Sample records for z-score waist circumference

  1. Measurement of Waist Circumference

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wen-Ya; Yang, Chung-Yi; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hsieh, Hong-Jen; Hung, Chi Sheng; Chiu, Fu-Chun; Lin, Mao-Shin; Liu, Pi-Hua; Hua, Cyue-Huei; Hsein, Yenh-Chen; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lin, Jou-Wei; Wei, Jung-Nan; Li, Hung-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Waist circumference (WC) is used to define central obesity. This study aimed to compare the performance of two recommended locations of WC measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cohort of 1,898 subjects who were without diabetes from 2006 to 2012 were followed for a median of 31 months (Taiwan Lifestyle Study). The WC-IC, recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel, was measured at the superior border of the iliac crest, and the WC-mid, recommended by World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation, was measured midway between the lowest ribs and the iliac crest. The abdominal subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA) were assessed by computed tomography. RESULTS There was greater difference between WC-IC and WC-mid measurements in women than in men (P < 0.001). Both WC-IC and WC-mid correlated significantly with BMI, VFA, and SFA (all P < 0.001). WC-mid was better correlated to VFA than WC-IC, particularly in women, and it correlated more strongly to blood pressure, plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride levels, HDL cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (all P < 0.05). The association of WC-mid with hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome was slightly better than that of WC-IC (area under the receiver operator curve 0.7 vs. 0.69, 0.71 vs. 0.68, and 0.75 vs. 0.7, respectively; all age-adjusted P < 0.05). With 90 cm (male)/80 cm (female) as criteria for central obesity, WC-mid, but not WC-IC, predicted the incidence of diabetes development (age-adjusted P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS WC-mid is a better measurement to define central obesity than WC-IC, particularly in women. PMID:23275359

  2. Associations between gender, age and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J; Katz, E G; Huxley, R R

    2010-01-01

    In December 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a consultation to discuss cut-points for waist circumference (WC). As part of that effort, this paper examines the impact of gender and age on WC. As WC is influenced by body weight, body composition and fat distribution, their associations with gender and age were reviewed. We also noted the relationships with sex hormones, parity and menopause. We then summarized data on gender, age and WC. This presentation is not intended to be comprehensive, but to provide an overview of the available research. There are large differences in body composition in men and women, with women having more body fat. Fat distribution also differs with gender, with men having a relatively more central distribution of fat. These differences begin early in life and become more apparent in puberty due to changes in sex hormone levels. In both, men and women, waist and waist-to-hip ratio increase with age. A large portion of this increase is driven by gains in body weight, but the increases observed are larger than those that would be predicted from increases in the body mass index alone, and increases in WC are seen with aging in the absence of weight gain. The current practice of using seperate waist cut-points by gender is appropriate. Although WC increases with age, so does the risk of many chronic diseases. An evaluation of the need for age-specific waist cut-points in adults would need to consider disease risk. PMID:19738633

  3. TOTAL AND SATURATED FAT INTAKE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the macronutrient composition of intake and waist circumference. METHODS: Regression analysis evaluated the relationship between composition and waist circumference. SAMPLE: This study used data from the third National ...

  4. BMI vs. Waist Circumference for Identifying Vascular Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew S. Freiberg; Michael J. Pencina; Ralph B. D'Agostino; Katherine Lanier; Peter W. F. Wilson; Ramachandran S. Vasan

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Current guidelines recommend measurement of both BMI and waist circumference (WC) in individuals with BMI between 25.0 and 34.9 kg\\/m2. We investigated the relative contributions of BMI and WC toward identifying risk of adverse vascular events in a community-based sample.Methods and Procedures:We evaluated Framingham Study participants (n = 4,195 person-examinations, 53% women) using pooled logistic regression to assess the incremental

  5. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  6. IDEA: A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/31 R2 IDEA: A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in 168 Running head: Waist circumference, diabetes and CVD HALauthormanuscriptinserm-00186711,version1 HAL author (CVD) and diabetes in different regions around the world, and thus whether measuring waist

  7. Waist circumference as a predictor of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in obese girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Maffeis; N Corciulo; C Livieri; I Rabbone; G Trifirò; A Falorni; L Guerraggio; P Peverelli; G Cuccarolo; G Bergamaschi; M Di Pietro; A Grezzani

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (a) to explore the relationship between waist circumference and certain cardiovascular risk factors in a group of girls; and (b) to assess the clinical relevance of waist circumference in identifying girls with higher cardiovascular risk across puberty.Subjects and methods: One-hundred and fifty-five overweight or obese girls aged 5–16 y were recruited. Overweight and obesity were defined on the basis

  8. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Physical Activity and Risk of Hearing Loss in Women

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Sharon G.; Eavey, Roland; Wang, Molin; Stampfer, Meir; Curhan, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acquired hearing loss is highly prevalent, but prospective data on potentially modifiable risk factors are limited. In cross-sectional studies, higher body mass index (BMI), larger waist circumference, and lower physical activity have been associated with poorer hearing, but these have not been examined prospectively. METHODS We examined the independent associations between BMI, waist circumference and physical activity and self-reported hearing loss in 68,421 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II from 1989 to 2009. Baseline and updated information on BMI, waist circumference and physical activity was obtained from biennial questionnaires. RESULTS After more than 1.1 million person-years of follow-up, 11,286 cases of hearing loss were reported to have occurred. Higher BMI and larger waist circumference were associated with increased risk of hearing loss. Compared with women with BMI <25 kg/m2, the multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) for women with BMI ? 40 was 1.25 (95% CI 1.14,1.37). Compared with women with waist circumference <71 cm, the multivariate-adjusted RR for waist circumference >88 cm was 1.27 (95% CI 1.17, 1.38). Higher physical activity was inversely related to risk; compared with women in the lowest quintile of physical activity, the multivariate-adjusted RR for women in the highest quintile was 0.83 (95% CI 0.78,0.88). Walking 2 hours per week or more was inversely associated with risk. Simultaneous adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and physical activity slightly attenuated the associations but they remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Higher BMI and larger waist circumference are associated with increased risk and higher physical activity is associated with reduced risk of hearing loss in women. These findings provide evidence that maintaining healthy weight and staying physically active, potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, may help reduce the risk of hearing loss. PMID:24125639

  9. Comparisons of waist circumferences measured at 4 sites1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Wang; John C Thornton; Salina Bari; Bennett Williamson; Dympna Gallagher; Steven B Heymsfield; Mary Horlick; Donald Kotler; Blandine Laferrère; Laurel Mayer; F Xavier Pi-Sunyer; Richard N Pierson Jr

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as a practical measure of adipose tissue distribution. Four body sites for WC measurements are commonly used, as follows: immedi- ately below the lowest ribs (WC1), the narrowest waist (WC2), the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WC3), and immediately above the iliac crest (WC4). Objective: We sought to compare

  10. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ailing Liu; Andrew P Hills; Xiaoqi Hu; Yanping Li; Lin Du; Ying Xu; Nuala M Byrne; Guansheng Ma

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular

  11. The body adiposity index (hip circumference ÷ height1.5) is not a more accurate measure of adiposity than is BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Thornton, John; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wang, Jack; Pierson, Richard N.; Blanck, Heidi M; Gallagher, Dympna

    2012-01-01

    Based on cross-sectional analyses, it was suggested that hip circumference divided by height1.5 minus 18 (the body adiposity index, BAI), could directly estimate percent body fat without the need for further correction for sex or age. We compared the prediction of percent body fat, as assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (PBFDXA), by BAI, BMI, and circumference (waist and hip) measurements among 1151 adults who had a total body scan by DXA and circumference measurements from 1993 through 2006. After accounting for sex, we found that PBFDXA was related similarly to BAI, BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference. In general, BAI overestimated PBFDXA among men (3.9%) and underestimated PBFDXA among women (2.5%), but the magnitudes of these biases varied with the level of body fatness. The addition of covariates and quadratic terms for the body size measures in regression models substantially improved the prediction of PBFDXA, but none of the models based on BAI could more accurately predict PBFDXA than could those based on BMI or circumferences. We conclude that the use of BAI as an indicator of adiposity is likely to produce biased estimates of percent body fat, with the errors varying by sex and level of body fatness. Although regression models that account for the non-linear association, as well as the influence of sex, age and race, can yield more accurate estimates of PBFDXA, estimates based on BAI are not more accurate than those based on BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference. PMID:22484365

  12. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

  13. Waist Circumference Correlates with Metabolic Syndrome Indicators Better Than Percentage Fat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Shen; Mark Punyanitya; Jun Chen; Dympna Gallagher; Jeanine Albu; Xavier Pi-Sunyer; Cora E. Lewis; Carl Grunfeld; Stanley Heshka; Steven B. Heymsfield

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Percent fat is often considered the reference for establishing the magnitude of adipose tissue accumulation and the risk of excess adiposity. However, the increasing recognition of a strong link between central adiposity and metabolic disturbances led us to test whether waist circumference (WC) is more highly correlated with metabolic syndrome components than percent fat and other related anthropometric measures

  14. Waist circumference adds to the variance in plasma CRP levels in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    disease risk factors and may be an important feature of the Metabolic Syndrome (MSX) in middle aged subjects for the statistical analyses. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP criteria. Other1 Waist circumference adds to the variance in plasma CRP levels in elderly patients with metabolic

  15. Waist circumference is associated with pulmonary function in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Chen; Donna Rennie; Yvon F Cormier; James Dosman

    Background:Obesityisbecomingaseriouspublichealthissueand is related to lung dysfunction. Because both weight and height are indicators of body size, body mass index (BMI) may not be an ideal index of obesity in prediction of pulmonary dysfunction. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the predict- ability of waist circumference (WC) and BMI for pulmonary func- tion in adults with and without

  16. Validity of self-measured waist and hip circumferences: results from a community study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measures of central adiposity are better predictors of adverse health events than BMI. Nonetheless, BMI is more widely used in health research. One reason for this may be the limited research supporting the self-measurement of waist and hip circumference. The lack of validity studies is particularly acute in Asia. The main objective was to establish the validity of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference in a community setting and the correlation of those measures with BMI, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels. Methods A community based, cross-sectional survey. A “healthy living expo” at a shopping mall in a rural town on peninsular Malaysia One hundred and thirty six (136) individuals volunteered to participate in the study, 125 of whom met the inclusion criteria. The ethnic distribution of the participants was 80% Chinese, 17% Malay and 3% Indian. Most participants were female (60%), with participants’ ages ranging from 18 to 78 years (mean, 47.2). Self and assisted measurements of waist and hip were taken. Blood pressure, non-fasting blood glucose, height, and weight were also measured. Bland Altman plots and Lin’s concordance coefficient were used to measure agreement between self and assisted measures. Pearson’s correlation was used to examine the association of self and assisted measures with blood pressure, blood glucose, and BMI. Results There was a downwards bias in self measured waist (-0.81 cm) and hip (-1 cm) circumferences compared with assisted measures. The concordance for the self and assisted measures of waist, hip and the ratio of the two were, respectively, .96, .93 , and .84. The correlation between measures of central adiposity and BMI, blood pressure and blood glucose were similar for self and assisted measures. Conclusion The results provide additional support for the use of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference studies of central adiposity, but is limited by the specificity of the setting. PMID:24093886

  17. Self-reported waist circumference compared with the 'Waist Watcher' tape-measure to identify individuals at increased health risk through intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Han, T S; Lean, M E

    1998-07-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported home-assessed and self-measured waist circumference in 101 men and eighty-three women aged 28-67 years. The main outcome measures were subjects' self-reported and self-measured waist circumference, and self-classification according to the previously defined waist action level 1 (940 mm in men, 800 mm in women) and action level 2 (1020 mm in men, 880 mm in women), and waist circumference measured by the investigator using the 'Waist Watcher' tape-measure, as the reference method. The mean errors (95% CI limits of agreement) for subjects' self-reported waist circumference (self-reported minus reference; mm) were -67 (95% CI -210, 77) in men and -43 (95% CI -211, 123) in women, and for self-measured waist circumference (mm) using the 'Waist Watcher' (self-measured minus reference) were -5 (95% CI -62, 52) in men and -4 (95% CI -50, 42) in women. The proportions of subjects classified into waist action level 1 or action level 2 by the investigator were used as the reference method. Self-reported waist circumference of men and women respectively would be classified correctly in different categories based on action level 1 with sensitivities of 58.3 and 78.7%, and specificities of 92.5 and 91.7%, and action level 2 with sensitivities of 35.3 and 44.9%, and specificities of 98.5 and 90.7%. Using the 'Waist Watcher' with different colour bands based on the action levels, male and female subjects respectively classified themselves into correct categories according to action level 1 with sensitivities of 100 and 95.7%, and specificities of 95.1 and 97.2%, and according to action level 2 with sensitivities of 97.1 and 100%, and specificities of 100% for both sexes. Only 2% of the sample misclassified themselves into the wrong categories according to waist circumference action levels. In conclusion, people tend to underestimate their waist circumference, but the 'Waist Watcher' tape-measure offers advantages over self-reported home-assessed measurement, and may be used as a screening tool for self-classifying the risk of ill health through intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:9797647

  18. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

  19. Waist circumference thresholds for the prediction of cardiometabolic risk: is measurement site important?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Mason; P T Katzmarzyk

    2010-01-01

    Background:Waist circumference (WC) is frequently measured in clinical and research settings. Although measurement protocols may differ considerably, a single set of sex-specific cut-points are typically used to denote elevated risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the appropriate WC thresholds for identifying cardiometabolic risk vary according to anatomical measurement site.Methods:WC was measured at four common sites in

  20. Physical activity is inversely related to waist circumference in 12-y-old French adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Klein-Platat; M Oujaa; A Wagner; M C Haan; D Arveiler; J L Schlienger; C Simon

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Waist circumference (W) has been shown to be a good predictor of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (PA) is related to W in adolescents as previously shown in adults.DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:Cross-sectional population-based survey of 2714 12-y-old adolescents from the eastern part of France.MEASUREMENTS:Body mass index (BMI) and W were measured.

  1. Waist circumference and insulin resistance in elderly men: an analysis of Kahrizak elderly study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is crucial for health care practitioners to identify at risk people for early treatment. Visceral obesity may make unnecessary other laborious measures of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to see whether waist circumference (WC) can predict insulin resistance as well as MS in a group of Iranian elderly. Methods Out of 94 nondiabetic elderly, thirty three subjects were recognized with MS. MS diagnosis was based on NCEP ATP III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) and IDF (International Diabetes Federation) definitions. HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) index was used to measure insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance (IR) was defined as top quartile of HOMA. Results In both sexes, WC and HOMA index were significantly positively correlated. The optimal waist circumference (OWC) cutoff point was 94.5 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women. The high sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.84) of WC in males indicates the proportion of IR which is correctly identified and recognizes all non-IR males as such. In regression model only the TG level was associated with WC. But the WC is strongly associated with HOMA-IR. Conclusions While OWC is very likely a good measure to exclude non-IR subjects in our study, determination of optimal WC to identify elderly IR subjects warrants further study in a larger sample of the general population. PMID:24495315

  2. Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference change in midlife women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Changes in employment status have shown inconsistent associations with adiposity. This study tested whether the presence of elevated depressive symptoms explains variability in the time-varying association between employment status and central adiposity. Method Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference were assessed annually over 10 years in a multi-ethnic sample of 3220 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Linear mixed-effects models tested time-varying associations of employment status, depressive symptoms, and their interaction with waist circumference. Results Waist circumference increases were greatest during years of combined nonemployment and elevated depressive symptoms (1.00 cm/year), and lowest in years of full-time employment and elevated depressive symptoms (0.25 cm/year), compared to years of full-time employment and non-elevated depressive symptoms (0.51 cm/year). Employment status was unrelated to waist circumference in years without elevated depressive symptoms. The pattern of results was unchanged when analyses were restricted to pre-retirement observations, and did not vary according to waist circumference at baseline or ethnicity/race. Conclusions Identifying and managing depressive symptoms in midlife women who are not working may help prevent increases in central adiposity. PMID:24462272

  3. Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Nigerian Adults: Implication as Indicators of Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Ogunlana, Olubanke O.; Azuh, Dominic E.; Iweala, Emeka E.J.; Afolabi, Israel S.; Uhuegbu, Chidi C.; Idachaba, Mercy E.; Osamor, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measures have been widely used for body weight classification in humans. Waist circumference has been advanced as a useful parameter for measuring adiposity. This study evaluated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and examined their significance as indicators of health status in adults. Design and methods The subject included 489 healthy adults from Ota, Nigeria, aged between 20 and 75 years, grouped into early adulthood (20-39 years), middle adulthood (40-59 years) and advanced adulthood (60 years and above). Weight, height and abdominal circumference were measured. BMI was calculated as weight kg/height2 (m2) and World Health Organization cut-offs were used to categorize them into normal, underweight, overweight and obese. Results Abnormal weight categories accounted for 60 % of the subjects (underweight 11 %, overweight 31%, and obese 18%). The waist circumference of overweight and obese categories were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the normal weight category. There was no significant difference between waist circumference of underweight and normal subjects. The correlation coefficient values of BMI with waist circumference (r=0.63), body weight (r=0.76) and height (r=-0.31) were significant (P<0.01) for the total subjects. Conclusions The study indicates that waist circumference can serve as a positive indicator of overweight and obesity in the selected communities; however, it may not be used to determine underweight in adults. Regular BMI and waist circumference screening is recommended as an easy and effective means of assessing body weight and in the prevention of weight related diseases in adults. Significance for public health This manuscript describes the correlation between body mass index, waist circumference and body weight of two communities in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria and the use of these anthropometric measures for body weight classification in human populations of the selected communities. This was carried out to evaluate the health status of the indigenes of the two communities for proper health awareness and public health intervention programmes. PMID:25170487

  4. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoffs for Categorization of Overweight and Central Adiposity among Uighur Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Tong; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Chen, You; Chen, Bangdang; He, Chun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current overweight and central adiposity guidelines based on Western populations were not consistent with many studied based on the Asian populations. Uighur people live in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region which is located in the center of Asia. Their overweight and central cutoffs were largely unknown. We aimed to identify cutoffs for body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; in cm) for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Uighur adults in Xinjiang. Methods 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. The age of the participants were from 35 to 101 years old with the mean age of 50.09 years. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and fasting glucose were documented. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each BMI and waist circumference values were calculated. Results The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were higher with higher BMI for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were higher with higher waist circumference for both men and women. In women, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was noticed to increase as the waist circumference increased. The shortest distance in the receiver operating characteristic curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ? 2 of these risk factors suggested a BMI cutoff of 26 and a waist circumference cutoff of 90 cm for both men and women. Conclusions Higher cutoffs for BMI and waist circumference are needed in the identification of Uighur patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24244645

  5. Balkau, 12/04/2007 1/7 Consequences of change in waist circumference on cardio-metabolic

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , hyperinsulinemic, smokers and fewer had the metabolic syndrome. Cardio-metabolic abnormalities and the metabolic. the incidences of the metabolic syndrome were 8% and 7%. The metabolic syndrome and all cardio- metabolic factorsBalkau, 12/04/2007 1/7 Consequences of change in waist circumference on cardio-metabolic risk

  6. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK. 

    E-print Network

    Unwin, Nigel; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, Raj; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a ...

  7. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cinthya Lee; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Torres, Jose Sulla; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  8. Obesity prevalence in Norwegian adults assessed by body mass index, waist circumference and fat mass percentage.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, I G H; Kolle, E; Hansen, B H; Anderssen, S A; Torstveit, M K

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity presents serious public health challenges worldwide and is most commonly estimated by the categorization of body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was (i) to describe the sensitivity of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and fat mass percentage in the classification of overweight and obesity and (ii) to describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity using different measurement methods in a national sample of Norwegians. A total of 904 Norwegians (20-85 years) were randomly enrolled. Body weight, height, WC and skinfold thickness were measured; BMI and fat mass percentage (FP(skf) ) were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity varied from 77.0% to 86.9% and from 60.6% to 82.3%, respectively. Area under the curve was 0.837 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.801-0.872) for the ability of BMI to predict obesity by FP(skf) and 0.811 (95% CI: 0.770-0.852) for WC. A total of 12.7% (male: 12.1%, female: 13.4%) were obese based on BMI classifications, 29.1% (male: 36.5%, female: 20.0%) of the sample were obese based on FP(skf) and 24.3% of men and 37.8% of women were abdominally obese by WC. The agreement between selected measuring methods was fair to good, although the variation in obesity prevalence rates between the different assessments methods varied markedly. PMID:26153357

  9. PLASMA DIHYDROCERAMIDE SPECIES ASSOCIATE WITH WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN MEXICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Manju; Meikle, Peter J.; Kulkarni, Hemant; Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Barlow, Christopher K.; Jowett, Jeremy B.; Bellis, Claire; Dyer, Thomas D.; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Waist circumference (WC), the clinical marker of central obesity, is gaining popularity as a screening tool for type 2 diabetes (T2D). While there is epidemiologic evidence favoring the WC-T2D association, its biological substantiation is generally weak. Our objective was to determine the independent association of plasma lipid repertoire with WC. Design and methods We used samples and data from the San Antonio Family Heart Study of 1208 Mexican Americans from 42 extended families. We determined association of plasma lipidomic profiles with the cross-sectionally assessed WC. Plasma lipidomic profiling entailed liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included multivariable polygenic regression models and bivariate trait analyses using the SOLAR software. Results After adjusting for age and sex interactions, body mass index, homeostasis model of assessment – insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins and use of lipid lowering drugs, dihydroceramides as a class were associated with WC. Dihydroceramide species 18:0, 20:0, 22:0 and 24:1 were significantly associated and genetically correlated with WC. Two sphingomyelin species (31:1 and 41:1) were also associated with WC. Conclusions Plasma dihydroceramide levels independently associate with WC. Thus, high resolution plasma lipidomic studies can provide further credence to the biological underpinnings of the association of WC with T2D. PMID:23929697

  10. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (weight: 44.9 ± 9.3 vs. 51.4 ± 10.6, P < 0.01; WC: 59.9 ± 8 vs. 64 ± 7.9, P < 0.01; BMI: 18.6 ± 3.1 vs. 20.6 ± 3.5, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The current study findings suggest that the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern is directly associated with waist circumference (marker of central obesity), while lacto vegetarian dietary pattern is reversely associated with weight, waist circumference and BMI. Special obesity pattern in Iranian young females can be justified by Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern”.

  11. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio: which anthropometric indicator is better predictor for the hypertension development in women population of the island Cres.

    PubMed

    Kabalin, Milena; Kolari?, Branko; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Pereza, Nina; Ostoji?, Sasa; Rukavina, Tomislav; Kapovi?, Miljenko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity - waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio - is better predictor for the development of hypertension in women population of the island of Cres. We approached separately groups of women with measured high blood pressure and with previously diagnosed. The research was preformed within the research project "Genetic and biomedical characteristics of the population of the island of Cres". This was the cross sectional study and data were obtained on the sample of 247 females over 18 years old that voluntarily participated in this study. In our study group the prevalence of overweight was 39.0%, obesity 27.5%, increased waist circumference was present in 69.4% while increased blood pressure was found in 53.0% examinees. Our results indicate that age, BMI, impaired glucose concentration and serum cholesterol could be considered as predictors for the development of arterial hypertension, whether measured or previously diagnosed. PMID:22856216

  12. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Halkjaer, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne; Togo, Per; Holst, Claus; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were identified by factor analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were done before and after adjustment for concurrent changes in BMI. A high intake of potatoes seemed to prevent gain in WC for men, while a high intake of refined bread was associated with gain in WC for women. The association persisted for refined bread, but not for potatoes, after adjustment for concurrent BMI changes. Among women, but not men, high intakes of beer and spirits were associated with gain in WC in both models. A high intake of coffee for women and moderate to high intake of tea for men were associated with gain in WC, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women, and moderate to high tea intake among men, may promote gain in WC. PMID:15522143

  13. Waist Circumference Correlates with Metabolic Syndrome Indicators Better Than Percentage Fat

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Punyanitya, Mark; Chen, Jun; Gallagher, Dympna; Albu, Jeanine; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Lewis, Cora E.; Grunfeld, Carl; Heshka, Stanley; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Percent fat is often considered the reference for establishing the magnitude of adipose tissue accumulation and the risk of excess adiposity. However, the increasing recognition of a strong link between central adiposity and metabolic disturbances led us to test whether waist circumference (WC) is more highly correlated with metabolic syndrome components than percent fat and other related anthropometric measures such as BMI. Research Methods and Procedures BMI, WC, and percent fat, measured by DXA, were evaluated in 1010 healthy white and African-American men and women [age, 48.3 ± 17.2 (standard deviation) years; BMI, 27.0 ± 5.3 kg/m2]. The associations of BMI, WC, and percent fat with age and laboratory-adjusted health risk indicators (i.e., serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure) in each sex and ethnicity group were examined. Results For 18 of 24 comparisons, the age- and laboratory-adjusted correlations were lowest for percent fat and in 16 of 24 comparisons were highest for WC. Fifteen of the between-method differences reached statistical significance. With health risk indicator as the dependent variable and anthropometric measures as the independent variable, the contribution of percent fat to the WC regression model was not statistically significant; in contrast, adding WC to the percent fat regression model did make a significant independent contribution for most health risk indicators. Discussion WC had the strongest associations with health risk indicators, followed by BMI. Although percent fat is a useful measure of overall adiposity, health risks are best represented by the simply measured WC. PMID:16741276

  14. Height, weight, body composition, and waist circumference references for 7- to 17-year-old children from rural Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; Baxter-Jones, A; Souza, M; Santos, D; Maia, J

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to develop references of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat for rural Portuguese children and adolescents and (2) to compare these results with other international references. The sample comprised 3094 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from Vouzela, a central region in Portugal. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and body fat were measured. Centile curves were constructed using the LMS method. The Vouzela sample showed similar height median values compared to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) percentile curves but greater values for weight and BMI. Percent body fat 50th percentile was greater in Vouzela children and adolescents compared to their international peers, except for boys aged 8-12 years. Boys' waist circumference median values were similar to those from the USA, whilst girls were similar until 12 years of age, after which the differences increased with age. The percentile curves constructed provide population specific references for growth and body composition of children and adolescents from rural Portugal. It is expected that they will be a useful tool for clinical and public health settings in rural Portugal. PMID:25986401

  15. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 122:687–694;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307115 PMID:24800763

  16. Changes in waist circumference relative to body mass index in Chinese adults, 1993–2009

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Dalia; Smith, Lindsey P; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although BMI and waist circumference (WC) are correlated, the relationship between WC and BMI may have changed over time. Objectives Describe temporal trends in BMI and WC distributions and quantify the increase in WC at a given BMI over time. Subjects/Methods Data on adults aged 20–59 years from two waves (1993 and 2009) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used in a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Quantile regression examined age-adjusted temporal trends in the distributions of BMI and WC. Linear regression examined changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for BMI, age at survey and survey year. All models were stratified by gender. Results There was a significant increase in BMI and WC over time, particularly at the 95th quantile: on average, men had 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.4, 3.3) and women 1.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) higher BMI in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993. WC increased by 9.0 cm (95% CI: 7.5, 10.1) and 5.0 cm (95% CI: 3.4, 6.6) for and women had a 3.2 cm (95% CI: 2.8, 3.7) and 2.1 cm (95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) higher WC in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993, holding BMI and age constant. WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent amongst obese versus lean individuals and amongst younger versus older women. Conclusions For both genders, BMI and WC increased significantly over time, with particularly greatest increase in magnitude in the upper tail of the BMI and WC distributions. Furthermore, WC at equivalent BMI was higher in 2009, compared to their counterparts in 1993. Our findings suggest that even if BMI remained constant from 1993 to 2009, adults in 2009 might be at increased cardiometabolic risk as a result of their higher WC. PMID:24813367

  17. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huxley, R; Mendis, S; Zheleznyakov, E; Reddy, S; Chan, J

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have become a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries as they are causally related to a wide spectrum of chronic diseases including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, uncertainty regarding the most appropriate means by which to define excess body weight remains. Traditionally, body mass index (BMI) has been the most widely used method by which to determine the prevalence of overweight in, and across, populations as well as an individual's level of risk. However, in recent years, measures of central obesity, principally waist circumference and the waist:hip ratio and to a lesser extent the waist:height ratio, which more accurately describe the distribution of body fat compared with BMI, have been suggested to be more closely associated with subsequent morbidity and mortality. There is also uncertainty about how these measures perform across diverse ethnic groups; earlier, most of the evidence regarding the relationships between excess weight and risk has been derived chiefly from Caucasian populations, and hence, it remains unclear whether the relationships are consistent in non-Caucasian populations. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to provide an overview of the current evidence-base focusing predominantly on three main questions: (1) Which, if any, of the commonly used anthropometric measures to define excess weight is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk? (2) Which of the anthropometric measures is a better discriminator of risk? and (3) Are there any notable differences in the strength and nature of these associations across diverse ethnic groups? PMID:19654593

  18. Waist Circumference, Physical Activity and Functional Impairments in Older US Adults: Results From the NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Germain, Cassandra; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) improves function in older obese adults. However, body mass index is an unreliable adiposity indicator better reflected by waist circumference (WC). The impact of PA on physical impairment and mobility with high WC is unclear. We performed a secondary data analysis of 4,976 adults ?60 years using National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2005-2010. Physical limitations (PL), activities of daily living (ADL) impairments, and PA (low(<1day/week) or high (>1day/week) were self-reported. Waist circumference (WC) was dichotomized (females: 88cm; males: 102cm). Mean age was 70.1years, 55.1% were female. Prevalence of PL and ADL impairment in the high WC group were 57.7% and 18.8%, respectively, and high PA was present in 53.9%. Among high WC, high PA vs. low PA were at lower risk of PL (OR 0.58[0.48-0.70]) and ADL impairment (OR 0.46 [0.32-0.65]). High WC had higher odds of PL irrespective of PA (high PA: OR 1.57 [1.30-1.88]; low PA: OR 1.52[1.29-1.79]) and ADL impairment (high PA:OR 1.27 [1.02-1.57] and low PA:OR 1.24 [0.99-1.54]). High PA in viscerally obese individuals is associated with impairments. PMID:25102405

  19. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  20. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, María Lola; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n = 110) Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC) of 0.651 (P = 0.008), cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P < 0.001), cut-off point of ?90?cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P = 0.008), cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ?0.62 and WHtR ?0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P = 0.006) and AUC of 0.717 (P = 0.014) for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ? 0.6) could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents. PMID:25574166

  1. Relationships between an index of body fat distribution (based on waist and hip circumferences) and stature, and biochemical complications in obese children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Asayama; K Hayashi; H Hayashibe; N Uchida; T Nakane; K Kodera; S Nakazawa

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical utility of a new age-adjusted measure of body fat distribution (based on waist and hip circumferences) and stature, in relation to biochemical complications in obese children.DESIGN: Cross-sectional, clinical study. The formula to calculate the common standard deviation score (SDS) of waist-to-hip ratio\\/height (WHR\\/Ht) was obtained from the data of control children. The relationship between WHR\\/Ht

  2. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption. PMID:20881480

  3. Regional Body Volumes, BMI, Waist Circumference, and Percentage Fat in Severely Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack; Gallagher, Dympna; Thornton, John C.; Yu, Wen; Weil, Rich; Kovac, Betty; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study presents total body volume (TBV) and regional body volume, and their relationships with widely used body composition indices [BMI, waist circum ference (WC), and percentage body fat (% fat)] in severely obese adults (BMI ?35 kg/m2). Research Methods and Procedures We measured TBV, trunk volume (TV), arm volume (AV), leg volume (LV), and WC and estimated % fat in 32 severely obese persons with BMI 36 to 62 kg/m2 (23 women; age, 19 to 65 years; weight, 91 to 182 kg) and in 58 persons with BMI <35 kg/m2 (28 women; age, 18 to 83 years; weight, 48 to 102 kg) using a newly validated 3-day photonic image scanner (3DPS, Model C9036 - 02, Hamamatsu Co., Japan) and calculated TV/TBV, AV/TBV, and LV/TBV. Results Men had significantly larger TBV and higher TV/TBV and AV/TBV, but significantly lower LV/TBV than women, independently of BMI. TV/TBV increased while AV/TBV and LV/TBV decreased with increasing BMI, WC, and % fat, and the rate of increase in TV/TBV per % fat was significantly greater in severely obese individuals than in individuals with BMI <35 kg/m2. The relationships for TBV with % fat were much lower than with BMI or WC. Conclusion Body volume gains were mainly in the trunk region in adults, irrespective of sex or BMI. For a given BMI, WC, or % fat, men had a significantly larger TV than women. The implication is that men could have higher health risks due to having higher trunk body weight as a proportion of total body weight compared with severely obese or less severely obese women. PMID:18070760

  4. How useful is waist circumference for assessment of abdominal obesity in Korean pre-menopausal women during weight loss?

