jondahl, Bonnie; Yosses, Mary Beth; Yu, Larissa; Anastas, Zoe

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if blood pressure (BP) measured in the forearm or with an extra-long BP cuff in the upper arm accurately reflects BP measured in the upper arm with an appropriately sized BP cuff in patients with large upper arm circumference. A method-comparison design was used with a convenience sample of 49 PACU patients. Noninvasive blood pressures were obtained in two different locations (forearm; upper arm) and in the upper arm with an extra-long adult and recommended large adult cuff sizes. Data were analyzed by calculating bias and precision for the BP cuff size and location and Student's t-tests, with P < .0125 considered significant. Significantly higher forearm systolic (P < .0001) and diastolic (P < .0002) BP measurements were found compared to BP obtained in the upper arm with the reference standard BP cuff. Significantly higher systolic (t(48df) = 5.38, P < .0001), but not diastolic (t(48df) = 4.11, P < .019), BP differences were found for BP measured with the extra-long cuff at the upper arm site compared to the upper arm, reference standard BP. Findings suggest that the clinical practice of using the forearm or an extra-long cuff in the upper arm for BP measurement in post anesthesia patients with large upper arm circumferences may result in inaccurate BP values. PMID:21641528

  12. Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Obesity: NHANES (2001–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Buser, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens and suspected endocrine disruptors. Prenatal exposure to PAHs has been associated with obesity in early childhood. Objective: We examined the association of urinary PAH metabolites with adiposity outcomes [body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference (WC), and rate of obesity] in children and adolescents. Methods: We performed whole-sample analyses of 3,189 individuals 6–19 years of age who participated in the 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We performed multivariate linear and logistic regression to analyze the association of BMI z-score, WC, and obesity with concentrations of single urinary PAH compounds and the sum of PAHs. Furthermore, the analyses were stratified by developmental stage [i.e., children (6–11 years) and adolescents (12–19 years)]. Results: BMI z-score, WC, and obesity were positively associated with the molecular mass sum of the PAHs and the total sum of naphthalene metabolites. Most associations increased monotonically with increasing quartiles of exposure among children 6–11 years of age, whereas dose–response trends were less consistent for adolescents (12–19 years of age). Neither total PAHs nor total naphthalene metabolites were associated with overweight in either age group, and there was little evidence of associations between the outcomes and individual PAHs. Conclusions: Total urinary PAH metabolites and naphthalene metabolites were associated with higher BMI, WC, and obesity in children 6–11 years of age, with positive but less consistent associations among adolescents. Citation: Scinicariello F, Buser MC. 2014. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood obesity: NHANES (2001–2006). Environ Health Perspect 122:299–303;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307234 PMID:24380973

  13. Effects of a low glycemic load or a low-fat dietary intervention on body weight in obese Hispanic American children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nazrat M; Palmer, Matilde G; Sinclair, Kelly B; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B; Ludwig, David S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Hispanic children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance is considerably greater than in non-Hispanic white children. A low–glycemic load diet (LGD) has been proposed as an effective dietary intervention for pediatric obesity, but to our knowledge, no published study has examined the effects of an LGD in obese Hispanic children. Objective: We compared the effects of an LGD and a low-fat diet (LFD) on body composition and components of metabolic syndrome in obese Hispanic youth. Design: Obese Hispanic children (7–15 y of age) were randomly assigned to consume an LGD or an LFD in a 2-y intervention program. Body composition and laboratory assessments were obtained at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 mo after intervention. Results: In 113 children who were randomly assigned, 79% of both groups completed 3 mo of treatment; 58% of LGD and 55% of LFD subjects attended 24-mo follow-up. Compared with the LFD, the LGD decreased the glycemic load per kilocalories of reported food intakes in participants at 3 mo (P = 0.02). Both groups had a decreased BMI z score (P < 0.003), which was expressed as a standard z score relative to CDC age- and sex-specific norms, and improved waist circumference and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) at 3, 12, and 24 mo after intervention. However, there were no significant differences between groups for changes in BMI, insulin resistance, or components of metabolic syndrome (all P > 0.5). Conclusions: We showed no evidence that an LGD and an LFD differ in efficacy for the reduction of BMI or aspects of metabolic syndrome in obese Hispanic youth. Both diets decreased the BMI z score when prescribed in the context of a culturally adapted, comprehensive weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01068197. PMID:23255569

  14. The predictive value of the ratio of neck circumference to thyromental distance in comparison with four predictive tests for difficult laryngoscopy in obstetric patients scheduled for caesarean delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hirmanpour, Anahita; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Honarmand, Azim; Jabalameli, Mitra; Banisadr, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative assessment of anatomical landmarks andclinical factors help detect potentially difficult laryngoscopies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from thefollowing preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Neck circumference to thyromental distance (NC/TMD), neck circumference (NC), modified Mallampatitest (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT). Materials and Methods: We collected data on657 consecutive patients scheduled for elective caesarean delivery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all five factors before caesarean. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined. Results: Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 53 (8.06%) patients. There were significant differences in thyromental distance (TMD), RHTMD, NC, and NC/TMD between difficult visualization of larynx and easy visualization of larynx patients (P < 0.05). The main end-point area under curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) was lower for MMT (AUC = 0.497; 95% Confidence Interval = CI,0.045-0.536) and ULBT (AUC = 0.500, 95% CI, 0.461-0.539) compared to RHTMD, NC, TMD, and NC/TMD score ([AUC = 0.627, 95% CI, 0.589-0.664], [AUC = 0.691; 95% CI, 0.654-0.726], [AUC = 0.606; 95% CI, 0.567-0.643], [AUC = 0.689;95% CI, 0.625-0.724], respectively), and the differences of six ROC curves were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The NC/TM Discomparable with NC, RHTMD, and ULBT for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in caes are an delivery. PMID:25337530

  15. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Dyslipidemia, Glycemic Levels, Blood Pressure and Depressive Symptoms among Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yu; Sun, Qihong; Chen, Kang; Yan, Wenhua; Pan, Changyu; Lu, Juming; Dou, Jingtao; Lu, Zhaohui; Jianming, Ba; Wang, Baoan; Mu, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and waist-to-hip ratio, dyslipidemia, glycemic levels or blood pressure among diabetic and non-diabetic Chinese women. Methods 11,908 women aged ?40 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, including 2,511 with type 2 diabetes and 9,397 without. Depressive symptoms (defined as having mild-to-severe depressive symptoms) were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic algorithm. The prevalence and the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for having depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in non-diabetic subjects with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) ?0.9 (8.6%, age-adjusted OR 1.51 [95% CI 1.17, 1.95]), total cholesterol (TC)>6.22 mmol/L (8.8%, 1.58 [1.16, 2.15]), and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ?6.00 mmol/L (7.7%, 1.69 [1.34, 2.14]), while it was significantly lower in non-diabetic subjects with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 80 to 89 mmHg (6.2%, 0.78 [0.64, 0.95]). These relationships remained significant even after controlling for multiple factors (WHR ?0.9: multivariable-adjusted OR 1.39 [95% CI 1.07, 1.80]; TC>6.22 mmol/L: 1.56 [1.14, 2.12]; HbA1c ?6.00 mmol/L: 1.64 [1.30, 2.08]; DBP 80-89 mmHg: 0.78 [0.64, 0.95]). However, no significant trend between depressive symptoms and WHC, TC, HbA1c, DBP was observed in diabetic women, and no significant trend relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI, WC, TG, or SBP was observed in both non-diabetic and diabetic women. Moreover, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in previously-diagnosed diabetes, compared with non-diabetic subjects, while no significant differences were observed between newly-diagnosed diabetes and non-diabetic subjects. Conclusion The present study showed a relationship between WHR, TC, HbA1c, DBP and depressive symptoms among non-diabetic women, while no significant relationship between them was observed among diabetic women, even after controlling for multiple confounding factors. PMID:25314156

  16. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian'an; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Lango Allen, Hana; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grässler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M

    2010-11-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?? to P = 1.8 × 10???) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?³ to P = 1.2 × 10?¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

  17. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Hector L.; Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Hofheins, Jennifer E.; Habowski, Scott M.; Arent, Shawn M.; Weir, Joseph P.; Ferrando, Arny A.

    2013-04-19

    -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P?waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P?

  18. The effects of synbiotic supplementation on some cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese children: a randomized triple-masked controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Morteza; Farajian, Sanam; Kelishadi, Roya; Mirlohi, Maryam; Hashemipour, Mahin

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested some beneficial effects of probiotics on controlling excess weight in adults; such experience is limited in the pediatric age group. This study aimed to assess the anti-obesity and lipid-lowering effects of a synbiotic supplement among children and adolescents. We conducted a randomized triple-masked controlled trial among 70 participants aged 6-18 years with body mass index (BMI) equal or higher than 85th percentile. They were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number to receive synbiotic or placebo for 8 weeks. At the end of the trial, decrease in BMI Z-score, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were significantly higher in the synbiotic group than in the placebo group. Likewise, synbiotic group had significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total- and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The beneficial effects of a synbiotic supplement on controlling excess weight and some cardio-metabolic risk factors among children and adolescents can be considered in clinical practice. PMID:23477506

  19. Association between waist-to-height ratio, isolated and combined morbidities and C-reactive protein in the elderly: a clinical-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jousianny Patrício; Lima, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceiço Rodrigues; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Rosália Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

  20. Association Between Waist-to-Height Ratio, Isolated and Combined Morbidities and C-Reactive Protein in the Elderly: A Clinical-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jousianny Patrício; Lima, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Rosália Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

  1. Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution

    E-print Network

    Hunter, David J.

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ...

  2. Assessment of Under Nutrition of Bangladeshi Adults Using Anthropometry: Can Body Mass Index Be Replaced by Mid-Upper-Arm-Circumference?

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Tania; Karim, Md. Nazmul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Md. Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Body-mass-index (BMI) is widely accepted as an indicator of nutritional status in adults. Mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC) is another anthropometric-measure used primarily among children. The present study attempted to evaluate the use of MUAC as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition, and thus to suggest a suitable cut-off value. Methods A cross-sectional study in 650 adult attendants of the patients of Dhaka-Hospital, of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) was conducted during 2012. Height, weight and MUAC of 260 male and 390 female aged 19–60 years were measured. Curve estimation was done to assess the linearity and correlation of BMI and MUAC. Sensitivity and specificity of MUAC against BMI<18.5 was determined. Separate Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for male and female. Area under ROC curve and Youden's index were generated to aid selection of the most suitable cut-off value of MUAC for undernutrition. A value with highest Youden's index was chosen for cut-off. Results Our data shows strong significant positive correlation (linear) between MUAC and BMI, for males r = 0.81, (p<0.001) and for females r = 0.828, (p<0.001). MUAC cut-off <25.1 cm in males (AUC 0.930) and <23.9 cm in females (AUC 0.930) were chosen separately based on highest corresponding Youden's index. These values best correspond with BMI cut-off for under nutrition (BMI <18.5) in either gender. Conclusion MUAC correlates closely with BMI. For the simplicity and easy to remember MUAC <25 cm for male and <24 cm for female may be considered as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition. PMID:25875397

  3. The effect of decibel level of music stimuli and gender on head circumference and physiological responses of premature infants in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Jane W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine different protocols with regard to the presentation of music stimuli and compare gender differential reactions to those stimuli. Subjects for this study (N = 63) were premature infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between the gestational ages of 28 and 33 weeks. Half of the experimental infants listened to 20 mins of lullaby music (female voice with orchestral background) on 2 days followed by 20 mins of classical music (Mozart string music) on 2 days. The other half listened to the same music in the reverse order. One quarter of the males and one quarter of the females listened to music presented at an average of 65 dB, one quarter at an average of 70 dB, one quarter at an average of 75 dB, and one quarter did not listen to any music and served as control subjects. Head circumference data were collected four times by the researcher: (a) upon receipt of parental consent, (b) on the first day of music presentation (1 week after consent), (c) on the last day of music presentation, and (d) 1 week after music presentation. Physiological data (heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation) were recorded by the researcher at 2-minute intervals starting 4 minutes prior to and ending 4 minutes after music presentation. There was a significant difference (p < .0001) in average daily head growth across time, but this seems unrelated to the music condition as the same curvilinear trend (larger gain during days of treatment, smaller gain during baseline before and after treatment) was noted for control infants who did not listen to music. Results indicate a significant (p = .002), but biologically unimportant, decrease in heart rate over the course of data collection. No differences due to gender were noted. PMID:19757874

  4. Monitoring the adequacy of catch-up growth among moderately malnourished children receiving home-based therapy using mid-upper arm circumference in southern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Connor, Nicholas E; Manary, Mark J; Maleta, Ken

    2011-10-01

    Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) measurements collected by community-based health aides have the potential to monitor changes in nutritional status among moderately malnourished Malawian children while undergoing HBT using RUTF. Retrospective analysis was performed using the anthropometric data of 1,904 moderately malnourished children during treatment using RUTF. Changes in MUAC and changes in overall weight at 1 and 2 months of treatment were compared. Various geometric relationships were explored between the measures to find the most direct relationship. Models were developed to investigate anthropometric changes in children undergoing treatment. These data reveal that the correlation between the changes in MUAC and changes in weight over the course of treatment is statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The relationship between a child's change in MUAC and their change in weight is influenced by several cofactors related to their initial presentation. The power of change in weight to predict change in MUAC increases at the second month of treatment. Statistical modelling improves if children under the age of 12 months are omitted. Changes in MUAC reflect changes in overall body mass among moderately malnourished children undergoing HBT using RUTF suggesting that performance could possibly be monitored by village health aides in order to monitor a child's performance on feeding programmes in low resource settings. PMID:20082126

  5. Prenatal and Postnatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Body Mass Index in Childhood in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schall, Raul Aguilar; Chevrier, Jonathan; Tyler, Kristin; Aguirre, Helen; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina T.; Lustig, Robert H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been associated with increased body weight and fat deposition in rodents. Objectives: We examined whether prenatal and postnatal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percent body fat, and obesity in 9-year-old children (n = 311) in the CHAMACOS longitudinal cohort study. Methods: BPA was measured in spot urine samples collected from mothers twice during pregnancy and from children at 5 and 9 years of age. Results: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with decreased BMI at 9 years of age in girls but not boys. Among girls, being in the highest tertile of prenatal BPA concentrations was associated with decreased BMI z-score (? = –0.47, 95% CI: –0.87, –0.07) and percent body fat (? = –4.36, 95% CI: –8.37, –0.34) and decreased odds of overweight/obesity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.91] compared with girls in the lowest tertile. These findings were strongest in prepubertal girls. Urinary BPA concentrations at 5 years of age were not associated with any anthropometric parameters at 5 or 9 years, but BPA concentrations at 9 years were positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, and overweight/obesity at 9 years in boys and girls. Conclusions: Consistent with other cross-sectional studies, higher urinary BPA concentrations at 9 years of age were associated with increased adiposity at 9 years. However, increasing BPA concentrations in mothers during pregnancy were associated with decreased BMI, body fat, and overweight/obesity among their daughters at 9 years of age. PMID:23416456

  6. A School-Based Intervention for Diabetes Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [±SD] age, 11.3±0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS There was a decrease in the primary outcome — the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity — in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P = 0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P = 0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. CONCLUSIONS Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.) PMID:20581420

  7. Dose Effect of Cardiorespiratory Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Conrad P.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Swift, Damon L.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    As an ancillary report to a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)–funded trial, we examined the effects of 6 months of exercise training at 50%, 100%, and 150% of the NIH Consensus Recommendations for physical activity (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure/wk [KKW]) versus a nonexercise control group on the metabolic syndrome (MS) in sedentary, overweight, moderately hypertensive, postmenopausal women. We examined the clinically defined National Cholesterol Education Program MS, individual components scores, and summed z-scores, expressed as a continuous variable (zMS), using chi-square and general linear models to assess the clinical and progressive nature of MS, respectively. Our results showed significant improvements in zMS for all exercise groups and MS for the 8- and 12 KKW groups only (all, p for trend = 0.02). Post hoc analyses showed that 12 KKW for zMS and 8 and 12 KKW for MS was significant versus the control group (all, p <0.05). When examining the composite scores, we observed significant trends for improvement in waist circumference (p for trend = 0.001), fasting glucose (p for trend = 0.01), and systolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.02), which appeared to be dose dependent, given the additive nature for incorporating the within-group improvements in waist circumference (4, 8, and 12 KKW), fasting glucose (8 and 12 KKW), and systolic blood pressure (12 KKW). Our results suggest that low-to-moderate intensity cardiorespiratory exercise appears to improve components of the MS in postmenopausal women at levels at or greater than NIH recommendations and that zMS improves at half the NIH recommendations. Greater levels of energy expenditure appear to enhance this effect by incorporating a greater number of requisite MS composite scores. PMID:23578351

  8. Manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors at low levels of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in Singaporean Chinese.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg-Yap, M; Yian, T B; Kai, C S; Deurenberg, P; VAN Staveren, W A

    1999-09-01

    The global prevalence of obesity, characterised by a body mass index (BMI) >= 30 kg/m2, is high and is increasing. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. In Singapore the prevalence of obesity differs among the three main ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) but is relatively low compared to Western societies. Despite the low prevalence of obesity (BMI >=30 kg/m2), the morbidity and mortality for CVD are high in Singapore. In this paper, the odds ratio for presence of risk factors for CVD was studied in relation to BMI quintiles and in relation to body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) quintiles in a representative sample of adult Singaporean Chinese. The lowest quintile was used as the reference category. The boundaries for the BMI quintiles were 18.9, 20.7, 22.6 and 25.0 kg/m2 for females and 20.0, 21.7, 23.5 and 25.6 kg/m2 for males. The boundaries for WHR quintiles were 0.68, 0.71, 0.74 and 0.79 for females and 0.77, 0.82, 0.85 and 0.89 for males. As observed in other studies, the odds ratios for high serum total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, high serum triglyceride level, high blood pressure and high fasting blood glucose were higher in upper BMI and WHR quintiles. The effects were more pronounced in males compared with females. The odds ratios for having at least one of the mentioned risk factors in the different BMI quintiles for females were 1.3 (not significant (ns)), 1.6, 2.1 and 2.7, while in males they were 2.7, 4.1, 6.2 and 7.3. For the WHR quintiles the odds ratios were 0.9 (ns), 1.3 (ns), 1.9 and 2.1 for females, while for males they were 2.1, 4.7, 6.7 and 12.6. As the elevated risks are already apparent at low levels of BMI and low levels of WHR, it can be queried whether the cut-off points for obesity based on BMI and for abdominal fat distribution based on WHR as suggested by the WHO are applicable to the Singaporean Chinese population. There are indications in the literature that Asian populations have higher body fat percentages at lower BMI. This may explain the high odds ratios for CVD risk factors at low BMI and WHR and the high morbidity and mortality from CVD in Singapore, despite relatively low population mean BMI and obesity rates. PMID:24394159

  9. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Whyatt, R; Hoepner, L; Oberfield, S; Dominguez-Bello, MG; Widen, EM; Hassoun, A; Perera, F; Rundle, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cesarean section (CS) and antibiotic use during pregnancy may alter normal maternal-offspring microbiota exchange, thereby contributing to aberrant microbial colonization of the infant gut and increased susceptibility to obesity later in life. We hypothesized that (i) maternal use of antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) CS are independently associated with higher risk of childhood obesity in the offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS Of the 727 mothers enrolled in the Northern Manhattan Mothers and Children Study, we analyzed the 436 mother–child dyads followed until 7 years of age with complete data. We ascertained prenatal antibiotic use by a questionnaire administered late in the third trimester, and delivery mode by medical record. We derived age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores using the CDC SAS Macro, and defined obesity as BMI z ? 95th percentile. We used binary regression with robust variance and linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-gravid BMI, maternal receipt of public assistance, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding in the first year and gestational antibiotics or delivery mode. RESULTS Compared with children not exposed to antibiotics during the second or third trimester, those exposed had 84% (33–154%) higher risk of obesity, after multivariable adjustment. Second or third trimester antibiotic exposure was also positively associated with BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat (all P<0.05). Independent of prenatal antibiotic usage, CS was associated with 46% (8–98%) higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Associations were similar for elective and non-elective CS. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort, CS and exposure to antibiotics in the second or third trimester were associated with higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Future studies that address the limitations of our study are warranted to determine if prenatal antibiotic use is associated with offspring obesity. Research is also needed to determine if alterations in neonatal gut microbiota underlie the observed associations. PMID:25298276

  10. Birth weight and blood pressure: ‘J’ shape or linear shape? Findings from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yao Jie; Ho, Suzanne C; Liu, Zhao-Min; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between birth weight and blood pressure (BP) and to determine the effect of body size change from birth to adulthood on BP. Design A cross-sectional design to collect retrospective data. Participants 1253 female nurses aged 35–65?years in Hong Kong. Main outcome measures Birth weight, height, weight, BP, waist circumference, demographics and lifestyle factors were collected by a self-administered questionnaire through mail survey. These self-reported variables have been validated in a pilot study. The conditional relative weight (CRW), which was calculated as a residual of current weight regressed on birth weight, was used to express higher or lower relative weight gain from birth to adulthood. Results No significant linear association between overall range of birth weight and BP was found. The curve estimation showed a significant quadratic curvilinear association (‘J’ shape). In the piecewise-linear analysis, a significant inverse association between birth weight z-scores and BP was observed in the birth weight ?3.1?kg group (systolic BP (SBP): coefficient B=?1.73, 95% CI ?3.17 to ?0.30; diastolic BP (DBP): B=?1.12, 95% CI ?2.19 to ?0.06). A positive but non-significant association occurred in the birth weight >3.1?kg group. Participants who belonged to the lowest 10% birth weight category but at the current top 10% BMI group had higher BP than participants in other BMI groups. The CRW z-score was positively associated with BP (coefficient B: 4.18 for SBP and 2.87 for DBP). Conclusions Unlike most previous studies, we found a ‘J’ shape association rather than a linear association between birth weight and BP. Women with large percentile crossing of body size from birth to adulthood were more likely to have elevated BP. A higher weight gain from birth to adulthood than expected led to higher BP. PMID:25200558

  11. Impact of nutritional recovery with linear growth on the concentrations of adipokines in undernourished children living in Brazilian slums.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vinicius J B; Neves, Andrea P O; Franco, Maria do C P; Clemente, Ana P G; Sawaya, Ana L

    2014-09-28

    Undernutrition in early life has been reported to be closely associated with the development of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Adequate treatment is important for reversing these effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of undernutrition and anthropometric recovery on the weights and heights of children in relation to the concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A total of 119 children (aged 6-16 years) from the slums of São Paulo were selected according to their nutritional status and divided into three groups as follows: control (healthy without intervention, n 38) with a height-for-age Z score (HAZ) and a BMI-for-age Z score (BAZ) > -1·6; undernourished (HAZ and/or BAZ < -1·6, n 54); recovered from undernutrition (after treatment in a rehabilitation centre; HAZ and BAZ > -1·6, n 27). Blood samples were collected to determine insulin, glucose, leptin, adiponectin and PAI-1 concentrations. Leptin concentrations in the undernourished group were lower than those in the control and recovered groups (mean 0·92 (95% CI 0·67, 1·25), 2·03 (95% CI 1·46, 2·82) and 1·66 (95% CI 1·15, 2·44) ng/ml, P=0·003), which had similar leptin concentrations. There were no differences in adiponectin and PAI-1 concentrations among the groups. A positive correlation between waist circumference and leptin concentrations was observed in all the girls and boys of the control group (control: r 0·729, P<0·01; undernourished: r 0·490, P<0·05; and recovered: r 0·829, P<0·01; r 0·673, P<0·05). Stronger correlations between leptin and insulin concentrations were observed in the recovered group. The results of the present study indicate that normal leptin concentrations are found when normal height and weight are achieved. PMID:25069062

  12. Consumption of total fiber and types of fiber are associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and abdominal adiposity in US adults. NHANES 1999-2006.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this cross-sectional study, an inverse association was found between intakes of total dietary fiber and five types of fiber with Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent obese, and with increased waist circumference. Intake of vegetable fiber was not associated with any of the weight mea...