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Mi-Ja; Chung, Won-Suk; Gallagher, Dympna; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Dae; Song, Mi-Yeon

    2010-01-01

    Asian women are known to have a larger amount of abdominal fat (AF) for the same level of BMI compared with Caucasian and African-American women. This study was aimed to determine whether waist circumference (WC) could be useful as an index of AF compared with AF measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after a weight-loss program in Asian women. Thirty-eight healthy, pre-menopausal obese Korean women (body fat percent > 30%) were enrolled and followed during a 6-week weight-loss program including herbal formula, calorie restriction, and exercise. Anthropometry and DXA measurements were performed before and after weight-loss. A specific region of interest (ROI, L2-iliac crest) by DXA was correlated with anthropometry at baseline: WC (? = 0.91) > BMI (? = 0.87) > Waist-Height ratio (WHtR, ? = 0.82) > WHR (? = 0.46); and after weight loss: BMI (? = 0.88) > WC (? = 0.84) > WHtR (? = 0.82), all p < 0.01. The change in DXA ROI showed a reasonable correlation with change in anthropometry: BMI (? = 0.63, p < 0.01) > WC (? = 0.39, p < 0.05) > WHtR (? = 0.37, p < 0.05). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 83% of the variance in DXA derived AF was explained by WC at baseline, WC and BMI at follow-up, respectively. This study suggests that WC could be a good predictor of AF for Korean pre-menopausal women. PMID:18586641

  5. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Soo; Choi, Young Ju; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Huh, Byoung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR) and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years) who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min) using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results The optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects. Conclusion Our results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity.

  6. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  7. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  8. The Relationship between Waist Circumference and Work-related Injury in Reference to the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between waist circumference and work-related injury in reference to the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods By analyzing data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the rate of injury experience according to socioeconomic status, including occupational property, of 8,261 subjects. We performed logistic regression analysis with work-related injury experience rate as dependent variable and waist circumference as an independent variable, Odds ratios (OR) were calculated, which reflect the likelihood of work-related injury experience rate, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) while controlling for relevant covariates with stratifying by sex, age, nature of injury, site of injury and occupational group. Results Among 797 persons who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 293 persons (36.8%) had work-related injury experience. After adjusting the confounding variables, the work-related injury was related to abnormal waist circumference (OR?=?1.35; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.78). In subgroups, ORs were higher in men (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.98), professional, manager, and administrator (OR?=?2.41; 95% CI: 1.10?~?5.28). Higher rate of injuries were noted in back and waist (OR?=?2.92; 95% CI: 1.49?~?5.73), and transport accident had increased risk (OR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.13?~?2.28). Conclusions Work-related injury rate differed depending on the waist circumference. The abdominal obesity was associated with higher risk of work-related injury. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for work-related injury management in Korea. PMID:24472303

  9. Effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on waist circumference among type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Wu, Shanshan; Guo, Shuxia; Yu, Kai; Yang, Zhirong; Li, Lishi; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Linong; Zhan, Siyan

    2015-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are increasingly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the effect on abdominal obesity has not yet been confirmed. The study aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of GLP-1RAs on waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and www.clinicaltrialgov were searched through October 31, 2013. Randomized controlled trials with available data were selected if they compared GLP-1 RAs with placebo and traditional anti-diabetic drugs with a duration?8 weeks. Weighted mean difference was estimated using random-effect model. Network meta-analysis was performed to supplement direct comparisons. Seventeen trials with 12 treatments were included. Overall, significant reductions on waist circumference following treatment of liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily (-5.24 cm, 95% CI -7.68, -2.93), liraglutide--1.2 mg once daily (-4.73 cm, 95% CI -6.68, -2.65) and exenatide--10 ?g twice daily (-1.34 cm, 95 % CI -2.00, -0.75) were detected versus placebo. The reduction effect was more evident when compared with insulin and thiazolidinediones (range -1.71 to -8.03 cm). Compared with exenatide, liraglutide--0.6 mg once daily, taspoglutide, liraglutide--1.2 mg once daily and liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily significantly decreased waist circumference from -3.32 to -6.01 cm. Besides, liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily significantly decreased waist circumference by -1.73 cm (95 % CI -3.04, -0.55) versus sitagliptin, whereas no significant difference following liraglutide--1.2-mg-once-daily treatment was detected compared with liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily and sitagliptin. Reduction was observed with statistical significance for exenatide--10 ?g twice daily compared with exenatide--5 ?g twice daily (-1.21 cm, 95% CI -2.43, -0.06). Ranking probability analysis indicated liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily and liraglutide--1.2 mg once daily decreased waist circumference most among all 12 treatments with probability of 98.36% and 91.82%, respectively. Some GLP-1RAs, especially liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily and liraglutide--1.2 mg once daily, were associated with a significant reduction in waist circumference. PMID:25115635

  10. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke P; Ritz, Christian; Hjorth, Mads F; Lauritzen, Lotte; Sørensen, Louise B; Petersen, Rikke A; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Mølgaard, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-12-14

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence. In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after each dietary period. The school meals did not affect the MetS score (P= 1.00). However, it was found that mean arterial pressure was reduced by 0.4 (95% CI 0.0, 0.8) mmHg (P= 0.04), fasting total cholesterol concentrations by 0.05 (95% CI 0.02, 0.08) mmol/l (P= 0.001), HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.04) mmol/l (both P< 0.05), and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance by 0.10 (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) points (P= 0.001) compared with the control diet in the intention-to-treat analyses. Waist circumference increased 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.7) cm (P< 0.001), but BMI z-score remained unaffected. Complete-case analyses and analyses adjusted for household educational level, pubertal status and physical activity confirmed the results. In conclusion, the school meals did not affect the MetS score in 8-11-year-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. PMID:25323030

  11. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC) following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. Methods 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after) was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Results Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. Conclusions While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in WC, the other variables associated with greater WC improvement were generally indicators of better baseline health. These results indicate that employees who started with better health, potentially due to lifestyle or recent behavioural changes, were more likely to respond positively to the program. Future health program initiators should think innovatively to encourage all enrolees along the health spectrum to achieve a successful outcome. PMID:22024045

  12. Changes in skinfold thickness and waist circumference after 12 and 24 months resulting from the NHF-NRG In Balance-project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of weight gain prevention programmes. The present study tested the 12-and 24-month effectiveness of the 'Netherlands Research programme weight Gain prevention' (NHF-NRG)-In Balance-project, a worksite-based intervention aimed at the prevention of weight gain. Methods Twelve worksites (n = 553 participants) were matched and assigned to either intervention or control group. The worksites and employees of the intervention group received individual (i.e. pedometer, computer-tailored advice) and environmental (i.e. changes in worksite canteen) interventions, directed at physical activity and food intake over 1-year. Differences between the intervention and control group in changes in body weight, BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference at 12 and 24 months were examined using multilevel linear regression analyses adjusting for various baseline characteristics (age, gender, BMI, marital status, education and smoking status). Results A significant greater reduction in skinfold thickness was found in the intervention group than in the control group, both after 12-and 24 months (Unstandardized regression coefficients (B) = -2.52, 95% C.I. -4.58, -0.45; p = 0.018; B = -4.83, 95% C.I. 6.98, -2.67; p < 0.001 respectively). Significant differences were also observed for changes in waist circumferences both at 12 months (B = -1.50, 95% C.I. -2.35, -0.65; p < 0.001) and at 24 months (B = -1.30, 95% C.I. -2.18, -0.42; p = 0.005). No significant changes were observed for weight and BMI. Conclusions The project was effective with regard to changes in skinfold thickness and waist circumference both at 12 and 24 months. It supports the usefulness of worksite-based prevention, especially regarding maintenance of behavioral changes. PMID:20370934

  13. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

    2002-01-01

    Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

  14. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

    Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

  15. Dietary Fiber and Whole Grain Intake Lessen Gains in Weight and Waist Circumference in Normal Weight Individuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods rich in dietary fiber, such as whole grains, may play an important role in maintaining a healthy body weight and preventing obesity because of their lower energy density. We examined the relationship between dietary fiber and whole grain consumption and changes in body weight and waist circumf...

  16. Critical value for the index of body fat distribution based on waist and hip circumferences and stature in obese girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Asayama; T Oguni; K Hayashi; K Dobashi; Y Fukunaga; K Kodera; H Tamai; S Nakazawa

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the critical value for the standard deviation score (SDS) of waist–hip ratio (WHR)\\/height (Ht), as an age?adjusted measure of body fat distribution, in relation to occurrence of biochemical complications in obese girls.DESIGN: Cross?sectional, clinical study. The (WHR\\/Ht)?SDS was calculated as described previously. Obese girls were classified into two groups according to the occurrence of abnormal values in

  17. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity. PMID:20377915

  18. Measurement of Waist and Hip Circumference with a Body Surface Scanner: Feasibility, Validity, Reliability, and Correlations with Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jaeschke, Lina; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Pischon, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body surface scanners (BS), which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC). However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM) and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) compared to traditional manual measurements (MM). Methods As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL). Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Results Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0cm; r = 0.98). Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98). Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively. Conclusions Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data indicate good validity, excellent reliability, and similar correlations to parameters of the MetS. PMID:25749283

  19. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n?=?7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e.g. relatively tall or short children) to identify and monitor overweight in children. This may improve early identification and prevention of overweight and overweight-related health problems in children. PMID:23617233

  20. Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference) and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Methods Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ?43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB) (n = 1182) and Portugal (n = 540) and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ), life events (LES), Resilience (RS11), Mood (MS), Hopelessness (BDI) and Perceived Stress (PSS4). BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were dependent variables in separate multiple linear regression models for which predictors were entered in 4 blocks: 1. demographic factors; 2. stressful life events; 3. diet/activity; and, 4. psychological measures. Results In the GB sample, BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by less education, illness in a close friend or relative, frequent alcohol consumption and sedentary behaviour. Among the Portuguese, higher BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by lower resilience. Being male and less education were independent predictors of having a larger WC (cm) in both countries. Within GB, not working, illness in a close friend or relative, sedentary lifestyle and lower resilience were also independent predictors of a larger WC (cm). Conclusions These data suggest that intervention to treat and/or prevent obesity should target males, particularly those who have left education early and seek to promote resilience. In GB, targeting those with high alcohol consumption and encouraging physical activity, particularly among those who have experienced illness in a close friend or relative may also be effective in reducing obesity. PMID:22686278

  1. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Fat, Fasting Blood Glucose in a Sample of Moroccan Adolescents Aged 11–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Barakat, Amina; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Najat; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The study aimed to assess the relationship between body fat and each of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to test the effectiveness of fat mass (FM), percent of body fat (PBF), BMI, and WC in predicting high levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Methods. A total of 167 adolescents aged 11–17 years were recruited from Rabat region. BMI and WC were determined using standard equipments. FM and PBF were derived from isotope dilution technique. FBG was determined by the hexokinase method. Results. Regardless of the weight status, BMI showed a strong positive correlation with FM and PBF in both genders. WC was significantly correlated with FM in boys and girls, and with PBF in different groups of girls and boys of the study sample. However, there was no significant relationship between WC and PBF in normal weight and overweight-obese groups of boys. FBG was highly correlated with FM and PBF in girls of the study sample and in overweight-obese girls. Similar significant relationship between FBG and both BMI and WC was observed in overweight-obese girls, while there was no significant association between FBG and other variables in boys and normal-weight girls. Conclusion. BMI and WC were closely associated with FM and PBF, respectively. However, the degree of these associations depends on gender and weight status. BMI may provide a better proxy estimate of overall adiposity than WC; nevertheless, both of them would appear to be a reasonable surrogate for FM and PBF as screening tools to identify adolescents at risk of developing excess body fat and high level of FBG. PMID:22175010

  2. Body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, fasting blood glucose in a sample of moroccan adolescents aged 11-17 years.

    PubMed

    Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Barakat, Amina; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Najat; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The study aimed to assess the relationship between body fat and each of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to test the effectiveness of fat mass (FM), percent of body fat (PBF), BMI, and WC in predicting high levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Methods. A total of 167 adolescents aged 11-17 years were recruited from Rabat region. BMI and WC were determined using standard equipments. FM and PBF were derived from isotope dilution technique. FBG was determined by the hexokinase method. Results. Regardless of the weight status, BMI showed a strong positive correlation with FM and PBF in both genders. WC was significantly correlated with FM in boys and girls, and with PBF in different groups of girls and boys of the study sample. However, there was no significant relationship between WC and PBF in normal weight and overweight-obese groups of boys. FBG was highly correlated with FM and PBF in girls of the study sample and in overweight-obese girls. Similar significant relationship between FBG and both BMI and WC was observed in overweight-obese girls, while there was no significant association between FBG and other variables in boys and normal-weight girls. Conclusion. BMI and WC were closely associated with FM and PBF, respectively. However, the degree of these associations depends on gender and weight status. BMI may provide a better proxy estimate of overall adiposity than WC; nevertheless, both of them would appear to be a reasonable surrogate for FM and PBF as screening tools to identify adolescents at risk of developing excess body fat and high level of FBG. PMID:22175010

  3. Prevalence of elevated blood pressure and its relationship with fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference among a group of Moroccan overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Barkat, Amina; Aguenaou, Hassan; Mokhtar, Najat

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among a group of adolescents and to assess the relationship of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) with body fat mass (BFM), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 167 subjects aged 11-17 years were recruited, 29.3% and 12.6% were overweight and obese respectively. BMI, WC, SBP and DBP were determined using standardized equipment. BFM was estimated by the deuterium oxide dilution. Hypertension (HT) and prehypertension (pre-HT) were observed in 17.4% and 9.6%, of the study population, respectively. The prevalence of HT and pre-HT was significantly higher in boys and in overweight-obese groups (p = 0.044; p = 0.003 respectively). Both SBP and DBP were significantly higher in overweight-obese compared to healthy-weight groups (p < 0.001; p = 0.002 respectively). SBP was significantly higher in boys than girls (p = 0.013). With some exceptions, SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BMI, WC and BFM in the study population and different weight-status groups of both genders. The relationship of blood pressure with BMI appeared to be more significant than with WC and BFM. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in boys than girls and in overweight-obese than healthy-weight adolescents. Overall SBP and DBP were associated with BFM, BMI and WC. However, the strong association between these variables was seen in girls, and the greater risk of developing hypertension could be associated with increasing BMI. PMID:24306156

  4. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K; Sandling, Johanna K; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10(-7); Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches. PMID:25935004

  5. Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Community-Dwelling Men and Women: The Suita Study

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Yukako; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakai, Michikazu; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Higashiyama, Aya; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Takegami, Misa; Nakao, Yoko M.; Watanabe, Takuya; Okayama, Akira; Okamura, Tomonori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds The association between weight gain and the incidence of type 2 diabetes is well known. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between change in waist circumference (WC) and type 2 diabetes incidence. Methods The participants in the Suita Study, a population-based cohort study in an urban area of Japan, underwent a baseline survey between 1989 and 1994 (Exam 1) and were examined at follow-up every 2 years. We performed a 9.3-year cohort study of 946 men and 1327 women with no history of diabetes who underwent Exam 1 and Exam 2 (between 1997 and 1999). Participants were stratified by sex and median WC at Exam 1, and, in each stratum, participants were further classified into three categories by tertile of WC change per year between Exam 1 and Exam 2. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes incidence were calculated by Cox proportional hazard models. The endpoints were first diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or March 2011. Results During follow-up, 287 participants developed type 2 diabetes. In both sexes with median WC or higher, participants in the highest tertile of WC change had a significantly higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Multivariable adjusted HRs were 1.84 (95% CI, 1.10–3.08) in men and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.31–4.04) in women. No significant association was observed among participants with WC below median. Conclusions Preventing WC gain is important in preventing type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population, especially among individuals with a relatively high WC. PMID:26005067

  6. Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Mishima, Shuichi; Kakei, Masafumi; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (? = ?0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (? = ?0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (? = ?0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (? = ?0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (? = ?0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (? = ?0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (? = ?0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Conclusion. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.)

  7. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA) to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ?63 years (308 men, 381 women) were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE) cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels) were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ?2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) value for VFA to predict the presence of ?2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively). The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ?2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be considered to identify subjects at risk for MetS. PMID:19951442

  8. Head circumference

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months) -- based on values experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  9. The association between waist circumference and risk of mortality considering body mass index in 65- to 74-year-olds: a meta-analysis of 29 cohorts involving more than 58?000 elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    de Hollander, Ellen L; Bemelmans, Wanda JE; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Friedrich, Nele; Wallaschofski, Henri; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Walter, Stefan; Zillikens, M Carola; Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren; Bassett, Julie K; Giles, Graham G; Orsini, Nicola; Heim, Noor; Visser, Marjolein; de Groot, Lisette CPGM; Rosengren, A.; Sundh, V.; Blair, S.; Lee, D.C.; Sui, X.; Woodward, M.; Welborn, T.; Dhaliwal, S.; Wannamethee, G.; Roure, E.; Castell, C.; Biggs, M.L.; Wolk, A.; Orsini, N.; Ducimetiere, P.; Verschuren, M.; Kaprio, J.; Menotti, A.; Lee, I.M.; Sesso, H.; Knekt, P.; Sääksjärvi, K.; Dekker, J.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.; Bandinelli, S.; Corsi, A.M.; Lauretani, F.; Visser, M.; Heim, N.; Seeman, T.; Ishii, S.; Giles, G.; Bassett, J.; Spiro, A.; Phillips, C.; Blazer, D.; Lind, L.; Zillikens, M.C.; Uitterlinden, A.; Hofman, A.; Walter, S.; Tiemeier, H.; de Groot, L.; Wallaschofski, H.; Friedrich, N.; Baumeister, S.; Guallar-Castillón, P.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F.; Lissner, L.; Sundh, V.; Skoog, I.; Wolk, A.; Orsini, N.; Woodward, M.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.; Shipley, M.; Kivimäki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background For the elderly, the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality considering body mass index (BMI) remains unclear, and thereby also the evidence base for using these anthropometric measures in clinical practice. This meta-analysis examined the association between WC categories and (cause-specific) mortality within BMI categories. Furthermore, the association of continuous WC with lowest and increased mortality risks was examined. Methods Age- and smoking-adjusted relative risks (RRs) of mortality associated with WC–BMI categories and continuous WC (including WC and WC2) were calculated by the investigators and pooled by means of random-effects models. Results During a 5-year-follow-up of 32?678 men and 25?931 women, we ascertained 3318 and 1480 deaths, respectively. A large WC (men: ?102?cm, women: ?88?cm) was associated with increased all-cause mortality RRs for those in the ‘healthy’ weight {1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–2.2], 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3)}, overweight [1.1(95% CI: 1.0–1.3), 1.4 (95%: 1.1–1.7)] and obese [1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3), 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3–1.9)] BMI category compared with the ‘healthy’ weight (20–24.9?kg/m2) and a small WC (<94?cm, men; <80?cm, women) category. Underweight was associated with highest all-cause mortality RRs in men [2.2 (95% CI: 1.8–2.8)] and women [2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.1]. We found a J-shaped association for continuous WC with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) and cancer, and a U-shaped association with respiratory disease mortality (P?

  10. Diet soda intake is associated with long-term increases in waist circumference in a bi-ethnic cohort of older adults: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Sharon PG; Williams, Ken; Hazuda, Helen P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet soda (DS) intake (DSI) has been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but its specific impact in older adults has not been addressed. Because central obesity increases cardiovascular risk, we examined the relationship between DSI and long-term waist circumference (WC) change (?WC) in the bi-ethnic San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING San Antonio, Texas, neighborhoods PARTICIPANTS SALSA examined 749 Mexican-American and European-American individuals ? 65 years old at baseline (BL: 1992-1996); 79.1% of survivors completed follow-up 1 (FU1) (2000-2001, n=474); 73.4%, FU2 (2001-2003, n=413); and 71.0%, FU3 (2003-2004, n=375). Participants completed a mean of 2.64 follow-up intervals, for 9.41 total follow-up years. MEASUREMENTS DSI, WC, height and weight were measured at outset and conclusion of each interval: BL-FU1, FU1-FU2, and FU2-FU3. RESULTS Adjusted for initial WC, demographics, physical activity, diabetes, and smoking, mean interval ?WC (95% confidence interval) for all DS users was almost triple that among non-users: 2.11 (1.45-2.76) vs. 0.77 (0.29-1.23) cm, respectively (p < 0.001). For non-, occasional, and daily DS users, adjusted interval ?WCs were 0.77 (0.29-1.23), 1.76 (0.96-2.57), and 3.04 (1.82-4.26) cm, respectively (p=0.002 for trend). This translates to ?WCs of 0.80, 1.83, and 3.16 inches, respectively, for these groups, over the total SALSA follow-up. In sub-analyses stratified separately by key covariates, ?WC point estimates were consistently higher among DS users. CONCLUSION In a striking dose-response relationship, increasing diet soda intake was associated with escalating abdominal obesity, a potential pathway for heightened cardiometabolic risk in this aging population. PMID:25780952

  11. Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

  12. Larger Hip Circumference Independently Predicts Health and Longevity in a Swedish Female Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren Lissner; Cecilia Björkelund; Berit L. Heitmann; Jaap C. Seidell; Calle Bengtsson

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The waist circumference is widely viewed as a simple but effective measure for assessing obesity-related health risks, whereas measurement of the hip circumference is not currently prioritized. This study examines health risks associated specifically with hip circumference in a cohort of Swedish women, to determine whether information may be lost by excluding the hip circumference from health surveys.Research Methods

  13. Z-score-based modularity for community detection in networks

    E-print Network

    Miyauchi, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan [Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)] is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given division with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function.

  14. Body circumferences: clinical implications emerging from a new geometric model

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Martin-Nguyen, Allison; Fong, Tung M; Gallagher, Dympna; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Background Body volume expands with the positive energy balance associated with the development of adult human obesity and this "growth" is captured by two widely used clinical metrics, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). Empirical correlations between circumferences, BMI, and related body compartments are frequently reported but fail to provide an important common conceptual foundation that can be related to key clinical observations. A two-phase program was designed to fill this important gap: a geometric model linking body volume with circumferences and BMI was developed and validated in cross-sectional cohorts; and the model was applied to the evaluation of longitudinally monitored subjects during periods of voluntary weight loss. Concepts emerging from the developed model were then used to examine the relations between the evaluated clinical measures and body composition. Methods Two groups of healthy adults (n = 494 and 1499) were included in the cross-sectional model development/testing phase and subjects in two previous weight loss studies were included in the longitudinal model evaluation phase. Five circumferences (arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf; average of sum, C), height (H), BMI, body volume (V; underwater weighing), and the volumes of major body compartments (whole-body magnetic resonance imaging) were measured. Results The evaluation of a humanoid geometric model based a cylinder confirmed that V derived from C and H was highly correlated with measured V [R2 both males and females, 0.97; p < 0.001). Developed allometric models confirmed model predictions that C and BMI (represented as V/H) are directly linked as, C = (V/H)0.5. The scaling of individual circumferences to V/H varied, with waist the highest (V/H~0.6) and calf the lowest (V/H~0.3), indicating that the largest and smallest between-subject "growth" with greater body volume occurs in the abdominal area and lower extremities, respectively. A stepwise linear regression model including all five circumferences2 showed that each contributed independently to V/H. These cross-sectional observations were generally confirmed by analysis of the two longitudinal weight loss studies. The scaling of circumference ratios (e.g., waist/hip) to V/H conformed to models developed on the scaling of individual circumferences to V/H, indicating their relations to BMI are predictable a priori. Waist, hip, and arm/calf circumferences had the highest associations with whole-body visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle volumes, respectively. Conclusion These observations provide a simple geometric model relating circumferences with body size and composition, introduce a conceptual foundation explaining previous empirical observations, and reveal new clinical insights. PMID:18834550

  15. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  16. Relation of body mass index and waist-to-height ratio to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study1-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S Freedman; Henry S Kahn; Zuguo Mei; Laurence M Grummer-Strawn; William H Dietz; Sathanur R Srinivasan; Gerald S Berenson

    Background: Several investigators have concluded that the waist- to-height ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular dis- ease risk factors than is the body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Objectives: We examined the relation of the BMI-for-age z score and waist-to-height ratio to risk factors (lipids, fasting insulin, and blood pressures). We also compared the abilities of these 2 indexes

  17. Normative bone mineral density z-scores for Canadians aged 16 to 24 years: the Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Langsetmo, Lisa; Berger, Claudie; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ioannidis, George; Webber, Colin; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Brown, Jacques P; Hanley, David A; Josse, Robert; Kreiger, Nancy; Prior, Jerilynn; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kirkland, Susan; Goltzman, David; Davison, Kenneth Shawn

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop bone mineral density (BMD) reference norms and BMD Z-scores at various skeletal sites, to determine whether prior fracture and/or asthma were related to BMD, and to assess possible geographic variation of BMD among Canadian youth aged 16-24 yr. Z-Scores were defined as the number of standard deviations from the mean BMD of a healthy population of the same age, race, and sex. Z-Scores were calculated using the reference sample defined as Canadian Caucasian participants without asthma or prior fracture. Reference standards were created for lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total hip, and greater trochanter, by each year of age (16-24 yr), and by sex. The Z-score norms were developed for groups noted earlier. Mean Z-scores between the asthma or fracture subgroups compared with the mean Z-scores in the reference sample were not different. There were minor differences in mean BMD across different Canadian geographic regions. This study provides age, sex, and skeletal site-specific Caucasian reference norms and formulae for the calculation of BMD Z-scores for Canadian youth aged 16-24 yr. This information will be valuable to help to identify individuals with clinically meaningful low BMD. PMID:20554232

  18. Characteristics of Walkable Built Environments and BMI z-Scores in Children: Evidence from a Large Electronic Health Record Database

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Melly, Steven J.; Marshall, Richard; Sequist, Thomas D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity remains a prominent public health problem. Walkable built environments may prevent excess weight gain. Objectives: We examined the association of walkable built environment characteristics with body mass index (BMI) z-score among a large sample of children and adolescents. Methods: We used geocoded residential address data from electronic health records of 49,770 children and adolescents 4 to < 19 years of age seen at the 14 pediatric practices of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates from August 2011 through August 2012. We used eight geographic information system (GIS) variables to characterize walkable built environments. Outcomes were BMI z-score at the most recent visit and BMI z-score change from the earliest available (2008–2011) to the most recent (2011–2012) visit. Multivariable models were adjusted for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood median household income. Results: In multivariable cross-sectional models, living in closer proximity to recreational open space was associated with lower BMI z-score. For example, children who lived in closest proximity (quartile 1) to the nearest recreational open space had a lower BMI z-score (? = –0.06; 95% CI: –0.08, –0.03) compared with those living farthest away (quartile 4; reference). Living in neighborhoods with fewer recreational open spaces and less residential density, traffic density, sidewalk completeness, and intersection density were associated with higher cross-sectional BMI z-score and with an increase in BMI z-score over time. Conclusions: Overall, built environment characteristics that may increase walkability were associated with lower BMI z-scores in a large sample of children. Modifying existing built environments to make them more walkable may reduce childhood obesity. Citation: Duncan DT, Sharifi M, Melly SJ, Marshall R, Sequist TD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM. 2014. Characteristics of walkable built environments and BMI z-scores in children: evidence from a large electronic health record database. Environ Health Perspect 122:1359–1365;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307704 PMID:25248212

  19. Weight-for-age z-score as a proxy marker for diarrhoea in epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Boisson, Sophie; Genser, Bernd; Barreto, Mauricio L; Baisley, Kathy; Filteau, Suzanne; Cairncross, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    Background The validity of unblinded randomised trials testing interventions against diarrhoea is severely compromised by the potential for bias. Objective proxy markers for diarrhoea not relying on self-report are needed to assess the effect of interventions that cannot be blinded. Short-term changes in weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) may (due to catch-up growth) not be a clinically important marker for nutritional status. However, even a transient decrease in WAZ could indicate recent diarrhoea, and be interpreted as the effect of an intervention. Methods Using data from two large vitamin A trials from Ghana and Brazil, the immediate effect of the cumulative diarrhoea occurrence over 14 and 28?day time windows on WAZ was explored. Results A very strong linear association was found between the number of days with diarrhoea over the last 14–28?days and WAZ. In both trials, differences in diarrhoea between the trial arms were associated with corresponding differences in WAZ. Conclusion Repeated WAZ measures appear to be a suitable proxy marker for diarrhoea in children, but have disadvantages in terms of specificity and study power. PMID:19955098

  20. Defining the relationship between fetal Doppler indices, abdominal circumference and growth rate in severe fetal growth restriction using functional linear discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talmor, Alon; Daemen, Anneleen; Murdoch, Edile; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Giussani, Dino A.; Lees, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between Doppler measurements, size and growth rate in fetal growth restriction has not been defined. We used functional linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) to investigate these parameters taking account of the difficulties inherent in exploring relationships between repeated observations from a small number of cases. In 40 fetuses with severe growth restriction, serial abdominal circumference (AC), umbilical, middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus Doppler pulsatility index measurements were recorded. In 11 singleton fetuses with normal growth, umbilical artery pulsatility index only was measured. Data were expressed as z-scores in relation to gestation and analysed longitudinally using FLDA. In severe growth restriction, the Spearman correlation coefficients between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC z-score, MCA pulsatility index and AC z-score and ductus venosus pulsatility index z-score and AC z-score were, respectively: ?0.36, p = 4.4 × 10?7; 0.70, p = 1.1 × 10?17 and ?0.50, p = 8.1 × 10?4. No relationship was seen between Doppler parameters and growth rate. There was no relationship between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC nor growth rate in normally grown fetuses. In severe fetal growth restriction, Doppler changes are related to absolute fetal AC size, not growth rate. PMID:23966615

  1. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist and Metabolic Abnormalities in Brazilian Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and its association with metabolic abnormalities in schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 241 students aged 10 to 14 years from public schools (4 schools) and private (2 schools) from Paranavai town, in Parana State, Brazil. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference) and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL and LDL-C were analyzed. In statistical tests of Pearson partial correlation and multivariate logistic regression, considering p<0,05. Results The prevalence of HTW was 20,7% among schoolchildren, 14,1% in males and 6,6% among females with higher proportions aged 10–12 years old. Multivariate analysis indicated that the students who attended private schools were nearly three times more likely (95% CI: 1,2–5,6), to be diagnosed with HTW compared with those who attended public schools (p?=?0,006), and LDL-C was the only metabolic variable positively associated with the outcome (p?=?0,001), where the students categorized with elevated serum levels had odds 4,2 times (95% CI: 1,6–10,9) having the HTW compared to students in appropriate levels. Conclusion This study showed higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in students when compared to prospective studies in Brazil and worldwide. It also showed that the only metabolic alteration associated with HTW phenotype was LDL-C (low density lipoprotein). PMID:25397885

  2. Pattern Alteration: Even Hip Circumference 

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    When a garment is too tight in the hip area, crosswise wrinkles form above the hipline in front and in back. The garment also may cup under the seat area. When it's too loose, vertical folds fall from the waist to the hem ...

  3. Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters. PMID:23378952

  4. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  5. The superiority of waist-to-height ratio as an anthropometric index to evaluate clustering of coronary risk factors among non-obese men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiun Dong Hsieh; Takashi Muto

    2005-01-01

    Backgrounds. Overtly obesity is relatively rare among the Japanese despite the high prevalence of metabolic disorders, which suggests the need to develop simple and effective methods for assessing metabolic risks among the non-obese individuals as part of public health education.Methods. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (W\\/Ht) as indices for evaluation of clustering of coronary

  6. Circumference 

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    in the pleasure after a blow to our mindslike that?Jedi.They are still, painfully obviously, Jedi.And they have just rejected Us. C15Story Beginning They were tested, and failed. Jedi. They are still Jedi, and wehave no cause to love the Jedi. Fear them, loathe...?an to Priapus VII (at www.oblique-publications.net) may be freely downloaded and printed. No archiving or posting at other websites is permitted without the express permission of the publisher. C3 OA FEW WORDSThis is one of those zines that wasn?t supposedto...

  7. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  8. Neck circumference and central obesity are independent predictors of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zen, Vanessa; Fuchs, Flávio D; Wainstein, Marco V; Gonçalves, Sandro C; Biavatti, Karina; Riedner, Charles E; Fuchs, Felipe C; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Rhoden, Ernani L; Ribeiro, Jorge P; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Excess of adiposity is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, but it remains unclear if the distribution of fat is an effect modifier or if the risk is mediate by hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. We investigated the association of central in addition to general obesity with coronary artery disease (CAD). A case-control study was conducted in 376 patients, aged 40 years or more, with chronic coronary disease, undergoing elective coronary angiography. Excess of adiposity was evaluated by the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and neck circumference. Cases (n=155) were patients referred for coronary angiography with at least 50% of coronary stenosis in at least one epicardial vessels or their branches, with diameter greater than 2.5 mm. Controls (n=221) were patients referred for coronary angiography without significant coronary disease. Odds ratios and 95%CI for significant coronary stenosis were calculated using multiple logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, years at school, smoking, hypertension, HDL-cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and an adiposity index. There was a predominance of men and individuals older than 50 years among cases. The waist-hip ratio increased four times the chance of CAD, even after the control for confounding factors, including BMI. Neck circumference above the 90th Percentile doubled the chance of CAD, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Neck circumference and waist-hip ratio are independent predictors of CAD, even taking into account traditional risk factors for CAD. These findings highlight the need of anthropometric assessment among patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:23173107

  9. Blood levels related to the Z-score of bone mineral density in young males and females.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Min-Tae; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Ahn, Jae-Ouk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood levels related to the bone mineral density by using the dual energy X-ray absorption for females before menopause and males younger than 50?years old. [Subjects and Methods] Between August 1, and September 15, 2013, the Z-score was measured in females before menopause and males younger than 50?years old using a bone mineral density measuring instrument. After the measurement, the subjects were classified into two groups, that is, the below expectations and within expectations groups. Next, we analyzed and compared the differences in age, body mass index, and blood levels between the 2 groups. [Results] The results showed a correlation of 0.212 for total protein, -0.317 for alanine aminotransferase, -0.199 for gamma-glutamyl transferase, -0.358 for alkaline phosphatase, 0.266 for uric acid, -0.313 for lactate dehydrogenase, 0.244 for creatinine, -0.234 for the red blood cell count, and -0.230 for the red cell distribution width in patients with less than expected level for their age. [Conclusion] In conclusion, osteoporosis may occur in females before menopause and males younger than 50?years old, and aggressive attention is required for prevention and treatment. PMID:25995569

  10. Usefulness of a Z-score of E' versus raw E' velocities to detect left ventricular dysfunction in patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation or dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Hemang; Unsworth, Beth; Medlow, Katharine; Baruah, Resham; Wasan, Balvinder S; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P

    2010-10-15

    Despite their potential as a sensitive measure of ventricular performance, tissue Doppler velocities vary with normal aging. This is inconvenient for nonspecialists to interpret and makes it difficult to use as an entry criterion for clinical studies. The age-adjusted tissue Doppler Z-scores might avoid these disadvantages and be more discriminant for myocardial impairment than the raw velocities. We conducted a meta-regression of studies reporting age-specific normal tissue Doppler velocities to determine a consensus formula for Z-scores (8 studies, 1,867 patients) that we then tested in an independent study at our institution. We next compared the Z-scores head-to-head with the raw velocities for their ability to distinguish a fresh set of 81 healthy subjects from groups in whom subtle ventricular dysfunction might be expected, including 50 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, 50 with aortic regurgitation, and 50 with mitral regurgitation. The discriminant capacity, assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, was higher for the Z-scores than for the raw velocities in each patient group. At the septal angle of the mitral annulus: dilated cardiomyopathy 0.95 versus 0.92 (p = 0.03), aortic regurgitation 0.83 versus 0.78 (p = 0.02), mitral regurgitation 0.85 versus 0.81 (p = 0.04). At the lateral angle: dilated cardiomyopathy 0.94 versus 0.88 (p = 0.005), aortic regurgitation 0.92 versus 0.83 (p = 0.001), mitral regurgitation 0.87 versus 0.85 (p = 0.31). In conclusion, the Z-scores of the tissue Doppler velocities were better than the raw velocities at detecting myocardial impairment in valvular or heart muscle disease. The calculation needs only the raw velocity and patient age. Tissue Doppler Z-scores could be used to create a novel, more sensitive, definition of ventricular dysfunction and might make it easier for nonspecialists to interpret the reports. PMID:20920662

  11. Laboratory assessment by combined z score values in proficiency tests: experience gained through the European Union proficiency tests for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Medina-Pastor; M. Mezcua; C. Rodríguez-Torreblanca; A. R. Fernández-Alba

    2010-01-01

    The obligation for accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency tests under ISO 17025, performing multiresidue methods\\u000a (MRMs) for pesticide residues, involves the reporting of a large number of individual z scores making the evaluation of the overall performance of the laboratories difficult. It entails, time and again, the need\\u000a for ways to summarise the laboratory’s overall assessment into a unique

  12. Relationships between IGF-I and Weight Z Score, BMI, Tricipital Skin-Fold Thickness, Type of Feeding in Healthy Infants in the First 5 Months of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Savino; G. E. Nanni; S. Maccario; R. Oggero; G. C. Mussa

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in exclusively breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants in the first 5 months of life and to study the relationship between the IGF-I level and Z score for weight, body mass index (BMI) and tricipital skin-fold thickness. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in order to evaluate serum IGF-I in

  13. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    PubMed Central

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations. PMID:15757521

  14. Non-waisted fuselage design for supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, James O. (Inventor); Agrawal, Shreekant (Inventor); Antani, Dhamanshu L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for designing a non-waisted fuselage for supersonic wing/fuselage configurations that increases the fuselage volume and improves the supersonic aerodynamic performance compared to a conventional waisted-fuselage configuration. The method entails removing the waisted region of an existing waisted-fuselage configuration by linearly reconstructing cross-sections between the endpoints representing the waisted cross-sectional area portion to create a modified fuselage configuration without waisting. This configuration will have increased fuselage volume and improved supersonic aerodynamic performance. The fuselage camber can then be optimized using non-linear aerodynamic methods to further increase the supersonic aerodynamic performance.

  15. Correlation of Waist-to-hip Ratio (WHR) and Oxidative Stress in Patients of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Gulati, Rajiv; Tauheed, Nazia; Pervez, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation is thought to play a crucial role in the generation of atherosclerotic lesions of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: The case-control study contained 120 subjects divided in two groups, 60 patients with AMI and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Ratio of Waist Circumference (WC) to Hip Circumference (HC) (waist-to-hip ratio) of all the subjects was recorded. Antioxidant status of the individuals was determined by measuring the serum levels of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Estimation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation was used as a surrogate marker of free radical activity. Results: WHR was found to be significantly higher in patients of AMI as compared to controls. MDA levels were significantly high and antioxidants molecules GPx and SOD were significantly decreased in AMI patients as compared with control (p<0.001). WHR correlated positively to serum level of MDA and inversely to the serum level of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: High Waist-to-hip ratio is associated with high concentrations of malondialdehyde level and low concentration of antioxidant’s enzyme. This results in increased oxidative stress, a major causative factor of AMI. PMID:24596709

  16. G-GMD Circumference of a circle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose we define $\\pi$ to be the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 1: Explain why the circumference of a circle with radius $r \\gt 0$ is $2\\...

  17. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    E-print Network

    Hermann, Silke; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; May, Anne M; Kunst, Anton; Besson, Herve; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noemie; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Molina, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodriguez, Laudina; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Boeckel, Petra G A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Overvad, Kim; Uhre Jakobsen, Marianne; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Vineis, Paolo; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M; Steffen, Annika; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Johansson, Ingegerd; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Braaten, Tonje; Fagherazzi, Guy; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Mouw, Traci; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Peeters, Petra H M

    2011-03-17

    ,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous...

  18. The Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors Of Body Composition in Post CSCI Wheelchair Rugby Players (Preliminary Investigations)

    PubMed Central

    Zwierzchowska, Anna; G?owacz, Marta; Batko-Szwaczka, Agnieszka; Dudzi?ska-Griszek, Joanna; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Drozd, Mi?osz; Szewieczek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The enforced sedentary lifestyle and muscle paresis below the level of injury are associated with adipose tissue accumulation in the trunk. The value of anthropometric indicators of obesity in patients with spinal cord injuries has also been called into question. We hypothesized that the Body Mass Index recommended by the WHO to diagnose obesity in general population has too low sensitivity in case of wheelchair rugby players. The study group comprised 14 wheelchair rugby players, aged 32.6 ± 5.1 years, who had sustained CSCI (paralysis of lower limbs and upper extremities). The research tool was the Tanita Viscan visceral and trunk fat analyzer AB140 using the abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate the visceral fat level (Vfat) and trunk fat percentage (Tfat). The AB140 analyzer also allowed the measurement of body composition of those individuals who could not assume an upright position. Our analyses revealed high and very high correlation coefficients between Vfat and WC (r=0.9), WHtR (r=0.7) and Tfat (r=0.9) whereas the correlation between Vfat and the BMI was weak, especially in the subgroup with Vfat < 13.5% (r=0.2). The subgroup with Vfat>13.5 exhibited a moderate-level relationship between the BMI and visceral fat increase. It was concluded that the BMI had a low sensitivity for predicting obesity risk in wheelchair rugby players after CSCI. The sensitivity of WC measurement was higher and thus, it may be stated that it constitutes an objective tool for predicting obesity risk in post-CSCI wheelchair rugby players. PMID:25713660

  19. Luminosity and Crab Waist Collision Studies

    E-print Network

    Wu, Wanwei

    2015-01-01

    In high energy physics, the luminosity is one useful value to characterize the performance of a particle collider. To gain more available data, we need to maximize the luminosity in most collider experiments. With the discussions of tune shift involved the beam dynamics and a recently proposed "crabbed waist" scheme of beam-beam collisions, we present some qualitative analysis to increase the luminosity. In addition, beam-beam tune shifts and luminosities of $e^{+}e^{-}$, $pp$/$p\\bar{p}$, and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ colliders are discussed.

  20. Neck circumference has possibility as a predictor for metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Satomi; Miyake, Takashi; Harada, Toshihide; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nitta, Yumiko; Iida, Tadayuki; Chikamura, Chiho; Tamura, Noriko; Nitta, Kohsaku; Miyaguchi, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Subcutaneous fat depots play an important role in regulating metabolic profile in Japanese postmenopausal women. We investigated the possibility of neck circumference (NC) as a surrogate marker for metabolic disease risk estimates in Japanese postmenopausal women. We examined the association of NC with several markers of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in 64 healthy postmenopausal women aged 63.6 ± 7.1 years in community-based samples in Japan. As a result, NC was significantly associated with indices of whole body obesity and visceral fat accumulation, such as body mass index (BMI) and Waist circumference (WC). In the analysis of biomarkers for insulin resistance, NC was positively correlated to HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) and leptin. In addition, an increase in triglycerides (TG) and a decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were also associated with NC. Interestingly, NC was also associated with atherosclerosis-related indices. The measurement of NC is an easy, inexpensive and reproducible method for assessment of obesity, and a possible predictor to identify the risk for future metabolic diseases in Japanese postmenopausal women. PMID:25707090

  1. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  2. Associations between adiposity indicators and elevated blood pressure among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dong, B; Wang, Z; Wang, H-J; Ma, J

    2015-04-01

    Adiposity is closely related to elevated blood pressure (BP); however, which adiposity indicator is the best predictor of elevated BP among children and adolescents is unclear. To clarify this, 99,366 participants aged 7-17 years from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010 were included in this study. The adiposity indicators, including weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference, body adiposity index (BAI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and skinfold thickness, were converted into z-scores before use. The associations between elevated BP and adiposity indicators z-scores were assessed by using logistic regression model and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In general, BAI, BMI and WHtR z-scores were superior for predicting elevated BP compared with weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR and skinfold thickness z-scores. In both sexes, BMI z-score revealed slightly higher AUCs than other indicators. Our findings suggest that general adiposity indicators were equivalent, if not superior, to abdominal adiposity indicators to predict elevated BP. BMI could be a better predictor of elevated BP than other studied adiposity indicators in children. PMID:25339297

  3. Efficacy of mid-upper arm circumference in identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children during nutrition rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Saeed, Hibbah Araba; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although it is crucial to identify those children likely to be treated in an appropriate nutrition rehabilitation programme and discharge them at the appropriate time, there is no golden standard for such identification. The current study examined the appropriateness of using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children. We also assessed its discrepancy with the Weight-for-Height based diagnosis, the rate of recovery, and the discharge criteria of the children during nutrition rehabilitation. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study present findings from 156 children (aged 6-59 months) attending a supplementary feeding programme at Makadara and Jericho Health Centres, Eastern District of Nairobi, Kenya. Records of age, weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference were selected at three stages of nutrition rehabilitation: admission, follow-up and discharge. The values obtained were then used to calculate z-scores as defined by WHO Anthro while estimating different diagnostic indices. RESULTS Mid-upper arm circumference single cut-off (< 12.5 cm) was found to exhibit high values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio at both admission and discharge. Besides, children recorded higher rate of recovery at 86 days, an average increment of 0.98 cm at the rate of 0.14mm/day, and a weight gain of 13.49gm/day, albeit higher in female than their male counterparts. Nevertheless, children admitted on basis of low MUAC had a significantly higher MUAC gain than WH at 0.19mm/day and 0.13mm/day respectively. CONCLUSIONS Mid-upper arm circumference can be an appropriate tool for identifying malnourished children for admission to nutrition rehabilitation programs. Our results confirm the appropriateness of this tool for monitoring recovery trends and discharging the children thereafter. In principle the tool has potential to minimize nutrition rehabilitation costs, particularly in community therapeutic centres in developing countries.

  4. Programming DNA Tube Circumferences Peng Yin,1,2,3

    E-print Network

    Reif, John H.

    Programming DNA Tube Circumferences Peng Yin,1,2,3 Rizal F. Hariadi,4 Sudheer Sahu,6 Harry M. T. Choi,2 Sung Ha Park,1,5 * Thomas H. LaBean,6,7 John H. Reif6 Synthesizing molecular tubes, and supermolecular chemistry. We program molecular tube circumferences by specifying the complementarity

  5. Modern Replication of Eratosthenes' Measurement of the Circumference of Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes' experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38,874?km, measured at Rosebud,…

  6. Head circumference and IQ of children with sex chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, S G; Masera, N; Pan, H; McKie, M

    1994-06-01

    At all ages XXX girls had significantly smaller head circumferences than control girls. Their IQ deficit was 24 points and IQ at age seven correlated significantly with head circumference at birth. In XXY boys, head circumference was significantly reduced at birth and up to nine years of age. The XXY boys' IQ deficit was 22 points, but IQ did not correlate with head circumference, as reductions in the two parameters did not always occur in tandem. The ratio of height-to-head circumference differed most in this group and could be useful in clinical recognition of this condition. XYY boys' head size did not differ from controls, despite their greater height, lower IQ scores indicating an adverse effect of an additional Y chromosome on brain development. The major factor affecting IQ outcome in the cohort was abnormal karyotype, with smaller effects from social class and head growth. PMID:8005365

  7. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was ?1.25 (1.14) (n ?=? 801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n ?=? 797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  8. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is More Predictive of Years of Life Lost than Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Ashwell, Margaret; Mayhew, Les; Richardson, Jon; Rickayzen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to compare the effect of central obesity (measured by waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) and total obesity (measured by body mass index, BMI) on life expectancy expressed as years of life lost (YLL), using data on British adults. Methods A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to data from the prospective Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) and the cross sectional Health Survey for England (HSE). The number of years of life lost (YLL) at three ages (30, 50, 70 years) was found by comparing the life expectancies of obese lives with those of lives at optimum levels of BMI and WHtR. Results Mortality risk associated with BMI in the British HALS survey was similar to that found in US studies. However, WHtR was a better predictor of mortality risk. For the first time, YLL have been quantified for different values of WHtR. This has been done for both sexes separately and for three representative ages. Conclusion This study supports the simple message “Keep your waist circumference to less than half your height”. The use of WHtR in public health screening, with appropriate action, could help add years to life. PMID:25198730

  9. Assessing the impact of the introduction of the WHO Growth Standards and weight-for-height Z score criterion on the response to treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children: secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Villamor, Eduardo; Shepherd, Susan; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of adopting the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHO standards) and weight-for-height (WFH) Z score criterion on the response to treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children, compared with the use of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO growth reference (NCHS reference) and WFH percent of the median criterion. Study Design We used data from children aged 6–59 months with acute malnutrition who were admitted to the Médecins sans Frontières malnutrition treatment program in Maradi, Niger during 2006 (n=56,214). Differences in weight gain, duration of treatment, recovery from malnutrition, mortality, loss to follow up, and need for inpatient care were compared for severely malnourished children identified according to the NCHS reference and percent of the median criterion vs. the WHO standards and the Z score criterion. Results A total of eight times more children (n=25,754) were classified as severely malnourished according to the WHO standards and weight-for-height (WFH) Z score criterion had shorter durations of treatment, greater rates of recovery, fewer deaths, and less loss to follow up or need for inpatient care. Conclusions The introduction of the WHO standards with the Z score criterion to identify children for admission into severe acute malnutrition treatment programs would imply the inclusion of children who are younger but have relatively higher WFH on admission, compared with the NCHS reference. These children have fewer medical complications requiring inpatient care and are more likely to experience shorter durations of treatment and lower mortality. The WHO standards with the Z score criterion might become a useful tool for the early detection of acute malnutrition in children, although further research on the resource implications of this transition is required. PMID:19117847

  10. Modern replication of Eratosthenes’ measurement of the circumference of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes’ experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38?874?km, measured at Rosebud, Victoria, Australia, and Jimboomba, Queensland, Australia with an error of 2.9%. This exceeds the accuracy of Eratosthenes, although not of the modern recreation of his experiment between Syene and Alexandria. The experiment described in this paper might form a useful model for cooperation between schools in different countries.

  11. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  12. Head circumference is an independent clinical finding associated with autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Miles; L. L. Hadden; T. N. Takahashi; R. E. Hillman

    2000-01-01

    Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) is one of the few physical findings in autism that varies significantly from the norm and is distinct and measurable. As part of a study of genetic heterogeneity of autism, we scru- tinized data from a large sample of patients with idiopathic autism (N = 137), using OFC as the categorizing variable. The OFC stan- dard deviation

  13. Effects of Head Circumference and Metabolic Syndrome on Cognitive Decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang Soo Lee; Jin-Sup Eom; Hae-Kwan Cheong; Byoung Hoon Oh; Chang Hyung Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background: Brain volume progressively decreases with an increase in atrophy, and the brain becomes more susceptible to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Metabolic syndrome has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. Aims: In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of head circumference and metabolic syndrome on cognitive decline. Methods:

  14. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  15. Approximating the Circumference and Area of a Circle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Math Forum

    2001-01-01

    Geometry, difficulty level 2. Take a circle and circumscribe a square and inscribe a square. Constuct a square between the other two squares, and compare the area and the perimeter of the middle square with the area and circumference of the circle.

  16. The Modifying Effects of A Calcium-rich Whey Protein Supplement (OsoLean™ Powder) on Weight Loss and Waist Circumference in Overweight Subjects: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Sinnott; Rolando L. Maddela; Erika D. Nelson; Sejong Bae; Karan P. Singh; Jane A. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    This 8-week, open-label study evaluated the effects of a specialized whey protein supplement (OsoLean™ powder), rich in bioactive peptides and calcium, on weight loss in a convenience sample of healthy, overweight adults. Participants were advised to restrict their daily caloric intake and instructed to add the supplement to the beverage of their choice before breakfast and dinner. Subjects were provided

  17. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  18. A 12-week randomized double-blind parallel pilot trial of Sinetrol XPur on body weight, abdominal fat, waist circumference, and muscle metabolism in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Cases, Julien; Romain, Cindy; Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Rouanet, Jean Max

    2015-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated to increased risk of developing non-communicable diseases that might dramatically affect life expectancy according World Health Organization. Overweight, obesity, and decline in physical activity are correlated to a significant propensity to lose skeletal muscle mass as a result of prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress whereas cohort surveys and clinical investigations have demonstrated health benefits of Citrus-based polyphenols to reverse such regression. Overweight men were included in a double-blind, randomized, parallel pilot trial where they received daily for a 12-week period 900?mg of a Citrus-based polyphenol extract, Sinetrol® XPur. Body composition, anthropometric, and blood parameters were assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. After 12 weeks, while the silhouette slimmed down, metabolic parameters were significantly improved and skeletal muscle catabolism held back. These data suggest that over a 12-week period, the efficacy of the supplement improve both overweight process and correlated skeletal muscle mass metabolism. PMID:26037199

  19. Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ?97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25395904

  20. Waist Compression in the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    E-print Network

    Younger, John G.

    2000-01-01

    voyeuristically, to document their own practices in web sites with text and in pictures, to chat about their fantasies and prac- tices, and to get in touch. From these web sites we learn that modern corsets (Fig. 6) wrap around the waist and are tall enough... and cannibalism; 63 even more disturbing is the contrast between the many, overwhelmingly sensuous images and the fact that there is virtually no sexual or erotic art, no depic- tions of sexual intercourse, no representations of intimacy, no hand holding...