  13. Perceived Stress and Weight Gain in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia H. M. van Jaarsveld; Jennifer A. Fidler; Andrew Steptoe; David Boniface; Jane Wardle

    2009-01-01

    Although perceived stress has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for obesity, epidemiological studies relating stress to weight gain have shown mixed results. We examined prospective associations between perceived stress and changes in waist circumference and BMI in a large study of adolescents. As part of the Health and Behaviour in Teenagers Study (HABITS), height, weight, and waist circumference

  14. Peak Oxygen Uptake Responses to Training in Obese Adolescents: A Multilevel Allometric Framework to Partition the Influence of Body Size and Maturity Status

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Humberto M.; Milano, Gerusa E.; Lopes, Wendell A.; Figueiredo, António J.; Radominski, Rosana B.; Leite, Neiva

    2013-01-01

    The influence of body size and maturation on the responses in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) to a 12-week aerobic training and nutritional intervention in obese boys (n = 30; 10–16 years) was examined using multilevel allometric regressions. Anthropometry, sexual maturity status, peak VO2, and body composition were measured pre- and postintervention. Significant decrements for body mass, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference and increments for stature, fat-free mass, and peak oxygen uptake were observed after intervention. Partitioning body size on peak VO2, the responses of the individuals to training were positive (11.8% to 12.7% for body mass; 7.6% to 8.1% for fat-free mass). Body mass and fat-free mass were found as significant explanatory variables, with an additional positive effect for chronological. The allometric coefficients (k?) in the initial models were k? = 0.883 and k? = 1.058 for body mass and fat-free mass, respectively. The coefficients decreased when age was considered (k? = 0.530 for body mass; k? = 0.860 for fat-free mass). Including maturity indicator in the models was not significant, thus the influence of variability in sexual maturity status in responses to exercise-based intervention in peak VO2 may be mediated by the changes in body dimensions. PMID:23956992

  15. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Häkkinen, K; Kyröläinen, H

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

  16. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J.; Baranowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9–10 year old children and 264 17–18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the “Lie Scale” from the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity. PMID:21115080

  17. Genetic predisposition to obesity and lifestyle factors--the combined analyses of twenty-six known BMI- and fourteen known waist:hip ratio (WHR)-associated variants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2013-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with BMI or the waist:hip ratio (WHR). However, evidence on gene-lifestyle interactions is still scarce, and investigation of the effects of well-documented dietary and other lifestyle data is warranted to assess whether genetic risk can be modified by lifestyle. We assessed whether previously established BMI and WHR genetic variants associate with obesity and weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, and whether the associations are modified by dietary factors or physical activity. Individuals (n 459) completed a 3 d food record and were genotyped for twenty-six BMI- and fourteen WHR-related variants. The effects of the variants individually and in combination were investigated in relation to obesity and to 1- and 3-year weight change by calculating genetic risk scores (GRS). The GRS were separately calculated for BMI and the WHR by summing the increasing alleles weighted by their published effect sizes. At baseline, the GRS were not associated with total intakes of energy, macronutrients or fibre. The mean 1- and 3-year weight changes were not affected by the BMI or WHR GRS. During the 3-year follow-up, a trend for higher BMI by the GRS was detected especially in those who reported a diet low in fibre (P for interaction=0·065). Based on the present findings, it appears unlikely that obesity-predisposing variants substantially modify the effect of lifestyle modification on the success of weight reduction in the long term. In addition, these findings suggest that the association between the BMI-related genetic variants and obesity could be modulated by the diet. PMID:23668671

  18. Do Changes in Sex Steroid Hormones Precede or Follow Increases in Body Weight during the Menopause Transition? Results from The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Ping G.; Crawford, Sybil; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Santoro, Nanette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Greendale, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Whether menopause-related changes in sex steroids account for midlife weight gain in women or whether weight drives changes in sex steroids remains unanswered. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize the potential reciprocal nature of the associations between sex hormones and their binding protein with waist circumference in midlife women. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study included 1528 women (mean age 46 yr) with 9 yr of follow-up across the menopause transition from the observational Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Main Outcome Measures: Waist circumference, SHBG, testosterone, FSH, and estradiol were measured. Results: Current waist circumference predicted future SHBG, testosterone, and FSH but not vice versa. For each sd higher current waist circumference, at the subsequent visit SHBG was lower by 0.04–0.15 sd, testosterone was higher by 0.08–0.13 sd, and log2 FSH was lower by 0.15–0.26 sd. Estradiol results were distinct from those above, changing direction across the menopause transition. Estradiol and waist circumference were negatively associated in early menopausal transition stages and positively associated in later transition stages (for each sd higher current waist circumference, future estradiol was lower by 0.15 sd in pre- and early perimenopause and higher by 0.38 sd in late peri- and postmenopause; P for interaction <0.001). In addition, they appeared to be reciprocal, with current waist circumference associated with future estradiol and current estradiol associated with future waist circumference. However, associations in the direction of current waist circumference predicting future estradiol levels were of considerably larger magnitude than the reverse. Conclusions: These Study of Women's Health Across the Nation data suggest that the predominant temporal sequence is that weight gain leads to changes in sex steroids rather than vice versa. PMID:22723312

  19. Colliders with crab-waist collision scheme

    E-print Network

    (space charge parameter) yx y y N const * = Space charge parameter relates to the strength;Luminosity of particles factories ~1034 cm-2s-1 seems maximum luminosity available for head-on (or small by reduction of the vertical betatron function at IP but there is a technological constrain for the head

  20. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Wednesday, April 01, 2015 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... the gums and tongue," says Academy of General Dentistry spokesperson Bruce DeGinder, DDS, MAGD. " High-protein foods ...

  1. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

  2. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Andersen, Rikke; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Objective To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. Results 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P<0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, low physical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all P<0.005); however, after mutual adjustments for movement behaviors, physical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P<0.03). Further adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (all P>0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P?=?0.005). Conclusion The present findings indicate that physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration should all be targeted to improve cardio-metabolic risk markers in childhood; this is possibly mediated by adiposity. PMID:25102157

  3. Does bone resorption stimulate periosteal expansion? A cross-sectional analysis of ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), genetic markers of the RANKL pathway, and periosteal circumference as measured by pQCT.

    PubMed

    Kemp, John P; Sayers, Adrian; Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Deere, Kevin; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ring, Susan M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Joel; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievänen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Smith, George Davey; Fraser, William D; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Ohlsson, Claes; Tobias, Jon H

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that bone resorption acts to increase bone strength through stimulation of periosteal expansion. Hence, we examined whether bone resorption, as reflected by serum ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), is positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC), in contrast to inverse associations with parameters related to bone remodeling such as cortical bone mineral density (BMDC ). CTX and mid-tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans were available in 1130 adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, time of sampling, tanner stage, lean mass, fat mass, and height. CTX was positively related to PC (?=0.19 [0.13, 0.24]) (coefficient=SD change per SD increase in CTX, 95% confidence interval)] but inversely associated with BMDC (?=-0.46 [-0.52,-0.40]) and cortical thickness [?=-0.11 (-0.18, -0.03)]. CTX was positively related to bone strength as reflected by the strength-strain index (SSI) (?=0.09 [0.03, 0.14]). To examine the causal nature of this relationship, we then analyzed whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within key osteoclast regulatory genes, known to reduce areal/cortical BMD, conversely increase PC. Fifteen such genetic variants within or proximal to genes encoding receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were identified by literature search. Six of the 15 alleles that were inversely related to BMD were positively related to CTX (p<0.05 cut-off) (n=2379). Subsequently, we performed a meta-analysis of associations between these SNPs and PC in ALSPAC (n=3382), Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) (n=938), and the Young Finns Study (YFS) (n=1558). Five of the 15 alleles that were inversely related to BMD were positively related to PC (p<0.05 cut-off). We conclude that despite having lower BMD, individuals with a genetic predisposition to higher bone resorption have greater bone size, suggesting that higher bone resorption is permissive for greater periosteal expansion. PMID:24014423

  4. IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H{sub 2} EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 {mu}m PAH ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Barsony, Mary [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Drive, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace A. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); O'Linger, JoAnn, E-mail: mbarsony@stars.sfsu.ed, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.or, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: joanno@ipac.caltech.ed [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a {approx}1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H{sub 2} lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 {mu}m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of {approx}1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H{sub 2} transitions is found to be 1.94 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T {approx} 1000 K) H{sub 2} gas is 7.95 {+-} 0.19 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10{sup -3}, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H{sub 2} ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H{sub 2} data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3{<=}} n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub s} {<=} 10 km s{sup -1} for the redshifted gas and v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 {mu}G, and just 3 {mu}G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

  5. Balkau et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2010, 10:56 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-230X/10/56

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    includes: BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides and gamma glutamyl transferase, and the NAFLD- FLS disease and a group of controls. Their Fatty Liver Index (FLI) uses an equation with GGT, triglycerides

  6. Energy Balance and Obesity

    Cancer.gov

    Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

  7. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using three key measures: Body mass index (BMI) ... lower your risk of developing those diseases. Healthy Weight Tip Waist circumference can help assess your weight ...

  8. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  9. Enhancing of Women Functional Status with Metabolic Syndrome by Cardioprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Alsamir Tibana, Ramires; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; Frade de Sousa, Nuno Manuel; de Souza, Vinicius Carolino; Durigan, João; Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; de Toledo Nóbrega, Otávio; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Navalta, James Wilfred; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Prestes, Jonato

    2014-01-01

    These data describe the effects of combined aerobic plus resistance training (CT) with regards to risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), quality of life, functional capacity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in women with MetS. In this context, thirteen women (35.4±6.2 yr) completed 10 weeks of CT consisting of three weekly sessions of ?60 min aerobic training (treadmill at 65–70% of reserve heart rate, 30 min) and resistance training (3 sets of 8–12 repetitions maximum for main muscle groups). Dependent variables were maximum chest press strength; isometric hand-grip strength; 30 s chair stand test; six minute walk test; body mass; body mass index; body adiposity index; waist circumference; systolic (SBP), diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP); blood glucose; HDL-C; triglycerides; interleukins (IL) 6, 10 and 12, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and serum nitric oxide metabolite (NOx); quality of life (SF-36) and Z-Score of MetS. There was an improvement in muscle strength on chest press (p?=?0.009), isometric hand-grip strength (p?=?0.03) and 30 s chair stand (p?=?0.007). There was a decrease in SBP (p?=?0.049), MBP (p?=?0.041), Z-Score of MetS (p?=?0.046), OPG (0.42±0.26 to 0.38±0.19 ng/mL, p<0.05) and NOx (13.3±2.3 µmol/L to 9.1±2.3 µmol/L; p<0.0005). IL-10 displayed an increase (13.6±7.5 to 17.2±12.3 pg/mL, p<0.05) after 10 weeks of training. Combined training also increased the perception of physical capacity (p?=?0.011). This study endorses CT as an efficient tool to improve blood pressure, functional capacity, quality of life and reduce blood markers of inflammation, which has a clinical relevance in the prevention and treatment of MetS. Trial Registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec) - RBR-6gdyvz - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/?q=RBR-6gdyvz PMID:25379699

  10. Quality of life in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia relates to glucocorticoid treatment, adiposity and insulin resistance: United Kingdom Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive (CaHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Thang S; Krone, Nils; Willis, Debbie S; Conway, Gerard S; Hahner, Stefanie; Rees, D Aled; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Context Quality of life (QoL) has been variously reported as normal or impaired in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). To explore the reasons for this discrepancy we investigated the relationship between QoL, glucocorticoid treatment and other health outcomes in CAH adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 151 adults with 21-hydroxylase deficiency aged 18–69 years in whom QoL (assessed using the Short Form Health Survey), glucocorticoid regimen, anthropometric and metabolic measures were recorded. Relationships were examined between QoL, type of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone) and dose of glucocorticoid expressed as prednisolone dose equivalent (PreDEq). QoL was expressed as z-scores calculated from matched controls (14?430 subjects from UK population). Principal components analysis (PCA) was undertaken to identify clusters of associated clinical and biochemical features and the principal component (PC) scores used in regression analysis as predictor of QoL. Results QoL scores were associated with type of glucocorticoid treatment for vitality (P=0.002) and mental health (P=0.011), with higher z-scores indicating better QoL in patients on hydrocortisone monotherapy (P<0.05). QoL did not relate to PreDEq or mutation severity. PCA identified three PCs (PC1, disease control; PC2, adiposity and insulin resistance and PC3, blood pressure and mutations) that explained 61% of the variance in observed variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that PC2, reflecting adiposity and insulin resistance (waist circumference, serum triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and HDL-cholesterol), related to QoL scores, specifically impaired physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, Physical Component Summary Score (P<0.001) and vitality (P=0.002). Conclusions Increased adiposity, insulin resistance and use of prednisolone or dexamethasone are associated with impaired QoL in adults with CAH. Intervention trials are required to establish whether choice of glucocorticoid treatment and/or weight loss can improve QoL in CAH adults. PMID:23520247

  11. The CANadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry (CANPWR): Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over recent decades, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased markedly in developed and developing countries, and the impact of obesity on health throughout the lifespan has led to urgent calls for action. Family-based weight management interventions that emphasize healthy lifestyle changes can lead to modest improvements in weight status of children with obesity. However, these interventions are generally short in duration, reported in the context of randomized controlled trials and there are few reports of outcomes of these treatment approaches in the clinical setting. Answering these questions is critical for improving the care of children with obesity accessing outpatient health services for weight management. In response, the CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) was designed with the following three primary aims: 1. Document changes in anthropometric, lifestyle, behavioural, and obesity-related co-morbidities in children enrolled in Canadian pediatric weight management programs over a three-year period; 2. Characterize the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of change in anthropometric and obesity-related co-morbidities; 3. Examine the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of program attrition. Methods/Design This prospective cohort, multi-centre study will include children (2–17 years old; body mass index ?85th percentile) enrolled in one of eight Canadian pediatric weight management centres. We will recruit 1,600 study participants over a three-year period. Data collection will occur at presentation and 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-months follow-up. The primary study outcomes are BMI z-score and change in BMI z-score over time. Secondary outcomes include anthropometric (e.g., height, waist circumference,), cardiometabolic (e.g., blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemia), lifestyle (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary activity), and psychosocial (e.g., health-related quality of life) variables. Potential determinants of change and program attrition will include individual-, family-, and program-level variables. Discussion This study will enable our interdisciplinary team of clinicians, researchers, and trainees to address foundational issues regarding the management of pediatric obesity in Canada. It will also serve as a harmonized, evidence-based registry and platform for conducting future intervention research, which will ultimately enhance the weight management care provided to children with obesity and their families. PMID:24957705

  12. shRNA Clone Name Gene Symbol Z score NM_152221.x-583s1c1 CSNK1E -2.57

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    -2.56 NM_003954.x-487s1c1 MAP3K14 -2.49 NM_173598.2-1486s1c1 KSR2 -2.40 NM_002755.x-612s1c1 MAP2K1 -2 STK33 -1.85 NM_000090.x-4132s1c1 COL3A1 -1.85 NM_003726.2-374s1c1 SCAP1 -1.85 NM_003215.x-895s1c1 TEC

  13. Associations between Overall and Abdominal Obesity and Suicidal Ideation among US Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S.; Tsai, James; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Croft, Janet B.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Balluz, Lina S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risks for mental disorders. This study examined associations of obesity indicators including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation among U.S. women. We analyzed data from 3,732 nonpregnant women aged ?20 years who participated in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference to calculate BMI and waist-height ratio. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Odds ratios with 95% conference intervals were estimated using logistic regression analyses after controlling for potential confounders. The age-adjusted prevalence of suicidal ideation was 3.0%; the prevalence increased linearly across quartiles of BMI, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio (P for linear trend <0.01 for all). The positive associations of waist circumference and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation remained significant (P < 0.05) after adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle-related behavioral factors, and having either chronic conditions or current depression. However, these associations were attenuated after both chronic conditions and depression were entered into the models. Thus, the previously reported association between obesity and suicidal ideation appears to be confounded by coexistence of chronic conditions and current depression among women of the United States. PMID:22720137

  14. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  15. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  16. Anthropometrics to Identify Overweight Children at Most Risk for the Development of Cardiometabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Labyak, Corinne A.; Janicke, David M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Colee, James; Mathews, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a novel anthropometric that correlates more strongly with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cardiometabolic disease risk in adults compared with body mass index (BMI). However, little research has evaluated this measurement in children. Objective To evaluate SAD as a measure of cardiometabolic risk compared with other anthropometrics in overweight/obese children. Methods This study was a cross-sectional subset analysis of 8- to 12-year-old overweight/ obese children. SAD was compared to BMI, waist circumference (WC), BMI z-score, and percent body fat to determine which measurement was most closely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. A total cardiometabolic risk score comprising all biochemical markers and blood pressure was also compared to these same anthropometrics. Results Overweight/obese children (n = 145, mean age 10 ± 1.4 years, mean BMI percentile 97.9 ± 0.02) were included in the analysis. SAD correlated with the greatest number of biochemical markers/blood pressure values including triglycerides (r = .18, P = .03), HgbA1c (r = .21, P = .01), and systolic blood pressure (r = .38, P < .0001). SAD was more strongly correlated to total risk score (r = .25, P = .002) than WC (r = .22, P = .006), BMI (r = .17, P = .04), BMI-z (r = .18, P = .03), and percent body fat (r = .18, P = .03). Conclusion This is the first study to evaluate SAD in overweight/obese American children as a marker of cardiometabolic disease risk. The results suggest a slightly stronger correlation between SAD and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese children; however, all correlations were weak. As this was a pilot study, additional research is needed prior to recommending the use of this measurement in clinical practice. PMID:25485038

  17. [Nutritional status in telarche and menarche in indigenous and non indigenous Chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Costa Machado, Thais; Bustos, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    A compensatory effect of chronic malnutrition that influences excess of weight has been reported. This effect would be more evident in indigenous populations. The aim of this study was to find out the association between ethnic group (mapuche) and body composition in the telarche and menarche of indigenous and non indigenous adolescents. This was a cross sectional design. At the beginning, a screening of 10,121 girls from 168 schools in the Araucania Region, Chile was done. 230 adolescent in telarche (grade II of the development of the mammary gland): 112 indigenous and 118 non indigenous and 239 in menarche (113 indigenous and 126 non indigenous) were identified. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were evaluated. BMI, WC and LM were higher in the indigenous adolescent in telarche. For those with menarche, the differences decreased, reaching with higher values for indigenous girls only in BMI and FM (p=0,04 and 0,02, respectively). Belonging to the indigenous group increased the BMI in 0.37 z scores in telarche (95% CI: 0,17-0,58) and 0,44 in menarche (95% CI:0,18-0,70). Being mapuche was also associated to higher WC: 3.33 cm (CI 1,67 - 4,99) in telarche and 3,17 cm (CI 0,73-5,60) in menarche and to higher lean mass only for those adolescents with telarche (1,3 CI: 0,11-2,43) and to fat mass only for those with menarche (2,4 CI: 1,02-3,77). The body composition indicators in indigenous adolescents are of concern and underscores the importance of programs to promote healthy lifestyles that take into account resources from the indigenous communities. PMID:19886510

  18. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  19. Longitudinal Anthropometric Patterns Among HIV-infected and –uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Justman, Jessica E.; Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Tan, Tianren; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C.; Cole, Stephen R.; Hyman, Charles; Karim, Roksana; Weber, Kathleen; Grinspoon, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies suggest that indicators of central adiposity such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference may be altered by HIV infection, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or both. Methods Waist and hip circumference and body mass index (BMI) were measured among participants of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) semiannually from 1999 to 2004. Generalized linear models evaluated longitudinal patterns of these measures and associations with demographic and clinical characteristics. Results WHR was significantly larger while BMI, waist and hip circumference were significantly smaller at almost all eleven semiannual visits among 942 HIV-infected compared to 266 HIV-uninfected women. Among HIV-uninfected women, mean waist and hip circumference and BMI increased over the 5 year study period (waist: +4.1 cm or 4.4%, hip: +3.76 cm or 3.5% and BMI +2.43 kg/m2 or 8.2%), while WHR remained stable. Among the HIV-infected women, waist and hip circumference, BMI and WHR did not significantly change. Independent predictors of smaller BMI among HIV-infected women included White race, HCV seropositivity, current smoking, higher viral load and lower CD4. Independent predictors of larger WHR among HIV-infected women included age, White and Other non-African-American race, higher CD4 and PI use. Use of a HAART regimen was not an independent predictor of either BMI or WHR.. Conclusions HIV-infected women had higher WHR compared to HIV-uninfected women, despite lower BMI, waist and hip measurements. BMI, waist and hip circumference increased over 5 years among the HIV-uninfected women, but remained stable in the HIV-infected women. Among HIV-infected women, PI use was associated with larger WHR, although HAART use itself was not appreciably associated with either BMI or WHR. PMID:18197125

  20. Neither a Zinc Supplement nor Phytate-Reduced Maize nor Their Combination Enhance Growth of 6- to 12-Month-Old Guatemalan Infants1–4

    PubMed Central

    Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Westcott, Jamie E.; Solomons, Noel W.; Raboy, Victor; Das, Abhik; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2010-01-01

    After age 6 mo, the combination of breast-feeding and unfortified plant-based complementary feeding provides inadequate zinc (Zn). Additionally, high phytate intakes compromise the bioavailability of zinc. Our principal objective in this randomized controlled, doubly masked trial was to determine the effect of substituting low-phytate maize, a daily 5-mg zinc supplement, or both, in infants between ages 6–12 mo on impaired linear growth velocity, a common feature of zinc deficiency. In the Western Highlands of Guatemala, 412 infants were randomized to receive low-phytate or control maize. Within each maize group, infants were further randomized to receive a zinc supplement or placebo. Length, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. There were no significant differences between the 2 maize groups or between the Zn supplement and placebo groups and no treatment interaction was observed for length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) or head circumference Z-scores. Overall mean (± SD) Z-scores at 6 mo for combined treatment groups were: LAZ, ?2.1 ± 1.1; WLZ, 0.7 ± 1.0; and head circumference Z-score, ?0.7.0 ± 1.0. At 12 mo, these had declined further to: LAZ, ?2.5 ± 1.1; WLZ, ?0.0 ± 0.9; and head circumference Z-score, ?0.9 ± 1.1; 83.3% were stunted and 2% were wasted. Low linear growth in older Guatemalan infants was not improved with either low-phytate maize or a daily 5-mg zinc supplement. Low contribution of maize to the complementary food of the infants negated any potential advantage of feeding low-phytate maize. PMID:20335626

  1. Impaired prenatal and postnatal growth in Dutch patients with phenylketonuria. The National PKU Steering Committee.

    PubMed Central

    Verkerk, P H; van Spronsen, F J; Smit, G P; Sengers, R C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether physical growth is affected in early treated Dutch patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). METHODS--The birth weights of all 137 early detected patients with PKU born in the period from 1974 to 1988 in the Netherlands were compared with reference values. Height, head circumference, and weight were measured at the age at which treatment started (commonly about 2-3 weeks), at 6 months of age, and yearly from the child's first birthday up to the age of 10 years. These measurements were compared with reference values. RESULTS--The adjusted birth weight in patients with PKU was 141 g (95% confidence interval (CI) 66 to 216 g) less than Dutch reference values by Kloosterman and 103 g (95% CI 9 to 196 g) less compared with the birth weight of another reference group. At the age at which treatment started, z scores of patients for height by age were -0.23 (95% CI -0.44 to -0.02) and z scores for head circumference by the age were -0.25 (95% CI -0.44 to -0.06). From the age at which treatment started up to the age of 3 years z scores for height by age further decreased to -0.74 (95% confidence interval -0.93 to -0.56), after which no additional decrease occurred. In contrast, z scores for head circumference increased from -0.25 at the first visit to 0.08 (95% CI -0.14 to 0.30) at the age of 1 year, after which they remained close to zero. Weight by height was close to the expected centiles for all ages. CONCLUSION--Patients with PKU are growth retarded at birth and have smaller head circumferences than the normal population. In Dutch patients further growth retardation occurs in the first three years of life. PMID:7944529

  2. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

  3. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

  4. Effectiveness of telenutrition in a women’s weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Rizo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of telenutrition versus traditional nutritional consultations for female obese patients in need of nutritional treatment. Methods. A comparative clinical study was conducted among 233 obese or overweight women (including 20 who dropped out and 60 who failed) who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for nutritional assessment and chose either telenutrition or a traditional consultation that included a weekly follow-up consultation over 16 weeks, food consumption patterns, Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2) registeration and waist and hip circumference registeration. Treatment responses and differences between telenutrition and the traditional consultations were made according to BMI, waist, hip and initial-waist/height ratio (iWaist), calculating for the relative risk. Results. In 68 (29.2%) women who chose traditional attention, 9 (37.5%) dropped out, 24 (40%) failed and 35 (23.5%) were successful, showing 1.4% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.8% (3.4 SD) in waist circumference, 4.5% (2.8 SD) in hip circumference and 0.04% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. In 165 (70.8%) women who chose telenutrition, 15 (62.5%) dropped out, 36 (60%) failed and 114 (76.5%) were successful, showing 1.1% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.0% (3.2 SD) in waist circumference, 3.5% (3.1 SD) in hip circumference and 0.03% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. A significance level of p < 0.05 is considered. Conclusion. Telenutrition has a failure or dropout risk factor of about half of the value of traditional consultation, and showed slight, statistically significant differences. This study concludes that telenutrition can support or sometimes replace traditional consultations when developing weight loss programs for obese women. PMID:25674363

  5. Effectiveness of telenutrition in a women's weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Kuzmar, Isaac E; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Rizo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of telenutrition versus traditional nutritional consultations for female obese patients in need of nutritional treatment. Methods. A comparative clinical study was conducted among 233 obese or overweight women (including 20 who dropped out and 60 who failed) who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for nutritional assessment and chose either telenutrition or a traditional consultation that included a weekly follow-up consultation over 16 weeks, food consumption patterns, Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m(2)) registeration and waist and hip circumference registeration. Treatment responses and differences between telenutrition and the traditional consultations were made according to BMI, waist, hip and initial-waist/height ratio (iWaist), calculating for the relative risk. Results. In 68 (29.2%) women who chose traditional attention, 9 (37.5%) dropped out, 24 (40%) failed and 35 (23.5%) were successful, showing 1.4% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.8% (3.4 SD) in waist circumference, 4.5% (2.8 SD) in hip circumference and 0.04% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. In 165 (70.8%) women who chose telenutrition, 15 (62.5%) dropped out, 36 (60%) failed and 114 (76.5%) were successful, showing 1.1% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.0% (3.2 SD) in waist circumference, 3.5% (3.1 SD) in hip circumference and 0.03% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. A significance level of p < 0.05 is considered. Conclusion. Telenutrition has a failure or dropout risk factor of about half of the value of traditional consultation, and showed slight, statistically significant differences. This study concludes that telenutrition can support or sometimes replace traditional consultations when developing weight loss programs for obese women. PMID:25674363