  1. G-MG Eratosthenes and the circumference of the earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-15

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The ancient Greek scientist Eratosthenes devised the following experiment for estimating the circumference of the earth, which he assumed to be spheric...

  2. The Formation of Very Narrow Waist Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    Noam Soker; Saul Rappaport

    1999-11-09

    We discuss the interaction of the slow wind blown by an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star with a collimated fast wind (CFW) blown by its main sequence or white dwarf companion, at orbital separations in the range of several AU to about 200 AU. The CFW results from accretion of the AGB wind into an accretion disk around the companion. The fast wind is collimated by the accretion disk. We argue that such systems are the progenitors of bipolar planetary nebulae and bipolar symbiotic nebulae with a very narrow equatorial waist between the two polar lobes. We conduct a population synthesis study of the formation of planetary nebulae in binary systems which quantitatively supports the proposed model. We show the number of expected systems that blow a CFW is in accord with the number found from observations, to within the many uncertainties involved. Overall, we find that 5 per cent of all planetary nebulae are bipolars with very narrow waists. Our population synthesis not only supports the CFW model, but more generally supports the binary model for the formation of bipolar planetary nebulae.

  3. The Short Circumference Damping Ring Design for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Korostelev, M.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Kubo, K.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Naito, T.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    The ILC damping ring tentative design is driven by the operational scenario of the main linac, the beam-dynamics demand of producing a stable and high-quality beam, the injection/extraction scheme and the kicker performance. In this paper, a short circumference damping ring design based on TME cells is described. The ring accommodates injection kickers which provide a flat top of 280 nsec and a 60 nsec rise and fall time and very fast strip-line kickers for beam extraction with a 2 nsec rise and fall time for 3-MHz operation.

  4. The development of a mobile humanoid robot with varying joint stiffness waist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Tiejun; Tan Dalong; Zhao Mingyang

    2005-01-01

    A mobile humanoid robot named YIREN has been developed as a platform for the research on intelligent robotics. The robot consists of 23 degrees of freedom (DOF), including the mobile platform, waist, torso, arms, neck and head, and it has two peculiarities: a waist mechanism that could adjust the mechanical compliance suitably and a mobile platform which is an omni-directional

  5. Percentile ranks of sonar fetal abdominal circumference measurements.

    PubMed

    Tamura, R K; Sabbagha, R E

    1980-11-01

    We present the percentile ranks of sonar fetal abdominal circumference (AC) measurements from 18 to 41 weeks' gestation. The ACs are derived from both longitudinal and cross-sectional ultrasonic studies of 200 low-risk pregnant women. The reproducibility of sonar AC falls within 2% of the mean value; this variation permits antenatal distinction of the fetus with a small AC (less than twenty-fifth percentile) or large (greater than eightieth percentile) reading. The fetal AC measurements add another dimension to the interpretation of cephalic growth, particularly in identifying macrosomic fetuses as well as those who are either asymmetrically or symmetrically undergrown. Additionally fetal AC measurements are useful as adjuncts to the diagnosis of hydrocephalus by quantitating the difference between cephalic and body size. In the presence of fetal ascites the AC also can be used to assess the severity and progression of the abnormality. PMID:7425013

  6. Experimental stress-strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2014-04-01

    We experimentally determine tensile force-elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force-elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress-strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

  7. Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

    2014-06-01

    'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate. PMID:24755099

  8. Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist

    SciTech Connect

    Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A. [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Wien—Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-21

    We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

  9. Supine Length, Weight and Head Circumference at Birth in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean plus or minus standard deviation of boys' and girls' (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 plus or minus 30 and…

  10. Using Forearm Circumference for Automatic Threshold Calibration for Simple EMG Control

    E-print Network

    Hu, Huosheng

    contraction (MVC) via linear regression. MVC is commonly used for threshold adjustment, hence automatic forearm circumference for estimating MVC. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the concept , Circumference, Maximum Voluntary Con- traction (MVC) I. INTRODUCTION Electromyography (EMG) is the study of our

  11. Waist location and Rayleigh range for higher-order mode laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.; Karkheck, J.

    1984-07-01

    Self has presented simple equations for Gaussian-mode laser beams for calculating focused waist location and beam waist magnification in terms of the Rayleigh range. Since the Rayleigh range is a purely geometrical quantity. Self's equations can also be applied to higher-order mode beams. A convenient form of the Rayleigh range for Hermite-Gaussian modes is presented along with representative results for Co/sub 2/ laser industrial processing facilities.

  12. Measuring the Circumference of the Earth at Primary School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Folco, Emmanuel; Jasmin, David; Hibon-Hartmann, Mireille

    The French program ""La main a la pate"" is leading an international and cooperative project gathering each year more than 100 schools all over the world. Following in the footsteps of Eratosthenes invites teachers and pupils at primary schools to measure the circumference of the Earth following the first method developed by the Greek scientist Eratosthenes 2 200 years ago. The protocol consists in a series of experimental activities which allow a progressive approach of the various scientific notions at play (light rays and shadows the shape of the Earth the solar noon etc). Pupils are invited to reproduce the observations of Eratosthenes and to adapt its method by developing their own instruments. Finally they can compute their own estimation of the size of our planet by exchanging easily their measurements through Internet with others classes from many countries. We will present the progressive protocol and its entertaining activities as well as the specific cooperative tools which have been created to help and follow up the teachers in the course of the project: a scientists' and trainers' network an Internet forum and a data base where all the measurements gathered can be exchanged between the participants.

  13. The head-to-abdomen circumference ratio: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    David, C; Gabrielli, S; Pilu, G; Bovicelli, L

    1995-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the clinical significance of the sonographically derived head-to-abdomen circumference ratio in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses. The head-to-abdomen ratio was determined in 134 singleton SGA fetuses without ultrasound evidence of malformations at 26-40 weeks' gestation. Data were collected regarding antenatal surveillance, umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and neonatal outcome. In SGA fetuses, the head-to-abdomen ratio, adjusted for gestational age, had a normal frequency distribution, positively skewed with regard to fetuses with normal birth weight. An elevated head-to-abdomen ratio was found in 56 SGA fetuses (42%), and was associated with increased perinatal mortality (odds ratio 3.27; 95% confidence internal 1.04-9.34), lower birth weight (1533 +/- 635 g vs. 2022 +/- 655 g, p < 0.0001) and lower gestational age at delivery (34 +/- 3.6 weeks vs. 36.3 +/- 3.6 weeks, p < 0.005). However, logistic regression revealed that the most powerful antenatal determinants of pregnancy outcome were Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery, followed by biophysical profile, while no independent correlation was found with the head-to-abdomen ratio. The existence of two distinct categories of SGA fetuses, 'symmetric' and 'asymmetric', remains uncertain. An elevated head-to-abdomen ratio is an adverse risk factor for pregnancy outcome. However, this parameter has no clearcut clinical value when umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and biophysical antenatal testing are available. PMID:7600207

  14. Optimal Waist-to-Height Ratio Values for Cardiometabolic Risk Screening in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of South African Urban and Rural School Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Matsha, Tandi E.; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Yako, Yandiswa Y.; Hon, Gloudina M.; Hassan, Mogamat S.; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. Methods Metabolic syndrome (MetS) components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10–16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden’s index and the closest-top-left (CTL) point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. Results The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5), but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4) and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7) based on the Youden’s index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden’s index0.505 (31.6, 87.1) and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9). Conclusion The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization. PMID:23967160

  15. Circumference reduction and cellulite treatment with a TriPollar radiofrequency device: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Manuskiatti; C Wachirakaphan; N Lektrakul; S Varothai

    2009-01-01

    Background A wide variety of treatments for circumference reduction and cellulite are available, but most procedures offer suboptimal clinical effect and\\/or delayed therapeutic outcome. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of the TriPollar radiofrequency device for cellulite treatment and circumference reduction. Methods Thirty-nine females with cellulite received eight weekly TriPollar treatments. Treatment areas included the abdomen, thighs, buttocks and

  16. Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Based Nutrition Programming: Evidence for a New Approach in Regions with High Burden of Acute Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Sylvie; Bekele, Yodit; Yun, Oliver; Harczi, Géza; Ouannes, Marie; Shepherd, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background In therapeutic feeding programs (TFP), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) shows advantages over weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an independent criterion for screening children 6–59 months old. Here we report outcomes and treatment response from a TFP using MUAC ?118 mm or oedema as sole admission criteria for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Methods Patient data from September 2007 to March 2009 for children admitted by MUAC ?118 mm or oedema to a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) TFP in Burkina Faso were retrospectively analyzed. Analysis included anthropometric measurements at admission and discharge, program outcomes and treatment response. Results Of 24,792 patient outcomes analyzed, nearly half (48.8%; n?=?12,090) were admitted with MUAC 116–118 mm. Most patients (88.7%; n?=?21,983) were 6–24 months old. At admission, 52.7% (n?=?5,041) of those with MUAC 116–118 mm had a WHZ

  17. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  18. Beyond waist--hip ratio: experimental multivariate evidence that average women's torsos are most attractive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misha L. Donohoe; William von Hippel; Robert C. Brooks

    2009-01-01

    One of the most iconic findings in human behavioral ecology is the fact that women with waist-hip ratios (WHRs) of approximately 0.7 are most attractive and that this ratio indicates maximum fecundity and reproductive value. However, the effects of WHR and of other indices of body shape and size on attractiveness are far from fully resolved. We adopt a recently

  19. Normative data for IQ, height and head circumference for children in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Batterjee, Adel A; Khaleefa, Omar; Ashaer, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Normative data are reported for intelligence, height and head circumference for a sample of 1553 6- to 15-year-olds in Saudi Arabia, and for the correlations between these variables. Intelligence was tested with the Standard Progressive Matrices, on which the Saudi sample obtained a British IQ of 76.2. There were no significant differences in means between boys and girls and differences in variability were inconsistent. The heights of the Saudi sample were generally lower than those of the American norms. The differences in head circumferences between the Saudi children and the American norms were inconsistent. Correlations between IQ and height were weaker than those found in other studies but correlations between IQ and head circumference were positive. PMID:23425395

  20. Separating Bedtime Rest from Activity Using Waist or Wrist-Worn Accelerometers in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Dustin J.; Xu, Zhiyi; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari; Chen, Kong Y.; Buchowski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA) over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week) in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10–18 years old, 47 females) during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n?=?41) were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer, respectively. The selected optimal activity cut points were 500 and 3,000 counts/min for waist and wrist-worn accelerometers, respectively. Bedtime rest and activity were correctly classified by the algorithm in the validation group (n?=?40) by both waist- (sensitivity: 0.983, specificity: 0.946, area under ROC curve: 0. 872) and wrist-worn (0.999, 0.980 and 0.943) accelerometers. The decision tree classified bedtime rest correctly with higher accuracy than commonly used automated algorithm for both waist- and wrist-warn accelerometer (all p<0.001). We concluded that cut points developed and validated for waist- and wrist-worn uniaxial accelerometer have a good power for accurate separation of time spent in bedtime rest from activity in youth. PMID:24727999

  1. WHY YOU SHOULD NOT BEND FROM THE WAIST TO PICK UP A LOAD

    E-print Network

    WHY YOU SHOULD NOT BEND FROM THE WAIST TO PICK UP A LOAD A weight of 10Kg is placed on a teeter totter. To lift this load, you apply 10 Kg force because the fulcrum is placed in the middle. Place to grab the 10 Kg load, the force (F1) exerted on your lower back becomes 10 x 10 Kg plus 10 x 40 Kg = 100

  2. In the Spirit of Eratosthenes: Measuring the Circumference of the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charischak, Ihor

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the mathematics and science underlying Eratosthenes' measurement of the circumference of Earth in about 200 B.C. and provides a lesson plan so that small groups of high school students can duplicate the measurements. Equipment needed and related Web sites are listed, and a model chart to record measurements is provided. (PEN)

  3. TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth

    E-print Network

    Pickett, Galen T.

    TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth On two dates during the year, the geometric relationship of Earth to the Sun produces "equinox", a word literally meaning and sunset is approximately 12 hours everywhere on Earth. b) The Sun is directly overhead at noon

  4. GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATES FOR SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF YEARLING LINE 1 HEREFORD BULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this research were to estimate heritability for scrotal circumference (SC) and semen traits, and genetic correlations among these traits and birth weight (BW). Phenotypes were recorded for Line 1 Hereford bulls (n = 841), born in 1963 or from 1967 to 2000 that had been either selected...

  5. Brief Report: A Preliminary Study of Fetal Head Circumference Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Hickey, Martha; Stanley, Fiona J.; Newnham, John P.; Pennell, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal head circumference (HC) growth was examined prospectively in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD participants (N = 14) were each matched with four control participants (N = 56) on a range of parameters known to influence fetal growth. HC was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation and again at birth…

  6. Large breasts and narrow waists indicate high reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Jasie?ska, Grazyna; Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Ellison, Peter T.; Lipson, Susan F.; Thune, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Physical characteristics, such as breast size and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), function as important features used by human males to assess female attractiveness. Males supposedly pay attention to these features because they serve as cues to fecundity and health. Here, we document that women with higher breast-to-underbreast ratio (large breasts) and women with relatively low WHR (narrow waists) have higher fecundity as assessed by precise measurements of daily levels of 17-beta-oestradiol (E2) and progesterone. Furthermore, women who are characterized by both narrow waists and large breasts have 26% higher mean E2 and 37% higher mean mid-cycle E2 levels than women from three groups with other combinations of body-shape variables, i.e. low WHR with small breasts and high WHR with either large or small breasts. Such gains in hormone levels among the preferred mates may lead to a substantial rise in the probability of conception, thus providing a significant fitness benefit. PMID:15306344

  7. Effect of 635nm Low-level Laser Therapy on Upper Arm Circumference Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a noninvasive method for reducing upper arm circumference. Design: Randomized, double-blind study whereby healthy subjects (N=40) with a body mass index of 20 to 35kg/m2 received three 20-minute low-level laser therapy (N=20) or sham treatments (N=20) each week for two weeks. Measurements: Upper arm circumference was measured after three and six treatments and two weeks post-treatment. Primary success criterion was the proportion of subjects achieving a combined reduction in arm circumference of ?1.25cm measured at three equally spaced points between the elbow and the shoulder. Secondary outcomes included total measurement change at each time point and subjective satisfaction ratings. Results: After six treatments, the low-level laser therapy group showed a combined reduction in arm circumference of 3.7cm versus 0.2cm in the sham treatment group (p<0.0001). Significantly more subjects in the low-level laser therapy group (N=12; 60%) achieved ?1.5cm total decrease in upper arm circumference versus sham-treated subjects (N=0; 0%) (p<0.0005). Low-level laser therapy treatment resulted in a combined reduction in arm circumference of 2.2cm after three treatments and 3.7cm after six treatments (for each, p<0.0001) indicating a progressive and cumulative treatment effect. Body mass index remained unchanged for all subjects. A significantly greater number of subjects in the low-level laser therapy treatment group were satisfied with their results (p<0.05), believed their upper arm appearance improved (p<0.0005), and indicated the results exceeded expectations (p<0.05). The treatments were painless and no adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Noninvasive low-level laser therapy is safe, painless, and effective in reducing upper arm circumference and is associated with a high degree of subject satisfaction. PMID:22468172

  8. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth weight, suggesting that limb proportions at birth do not index factors relevant to prenatal life. PMID:25162658

  9. POSSIBLE LAYOUT FOR A 1.048 ka CIRCUMFERENCE, THREE-KAGRET-PER-SECTOR, 7-GeV STORAGE RING

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    POSSIBLE LAYOUT FOR A 1.048 ka CIRCUMFERENCE, THREE-KAGRET-PER-SECTOR, 7-GeV STORAGE RING (For cost;LS-85 Possible Layout for a 1.048 km Circumference, Three-Magnet per-Sector, 7 GeV ~torage Ring (For

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and Obesity at 9 Years of Age in the CHAMACOS Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Marcella; Wesselink, Amelia; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    In-utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), has been hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity later in life. We examined the associations of maternal serum concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy with body mass index, obesity, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat in 9-year-old children (n = 261) in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California (2000–2010). We found associations between prenatal exposure to DDT and DDE and several measures of obesity at 9 years of age in boys but not in girls. For example, among boys, 10-fold increases in prenatal DDT and DDE concentrations were associated with increased odds of becoming overweight or obese (for o,p?-DDT, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 6.3; for p,p?-DDT, adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.5; and for p,p?-DDE, adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.94, 4.13). The odds ratios for girls were nonsignificant. Results were similar for body mass index z score, waist circumference z score, and odds of increased waist circumference but were less consistent for percentage of body fat. The difference by sex persisted after considering pubertal status. These results provide support for the chemical obesogen hypothesis. PMID:24722999

  11. Prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and obesity at 9 years of age in the CHAMACOS study cohort.

    PubMed

    Warner, Marcella; Wesselink, Amelia; Harley, Kim G; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-06-01

    In-utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), has been hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity later in life. We examined the associations of maternal serum concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy with body mass index, obesity, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat in 9-year-old children (n = 261) in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California (2000-2010). We found associations between prenatal exposure to DDT and DDE and several measures of obesity at 9 years of age in boys but not in girls. For example, among boys, 10-fold increases in prenatal DDT and DDE concentrations were associated with increased odds of becoming overweight or obese (for o,p'-DDT, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 6.3; for p,p'-DDT, adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.5; and for p,p'-DDE, adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.94, 4.13). The odds ratios for girls were nonsignificant. Results were similar for body mass index z score, waist circumference z score, and odds of increased waist circumference but were less consistent for percentage of body fat. The difference by sex persisted after considering pubertal status. These results provide support for the chemical obesogen hypothesis. PMID:24722999

  12. Comparison of waist-to-hip ratio and other obesity indices as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in people with type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study from ADVANCE

    PubMed Central

    Czernichow, Sébastien; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Huxley, Rachel R.; Batty, G David; de Galan, Bastiaan; Grobbee, Diederick; Pillai, Avinesh; Zoungas, Sophia; Marre, Michel; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce; Chalmers, John

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare the strength of associations and discrimination capability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with type-2-diabetes. Methods and results 11,140 men and women were followed for a mean of 4.8 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for one standard deviation (SD) increase in baseline BMI (SD: 5 kg/m2), WC (SD: 13 cm) and WHR (SD: 0.08) with cardiovascular disease risk. After adjustment, HR (95% CI) for WC were 1.10 (1.03-1.18) for cardiovascular events, 1.13 (1.03-1.24) for coronary events, and 1.08 (0.98-1.19) for cardiovascular deaths. Estimates for WHR were 1.12 (1.05-1.19), 1.17 (1.08-1.28) and 1.19 (1.09-1.31). BMI was not related to any of these outcomes. While the receiver operating characteristic curve could not differentiate between anthropometric variables (p-values ? 0.24), the relative integrated discrimination improvement statistic showed an enhancement in the discrimination capabilities of models using WHR for cardiovascular outcomes, except for cerebrovascular events. Conclusion Strengths of associations and discrimination statistics suggested that WHR was the best predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type-2-diabetes and BMI the worst. PMID:20628304

  13. Hemolymphangioma of the waist: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LI, YONGCHAO; PANG, XIAODONG; YANG, HONG; GAO, CHUNHUA; PENG, BAOGAN

    2015-01-01

    Hemolymphangioma is a malformation of the lymphatic and blood vessels. To the best of our knowledge, only a limited number of hemolymphangioma cases have been reported in the literature thus far, with no cases developed in the waist region. The present study reported the case of a 17-year-old male patient with hemolymphangioma growing on the waist, presented with back pain for four months. Upon physical examination, the lesion was identified to be oval in shape, soft and compressible, with mild tenderness. No abnormalities were detected in the results of laboratory examinations. However, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a tumor with low signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging (WI) and high signal intensity on T2-WI. The mass was successfully removed during surgery. During the seven-month follow-up period, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrence. The present study discussed the imaging findings and pathological features of this uncommon case and reviewed the relevant literature. PMID:26137118

  14. Assessment of waist-to-hip ratio attractiveness in women: an anthropometric analysis of digital silhouettes.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    The low proportion of waist to hip size in females is a unique and adaptive human feature. In contemporary human populations, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is negatively associated with women's health, fecundity, and cognitive ability. It is, therefore, hypothesized that men will prefer women with low WHR. Although this prediction is supported by many studies, considerable disagreement persists about which WHR values are the most attractive and the importance of WHR for attractiveness of the female body. Unfortunately, the methods applied thus far are flawed in several ways. In the present study, we investigated male preferences for female WHR using a high precision assessment procedure and digitally manufactured, high quality, anthropometrically informed stimuli which were disentangled from body mass covariation. Forty men were requested to choose the most attractive silhouette consecutively from six series (2 levels of realism × 3 levels of body mass), each consisting of 26 female images that varied in WHR (from .60 to .85 by .01). Substantial inter-individual variation in the choices made was observed. Nevertheless, low and average WHR values were chosen more frequently than above-average values or values below the normal variation of the trait. This preference pattern mirrors the relationship between WHR and mate value, suggesting that the preferences are adaptive. PMID:23975738

  15. Role of fetal abdominal circumference as a prognostic parameter of perinatal complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Kehl; Joachim Brade; Ulrike Schmidt; Sebastian Berlit; Michael K. Bohlmann; Marc Sütterlin; Jörn Siemer; Amadeus Hornemann

    Objective  To evaluate the potential of fetal abdominal circumference (AC) measurement as predictor of perinatal complications in term\\u000a newborns.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This prospective study included 324 consecutive term pregnancies within a 6-month period between February and August 2009.\\u000a Inclusion criteria were a singleton pregnancy with at least 37 weeks of gestation, vertex presentation, absence of structural\\u000a or chromosomal disorders and complete ultrasound

  16. Patterns of eye movements when male and female observers judge female attractiveness, body fat and waist-to-hip ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piers L. Cornelissen; Peter J. B. Hancock; Vesa Kiviniemi; Hannah R. George; Martin J. Tovée

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural studies of the perceptual cues for female physical attractiveness have suggested two potentially important features: body fat distribution [the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)] and overall body fat [often estimated by the body mass index (BMI)]. However, none of these studies tell us directly which regions of the stimulus images inform observers' judgments. Therefore, we recorded the eye movements of three

  17. BEAM WAIST MANIPULATIONS AT THE ATF2 INTERACTION POINT* Sha Bai, Jie Gao, Xiongwei Zhu, (IHEP Beijing, Beijing)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    linear collider projects, with a purpose to reach a 37nm vertical beam size at the interaction pointBEAM WAIST MANIPULATIONS AT THE ATF2 INTERACTION POINT* Sha Bai, Jie Gao, Xiongwei Zhu, (IHEP (University of Tokyo, Tokyo) Abstract The ATF2 project is the final focus system prototype for ILC and CLIC

  18. DAFNE Setup And Operation With the Crab-Waist Collision Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /SLAC

    2011-10-21

    In the second half of 2007 a major upgrade has been implemented on the Frascati DA{Phi}NE collider in order to test the novel idea of Crab-Waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, built and installed to realize the new configuration. At the same time the performances of relevant hardware components, such as fast injection kickers and shielded bellows have been improved relying on new design concepts. The collider has been successfully commissioned in this new configuration. The paper describes several experimental results about linear and non-linear optics setup and optimization, damping of beam-beam instabilities and discusses the obtained luminosity performances. DA{Phi}NE [1] is the Frascati lepton collider working at the c m. energy of the {Phi} meson resonance (1020). It came in operation in 2001 and till summer 2007 provided luminosity, in sequence, to three different experiments which logged a total integrated luminosity of {approx} 4.4 fb{sup -1}. During these years the collider reached its best performances in terms of luminosity and background (L{sub peak} = 1.6 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} L{sub day} {approx} 10 pb{sup -1}) by means of several successive upgrades, relying on the experience gathered during the collider operations and implemented exploiting the shutdowns required for the experiment change over [2, 3, 4].

  19. A Critical Test of the Waist-to-Hip Ratio Hypothesis of Women's Physical Attractiveness in Britain and Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viren Swami; Nicholas Antonakopoulos; Martin J. Tovée; Adrian Furnham

    2006-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and body shape as measured by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) have been reported to be the major cues to\\u000a women's bodily attractiveness. The relative importance of each of these cues was examined cross-culturally in two distinct\\u000a countries, Greece and Britain. Fifty Britons, 25 British-Greeks, and 25 participants in Greece were asked to rate a set of

  20. Waist-to-Height Ratio is an Accurate and Easier Index for Evaluating Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weili Yan; He Bingxian; Yao Hua; Dai Jianghong; Cui Jun; Ge Dongliang; Zheng Yujian; Li Ling; Guo Yanying; Xiao Kaiti; Fu Xiaohai; Ma Da

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the accuracy of the index of waist-to-height ratio (WHTR), and proposed the optimal thresholds of WHTR in the definition of childhood overweight and obesity in a bi-ethnic Chinese school-aged population.Research Methods and Procedures: Overweight and obese were identified by BMI for age and gender in a random sample including 2055 Han and 2132

  1. Body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, breasts, and hips: Role in judgments of female attractiveness and desirability for relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devendra Singh; Robert K. Young

    1995-01-01

    Morphological features such as overall body fat, body fat distribution, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio, breast size, and hip width have been proposed to influence female attractiveness and desirability. To determine how the variations of these morphological features interact and affect the judgment of female age, attractiveness, and desirability for romantic relationships, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, college-age

  2. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  3. Center of pressure control for balance maintenance during lateral waist-pull perturbations in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masahiro; Bair, Woei-Nan; Rogers, Mark W

    2015-04-13

    When balance is disturbed, location of the center of pressure (COP) contributes to a person's ability to recover from a perturbation. This study investigated COP control prior to first step lift-off (FSLO) during lateral perturbations in older non-fallers and fallers. 38 non-fallers and 16 fallers received lateral waist-pulls at 5 different intensities. Crossover stepping responses at the intensity level where the largest number of subjects responded with crossover steps were analyzed. Whole-body center of mass (COM) and COP positions in the medio-lateral (ML) direction with respect to the base of support (BOS), and COP velocity were calculated. An inverted pendulum model was used to define the BOS stability boundary at FSLO, which was also adjusted using the COP position at FSLO (functional boundary). No significant differences were found in the COP velocities between fallers and non-fallers (p>.093). However, the COP positions for fallers were located significantly more medial at FSLO (p?.01), resulting in a significantly reduced functional boundary. Although the stability margins, measures of stability based on the BOS, were significantly larger than zero for fallers (p?.004), they were not significantly different from zero for the functional boundary, i.e., reaching the functional stability limit. Fallers had reduced functional limits of stability in the ML direction, which would predispose them to more precarious stability conditions than non-fallers. This could be a cause for taking more steps than non-fallers for balance recovery as we observed. The functional boundary estimation may be a more sensitive marker of balance instability than the BOS boundary. PMID:25728580

  4. The effects of waist-to-hip ratio and body weight on male judgements of female physical attractiveness, wife desirability, and health, both within and between cultures. 

    E-print Network

    McLean, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary theories maintain that female physical attractiveness has evolved to honestly signal health and reproductive potential. Both a low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a critical range of body weight have received ...