  6. Beam waist measurement for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the beam. First, the question of diffraction by a circular aperture can easily be ad- dressed with the help by a small circular aperture. © 2010 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 140.3295, 300.6495, 050 is not easily achieved in TDS experiments [10]. In the visible or IR domains, circular apertures or moving slits

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in an impoverished minority population

    PubMed Central

    Friedenberg, Frank K.; Rai, Jitha; Vanar, Vishwas; Bongiorno, Charles; Nelson, Deborah B.; Parepally, Mayur; Poonia, Arashdeep; Sharma, Amol; Gohel, Shaun; Richter, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and Aims An epidemiological link between an increased body mass index and complaints of typical heartburn symptoms has been identified. It appears that increasing waist circumference, rather than overall weight is most important. Studies to date have not included minority, impoverished communities. Our aim was to determine the impact of obesity on the prevalence of reflux disease in an impoverished community while controlling for known confounders. Methods: Design Cross-sectional survey delivered by in-home interviews, convenience sampling, and targeted mailing. Data queried include demographics, medical history, lifestyle habits, and symptoms of reflux disease. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measured in participating subjects. Participants 503 subjects living in the zip code immediately surrounding Temple University Hospital. Included only adults living in the hospital’s zip code for at least 3 years. Results The highest quartile of waist circumference (?42 in.) demonstrated a strong association with GERD (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.18–3.90). Smoking increased the odds by 1.72 (95% CI 1.13–2.62). There was no relationship between body mass index, waist—hip ratio, or diet and reflux classification. Conclusions Increasing waist circumference, but not overall body mass index or waist—hip ratio, and smoking are risk factors for prevalent GERD. No association between reflux disease and lifestyle choices such as coffee drinking and fast food dining were found. Limitations Potential for recall bias and disease misclassification. Possible methodological errors in self-measurement of waist and hip circumference. PMID:21311721

  8. Relationship Between Body Composition Parameters and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Namwongprom, Sirianong; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Wongthanee, Antika; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition parameters, i.e. waist circumference, android fat mass (AFM), gynoid fat mass (GFM), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (AG ratio) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk components in young Thai adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 391 adolescents (174 male, 217 female). The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and glucose levels were determined. AFM, GFM and AG ratio were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analysis was done to assess the relationship of waist circumference, AFM, GFM and AG ratio with MS risk components’ score, separately. Results: Among 391 young adults aged 18.5-21.8 years, MS was found in 5.9%. Participants with MS (n=23) had a significantly higher weight, height and BMI than those without MS. There was no statistically significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. At univariable linear regression analysis, waist circumferences, AFM, GFM and AG ratio showed significant relationship with MS risk components’ score. However, after adjusting for gender, birth weight and BMI, AG ratio demonstrated greater relationship with MS risk components’ score (? 1.89, 95%CI 1.096-2.978) than waist circumference (? 0.046, 95%CI 0.033-0.058) and AFM (? 0.979, 95%CI 0.667-1.290). No significant association was observed between GFM and MS risk components’ score (? 0.077, 95%CI -0.089-0.243). Conclusion: The results from this study indicated that AG ratio is a stronger predictor of MS than waist circumference and AFM in young Thai adults. The role of AG ratio for the diagnosis of MS needs to be further investigated. PMID:25541893

  9. Age-Related Different Relationships between Ectopic Adipose Tissues and Measures of Central Obesity in Sedentary Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Maresca, Luciano; D'Adamo, Monica; Di Roma, Mauro; Lanzillo, Chiara; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Davide; Preziosi, Paolo; Bellia, Alfonso; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of fat at ectopic sites has been gaining attention as pivotal contributor of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular complications. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), located between skeletal muscle bundles and beneath muscle fascia, has been linked to physical inactivity, ageing and body mass index, but little is known about its relationship with the other AT compartments, in particular with increasing age. To address this issue, erector spinae IMAT, epicardial (EAT), intraabdominal (IAAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were simultaneously measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and related to waist circumference measurements and age in 32 sedentary subjects without cardiovascular disease (18 men; 14 women; mean age 48.5±14 years). Fasting glucose, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were also assessed. We observed that, after dividing individuals according to age (? or >50 years), IMAT and EAT depots were significantly more expanded in older subjects (63.2±8.3 years) than in the younger ones (38.4±5.2 years) (p<0.001). Overall, both IMAT and EAT showed stronger positive associations with increasing age (??=?0.63 and 0.67, respectively, p<0.001 for both) than with waist circumference (??=?0.55 and 0.49, respectively, p<0.01 for both) after adjusting for gender. In addition, the gender-adjusted associations of IMAT and EAT with waist circumference and IAAT were significant in individuals ?50 years only (p<0.05 for all) and not in the older ones. In contrast, no age-related differences were seen in the relationships of IAAT and SAT with waist circumference. Finally, serum triglycerides levels turned out not to be independently related with ectopic IMAT and EAT. In conclusion, the expansion of IMAT and EAT in sedentary subjects is more strongly related to age than waist circumference, and a positive association of these ectopic depots with waist circumference and IAAT amount can be postulated in younger individuals only. PMID:25051047

  10. Arterial stiffness in obese children: Role of adiposity and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Deepa S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Kinare, Arun S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore association of adiposity and physical activity with arterial stiffness and to propose optimal waist circumference cutoffs, corresponding to 90th percentile of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for Indian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Data on weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity and right Carotid artery Intima-Media-Thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), elasticity modulus (Ep), stiffness index(?), arterial compliance (AC) were assessed in 250 children (72 normal-weight and 178 overweight/obese) aged 6-17 years from Pune city, India. Body composition was measured using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Total, 37.1% normal-weight and 98.2% overweight/obese children had high adiposity (>95th body fat percentile). Positive association of PWV and Ep (r = 0.5) also ?(r = 0.25) with BMI (Body Mass Index), waist circumference and body fat (P < 0.05) was observed. Physical activity was inversely associated with PWV (r =-0.2), ?(r =-0.13), Ep (r =-0.12) and positively with AC (r = 0.12) (P < 0.05). PWV significantly increased with increasing body fat for each tertile of physical activity (P < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed waist circumference, BMI, body fat and physical activity as independent associates for PWV after adjusting for age (P < 0.05). The cutoff of waist circumference yielding sensitivity and specificity for predicting the risk of high PWV was (?0.43, ?0.44) for boys and girls with sensitivity in boys (girls) of 78% (87%) and specificity in boys (girls) 51% (70%). The observed cutoffs are less than the NHANES-III cutoff values of waist circumference for 90th percentiles according to age and sex. Conclusion: High adiposity and low physical activity are adversely related to arterial stiffness in Indian children. PMID:24701433

  11. Correlates of Circulating Androgens in Mid-Life Women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanette Santoro; Javier Torrens; Sybil Crawford; Jenifer E. Allsworth; Joel S. Finkelstein; Ellen B. Gold; Stan Korenman; William L. Lasley; Judith L. Luborsky; Dan McConnell; Mary Fran Sowers; Gerson Weiss

    Results: Androgens, and particularly SHBG, were associated most strongly with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. SHBG was associated prominently inversely with the metabolic syndrome (OR 0.32; 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.39), which was present in 17% of women at baseline. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was associated modestly with functional status and self-re- ported health. T was associated minimally with increased

  12. Analysis of Obesity and Hyperinsulinemia in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome: San Antonio Heart Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thang S. Han; Ken Williams; Naveed Sattar; Kelly J. Hunt; Michael E. J. Lean; Steven M. Haffner

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To use standardized cut-offs of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and fasting insulin levels to predict the development of metabolic disorders and metabolic syndrome.Research Methods and Procedures: We performed an 8-year follow-up study of 628 non-Hispanic whites and 1340 Mexican Americans, ages 25 to 64 years, from the second cohort of the San Antonio Heart Study.

  13. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Cyrus Cooper; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; David Hadley; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Johanna Kuusisto; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Anna Nordstrom; Peter Nordstrom; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renstrom; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield

    2009-01-01

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

  14. Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Lu Qi; Elizabeth K. Speliotes; Gudmar Thorleifsson; Cristen J. Willer; Blanca M. Herrera; Anne U. Jackson; Noha Lim; Paul Scheet; Nicole Soranzo; Najaf Amin; Yurii S. Aulchenko; John C. Chambers; Alexander Drong; Jianan Luan; Helen N. Lyon; Fernando Rivadeneira; Serena Sanna; Nicholas J. Timpson; M. Carola Zillikens; Jing Hua Zhao; Peter Almgren; Stefania Bandinelli; Amanda J. Bennett; Richard N. Bergman; Lori L. Bonnycastle; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Cyrus Cooper; Gabriel Crawford; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Shah Ebrahim; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; Candace Guiducci; David Hadley; Anders Hamsten; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Fredrik Karpe; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Anna Nordström; Peter Nordström; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; Felicity Payne; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renström; Aimo Ruokonen; Veikko Salomaa; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Kijoung Song; Xin Yuan; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield; Francis S. Collins; George Davey Smith; Ian N. M. Day; Paul W. Franks; Andrew T. Hattersley; Frank B. Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Augustine Kong; Jaspal S. Kooner; Markku Laakso; Edward Lakatta; Vincent Mooser; Andrew D. Morris; Leena Peltonen; Nilesh J. Samani; Timothy D. Spector; David P. Strachan; Toshiko Tanaka; Jaakko Tuomilehto; André G. Uitterlinden; Cornelia M. van Duijn; Nicholas J. Wareham; Hugh Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia; Dawn M. Waterworth; Michael Boehnke; Panos Deloukas; Leif Groop; David J. Hunter; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; David Schlessinger; H.-Erich Wichmann; Timothy M. Frayling; Gonçalo R. Abecasis; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Ruth J. F. Loos; Kari Stefansson; Karen L. Mohlke; Inês Barroso

    2009-01-01

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

  15. Evaluating race\\/ethnicity in moderating baseline cardiometabolic risk and body composition changes in North Carolina first-year college women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B. Webb

    2012-01-01

    The roles of race\\/ethnicity and geographical region in the context of first-year college weight gain remain largely under-examined. The present study evaluated whether race\\/ethnicity: 1) at baseline was associated with greater representation in cardiometabolic health risk categories for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio in the full sample of 54 Black\\/African American and 80

  16. Molecular Modifications Induced by Physical Exercise: A Significant Role in Disease Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Guescini; Laura Stocchi; Chiara Di Loreto; Cristina Fatone; Pierpaolo De Feo; Vilberto Stocchi

    The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is at present only partly understood; however, a sedentary lifestyle, an unhealthy\\u000a diet, being overweight or obese, and still largely unknown genetic factors clearly interact to cause it [1,2]. People suffering from metabolic syndrome share three or more of the following characteristics: augmented waist circumference,\\u000a elevated plasma triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein, increased waist

  17. Relationships between cigarette smoking, body size and body shape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Akbartabartoori; M E J Lean; C R Hankey

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To define relationships between smoking status, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences (WC, HC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR).DESIGN:Further analysis of the cross-sectional Scottish Health Survey 1998 data.SUBJECTS:Nationally representative sample of 9047 adults aged 16–74 y.RESULTS:Body mass index (BMI) was lower in current smokers and higher in exsmokers (P<0.001) when compared with nonsmokers in the survey population

  18. Vitamin D status is inversely associated with obesity in a clinic-based sample in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    González, Lilliana; Ramos-Trautmann, Grisel; Díaz-Luquis, Giselle M; Pérez, Cynthia M; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Studies show that vitamin D status is associated to obesity but data in Hispanic individuals is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between vitamin D status and obesity in a clinic-based sample in Puerto Rico. We hypothesized that subjects with a higher adiposity would have a lower vitamin D status. We extracted the following data from medical records of a private clinic: age, gender, serum 25(OH)D levels, weight, height, and waist circumference. Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) and waist-to-height ratio were calculated and categorized according to standard guidelines. Statistical analyses included analysis of covariance, Pearson correlations and ?(2) test. From 797 individuals (mean age 53.7 ± 15.4 years; 63.5% females), 35.6% were overweight and 43.7% obese. Mean 25(OH)D levels were 24.7 ± 8.7 ng/mL; 5.3% had levels <12 ng/mL, 30.6% had levels 12 to 20 ng/mL, and 43.5% had levels 21 to 30 ng/mL. Mean 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher in normal weight and overweight males compared to obese males (P < .05) and in overweight females compared to obese females (P < .05). Levels were also higher in those with low risk compared to high risk of waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (P < .001). BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio were inversely correlated to 25(OH)D levels (P < .001). A greater proportion of obese individuals (41.4%) were vitamin D deficient or insufficient compared to the normal weight (33.9%) and overweight individuals (30.3%) (P < .05). In conclusion, in this clinic-based sample of Puerto Rican adults, those with higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio had a significantly lower vitamin D status. PMID:25708459

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease. PMID:23962490

  20. Energy, protein, and zinc nutriture of rural African children in relation to some anthropometric indices

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, E.L.; Gibson, R.S.; Osei-Opare, F.; Opare-Obisaw, C.; Thompson, L.U. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Ghana, Legon (Ghana) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-03-11

    Heights, weights, arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thicknesses of 66 Malawian and 148 Ghanaian preschool children were measured during 3 seasons. Their seasonal energy, protein, Ca, Zn, dietary fiber and phytate intakes were estimated from 3-day weighed records, using analyzed and literature food composition values. Seasonal hair Zn concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses, The mean annual intakes for Malawian compared to Ghanaian children were higher for energy protein, and Zn. Cereals contributed a higher proportion of the total energy intake in the Malawian compared to the Ghanaian diets. A higher percentage of the Malawian children had height-for-age Z-scores below {minus}2SD, but a lower percentage had weight-for-height Z-scores below {minus}1SD compared to their Ghanaian counterparts. These differences may, in part be related to the high cereal intakes of the Malawian children.

  1. Impact of a nurse-directed, coordinated school health program to enhance physical activity behaviors and reduce body mass index among minority children: A parallel-group, randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kynna; Giger, Joyce Newman; Norris, Keth; Suro, Zulma

    2013-01-01

    Background Underserved children, particularly girls and those in urban communities, do not meet the recommended physical activity guidelines (>60 min of daily physical activity), and this behavior can lead to obesity. The school years are known to be a critical period in the life course for shaping attitudes and behaviors. Children look to schools for much of their access to physical activity. Thus, through the provision of appropriate physical activity programs, schools have the power to influence apt physical activity choices, especially for underserved children where disparities in obesity-related outcomes exist. Objectives To evaluate the impact of a nurse directed, coordinated, culturally sensitive, school-based, family-centered lifestyle program on activity behaviors and body mass index. Design, settings and participants: This was a parallel group, randomized controlled trial utilizing a community-based participatory research approach, through a partnership with a University and 5 community schools. Participants included 251 children ages 8–12 from elementary schools in urban, low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles, USA. Methods The intervention included Kids N Fitness©, a 6-week program which met weekly to provide 45 min of structured physical activity and a 45 min nutrition education class for parents and children. Intervention sites also participated in school-wide wellness activities, including health and counseling services, staff professional development in health promotion, parental education newsletters, and wellness policies for the provision of healthy foods at the school. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health School Physical Activity and Nutrition Student Questionnaire measured physical activity behavior, including: daily physical activity, participation in team sports, attending physical education class, and TV viewing/computer game playing. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, body mass index, resting blood pressure, and waist circumference. Measures were collected at baseline, completion of the intervention phase (4 months), and 12 months post-intervention. Results Significant results for students in the intervention, included for boys decreases in TV viewing; and girls increases in daily physical activity, physical education class attendance, and decreases in body mass index z-scores from baseline to the 12 month follow-up. Conclusions Our study shows the value of utilizing nurses to implement a culturally sensitive, coordinated, intervention to decrease disparities in activity and TV viewing among underserved girls and boys. PMID:23021318

  2. A family-centered lifestyle intervention to improve body composition and bone mass in overweight and obese children 6 through 8 years: a randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity gives rise to health complications including impaired musculoskeletal development that associates with increased risk of fractures. Prevention and treatment programs should focus on nutrition education, increasing physical activity (PA), reducing sedentary behaviours, and should monitor bone mass as a component of body composition. To ensure lifestyle changes are sustained in the home environment, programs need to be family-centered. To date, no study has reported on a family-centered lifestyle intervention for obese children that aims to not only ameliorate adiposity, but also support increases in bone and lean muscle mass. Furthermore, it is unknown if programs of such nature can also favorably change eating and activity behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a 1 y family-centered lifestyle intervention, focused on both nutrient dense foods including increased intakes of milk and alternatives, plus total and weight-bearing PA, on body composition and bone mass in overweight or obese children. Methods/design The study design is a randomized controlled trial for overweight or obese children (6–8 y). Participants are randomized to control, standard treatment (StTx) or modified treatment (ModTx). This study is family-centred and includes individualized counselling sessions on nutrition, PA and sedentary behaviors occurring 4 weeks after baseline for 5 months, then at the end of month 8. The control group receives counselling at the end of the study. All groups are measured at baseline and every 3 months for the primary outcome of changes in body mass index Z-scores. At each visit blood is drawn and children complete a researcher-administered behavior questionnaire and muscle function testing. Changes from baseline to 12 months in body fat (% and mass), waist circumference, lean body mass, bone (mineral content, mineral density, size and volumetric density), dietary intake, self-reported PA and sedentary behaviour are examined. Discussion This family-centered theory-based study permits for biochemical and physiological assessments. This trial will assess the effectiveness of the intervention at changing lifestyle behaviours by decreasing adiposity while enhancing lean and bone mass. If successful, the intervention proposed offers new insights for the management or treatment of childhood obesity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01290016. PMID:23617621

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Families for Health V2 for the treatment of childhood obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective programs to help children manage their weight are required. Families for Health focuses on a parenting approach, designed to help parents develop their parenting skills to support lifestyle change within the family. Families for Health V1 showed sustained reductions in overweight after 2 years in a pilot evaluation, but lacks a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence base. Methods/design This is a multi-center, investigator-blind RCT, with parallel economic evaluation, with a 12-month follow-up. The trial will recruit 120 families with at least one child aged 6 to 11 years who is overweight (?91st centile BMI) or obese (?98th centile BMI) from three localities and assigned randomly to Families for Health V2 (60 families) or the usual care control (60 families) groups. Randomization will be stratified by locality (Coventry, Warwickshire, Wolverhampton). Families for Health V2 is a family-based intervention run in a community venue. Parents/carers and children attend parallel groups for 2.5 hours weekly for 10 weeks. The usual care arm will be the usual support provided within each NHS locality. A mixed-methods evaluation will be carried out. Child and parent participants will be assessed at home visits at baseline, 3-month (post-treatment) and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the change in the children’s BMI z-scores at 12 months from the baseline. Secondary outcome measures include changes in the children’s waist circumference, percentage body fat, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and quality of life. The parents’ BMI and mental well-being, family eating/activity, parent–child relationships and parenting style will also be assessed. Economic components will encompass the measurement and valuation of service utilization, including the costs of running Families for Health and usual care, and the EuroQol EQ-5D health outcomes. Cost-effectiveness will be expressed in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. A de novo decision-analytic model will estimate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of the Families for Health program. Process evaluation will document recruitment, attendance and drop-out rates, and the fidelity of Families for Health delivery. Interviews with up to 24 parents and children from each arm will investigate perceptions and changes made. Discussion This paper describes our protocol to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a parenting approach for managing childhood obesity and presents challenges to implementation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials http://ISRCTN45032201 PMID:23514100

  4. BMI as a Mediator of the Relationship between Muscular Fitness and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Gulías-González, Roberto; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Cañete García-Prieto, Jorge; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI). Design and Methods Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI). Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI. Results Children with normal weight (NW) had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW) or obese (OB) peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean±SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75±0.06<0.84±0.10<2.18±0.16 in boys and -0.73±0.06<0.96±0.10<2.71±0.17 in girls, both p<0.001. Children with higher levels of muscular fitness had a better cardiometabolic risk profile (CMRI marginal estimated mean±SE 1.04±0.13>0.05±0.09>-1.16±0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01±0.16>0.10±0.09>-1.02±0.15 in girls, both p<0.001), but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z=-11.44 for boys; z=-11.83 for girls; p<0.001 in CMRI mediation model) and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001). Conclusions BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight. PMID:25590619

  5. The Effectiveness of Lifestyle Triple P in the Netherlands: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gerards, Sanne M. P. L.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; van Buuren, Stef; Hamers, Femke J. M.; Jansen, Maria W. J.; van der Goot, Odilia H. M.; de Vries, Nanne K.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle Triple P is a general parenting intervention which focuses on preventing further excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The objective of the current study was to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention in the Netherlands. Method We used a parallel randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of the intervention. In total, 86 child-parent triads (children 4–8 years old, overweight or obese) were recruited and randomly assigned (allocation ratio 1:1) to the Lifestyle Triple P intervention or the control condition. Parents in the intervention condition received a 14-week intervention consisting of ten 90-minute group sessions and four individual telephone sessions. Primary outcome measure was the children’s body composition (BMI z-scores, waist circumference and skinfolds). The research assistant who performed the measurements was blinded for group assignment. Secondary outcome measures were the children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, and parental self-efficacy. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and 4 months (short-term) and 12 months (long-term) after baseline. Multilevel multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the effect of the intervention on primary and secondary outcome measures. Results No intervention effects were found on children’s body composition. Analyses of secondary outcomes showed positive short-term intervention effects on children’s soft-drink consumption and parental responsibility regarding physical activity, encouragement to eat, psychological control, and efficacy and satisfaction with parenting. Longer-term intervention effects were found on parent’s report of children’s time spent on sedentary behavior and playing outside, parental monitoring food intake, and responsibility regarding nutrition. Conclusion Although the Lifestyle Triple P intervention showed positive effects on some parent reported child behaviors and parenting measures, no effects were visible on children’s body composition or objectively measured physical activity. Several adjustments of the intervention content are recommended, for example including a booster session. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR 2555 PMID:25849523

  6. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (?450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or behavioural outcomes. Conclusions Both birth weight and postnatal growth were associated with IQ but not behavioural outcomes for Chinese term children aged 4–7 years, but the effect sizes were small. No relation between either birth weight or postnatal growth and cognition or behavioural outcomes was observed among preterm children aged 4–7 years. PMID:23243117

  7. Current Research Food Preference Questionnaire as a Screening

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Marcia K.

    in serum lipid levels--higher intakes were associated with higher high-density lipopro- tein cholesterol significantly to models predicting serum lipid levels and blood pressure. Alcohol intake explained variability models ex- plaining variability in waist circumference, blood pres- sure, and serum lipids were tested

  8. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  9. Distribution of adipose tissue and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: a 12 year follow up of participants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Lapidus; C Bengtsson; B Larsson; K Pennert; E Rybo; L Sjöström

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal population study of 1462 women aged 38-60 was carried out in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1968-9. In univariate analysis the ratio of waist to hip circumference showed a significant positive association with the 12 year incidence of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, and death. The association with incidence of myocardial infarction remained in multivariate analysis and was independent of

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' BMI Across Childhood and Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison K. Ventura; Eric Loken; Leann L. Birch

    2009-01-01

    This study describes qualitatively distinct trajectories of BMI change among girls participating in a longitudinal study of non-Hispanic, white girls (n = 182) and their parents, assessed at daughters' ages 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. Height, weight, body fat, fasting blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure, waist circumference, and pubertal status were measured, and participants self-reported dietary,

  11. Evolving ideals of male body image as seen through action toys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harrison G. Pope; Roberto Olivardia; Amanda Gruber; John Borowiecki

    1999-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that the physiques of male action toys — small plastic figures used by children in play — would provide some index of evolving American cultural ideals of male body image. Method: We obtained examples of the most popular American action toys manufactured over the last 30 years. We then measured the waist, chest, and bicep circumference of

  12. Obesity, Blood Pressure and Health-Related Behaviour among German Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Christine; Jouck, Stefanie; Koch, Benjamin; Platschek, Anna-Maria; Arnold, Christiane; Bohm, Michael; Dordel, Sigrid; Tokarski, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To examine the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with blood pressure, waist circumference and other health related risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and TV/PC-screen time) in German youths. Material and methods: A cohort of 831 boys and 808 girls, fifth- to tenth-graders from 3 German high schools…

  13. Eating Pattern and Dietary Composition Associations with Insulin Resistance (IR) Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated dietary factors suggested to influence glucose homeostasis in relation to markers of IR, including waist circumference (WC), HOMA and QUICKI (calculated from fasting insulin and glucose). Data from two studies with similar methodologies were used (n=28 healthy adults aged 37.4+/-6.4 ...