  5. Biosocial comparison of mid-upper arm circumference in the two Koreas.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Anthropometric differences between the two Koreas are of considerable public and scientific interest given the unique socio-political status of North Korea and the fact that the nations share the same genetic ancestry. This study provides new biosocial evidence on these differences by analysing mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) as a human welfare indicator. This is the first study to compare the nutritional status of adults surveyed inside North Korea with South Koreans. The MUAC measurements of 2793 North Korean women obtained through a household survey conducted in 2002 were compared with those of 1428 South Korean women surveyed around 2003. Comparative analysis was conducted by plotting centiles and calculating mean differences in MUAC by age. This paper finds that the MUAC of the South Koreans was on average 2.8 cm greater than that of their North Korean peers, with MUAC gaps ranging from 1.6 cm to 3.9 cm and becoming more pronounced with age. This research confirms previous studies on height and weight in the two Germanies and in the two Koreas that have shown that biosocial performance is worse in socialist economies as compared with free-market regimes. PMID:23279746

  6. Use of mid upper arm circumference for evaluation of nutritional status of OSMF patients

    PubMed Central

    Yallamraju, Suryanarayana R.; Mehrotra, Rachit; Sinha, Abhishek; Gattumeedhi, Shashank Reddy; Gupta, Abhishek; Khadse, Smita V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is always associated with juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibroblastic changes in lamina propria, with epithelial atrophy leading to stiffness of oral mucosa and causing trismus and inability to eat. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a useful tool for a fast assessment of the nutritional status. Aims: The study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation of MUAC as a nutritional status indicator in OSMF patients. Patients and Methods: The study group comprised 50 clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of OSMF. MUAC was recorded using a plastic measuring tape. The right upper arm was measured at the midpoint between the tip of the shoulder and the tip of the elbow (olecranon process and the acromium). Results: Out of 50 subjects, 76% (38) were having MUAC value <23 cm, which shows an inverse relation between MUAC and clinical staging. The relation of MUAC with clinical staging was significant. Conclusion: The patient with OSMF becomes unable to eat due to burning, ulcers, and inability to open mouth, which affects the health of the individual. Thus, it is crucial to access the nutritional status to improve the survival rate of patients. PMID:25558452

  7. Associations between sperm abnormalities, breed, age, and scrotal circumference in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ajitkumar G; Barkema, Herman W; Wilde, Randy; Kastelic, John P; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the associations of breed, age, and scrotal circumference (SC), and their interaction, on the prevalence of sperm abnormalities in beef bulls in Alberta, Canada, and the percentage of satisfactory potential breeders identified during breeding soundness examination solely due to normal sperm morphology. Eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears and evaluation reports of 1642 bull breeding soundness evaluations were procured from 6 veterinary clinics in Alberta. Sperm morphology was determined for at least 100 sperm per bull. The most common defects were detached head [4.86% ± 5.71%; mean ± standard deviation (s)], distal midpiece reflex (6.19% ± 9.13%), and bent tail (1.01% ± 1.54%). Although breed, age, and SC did not significantly affect the prevalence of head or midpiece defects, morphologically normal or abnormal sperm, tail defects were more prevalent in Angus and Hereford bulls compared with other breeds. Overall, solely on the basis of sperm morphology, 1363 (83.0%) bulls were classified as satisfactory potential breeders and the remainder 279 (17.0%) as unsatisfactory (> 30% abnormal sperm, > 20% defective heads, or both). Although not significantly different, the breed with the highest percentage of satisfactory potential breeders was Limousin (90.6%) and the lowest was Hereford (78.8%). That 17% of bulls subjected to breeding soundness evaluation were designated as unsatisfactory solely on the basis of sperm morphology highlights its importance. PMID:22468020

  8. Use of mid-upper arm circumference for determining overweight and overfatness in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Craig, E; Bland, R; Ndirangu, J; Reilly, J J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for identification of overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents. Methods Anthropometric data (weight, height, MUAC and % body fat) from a cross-sectional sample of 978 black South African 5–14-year-olds were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis determined the validity of MUAC as a proxy for determining overweight and overfatness. Findings Area under the curve (AUC) results were generally high. Boys and girls aged 10–14?years had ROC-AUC for overfatness classed as ‘excellent’, 0.97 and 0.98 respectively. Cut-points in the MUAC distribution which optimised the ROC-AUC for identification of overfatness and obesity were determined for boys and girls aged 5–9 and 10–14?years, and had high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions MUAC may have potential for clinical and surveillance applications as an accurate yet simple and widely available indicator of overweight and overfatness in children and adolescents in resource-poor settings. PMID:24890851

  9. Changes in skinfolds and mid-upper arm circumference during pregnancy in Argentine women.

    PubMed

    López, Laura Beatriz; Calvo, Elvira Beatriz; Poy, Mabel Susana; del Valle Balmaceda, Yanina; Cámera, Karen

    2011-07-01

    This investigation describes the pattern of changes in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps, biceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses during the course of pregnancy, and its relationship with maternal and newborn outcomes. A prospective cohort of 1066 pregnant women were selected in seven different urban regions in Argentina. Measurements of MUAC were carried out at 16, 28 and 36 gestational weeks. In a subsample of 488 women, triceps, biceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were measured. Mean total increase in subscapular, tricipital and bicipital skinfolds from 16 to 36 weeks of gestation were 4.5, 3.6 and 2.6 mm, respectively. MUAC showed a mean increase of 1.7 cm in the same period. Overweight or obese women at the start of pregnancy had lower increases in all measurements compared with women with normal or low body mass index. Maternal anthropometry was related to birthweight; women who gave birth to infants of less than 3000 g had lower average values in all measurements than those who had normal birthweight infants. LMS curves for MUAC and skinfolds by gestational age are presented, which can be used as a reference to assess maternal nutrition status during pregnancy. MUAC, tricipital and subscapular skinfold for gestational age curves are proposed for monitoring maternal nutritional status during pregnancy. MUAC cut-off points of 24.5, 25.5 and 26.5 cm for 16, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, respectively, are also proposed as a proxy to detect low birthweight. PMID:21689268

  10. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1989-08-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but the sexual orientation of individuals, when derived from the early stage of erectile response to brief stimuli that were from their onset of moderate erotic strength. PCR assessment has been of the degree of erection to stimuli of 2-10 min duration. No success has been reported using PCR measures of erection to classify subjects individually as to their sexual orientation. Classification of groups of 30 but not 6 homosexuals was successful using their PCRs to nudes. Attempts to identify rapists and pedophiles from normals, and aggressive from nonaggressive rapists and pedophiles by PCRs have failed to be replicated. In comparing PVRs and PCRs, Wheeler and Rubin used as stimuli three 10-min presentations of a film which apparently did not immediately introduce erotic material. This procedure would not elicit meaningful PVRs. Though never validated as a measure of individuals' sexual arousal, PCR measures of erection are currently widely recommended for assessment and determining treatment of individual sex offenders. If these assessments could affect or are believed by the offenders to affect the outcome of the legal processes in which they are involved, the procedure is not only scientifically unsupported, it is unethical. PMID:2673137

  11. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and metabolic syndrome as predictors of middle-aged men's health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Hyun; Cho, In-Chang; Kim, Yoo Seok; Kim, Soon Ki; Min, Seung Ki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is no reported evidence for an anthropometric index that might link obesity to men's sexual health. We evaluated the ability of an anthropometric index and the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires to detect men's health problems. We determined the predictive abilities of two obesity indexes and other clinical parameters for screening for lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods A total of 1,910 middle-aged men were included in the study. Participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation that included recording the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires. The participants' body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were determined. Serum prostate-specific antigen, urinalysis, testosterone, estimated glomerular filtration rate, evaluation of metabolic syndrome, and transrectal ultrasonography were assessed. Results By use of logistic regression analysis, age and total prostate volume were independent predictors of lower urinary tract symptoms. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis symptoms. Age and metabolic syndrome were independent predictive factors for erectile dysfunction. Waist-to-hip ratio had a statistically significant value for predicting erectile dysfunction. Conclusions Our data showed that total prostate volume is a significant predictor of lower urinary tract symptoms, and central obesity has predictive ability for erectile dysfunction. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. The management of correctable factors such as waist-to-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome may be considered preventive modalities against the development of men's health problems. PMID:25964840

  12. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Metabolic Risk and Quality of Life in Hong Kong Chinese Adults with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention to improve metabolic risk profiles and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We conducted a controlled trial within an university-affiliated hospital. 173 Chinese men and women aged 18 or above were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the control group (n = 86). Primary outcomes included 12-week change in metabolic risk factors and MetS z score. Secondary outcome was HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey at 12 weeks). Results The mean age of participants was 52.0 (SD 7.4, range 31-71) years. Analysis involving the entire study population revealed that the yoga group achieved greater decline in waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05), and MetS z score (p<0.01). Yoga training also improved general health perceptions (p<0.01), physical component score (p<0.01), and social functioning (p<0.01) domains score of HRQoL. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the mean change of systolic/diastolic blood pressures or high-density lipid protein cholesterol (all p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the intervention effects on waist circumference and MetS z score between the MetS subgroups (both p>0.05). Conclusion A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention improves metabolic risk profiles and HRQoL in Chinese adults with and without MetS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000816752 PMID:26111165

  13. Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

  14. Dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Lebanese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6-19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

  15. The association between "hypertriglyceridemic waist" and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in a multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background "Hypertriglyceridemic waist" (HTGW) phenotype, an inexpensive early screening tool for detection of individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease was found to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in various patient populations such as those with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, less is known regarding an association between HTGW and subclinical atherosclerosis in the apparently healthy, multiethnic population. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore the association between HTGW and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in an apparently healthy, multiethnic population; and to investigate whether the effect of HTGW on sub-clinical atherosclerosis persists over and above the traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. Methods We studied 809 individuals of Aboriginal, Chinese, European and South Asian origin who were assessed for indices of sub-clinical atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness (IMT), total area and presence of carotid plaques), socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometrics, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Results We found that, compared to individuals without HTGW and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, smoking, and physical activity; men and women with HTGW had a significantly higher: IMT (men: B (95%CI?=?0.084 (0.037, 1.133), p?waist and presence of plaques was significant for men (OR (95%CI)?=?1.904 (1.040, 3.486), p?=?0.037 vs. men without HTGW), but not for women (p?=?0.284). Once analyses were adjusted for additional, traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, the effect of HTGW on sub-clinical atherosclerosis was no longer significant. Conclusions In conclusion, HTGW may serve as an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in men and women, irrespective of ethnicity. However, once individuals are assessed for all traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, the additional assessment for HTGW is not warranted. PMID:24558974

  16. Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

  17. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  18. A kinematic human-walking model for the normal-gait-speed estimation using tri-axial acceleration signals at waist location.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Sun, Kuan-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at estimating the human walking speed using wearable accelerometers by proposing a novel virtual inverted pendulum model. This model not only keeps the important characteristics of both the biped rolling-foot and the inverted pendulum model, but also makes the speed estimation feasible using human body acceleration. Rather than using statistical methods, the proposed kinematic walking model enables calibration of the parameters during walking using only one tri-axial accelerometer on the waist that collects the user's body acceleration. In addition, this model also includes the effect of rotation of the waist within a walking cycle, which improves the estimation accuracy. Experimental results for a group of humans show a 0.58% absolute error mean and 0.72% error deviation, which is far better than the results of other known studies with accelerometers mounted on the upper body. PMID:23529073

  19. Body Mass and Circumference of Upper Arm Are Associated with Race Performance in Ultraendurance Runners in a Multistage Race--The Isarrun 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Welzel, Ulrich; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association of anthropometric parameters with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage ultraendurance run, in which athletes had to run 338 km within 5 consecutive days. In 17 male successful finishers, calculations of body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, extremity circumference,…

  20. Growth in weight, recumbent length, and head circumference for preterm low-birthweight infants during the first three years of life using gestation-adjusted ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shumei S Guo; Alex F Roche; Wm. Cameron Chumlea; Patrick H Casey; William M Moore

    1997-01-01

    Data from 867 preterm low-birthweight participants in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) were used to develop reference data for growth status at an age and for increments from term to 36 month gestation-adjusted age (GAA). Weight, length and head circumference were recorded at 4 month intervals in the first year and at 6 month intervals in the second

  1. Monitoring the adequacy of catch-up growth among moderately malnourished children receiving home-based therapy using mid-upper arm circumference in Southern Malawi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ...

  2. Effects of nutrition on seasonal changes in scrotal circumference, testosterone and pituitary responsiveness to exogenous GnRH in Corriedale rams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Pérez-Clariget; M Forsberg; A López; A Castrillejo

    1998-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of nutrition on seasonal changes in live weight (LW), scrotal circumference (SC), plasma testosterone and LH secretion of Corriedale rams in Uruguay under rearing conditions representative of the country's extensive grazing systems. In Experiment 1, where animals were feeding on improved (n=13) or native pastures (n=12), LW and SC were significantly influenced by

  3. Effect of Castration Method and the Provision of Local Anesthesia on Plasma Cortisol, Scrotal Circumference, Growth, and Feed Intake of Bull Calves1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Fisher; M. A. Crowe; M. E. Alonso de la Varga; W. J. Enright

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of castration of calves, with or without local anesthesia, on plasma cortisol, scrotal circumference, ADG, and ADFI, 56 Friesian bulls (5.5 mo of age; mean ± SE BW = 173 ± 2 kg) were randomly assigned to each of seven treat- ments: 1 ) control (CON); 2 ) s.c. injection of .1 mg of a human

  4. Fully automated waist-worn accelerometer algorithm for detecting children's sleep-period time separate from 24-h physical activity or sedentary behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Barreira, Tiago V; Schuna, John M; Mire, Emily F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer data for physical activity and sedentary behavior requires that sleep-period time (from sleep onset to the end of sleep, including all sleep epochs and wakefulness after onset) is first identified. To identify sleep-period time in children in this study, we evaluated the validity of a published automated algorithm that requires nonaccelerometer bed- and wake-time inputs, relative to a criterion expert visual analysis of minute-by-minute waist-worn accelerometer data, and validated a refined fully automated algorithm. Thirty grade 4 schoolchildren (50% girls) provided 24-h waist-worn accelerometry data. Expert visual inspection (criterion), a published algorithm (Algorithm 1), and 2 additional automated refinements (Algorithm 2, which draws on the instrument's inclinometer function, and Algorithm 3, which focuses on bedtime and wake time points) were applied to a standardized 24-h time block. Paired t tests were used to evaluate differences in mean sleep time (expert criterion minus algorithm estimate). Compared with the criterion, Algorithm 1 and Algorithm 2 significantly overestimated sleep time by 43 min and 90 min, respectively. Algorithm 3 produced the smallest mean difference (2 min), and was not significantly different from the criterion. Relative to expert visual inspection, our automated Algorithm 3 produced an estimate that was precise and within expected values for similarly aged children. This fully automated algorithm for 24-h waist-worn accelerometer data will facilitate the separation of sleep time from sedentary behavior and physical activity of all intensities during the remainder of the day. PMID:24383507

  5. Relationships between 3-y longitudinal changes in body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and metabolic variables in an active French female population1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Bonithon-Kopp; Jocelyne Raison; Dominique Courbon; Genevieve Bonhomme; Bernard Guy-Grand

    Three-year longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and metabolic variables were examined in 209 active French women. For the entire group, a weak but significant positive association was found be- tween change in BMI and change in WHR. However, analysis of covariance according to the degree of abdominal fat distri- bution showed a heterogeneity ofthis association

  6. Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: implications for models of physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Toveé, Martin J; Bateson, Melissa

    2009-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are two widely used anthropometric indices of body shape argued to convey different information about health and fertility. Both indices have also been shown to affect attractiveness ratings of female bodies. However, BMI and WHR are naturally positively correlated, complicating studies designed to identify their relative importance in predicting health and attractiveness outcomes. We show that the correlation between BMI and WHR depends on the assumed model of subcutaneous fat deposition. An additive model, whereby fat is added to the waist and hips at a constant rate, predicts a correlation between BMI and WHR because with increasing fat, the difference between the waist and hips becomes smaller relative to total width. This model is supported by longitudinal and cross-sectional data. We parameterized the function relating WHR to BMI for white UK females of reproductive age, and used this function to statistically decompose body shape into two independent components. We show that judgements of the attractiveness of female bodies are well explained by the component of curvaceousness related to BMI but not by residual curvaceousness. Our findings resolve a long-standing dispute in the attractiveness literature by confirming that although WHR appears to be an important predictor of attractiveness, this is largely explained by the direct effect of total body fat on WHR, thus reinforcing the conclusion that total body fat is the primary determinant of female body shape attractiveness. PMID:19013182

  7. Optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio for detecting cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among Han adults in Xinjiang, which is located in the center of Asia, is unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between different WHRs and cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang, and determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Survey was conducted from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14618 representative participants were selected using a four-stage stratified sampling method. A total of 5757 Han participants were included in the study. The present statistical analysis was restricted to the 5595 Han subjects who had complete anthropometric data. The sensitivity, specificity, and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in each WHR level were calculated. The shortest distance in the ROC curves was used to determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR for detecting cardiovascular risk factors. Results In women, the WHR was positively associated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum concentrations of serum total cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia increased as the WHR increased. The same results were not observed among men. The optimal WHR cutoffs for predicting hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and???two of these risk factors for Han adults in Xinjiang were 0.92, 0.92, 0.91, 0.92 in men and 0.88, 0.89, 0.88, 0.89 in women, respectively. Conclusions Higher cutoffs for the WHR are required in the identification of Han adults aged???35 years with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases in Xinjiang. PMID:25074400

  8. Sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders (WAIST Study)

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Richardson, Caroline; Holleman, Rob; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A.; Kriska, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Examine the association between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms among overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Design Randomized clinical trial; Weight Assessment and Intervention in Schizophrenia Treatment (WAIST) Study: baseline data collected 2005-2008. Setting University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Participants Community-dwelling adults diagnosed with SZO/SA, with mild symptom severity [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)<90], who were interested in losing weight, age 18-70 years, BMI>27 kg/m2. Measurements Objectively measured sedentary behavior by accelerometry, and psychopathology assessed by PANSS. Participants wore the actigraphs for 7 consecutive days during their waking hours. Sedentary behavior was defined as ?100 counts per minute during wear-time and excluded sleep and non-wear time. Results On average, 81% of the participant’s monitoring time or 756 mins/day was classified as sedentary behavior using accelerometry. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and PANSS psychiatric symptoms [total (p?0.75), positive (p?0.81), negative (p?0.59) and general psychopathology (p?0.65) subscales]. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and age, race, gender and BMI. Conclusion From a clinical and public health perspective, the amount of time (approximately 13 hours) and percentage of time (81% excluding non-wear time associated with sleeping) engaged in sedentary behavior among overweight and obese adults in this population is alarming, and points to an urgent need for interventions to decrease sedentary behaviors. The lack of associations between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms may be due to a ceiling effect for sedentary behavior. PMID:23410710

  9. Evidence to suggest that women's sexual behavior is influenced by hip width rather than waist-to-hip ratio.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Victoria J; Brewer, Gayle; Hendrie, Colin A

    2014-10-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is an important ornament display that signals women's health and fertility. Its significance derives from human development as a bipedal species. This required fundamental changes to hip morphology/musculature to accommodate the demands of both reproduction and locomotion. The result has been an obstetric dilemma whereby women's hips are only just wide enough to allow the passage of an infant. Childbirth therefore poses a significant hip width related threat to maternal mortality/risk of gynecological injury. It was predicted that this would have a significant influence on women's sexual behavior. To investigate this, hip width and WHR were measured in 148 women (M age = 20.93 + 0.17 years) and sexual histories were recorded via questionnaire. Data revealed that hip width per se was correlated with total number of sexual partners, total number of one night stands, percentage of sexual partners that were one night stands, number of sexual partners within the context of a relationship per year sexually active, and number of one night stands per year sexually active. By contrast, WHR was not correlated with any of these measures. Further analysis indicated that women who predominantly engaged in one night stand behavior had wider hips than those who did not. WHR was again without effect in this context. Women's hip morphology has a direct impact on their risk of potentially fatal childbirth related injury. It is concluded that when they have control over this, women's sexual behavior reflects this risk and is therefore at least in part influenced by hip width. PMID:24752789

  10. Pilot intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary urban middle school girls: a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek, Stacey M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine if girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school Physical Activity Club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions controlling for baseline measures showed no statistically significant group differences, but directionality of differences was consistent with greater intervention group improvement for minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity/hour (t = 0.95, p = .35), cardiovascular fitness (t = 1.26, p = .22), body mass index (BMI; t = ?1.47, p = .15), BMI z-score (t = ?1.19, p = .24), BMI percentile (t = ?0.59, p = .56), percent body fat (t = ?0.86, p = .39), and waist circumference (t = ?0.19, p = .85). Findings support testing with a larger sample. PMID:22472632

  11. The post-partum mid-upper arm circumference of adolescents is reduced by pregnancy in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in pregnancy and early post-partum varied by maternal age. The MUAC of 3359 nulliparous pregnant women ?25 years of age in rural Nepal was measured in early pregnancy and at 3 months post-delivery of a live-born infant. Regression was used to model the change in MUAC and prevalence of MUAC?

  12. Short-pulse three-dimensional scattering from moderately rough surfaces: a comparison between narrow-waisted Gaussian beam algorithms and FDTD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Galdi; Panagiotis Kosmas; Carey M. Rappaport; Leopold B. Felsen; David A. Castañon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, with reference to short-pulse three-dimensional scattering from moderately rough surfaces, we present a comparison between Gabor-based narrow-waisted Gaussian beam (NW-GB) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms. NW-GB algorithms have recently emerged as an attractive alternative to traditional (ray-optical) high-frequency\\/short-pulse approximate methods, whereas FDTD algorithms are well-established full-wave tools for electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering. After presentation of relevant

  13. A Preliminary Investigation into the Potential Role of Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Preference within the Assortative Mating Hypothesis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Brosnan; Ian Walker

    2009-01-01

    Of particular interest to studying the etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is the potential for multiple risk factors\\u000a to combine through non-random mechanisms—assortative mating. Both genetic influences and a high-testosterone prenatal environment\\u000a have been implicated in the etiology of ASDs, and given that waist-hip ratio (WHR) is indicative of a woman’s circulating\\u000a testosterone level, a man attracted to higher-than-average

  14. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males), during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5%) (group A; n: 72) or gained weight (group B). Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ( and , resp.), BMI (), z-score BMI (), waist circumference (), fat mass (), LDL-C (), Tg/HDL-C ratio (), fasting and postprandial insulin (), and HOMA (), while HDL-C () and QUICKI increased (). Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (), waist circumference (), SBP (), and in QUICKI (), while fat mass (), fasting insulin (), and HOMA () decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity. PMID:21603203

  15. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  16. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  17. Effect of a hands-free wire on specific absorption rate for a waist-mounted 1.8 GHz cellular telephone handset.

    PubMed

    Troulis, S E; Scanlon, W G; Evans, N E

    2003-06-21

    A common feature of cellular telephony is the use of a 'hands-free' audio extension lead connected to a waist-worn handset. Interaction between the transmitting antenna, the wire and the user's body can occur, with detrimental effects including polar pattern degradation, reduced efficiency and localized increases in specific absorption rate (SAR). Using a realistic full-body model of an adult male, finite difference time domain analysis was employed to investigate the coupling between a hip-mounted 1.8 GHz handset fitted with a monopole antenna and a 1 m long wire representing a hands-free wire. Conduction current densities were computed for three identifiable coupling modes: magnetic-only, conductive-only and combined conductive-and-magnetic. Magnetic-only coupling was dominant. Without the lead, placing the handset at waist height led to a 42.8% increase in the total energy deposited in the body, compared to use at the head. Introducing the lead further increased the body loss, with a reduction in system radiation efficiency from 52% to 43.7%. Without the hands-free lead, the peak 1 g and 10 g SARs were 0.450 W kg(-1) and 0.265 W kg(-1), respectively, for 125 mW transmit power. With the hands-free lead connected, these values increased to 1.14 W kg(-1) and 0.430 W kg(-1), respectively. PMID:12870576

  18. Effect of a hands-free wire on specific absorption rate for a waist-mounted 1.8 GHz cellular telephone handset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troulis, S. E.; Scanlon, W. G.; Evans, N. E.

    2003-06-01

    A common feature of cellular telephony is the use of a 'hands-free' audio extension lead connected to a waist-worn handset. Interaction between the transmitting antenna, the wire and the user's body can occur, with detrimental effects including polar pattern degradation, reduced efficiency and localized increases in specific absorption rate (SAR). Using a realistic full-body model of an adult male, finite difference time domain analysis was employed to investigate the coupling between a hip-mounted 1.8 GHz handset fitted with a monopole antenna and a 1 m long wire representing a hands-free wire. Conduction current densities were computed for three identifiable coupling modes: magnetic-only, conductive-only and combined conductive-and-magnetic. Magnetic-only coupling was dominant. Without the lead, placing the handset at waist height led to a 42.8% increase in the total energy deposited in the body, compared to use at the head. Introducing the lead further increased the body loss, with a reduction in system radiation efficiency from 52% to 43.7%. Without the hands-free lead, the peak 1 g and 10 g SARs were 0.450 W kg-1 and 0.265 W kg-1, respectively, for 125 mW transmit power. With the hands-free lead connected, these values increased to 1.14 W kg-1 and 0.430 W kg-1, respectively.

  19. Why is low waist-to-chest ratio attractive in males? The mediating roles of perceived dominance, fitness, and protection ability.

    PubMed

    Coy, Anthony E; Green, Jeffrey D; Price, Michael E

    2014-06-01

    Past research suggests that a lower waist-to-chest ratio (WCR) in men (i.e., narrower waist and broader chest) is viewed as attractive by women. However, little work has directly examined why low WCRs are preferred. The current work merged insights from theory and past research to develop a model examining perceived dominance, fitness, and protection ability as mediators of to WCR-attractiveness relationship. These mediators and their link to both short-term (sexual) and long-term (relational) attractiveness were simultaneously tested by having 151 women rate one of 15 avatars, created from 3D body scans. Men with lower WCR were perceived as more physically dominant, physically fit, and better able to protect loved ones; these characteristics differentially mediated the effect of WCR on short-term, long-term, and general attractiveness ratings. Greater understanding of the judgments women form regarding WCR may yield insights into motivations by men to manipulate their body image. PMID:24958664

  20. Genetic associations between carcass traits measured by real-time ultrasound and scrotal circumference and growth traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Yokoo, M J; Lobo, R B; Araujo, F R C; Bezerra, L A F; Sainz, R D; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic correlations among real-time ultrasound carcass, BW, and scrotal circumference (SC) traits in Nelore cattle. Carcass traits, measured by real-time ultrasound of the live animal, were recorded from 2002 to 2004 on 10 farms across 6 Brazilian states on 2,590 males and females ranging in age from 450 to 599 d. Ultrasound records of LM area (LMA) and backfat thickness (BF) were obtained from cross-sectional images between the 12th and 13th ribs, and rump fat thickness (RF) was measured between the hook and pin bones over the junction between gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles. Also, BW (n = 22,778) and SC (n = 5,695) were recorded on animals born between 1998 and 2003. The BW traits were 120, 210, 365, 450, and 550-d standardized BW (W120, W210, W365, W450, and W550), plus BW (WS) and hip height (HH) on the ultrasound scanning date. The SC traits were 365-, 450-, and 550-d standardized SC (SC365, SC450, and SC550). For the BW and SC traits, the database used was from the Nelore Breeding Program-Nelore Brazil. The genetic parameters were estimated with multivariate animal models and REML. Estimated genetic correlations between LMA and other traits were 0.06 (BF), -0.04 (RF), 0.05 (HH), 0.58 (WS), 0.53 (W120), 0.62 (W210), 0.67 (W365), 0.64 (W450 and W550), 0.28 (SC365), 0.24 (SC450), and 0.00 (SC550). Estimated genetic correlations between BF and with other traits were 0.74 (RF), -0.32 (HH), 0.19 (WS), -0.03 (W120), -0.10 (W210), 0.04 (W365), 0.01 (W450), 0.06 (W550), 0.17 (SC365 and SC450), and -0.19 (SC550). Estimated genetic correlations between RF and other traits were -0.41 (HH), -0.09 (WS), -0.13 (W120), -0.09 (W210), -0.01 (W365), 0.02 (W450), 0.03 (W550), 0.05 (SC365), 0.11 (SC450), and -0.18 (SC550). These estimates indicate that selection for carcass traits measured by real-time ultrasound should not cause antagonism in the genetic improvement of SC and BW traits. Also, selection to increase HH might decrease subcutaneous fat as correlated response. Therefore, to obtain animals suited to specific tropical production systems, carcass, BW, and SC traits should be considered in selection programs. PMID:19820065

  1. The Effect of Two Different Hand Exercises on Grip Strength, Forearm Circumference, and Vascular Maturation in Patients Who Underwent Arteriovenous Fistula Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Sangwon; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Junho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of two different hand exercises on hand strength and vascular maturation in patients who underwent arteriovenous fistula surgery. Methods We recruited 18 patients who had chronic kidney disease and had undergone arteriovenous fistula surgery for hemodialysis. After the surgery, 10 subjects performed hand-squeezing exercise with GD Grip, and other 8 subjects used Soft Ball. The subjects continued the exercises for 4 weeks. The hand grip strength, pinch strength (tip, palmar and lateral pinch), and forearm circumference of the subjects were assessed before and after the hand-squeezing exercise. The cephalic vein size, blood flow velocity and volume were also measured by ultrasonography in the operated limb. Results All of the 3 types of pinch strengths, grip strength, and forearm circumference were significantly increased in the group using GD Grip. Cephalic vein size and blood flow volume were also significantly increased. However, blood flow velocity showed no difference after the exercise. The group using Soft Ball showed a significant increase in the tip and lateral pinch strength and forearm circumference. The cephalic vein size and blood flow volume were also significantly increased. On comparing the effect of the two different hand exercises, hand-squeezing exercise with GD Grip had a significantly better effect on the tip and palmar pinch strength than hand-squeezing exercise with Soft Ball. The effect on cephalic vein size was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion The results showed that hand squeezing exercise with GD Grip was more effective in increasing the tip and palmar pinch strength compared to hand squeezing exercise with soft ball. PMID:25379494

  2. Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This pragmatic evaluation investigated the effectiveness of the Children’s Health, Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE!) Project, a cluster randomised intervention to promote healthy weight using an educational focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Methods Participants (n = 318, aged 10–11 years) from 6 Intervention and 6 Comparison schools took part in the 20 weeks intervention between November 2010 and March/April 2011. This consisted of a teacher-led curriculum, learning resources, and homework tasks. Primary outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-scores. Secondary outcomes were objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and food intake. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at post-intervention (20 weeks), and at follow-up (30 weeks). Data were analysed using 2-level multi-level modelling (levels: school, student) and adjusted for baseline values of the outcomes and potential confounders. Differences in intervention effect by subgroup (sex, weight status, socio-economic status) were explored using statistical interaction. Results Significant between-group effects were observed for waist circumference at post-intervention (? for intervention effect =?1.63 (95% CI = ?2.20, -1.07) cm, p<0.001) and for BMI z-score at follow-up (?=?0.24 (95% CI = ?0.48, -0.003), p=0.04). At follow-up there was also a significant intervention effect for light intensity physical activity (?=25.97 (95% CI = 8.04, 43.89) min, p=0.01). Interaction analyses revealed that the intervention was most effective for overweight/obese participants (waist circumference: ?=?2.82 (95% CI = ?4.06, -1.58) cm, p<0.001), girls (BMI: ?=?0.39 (95% CI = ?0.81, 0.03) kg/m2, p=0.07), and participants with higher family socioeconomic status (breakfast consumption: ?=8.82 (95% CI = 6.47, 11.16), p=0.07). Conclusions The CHANGE! intervention positively influenced body size outcomes and light physical activity, and most effectively influenced body size outcomes among overweight and obese children and girls. The findings add support for the effectiveness of combined school-based physical activity and nutrition interventions. Additional work is required to test intervention fidelity and the sustained effectiveness of this intervention in the medium and long term. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03863885. PMID:23819701

  3. Population-Referenced Percentiles for Waist-Worn Accelerometer-Derived Total Activity Counts in U.S. Youth: 2003 – 2006 NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Wolff-Hughes, Dana L.; Bassett, David R.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA) and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC) per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual's total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6 – 19 y. Methods Data from the 2003 – 2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6 – 19 years with at least 4 d of ? 10 hours of accelerometer wear time (N?=?3698). MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ?4 metabolic equivalents (METs) for youth 6 – 17 y or minutes with ?2020 counts for youth 18 – 19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days. Results For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA. Conclusion Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents. PMID:25531290

  4. The combination of daily breakfast consumption and optimal breakfast choices in childhood is an important public health message.

    PubMed

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Briassoulis, George; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Savva, Savvas C; Solea, Tonia; Hebestreit, Antje; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Kourides, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Tornaritis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with children's diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors. Study sample consisted of 1558 children aged 4-8 years from Cyprus. Breakfast frequency was assessed through a parental questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and blood pressure were examined in relation to breakfast frequency consumption. Habitual breakfast consumers' daily nutrient intake was assessed through a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, according to their breakfast choices. Girls who have breakfast on a daily basis had lower mean BMI and BMI z-score; they were also less likely of having abnormal levels of serum triglycerides, atheromatic index (total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio) and diastolic blood pressure after controlling for several confounding factors. Within regular breakfast consumers, of both boys and girls, those having ready to eat cereals had a superior nutrient intake profile. Daily breakfast consumption along with good breakfast choices is an important public health message for Cypriot children. PMID:24512299

  5. The significance of macrocephaly or enlarging head circumference in infants with the triad: further evidence of mimics of shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller, David; Barnes, Patrick; Miller, Marvin

    2015-06-01

    Infants with the triad (neurologic dysfunction, subdural hematoma [SDH], and retinal hemorrhage) are often diagnosed as victims of shaken baby syndrome. Medical conditions/predisposing factors to developing the triad are often dismissed: short falls, birth-related SDH that enlarges, macrocephaly, sinus/cortical vein thrombosis, and others. Six infants with the triad are described in which child abuse was diagnosed, but parents denied wrongdoing. All 6 had either macrocephaly or enlarging head circumference, which suggested medical explanations. Three infants incurred short falls, 1 had a difficult delivery in which there was likely a rebleed of a birth-related SDH, 1 had a spontaneous SDH associated with increased extra-axial fluid spaces, and 1 had a sinus thrombosis. Following legal proceedings, all 6 infants were returned to their parents, and there has been no child maltreatment in follow-up, suggesting child abuse never happened. The results indicate that alternative medical explanations for causing the triad should be considered and that macrocephaly or an enlarging head circumference raises the possibility of a medical explanation. PMID:25893912

  6. A Community Intervention Reduces BMI z-score in Children: Shape Up Somerville First Year Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina D. Economos; Raymond R. Hyatt; Jeanne P. Goldberg; Aviva Must; Elena N. Naumova; Jessica J. Collins; Miriam E. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that a community-based environmental change intervention could prevent weight gain in young children (7.6 ± 1.0 years).Research Methods and Procedures: A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three culturally diverse urban cities in Massachusetts. Somerville was the intervention community; two socio-demographically-matched cities were control communities. Children (n = 1178) in grades 1

  7. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Miguel Soares; Bonganha, Valéria; Vechin, Felipe Cassaro; de Barros Berton, Ricardo Paes; Lixandrão, Manoel Emílio; Nogueira, Felipe Romano Damas; de Souza, Giovana Vergínia; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg) or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg). In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8?10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162). Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001), and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%), reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, ?6.75%) and noticeable increases in muscle strength after resistance training to leg press (P = 0.004, 41.29%) and bench press (P = 0.0001, 27.23%). Conclusion It was concluded that resistance training performed three times a week may reduce the metabolic syndrome Z-score with concomitant decreases in fasting blood glucose, improvements in body composition, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. PMID:24072967

  8. The influence of membranous stretched urethral length and urethral circumference on postoperative recovery of continence after radical prostatectomy: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dae Sung; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Se Joong; Kim, Sun Il

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We investigate the influence of stretched membranous urethral length (SUL) and urethral circumference (UC) on postoperative recovery of continence after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: To evaluate the distal continence zone intraoperatively, we individually measured and recorded stretched membranous urethral length (distance between the urogenital diaphragm and the prostate apex with cephalad retraction, SUL) and urethral circumference (UC) after exposure of the urethra. We analyzed the association between magnetic resonance imaging-measured membranous urethral length (MRIL) and urethral diameter (MRID) and intraoperative SUL and UC and influence on return to continence. Results: The mean patient age, SUL and UC were 66.5 ± 6.0 years, 24.2 ± 3.3 mm, and 27.5 ± 4.4 mm, respectively. MRIL and MRID were 11.3 ± 1.6 mm and 10.6 ± 1.9mm, respectively. In the bivariate correlation analysis, there was no statistically significant correlation between SUL and MRIL (p = 0.201) and between UC and MRID (p = 0.124). In the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis, cumulative continence rates between the two groups dichotomized at the median value according to age (p = 0.0519), SUL (p = 0.6583), UC (p = 0.4031), MRIL (p = 0.4042), and MRID (p = 0.8191) were not significantly different. High SUL-to-MRIL ratio (>2.2) was the only significant predictor of lower cumulative continence rate (p = 0.0457). Conclusions: MRIL measured during surgery was not associated with postoperative continence recovery after RP. We observed that an excessively long membranous urethra compared to the urethral length on preoperative MRI is predictive of poorer postoperative continence recovery. However, small sample size and potential confounding surgical factors limit the significance of this study.

  9. Preference for Women's Body Mass and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Tsimane' Men of the Bolivian Amazon: Biological and Cultural Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N?=?66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation. PMID:25148034

  10. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian'an; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Lango Allen, Hana; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grässler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M

    2010-11-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?? to P = 1.8 × 10???) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?³ to P = 1.2 × 10?¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

  11. Preference for women's body mass and waist-to-hip ratio in Tsimane' men of the Bolivian Amazon: biological and cultural determinants.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N?=?66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation. PMID:25148034

  12. Males Prefer a Larger Bust Size in Women Than Females Themselves: An Experimental Study on Female Bodily Attractiveness with Varying Weight, Bust Size, Waist Width, Hip Width, and Leg Length Independently

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lukas Prantl; Martin Gründl

    What determines a female figure as attractive and is there a consensus of both sexes in judging female bodily attractiveness?\\u000a To answer these questions, an extensive experiment was conducted using high-quality photographic stimulus material, several\\u000a systematically varied figure parameters (weight, hip width, waist width, bust size, and leg length), and a large sample of\\u000a 34,000 participants. The results showed that

  13. Association of early childhood abdominal circumference and weight gain with blood pressure at 36?months of age: secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl A; Crozier, Sarah R; Robinson, Siân M; Godfrey, Keith M; Lawrence, Wendy T; Law, Catherine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether changes in measures of fat distribution and body size during early life are associated with blood pressure at 36?months of age. Design Analysis of data collected from a prospective cohort study. Setting Community-based investigation in Southampton, UK. Participants 761 children with valid blood pressure measurements, born to women participating in the Southampton Women’s Survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Anthropometric measurements were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36?months and conditional changes between the time points calculated. Blood pressure was measured at 36?months. Factors possibly influencing the blood pressure were assessed using linear regression. All independent variables of interest and confounding variables were included in stepwise multiple regression to identify the model that best predicted blood pressure at 36?months. Results Greater conditional gains in abdominal circumference (AC) between 0–6 and 24–36?months were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures at 36?months (p<0.001). Subscapular skinfold and height gains were weakly associated with higher blood pressures, while greater weight gains between 0–6, 12–24 and 24–36?months were more strongly associated, but the dominant influences were AC gains, particularly from 0–6 to 24–36?months. Thus one SD score increases in AC between 0–6 and 24–36?months were associated with 1.59?mm?Hg (95% CI 0.97 to 2.21) and 1.84?mm?Hg (1.24 to 2.46) higher systolic blood pressures, respectively, and 1.04?mm?Hg (0.57 to 1.51) and 1.02?mm?Hg (0.56, 1.48) higher diastolic pressures, respectively. Conclusions Conditional gains in abdominal circumference, particularly within 6?months of birth and in the year preceding measurement, were more positively associated with blood pressure at 36?months than gains in other anthropometric measures. Above-average AC gains in early childhood may contribute to adult hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24993768

  14. Association between waist-to-height ratio, isolated and combined morbidities and C-reactive protein in the elderly: a clinical-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jousianny Patrício; Lima, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceiço Rodrigues; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Rosália Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

  15. Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution

    E-print Network

    Hunter, David J.

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ...

  16. Assessment of Under Nutrition of Bangladeshi Adults Using Anthropometry: Can Body Mass Index Be Replaced by Mid-Upper-Arm-Circumference?

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Tania; Karim, Md. Nazmul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Md. Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Body-mass-index (BMI) is widely accepted as an indicator of nutritional status in adults. Mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC) is another anthropometric-measure used primarily among children. The present study attempted to evaluate the use of MUAC as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition, and thus to suggest a suitable cut-off value. Methods A cross-sectional study in 650 adult attendants of the patients of Dhaka-Hospital, of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) was conducted during 2012. Height, weight and MUAC of 260 male and 390 female aged 19–60 years were measured. Curve estimation was done to assess the linearity and correlation of BMI and MUAC. Sensitivity and specificity of MUAC against BMI<18.5 was determined. Separate Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for male and female. Area under ROC curve and Youden's index were generated to aid selection of the most suitable cut-off value of MUAC for undernutrition. A value with highest Youden's index was chosen for cut-off. Results Our data shows strong significant positive correlation (linear) between MUAC and BMI, for males r = 0.81, (p<0.001) and for females r = 0.828, (p<0.001). MUAC cut-off <25.1 cm in males (AUC 0.930) and <23.9 cm in females (AUC 0.930) were chosen separately based on highest corresponding Youden's index. These values best correspond with BMI cut-off for under nutrition (BMI <18.5) in either gender. Conclusion MUAC correlates closely with BMI. For the simplicity and easy to remember MUAC <25 cm for male and <24 cm for female may be considered as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition. PMID:25875397

  17. Monitoring the adequacy of catch-up growth among moderately malnourished children receiving home-based therapy using mid-upper arm circumference in southern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Connor, Nicholas E; Manary, Mark J; Maleta, Ken

    2011-10-01

    Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) measurements collected by community-based health aides have the potential to monitor changes in nutritional status among moderately malnourished Malawian children while undergoing HBT using RUTF. Retrospective analysis was performed using the anthropometric data of 1,904 moderately malnourished children during treatment using RUTF. Changes in MUAC and changes in overall weight at 1 and 2 months of treatment were compared. Various geometric relationships were explored between the measures to find the most direct relationship. Models were developed to investigate anthropometric changes in children undergoing treatment. These data reveal that the correlation between the changes in MUAC and changes in weight over the course of treatment is statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The relationship between a child's change in MUAC and their change in weight is influenced by several cofactors related to their initial presentation. The power of change in weight to predict change in MUAC increases at the second month of treatment. Statistical modelling improves if children under the age of 12 months are omitted. Changes in MUAC reflect changes in overall body mass among moderately malnourished children undergoing HBT using RUTF suggesting that performance could possibly be monitored by village health aides in order to monitor a child's performance on feeding programmes in low resource settings. PMID:20082126

  18. Beverage Consumption Patterns of Children Born at Different Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Tanja V.E.; Stunkard, Albert J.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Moore, Reneé H.; Faith, Myles S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice has been associated with overweight in children. Objective This study prospectively assessed beverage consumption patterns and their relationship with weight status in a cohort of children born at different risk for obesity. Methods and Procedures Participants were children born at low risk (n = 27) or high risk (n = 22) for obesity based on maternal prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2). Daily beverage consumption was generated from 3-day food records from children aged 3–6 years and coded into seven beverage categories (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, caloric and noncaloric soda, soft drinks including and excluding fruit juice). Child anthropometric measures were assessed yearly. Results High-risk children consumed a greater percentage of daily calories from beverages at age 3, more fruit juice at ages 3 and 4, more soft drinks (including fruit juice) at ages 3–5, and more soda at age 6 compared to low-risk children. Longitudinal analyses showed that a greater 3-year increase in soda intake was associated with an increased change in waist circumference, whereas a greater increase in milk intake was associated with a reduced change in waist circumference. There was no significant association between change in intake from any of the beverage categories and change in BMI z-score across analyses. Discussion Children’s familial predisposition to obesity may differentially affect their beverage consumption patterns. Future research should examine the extent to which dietary factors may play a role in pediatric body fat deposition over time. PMID:18535546

  19. Cross-sectional association between maximal estimated cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome for men and women in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Artero, Enrique G.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between estimated maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Patients Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (N=38,659) participants examined between 1979–2006. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of participants to examine CRF levels defined as low (lower 20%), moderate (middle 40%) and high (upper 40%) of age/gender specific distributions versus NCEP derived MetSyn expressed as a summed z-score continuous variable. We used a general linear model for continuous variables, chi-square for distribution of categorical variables, and multiple linear regression for single and cumulative MetS scores adjusted for BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake and family history of cardiovascular disease. Results We observed significant inverse trends for MetS vs. CRF in both genders (p-for-trend, < 0.001). CRF associations vs. individual components were: Waist circumference (men, ?= ?0.14, r2 = 0.78; women, ?= ?0.04, r2 = 0.71), triglycerides (men, ?= ?0.29, r2 = 0.18; women, ?= ?0.17, r2 = 0.18), HDL-cholesterol (men, ?= 0.25, r2 = 0.17; women, ?= 0.08, r2 = 0.19), fasting glucose (men, ?= ?0.09, r2 = 0.09; women, ?= 0.09, r2 = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (men, ?= ?0.09, r2 = 0.09; women, ?= ?0.01, r2 = 0.21), and diastolic blood pressure (men, ?= ?0.07, r2 = 0.12; women, ?= ?0.05, r2 = 0.14). All associations except for systolic blood pressure (both genders) and glucose (women) are significant (p<0.001). Conclusion CRF demonstrated a strong inverse relationship with MetS in both genders with the strongest single associative component being waist circumference. PMID:23391253

  20. A School-Based Intervention for Diabetes Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [±SD] age, 11.3±0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS There was a decrease in the primary outcome — the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity — in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P = 0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P = 0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. CONCLUSIONS Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.) PMID:20581420

  1. Genotype × environment interaction for age at first calving, scrotal circumference, and yearling weight in Nellore cattle using reaction norms in multitrait random regression models.

    PubMed

    Chiaia, H L J; de Lemos, M V A; Venturini, G C; Aboujaoude, C; Berton, M P; Feitosa, F B; Carvalheiro, R; Albuquerque, L G; de Oliveira, H N; Baldi, F

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of genotype × environment interaction (G×E) on age at first calving (AFC), scrotal circumference (SC), and yearling weight (YW) and to estimate genetic correlations between these traits in Nellore cattle using reaction norms in multitrait random regression models. In this study, 28,871, 41,386, and 89,152 records of Nellore cattle for AFC, SC, and YW, respectively, were used. The data were obtained from farms located in the north, northeast, midwest, and southeast regions of Brazil that participate in the DeltaGen Breeding Program. Environmental levels were defined as a function of contemporary groups, that is, animals born in the same herd and year, from the same management group (from birth to yearling), and of the same sex. Postweaning weight gain was used as a criterion to evaluate the environmental conditions for all traits. For reaction norm analyses, residual variances were modeled with homogeneous and heterogeneous classes. The model for SC and YW included the fixed effects of contemporary group and age of the animal as a covariate as well as random direct additive genetic and residual effects. The same model, excluding the covariate age of the animal, was used for AFC. The heritability estimates were low to high for AFC (0.09 to 0.50), high for SC (0.51 to 0.67), and moderate to high for YW (0.33 to 0.71). The genetic correlations (within each trait) along the environmental levels varied from -0.27 to 1.0 for AFC, from 0.73 to 1.0 for SC, and from 0.26 to 1.0 for YW. The genetic correlations between different traits in different environments varied from -0.14 to -0.60 between AFC and SC, from -0.05 to -0.32 between AFC and YW, and from -0.05 to 0.72 between YW and SC. The genetic correlations have had different magnitudes for AFC, SC, and YW, which could indicate the presence of G×E. The present results should support researchers and farmers in defining selection criteria to improve growth traits and sexual precocity. Our results suggest that animals for breeding have to be selected in the same environment and management conditions as their progeny will be reared. PMID:26020172

  2. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Whyatt, R; Hoepner, L; Oberfield, S; Dominguez-Bello, MG; Widen, EM; Hassoun, A; Perera, F; Rundle, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cesarean section (CS) and antibiotic use during pregnancy may alter normal maternal-offspring microbiota exchange, thereby contributing to aberrant microbial colonization of the infant gut and increased susceptibility to obesity later in life. We hypothesized that (i) maternal use of antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) CS are independently associated with higher risk of childhood obesity in the offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS Of the 727 mothers enrolled in the Northern Manhattan Mothers and Children Study, we analyzed the 436 mother–child dyads followed until 7 years of age with complete data. We ascertained prenatal antibiotic use by a questionnaire administered late in the third trimester, and delivery mode by medical record. We derived age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores using the CDC SAS Macro, and defined obesity as BMI z ? 95th percentile. We used binary regression with robust variance and linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-gravid BMI, maternal receipt of public assistance, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding in the first year and gestational antibiotics or delivery mode. RESULTS Compared with children not exposed to antibiotics during the second or third trimester, those exposed had 84% (33–154%) higher risk of obesity, after multivariable adjustment. Second or third trimester antibiotic exposure was also positively associated with BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat (all P<0.05). Independent of prenatal antibiotic usage, CS was associated with 46% (8–98%) higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Associations were similar for elective and non-elective CS. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort, CS and exposure to antibiotics in the second or third trimester were associated with higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Future studies that address the limitations of our study are warranted to determine if prenatal antibiotic use is associated with offspring obesity. Research is also needed to determine if alterations in neonatal gut microbiota underlie the observed associations. PMID:25298276

  3. The Effect of Obesity on Wages and Employment: The Difference Between Having a High BMI and Being Fat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edvard Johansson; Petri Böckerman; Urpo Kiiskinen; Markku Heliövaara

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the relationship between overweight and labour market success, using indicators of individual body composition along with BMI (Body Mass Index). We use the dataset from Finland in which weight, height, fat mass and waist circumference are not self-reported, but obtained as part of the overall health examination. We find that waist circumference, but not weight

  4. Obesity: new insight into the anthropometric classification of fat distribution shown by computed tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Ashwell; T J Cole; A K Dixon

    1985-01-01

    Twenty eight women presenting for routine computed tomography had their waist, hip, and thigh circumferences measured. The ratio of the area of intra-abdominal fat to the area of subcutaneous fat shown in the computed tomogram taken at the umbilical level was calculated and found to correlate highly significantly with the ratio of waist to hip circumference. The correlation between these

  5. Association between socio-economic status and adiposity in urban Fezeu L,1, 2 Minkoulou M,2 Balkau B,1 Kengne A-P,2 Awah P,2 Unwin N,3, 4 Alberti

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    was present in 67% of women and 18% of men (pleisure time physical activity, and waist circumference were measured and subjects were classified as obese if their BMI > 30 kg/m2 or overweight if BMI was between 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was defined by a waist circumference

  6. Consumption of total fiber and types of fiber are associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and abdominal adiposity in US adults. NHANES 1999-2006.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this cross-sectional study, an inverse association was found between intakes of total dietary fiber and five types of fiber with Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent obese, and with increased waist circumference. Intake of vegetable fiber was not associated with any of the weight mea...

  7. Central Adiposity and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Penelope; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Joseph, Parveen Nedra; Dorn, Joan M.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the associations between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), we evaluated a related but less well-established association between waist circumference and brachial artery reactivity (BAR), a functional measurement of subclinical CVD, where lower levels indicate dysfunction. Regression models examined trends in mean BAR across waist circumference tertiles in police officers, a high-stress occupational group with increased risk for CVD. Mean BAR decreased across increasing waist tertiles among men, but not women, and this association was stronger among officers who consumed more alcohol. Larger waist circumference may be associated with lower BAR, providing an opportunity for intervention prior to disease development. PMID:24555157

  8. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J.; Baranowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9–10 year old children and 264 17–18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the “Lie Scale” from the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity. PMID:21115080

  9. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-02-01

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9-10 year old children and 264 17-18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the "Lie Scale" from the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity. PMID:21115080

  10. Associations of PON1 and Genetic Ancestry with Obesity in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Beckman, Kenneth; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genotype and arylesterase levels (ARYase, measure of PON1 enzyme quantity), to characterize the relationship between PON1 and obesity in young Mexican-American children (n?=?373) living in an agricultural community in California. Since PON1 polymorphisms and obesity both vary between ethnic groups, we estimated proportional genetic ancestry using 106 ancestral informative markers (AIMs). Among children, PON1192 allele frequencies were 0.5 for both alleles, and the prevalence of obesity was high (15% and 33% at ages two and five, respectively). The average proportion of European, African, and Native American ancestry was 0.40, 0.09, and 0.51, yet there was wide inter-individual variation. We found a significantly higher odds of obesity (9.3 and 2.5- fold) in PON1192QQ children compared to PON1192RR children at ages two and five, respectively. Similar relationships were seen with BMI Z-scores at age two and waist circumference at age five. After adjusting for genetic ancestry in models of PON1 and BMI Z-score, effect estimates for PON1192 genotype changed 15% and 9% among two and five year old children, respectively, providing evidence of genetic confounding by population stratification. However even after adjustment for genetic ancestry, the trend of increased BMI Z-scores with increased number of PON1192 Q alleles remained. Our findings suggest that PON1 may play a role in obesity independent of genetic ancestry and that studies of PON1 and health outcomes, especially in admixed populations, should account for differences due to population stratification. PMID:23658746

  11. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease body weight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8?weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-?, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P?waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P?waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted. PMID:23601452

  12. Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention trial on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study

    PubMed Central

    Grydeland, May; Bjelland, Mona; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bergh, Ingunn Holden; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Lien, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Background School-based interventions that target prevention of overweight and obesity in children have been tested with mixed results. Thus, successful interventions are still called for. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent school-based intervention programme targeting physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours on anthropometric outcomes. Methods A 20-month intervention was evaluated in a cluster randomised, controlled study of 1324 11-year-olds. Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age z-score (BMIz), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) and weight status (International Obesity Task Force's cut-offs). Weight, height and WC were measured objectively; pubertal status was self-reported and parental education was self-reported by the parents. Intervention effects were determined by one-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression, after checking for clustering effects of school, and moderating effects of gender, pubertal status and parental education. Results Beneficial effects were found for BMI (p=0.02) and BMIz (p=0.003) in girls, but not in boys. While a beneficial effect was found for BMI (p=0.03) in participants of parents reporting a high level of education, a negative effect was found for WTHR in participants with parents reporting a low level of education (p=0.003). There were no intervention effects for WC and weight status. Conclusions A multicomponent 20-month school-based intervention had a beneficial effect on BMI and BMIz in adolescent girls, but not in boys. Furthermore, children of higher educated parents seemed to benefit more from the intervention, and this needs attention in future interventions to avoid further increase in social inequalities in overweight and obesity. PMID:23624466

  13. Waypoint navigation with a vibrotactile waist belt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan B. F. Van Erp; Hendrik A. H. C. Van Veen; Chris Jansen; Trevor Dobbins

    2005-01-01

    Presenting waypoint navigation on a visual display is not suited for all situations. The present experiments investigate if it is feasible to present the navigation information on a tactile display. Important design issue of the display is how direction and distance information must be coded. Important usability issues are the resolution of the display and its usefulness in vibrating environments.

  14. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wanting to slim down are jumping on the low-carbohydrate diet trend in an attempt to lose weight. However, ... saying goodbye to carbs and hello to halitosis. ; Low-carb diets work by limiting the amount of carbohydrates ingested, which allows the body to burn stored ...

  15. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  16. Measuring the Circumference of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This on-line project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student. In the course of the project, students learn about Eratosthenes and his experiment, do a similar experiment by collaborating with other schools, and analyze and reflect on the collected data to determine the accuracy of their measurements and what they learned. The project provides instructions, activities, reference materials, on-line help, and a teacher area.

  17. Measuring the Circumference of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This on-line project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student. In the course of the project, students learn about Eratosthenes and his experiment, do a similar experiment by collaborating with other schools, and analyze and reflect on the collected data to determine the accuracy of their measurements and what they learned. The project provides instructions, activities, reference materials, on-line help, and a teacher area.

  18. IRS Scan-mapping of the Wasp-waist Nebula (IRAS 16253-2429). I. Derivation of Shock Conditions from H2 Emission and Discovery of 11.3 ?m PAH Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.; O'Linger, JoAnn

    2010-09-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a ~1' × 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H2 lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 ?m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 ?m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 ?m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of ~1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H2 transitions is found to be 1.94 ± 0.05 × 10-5 L sun in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 ± 0.04 × 10-5 L sun in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T ~ 1000 K) H2 gas is 7.95 ± 0.19 × 10-7 M sun in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 ± 0.17 × 10-7 M sun in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10-3, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H2 ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H2 data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 104 cm-3<= n H <= 105 cm-3 are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n H <= 103 cm-3 for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s-1 <= vs <= 10 km s-1 for the redshifted gas and vs = 10 km s-1 for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 ?G, and just 3 ?G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

  19. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

  20. Outcomes of a multilevel walking intervention for older adults living in retirement communities

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Dori E.