  14. 3STEP ONE Make the Most of the Patient Visit and Set an Effective Tone for Communication

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    the weight problem and the patient with the problem. Express your concerns about the health risks associated disease, stroke, and certain cancers. To determine your patient's relative risk for these diseases: 1 with waist circumference increases his/her disease risks. WEIGH YOUR PATIENT'S HEALTH RISKS A weight loss

  15. Smoking and body mass index as risk factors for subtypes of cancer of unknown primary

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    Smoking and body mass index as risk factors for subtypes of cancer of unknown primary Kari Hemminki metastatic tissue and the primary tumor often remains undetected. Based on autopsy data, the most common patients of diverse and unspecified histologies; alcohol drinking and wide waist circumference were

  16. Diet and Body Composition Outcomes of an Environmental and Educational Intervention among Men in Treatment for Substance Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Jennifer A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of an educational and environmental intervention on diet, body mass index, and waist circumference of men in substance addiction treatment. Methods: One hundred three racially/ethnically diverse men in 6 urban substance addiction residential treatment facilities in Upstate New York participated in weekly…

  17. The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

  18. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Collegiate American Football Players, by Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Emily Millard; Wagner, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in a collegiate football team. Participants: Eighty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players volunteered to participate. Methods: The authors measured height, weight, and waist circumference (WC), and estimated…

  20. Middle-aged Japanese women are resistant to obesity-related metabolic abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Sakurai; Toshinari Takamura; Katsuyuki Miura; Shuichi Kaneko; Hideaki Nakagawa

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to determine sex differences in obesity-related metabolic abnormalities in a relatively large middle-aged Japanese population. The study population consisted of 2935 men and 1622 women who were 35 to 59 years old. Metabolic abnormalities were determined using the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome, and we evaluated the number of metabolic abnormalities discriminated by waist circumference. In men, the

  1. Glycemic Variability in Abdominally Obese Men With Normal Glucose Tolerance as Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Ming Ma; Fu-Zai Yin; Rui Wang; Chun-Mei Qin; Bo Liu; Dong-Hui Lou; Qiang Lu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe both the glycemic variability in abdominally obese men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the relationship between glycemic variability and early atherosclerosis. This case–control study included 23 abdominally obese men (waist circumference (WC) ?90 cm) and 23 nonabdominally obese men (WC <90 cm) with NGT who were between 20 and 50 years

  2. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

  3. Birth weight and body fat distribution in adolescent girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Barker; S Robinson; C Osmond; D J P Barker

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo examine the association between birth weight and body fat distribution in a group of adolescent girls.DESIGNA total of 216 white girls who were born in Southampton had their heights, weights, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses measured when they were aged between 14 and 16 years.RESULTSThe girls who were smallest at birth, but who were fattest at time

  4. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  5. Maternal parenting behaviors during childhood relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable intakes of college students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...

  6. Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Rather than Metabolic Syndrome Predicts Ischemic Stroke in Diabetic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Yan Chen; G. Neil Thomas; Yang Kun Chen; Juliana C. N. Chan; Ka Sing Wong

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of metabolic syndrome on ischemic stroke in Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Anthropometric parameters (waist circumference and body mass index), blood pressure, and plasma biochemical (lipid and glycemic profiles) were collected. Subjects with type 2 diabetes were categorized by the criteria of the updated Adult

  7. Physical activity and metabolic risk among US youth: Mediation by obesity [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity has been inversely associated with metabolic risk, although pediatric studies are limited. It has been hypothesized that obesity mediates this relationship. Some studies reported that waist circumference (WC) is more highly related to metabolic risk than BMI, and may be a better me...

  8. Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Krakauer and Krakauer, J Obes Weight Loss Ther 2014, 4:2

    E-print Network

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Krakauer and Krakauer, J Obes Weight Loss Ther 2014, 4:2 http the original author and source are credited. Keywords: Waist circumference; Body shape index; Obesity Introduction Obesity has historically been a sign of good health, except at the greatestexcess[1

  9. Body Weight and Percent Body Fat Increase during the Transition from High School to University in Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda J. Edmonds; Kelly J. Ferreira; Erica A. Nikiforuk; Alida K. Finnie; Sarah H. Leavey; Alison M. Duncan; Janis A. Randall Simpson

    2008-01-01

    A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and

  10. Association of obesity and biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in adults in Inner Mongolia, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M. Thompson; Yonghong Zhang; Weijun Tong; Tan Xu; Jing Chen; Li Zhao; Tanika N. Kelly; Chung-Shiuan Chen; Lydia A. Bazzano; Jiang He

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundRecent studies suggest that central obesity is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to overall obesity. Both inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with increased risk of CVD. We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with plasma concentrations of biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome Independently Predict Arterial Stiffness and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Minimal Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Lilitkarntakul, Pajaree; Dhaun, Neeraj; Melville, Vanessa; Kerr, Debbie; Webb, David J.; Goddard, Jane

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome (MS) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its contribution to arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in CKD is not well defined. We hypothesized that risk factors for MS would independently predict arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in CKD patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Risk factors for MS, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as measures of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, respectively, were assessed in 113 minimally comorbid CKD patients and in 23 matched control subjects. RESULTS CF-PWV correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), waist circumference, and plasma glucose (r2 = 0.25, 0.09, and 0.09; P < 0.01 for all). FMD correlated with SBP (r2 = 0.09; P < 0.01) and waist circumference (r2 = 0.03; P < 0.05). CF-PWV increased progressively (r2 = 0.07; P < 0.01) with increasing number of risk factors for MS. In multiple linear regression, SBP and waist circumference were independent determinants of CF-PWV, whereas only SBP predicted FMD. CONCLUSIONS The number of MS risk factors is an important determinant of arterial stiffness in CKD patients irrespective of the degree of renal impairment. Although BP remains the major determinant of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, waist circumference independently predicts arterial stiffness. MS risk factors, particularly abdominal girth, are potential targets for future interventional studies in patients with CKD. PMID:22648437

  12. EARLY SEXUAL MATURATION, BODY COMPOSITION, AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN GIRLS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To describe associations between sexual maturation and body composition in a sample of African-American girls who were participants in phase 1 pilot interventions of the Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Studies (GEMS). Stature, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Pubic hair and breast de...

  13. Short-term intervention reduces bioelectrical impedance analysis-measured visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ryo, Miwa; Kishida, Ken; Nakamura, Tadashi; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-03-01

    In 25 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the short-term in-hospital calorie restriction combined with moderate exercise reduced visceral fat. The reduction of visceral fat can improve metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, while the reductions in body weight and waist circumference were small and reduction in subcutaneous fat was not significant. PMID:24461622

  14. Dietary patterns and the insulin resistance phenotype among non-diabetic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Information on the relation between dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis and insulin resistance is scarce. Objective: To compare insulin resistance phenotypes, including waist circumference, body mass index, fasting and 2-hour post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (I...

  15. IDENTIFYING FOOD GROUPINGS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE ENERGY DENSITY OF DIETS OF WOMEN IN THE GEISINGER RURAL AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, energy density (ED) (kcal/wt of food) rather than energy intake was shown to be associated with weight status in rural older women. Specifically, diets higher in ED were associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. To understand how to guide specific dietary recommendat...

  16. Questions and Answers General Questions

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    have to pay for this? All but one Hoo's Well@ program is currently available at no cost to you. Weight Watchers® participation does require payment from you. Will retirees be eligible to participate blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, high and low density

  17. Predictors of epicardial adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), visceral fat depot of the heart, was found to be associated with coronary artery disease in cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were introduced as potential markers to determine inflammation in various disorders. Recently, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was found to be closely associated with atherosclerosis in general population. Waist circumference is commonly used to assess the risk factors in various metabolic disorders. There has been a well known relation between inflammation and peripheral adipose tissue in diabetes mellitus. However, the data regarding EAT and inflammation is scant in this population. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between PLR, NLR, AIP, waist circumference and EAT in diabetic patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 156 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (87 females, 69 males; mean age, 53.62?±?9.33 years) and 50 control subjects (35 females, 15 males; mean age, 51.06?±?8.74 years). EAT was measured by using a trans-thoracic echocardiogram. Atherogenic index of plasma was calculated as the logarithmically transformed ratio of the serum triglyceride to high density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol. NLR and PLR were calculated as the ratio of the neutrophils and platelets to lymphocytes, respectively. Results Waist circumference, PLR, NLR, AIP and EAT measurements were significantly higher in diabetic patients when compared to control subjects. When diabetic patients were separated into two groups according to their median value of EAT (Group 1, EAT?waist circumference, AIP, NLR and PLR levels. In the bivariate correlation analysis, EAT was positively correlated with PLR, NLR, AIP, BMI and waist circumference (r?=?0.197, p?=?0.014; r?=?0.229, p?=?0.004; r?=?0.161, p?=?0.044; r?=?0.248, p?=?0.002; r?=?0.306, p?Waist circumference was found to be independent variables of EAT. Conclusions Simple calculation of PLR and measurement of waist circumference were found to be associated with increased EAT in diabetic patients. PMID:24822086

  18. Effects of Multimicronutrient Supplementation during Pregnancy on Postnatal Growth of Children under 5 Years of Age: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zong-Hua; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Background The beneficial effect of antenatal multiple micronutrients supplementation on infant birth outcomes has been proposed by previous meta-analyses. However, their benefits on postnatal health of children have not been summarized. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the effect of maternal multimicronutrient supplementation on postnatal growth of children under 5 years of age. Methods We searched both published and ongoing trials through the PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (OVID platform), Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, Chinese Science Citation Database, Scopus, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, Chinese Biomedical Database, and WANFANG database for randomized controlled trials. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were also reviewed for eligible studies. Standard mean difference (SMD) was employed as the index for continuous variables by using fixed effects models. Trend analysis by visual inspection was applied to evaluate the change of mean difference of weight and height between the groups over time. Results Nine trials (12 titles) from nine different countries were retrieved for analysis. Pooled results showed that antenatal multimicronutrient supplementation increased child head circumference (SMD?=?0.08, 95% CI: 0.00–0.15) compared with supplementation with two micronutrient or less. No evidence was found for the benefits of antenatal multimicronutrient supplementation on weight (P?=?0.11), height (P?=?0.66), weight-for-age z scores (WAZ) (P?=?0.34), height-for-age z scores (HAZ) (P?=?0.81) and weight-for-height z scores (WHZ) (P?=?0.22). A positive effect was found on chest circumference based on two included studies. Conclusions Antenatal multimicronutrient supplementation has a significant positive effect on head circumference of children under 5 years. No impact of the supplementation was found on weight, height, WAZ, HAZ and WHZ. PMID:24586335

  19. Increase in cognitive eating restraint predicts weight loss and change in other anthropometric measurements in overweight/obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, J Kalina; Metzgar, Catherine J; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Piehowski, Kathryn E; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2015-04-01

    In modern societies characterized by food abundance, dietary restraint may serve as a factor in the successful control of weight or facilitation of weight loss. This secondary analysis of data examined whether changes in cognitive eating restraint (CER) and disinhibition predicted weight loss in a sample of 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women [mean?±?SD, age?=?35.9?±?5.8?y; weight?=?84.4?±?13.1?kg; body mass index (BMI)?=?31.0?±?4.3?kg/m(2)]. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) were examined in relation to changes in CER, disinhibition and hunger as measured by the Eating Inventory questionnaire at baseline and week 18 of an 18-week dietary intervention. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of weight loss and changes in other anthropometric variables from baseline to study completion. Increase in CER was found to be the most robust predictor of reduction in weight (P?waist circumference (P?circumference (P?circumference and BF% was moderated by increase in disinhibition (all P?

  20. The Relation of Rapid Changes in Obesity Measures to Lipid Profile - Insights from a Nationwide Metabolic Health Survey in 444 Polish Cities

    PubMed Central

    Kaess, Bernhard M.; Jó?wiak, Jacek; Nelson, Christopher P.; Lukas, Witold; Mastej, Miros?aw; Windak, Adam; Tomasik, Tomasz; Grzeszczak, W?adys?aw; Tykarski, Andrzej; G?sowski, Jerzy; ?l?zak-Prochazka, Izabella; ?l?zak, Andrzej; Charchar, Fadi J.; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, John R.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of fast changes in obesity indices on other measures of metabolic health is poorly defined in the general population. Using the Polish accession to the European Union as a model of political and social transformation we examined how an expected rapid increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference relates to changes in lipid profile, both at the population and personal level. Methods Through primary care centres in 444 Polish cities, two cross-sectional nationwide population-based surveys (LIPIDOGRAM 2004 and LIPIDOGRAM 2006) examined 15,404 and 15,453 adult individuals in 2004 and 2006, respectively. A separate prospective sample of 1,840 individuals recruited in 2004 had a follow-up in 2006 (LIPIDOGRAM PLUS). Results Two years after Polish accession to European Union, mean population BMI and waist circumference increased by 0.6% and 0.9%, respectively. This tracked with a 7.6% drop in HDL-cholesterol and a 2.1% increase in triglycerides (all p<0.001) nationwide. The direction and magnitude of the population changes were replicated at the personal level in LIPIDOGRAM PLUS (0.7%, 0.3%, 8.6% and 1.8%, respectively). However, increases in BMI and waist circumference were both only weakly associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides changes prospectively. The relation of BMI to the magnitude of change in both lipid fractions was comparable to that of waist circumference. Conclusions Moderate changes in obesity measures tracked with a significant deterioration in measures of pro-atherogenic dyslipidaemia at both personal and population level. These associations were predominantly driven by factors not measureable directly through either BMI or waist circumference. PMID:24497983

  1. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  2. Dysmorphic and anthropometric outcomes in 6-year-old prenatally cocaine-exposed children

    PubMed Central

    Minnes, Sonia; Robin, Nathaniel H.; Alt, April A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Satayathum, Sudtida; Salbert, Bonnie Anne; Ellison, Laurie; Singer, Lynn T.

    2008-01-01

    Dysmorphologic and anthropometric assessments were performed on 154 6-year-old children prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) and 131 high-risk controls (NCE) of similar race and social class. Adjusted mean height z scores demonstrated a dose-response with metahydroxybenzoylecgonine above a threshold of 100 ng/g of meconium and greater cocaine exposure predicted lower weight for height z score. Higher average alcohol exposure throughout pregnancy and 3rd trimester predicted lower head circumference and weight z scores, respectively. Severity of marijuana use also predicted lower height for age but greater weight for height. There was not an increased rate of minor anomalies among the PCE cohort, nor was a consistent phenotype identified. After controlling for covariates, higher average prenatal cigarette exposure predicted higher incidence of cranial facial abnormalities. First trimester alcohol exposure predicted greater rates of ear abnormalities and third trimester marijuana exposure predicted greater rates of chest and head shape abnormalities. These finding indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure has a negative effect on specific growth outcomes including standardized height and weight for height, but not a systematic pattern of structural abnormalities. PMID:16298510

  3. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy. PMID:15205063

  4. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7-9 years.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002-2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p'-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7-9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p'-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p'-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. PMID:24742724

  5. Penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, M E; Almohsen, A E-R M; El Shahid, A R; Abd Al-Sameaa, M T; Mostafa, T

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22-40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12-19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7-3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths. PMID:24698122

  6. Exploring Causality between TV Viewing and Weight Change in Young and Middle-Aged Adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Helajärvi, Harri; Rosenström, Tom; Pahkala, Katja; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Heinonen, Olli J.; Oikonen, Mervi; Tammelin, Tuija; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Television viewing time (TV time) is associated with increased weight and obesity, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. Methods and Results We evaluated changes in TV time, waist circumference (waist) and body mass index (BMI) in participants of the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (761 women, 626 men aged 33–50 years in 2011). Waist and BMI were measured, and TV time was self-reported in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Changes in waist and BMI between 2001 and 2011 were studied a) for the whole group, b) in groups with constantly low (?1 h/d), moderate (1–3 h/d), or high (?3 h/d) TV time, and c) in groups with ?1 hour in-/decrease in daily TV time between 2001 and 2011. BMIs in 1986 were also evaluated. We explored the causal relationship of TV time with waist and BMI by classical temporality criterion and recently introduced causal-discovery algorithms (pairwise causality measures). Both methods supported the hypothesis that TV time is causative to weight gain, and no evidence was found for reverse or bidirectional causality. Constantly low TV time was associated with less pronounced increase in waist and BMI, and waist and BMI increase was lower with decreased TV time (P<0.05). The increase in waist and BMI was at least 2-fold in the high TV time group compared to the low TV time group (P<0.05). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI/waist in 2001, physical activity, energy intake, or smoking did not change the results. Conclusions In young and middle-aged adults, constantly high TV time is temporally antecedent to BMI and waist increase. PMID:25028965

  7. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene polymorphism and its serum level have an impact on anthropometric and biochemical risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Madeshiya, A K; Singh, S; Dwivedi, S; Saini, K S; Singh, R; Tiwari, S; Konwar, R; Ghatak, A

    2015-04-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), encoded by gene CCL-2 (Chemokine C-C motif 2), is the ligand of chemokine receptor CCR-2. Concurrent clinical alteration in several metabolic aspects, including central obesity, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is clinically characterized as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Role of MCP-1 in each of these aspects has been established in vitro and in animal studies as well. We here report genetic association of -2518 A>G MCP-1 (rs 1024611) gene polymorphism and level of MCP-1 with MetS in North Indian subjects. We analysed (n = 386, controls and n = 384, MetS subjects) for MCP-1 gene polymorphism using PCR-RFLP, its serum level using ELISA, anthropometric (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist-hip ratio and blood pressure) and biochemical (serum lipids, plasma glucose and insulin levels) variables in a genetic association study. The body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, serum lipids, insulin and fasting plasma glucose level were significantly high in MetS subjects. Regression analysis showed significant correlation of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with MetS. MCP-1 allele and genotype were significantly associated with MetS. Serum MCP-1 level was high in overall cases. In conclusions, the MCP-1 2518A>G (rs 1024611) polymorphism has significant impact on risk of MetS, and MCP-1 level correlates with anthropometric and biochemical risk factors of MetS. PMID:25639755

  8. Anthropometric Markers of Obesity and Mortality in White and African American Adults: The Pennington Center Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Mire, Emily; Bray, George A.; Greenway, Frank L.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Bouchard, Claude

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between anthropometric measures of obesity and all-cause mortality in white and African American men and women. The sample included 14,343 adults 18 to 89 years of age. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured, and the BMI (kg/m2), body adiposity index (BAI = ([hip circumference in centimeters]/[height in meters])1.5–18), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. Vital status of the participants was determined from linkage with the National Death Index through 2009. Cox regression was used to assess the association between anthropometry and all1cause mortality, adjusting for age, sex, year of baseline examination, study code, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Hazard ratios (HR) are expressed per standard deviation of each variable. A total of 438 deaths occurred during 120,637 person-years of follow-up. All anthropometric markers demonstrated significant associations with all-cause mortality in white subjects. In multivariable-adjusted models, BMI (HR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.19 - 1.50), waist circumference (1.41; 1.25 - 1.60), BAI (1.34; 1.17 - 1.53), WHtR (1.46; 1.28 - 1.65) and WHR (1.40; 1.23 - 1.61) all demonstrated significant relationships with mortality in white participants, but not in African Americans. In categorical analyses, there was a significant association between BMI status and mortality in whites but not African Americans. However, the risk associated with elevated waist circumference was almost identical in whites (1.49; 1.15 – 1.94) and African Americans (1.60; 1.06 – 2.40). In summary, this study has demonstrated race differences in the association between anthropometry and all-cause mortality. PMID:23784912

  9. Arterial Hypertension and other risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among adults1

    PubMed Central

    Radovanovic, Cremilde Aparecida Trindade; dos Santos, Lucimary Afonso; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence of arterial hypertension and its association with cardiovascular risk factors among adults. METHOD: cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive study conducted with 408 adult individuals. Data were collected through a questionnaire and measurements of weight, height and waist circumference. Person's Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used in the data analysis. RESULTS: 23.03% of the individuals reported hypertension with a higher prevalence among women. Odds Ratio indicated that smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were positively associated with arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: high self-reported hypertension and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia show the need for specific nursing interventions and the implementation of protocols focused on minimizing complications arising from hypertension, as well as to prevent the emergence of other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25296137

  10. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Adults from Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Imbeault, Pascal; Haman, François; Blais, Jules M.; Pal, Shinjini; Seabert, Tim; Krümmel, Eva M.; Robidoux, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults from two First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Methods. Body weight, height, and waist circumference as well as fasting and postprandial glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 31 men and 41 women. Results. The mean age of the sample was 43 ± 13?y. The prevalence of obesity was 65.3% and was comparable between men and women. 90.3% of the individuals presented waist circumference levels greater than the thresholds associated with an increased risk of developing health problems. 26 of the 72 individuals (36.1%) were found to be type 2 diabetic. The prevalence of diabetes was not different between men and women. Conclusion. Using objective measurements, this study confirms that First Nations adults from remote communities of Canada continue to experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than nonaboriginal Canadians. PMID:21603265

  11. Grand Canyon Trekkers: school-based lunchtime walking program.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Alisa; Shaibi, Gabriel; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; McFall, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of childhood overweight is especially troubling among low income Latino youth. Grand Canyon Trekkers (GCT) was implemented as a quasi-experimental study in 10 Title 1 elementary schools with a large Latino population to examine the effects of a 16-week structured walking program on components of health-related physical fitness: Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and cardio-respiratory. Data on 1,074 research participants revealed no significance changes in BMI or waist circumference (p > .05); however, cardio-respiratory fitness increased by 37.1% over baseline. Cardiovascular fitness is an independent determinant of long-term health; therefore, the GCT program may have significantly improved the future health profile of the participants and decreased their risk of metabolic diseases. PMID:21123848

  12. The Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Fat Distribution and Adipocytokines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joline W. J. Beulens; Roderik M. van Beers; Ronald P. Stolk; Gertjan Schaafsma; Henk F. J. Hendriks

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fat distribution, adipose tissue secreted proteins (adiponectin and resistin), and insulin sensitivity in healthy middle-aged men with abdominal obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: Thirty-four healthy men between 35 and 70 years old, with increased waist circumference (?94 cm), participated in a randomized, controlled cross-over design trial. They drank 450 mL of

  13. Influence of muscle fitness test performance on metabolic risk factors among adolescent girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Mota; Susana Vale; Clarice Martins; Anelise Gaya; Carla Moreira; Rute Santos; José C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular fitness (MF), assessed by 2 components of Fitnessgram test battery, the Curl-Up and Push-Ups tests and the metabolic risk score among adolescent girls. METHODS: A total of 229 girls (aged 12-15 years old) comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, waist circumference) were

  14. The Influence of Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome in Youth: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. McMurray; Lars Bo Andersen

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and central obesity or waist circumference that places individuals at high risk for developing cardiovascular or heart disease. Although first characterized in adults, it has been found in children, but the definition of MetS in children is still controversial. Although MetS is most closely associated with obesity in

  15. The role of physical activity and fitness on the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: effect of different scores. The AFINOS Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Martínez-Gómez; J. C. Eisenmann; J. M. Moya; S. Gómez-Martínez; A. Marcos; O. L. Veiga

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory\\u000a fitness (CRF) with different continuous metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in adolescents. A cross-sectional sub-sample of 202\\u000a adolescents (99 girls), aged 13–17 years, were selected from the AFINOS Study. Body mass index, sum of 6 skindfold, waist\\u000a circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure,

  16. The relation between obesity, abdominal fat deposit and the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene I\\/D polymorphism and its association with coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Riera-Fortuny; J T Real; F J Chaves; M Morales-Suárez-Varela; M L Martínez-Triguero; C Morillas-Ariño; A Hernández-Mijares

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To analyse the relation between overweight, obesity and fat distribution with I\\/D polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and its association with coronary heart disease (CHD).DESIGN:Cross-sectional, case–control study.SUBJECTS:A total of 185 cases (141 males) who had suffered at least one episode of CHD and 182 controls (127 males).MEASUREMENTS:Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL

  17. Exercise Training and Habitual Physical Activity A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Damon L.; Johannsen, Neil M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Earnest, Conrad P.; Johnson, William D.; Blair, Steven N.; Sénéchal, Martin; Church, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise training reduces adiposity and risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the combined effects of habitual free-living physical activity and aerobic training on waist circumference, weight, fitness, and blood pressure in postmenopausal women are unknown. Purpose To evaluate the effects of habitual physical activity levels during aerobic training on weight, waist circumference, fitness, and blood pressure. Design Secondary analysis of an RCT. Original data collected April 2001 to June 2005 and analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants Postmenopausal women in a supervised exercise trial. Intervention Women (n=325) were randomized to 4, 8, or 12 kcal per kg per week of aerobic training or a control group for 6 months. All outcome measures were collected at baseline and follow-up. Changes in dependent variables within each training group were evaluated across tertiles of pedometer-determined habitual physical activity outside exercise training sessions. Main outcome measures Changes in waist circumference and weight. Results Reductions in waist circumference were significantly greater with higher steps/day accumulated outside exercise training compared to lower levels in the 4 (high: ?4.8 cm vs low: ?1.4 cm, p=0.03); 8 (high: ?4.2 cm vs low: ?0.4 cm, p=0.03), and 12 kcal per kg per week groups (high: ?4.1 cm vs low: ?0.7 cm, p=0.05). For all groups, p-trend < 0.03). A trend was observed for greater weight reduction with higher steps/day in the 4 kcal per kg per week group (p-trend= 0.04), but not for the other exercise doses. No effects were observed for blood pressure or fitness measures (all p>0.05). Conclusions In postmenopausal women, higher habitual physical activity while participating in aerobic training was associated with greater reductions in central adiposity, and was supportive of weight loss compared to lower levels. PMID:23159258

  18. Relationship of age at menarche on anthropometric index and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Joo Yun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Hye Jin; Oh, Ji Young; Sung, Yeon Ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between menarcheal age and anthropometric indices and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul. Methods We surveyed 4,218 fertile adolescent girls between the ages of 16 and 18 years to determine their anthropometric indices and menarcheal age. Measurements were taken from June 2008 to October 2009 at seven girl's high schools in Seoul, Korea. Participants were offered self-report questionnaire as a survey tool that included questions on anthropometric indices (height, weight, waist circumference), menarcheal age, menstrual pattern, frequency of menstruation per year. Results The participants were categorized into three groups based on menarcheal age: early menarche group (younger than 2 standard deviations [SD]), mid menarche group (within ±2 SD), late menarche group (older than 2 SD). The mean age of early menarche group was 9.9±0.2 years, mid menarche group 12.5±0.9 years, late menarche group 15.1±0.3 years (P < 0.001). Heights were recorded as 160.4±5.2 cm, 161.8±4.9 cm, 162.3±4.7 cm in early, mid, and late menarche group, respectively (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference significantly were lager in early menarche group than mid and late menarche ones (P < 0.001). The menarcheal age had a positive correlation with height and negative correlations with weight, BMI, waist circumference (P < 0.001). The prevalence of oligomenorrhea was more frequent in late menarche group than early and mid menarche group. Conclusion The menarcheal age have positive relationship with height and inverse relationship with BMI and waist circumference in late adolescent girls in Seoul. Late menarcheal girls are disposed to have menstrual irregularity compared to early menarcheal girls. PMID:24904864