    2010-01-01

    benefits. Pedometer use resulted in an approximately 2000 step per day increase in walking.benefits included decreased weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, cholesterol, and blood pressure for those walking 3 days

  1. Energy Balance and Obesity

    Cancer.gov

    Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

  2. IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H{sub 2} EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 {mu}m PAH ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Barsony, Mary [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Drive, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace A. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); O'Linger, JoAnn, E-mail: mbarsony@stars.sfsu.ed, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.or, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: joanno@ipac.caltech.ed [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a {approx}1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H{sub 2} lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 {mu}m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of {approx}1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H{sub 2} transitions is found to be 1.94 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T {approx} 1000 K) H{sub 2} gas is 7.95 {+-} 0.19 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10{sup -3}, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H{sub 2} ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H{sub 2} data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3{<=}} n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub s} {<=} 10 km s{sup -1} for the redshifted gas and v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 {mu}G, and just 3 {mu}G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

  3. Genome-Wide Association for Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Reveals a Novel Locus for Visceral Fat in Women

    PubMed Central

    White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V.; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D.; Foster, Meredith C.; Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B.; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ?2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p?=?3.1×10E-09), previously identified in association with waist–hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p?=?5.9×10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p?=?1.6×10-08), but not men (p?=?0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p?=?0.006) but not men (p?=?0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p?=?0.04 [women], p?=?0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist–hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for VAT in women. More refined phenotypes for body composition and fat distribution can detect new loci not previously uncovered in large-scale GWAS of anthropometric traits. PMID:22589738

  4. Association between general and central adiposity in childhood, and change in these, with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence: prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie A Lawlor; Li Benfield; Jennifer Logue; Kate Tilling; Laura D Howe; Abigail Fraser; Lynne Cherry; Pauline Watt; Andrew R Ness; George Davey Smith; Naveed Sattar

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat mass in childhood and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15-16.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.Participants 5235 children aged 9-12 at start of study.Main exposures BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass determined by dual energy x ray absorptiometry, assessed at age

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in an impoverished minority population.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, Frank K; Rai, Jitha; Vanar, Vishwas; Bongiorno, Charles; Nelson, Deborah B; Parepally, Mayur; Poonia, Arashdeep; Sharma, Amol; Gohel, Shaun; Richter, Joel E

    2010-10-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An epidemiological link between an increased body mass index and complaints of typical heartburn symptoms has been identified. It appears that increasing waist circumference, rather than overall weight is most important. Studies to date have not included minority, impoverished communities. Our aim was to determine the impact of obesity on the prevalence of reflux disease in an impoverished community while controlling for known confounders. METHODS: DESIGN Cross-sectional survey delivered by in-home interviews, convenience sampling, and targeted mailing. Data queried include demographics, medical history, lifestyle habits, and symptoms of reflux disease. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measured in participating subjects. PARTICIPANTS: 503 subjects living in the zip code immediately surrounding Temple University Hospital. Included only adults living in the hospital's zip code for at least 3 years. RESULTS: The highest quartile of waist circumference (?42 in.) demonstrated a strong association with GERD (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.18-3.90). Smoking increased the odds by 1.72 (95% CI 1.13-2.62). There was no relationship between body mass index, waist-hip ratio, or diet and reflux classification. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing waist circumference, but not overall body mass index or waist-hip ratio, and smoking are risk factors for prevalent GERD. No association between reflux disease and lifestyle choices such as coffee drinking and fast food dining were found. LIMITATIONS: Potential for recall bias and disease misclassification. Possible methodological errors in self-measurement of waist and hip circumference. PMID:21311721

  6. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  7. Quality of life in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia relates to glucocorticoid treatment, adiposity and insulin resistance: United Kingdom Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive (CaHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Thang S; Krone, Nils; Willis, Debbie S; Conway, Gerard S; Hahner, Stefanie; Rees, D Aled; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Context Quality of life (QoL) has been variously reported as normal or impaired in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). To explore the reasons for this discrepancy we investigated the relationship between QoL, glucocorticoid treatment and other health outcomes in CAH adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 151 adults with 21-hydroxylase deficiency aged 18–69 years in whom QoL (assessed using the Short Form Health Survey), glucocorticoid regimen, anthropometric and metabolic measures were recorded. Relationships were examined between QoL, type of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone) and dose of glucocorticoid expressed as prednisolone dose equivalent (PreDEq). QoL was expressed as z-scores calculated from matched controls (14?430 subjects from UK population). Principal components analysis (PCA) was undertaken to identify clusters of associated clinical and biochemical features and the principal component (PC) scores used in regression analysis as predictor of QoL. Results QoL scores were associated with type of glucocorticoid treatment for vitality (P=0.002) and mental health (P=0.011), with higher z-scores indicating better QoL in patients on hydrocortisone monotherapy (P<0.05). QoL did not relate to PreDEq or mutation severity. PCA identified three PCs (PC1, disease control; PC2, adiposity and insulin resistance and PC3, blood pressure and mutations) that explained 61% of the variance in observed variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that PC2, reflecting adiposity and insulin resistance (waist circumference, serum triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and HDL-cholesterol), related to QoL scores, specifically impaired physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, Physical Component Summary Score (P<0.001) and vitality (P=0.002). Conclusions Increased adiposity, insulin resistance and use of prednisolone or dexamethasone are associated with impaired QoL in adults with CAH. Intervention trials are required to establish whether choice of glucocorticoid treatment and/or weight loss can improve QoL in CAH adults. PMID:23520247

  8. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  9. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to cardiometabolic risk in children: cross-sectional findings from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk among children. However, little is known about the independent and combined associations of PA and SB as well as different types of these behaviours with cardiometabolic risk in children. We therefore investigated these relationships among children. Methods The subjects were a population sample of 468 children 6–8 years of age. PA and SB were assessed by a questionnaire administered by parents and validated by a monitor combining heart rate and accelerometry measurements. We assessed body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma lipids and lipoproteins and blood pressure and calculated a cardiometabolic risk score using population-specific Z-scores and a formula waist circumference?+?insulin?+?glucose?+?triglycerides - HDL cholesterol?+?mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We analysed data using multivariate linear regression models. Results Total PA was inversely associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (??=?-0.135, p?=?0.004), body fat percentage (??=?-0.155, p?waist circumference (??=?0.097, p?=?0.033) and systolic blood pressure (??=?0.096, p?=?0.039). Resting was directly associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (??=?0.092, p?=?0.049), triglycerides (??=?0.131, p?=?0.005), VLDL triglycerides (??=?0.134, p?=?0.009), VLDL cholesterol (??=?0.147, p?=?0.004) and LDL cholesterol (??=?0.105, p?=?0.023). Other types of PA and SB had less consistent associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions The results of our study emphasise increasing total and unstructured PA and decreasing watching TV and videos and other sedentary behaviours to reduce cardiometabolic risk among children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01803776. PMID:24766669

  10. Are We Overdoing It with the Hirsch-Index H ?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , namely age, height, weight, chest circumference, waist circumfer- ence, and bottom circumference single number, although it is supposed to measure satisfactorily human intelligence which, as far as we by one single number like IQ when it comes to human intelligence, or for that matter, like the Hirsch

  11. [Nutritional status in telarche and menarche in indigenous and non indigenous Chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Costa Machado, Thais; Bustos, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    A compensatory effect of chronic malnutrition that influences excess of weight has been reported. This effect would be more evident in indigenous populations. The aim of this study was to find out the association between ethnic group (mapuche) and body composition in the telarche and menarche of indigenous and non indigenous adolescents. This was a cross sectional design. At the beginning, a screening of 10,121 girls from 168 schools in the Araucania Region, Chile was done. 230 adolescent in telarche (grade II of the development of the mammary gland): 112 indigenous and 118 non indigenous and 239 in menarche (113 indigenous and 126 non indigenous) were identified. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were evaluated. BMI, WC and LM were higher in the indigenous adolescent in telarche. For those with menarche, the differences decreased, reaching with higher values for indigenous girls only in BMI and FM (p=0,04 and 0,02, respectively). Belonging to the indigenous group increased the BMI in 0.37 z scores in telarche (95% CI: 0,17-0,58) and 0,44 in menarche (95% CI:0,18-0,70). Being mapuche was also associated to higher WC: 3.33 cm (CI 1,67 - 4,99) in telarche and 3,17 cm (CI 0,73-5,60) in menarche and to higher lean mass only for those adolescents with telarche (1,3 CI: 0,11-2,43) and to fat mass only for those with menarche (2,4 CI: 1,02-3,77). The body composition indicators in indigenous adolescents are of concern and underscores the importance of programs to promote healthy lifestyles that take into account resources from the indigenous communities. PMID:19886510

  12. Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8?years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds). Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings). Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured outcomes. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials NTR 2555 MEC AzM/UM NL 31988.068.10 / MEC 10-3-052 PMID:22471971

  13. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  14. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  15. The Use of Obesity Indicators for the Prediction of Hypertension Risk among Youth in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sharbatti, SS; Shaikh, RB; Mathew, E; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Muttappallymyalil, J; Basha, SA

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant risk factor for metabolic disorders including increase in blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and Waist/Hip ratio (WHR) are simple and effective indicators of obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between obesity anthropometric indicators and hypertension and to identify the best anthropometric indicator/s that can predict hypertension risk among youth in the UAE. Methods: A 110 first year students in a Medical University in Ajman, UAE, during the year 2009–2010 were included in a cross-sectional study. The height, weight, WC, hip circumference and blood pressure were measured and the BMI and WHR were calculated for each student and used in the analyses. Results: The mean values for BMI, WC, hip circumference and WHR, were significantly higher in the Pre/Hypertensive group compared to normal blood pressure group. The risk of Pre/ hypertension was significantly increased by 4.3 times for participants who had general obesity (BMI? 30) or abdominal obesity (identified from high WC). Highly significant correlations were noticed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and all anthropometric indicators except that for Hip circumference and systolic blood pressure. Step-wise linear regression model showed that when all obesity indicators were studied together, the waist circumference was the only indicator which showed significant relationship with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Waist circumference is the best anthropometric indicator that can predict hypertension risk among youth in the UAE. PMID:23113084

  16. Topological constraints on the dynamics of wasp-waist ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferenc Jordán; Wei-Chung Liu; Timothy Wyatt

    2005-01-01

    Small pelagic fish species like anchovy or sardines are of high ecological and economical importance. As marine food webs are fished down, these small pelagics tend to be more exploited and overfished. It is not yet very well known what the possible effects of their collapse can be, therefore there is an urgent need to outline a theoretical framework for

  17. Potbellies, wasp-waists, and superparamagnetism in magnetic hysteresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tauxe; T. A. T. Mullender; T. Pick

    1996-01-01

    Because the response of a magnetic substance to an applied field depends strongly on the physical properties of the material, much can be learned by monitoring that response through what is known as a ``magnetic hysteresis loop.'' The measurements are rapid and quickly becoming part of the standard set of tools supporting paleomagnetic research. Yet the interpretation of hysteresis loops

  18. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Cho, Ying-Chun; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Hu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Li-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol) and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance. PMID:26137484

  19. Is the negative relationship between obesity and bone mineral content greater for older women?

    PubMed

    Chung, Wankyo; Lee, Jongseok; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two important body composition problems with increasing prevalences in aged populations. Traditionally, obesity has been regarded as being beneficial to bone health. However, the protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis has been questioned. In some recent studies, obesity, as defined by percentage body fat, was regarded as a risk factor for osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the effect of waist circumference, a surrogate measure for abdominal obesity, on bone mineral content (BMC) and (2) examine whether the effect of waist circumference increases with advancing age. The study population is made up of women aged over 45 years who completed the body composition and bone mineral density examinations in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010. Subjects who take estrogen or are under medical treatment for osteoporosis were excluded. Stroke patients are also excluded. Femoral neck, total-hip, and whole-body BMC were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 1,434 subjects were included in the analysis. Waist circumference was negatively associated with BMC in all tested regions after correction for weight, menopausal status, smoking, drinking, and exercise. In addition, the negative association between waist circumference and BMC in the femoral neck and total hip increases with age, after correction for confounding factors, showing an interaction effect between waist circumference and age on BMC. In conclusion, this study shows that the negative relationship between waist circumference and BMC in the femoral neck and total hip is greater for older women. PMID:24114196

  20. In Utero Pesticide Exposure, Maternal Paraoxonase Activity, and Head Circumference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gertrud S. Berkowitz; James G. Wetmur; Elena Birman-Deych; Josephine Obel; Robert H. Lapinski; James H. Godbold; Ian R. Holzman; Mary S. Wolff

    2003-01-01

    Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neuro- development in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1)

  1. Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: a prospective study in the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn Erica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Helen-Maria; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Ehrnström, Roy; Brennan, Paul; Ferrari, Pietro; Ljungberg, Börje; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2014-12-15

    Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p?=?0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking. PMID:24771290

  2. Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

  3. Correlations of C-reactive protein levels with anthropometric profile, percentage of body fat and lipids in healthy adolescents and young adults in urban North India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naval K. Vikram; Anoop Misra; Manjari Dwivedi; Rekha Sharma; R. M. Pandey; Kalpana Luthra; Ananya Chatterjee; Vibha Dhingra; B. L. Jailkhani; K. K. Talwar; Randeep Guleria

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships of sub-clinical inflammation and regional and generalized obesity and lipids in adolescent and young adult Asian Indians in north India. Methods: We determined serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker for sub-clinical inflammation, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (W-HR), four skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac), percentage of body fat

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of Anthropometrics for the Prediction of Diabetes in a Biracial Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June Stevens; David Couper; James Pankow; Aaron R. Folsom; Bruce B. Duncan; F. Javier Nieto; Daniel Jones; Herman A. Tyroler

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and combinations of these variables to discriminate individuals who will develop diabetes in adulthood.Research Methods and Procedures: Data were from 45- to 64-year-old men and women who were members of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. The analysis sample consisted of 12,814 African American and white participants

  5. Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Lu Qi; Elizabeth K. Speliotes; Gudmar Thorleifsson; Cristen J. Willer; Blanca M. Herrera; Anne U. Jackson; Noha Lim; Paul Scheet; Nicole Soranzo; Najaf Amin; Yurii S. Aulchenko; John C. Chambers; Alexander Drong; Jianan Luan; Helen N. Lyon; Fernando Rivadeneira; Serena Sanna; Nicholas J. Timpson; M. Carola Zillikens; Jing Hua Zhao; Peter Almgren; Stefania Bandinelli; Amanda J. Bennett; Richard N. Bergman; Lori L. Bonnycastle; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Cyrus Cooper; Gabriel Crawford; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Shah Ebrahim; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; Candace Guiducci; David Hadley; Anders Hamsten; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Fredrik Karpe; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Anna Nordström; Peter Nordström; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; Felicity Payne; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renström; Aimo Ruokonen; Veikko Salomaa; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Kijoung Song; Xin Yuan; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield; Francis S. Collins; George Davey Smith; Ian N. M. Day; Paul W. Franks; Andrew T. Hattersley; Frank B. Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Augustine Kong; Jaspal S. Kooner; Markku Laakso; Edward Lakatta; Vincent Mooser; Andrew D. Morris; Leena Peltonen; Nilesh J. Samani; Timothy D. Spector; David P. Strachan; Toshiko Tanaka; Jaakko Tuomilehto; André G. Uitterlinden; Cornelia M. van Duijn; Nicholas J. Wareham; Hugh Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia; Dawn M. Waterworth; Michael Boehnke; Panos Deloukas; Leif Groop; David J. Hunter; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; David Schlessinger; H.-Erich Wichmann; Timothy M. Frayling; Gonçalo R. Abecasis; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Ruth J. F. Loos; Kari Stefansson; Karen L. Mohlke; Inês Barroso

    2009-01-01

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

  6. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Cyrus Cooper; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; David Hadley; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Johanna Kuusisto; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Anna Nordstrom; Peter Nordstrom; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renstrom; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield

    2009-01-01

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

  7. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and aging in a population-based older cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K A Shaw; V K Srikanth; J L Fryer; L Blizzard; T Dwyer; A J Venn

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aims of this cross-sectional study were (1) to examine the effect of age on body composition in older adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and (2) to evaluate the agreement of DXA with standard indirect anthropometric measures (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)).Research methods and procedures:A population-based sample of 731 adults aged between 50 and

  8. The impact of missing data on analyses of a time-dependent exposure in a longitudinal cohort: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Missing data often cause problems in longitudinal cohort studies with repeated follow-up waves. Research in this area has focussed on analyses with missing data in repeated measures of the outcome, from which participants with missing exposure data are typically excluded. We performed a simulation study to compare complete-case analysis with Multiple imputation (MI) for dealing with missing data in an analysis of the association of waist circumference, measured at two waves, and the risk of colorectal cancer (a completely observed outcome). Methods We generated 1,000 datasets of 41,476 individuals with values of waist circumference at waves 1 and 2 and times to the events of colorectal cancer and death to resemble the distributions of the data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Three proportions of missing data (15, 30 and 50%) were imposed on waist circumference at wave 2 using three missing data mechanisms: Missing Completely at Random (MCAR), and a realistic and a more extreme covariate-dependent Missing at Random (MAR) scenarios. We assessed the impact of missing data on two epidemiological analyses: 1) the association between change in waist circumference between waves 1 and 2 and the risk of colorectal cancer, adjusted for waist circumference at wave 1; and 2) the association between waist circumference at wave 2 and the risk of colorectal cancer, not adjusted for waist circumference at wave 1. Results We observed very little bias for complete-case analysis or MI under all missing data scenarios, and the resulting coverage of interval estimates was near the nominal 95% level. MI showed gains in precision when waist circumference was included as a strong auxiliary variable in the imputation model. Conclusions This simulation study, based on data from a longitudinal cohort study, demonstrates that there is little gain in performing MI compared to a complete-case analysis in the presence of up to 50% missing data for the exposure of interest when the data are MCAR, or missing dependent on covariates. MI will result in some gain in precision if a strong auxiliary variable that is not in the analysis model is included in the imputation model. PMID:23947681

  9. Correlates of Low Testosterone and Symptomatic Androgen Deficiency in a Population-Based Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan A. Hall; Gretchen R. Esche; Andre B. Araujo; Thomas G. Travison; Richard V. Clark; Rachel E. Williams; John B. McKinlay

    2010-01-01

    Results:Factors associated with low testosterone included age (OR1.36; 95% CI1.11-1.66, per decade), low per-capita income ($6000 or less per household membervs.more than $30,000; OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.39-5.87), and waist circumference (per 10-cm increase; OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.45-2.12). Only age (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.04-1.77), waist circumference (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.44-2.47), and health status (OR 0.21; 95% CI

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Families for Health V2 for the treatment of childhood obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective programs to help children manage their weight are required. Families for Health focuses on a parenting approach, designed to help parents develop their parenting skills to support lifestyle change within the family. Families for Health V1 showed sustained reductions in overweight after 2 years in a pilot evaluation, but lacks a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence base. Methods/design This is a multi-center, investigator-blind RCT, with parallel economic evaluation, with a 12-month follow-up. The trial will recruit 120 families with at least one child aged 6 to 11 years who is overweight (?91st centile BMI) or obese (?98th centile BMI) from three localities and assigned randomly to Families for Health V2 (60 families) or the usual care control (60 families) groups. Randomization will be stratified by locality (Coventry, Warwickshire, Wolverhampton). Families for Health V2 is a family-based intervention run in a community venue. Parents/carers and children attend parallel groups for 2.5 hours weekly for 10 weeks. The usual care arm will be the usual support provided within each NHS locality. A mixed-methods evaluation will be carried out. Child and parent participants will be assessed at home visits at baseline, 3-month (post-treatment) and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the change in the children’s BMI z-scores at 12 months from the baseline. Secondary outcome measures include changes in the children’s waist circumference, percentage body fat, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and quality of life. The parents’ BMI and mental well-being, family eating/activity, parent–child relationships and parenting style will also be assessed. Economic components will encompass the measurement and valuation of service utilization, including the costs of running Families for Health and usual care, and the EuroQol EQ-5D health outcomes. Cost-effectiveness will be expressed in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. A de novo decision-analytic model will estimate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of the Families for Health program. Process evaluation will document recruitment, attendance and drop-out rates, and the fidelity of Families for Health delivery. Interviews with up to 24 parents and children from each arm will investigate perceptions and changes made. Discussion This paper describes our protocol to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a parenting approach for managing childhood obesity and presents challenges to implementation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials http://ISRCTN45032201 PMID:23514100

  11. Impact of a nurse-directed, coordinated school health program to enhance physical activity behaviors and reduce body mass index among minority children: A parallel-group, randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kynna; Giger, Joyce Newman; Norris, Keth; Suro, Zulma

    2013-01-01

    Background Underserved children, particularly girls and those in urban communities, do not meet the recommended physical activity guidelines (>60 min of daily physical activity), and this behavior can lead to obesity. The school years are known to be a critical period in the life course for shaping attitudes and behaviors. Children look to schools for much of their access to physical activity. Thus, through the provision of appropriate physical activity programs, schools have the power to influence apt physical activity choices, especially for underserved children where disparities in obesity-related outcomes exist. Objectives To evaluate the impact of a nurse directed, coordinated, culturally sensitive, school-based, family-centered lifestyle program on activity behaviors and body mass index. Design, settings and participants: This was a parallel group, randomized controlled trial utilizing a community-based participatory research approach, through a partnership with a University and 5 community schools. Participants included 251 children ages 8–12 from elementary schools in urban, low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles, USA. Methods The intervention included Kids N Fitness©, a 6-week program which met weekly to provide 45 min of structured physical activity and a 45 min nutrition education class for parents and children. Intervention sites also participated in school-wide wellness activities, including health and counseling services, staff professional development in health promotion, parental education newsletters, and wellness policies for the provision of healthy foods at the school. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health School Physical Activity and Nutrition Student Questionnaire measured physical activity behavior, including: daily physical activity, participation in team sports, attending physical education class, and TV viewing/computer game playing. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, body mass index, resting blood pressure, and waist circumference. Measures were collected at baseline, completion of the intervention phase (4 months), and 12 months post-intervention. Results Significant results for students in the intervention, included for boys decreases in TV viewing; and girls increases in daily physical activity, physical education class attendance, and decreases in body mass index z-scores from baseline to the 12 month follow-up. Conclusions Our study shows the value of utilizing nurses to implement a culturally sensitive, coordinated, intervention to decrease disparities in activity and TV viewing among underserved girls and boys. PMID:23021318

  12. TheAssociationBetweenPerceivedDiscrimination andObesityinaPopulation-BasedMultiracialand MultiethnicAdultSample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haslyn E. R. Hunte; David R. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether perceived chronic discrimination was related to excess body fat accumulation in a random, multiethnic, population- based sample of US adults. Methods. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression and logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between interpersonal experi- ences of perceived chronic discrimination and body mass index and high-risk waist circumference. Results. Consistent with other studies,

  13. Abdominal obesity and other risk factors largely explain the high CRP in Indigenous Australians relative to the general population, but not gender differences: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison M Hodge; Louise Maple-Brown; Joan Cunningham; Jacqueline Boyle; Terry Dunbar; Tarun Weeramanthri; Jonathan Shaw; Kerin O'Dea

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Indigenous Australians, which may contribute to their high risk of cardiovascular disease. We compared CRP levels in Indigenous Australians and the general population, accounting for obesity and other risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of CRP and risk factors (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, and

  14. EARLY SEXUAL MATURATION, BODY COMPOSITION, AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN GIRLS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To describe associations between sexual maturation and body composition in a sample of African-American girls who were participants in phase 1 pilot interventions of the Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Studies (GEMS). Stature, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Pubic hair and breast de...

  15. The Relationship between Dietary Protein and Obesity in Multi-ethnic Children

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, Cara Michelle

    2009-08-03

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between children's protein intake and Body Mass Index (BMI) and/or waist circumference. Multi-ethnic students in grades 3-5 from low socio-economic schools participated...

  16. IDENTIFYING FOOD GROUPINGS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE ENERGY DENSITY OF DIETS OF WOMEN IN THE GEISINGER RURAL AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, energy density (ED) (kcal/wt of food) rather than energy intake was shown to be associated with weight status in rural older women. Specifically, diets higher in ED were associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. To understand how to guide specific dietary recommendat...

  17. Do Behavioral Risk Factors for Prediabetes and Insulin Resistance Differ across the Socioeconomic Gradient? Results from a Community-Based Epidemiologic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, May H.; Hall, Sue A.; Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Maserejian, Nancy N.; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether behavioral risk factors associated with diabetes (diet, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and sleep duration) are also related to both prediabetes and insulin resistance (IR), we used data from Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey (2010–2012, n = 3155). Logistic and linear regression models were used to test the association of lifestyle factors with prediabetes status, insulin resistance, and prediabetes or insulin resistance. All regression models were stratified by education and income levels (to examine whether risk factors had differential effects across socioeconomic factors) and adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and smoking status. We found that large waist circumference was consistently associated with higher levels of insulin resistance (IR) and increased odds of prediabetes. While the association between large waist circumference and IR was consistent across all levels of SES (P < 0.001), the association between large waist circumference and prediabetes was only statistically significant in the highest socioeconomic strata with odds ratios of 1.68 (95% CI 1.07–2.62) and 1.88 (95% CI 1.22–2.92) for postgraduate degree and income strata, respectively. There was no association between diet, physical activity, sleep duration, and the presence of multiple risk factors and prediabetes or IR within SES strata.

  18. Obesity, Blood Pressure and Health-Related Behaviour among German Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Christine; Jouck, Stefanie; Koch, Benjamin; Platschek, Anna-Maria; Arnold, Christiane; Bohm, Michael; Dordel, Sigrid; Tokarski, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To examine the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with blood pressure, waist circumference and other health related risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and TV/PC-screen time) in German youths. Material and methods: A cohort of 831 boys and 808 girls, fifth- to tenth-graders from 3 German high schools…

  19. Steps/day ability to predict anthropometric changes is not affected by its plausibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...

  20. Weighting the Weights: Agreement among Anthropometric Indicators Identifying the Weight Status of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraelen, C. J. F.; Maaskant, M. A.; van Knijff-Raeven, A. G. M.; Curfs, L. M. G.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were (1) to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat free mass index (FFMI) and skinfold thickness are feasible measurement options in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) to measure their weight status, and (2) to assess the level of agreement among these methods. Methods:…

  1. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  2. Physical activity and metabolic risk among US youth: Mediation by obesity [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity has been inversely associated with metabolic risk, although pediatric studies are limited. It has been hypothesized that obesity mediates this relationship. Some studies reported that waist circumference (WC) is more highly related to metabolic risk than BMI, and may be a better me...

  3. Abdominal Adiposity and Clustering of Multiple Metabolic Syndrome in White, Black and Hispanic Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ike S Okosun; Youlian Liao; Charles N Rotimi; T. Elaine Prewitt; Richard S Cooper

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of abdominal adiposity assessed by waist circumference (WC) with clustering of multiple metabolic syndromes (MMS) in White, Black and Hispanic Americans. MMS was defined as the occurrence of two or more of either hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia or hyperinsulinemia.METHODS: The number of MMS and fasting insulin

  4. Body size and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Pischon; Petra H. Lahmann; Heiner Boeing; A. Tjonneland; J. Halkjaer; Kim Overvad; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Jakob Linseisen; Nikolaus Becker; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vassiliki Benetou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Sabina Sieri; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Salvatore Panico; Evelyn Monninkhof; Petra H. M. Peeters; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; F. L. Buchner; Börje Ljungberg; Göran Hallmans; Göran Berglund; Carlos Alberto Gonzalez; Miren Dorronsoro; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Carmen Navarro; Carmen Martinez; J. Ramón Quirós; Andrew Roddam; Naomi Allen; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Rudolf Kaaks; Teresa Norat; Nadia Slimani; Elio Riboli

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that obesity is related to increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, only a few studies report on measures of central vs. peripheral adiposity. We examined the association between anthropometric measures, including waist and hip circumference and RCC risk among 348,550 men and women free of cancer at baseline from 8 countries of the European Prospective

  5. The relationship between calcium intake, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the jackson heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. ...

  6. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

  7. Modeling growth curves to track growing obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to examine the relationship between total physical activity (PA) and PA at various intensity levels with insulin resistance at increasing waist circumference and skinfold thickness levels. Being able to describe growth appropriately and succinctly is important in many nutrition and p...