  19. Skipping Breakfast is Correlated with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoko; Saito, Isao; Henmi, Ikuyo; Yoshimura, Kana; Maruyama, Kotatsu; Yamauchi, Kanako; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Kato, Tadahiro; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Kishida, Taro; Asada, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fact that the total energy intake of Japanese people has decreased, the percentage of obese people has increased. This suggests that the timing of meals is related to obesity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the timing of meals and obesity, based on analyses of physical measurements, serum biochemical markers, nutrient intake, and lifestyle factors in the context of Chrononutrition. Participants and Methods: We analyzed data derived from 766 residents of Toon City (286 males and 480 females) aged 30 to 79 years who underwent detailed medical examinations between 2011 and 2013. These medical examinations included. (1) physical measurements (waist circumference, blood pressure, etc.); (2) serum biochemical markers (total cholesterol, etc.); (3) a detailed questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors such as family structure and daily habits (22 issues), exercise and eating habits (28 issues), alcohol intake and smoking habits; (4) a food frequency questionnaire based on food groups (FFQg); and (5) a questionnaire concerning the times at which meals and snacks are consumed. Results: The values for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were higher for participants who ate dinner less than three hours before bedtime (<3-h group) than those who ate more than three hours before bedtime (>3-h group). The Chi-square test showed that there was a significant difference in eating habits, e.g., eating snacks, eating snacks at night, having dinner after 8 p.m., and having dinner after 9 p.m., between the <3-h group and the >3-h group. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast significantly influenced both waist circumference (? = 5.271) and BMI (? = 1.440) and that eating dinner <3-h before going to bed only influenced BMI (? = 0.581). Conclusion: Skipping breakfast had a greater influence on both waist circumference and BMI than eating dinner <3-h before going to bed. PMID:25648986

  20. Cardiovascular fitness modifies the associations between physical activity and abdominal adiposity in children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. Ortega; J. R. Ruiz; A. Hurtig-Wennlof; G. Vicente-Rodriguez; N. S. Rizzo; M. J. Castillo; M. Sjostrom

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine the associations between physical activity (PA) and abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference, in children and adolescents, and to test whether cardiovascular fitness (CVF) modifies these associations.MethodsPA components were measured by accelerometry in 1075 individuals aged 9 or 15 years old. CVF was measured by a maximal cycling test. Self-reported maternal educational level, body mass index, children's

  1. High Prevalence of Nickel Allergy in an Overweight Female Population: A Pilot Observational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lusi, Elena Angela; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo Maria; Patrissi, Tommaso; Guarascio, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Context In our Allergy Unit, we incidentally observed that a low Nickel diet, prescribed for delayed allergy to Nickel sulfate, reduced body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in overweight patients. Objectives This pilot cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to compare the prevalence of Nickel allergy of overweight individuals versus the general population. We also had the chance to report the efficacy of a low Nickel diet on BMI and waist circumference in Nickel-sensitive overweight subjects. Methods Eighty-seven overweight subjects, with a BMI >26 Kg/m2, were consecutively enrolled in a health prevention program, and screened for the presence of Nickel allergy. The enrolled population was mostly females (72/87) (82.8%). Forty-three overweight women and two men showed a Nickel allergy and started a low Nickel diet. After 6-months of dieting, 24 overweight allergic women could be traced and changes in BMI and waist circumference were calculated. Main Outcome Measurements Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight. Results Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight female was 59.7%, compared with a prevalence rate of 12.5% in the general population. A significant reduction in BMI was observed in 24 out of 43 overweight females with Nickel allergy after 24 weeks of a low Nickel diet. Relative to baseline, mean BMI decrease was 4.2±0.5 (P <0.001) and the mean decline in waist circumference was 11.7±0.6 cm (P< 0.001). Conclusions This pilot observational analysis showed a substantially higher prevalence of Nickel allergy among overweight females, especially those with metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. A normocaloric low Nickel diet was effective in reducing BMI in this population. Further research is strongly needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:25822975

  2. Influences of apolipoprotein E polymorphism on the response of plasma lipids to the Ad libitum consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet compared with a high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Couture; W. Roodly Archer; Nancy Landry; Olivier Dériaz; Louise Corneau; Jean Bergeron; Nathalie Bergeron

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism and factors, such as age and waist circumference, to variations in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) response following ad libitum consumption of a diet rich in complex carbohydrates (high-CHO: 58% of energy as CHO) versus a diet rich in fat and monounsaturated fatty acids (high-MUFA:

  3. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD. PMID:24519179

  4. Clustering of metabolic syndrome components in a Middle Eastern diabetic and non-diabetic population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Esteghamati; Ali Zandieh; Omid Khalilzadeh; Alipasha Meysamie; Haleh Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) encompasses a cluster of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus risk factors. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the factors underlying the clustering of MetS components in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. METHODS: Factor analysis was performed on 2978 (1652 non-diabetic and 1326 diabetic) participants. Entering waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides,

  5. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in the Metabolically Healthy Obese Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Sarah L.; Seaborn, Christopher J.; Visvanathan, Renuka; Hill, Catherine L.; Gill, Tiffany K.; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the correlates of the “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO) phenotype and the longitudinal risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD)/stroke associated with this phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The North West Adelaide Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 4,056 randomly selected adults aged ?18 years. Participants free of CVD/stroke and not underweight (n = 3,743) were stratified by BMI categories and metabolic risk, defined as having two or more International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome criteria, excluding waist circumference. RESULTS Correlates of the MHO (n = 454 [12.1%]) included smoking, socioeconomic disadvantage, and physical inactivity. Compared with metabolically healthy normal-weight subjects (n = 1,172 [31.3%]), the MHO were more likely to develop metabolic risk (15.5 vs. 33.1%, P < 0.001) and incident diabetes (odds ratio 2.09 [95% CI 0.87–5.03]) but not CVD/stroke (1.16 [0.58–2.29]) during 5.5–10.3 years of follow-up. These risks were not seen in MHO subjects maintaining metabolic health (n = 188 [67%]). Sustained metabolic health in obese participants was associated with age ?40 years and lower waist circumference. Compared with the metabolically at-risk obese, MHO women demonstrated a significantly higher (mean [SE]) percentage of leg fat (49.9 [0.5] vs. 53.2 [0.7]) and lower waist circumference (104 [0.6] vs. 101 cm [0.8]), despite no significant differences in overall adiposity. CONCLUSIONS “Healthy” obesity was a transient state for one-third of subjects. Persistence of a MHO phenotype, which was associated with favorable outcomes, was related to younger age and a more peripheral fat distribution. The MHO phenotype may be sustained by promoting lower waist circumferences. PMID:23491523

  6. Low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation is related to adiposity and metabolic risk factors123

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Walter C; Ding, Eric L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal nutrition assistance program. In recent years, SNAP participation rates increased during times of economic hardship. Objective: We examined whether household SNAP participation was associated with adiposity and metabolic risk factors in a representative sample of low-income US adults. Design: A cross-sectional analysis was performed with the use of data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The study population was restricted to nonelderly adults whose household incomes fell to or <130% of the federal poverty level. Multinomial logistic and Poisson regression models were fit to examine the associations between SNAP participation and BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic risk factors among 2250 low-income adults. Results: In the previous 12 mo, 32.8% of adults received household SNAP benefits. SNAP participation was positively associated with obesity [prevalence ratio (PR): 1.58; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.31], waist circumference in men (PR for top compared with bottom quartile: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.62; P = 0.02), and waist circumference in women (PR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.51, 5.77; P = 0.003; P-interaction with sex = 0.11), independent of sociodemographic characteristics. SNAP participation was also related to elevated triglycerides (PR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20), lower HDL cholesterol (PR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.41), elevated fasting glucose (?110 mg/dL; PR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.52), and metabolic syndrome (PR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.95). Associations with triglycerides and HDL cholesterol persisted after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion: Household SNAP participation was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic risk factors among low-income adults. These associations may be mediated by dietary intake and warrant further investigation. PMID:22170370

  7. Increased physical activity in abdominally obese women through support for changed commuting habits: a randomized clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Hemmingsson; J Uddén; M Neovius; U Ekelund; S Rössner

    2009-01-01

    Background:Abdominally obese women can reduce their health risk through regular physical activity. There is, however, little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that promote physical activity long-term, such as cycling and walking to and from work.Methods:This intervention focused on physically active commuting (cycling and walking) in middle-aged (30–60 years), abdominally obese (waist circumference ?88 cm) women (n=120), recruited by newspaper

  8. Parental Weight Status and Offspring Cardiovascular Disease Risks: a Cross-Sectional Study of Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Kayne; Ye, Yong-ling; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of childhood obesity in China is increasing, and parental weight is a risk factor for the development of obesity in children. We examined the relationship of parental body weight status with risk of offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Chinese children. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China, during May and June 2010. Parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to self-reported height and weight. Offspring CVD risk factors, including BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk score (MRS), were assessed through anthropometric measures, blood samples, and a CRF test. Multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance were used to examine the effects of maternal and paternal weight status on offspring CVD risks. Results A total of 580 Chinese children (339 boys and 241 girls, mean [standard deviation] age, 9.6 [0.7] years) participated in the study. Maternal BMI was significantly associated with offspring elevated BMI (? = 0.134, P = .002), waist circumference (? = 0.253, P = .04), and decreased CRF (? = ?0.134, P = .01). Paternal BMI was significantly associated with elevated offspring BMI (? = 0.161, P < .001), waist circumference (? = 0.404, P < .001), triglycerides (? = 0.017, P = .03), MRS (? = 0.084, P = .03), and decreased CRF (? = ?0.174, P < .001). BMI (P < .001), waist circumference (P < .001), and MRS (P < .05) were positively associated with additional overweight/obese parents, whereas CRF was negatively associated (P < .001). Conclusion Parental weight status was significantly associated with increased risk of CVD in their children, and the association was stronger for paternal weight status. PMID:25569694

  9. Metformin for overweight women at midlife: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Worsley, R; Jane, F; Robinson, P J; Bell, R J; Davis, S R

    2015-04-01

    Aim This study was undertaken to determine whether metformin would ameliorate insulin resistance, reduce weight and waist circumference and improve lipids in obese, but not morbidly obese, euglycemic women. Methods Obese women (body mass index (BMI) ? 30 and < 40 kg/m(2) and/or waist circumference > 88 cm), aged 35-65 were randomized (1:1) to metformin 850 mg or identical placebo, twice daily for 26 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR). Secondary outcomes included fasting insulin, glucose, weight, waist circumference and BMI. Results Of the 125 women screened, 117 enrolled and 100 women, mean age 53 years, were included in the primary intention-to-treat analysis. Metformin resulted in statistically significant between-group difference in the change in HOMA-IR (change in median - 0.04 vs. placebo + 0.1, p = 0.018) and BMI (mean change - 1.00 kg/m(2); 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37 to - 0.62 vs. placebo mean change 0.00; 95% CI - 0.29 to 0.28, p < 0.001). Statistically significant reductions in HbA1c (p = 0.008) and fasting insulin (p = 0.03) and a borderline decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.07) were also observed for metformin, compared with placebo. No effects were seen for waist circumference, fasting glucose or other lipids. Conclusion Treatment of euglycemic, obese, middle-aged women with metformin 1700 mg per day reduced insulin resistance and weight compared with placebo. Further studies are needed to determine whether the use of metformin will prevent the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese women. PMID:25333776

  10. Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Refugee Somali Women Living in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline B. Guerin; Fatuma Hussein Elmi; Callie Corrigan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee\\u000a Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess\\u000a physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness\\u000a Walk Test was

  11. Rimonabant: The role of endocannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonism in modulating the weight and lipid profile of obese patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher T. Dibble; Eli V. Gelfand; Christopher P. Cannon

    2007-01-01

    Rimonabant is a selective blocker of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor that has been developed for treatment of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and control of diabetes. Four\\u000a randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that following 1 year of treatment, 20 mg\\/d of rimonabant is associated with\\u000a greater weight loss and reduction in waist circumference compared with placebo. Therapy with rimonabant is associated with

  12. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci With One-Year Weight Loss in the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Kopin, Alan S.; Huggins, Gondon S.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

  13. Abdominal Adiposity Is a Stronger Predictor of Insulin Resistance Than Fitness Among 50–95 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Susan B.; Evans, Ellen M.; Weiss, Edward P.; Hagberg, James M.; Holloszy, John O.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity and increased adiposity contribute to insulin resistance; less is known, however, about the relative contributions of these factors in older adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiovascular fitness, whole-body adiposity, or abdominal adiposity is the strongest predictor of insulin resistance into old age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects included 407 men and women aged 50–95 years (means y± SD 69 ± 11 years). Insulin resistance was estimated using the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) of Matsuda and DeFronzo [ISI = 10,000/square root of (fasting glucose × fasting insulin) × (mean glucose × mean insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test); lower ISI = greater insulin resistance]. Fitness was determined with a treadmill maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) test. Whole-body adiposity measures included BMI and percent fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or hydrodensitometry; abdominal adiposity was estimated by waist circumference. RESULTS Waist circumference was the strongest independent correlate of ISI (r = ?0.52, P < 0.0001), explaining 28% of the variance when controlling for sex, BMI, percent fat, and Vo2max. BMI (r = ?0.45), percent fat (r = ?0.40), and Vo2max (r = 0.22) independently predicted ISI (all P < 0.0001); however, after controlling for waist circumference, only Vo2max remained significant (r = 0.13, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS Adiposity and fitness continue to be significant predictors of insulin sensitivity into old age, with abdominal obesity being the most important single factor. These findings support the measurement of waist circumference to assess health risk among older adults. PMID:16505525

  14. Insulin action during variable hyperglycemic–hyperinsulinemic infusions in hyperandrogenic anovulatory patients and healthy women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A Dumesic; Michael F Nielsen; David H Abbott; Joel R Eisner; K. Sreekumaran Nair; Robert A Rizza

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 3-month GnRH analogue (GnRH-a) administration to hyperandrogenic anovulatory patients and healthy women affects glucose utilization or endogenous glucose production (EGP) in the postabsorptive state and during variable hyperglycemic–hyperinsulinemic infusions.Design: Prospective, nonrandomized study.Setting: Academic research environment.Patient(s): Twelve hyperandrogenic anovulatory patients and 11 healthy women matched by body mass index and waist to hip circumference ratio.Intervention(s): Variable hyperglycemic–hyperinsulinemic

  15. Body fat distribution in Alaskan Eskimos of the Bering Straits region: the Alaskan Siberia Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PM Risica; SOE Ebbesson; CD Schraer; ED Nobmann; BH Caballero

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the body fat content and distribution of adult Alaska Natives of the Bering Straits Region.DESIGN: Cross-sectional screening in the spring of 1994.SUBJECTS: 454 non-pregnant native residents from four rural Alaskan villages.MEASUREMENTS: Height, weight, waist, hip and thigh circumference, bioelectrical impedance, sagittal abdominal diameter, and triceps, biceps, suprailiac, subscapular and thigh skinfolds.RESULTS: Mean height, weight and subscapular-to-triceps ratio

  16. Relationship between short sleeping hours and childhood overweight\\/obesity: results from the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J-P Chaput; M Brunet; A Tremblay

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To assess the relationship between short sleep duration and obesity-related variables in children involved in the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project.Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) aged between 5 and 10 years from primary schools in the City of Trois-Rivières (Québec) were selected to participate in this study.Measurements:Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured. The

  17. The High Burden of Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in Urban Indian Schoolchildren: A Multicentric Study of 38,296 Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop Misra; Priyali Shah; Kashish Goel; Daya Kishore Hazra; Rajeev Gupta; Payal Seth; Pooja Tallikoti; Indu Mohan; Rooma Bhargava; Sarita Bajaj; Jagmeet Madan; Seema Gulati; Swati Bhardwaj; Rekha Sharma; Nidhi Gupta; Ravindra Mohan Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and their associated factors in a large sample of urban Indian schoolchildren. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 5 cities in India. Height and weight were measured in 38,296 children and waist circumference was measured in 29,244 children aged 8–18 years.

  18. Determinants of obesity in the Ulm Research on Metabolism, Exercise and Lifestyle in Children (URMEL-ICE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Nagel; Martin Wabitsch; Christoph Galm; Swantje Berg; Susanne Brandstetter; Michael Fritz; Jochen Klenk; Richard Peter; Dmytro Prokopchuk; Ronald Steiner; Sanna Stroth; Olivia Wartha; Stephan K. Weiland; Juergen Steinacker

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of overweight and obesity in German schoolchildren and analyzed determinants of overweight.\\u000a In the context of a randomized intervention study, a baseline cross-sectional assessment was carried out in 2006. During a\\u000a physical examination, height, weight, skin fold thickness, and upper arm and waist circumferences were measured according\\u000a to a standardized protocol among 1.079 children aged 6–9 years.

  19. Resistin is not associated with insulin sensitivity or the metabolic syndrome in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Utzschneider; D. B. Carr; J. Tong; T. M. Wallace; R. L. Hull; S. Zraika; Q. Xiao; J. S. Mistry; B. M. Retzlaff; R. H. Knopp; S. E. Kahn

    2005-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of this study was to further elucidate the relationship between resistin and insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution and the metabolic syndrome in humans.Methods  We measured plasma resistin levels in 177 non-diabetic subjects (75 male, 102 female; age 32–75 years). BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), adiponectin and leptin levels were also measured. The insulin

  20. Android Fat Distribution as Predictor of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos M. Mery; Valeria Rubio; Andrés Duarte-Rojo; Jorge Suazo-Barahona; Mario Peláez-Luna; Pilar Milke; Guillermo Robles-Díaz

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Obesity is considered an independent risk factor for the development of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this study was to define the type of fat distribution related to severity in AP. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with first-time AP underwent measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness on admission. Severity was defined according to Atlanta

  1. Sex Steroid Hormone Levels and Body Composition in Men

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Margaret A.; Mekary, Rania A.; Chiu, Gretchen R.; Ding, Eric L.; Wittert, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that testosterone (T) is positively correlated with lean mass and inversely correlated with fat mass in men; however, the directionality of these associations, as well as the association with other hormones including estradiol (E2) and SHBG, is unclear. Methods: We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of E2, T, SHBG, and E2/T ratio with body composition among men ages 30 to 79 in the Boston Area Community Health/Bone Survey. Total, trunk, and appendicular lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline, and weight and waist/hip circumference were measured at baseline and follow-up. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were used to estimate the linear relationship between each body composition measure and log-transformed hormone variable. Results: In cross-sectional analyses of 821 men, T, calculated free T, and SHBG were inversely correlated with fat mass, weight, body mass index, waist/hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, with multivariable-adjusted correlations ranging from ?0.13 to ?0.37. Calculated free E2 was positively correlated with percentage total (r = .13) and trunk (r = .15) fat mass, and E2/T was positively correlated with all measures examined (r = .13–.40). There were no significant multivariable-adjusted longitudinal associations between baseline hormone levels and change in weight, body mass index, waist/hip circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio after an average follow-up of 4.8 years. Conclusions: We observed significant cross-sectional associations between hormone levels, including E2, T, and E2/T, and body composition measures in men. Longitudinal analyses showing no influence of baseline hormone levels on change in anthropometric measures imply that body composition affects hormone levels and not the reverse. PMID:23626004

  2. The association between leptin and depressive symptoms is modulated by abdominal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Canepa, Marco; Gravenstein, Kristofer S; Egan, Josephine M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Guralnik, Jack M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for a role of leptin in depression is limited and conflicting. Inconclusive findings may be explained by the complex effect of obesity on leptin signaling. In particular, both hyperleptinemia due to leptin resistance in obese persons as well as low leptin in lean persons can imply that low leptin biological signaling is associated with an increased risk of significant depressive symptoms. We tested whether the relationship between leptin and depressive symptoms is modulated by abdominal adiposity in two population-based studies. Methods Data were from 851 participants (65–94 years) of the InCHIANTI Study and 1,064 (26–93 years) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Plasma concentrations of leptin, waist circumference and depressive symptoms via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) were assessed. In longitudinal InCHIANTI analyses onset of depressed mood (CES-D?20) was evaluated over a 9-year follow-up. Results In pooled cross-sectional analyses the interaction between leptin and waist circumference was significantly associated with CES-D scores ((log)leptin-by-waist interaction p=0.01). Also in longitudinal analyses, the (log)leptin-by-waist interaction term significantly (p=0.04) predicted depressed mood onset over time; depressed mood risk was especially increased for high levels of both leptin and waist circumference. Conclusions The present findings suggest that low leptin signaling rather than low leptin concentration is a risk factor for depression. Future studies should develop proxy measures of leptin signaling by combining information on abdominal adiposity and leptin level to be used for clinical and research applications. PMID:24636496

  3. Efficacy of Olibra: A 12-Week Randomized Controlled Trial and a Review of Earlier Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J; Martin, Corby K; Johnson, William D; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention strategies that harness the body's appetite and satiety regulating signals provide a means of countering excessive energy intake. Methods Eighty-two subjects were enrolled (18–60 years, body mass index: 25–40 kg/m2) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel trial. During a 12-week period, the effects of Olibra™ fat emulsion (2.1 g twice daily) on food intake, appetite, satiety, weight, and body composition were compared with those of a twice daily administered placebo (1.95 g milk fat). On days -7, 0, and 28, Olibra or the placebo added to 200 g of yogurt was served at breakfast and lunch. Food intake, appetite, and satiety were assessed after lunch and dinner. Body weight was measured on days -7, 0, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Body fat, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were determined on days 0 and 84. The Eating Inventory was administered at screening and on day 28. Data relating to 71 subjects were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results At 12 weeks, body weight was reduced in the test group (2.17 ± 0.46 kg standard error of the mean, p < .0001) and the control group (1.68 ± 0.42 kg, p < .0001). Waist circumference decreased by 2.93 ± 0.85 cm in the test group (p = .001) and by 1.78 ± 0.74 cm in the control group (p = .02). Differential weight and waist circumference reductions were not significant. Hunger scores (Eating Inventory) decreased more in the test group (p = .0082). Differential group effects were not significant for body fat, waist-hip ratio, food intake, appetite, and satiety. Conclusions At this dose, Olibra did not exert a consistent effect on food intake, appetite regulation, body weight, or body composition. PMID:22768902

  4. Effect of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy on Body Weight and Waist and Hip Girths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK A. ESPELAND; MARCIA L. STEFANICK; DONNA KRITZ-SILVERSTEIN; S. EDWIN FINEBERG; MYRON A. WACLAWIW; MARGARET K. JAMES; GAIL A. GREENDALE

    2009-01-01

    Reports from cross-sectional comparisons, nonrandomized pro- spective studies, and relatively small clinical trials indicate that post- menopausal hormone therapy may slightly decrease the amount of weight typically gained by women during the decade following meno- pause. Despite this, widespread belief remains that hormone therapy may cause weight gain. We use data from the Postmenopausal Es- trogen\\/Progestin Interventions trial to characterize

  5. Neuromuscular electrostimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle waisting.

    PubMed

    Heidland, August; Fazeli, Gholamreza; Klassen, André; Sebekova, Katarina; Hennemann, Hans; Bahner, Udo; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2013-01-01

    Application of electricity for pain treatment dates back to thousands of years BC. The Ancient Egyptians and later the Greeks and Romans recognized that electrical fishes are capable of generating electric shocks for relief of pain. In the 18th and 19th centuries these natural producers of electricity were replaced by man-made electrical devices. This happened in following phases. The first was the application of static electrical currents (called Franklinism), which was produced by a friction generator. Christian Kratzenstein was the first to apply it medically, followed shortly by Benjamin Franklin. The second phase was Galvanism. This method applied a direct electrical current to the skin by chemical means, applied a direct and pulsed electrical current to the skin. In the third phase the electrical current was induced intermittently and in alternate directions (called Faradism). The fourth stage was the use of high frequency currents (called d'Arsonvalisation). The 19th century was the "golden age" of electrotherapy. It was used for countless dental, neurological, psychiatric and gynecological disturbances. However, at beginning of the 20th century electrotherapy fell from grace. It was dismissed as lacking a scientific basis and being used also by quacks and charlatans for unserious aims. Furthermore, the development of effective analgesic drugs decreased the interest in electricity. In the second half of the 20th century electrotherapy underwent a revival. Based on animal experiments and clinical investigations, its neurophysiological mechanisms were elucidated in more details. The pain relieving action of electricity was explained in particular by two main mechanisms: first, segmental inhibition of pain signals to the brain in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and second, activation of the descending inhibitory pathway with enhanced release of endogenous opioids and other neurochemical compounds (serotonin, noradrenaline, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine and adenosine). The modern electrotherapy of neuromusculo- skeletal pain is based in particular on the following types: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS or electro-acupuncture) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS). In mild to moderate pain, TENS and PENS are effective methods, whereas SCS is very useful for therapy of refractory neuropathic or ischemic pain. In 2005, high tone external muscle stimulation (HTEMS) was introduced. In diabetic peripheral neuropathy, its analgesic action was more pronounced than TENS application. HTEMS appeared also to have value in the therapy of symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Besides its pain-relieving effect, electrical stimulation is of major importance for prevention or treatment of muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia. In controlled clinical studies electrical myostimulation (EMS) has been shown to be effective against the sarcopenia of patients with chronic congestive heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ESRD. PMID:23249528

  6. Head, Shoulders...Waist-to-Hips? A Study on Body Shape Preference in Infancy.

    E-print Network

    Hawkins, Laura Bess

    2014-04-24

    , with a male and female figure shown side-by-side; and 2 large WHR displays, with a male and female figure shown side-by-side. Thus, the paired figures in Set A varied in body shape within stimulus sex. The paired figures in Set B, however, varied...

  7. Wind tunnel investigations of glider fuselages with different waistings and wing arrangements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radespiel, R.

    1983-01-01

    The parameters fuselage pinch glider wing arrangement and fuselage leading edge radius of nine glider configurations were investigated in wind tunnel tests. Laminar separation bubbles were found on strongly recessed fuselages. These separations in the juncture between fuselage and wing are essential in the prevention of harmful aerodynamic drag. Drag reduction was measured with increasing pinch and the wing arrangement in the rear. These results are only valid for laminar flow on the fuselage leading edge.

  8. 4D Emittance Measurements Using Multiple Wire and Waist Scan Methods in the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Rimbault, C.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; /Orsay, LAL; Alabau, M.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Scarfe, A.; /Manchester U.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Emittance measurements performed in the diagnostic section of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) extraction line since 1998 led to vertical emittances three times larger than the expected ones, with a strong dependence on intensity. An experimental program is pursued to investigate potential sources of emittance growth and find possible remedies. This requires efficient and reliable emittance measurement techniques. In the past, several phase-space reconstruction methods developed at SLAC and KEK have been used to estimate the vertical emittance, based on multiple location beam size measurements and dedicated quadrupole scans. These methods have been shown to be very sensitive to measurement errors and other fluctuations in the beam conditions. In this context new emittance measurements have been performed revisiting these methods and newly developed ones with a systematic approach to compare and characterise their performance in the ATF extraction line.

  9. 4D EMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE WIRE AND WAIST SCAN METHODS IN THE ATF EXTRACTION LINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    (CSIC-UV), Valencia, Spain, S. Kuroda, KEK, Japan A. Scarfe, Cockroft Institute, Univ. Manchester, UK, M. Woodley colliders such as ILC or CLIC. The design, normal- ized horizontal emittance is ¾ ¢½¼ m¡rad and the target

  10. Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris; Ockene, Judith K.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p?0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature. PMID:21394095

  11. Oxidative damage and inflammation in obese diabetic Emirati subjects.

    PubMed

    Gariballa, Salah; Kosanovic, Melita; Yasin, Javed; El Essa, Awad

    2014-11-01

    Visceral obesity is more common in the Arab population and more closely related to morbidity, including diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Possible mechanisms that link visceral fat/obesity to diabetes and CVD complications include inflammation and increased oxidative stress; however, few data are available from the Arab population. Our aim was to determine whether increased adiposity in obese diabetic United Arab Emirates citizens is associated with sub-clinical inflammation and/or increased oxidative stress. A hundred diabetic patients who were part of a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements had their baseline characteristics assessed from anthropometric and clinical data following informed written consent. We used WHO figures to classify general and central obesity. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of antioxidants and markers of oxidative damage and inflammation. We found that increased adiposity measured by both body mass index and waist circumference was associated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and decreased vitamin C after adjusting for age, duration and treatment of diabetes (p < 0.05). Although there is a clear trend of increased inflammatory markers, notably CRP, and decreased antioxidants with increased BMI and waist circumference in both men and women, the results are statistically significant for women only. CRP were also inversely associated with HDL. Overall, we found that BMI underestimates the rates of obesity compared to waist circumference and that increased adiposity is associated with increased inflammation and decreased HDL and antioxidant status. PMID:25375631

  12. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Gerardo; Mangione, Carol M.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Trejo, Laura; Butch, Anthony; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos—a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein) and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose), physical activity (Yale physical activity survey), and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery) were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P < 0.05). In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (? = ?0.05; P = 0.03) and change in waist circumference (? = ?0.16; P = 0.02). Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health. PMID:25136359

  13. Relations of Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Use to Body Mass Index and Selected Biomarkers for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Raji; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Hébert, James R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Culver, Annie L.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Beck, James; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Zorn, Martha; Liu, Simin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with biomarkers for glucose dysregulation and inflammation, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Methods. Postmenopausal women were recruited into the Women’s Health Initiative from 1993 to 1998, and data were collected at regular intervals through 2005. We used multiple linear regression models to examine whether depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with BMI, waist circumference, and biomarkers. Results. Analysis of data from 71?809 women who completed all relevant baseline and year 3 assessments showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were significantly associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. Among 1950 women, elevated depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased insulin levels and measures of insulin resistance. Analyses of baseline data from 2242 women showed that both elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were associated with higher C-reactive protein levels. Conclusions. Monitoring body habitus and other biomarkers among women with elevated depression symptoms or taking antidepressant medication may be prudent to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23763394

  14. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  15. A 6-month observational study of energy, sexual desire, and body proportions in hypogonadal men treated with a testosterone 1% gel

    PubMed Central

    Behre, Hermann M.; Morales, Alvaro; Kan-Dobrosky, Natalia; Miller, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Methods This was a 6-month, open label, multinational, observational study in hypogonadal men treated with daily titrated dose of 50, 75, or 100?mg 1% testosterone gel (AndroGel®) in community practice. Primary outcome was effect of treatment on hypogonadal symptoms and quality of life as assessed by Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale. Secondary objectives included erectile dysfunction (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI]), and surrogates for body composition (waist circumference, body mass index [BMI]). Results Seven hundred and ninety-nine of the 1053 men enrolled had follow-up data at 6 months, 81.2% had ?1 testosterone value in the normal range during the study. Substantial and significant improvements were observed in mean AMS score (?29%), IIEF score (+115.7%), and MFI scores (?21.5%). Further beneficial effects were significant decreases in mean BMI (?0.8?kg/m2) and waist circumference (?3.3?cm). Younger age quartiles showed greater improvements in AMS, MFI, BMI, and waist circumference than older quartiles. IIEF scores, however, did not differ significantly by age category. Conclusions Substantial improvements in hypogonadal symptoms, quality of life, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and libido/sexual desire were observed. Adverse drug reactions were experienced by 7.5% of the safety population over the 6-month study period. PMID:24274081

  16. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  17. Distribution of CYP17? polymorphism and selected physiochemical factors of uterine leiomyoma in Barbados

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, Angela T.; Austin, Shane; Williams, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is a major reproductive health disease among women and in particular Black women. The present study sought to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CYP17 (rs743572) was associated with the risk of developing uterine leiomyoma (UL) in affected women in Barbados; a majority Black population. It also sought to determine if BMI, waist circumference and oestradiol levels were associated with UL in this group. A total of 96 random persons were assessed in a case–control study using a PCR-RFLP assay, and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, and oestradiol levels were also assessed. Our results showed no genetic association with the risk of UL and this gene. The genetic distribution of CYP 17?- alleles resembled a normal Hardy–Weinberg distribution, and a relatively low risk of 0.25 at a confidence interval at 95%, of UL disease development. However, a significant association was found between oestradiol levels and fibroids, as well as oestradiol levels and BMI, at P < 0.05 among cases. Therefore our study indicates that significant associations between physiochemical factors comprising BMI, waist circumference, and oestrogen levels are disease indicators in this population. In conclusion, our findings suggest that obesity and its associated risk factors are important in a majority Black Caribbean population, although the sample size needs to be increased. PMID:25606420

  18. Misreporting and misclassification: implications for socioeconomic disparities in body-mass index and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ljungvall, Åsa; Gerdtham, Ulf G; Lindblad, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Body-mass index (BMI) has become the standard proxy for obesity in social science research. This study deals with the potential problems related to, first, relying on self-reported weight and height to calculate BMI (misreporting), and, second, the concern that BMI is a deficient measure of body fat (misclassification). Using a regional Swedish sample, we analyze whether socioeconomic disparities in BMI are biased because of misreporting, and whether socioeconomic disparities in the risk of obesity are sensitive to whether BMI or waist circumference is used to define obesity. Education and income are used as socioeconomic indicators. The overall conclusion is that misreporting and misclassification may indeed matter for estimated educational and income disparities in BMI and obesity. In the misreporting part we find that women with higher education misreport less than those with lower education, leading to underestimation of the education disparity when using self-reported information. In the misclassification part we find that the probability of being misclassified decreases with income, for both men and women. Among women, the consequence is a steeper income gradient when obesity is defined using waist circumference instead of BMI. Among men the income gradient is statistically insignificant irrespective of how obesity is defined, but when estimating the probability of obesity defined by waist circumference, an educational gradient, which is not present when classifying men using BMI, arises. PMID:24363175

  19. Diet and physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among urban Indian men and women.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Singh, Pritpal

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of diet and physical activity with metabolic syndrome (MS) was studied among 60 male and female (40-60 y) urban Indian MS patients. Intake of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, fruits and milk were significantly (p ? .01) associated with reduced fat mass and waist circumference and increased lean body mass. Energy, carbohydrates, and fat intakes were significantly (p ? .01) correlated with increased body fat and waist circumference and reduced lean body mass. Energy, total and saturated fat intake were positively and significantly (p ? .05; .01) correlated with total cholesterol. Total fat was also significantly (p ? .05; .01) correlated with increased systolic blood pressure (r = 0.33), serum triglycerides (r = 0.33), LDL-C (r = 0.29) and VLDL-C (r = 0.28). Increased TDEE was significantly (p ? .01) associated with decreased body fat and waist circumference (r = 0.53 and 0.60) and increased lean body mass (r = 0.68). PMID:25402814

  20. Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship with Metabolic Markers in Persons with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in the UAE: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Solafa M.; Skaria, Sijomol; Abusnana, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To report vitamin D status and its impact on metabolic parameters in people in the United Arab Emirates with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methodology. This cross-sectional study included 309 individuals with obesity and T2D who were randomly selected based on study criteria. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (s-25(OH)D), calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, glycemic profile, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed in fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results. Vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 50?nmol/L) was observed in 83.2% of the participants, with a mean s-25(OH)D of 33.8 ± 20.3?nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D correlated negatively (P < 0.01) with body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and positively (P < 0.01) with age and calcium concentration. Waist circumference was the main predictor of s-25(OH)D status. There was no significant association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic profile. Conclusion. There is an overwhelming prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our sample of the Emirati population with obesity and T2D. Association of s-25(OH)D with body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, markers of calcium homeostasis and cardiometabolic parameters suggests a role of vitamin D in the development of cardiometabolic disease-related process. PMID:25371907

  1. School-Based Health Center Intervention Improves Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Yahne, Carolina; Skipper, Betty J.; Burge, Mark R.; Davis, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents Committed to Improvement of Nutrition and Physical Activity (ACTION) was undertaken to determine feasibility of a school-based health center (SBHC) weight management program. Two urban New Mexico SBHCs were randomized to deliver ACTION or standard care. ACTION consisted of eight visits using motivational interviewing to improve eating and physical activity behavior. An educational nutrition and physical activity DVD for students and a clinician toolkit were created for use as menu of options. Standard care consisted of one visit with the SBHC provider who prescribed recommendations for healthy weight. Sixty nondiabetic overweight/obese adolescents were enrolled. Measures included BMI percentile, waist circumference, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels. Pre- to postchanges for participants were compared between groups. Fifty-one students (mean age 15 years, 62% female, 75% Hispanic) completed pre- and postmeasures. ACTION students (n = 28) had improvements in BMI percentile (P = 0.04) and waist circumference (P = 0.04) as compared with students receiving standard care (n = 23). No differences were found between the two groups in blood pressure, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and HDL-C. The ACTION SBHC weight management program was feasible and demonstrated improved outcomes in BMI percentile and waist circumference. PMID:23589771

  2. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10?8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  3. Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M.; Mason, Caitlin E.; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL. Methods Middle-aged adults (N=202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs. Results Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (Ptrend?0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (Ptrend?0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (Ptrend<0.05). Decreased waist circumference was associated with improved bodily pain and general health but with reduced role-emotional scores (Ptrend?0.05). High exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (Ptrend<0.02). Conclusions Monitoring adherence and tailoring exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance. PMID:23036856

  4. Avoiding Weight Gain in Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maruthur, Nisa M.; Fawole, Oluwakemi A.; Wilson, Renee F.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Bleich, Sara N.; Segal, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic disease are at higher risk for obesity-related adverse effects. Even without weight loss, weight maintenance may be beneficial. We performed a systematic review to identify the effect of nonweight loss-focused lifestyle interventions in adults with cardiometabolic disease. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify comparative studies of lifestyle interventions (self-management, diet, exercise, or their combination) without a weight loss focus in adults with or at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight, BMI, and waist circumference at ?12 months were the primary outcomes. Of 24,870 citations, we included 12 trials (self-management, n = 2; diet, n = 2; exercise, n = 2; combination, n = 6) studying 4,206 participants. Self-management plus physical activity ± diet versus minimal/no intervention avoided meaningful weight (?0.65 to ?1.3?kg) and BMI (?0.4 to ?0.7?kg/m2) increases. Self-management and/or physical activity prevented meaningful waist circumference increases versus control (?2 to ?4?cm). In patients with cardiometabolic disease, self-management plus exercise may prevent weight and BMI increases and self-management and/or exercise may prevent waist circumference increases versus minimal/no intervention. Future studies should confirm these findings and evaluate additional risk factors and clinical outcomes. PMID:25610639

  5. Anthropometric indices and life style practices of the indigenous Orang Asli adults in Lembah Belum, Grik of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Hayati Mohd; Ching, Ting Siew; Ibrahim, Roshita; Lola, Safiih

    2007-01-01

    A nutritional status survey of Orang Asli (Aboriginal) adults in Lembah Belum, Grik, has been conducted involving a total of 138 subjects. Jahai (58.7%) was the main ethnic group as compared to that of Temiar (41.3%). Based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) characteristics, the majority (63.2%) of the respondents were normal, 26.7% underweight and 10.1% were either overweight or obese. However, by using two different indices of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, 1.6% and 10.8% of the total respondents revealed abdominal obesity, respectively. Measurement of mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC) indicated that about 40% showed nutritional insufficiency whereas 0.8% showed over-nutrition. Body fat classification revealed that 53.4% of the respondents were thin, 45.8% at normal level and only 0.8% were obese. Student's t-test revealed a significant difference in anthropometric indices of body weight, height, MUAMC, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and body fat according to gender. Meanwhile, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences in body weight, waist circumference, WHR and body fat according to different age categories. It was also found that those who smoked had lower BMI compared with non-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher BMI and WHR among the respondents. Pearson's correlation test between anthropometric measurements and socio-economic and demographic factors showed that ethnic group was the strongest variable. PMID:17215180

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on factors associated with cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Sonya J.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fuss, Paul J.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; McCrory, Megan A.; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The relative influence of genetics and the environment on factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unclear. We performed model-fitting analyses to quantify genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental variance components of factors associated with CVD and MetS [waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting plasma lipids] in adult male and female monozygotic twins reared apart or together. We also investigated whether MetS components share common influences. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were highly heritable (56–77%, statistically significant). Waist circumference, plasma glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood pressure were moderately heritable (43–57%, statistically significant). Unique environmental factors contributed to the variance of all variables (20–38%, perforce statistically significant). Common environmental factors contributed 23, 30, and 42% (statistically significant) of the variance of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and plasma glucose, respectively. Two shared factors influenced MetS components; one influenced all components except HDL cholesterol, another influenced only lipid (triglyceride and HDL cholesterol) concentrations. These results suggest that genetic variance has a dominant influence on total variance of factors associated with CVD and MetS and support the proposal of one or more underlying pathologies of MetS. PMID:19372593

  7. Change in Body Size and Mortality: Results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Karahalios, Amalia; Simpson, Julie A.; Baglietto, Laura; MacInnis, Robert J.; Hodge, Allison M.; Giles, Graham G.; English, Dallas R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between change in weight or body mass index, and mortality is widely reported, however, both measures fail to account for fat distribution. Change in waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, in relation to mortality has not been studied extensively. Methods We investigated the association between mortality and changes in directly measured waist circumference, hips circumference and weight from baseline (1990–1994) to wave 2 (2003–2007) in a prospective cohort study of people aged 40–69 years at baseline. Cox regression, with age as the time metric and follow-up starting at wave 2, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for change in body size in relation to mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Results There were 1465 deaths (109 cancer, 242 cardiovascular disease) identified during an average 7.7 years of follow-up from 21 298 participants. Compared to minimal increase in body size, loss of waist circumference (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09–1.47), weight (1.80; 1.54–2.11), or hips circumference (1.35; 1.15–1.57) were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for older adults. Weight loss was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality (2.40; 1.57–3.65) but change in body size was not associated with obesity-related cancer mortality. Conclusion This study confirms the association between weight loss and increased mortality from all-causes for older adults. Based on evidence from observational cohort studies, weight stability may be the recommended option for most adults, especially older adults. PMID:24988430

  8. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MEASURES OF BODY WEIGHT, THORACIC DIAMETER AND AGE TO SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCES OF BOER GOAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Márquez; J. F. Ponce; V. M. Vega; J. Rodríguez; V. G. Vizcarra; M. Montaño; J. N. Guerrero

    2003-01-01

    The lack of effective means for selecting males with superior fertility is due primarily to two factors: i) the lack of information on basic measurable traits of male reproduction that are related to fertility, and ii) the cost and difficulty of obtained accurate fertility on individual sires. If testicular size is to be considered in selection programs for breed differences,

  9. D-dimer and calf circumference in the evaluation of outpatient deep venous thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Johanning; David P. Franklin; David D. Thomas; James R. Elmore

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Duplex ultrasonography (DU) is the primary method for diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but is relatively expensive and not always readily available. Attempts to exclude the diagnosis of DVT with D-dimer or clinical criteria independently have been unsuccessful. The goal of our study was to evaluate a second-generation rapid quantitative D-dimer and simple clinical parameters for screening of

  10. Increased periosteal circumference remains present 12 months after an exercise intervention in preschool children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Binkley; Bonny Specker

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported that calcium intake enhanced the leg bone response to physical activity of preschool children in a 12-month randomized trial of calcium supplementation and physical activity. To determine whether the intervention-induced changes in leg bone mineral content and size were maintained through the subsequent 12-month follow-up period, total body bone measurements by DXA and 20% distal tibia pQCT

  11. 1317 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany Poster abstracts The relationship between abdominal circumference and

    E-print Network

    redistribution that occurs with progressive hypoxia and growth restriction. Supporting information can be found to venous Doppler changes, for stillbirth prevention monitoring intervals are based on venous Doppler Doppler abnormalities do not occur, different indicators for monitoring intervals need to be defined

  12. 7.G The Circumference of a Circle and the Area of the Region it Encloses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: What is the definition of a circle with center $A$ and radius $r$? A circle has center $A$ and radius $AB$. Is point $A$ on the circle? Is point $B$ on...

  13. Colonizing the Borderlands: Shifting Circumference in the Rhetoric of Malcolm X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Terrill

    2000-01-01

    In the last year of his life, Malcolm X was faced with the task of crafting a viable public voice while remaining unfettered by existing ideologies. In a speech he delivered less than a week before he died, Malcolm addresses this task by repeatedly shifting the scene within which he asks his audience to define themselves. He explores the possibilities

  14. Effect of improved diet on semen quality and scrotal circumference in the ram

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Kheradmand; Homayoon Babaei; Rooz Ali Batavani

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effect of improved diet above maintenance requirement on reproductive parameters, including testicular size, semen volume, sperm concentration and viability. Twelve Bakhtiary rams were allocated to two groups of six animals and were fed during a 12-week experiment period with different diets which were designed to supply maintenance and above maintenance requirements

  15. Elevated C-reactive protein levels and metabolic syndrome in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Galvani, Matteo; Blè, Alessandro; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and “low grade” systemic inflammation (LGSI) are very common findings in the older population. Although MS and LGSI have been associated in adults, it is not known what is the real contribution of MS, and its single components, to LGSI in older persons, due to the potential confounding effect of comorbidity and aging. We investigated the relationship between increased C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, a marker of LGSI, and MS in 1044 older (?65 years) community dwelling Italian individuals enrolled the InChianti study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the NCEP-ATP III-AHA/NHLBI criteria. High sensitivity CRP (hs.CRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and defined as high when >3 mg/L. The overall prevalence of MS was 31%. The prevalence of high hs.CRP was 54.5% in subjects with, and 41.3% in those without MS (p < 0.001). MS was associated with high hs.CRP levels after adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.46-2.55). Compared to subjects with MS and no LGSI, individuals with MS and LGSI were characterized by higher waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels in subjects with MS (waist circumference III vs. I tertile OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79-3.77) independent of age, gender, and important confounding variables including comorbidity. Additional analyses, conducted with and without dichotomization of hs.CRP levels, confirmed the central role of waist circumference in the LGSI phenomenon, independent of gender and diagnosis of MS. We conclude that in older individuals, MS is associated with LGSI, but the association is mainly supported by a strong independent correlation between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels. In the absence of this specific MS component, it seems that the contribution of MS to LGSI would be modest at best. PMID:18845301

  16. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist circumference.

  17. The relationship of adiposity and mortality among people with diabetes in the US general population: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Andy; Casagrande, Sarah S; Cowie, Catherine C

    2014-01-01

    Objective Several studies have found a U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in the general population. In similar studies among people with diabetes, the shape of the association is inconsistent. We investigated the relationship of BMI and waist circumference with mortality among people with diabetes. Setting The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the 1999–2004 NHANES Mortality Studies were designed to be representative of the US general population. Baseline data were collected in 1988–2004. Participants 2607 adults ?20?years of age with diabetes. Primary Outcome Measure Participants were followed through 31 December 2006 for mortality (n=668 deaths). Results Compared with people with a BMI 18.5–24.9?kg/m2, the HRs (95% CI) of mortality were 0.85 (0.60 to 1.21) for 25–29.9?kg/m2, 0.87 (0.57 to 1.33) for 30–34.9?kg/m2 and 1.05 (0.72 to 1.53) for ?35?kg/m2 after adjustment for age, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking status, education, income and diabetes duration. Compared with people in the lowest sex-specific quartile of waist circumference, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) of mortality were 1.03 (0.77 to 1.37) for the second quartile, 1.02 (0.73 to 1.42) for the third quartile and 1.12 (0.77 to 1.61) for the highest quartile of waist circumference. When modelled as a restricted quadratic spline with knots at the 10th, 50th and 90th centiles, BMI and waist circumference were not associated with mortality. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted and most found no significant association between measures of adiposity and mortality, but there were significant results suggesting a U-shaped association among people in the highest tertile of glycated haemoglobin (?7.1%), and there was an inverse association between BMI and mortality among people 20–44?years of age. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of the non-institutionalised US population with diabetes, BMI and waist circumference were not associated with risk of mortality. PMID:25406156

  18. Common Genetic Variants and Central Adiposity Among Asian-Indians

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Steven C.; Gunter, Marc J.; Daniel, Carrie R.; Reddy, K. Srinath; George, Preeti S.; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Mathew, Aleyamma; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have identified common genetic variants that are unequivocally associated with central adiposity, BMI, and/or fasting plasma glucose among individuals of European descent. Our objective was to evaluate these associations in a population of Asian-Indians. We examined 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from loci previously linked to waist circumference, BMI, or fasting glucose in 1,129 Asian-Indians from New Delhi and Trivandrum. Trained medical staff measured waist circumference, height, and weight. Fasting plasma glucose was measured from collected blood specimens. Genotype–phenotype associations were evaluated using linear regression, with adjustments for age, gender, religion, and study region. For gene–environment interaction tests, total physical activity (PA) during the past 7 days was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The T allele at the FTO rs3751812 locus was associated with increased waist circumference (per allele effect of +1.58 cm, Ptrend = 0.0015) after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing (Padj = 0.04). We also found a nominally statistically significant FTO–PA interaction (Pinteraction = 0.008). Among participants with <81 metabolic equivalent (MET)-h/wk of PA, the rs3751812 variant was associated with increased waist size (+2.68 cm; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24, 4.12), but not among those with 212+ MET-h/wk (?1.79 cm; 95% CI = ?4.17, 0.58). No other variant had statistically significant associations, although statistical power was modest. In conclusion, we confirmed that an FTO variant associated with central adiposity in European populations is associated with central adiposity among Asian-Indians and corroborated prior reports indicating that high PA attenuates FTO-related genetic susceptibility to adiposity. PMID:21799482

  19. The Association of Multiple Anthropometrics of Overweight and Obesity with Incident Heart Failure: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, Laura R.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Poole, Charles; McNeill, Ann Marie; Chang, Patricia P.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Background The association of central adiposity with incident heart failure (HF) has yet to be studied in a large population-based study. Methods and Results The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study is an ongoing bi-racial population-based cohort of those aged 45–65 years from 4 U.S. communities with 16 years median follow-up for incident, hospitalized or fatal HF. Waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) were measured baseline (1987–1989). After exclusions the sample size was 14,641. BMI was categorized as BMI < 25, BMI 25–29.9, and BMI ? 30 (kg/m2). Waist circumference and WHR were divided into gender-specific tertiles. A first occurrence of ICD-9-CM codes of HF, either hospital discharge (428.0–428.9, N=1,451), or on a death certificate (428.0–428.9 or I50.0–I50.9, N=77) was considered an HF event. Cox models were adjusted for alcohol use, smoking, age, center, and educational level. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the highest category (obese) compared to the lowest were well above 1.0 for all three anthropometric measures (HR for 3rd vs. 1st tertile of WHR: 2.27 (1.71, 3.02), white women; 3.24 (2.25, 4.65); black women; 2.46 (1.95, 3.09), white men; and 2.63 (1.90, 3.65), black men). Hazard ratios for overweight were lower in magnitude suggesting a graded response between body size and HF. Conclusions Obesity and overweight, as measured by three different anthropometrics, were associated with incident HF in the ARIC cohort. The current study does not support the superiority of WHR and waist circumference over BMI for the prediction of incident HF. PMID:19808311

  20. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  1. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, M; Zazpe, I; Shivappa, N; Hébert, J R; Sánchez-Tainta, A; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fitó, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Rekondo, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J; Fiol, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Martínez, J A; Ros, E; Estruch, R; Martínez-González, M A

    2015-03-01

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms. PMID:25720588

  2. Avoiding postnatal undernutrition of VLBW infants during neonatal intensive care: evidence and personal view in the absence of evidence.

    PubMed

    Maas, Christoph; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate nutrient intakes in the first postnatal weeks play a crucial role in the aetiology of postnatal growth restriction of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Efforts to improve early nutrition in these infants led to a significant reduction in postnatal growth failure. Initiation of enhanced parenteral nutrition immediately after birth and utilisation of the large potential of early enteral nutrition seem pivotal. Nevertheless, it remains challenging to further reduce the initial drop in weight and head circumference z-score and to improve body composition and linear growth. This review will summarise data on how near-fetal postnatal weight gain in VLBW infants can be achieved and makes suggestions for early nutrition of VLBW infants. PMID:25280993

  3. The Impact of Nutritional Status and Longitudinal Recovery of Motor and Cognitive Milestones in Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun; Bothe, Denise; Holsinger, Eva; Kirchner, H. Lester; Olness, Karen; Mandalakas, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Internationally adopted children often arrive from institutional settings where they have experienced medical, nutritional and psychosocial deprivation. This study uses a validated research assessment tool to prospectively assess the impact of baseline (immediately post adoption) nutritional status on fifty-eight children as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height and head circumference-for-age z scores, as a determinant of cognitive (MDI) and psychomotor development (PDI) scores longitudinally. A statistical model was developed to allow for different ages at time of initial assessment as well as variable intervals between follow up visits. The study results show that both acute and chronic measures of malnutrition significantly affect baseline developmental status as well as the rate of improvement in both MDI and PDI scores. This study contributes to the body of literature with its prospective nature, unique statistical model for longitudinal evaluation, and use of a validated assessment tool to assess outcomes. PMID:21318018

  4. [Healthy obesity? Why the adiposity paradox is only seemingly paradox].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Worm, Nicolai

    2014-02-01

    The health consequences of being overweight have been discussed controversially. Indeed, from a metabolic point of view, overweight and obese people are quite heterogenous. The body mass index (BMI) is not suitable to predict health oriented outcomes on an individual level without taking into account further parameters such as waist circumference, blood pressure, serum glucose, serum lipids, and physical fitness. The BMI does not distinguish between metabolically healthy and metabolically unhealthy. Of upmost importance for health consequences of obesity is body fat distribution. Two types of principally different fat distribution can be identified: abdominal and gluteofemoral fat. Waist circumference and hip circumference can be utilized to distinguish between those two types. People with accumulation of body fat in the abdominal region have a markedly higher risk of developing type-2-diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, their total mortality is increased. On the other hand, waist circumference is not sufficiently capable of indicating individual risk. Instead, the amount of visceral fat is believed to be a primary risk factor because of its metabolic characteristics (i. e. increased lipolysis, diabetogenic and atherogenic adipokine profile). Recent findings point to visceral fat being more an indicator of the parallel accumulation of fat deposits in organs placed in the abdomen. The accumulation of lipids in tissues not primary intended for fat storage is called,,ectopic fat". It can be found in muscle, liver, pancreas, and kidney. The fattening of those organs is now considered to have the key role in the pathogenesis of type-2-diabetes. The pathophysiological effects of ectopic fat and the associated metabolic derangements can solve the conflicting findings concerning health consequences of BMI--at least in part. Moreover, these findings may have therapeutic consequences. The reduction of ectopic fat as well as the modification of its metabolic effects - via dietetic, bariatric or pharmaceutic means - opens up the pathway to counteract impaired glucose tolerance early and in a causal way. PMID:24624611

  5. Genetic Factors are Important Determinants of Impaired Growth Following Infant Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Nancy; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Gerdes, Marsha; Zackai, Elaine; Bernbaum, Judy; Clancy, Robert R.; Gaynor, J. William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and identify the predictors of impaired growth following infant cardiac surgery. Methods Secondary analysis of a prospective study of the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms on neurodevelopment in young children following infant cardiac surgery. Prevalence estimates for growth velocity were derived using anthropometric measures [weight (WT) and head circumference (HC)] obtained at birth and at 4-years of age. Genetic evaluation was also performed. Growth measure z-scores were calculated using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Growth velocity was evaluated using two different techniques: first by clustering the children into one of three growth velocity subgroups based on z-score: impaired growth (difference < ? 0.5 SD), stable growth (difference of ?0.5 SD to 0.5 SD), and growth improving (difference > 0.5 SD), and, second, using continuous difference scores. Statistical analyses were conducted using a combination of proportional odds models for the ordered categories and simple linear regression for the continuous outcomes. Results Three hundred and nineteen full term subjects had complete anthropometric measures for WT and HC at birth and at 4-yrs. The cohort was 56% male. Genetic examinations were available for 97% (309/319) of the cohort (normal, 74% definite or suspected genetic abnormality, 26%). Frequency counts for WT categories were: impaired growth 37% stable growth 31% and improving growth 32%. Frequency counts for HC categories were: impaired growth 39% stable growth 28% and improving growth 33%. Presence of a definite or suspected genetic syndrome (p = 0.04) was found to be a predictor of impaired growth for WT, but not HC. When growth z-scores were used as continuous outcomes, the APOE ?2 allele was found to be predictive of lower z-scores for both WT (p = 0.02) and HC (p = 0.03). Conclusions Impaired growth for both WT and HC is common (both > 30%) in this cohort of children following infant cardiac surgery. Both the APOE ?2 allele and the presence of a definite or suspected genetic syndrome were associated with impaired WT growth velocity. The APOE ?2 allele was also associated with impaired growth velocity for HC. Persistent poor growth may have long-term implications for the health and development of children with CHD. PMID:20381076

  6. Harmonization Process and Reliability Assessment of Anthropometric Measurements in the Elderly EXERNET Multi-Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Albers, Ulrike; Mata, Esmeralda; Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose A.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Gusi, Narcis; Villa, Gerardo; Aznar, Susana; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Casajús, Jose A.; Ara, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Background The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. Purpose To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. Materials and Methods A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain) participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. Results For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs) were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. Conclusion The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population. PMID:22860013

  7. Body composition parameters as correlates of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rohit; Prakash, M.; Dubey, Radhika; Roy, Kaushik; Kotwal, Atul; Mahen, Ajoy

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CAD). This study was aimed to assess the risk for CAD determined by certain new and conventional body composition parameters such as visceral fat area (VFA), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), etc. Methods: We did an age and sex matched case-control study of acute myocardial infarction with 100 participants in a tertiary care hospital (50 cases and 50 controls) representing the serving army personnel. The relation between VFA, per cent body fat (PBF), BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and WHR to CAD was assessed. Results: The study showed that there was a significantly increased risk for CAD associated with VFA (OR: 5.67; 95% CI: 1.96, 16.95), WHR (7.07; 2.19, 24.27), waist circumference (WC) (2.63; 1.05, 6.66) and BMI (2.53; 1.03, 6.26). Interpretation & conclusions: In conclusion, increased VFA, BMI, WHR and WC showed an association with CAD. VFA is a good index for assessing not only visceral fat accumulation but also cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24521650

  8. Various adiposity measures show similar positive associations with type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, native hawaiians, and Japanese americans: the multiethnic cohort.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, Astrid; Heak, Sreang; Morimoto, Yukiko; Grandinetti, Andrew; Kolonel, Larry N; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2015-03-01

    The authors evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with diabetes in Caucasians, Native Hawaiians, and Japanese Americans aged 45 to 75 years in the Multiethnic Cohort. Diabetes cases were obtained from self-reports and by linkages with health insurance plans. The authors estimated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). All measures were positively associated with diabetes prevalence; the PORs were 1.25 to 1.64 in men and 1.52 to 1.83 in women. In all 3 ethnic groups, the AUCs in men were greater for BMI than for the other measures, whereas in women, the AUCs were greater for combined models than for BMI alone, but the differences were small and not clinically significant. It does not appear that one anthropometric measure best reflects diabetes prevalence or performs better in one ethnic group than in another. PMID:22500038

  9. Association of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism with obesity in Roma/Gypsy population.

    PubMed

    Ma?eková, So?a; Bernasovský, Ivan; Gabriková, Dana; Bôžiková, Alexandra; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Boro?ová, Iveta; Behulová, Regina; Sví?ková, Petra; Petrej?íková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Sovi?ová, Adriana; Carnogurská, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The rs9939609 SNP located in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been found to be associated with common obesity mainly in populations of European descent. The Roma/Gypsy population as an ethnic minority of Asian Indian origin is well known for its adverse health status with a high prevalence of obesity. The main aim of this study was to examine the contribution of the rs9939609 FTO polymorphism to the high prevalence of obesity in the Roma/Gypsy population. Following a number of anthropometric measurements, the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in 312 Roma/Gypsy individuals. We observed significant differences in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio between different genotypes (P = 0.003, P = 0.012, and P = 0.03, respectively). The waist circumference in the subjects with AA genotype was about 7.1 cm larger than in those with TT genotypes (P = 0.005). However, the strongest association of minor allele A of the rs9939609 FTO polymorphism was found with BMI (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.129-2.128; P = 0.007), even after adjusting for age, sex, and smoking status. This study provides the first report of allele and genotype frequencies for the rs9939609 polymorphism and also the first evidence of the association of the FTO variant with obesity in the Roma/Gypsy population. PMID:21989907

  10. Evaluation of Relation between Anthropometric Indices and Vitamin D Concentrations in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722

  11. Lipid Profile In Relation To Anthropometric Indices and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi-Asl, Maryam; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehranghiz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Aliashrafi, Soudabeh; Sadein, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to investigate lipid profile in relation to anthropometric indices and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lipid profile and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated in 63 overweight or obese PCOS patients subdivided into insulin-resistant (IR) and non insulin-resistant (NIR) groups. IR was defined as homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ?3.8. Results: Fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were higher (P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.012) was lower in IR group. All of the anthropometric measures other than WHR and BMI showed significant correlations with several lipid parameters. Amongst, WHtR showed the strongest correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.37; P=0.004) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r=0.33; P=0.011) in the whole PCOS patients. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics (especially BMI and hip circum­ference) are more important parameters correlated to lipid profile than IR in overweight or obesePCOS patients, confirming the importance of early treat­ment of obesity to prevent dyslipidemia in the future. PMID:24688970

  12. Variations in Aging, Gender, Menopause, and Obesity and Their Effects on Hypertension in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu C.; Lo, Tsai C.; Chang, Jui H.; Kuo, Hsien W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. We assessed obesity, sex, menopause, and gender differences on hypertension in a Hakka-majority Taiwanese sample. Methods. 9621 subjects aged 20 and over participated in this community-based study. Trained nurses collected blood pressure (BP) measurements and anthropometric indices, including weight, height, hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results. Levels of systolic and diastolic BP significantly increased at a dose-dependent relationship based on four anthropometric indices (BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR); the slopes for SBP and DBP differed. After controlling for other covariates using multivariate logistic regression, we found the adjusted odds ratios (OR) of hypertension to be significantly related to the four anthropometric indices. Notably, the effect of obesity on the ORs for hypertension was considerably higher in premenopausal women, but we found no such phenomenon among men. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR had significant linear associations with BP. Conclusion. Obesity indices are significantly correlated with the risk of hypertension across gender and age, with BMI having the highest relative potency. The effect of obesity on the risk of hypertension is especially high in premenopausal women, implying a relationship between hormones and hypertension. PMID:25436143

  13. The study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT?=?-144.66?+?1.84X1?+?1.35X2?+?0.52X3 (r?=?0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P?waist circumference (WC), age, and abdomen subcutaneous fat thickness (AS). In addition, the correlation between VFAANT and VFACT showed a high correlation (r?=?0.92). Conclusion A rapid and accurate VFA estimation can be achieved by using only age, WC, and AS. The approach in the present study provides an easy and reliable estimate that can be applied widely in health and epidemiology studies. PMID:24884507

  14. Evaluation of the Community-Based Chronic Disease Prevention Program Meta Salud in Northern Mexico, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Cecilia; Cornejo, Elsa; Bell, Melanie L.; Munguía, Diana; Zepeda, Tanyha; Carvajal, Scott; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Meta Salud is a community health worker–facilitated intervention in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, and was adapted from Pasos Adelante, a similar evidence-based intervention developed for a Latino population in the United States–Mexico border region. The objective of this study was to examine outcomes for Meta Salud and compare them with outcomes for Pasos Adelante. Methods This pretest–posttest study took place during 13 weeks among low-income residents of an urban area. The program provided information on topics such as heart health, physical activity, nutrition, diabetes, healthy weight, community health, and emotional well-being; included individual and group activities aimed at motivating behavior change; and encouraged participants to engage in brisk physical activity. Results We found significant decreases from baseline to conclusion in body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. From baseline to 3-month follow-up, we found significant decreases in body mass index, waist circumference, weight, LDL cholesterol, and glucose, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Outcomes for Meta Salud were similar to those found for Pasos Adelante. Conclusion The physiological improvements found among participants in Meta Salud and comparable changes among participants in Pasos Adelante suggest a scalable and effective behavioral intervention for regions of the United States and Mexico that share a common boundary or have similar cultural and linguistic characteristics. PMID:25211502

  15. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. PMID:25183079

  16. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  17. Medication-induced diabetes during induction treatment for ALL, an early marker for future metabolic risk?

    PubMed

    Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Koltin, Dror; Hamilton, Jill; Nathan, Paul C; Urbach, Stacey

    2015-03-01

    Medication-induced diabetes (MID) is seen in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) mostly during induction, due to the use of l-asparaginase and glucocorticoids. Our objective was to assess whether MID during induction, is a risk factor for future impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Ninety survivors of pediatric ALL, ages 10 yr and older were recruited, 30 with history of MID and 60 controls. Waist/height ratio >0.5 was considered as an increased risk for central adiposity and insulin resistance. Lipid profile and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed. Study patients were older than controls (17.2 vs. 14.9, p < 0.05). The groups had similar sex distribution, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and Tanner staging. A waist/height ratio of >0.5 was seen in 60 and 31.7% of the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.01). Increased frequency of IGT in the study group compared with the control group was seen (13.3 and 1%, respectively) (p = 0.07). We observed a trend toward higher proportion of patients with multiple features of metabolic syndrome in the study compared with control group (16.7 vs. 5%, p = 0.09). In conclusion, MID during induction may be an early marker for metabolic disturbances later in life. The higher rates of increased waist/height ratio, and subjects with multiple metabolic syndrome features, may predict a metabolic risk in children with history of MID. Rates of IGT were four fold higher in the study group although not statistically significant. MID may be a 'red flag' indicating the need for ongoing metabolic screening and lifestyle modifications to prevent future metabolic disease. PMID:24673941

  18. Effect of 3-Month Yoga on Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes With or Without Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shreelaxmi V.; Adhikari, Prabha; Kotian, Shashidhar; Pinto, Veena J.; D’Souza, Sydney; D’Souza, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of yoga on anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic control, and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients on standard care in comparison with standard care alone. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study involved 123 patients stratified according to groups with microvascular complications, macrovascular complications, and peripheral neuropathy and without complications and assigned to receive either standard care or standard care along with additional yoga for 3 months. RESULTS In comparison with standard care alone, yoga resulted in significant reduction in BMI, glycemic control, and malondialdehyde and increase in glutathione and vitamin C. There were no differences in waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, vitamin E, or superoxide dismutase in the yoga group at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Yoga can be used as an effective therapy in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. Yoga in addition to standard care helps reduce BMI and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:21836105

  19. Usefulness of visceral obesity (waist\\/hip ratio) in predicting vascular endothelial function in healthy overweight adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Brook; Robert L. Bard; Melvyn Rubenfire; Paul M. Ridker; Sanjay Rajagopalan

    2001-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is associated with obesity; however, its etiology remains controversial. By determining the predictors of fasting and postprandial endothelial function in overweight adults without other cardiovascular risk factors, we were able to investigate novel mechanisms directly linking obesity to VED. Thirty-two healthy adults (body mass index [BMI] ?27 kg\\/m2) underwent determination of fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle

  20. Up to the waist in mud! : the assessment and application of earth-derivative architecture in rural Bangladesh

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, K. Iftekhar

    1991-01-01

    This thesis is about architecture that uses earth as the prime· building material in the context of rural Bangladesh. In extreme environmental conditions of annual floods, rain and atmospheric humidity, the use of earth, ...

  1. Patterns of eye movements when male and female observers judge female attractiveness, body fat and waist-to-hip ratio

    E-print Network

    Cornelissen, Piers

    of female bodies. The first sets of observers rated the images for attractiveness, the second sets ratedPatterns of eye movements when male and female observers judge female attractiveness, body fat Behavioural studies of the perceptual cues for female physical attractiveness have suggested two potentially

  2. Safety and Antioxidant Activity of a Pomegranate Ellagitannin-Enriched Polyphenol Dietary Supplement in Overweight Individuals with Increased Waist Size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Heber; Navindra P. Seeram; Holly Wyatt; Susanne M. Henning; Yanjun Zhang; Lorraine G. Ogden; Mark Dreher; James O. Hill

    2007-01-01

    The consumption of pomegranate juice (PJ), a rich source of antioxidant polyphenols, has grown tremendously due to its reported health benefits. Pomegranate extracts, which incorporate the major antioxidants found in pomegranates, namely, ellagitannins, have been developed as botanical dietary supplements to provide an alternative convenient form for consuming the bioactive polyphenols found in PJ. Despite the commercial availability of pomegranate

  3. Aerobic performance and body composition changes during military service

    PubMed Central

    Mikkola, Ilona; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Jokelainen, Jari; Peitso, Ari; Härkönen, Pirjo; Timonen, Markku; Ikäheimo, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between aerobic performance and body composition changes by body mass index (BMI). Design 6–12 months’ follow-up during military service. Setting Conscripts entering military service in 2005 in Sodankylä Jaeger Brigade (Finland). Subjects 945 men (19 years, SD 1 years). Main outcome measures Height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, and aerobic performance (Cooper test) were recorded. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The measured parameters were fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and visceral fat area (VFA). All the measurements were performed at the beginning and end of service. Results On average, the military training period improved the running distance by 6.8% (169 m, p < 0.001) and the improvements were more pronounced in overweight (223.9 m/9.5%, p < 0.001) and obese (273.3 m/13.6 %, p < 0.001) conscripts. A strong inverse correlation between aerobic performance and body composition changes was observed, especially for weight (r = –0.305, p < 0.001) and VFA (r = –0.465, p < 0.001). A significant association between aerobic performance and changes in weight (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.001), FM (p < 0.001), and VFA (p < 0.001) by BMI was detected. The associated decrease in weight, waist circumference, FM, and VFA with improved aerobic performance was more substantial between overweight and obese compared with normal-weight subjects. Conclusions Favourable changes in body composition are associated with improved aerobic performance during a physical training period such as military service. These findings are pronounced among overweight and obese men and can be applied at the population level in reducing obesity and co-morbidities. PMID:22643154

  4. Relation of Epicardial Fat Thickness with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Mustafa; Cakici, Musa; Polat, Mustafa; Suner, Arif; Zencir, Cemil; Ardic, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods and Results. A total of 139 patients with T2DM (mean age 54.3 ± 9.2 and 49.6% male) and 40 age and sex-matched control subjects were evaluated. Echocardiographic EFT and ultrasonographic CIMT were measured in all subjects. Patients with T2DM had significantly increased EFT and CIMT than those of the controls (6.0 ± 1.5?mm versus 4.42 ± 1.0?mm, P < 0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.17?mm versus 0.57 ± 0.14?mm, P < 0.001, resp.). EFT was correlated with CIMT, waist circumference, BMI, age, duration of T2DM, HbA1c in the type 2 diabetic patients. Linear regression analysis showed that CIMT (? = 3.52, t = 3.72, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (? = 0.36, t = 2.26, P = 0.03) were found to be independent predictors of EFT. A cutoff high risk EFT value of 6.3?mm showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.5% and 71.7%, respectively, for the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusion. We found that echocardiographic EFT was significantly higher in patients with T2DM. Our study also showed that EFT was strongly correlated with waist circumference and CIMT as being independent of sex. PMID:23762053

  5. A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

  6. Linking Pre-Diabetes with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. IGFBP-3: A Conductor of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Development Orchestra?

    PubMed Central

    Protopsaltis, Ioannis; Ploumidis, Achilles; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Constantoulakis, Padelis; Tzirogiannis, Kostantinos; Kyprianidou, Chrysoula; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia K.; Melidonis, Andreas; Delakas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a pattern of non-malignant growth of prostatic fibromuscular stroma. Metabolic disturbances such us pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome may have a role in BPH pathophysiology. A potential explanation for the above relationship involves the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis as well as IGF binding proteins, (IGFBPs) of which the most abundant form is IGFBP-3. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between intra-prostatic levels of IGF-1, IGF-2 as well as to evaluate the role of locally expressed IGFBP-3 in BPH development in pre-diabetes. A total of 49 patients admitted to the Urology department of a tertiary urban Greek hospital, for transurethral prostate resection, or prostatectomy and with pre-diabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both] were finally included. The majority of the sample consisted of subjects with IGT (51.0%), followed by IFG and IGT (32.7%) and isolated IFG (16.3%). For all participants a clinical examination was performed and blood samples were collected. In addition, total prostate (TP) volume or transitional zone (TZ) volume were estimated by transrectal ultrasonography. The results of the multivariate analysis regarding TP volume showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p=0.007) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p<0.001) independently predicted higher TP volume. The results regarding the volume of the TZ showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p<0.001) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p=0.024) were independently associated with higher TZ volume. Our findings show that intra-prostatic levels of IGFBP-3, PSA and waist circumference, but not overall obesity, are positively associated with prostate volume. IGFBP-3 seems to be a multifunctional protein, which can potentiate or inhibit IGF activity. PMID:24367483

  7. High plasma leptin predicts an increase in subcutaneous adiposity in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Kettaneh, Adrien; Heude, Barbara; Romon, Monique; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Borys, Jean-Michel; Balkau, Beverley; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypothesis that plasma leptin may predict adiposity changes. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting Fleurbaix and Laventie, in the north of France. Subjects 1175 subjects participated, of whom 946 completed measurements at baseline (1999) and follow-up (2001). After excluding 64 subjects obese at baseline, 882 subjects (478 adults, 404 children 8y and over) were included in the analysis. Interventions We measured plasma leptin concentrations at baseline and various adiposity parameters at baseline and follow-up. Partial correlation coefficients (rp) between baseline plasma leptin and each adiposity indicator at follow-up were calculated with adjustment for baseline age, pubertal stage, adiposity and familial correlations between siblings. Results Changes in body mass index and % body fat were not related to baseline plasma leptin. High baseline plasma leptin predicted an increase (rp (p value)) in the sum of the four skinfolds (0.18 (<0.0001)), the waist circumference (0.16 (0.0003)) and the waist-to-hip ratio (0.29 (<0.0001)) in adults only, and in the hip circumference in adults (0.20 (<0.0001)) and children (0.22 (<0.0001)). After adjustment for a set of 4 adiposity variables at baseline (% body fat, skinfolds, waist and hip circumferences), baseline plasma leptin predicted only changes in the sum of the four skinfolds in adults (0.15 (0.001)), with similar tendency although not significant in children (0.08 (0.13)). Conclusions A high leptin relative to baseline fat mass predicts fat mass gain over time, mainly in the subcutaneous location. Sponsorship Supported by Knoll, Centre d’Etudes et de Documentation du Sucre (CEDUS), Groupe Fournier, Lesieur, Nestlé France, Produits Roche, Le Centre d’Information Scientifique sur la Bière (CISB). Descriptors adipocytokins; insulin; adipose tissue; epidemiology PMID:17164827

  8. Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Sixth-Grade Youth

    PubMed Central

    JAGO, RUSSELL; DREWS, KIMBERLY L.; MCMURRAY, ROBERT G.; THOMPSON, DEBBE; VOLPE, STELLA L.; MOE, ESTHER L.; JAKICIC, JOHN M.; PHAM, TRANG H.; BRUECKER, STEVE; BLACKSHEAR, TARA B.; YIN, ZENONG

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Examine whether cardiometabolic risk factors are predicted by fitness or fatness among adolescents. Methods Participants are 4955 (2614 female) sixth-grade students with complete data from 42 US middle schools. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin concentrations. Waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight, overweight, or obese as a measure of fatness. Fitness was assessed using the multistage shuttle test and was converted into gender-specific quintiles. Gender-specific regression models, adjusted for race, pubertal status, and household education, were run to identify whether BMI group predicted risk factors. Models were repeated with fitness group and both fitness and fatness groups as predictors. Results Means for each risk factor (except HDL, which was the reverse) were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) with increased fatness and differed across all BMI groups (P < 0.001). Waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin were inversely associated with fitness (P < 0.001). When both fatness and fitness were included in the model, BMI was associated (P < 0.001) with almost all cardiometabolic risk factors; fitness was only associated with waist circumference (both genders), LDL-cholesterol (males), and insulin (both genders). Other associations between fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors were attenuated after adjustment for BMI group. Conclusions Both fatness and fitness are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among sixth-grade youth, but stronger associations were observed for fatness. Although maintaining high levels of fitness and preventing obesity may positively affect cardiometabolic risk factors, greater benefit may be obtained from obesity prevention. PMID:20139783

  9. The effect of low glycemic index diet on body weight status and blood pressure in overweight adolescent girls: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Kelishadi, Roya; Hashemipour, Mahin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have assessed the influence of the glycemic index on body weight and blood pressure among adults, limited evidence exists for the pediatric age population. In the current study, we compared the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diet to the healthy nutritional recommendation (HNR)-based diet on obesity and blood pressure among adolescent girls in pubertal ages. This 10-week parallel randomized clinical trial comprised of 50 overweight or obese and sexually mature girls less than 18 years of age years, who were randomly assigned to LGI or HNR-based diet. Macronutrient distribution was equivalently prescribed in both groups. Blood pressure, weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after intervention. Of the 50 participants, 41 subjects (include 82%) completed the study. The GI of the diet in the LGI group was 42.67 ± 0.067. A within-group analysis illustrated that in comparison to the baseline values, the body weight and body mass index (not waist circumference and blood pressure) decreased significantly after the intervention in both groups (P = 0.0001). The percent changes of the body weight status, waist circumference and blood pressure were compared between the two groups and the findings did not show any difference between the LGI diet consumers and those in the HNR group. In comparison to the HNR, LGI diet could not change the weight and blood pressure following a 10-week intervention. Further longitudinal studies with a long-term follow up should be conducted in this regard. PMID:24133618

  10. Changes in Physical Fitness Predict Improvements in Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors Independently of Body Weight Loss in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Participating in the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES)

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Mazzitelli, Giulia; Bazuro, Alessandra; Iacobini, Carla; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical fitness is inversely related to mortality in the general population and in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Here, we present data concerning the relationship between changes in physical fitness and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 606) were enrolled in 22 outpatient diabetes clinics and randomized to twice-a-week supervised aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling versus counseling alone for 12 months. Baseline to end-of-study changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and flexibility, as assessed by Vo2max estimation, a 5–8 maximal repetition test, and a hip/trunk flexibility test, respectively, were calculated in the whole cohort, and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS Changes in Vo2max, upper and lower body strength, and flexibility were significantly associated with the variation in the volume of physical activity, HbA1c, BMI, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score, and inversely, HDL cholesterol. Changes in fitness predicted improvements in HbA1c, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, hs-CRP, and CHD risk score, independent of study arm, BMI, and in case of strength, also waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity/exercise-induced increases in fitness, particularly muscular, predict improvements in cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss, thus indicating the need for targeting fitness in these individuals, particularly in subjects who struggle to lose weight. PMID:22399699

  11. Correlates of sedentary behaviour in 8- to 10-year-old children at elevated risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe correlates of sedentary behaviour (SED) in children at elevated risk of obesity because of parental obesity. Participants were 534 children aged 8-10 years with ?1 obese parent. SED and physical activity (PA) were measured by accelerometer, screen time by self-report, and height, weight, waist circumference, and cardiovascular fitness objectively measured. Data describing the child, parents, friends, and home and neighbourhood environments were from child self-report. Higher total SED time was significantly positively associated with child's age, mother's age, Tanner stage, weight status or waist circumference, less self-reported PA, choosing screen time over PA/sport, mother saying PA/sport good for them, and fewer weekly physical education (PE) classes. Exceeding 2 h/day screen time was significantly associated with child's age, male sex, weight status or waist circumference, choosing screen time over PA/sport, and dinnertime TV viewing. Children regularly watching TV with dinner had 2.3 times greater odds (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52, 3.58) of exceeding screen time guidelines compared with children rarely watching TV with dinner; children reporting ?2 PE classes/week had 2.4 times greater odds (95% CI 1.41, 4.10) of being in the highest SED tertile compared with children reporting >2 PE classes/week. Hence, the most sedentary children are older, more biologically mature, less active, more overweight/obese, have fewer PE classes, and are more likely to choose screen time over PA and watch TV with dinner compared with less sedentary children. PE opportunities and mealtime TV viewing are potentially modifiable targets for reducing total SED and screen time in children. PMID:25415850

  12. A comparison of cardiovascular risk factors for ten antipsychotic drugs in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Bodén, Robert; Edman, Gunnar; Reutfors, Johan; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Ösby, Urban

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance are highly prevalent in patients receiving maintenance treatment with antipsychotics, but there is limited knowledge about the association between cardiovascular risk factors and treatment with antipsychotic drugs. In this naturalistic study we investigated a sample of 809 antipsychotic-treated patients from Swedish psychosis outpatient teams. Cardiovascular risk factors (eg, metabolic syndrome, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and low-density lipoprotein values) were measured, and their associations to current antipsychotic pharmacotherapy were studied. Ten antipsychotic drugs were compared in a stepwise logistic regression model. For the patients, the presence of the components of metabolic syndrome ranged from 35% for hyperglycemia to 64% for elevated waist circumference. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with clozapine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–3.04), reduced high-density lipoprotein with both clozapine and olanzapine (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.01–2.97; and OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.32–3.13), hypertension with perphenazine (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.21–3.59), and hyperglycemia inversely with ziprasidone (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.89) and positively with haloperidol (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.18–3.48). There were no significant relationships between any of the antipsychotic drugs and increased waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, or low-density lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, treatment with antipsychotic drugs is differentially associated with cardiovascular risk factors, even after adjusting for waist circumference, sex, age, and smoking. PMID:23682213

  13. Metabolic syndrome reduces bone mineral density in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega da Silva, Valéria; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Mosca, Luciana Nunes; Bisi Rizzo, Anapaula da Conceição; Teixeira, Altamir dos Santos; Corrente, José Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    Growing concern has focused on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its effects on bone mass. There is little information available in the literature concerning the relationship between MetS and BMD in adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MetS and its components on bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight adolescent boys and girls. This cross-sectional study assessed 271 overweight adolescents with or without MetS (age 10 to 16years). Anthropometric and biochemical tests were performed. Lumbar spine, proximal femur and total and subtotal body BMD values were obtained by bone densitometry with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MetS was observed in 14% of the adolescents. Overweight adolescents of both genders who were positive for MetS presented with significant decreases in BMD (g/cm(2)/kg bodyweight) at all sites evaluated (p<0.01). Female adolescents with large waist circumference, low HDLc, hypertriglyceridemia and high blood pressure showed significant reductions in BMD at all sites evaluated (p<0.01) and, with the exception of increased triglycerides (which had no effect on BMD, p>0.05), the same pattern was observed in male adolescents. Linear regression analyses revealed that waist circumference was negatively correlated with BMD in both genders and that triglycerides were negatively correlated with BMD only in female adolescents. Our results suggest that overweight adolescents with MetS have lower BMD than adolescents without MetS. Among all MetS components measured, increased waist circumference had the strongest relationship with reductions in BMD. PMID:24875293

  14. Abdominal obesity and other risk factors largely explain the high CRP in Indigenous Australians relative to the general population, but not gender differences: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Indigenous Australians, which may contribute to their high risk of cardiovascular disease. We compared CRP levels in Indigenous Australians and the general population, accounting for obesity and other risk factors. Methods Cross-sectional study of CRP and risk factors (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, and smoking status) in population-based samples from the Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region (DRUID) study, and the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study (AusDiab) follow-up. Results CRP concentrations were higher in women than men and in DRUID than AusDiab. After multivariate adjustment, including waist circumference, the odds of high CRP (>3.0 mg/L) in DRUID relative to AusDiab were no longer statistically significant, but elevated CRP was still more likely in women than men. After adjusting for BMI (instead of waist circumference) the odds for elevated CRP in DRUID participants were still higher relative to AusDiab participants among women, but not men. Lower HDL cholesterol, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and higher diastolic blood pressure were associated with having a high CRP in both men and women, while current smoking was associated with high CRP in men but not women. Conclusions High concentrations of CRP in Indigenous participants were largely explained by other risk factors, in particular abdominal obesity. Irrespective of its independence as a risk factor, or its aetiological association with coronary heart disease (CHD), the high CRP levels in urban Indigenous women are likely to reflect increased vascular and metabolic risk. The significance of elevated CRP in Indigenous Australians should be investigated in future longitudinal studies. PMID:21078191

  15. Sleep Apnea Is Related to the Atherogenic Phenotype, Lipoprotein Subclass B

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Kip, Kevin E.; Drumheller, Oliver J.; Rice, Thomas B.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen; Reis, Steven E.; Strollo, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep apnea has been implicated as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). An association between the severity of sleep apnea and total cholesterol levels has previously been reported. However, the association with small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration (subclass B), one of the strongest predictors of atherosclerosis, is unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep apnea and LDL subclass B, considering body size. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational cohort of participants enrolled in a cardiovascular health study. Sleep apnea was assessed with a validated portable monitor. Lipid panels included total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL subclasses A, B, and A/B. Sleep apnea was analyzed categorically using the apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Results: A total of 519 participants were evaluated. Mean age was 58.7 ± 7.4 years; BMI was 29.6 ± 5.7; 65% were female; 59% were Caucasian, and 37% were African American. Among participants with abnormal waist circumference by ATP III criteria, moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI ? 25) was not independently associated with LDL subclass B. In contrast, among participants with normal waist circumference, moderate to severe sleep apnea was associated with 4.5-fold odds of having LDL subclass B. Conclusions: Sleep apnea is independently associated with an atherogenic phenotype (LDL subclass B) in non-obese individuals. The association between sleep apnea and LDL subclass B in those with normal waist circumference may account, in part, for the increased risk of atherosclerosis and subsequent vascular events. Citation: Luyster FS; Kip KE; Drumheller OJ; Rice TB; Edmundowicz D; Matthews K; Reis SE; Strollo PJ. Sleep apnea is related to the atherogenic phenotype, lipoprotein subclass B. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):155-161. PMID:22505860

  16. Total and Abdominal Adiposity Are Associated With Inflammation in Older Adults Using a Factor Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Beavers, Kristen M.; Church, Timothy S.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Stafford, Randall S.; Pahor, Marco; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Nicklas, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Obesity-related increases in multiple inflammatory markers may contribute to the persistent subclinical inflammation common with advancing age. However, it is unclear if a specific combination of markers reflects the underlying inflammatory state. We used factor analysis to identify inflammatory factor(s) and examine their associations with adiposity in older adults at risk for disability. Methods. Adiponectin, CRP, IL-1ra, IL-1sRII, IL-2sR?, IL-6, IL-6sR, IL-8, IL-15, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, and TNF-? were measured in 179 participants from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (Mean ± SD age 77 ± 4 years, 76% white, 70% women). Body mass index, waist circumference, and total fat mass were assessed by anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results. IL-2sR?, sTNFRI, and sTNFRII loaded highest on the first factor (factor 1). CRP, IL-1ra, and IL-6 loaded highest on the second factor (factor 2). Factor 2, but not factor 1, was positively associated with 1-SD increments in waist circumference (? = 0.160 ± 0.057, p = .005), body mass index (? = 0.132 ± 0.053, p = .01), and total fat mass (? = 0.126 ± 0.053, p = .02) after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, site, smoking, anti-inflammatory medications, comorbidity index, health-related quality of life, and physical function. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for grip strength, but only waist circumference remained associated with inflammation after adjusting for total lean mass. There were no significant interactions between adiposity and muscle mass or strength for either factor. Conclusions. Greater total and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher levels of an inflammatory factor related to CRP, IL-1ra, and IL-6 in older adults, which may provide a clinically useful measure of inflammation in this population. PMID:22451470

  17. Body composition and arsenic metabolism: a cross-sectional analysis in the Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between measures of body composition and patterns of urine arsenic metabolites in the 1989–1991 baseline visit of the Strong Heart Study, a cardiovascular disease cohort of adults recruited from rural communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota. Methods We evaluated 3,663 Strong Heart Study participants with urine arsenic species above the limit of detection and no missing data on body mass index, % body fat and fat free mass measured by bioelectrical impedance, waist circumference and other variables. We summarized urine arsenic species patterns as the relative contribution of inorganic (iAs), methylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) species to their sum. We modeled the associations of % arsenic species biomarkers with body mass index, % body fat, fat free mass, and waist circumference categories in unadjusted regression models and in models including all measures of body composition. We also considered adjustment for arsenic exposure and demographics. Results Increasing body mass index was associated with higher mean % DMA and lower mean % MMA before and after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, arsenic exposure, and for other measures of body composition. In unadjusted linear regression models, % DMA was 2.4 (2.1, 2.6) % higher per increase in body mass index category (< 25, ?25 & <30, ?30 & <35, ?35 kg/m2), and % MMA was 1.6 (1.4, 1.7) % lower. Similar patterns were observed for % body fat, fat free mass, and waist circumference measures in unadjusted models and in models adjusted for potential confounders, but the associations were largely attenuated or disappeared when adjusted for body mass index. Conclusion Measures of body size, especially body mass index, are associated with arsenic metabolism biomarkers. The association may be related to adiposity, fat free mass or body size. Future epidemiologic studies of arsenic should consider body mass index as a potential modifier for arsenic-related health effects. PMID:24321145

  18. Factors Associated With Body Weight Status of Iranian Postgraduate Students in University of Putra Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Maryam; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh; Abu Saad, Hazizi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are foundations of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional status of Iranian students studying oversea has never been investigated. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between body weight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis. Results: From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI. Conclusions: The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders. PMID:25414886

  19. Sonographic diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) by fetal transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD)\\/abdominal circumference (AC) ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Tongsong; C Wanapirak; T Thongpadungroj

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the validity of TCD\\/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Study design: Prospective descriptive analysis. Setting: Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai University. Subjects: Women meeting the inclusion criteria consisting of: (1) singleton pregnancies after 28 weeks of gestation; (2) known accurate gestational age; and (3) clinically suspected IUGR. Methods: The patients were sonographically examined for TCD\\/AC ratio.

  20. The Relation of the Obstruction Site on Muller's Maneuver with BMI, Neck Circumference and PSG Findings in OSAS.

    PubMed

    Kum, Rauf Oguzhan; Ozcan, Muge; Y?lmaz, Yavuz Fuat; Gungor, Volkan; Yurtsever Kum, Nurcan; Unal, Adnan

    2014-06-01

    We investigated relation of the site of obstruction detected on Muller maneuver (MM) with polysomnography (PSG) and physical examination findings. Data of 703 patients admitted to Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Sleep Laboratory between 2008 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively; 394 patients with apnea-hypopnea indexes (AHI) ?5/h were included. Site of collapse on MM was determined at retrolingual level at anteroposterior (M1) and lateral-lateral (M2) directions; at retropalatal level at anteroposterior (M3) and lateral-lateral (M4) directions. There were 125 (31.7 %) females and 269 (68.3 %) males. BMI had significant positive correlations with M2 (p < 0.001) and M4 (p = 0.002) scores, ESS (p = 0.013) and AHI (p = 0.001). AHI had significant positive correlations with ESS (p = 0.003), M2 (p < 0.001), M3 (p = 0.037) and M4 (p < 0.001) scores and NC (p = 0.001). Minimum oxygen saturation had significant reverse correlations with M1 (p = 0.046), M2 (p < 0.001), M3 (p = 0.003), M4 (p < 0.001), AHI (p < 0.001), ESS (p = 0.003) and BMI (p = 0.001). In OSAS patients, increased BMI, NC and AHI are correlated with lateral pharyngeal wall (LPW) collapse in retropalatal and retrolingual levels on MM. LPW collapse is more valuable to predict OSAS compared to anteroposterior collapse. LPW collapse on MM may be used as a selection criterion for ordering PSG. Further studies are needed to better clarify importance of LPW in OSAS surgery. PMID:24822156

  1. Exploration of the Association between Obesity and Semen Quality in a 7630 Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Chih-Wei; Liu, Chin-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Cha, Tai-Lung; Chen, Shih-Chang; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between body mass index (BMI), other anthropometric indexes and semen quality in a general male population in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional cohort study, the study cohort consisted of 7941 healthy male individuals aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program run by a private firm from January 2008 to May 2013. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM), and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. Anthropometric indexes including BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body fat percentage were measured. A total of 7630 men were enrolled for the final analysis, of whom 68.5% had a normal weight distribution and 31.4% were overweight or obese. Total sperm motility, progressive motility, normal sperm morphology and sperm concentration showed a statistically linear decline with increasing age (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.004). Sperm concentration showed a significantly negatively linear association with BMI (p = 0.005), and normal sperm morphology showed an inverse association with BMI and waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004). The prevalence of abnormal total sperm motility, progressive motility, normal sperm morphology and sperm concentration increased with increasing age (p = 0.011, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.002). Lower normal sperm morphology and sperm concentration were associated with increasing body adiposity (p<0.05). No relationship between obesity and sperm motility was identified. PMID:25822490

  2. Utility of anthropometric measures in a multiethnic population: their association with prevalent diabetes, hypertension and other chronic disease comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Tarleton, Heather P; Smith, Lisa V; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kuo, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are two common anthropometric measures of obesity in clinical and public health practice. Consensus, however, remains elusive regarding their utility for predicting cardiovascular disease risk in multiethnic populations. We address this gap in the literature by analyzing cross-sectional data from the first round of the Los Angeles County Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011. We characterized the relationships between BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratios, waist-to-height ratios, and chronic disease extent, as confirmed by the presence of hypertension, diabetes, and/or two or more other chronic conditions as defined by a composite indicator 'comorbidity'. To account for race/ethnicity, age, gender, and cigarette smoking frequency, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were generated and reported for each of the regression analyses. Whereas being overweight was associated with hypertension alone (aOR 2.10; 95% CI 1.12-3.94), obesity was associated with hypertension (aOR 5.04; 95% CI 2.80-9.06) as well as diabetes (aOR 5.28; 95% CI 2.25-12.3) and comorbidity (aOR 3.69; 95% CI 2.02-6.77). In whites and African-Americans, BMI and WC were positively related to diabetes, hypertension and comorbidity. In Hispanics, BMI and WC were also positively related to diabetes and comorbidity, but only the former measure was associated with hypertension (p < 0.050). In Asians, BMI was not a significant predictor of diabetes, hypertension and/or comorbidity. Collectively, the findings suggest that BMI is not universally informative and waist circumference and its derivatives may represent a viable, more racially/ethnically appropriate alternative for use with selected minority groups. PMID:24132872

  3. Early sexual maturation, central adiposity and subsequent overweight in late adolescence. A four-year follow-up of 1605 adolescent Norwegian boys and girls: the Young HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Bratberg, Grete H; Nilsen, Tom IL; Holmen, Turid L; Vatten, Lars J

    2007-01-01

    Background Early sexual maturation has been associated with overweight that may persist after the completion of biological growth and development. We have prospectively examined the influence of early sexual maturation on subsequent overweight in late adolescence and assessed if this association was modified by central adiposity in early adolescence. Methods 1605 Norwegian adolescents were followed from early (baseline, mean age 14.2 years) to late adolescence (follow-up, mean age 18.2 years). Maturational timing was assessed by self-reports of pubertal status (PDS) in boys and age at menarche (AAM) in girls. Central adiposity was classified according to waist circumference (waist) measured at baseline, using age and gender specific medians as cut off. Overweight was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) standards. Results At follow-up, early sexual maturation in girls, but not in boys, was associated with overweight. This association, however, was restricted to girls with high waist circumference (> median) at baseline (OR, 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–4.9). Thus, age at menarche was not associated with overweight in girls with low waist (? median) at baseline. Central adiposity was, independent of maturational timing, associated with higher BMI at follow-up in both genders, but differences were more pronounced among early matured girls (3.5 kg/m2), than among intermediate (2.7 kg/m2) and late matured girls (1.2 kg/m2). Conclusion In girls, the combination of central adiposity and early age at menarche appears to increase the risk of being overweight in late adolescence. PMID:17430580

  4. A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in many countries including India. Yoga may be an effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategy in India, particularly given its cultural familiarity. Methods This was a parallel, randomized controlled pilot study to collect feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on yoga for diabetes risk factors among people at high risk of diabetes. Primary outcomes included: changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and cholesterol. We also looked at measures of psychological well-being including changes in depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect and perceived stress. Forty-one participants with elevated fasting blood glucose in Bangalore, India were randomized to either yoga (n?=?21) or a walking control (n?=?20). Participants were asked to either attend yoga classes or complete monitored walking 3–6 days per week for eight weeks. Randomization and allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers and group assignments delivered in sealed, opaque envelopes generated by off-site study staff. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Results This study was feasible in terms of recruitment, retention and adherence. In addition, yoga participants had significantly greater reductions in weight, waist circumference and BMI versus control (weight ?0.8?±?2.1 vs. 1.4?±?3.6, p?=?0.02; waist circumference ?4.2?±?4.8 vs. 0.7?±?4.2, p?waist circumference when compared to a walking control. Yoga offers a promising lifestyle intervention for decreasing weight-related type 2 diabetes risk factors and potentially increasing psychological well-being. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identified NCT00090506. PMID:24980650

  5. Physical activity, adiposity, and risk of endometrial cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly B. Conroy; Jacob R. Sattelmair; Nancy R. Cook; JoAnn E. Manson; Julie E. Buring; I-Min Lee

    2009-01-01

    Objective  We examined the associations of leisure-time physical activity and adiposity with endometrial cancer risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eligible subjects were 32,642 healthy US women, ?45 years, from the Women’s Health Study. Women reported on questionnaires\\u000a about their weight, height, and physical activity at baseline (1992–1995) and waist and hip circumference at 72 months. During\\u000a an average follow-up of 8.8 years, 264 women developed endometrial cancer, confirmed

  6. Obesity-Related Genomic Loci Are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; He, Jiang; Chen, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Ge, Jiapu; Chen, Gang; Guo, Xiaohui; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Wenying

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity is a well-known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic loci associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of obesity-related genomic loci to type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Methods We successfully genotyped 18 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms among 5338 type 2 diabetic patients and 4663 controls. Both individual and joint effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on type 2 diabetes and quantitative glycemic traits (assessing ?-cell function and insulin resistance) were analyzed using logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results Two single nucleotide polymorphisms near MC4R and GNPDA2 genes were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes before adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (OR (95% CI)?=?1.14 (1.06, 1.22) for the A allele of rs12970134, P?=?4.75×10?4; OR (95% CI)?=?1.10 (1.03, 1.17) for the G allele of rs10938397, P?=?4.54×10?3). When body mass index and waist circumference were further adjusted, the association of MC4R with type 2 diabetes remained significant (P?=?1.81×10?2) and that of GNPDA2 was attenuated (P?=?1.26×10?1), suggesting the effect of the locus including GNPDA2 on type 2 diabetes may be mediated through obesity. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs2260000 within BAT2 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (P?=?1.04×10?2). In addition, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (near or within SEC16B, BDNF, MAF and PRL genes) showed significant associations with quantitative glycemic traits in controls even after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (all P values<0.05). Conclusions This study indicates that obesity-related genomic loci were associated with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits in the Han Chinese population. PMID:25093408

  7. Differences in physical activity and sedentary time in relation to weight in 8-9 year old children.

    E-print Network

    Purslow, Lisa R; Hill, Claire; Saxton, Jenny; Corder, Kirsten; Wardle, Jane

    2008-12-12

    Arnie (boys) and each child in the team with the highest compliance received a £5 gift voucher. Data treatment and statistical analysis BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m2). BMI and waist circumferences were transformed into age- and gen- der... . Rennie KL, Livingstone MBE, Wells JCK, McGloin A, Coward WA, Prentice AM, Jebb SA: Association of physical activity with body-composition indexes in children aged 6–8 y at varied risk of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2005, 82(1):13-20. 11. Janz KF, Levy SM...

  8. Evolution of nutritional status in lung transplant candidates who are initially malnourished or overweight.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Giuliana Bastos; Macedo, Alessandra; Nakasato, Miyoko; Bruno, Maria Lúcia Mendes

    2009-12-01

    A retrospective study using anthropometric data to assess the evolution of nutritional status in lung transplant candidates who are initially malnourished or overweight. We included patients with an initial body mass index (BMI) < 17 kg/m(2) (malnourished, n = 10) or > 27 kg/m(2) (overweight, n = 20). Each patient subsequently had three appointments with a nutritionist (nutritional interventions). In the malnourished group, there were no significant post-intervention changes in the anthropometric variables. In the overweight group, however, nutritional intervention had a positive impact on weight, BMI and waist circumference. PMID:20126924

  9. Generalised and abdominal adiposity are important risk factors for chronic disease in older people: Results from a nationally representative survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Hirani

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  To look at the trends in prevalence of generalised (body mass index (BMI) ?25 kg\\/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) >102cm, men; >88cm, women) among older people from 1993 to 2008, prevalence\\u000a of chronic disease by overweight\\/obesity and WC categories in England 2005 and evaluate the association of these measures\\u000a with chronic diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Analyses of nationally representative cross-sectional population