  8. Nutritional Habits of Female University Students in Relation to Self-Perception of Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suliga, Edyta; Wronka, Iwona; Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To determine whether the self-assessment of body mass has an impact on the nutritional behaviour of young women. Material and methods: The material was gathered in cross-sectional research of 1129 female university students. The measurements of body height, body mass, and waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a…

  9. Metabolic Syndrome With and Without C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naveed Sattar; Allan Gaw; Olga Scherbakova; Ian Ford; J. O'Reilly; Steven M. Haffner; Chris Isles; Peter W. Macfarlane; Chris J. Packard; Stuart M. Cobbe; James Shepherd

    Background—The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recently proposed a simple definition for metabolic syndrome. Information on the prospective association of this definition for coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes is currently limited. Methods and Results—We used a modified NCEP definition with body mass index in place of waist circumference. Baseline assessments in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention

  10. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  11. The interaction of adiposity with the CRP gene affects CRP levels: Age, Gene\\/Environment Susceptibilty-Reykjavik Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Eiriksdottir; A V Smith; T Aspelund; S H Hafsteinsdottir; E Olafsdottir; L J Launer; T B Harris; V Gudnason

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Common diseases often have an inflammatory component reflected by associated markers such as serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Circulating CRP levels have also been associated with adipose tissue as well as with specific CRP genotypes. We examined the interaction between measures of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fat percent (total fat measured by bioimpedance) with genotypes of the

  12. Soy compared to casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricted diets for obese women: randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Anderson; Jennifer Fuller; Katy Patterson; Robert Blair; Aaron Tabor

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that obese individuals lose weight more rapidly and lose more total weight with soy protein than with animal protein as a major diet component. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the weight-loss efficacy and changes in body composition, waist circumference, blood pressure, and levels of plasma glucose, insulin, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine

  13. Body Weight and Percent Body Fat Increase during the Transition from High School to University in Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda J. Edmonds; Kelly J. Ferreira; Erica A. Nikiforuk; Alida K. Finnie; Sarah H. Leavey; Alison M. Duncan; Janis A. Randall Simpson

    2008-01-01

    A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and

  14. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Swedish, Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Petter K.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Leander, Karin; de Faire, Ulf; Hellenius, Mai-Lis; Gigante, Bruna

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to investigate whether different measures of obesity could similarly predict atrial fibrillation, and whether the atrial fibrillation risk associated with obesity is dependent on presence of metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods We performed our study in a population-based longitudinal cardiovascular study, comprising 1 924 men and 2 097 women, aged 60 years, from Stockholm. Body mass index, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter and components of metabolic syndrome (systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) were recorded at baseline. Participants were classified by their body mass index (normal weight, overweight or obese), waist circumference (normal, semi-elevated or elevated), and according to presence of metabolic syndrome. Atrial fibrillation risk was estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for common atrial fibrillation risk factors, expressed as HR and 95% CI. Results During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, 285 incident atrial fibrillation cases were recorded. One standard deviation increment of each obesity measure was associated with increased atrial fibrillation risk as: body mass index 1.25 (1.12 – 1.40), waist circumference 1.35 (1.19 – 1.54) and sagittal abdominal diameter 1.28 (1.14 – 1.44). Compared to normal weight subjects without metabolic syndrome, increased atrial fibrillation risk was noted for overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome, 1.67 (1.16 – 2.41), obese subjects without metabolic syndrome, 1.75 (1.11 – 2.74) and obese subjects with metabolic syndrome, 1.92 (1.34 – 2.74). Compared to subjects with normal waist circumference without metabolic syndrome, subjects with elevated waist circumference and metabolic syndrome suffered increased atrial fibrillation risk, 2.03 (1.44 – 2.87). Conclusions Body mass index, waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter could similarly predict atrial fibrillation. Obesity was associated with an increased atrial fibrillation risk regardless of metabolic syndrome, whereas overweight and elevated waist circumference was associated with increased atrial fibrillation risk only if metabolic syndrome was present. PMID:25978738

  15. Body fat distribution and associations with metabolic and clinical characteristics in bipolar individuals.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Nina; Mangge, Harald; Reininghaus, Eva Z; McIntyre, Roger S; Bengesser, Susanne A; Birner, Armin; Reininghaus, Bernd; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J

    2015-06-01

    Overweight and obesity differentially affect bipolar disorder (BD) and are associated with a poorer prognosis. Herein, we sought to evaluate body fat distribution in a well-characterized BD sample. Anthropometric measures (i.e., body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, hip circumference, and lipometry) of 100 BD individuals were compared with data of 57 matched mentally healthy controls. Additionally, fasting serum parameters including metabolic parameters and monoamines were analyzed. Findings indicate that similar to US BD cohorts, Austrian patients exhibit an increased central body fat accumulation (i.e., higher subcutaneous adipose tissue at upper abdomen) accompanying with the harmful IDF-defined metabolic syndrome. In addition, positive associations between epinephrine as well as staging and fat parameters were detected. PMID:25381166

  16. Effect of zinc intake on growth in infants: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, M; Sánchez-Villegas, A; Fuentes Lugo, D; Henríquez Sánchez, P; Doreste Alonso, J; Peña Quintana, L; Ruano, C; Lowe, N L; Hall Moran, V; Skinner, A L; Warthon-Medina, M; Serra-Majem, L

    2014-11-01

    Abstract A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on growth in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 19 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on growth was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional status and risk of bias. From each select growth study, final measures of Weight, Length, Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), Head circumference, Weight for age z-score (WAZ), Length for age z-score (LAZ) and Weight for Length z-score (WLZ) were assessed. Pooled ? and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Additionally we carried out a sensitivity analysis. Zn intake was not associated to Weight, Length, MUAC, Head Circumference and LAZ in the pooled analyses. However, Zn intake had a positive and statistically effect on WAZ (? = 0.06; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.10) and WLZ (? = 0.05; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.08). The dose response relationship between Zn intake and these parameters indicated that a doubling of Zn intake increased WAZ and WLZ by approximately 4%. Substantial heterogeneity was present only in Length analyses. (I(2) = 45%; p = 0.03). Zn intake was positively associated with length values at short time (4 to 20 weeks) (? = 0.01; CI 95% 0 to 0.02) and at medium doses of Zn (4.1 to 8 mg/day) (? = 0.003; CI 95% 0 to 0.01). Nevertheless, the effect magnitude was small. Our results indicate that Zn intake increases growth parameters of infants. Nonetheless, interpretation of these results should be carefully considered. PMID:25365524

  17. Characterization of Low Bone Mass in Young Patients with Thalassemia by DXA, pQCT and Markers of Bone Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Vichinsky, Elliott P.; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Huang, James; Bachrach, Laura K.; Sawyer, Aenor J.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) suggest that up to 70% of adults with thalassemia major (Thal) have low bone mass. However, few studies have controlled for body size and pubertal delay, variables known to affect bone mass in this population. In this study, bone mineral content and areal density (BMC, aBMD) of the spine and whole body were assessed by DXA, and volumetric BMD and cortical geometries of the distal tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in subjects with Thal (n=25, 11 male, 10 to 30 yrs) and local controls (n=34, 15 male, 7 to 30 yrs). Z-scores for bone outcomes were calculated from reference data from a large sample of healthy children and young adults. Fasting blood and urine were collected, pubertal status determined by self-assessment and dietary intake and physical activity assessed by written questionnaires. Subjects with Thal were similar in age, but had lower height, weight and lean mass index Z-scores (all p<0.001) compared to controls. DXA aBMD was significantly lower in Thal compared to controls at all sites. Adult Thal subjects (>18 yrs, n=11) had lower tibial trabecular vBMD (p=0.03), cortical area, cortical BMC, cortical thickness, periosteal circumference and section modulus Z-scores (all p<0.01) compared to controls. Cortical area, cortical BMC, cortical thickness, and periosteal circumference Z-scores (p=0.02) were significantly lower in young Thal (?18 yrs, n=14) compared to controls. In separate multivariate models, tibial cortical area, BMC, and thickness and spine aBMD and whole body BMC Z-scores remained lower in Thal compared to controls after adjustment for gender, lean mass and/or growth deficits (all p<0.01). Tanner stage was not predictive in these models. Osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, was significantly reduced in Thal compared to controls after adjusting for age, puberty and whole body BMC (p=0.029). In summary, we have found evidence of skeletal deficits that cannot be dismissed as an artifact of small bone size or delayed maturity alone. Given that reduced bone density and strength are associated with increased risk of fracture, therapies focused on increasing bone formation and bone size in younger patients are worthy of further evaluation. PMID:21443975

  18. Correlation of increased plasma osteoprotegerin and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with adult growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiajia; Li, Linman; Ren, Wei; Zheng, Xiaoya; Liu, Chan; Li, Jinchao; Chen, Tingying; Li, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lingli; Hu, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is correlated to many adverse effects on metabolism and increases cardiovascular risk. 40 patients with AGHD and 40 healthy subjects were included. Anthropometric parameters such as body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were measured. Meanwhile, plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high sensitivity C-relative protein, interleukin-6 and OPG were determined. Homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ?-cell function (HOMA-?) were calculated using homeostasis model. Plasma OPG concentrations of AGHD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects (131.82 ± 45.04 versus 81.02 ± 45.04, P < 0.01). Plasma OPG levels were positively correlated with age, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high sensitivity C-relative protein and interleukin-6 (P < 0.05), but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05). Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that body mass index, triglyceride, and interleukin-6 were independently related to plasma OPG levels (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma OPG were increased in AGHD patients and were closely correlated with glycolipid metabolism and chronic inflammation. OPG might play an important role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases in AGHD patients.

  19. Body fat measured by a near-infrared interactance device as a predictor of cardiovascular events: the FINRISK'92 cohort.

    PubMed

    Pajunen, Pia; Jousilahti, Pekka; Borodulin, Katja; Harald, Kennet; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated how body fat percentage, measured by a portable near-infrared interactance (NIR) device predicts cardiovascular (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events in a prospective population-based survey. The study population consisted of 2,842 men and 3,196 women, who participated in the FINRISK'92 survey. Obesity was assessed with BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage measured with an NIR. Mean length of follow-up was 9 years and 3 months. In Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for men, BMI, waist circumference, and WHR as well as body fat percentage were predictors of a CVD event when adjusted for age and for major risk factors. Hazard ratio (HR) per 1 s.d. was 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.48) for body fat percentage, 1.30 (1.16-1.46) for BMI, and 1.31 (1.16-1.50) for waist circumference. Among women, the body fat lost its predictive power in a fully adjusted model. Body fat percentage, BMI, waist circumference, and WHR were predictors of a CHD event both among men and women, whereas body fat percentage did not predict ischemic stroke among either gender. We observed that body fat percentage measured by an NIR device was a significant predictor of CVD and CHD events among men and women, but in our population-based survey, it did not provide any additional predictive power over and above the simpler measures, such as BMI or WHR. PMID:20966903

  20. Disproportionate Fetal Growth and the Risk for Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Singleton Births

    PubMed Central

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica E.; Wu, Chunsen; Bech, Bodil H.; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Schendel, Diana E.; Uldall, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between proportionality of fetal and placental growth measured at birth and the risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). Study Design We identified all live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1995 and 2003 and followed them from 1 year of age until December 31st, 2008. Information on four indices of fetal growth: ponderal index, head circumference/ abdominal circumference ratio, cephalization index and birth weight/ placenta weight ratio was collected. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). All measurements were evaluated as gestational age and sex specific z-scores and in z-score percentile groups, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified on gestational age groups (<32, 32-36, 37-38, 39, 40, ?41 weeks). Results We identified 503,784 singleton births, of which 983 were confirmed cases of CP. Head/ abdominal circumference ratio (aHR:1.12; 95%CI:1.07-1.16) and cephalization index (aHR:1.14; 95%CI:1.11-1.16) were associated with the risk of CP irrespective of gestational age. Birth weight-placental weight ratio was also associated with CP in the entire cohort (aHR:0.90; 95%CI:0.83-0.97). Ponderal index had a u-shaped association with CP, where both children with low and high ponderal index were at higher risk of CP. Conclusions CP is associated with disproportions between birth weight, birth length, placental weight and head circumference suggesting pre and perinatal conditions contribute to fetal growth restriction in children with CP. PMID:25974407

  1. Influence of anthropometric factors on tumour biological characteristics of colorectal cancer in men and women: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a well established risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but how body size influences risk of colorectal cancer defined by key molecular alterations remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist- and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and risk of CRC according to expression of beta-catenin, cyclin D1, p53 and microsatellite instability status of the tumours in men and women, respectively. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of beta-catenin, cyclin D1, p53 and MSI-screening status was assessed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 584 cases of incident CRC in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Six anthropometric factors: height, weight, BMI, waist- and hip circumference, and WHR were categorized by quartiles of baseline measurements and relative risks of CRC according to expression of beta-catenin, cyclin D1, p53 and MSI status were calculated using multivariate Cox regression models. Results High height was associated with risk of cyclin D1 positive, and p53 negative CRC in women but not with any investigative molecular subsets of CRC in men. High weight was associated with beta-catenin positive, cyclin D1 positive, p53 negative and microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours in women, and with beta-catenin negative and p53 positive tumours in men. Increased hip circumference was associated with beta-catenin positive, p53 negative and MSS tumours in women and with beta-catenin negative, cyclin D1 positive, p53 positive and MSS tumours in men. In women, waist circumference and WHR were not associated with any molecular subsets of CRC. In men, both high WHR and high waist circumference were associated with beta-catenin positive, cyclin D1 positive and p53 positive tumours. WHR was also associated with p53 negative CRC, and waist circumference with MSS tumours. High BMI was associated with increased risk of beta-catenin positive and MSS CRC in women, and with beta-catenin positive, cyclin D1 positive and p53 positive tumours in men. Conclusions Findings from this large prospective cohort study indicate sex-related differences in the relationship between obesity and CRC risk according to key molecular characteristics, and provide further support of an influence of lifestyle factors on different molecular pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:24256736

  2. Associations of anthropometric characteristics with blood cholesterol fractions among adults. The Greek EPIC study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Benetou; C Bamia; D Trichopoulos; A Trichopoulou

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To explore the independent associations of body height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hip circumference with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol), in a large general population sample.Design:Cross sectional.Setting:Urban and rural areas throughout Greece.Subjects:In total,10 837 volunteers, 2034 men and 8803 women, aged 25–82 years, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC),

  3. Emerging longitudinal trends in health indicators for rural residents participating in a diabetes and cardiovascular screening program in northern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ralph-Campbell, Kelli; Oster, Richard T; Connor, Tracy; Toth, Ellen L

    2011-01-01

    Background. Geographic isolation, poverty, and loss of culture/tradition contribute to "epidemic" rates of diabetes amongst indigenous Canadians. The Mobile Diabetes Screening Initiative travels to rural indigenous and other remote communities in Alberta to screen for diabetes and cardiovascular risk. We sought to examine risk factors longitudinally. Methods. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were undertaken for 809 adults (aged 20-91) between November 2003 and December 2009. For those who had more than one MDSi visit, trend estimates (actual changes) were calculated for body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (A1c), total cholesterol, and blood pressure. Results. Among those without diabetes (N = 629), BMI and weight increased (P < .01) and blood pressure decreased (P < .05). For those with diabetes (N = 180), significant improvements (P < .05) were observed for all indicators except waist circumference. Conclusion. Improvements observed suggest that MDSi's model may effectively mediate some barriers and support subjects in managing their health. PMID:22295188

  4. A Web-Based Approach to Address Cardiovascular Risks in Managers: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joel B.; Broome, Kirk M.; Pilley, Ashleigh; Gilmore, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether a web-based health and leadership development program—designed specifically for managers—was associated with changes in self-reported and biometric indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVD) within the context of a randomized control trial. Methods 145 managers from eight organizations participated in a 6-month Internet-based program or a control condition. They completed pre- and posttest assessments that included both self-reported attitudes (on diet, exercise, and mental health) and biometric measures (e.g., body weight, waist circumference). Results The intervention was associated with improvements in dietary attitudes, dietary self-efficacy, and exercise, and reductions in distress symptoms. Women in the program reduced their waist circumference significantly more than controls. Conclusions The program showed promise for reducing CVD risk factors. Similar results across diverse organizations suggest the program may be useful across industry types. PMID:21785368

  5. Emerging Longitudinal Trends in Health Indicators for Rural Residents Participating in a Diabetes and Cardiovascular Screening Program in Northern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ralph-Campbell, Kelli; Oster, Richard T.; Connor, Tracy; Toth, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Geographic isolation, poverty, and loss of culture/tradition contribute to “epidemic” rates of diabetes amongst indigenous Canadians. The Mobile Diabetes Screening Initiative travels to rural indigenous and other remote communities in Alberta to screen for diabetes and cardiovascular risk. We sought to examine risk factors longitudinally. Methods. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were undertaken for 809 adults (aged 20–91) between November 2003 and December 2009. For those who had more than one MDSi visit, trend estimates (actual changes) were calculated for body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (A1c), total cholesterol, and blood pressure. Results. Among those without diabetes (N = 629), BMI and weight increased (P < .01) and blood pressure decreased (P < .05). For those with diabetes (N = 180), significant improvements (P < .05) were observed for all indicators except waist circumference. Conclusion. Improvements observed suggest that MDSi's model may effectively mediate some barriers and support subjects in managing their health. PMID:22295188

  6. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements in Lung Function in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947

  7. The relation between obesity, abdominal fat deposit and the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene I\\/D polymorphism and its association with coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Riera-Fortuny; J T Real; F J Chaves; M Morales-Suárez-Varela; M L Martínez-Triguero; C Morillas-Ariño; A Hernández-Mijares

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To analyse the relation between overweight, obesity and fat distribution with I\\/D polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and its association with coronary heart disease (CHD).DESIGN:Cross-sectional, case–control study.SUBJECTS:A total of 185 cases (141 males) who had suffered at least one episode of CHD and 182 controls (127 males).MEASUREMENTS:Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL

  8. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower abdominal adiposity in European men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Romaguera; T. Norat; T. Mouw; A. M. May; C. Bamia; N. Slimani; N. Travier; H. Besson; J. Luan; N. Wareham; S. Rinaldi; E. Couto; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M.-C. Boutron-Ruault; V. Cottet; D. Palli; C. Agnoli; S. Panico; R. Tumino; P. Vineis; A. Agudo; L. Rodriguez; M. J. Sanchez; P. Amiano; A. Barricarte; J. M. Huerta; T. J. Key; E. A. Spencer; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; F. L. Buchner; P. Orfanos; A. Naska; A. Trichopoulou; S. Rohrmann; R. Kaaks; M. Bergmann; H. Boeing; I. Johansson; V. Hellstrom; J. Manjer; E. Wirfalt; M. Uhre Jacobsen; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; J. Halkjaer; E. Lund; T. Braaten; D. Engeset; A. Odysseos; E. Riboli; P. H. M. Peeters

    2009-01-01

    Given the lack of consistent evidence of the relationship between Mediterranean dietary patterns and body fat, we assessed the cross-sectional association between adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, BMI, and waist circumference (WC). A total of 497,308 individuals (70.7% women) aged 25-70 y from 10 European countries participated in this study. Diet was assessed at baseline using detailed validated country-specific

  9. Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Simmons; A McKenzie; S Eaton; N Cox; M A Khan; J Shaw; P Zimmet

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:To establish whether choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food consumption are associated with increased obesity.DESIGN:Crossroads Undiagnosed Disease Study: a cross-sectional study undertaken between June 2001 and March 2003.SETTING:A regional centre and six shire capitals of variables size in rural Victoria, Australia.PARTICIPANTS:In total, 1454 residents of randomly selected households.MEASUREMENTS:Obesity (by body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference), weekly recreational

  10. Metabolic syndrome and anthropometric factors in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukako Sawara; Takashi Takei; Keiko Uchida; Ken Tsuchiya; Kosaku Nitta

    2009-01-01

    A necessary condition for establishing new criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Japan is waist circumference (WC),\\u000a which varies among races. In the present study, we measured WC and visceral fat area (VFA) in patients with chronic kidney\\u000a disease (CKD) and assessed the features of new MetS criteria in Japan. Two hundred and seventeen patients (M\\/F: 116\\/101, age:\\u000a 59.1

  11. Higher Insulin, Triglycerides, and Blood Pressure With Greater Trunk Fat in Tanner 1 Chinese

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Heshka, Stanley; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the body fat distribution pattern in prepubertal Chinese children and to investigate the relationship between central fat distribution and specific biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Research Methods and Procedures The study was conducted in an urban Mainland Chinese (Jinan, Shandong) sample of children using a cross-sectional design. Pubertal status was determined by Tanner criteria. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, DXA measures of total body fat and trunk fat; fasting serum measures of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Multiple regression models were developed with the biomarkers of cardiovascular risk factor as the dependent variables, and adjustments were made for significant covariates, including sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, total body fat, trunk fat, and interactions. Results A total of 247 healthy prepubertal subjects were studied. After co-varying for age, weight, height, and extremity fat (the sum of arm fat and leg fat), girls had greater trunk fat than boys (p < 0.0001, R2 for model = 0.95). Insulin and triglyceride were positively related to central fat measured by DXA-trunk fat (p < 0.05) but not related to the waist circumference. In the blood pressure model, waist circumference was a significant predictor of both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, while DXA-trunk fat was associated with diastolic blood pressure only. Significant interactions between sex and trunk fat, and sex and total fat, were found in relation to diastolic blood pressure. Discussion In prepubertal Chinese children, greater trunk fat was significantly associated with higher insulin and triglyceride in boys and girls and was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in boys only. PMID:17426336

  12. Low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation is related to adiposity and metabolic risk factors123

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Walter C; Ding, Eric L

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal nutrition assistance program. In recent years, SNAP participation rates increased during times of economic hardship. Objective: We examined whether household SNAP participation was associated with adiposity and metabolic risk factors in a representative sample of low-income US adults. Design: A cross-sectional analysis was performed with the use of data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The study population was restricted to nonelderly adults whose household incomes fell to or <130% of the federal poverty level. Multinomial logistic and Poisson regression models were fit to examine the associations between SNAP participation and BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic risk factors among 2250 low-income adults. Results: In the previous 12 mo, 32.8% of adults received household SNAP benefits. SNAP participation was positively associated with obesity [prevalence ratio (PR): 1.58; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.31], waist circumference in men (PR for top compared with bottom quartile: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.62; P = 0.02), and waist circumference in women (PR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.51, 5.77; P = 0.003; P-interaction with sex = 0.11), independent of sociodemographic characteristics. SNAP participation was also related to elevated triglycerides (PR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20), lower HDL cholesterol (PR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.41), elevated fasting glucose (?110 mg/dL; PR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.52), and metabolic syndrome (PR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.95). Associations with triglycerides and HDL cholesterol persisted after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion: Household SNAP participation was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic risk factors among low-income adults. These associations may be mediated by dietary intake and warrant further investigation. PMID:22170370

  13. Estimation of deep abdominal adipose-tissue accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in men13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Despr; Marie-Christine Pouliot; Angelo Tremblay; Claude Bouchard

    ABSTRACI' Equations have been developed for the pre- diction of deep abdominal adipose-tissue (AT) accumulation from anthropometric measurements in a sample of 1 10 men. An equation including the waist circumference and age could predict 74% of the variance in the amount of deep abdominal AT with an SEE of29.6 cm2 (29.2% ofthe mean deep abdominal AT value), whereas another

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthropometric Traits and Evidence of Interactions With Age and Study Year in Filipino Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien C. Croteau-Chonka; Amanda F. Marvelle; Ethan M. Lange; Nanette R. Lee; Linda S. Adair; Leslie A. Lange; Karen L. Mohlke

    2011-01-01

    Increased values of multiple adiposity-related anthropometric traits are important risk factors for many common complex diseases. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study for four quantitative traits related to body size and adiposity (BMI, weight, waist circumference, and height) in a cohort of 1,792 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). This is the first

  15. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci With One-Year Weight Loss in the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Kopin, Alan S.; Huggins, Gondon S.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

  16. Bicycle riding, perineal trauma, and erectile dysfunction: Data and solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Goldstein; Alan L. Lurie; John P. Lubisich

    2007-01-01

    Significant clinical and basic science advances in the field of sexual medicine have facilitated investigation of the link\\u000a between endothelial dysfunction and erectile dysfunction. Most sexual medicine practitioners accept the premise that in aging\\u000a men with risk factors such as increased waist circumference, diabetes, hypertension, hypogonadism, hypercholesterolemia, and\\u000a insulin insensitivity, a higher prevalence of erectile dysfunction reflects systemic vasculopathy that

  17. Bicycle riding, perineal trauma, and erectile dysfunction: Data and solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Goldstein; Alan L. Lurie; John P. Lubisich

    2008-01-01

    Significant clinical and basic science advances in the field of sexual medicine have facilitated investigation of the link\\u000a between endothelial dysfunction and erectile dysfunction. Most sexual medicine practitioners accept the premise that in aging\\u000a men with risk factors such as increased waist circumference, diabetes, hypertension, hypogonadism, hypercholesterolemia, and\\u000a insulin insensitivity, a higher prevalence of erectile dysfunction reflects systemic vasculopathy that

  18. Body fat distribution in Alaskan Eskimos of the Bering Straits region: the Alaskan Siberia Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PM Risica; SOE Ebbesson; CD Schraer; ED Nobmann; BH Caballero

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the body fat content and distribution of adult Alaska Natives of the Bering Straits Region.DESIGN: Cross-sectional screening in the spring of 1994.SUBJECTS: 454 non-pregnant native residents from four rural Alaskan villages.MEASUREMENTS: Height, weight, waist, hip and thigh circumference, bioelectrical impedance, sagittal abdominal diameter, and triceps, biceps, suprailiac, subscapular and thigh skinfolds.RESULTS: Mean height, weight and subscapular-to-triceps ratio

  19. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver, Steatohepatitis, and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulio Marchesini; Elisabetta Bugianesi; Gabriele Forlani; Fernanda Cerrelli; Marco Lenzi; Rita Manini; Stefania Natale; Ester Vanni; Nicola Villanova; Nazario Melchionda; Mario Rizzetto

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with the insulin-resistance syndrome, at present defined as the metabolic syndrome, whose limits were recently set. We assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in 304 consecutive NAFLD patients withoutovertdiabetes,onthebasisof3ormorecriteriaoutof5definedbytheU.S.National Institutes of Health (waist circumference, glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-choles- terol, triglycerides, and arterial pressure). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in- creased

  20. Associations among Organochlorine Pesticides, Methanobacteriales, and Obesity in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Sook; Lee, Je-Chul; Lee, In-Kyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Background Although Methanobacteriales in the gut has recently been linked to obesity, no study has examined the hypothesis that waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are positively associated with Methanobacteriales in the general population. Since Methanobacteriales increase in a petroleum-contaminated environment to biodegrade petroleum as one way of autopurification, we also hypothesized that high body burden of highly lipophilic petroleum-based chemicals like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is associated with higher levels of Methanobacteriales in the gut. Methodology/Principal Findings Among 83 Korean women who visited a community health service center for a routine health checkup, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on 16S rDNA was used to quantify Methanobacteriales in feces. Nine OCPs were measured in both serum and feces of 16 subjects. Methanobacteriales were detected in 32.5% (27/83 women). Both BMI and waist circumference among women with Methanobacteriales were significantly higher than in women without Methanobacteriales (P?=?0.04 and P?=?0.01, respectively). Also, Methanobacteriales levels in feces were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference (r?=?+0.23 and P?=?0.03 for both). Furthermore, there were significant correlations between feces Methanobacteriales levels and serum concentrations of most OCPs, including with cis-nonachlor (r?=?+0.53, P<0.05), oxychlordane (r?=?+0.46, P<0.1), and trans-nonachlor (r?=?+0.43, P<0.1). Despite high correlations of serum and feces concentrations of most OCPs, feces OCP concentrations were not clearly associated with feces Methanobacteriales levels. Conclusion/Significance In this cross-sectional study, the levels of Methanobacteriales in the human gut were associated with higher body weight and waist circumference. In addition, serum OCP concentrations were positively correlated with levels of Methanobacteriales. There may be a meaningful link among body burden of OCP, Methanobacteriales in the gut, and obesity in the general population. PMID:22114690

  1. Leisure-time physical activity and regular walking or cycling to work are associated with adiposity and 5 y weight gain in middle-aged men: the PRIME Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Wagner; C Simon; P Ducimetière; M Montaye; V Bongard; J Yarnell; A Bingham; G Hedelin; P Amouyel; J Ferrières; A Evans; D Arveiler

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of physical activity on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (W) and body mass changes (?BMI) in middle-aged men, with special regard to moderate-intensity activities.DESIGN: Longitudinal study of adults who participated in the PRIME Study.SUBJECTS: A cohort of 8865 men aged 50–59 y, free of coronary heart disease.MEASUREMENTS: BMI and W at baseline, body mass

  2. Relationship between short sleeping hours and childhood overweight\\/obesity: results from the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J-P Chaput; M Brunet; A Tremblay

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To assess the relationship between short sleep duration and obesity-related variables in children involved in the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project.Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) aged between 5 and 10 years from primary schools in the City of Trois-Rivières (Québec) were selected to participate in this study.Measurements:Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured. The

  3. Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Refugee Somali Women Living in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline B. Guerin; Fatuma Hussein Elmi; Callie Corrigan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee\\u000a Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess\\u000a physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness\\u000a Walk Test was

  4. Association of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) with Central Adiposity and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Brombo, Gloria; Volpato, Stefano; Secchiero, Paola; Passaro, Angelina; Bosi, Cristina; Zuliani, Giovanni; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), in addition to having a prognostic value in patients with cardiovascular disease, seems to interact with adiposity, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the results of previous clinical studies, focused on the association of TRAIL with selected metabolic or anthropometric indices were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to further investigate how soluble TRAIL concentrations independently correlate with major cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features. Materials/Methods We examined the associations between serum soluble TRAIL concentrations, measured by ELISA, and lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features in 199 subjects recruited at our Metabolic Outpatient Clinic. Results Soluble TRAIL concentrations had a significant and direct correlation with total cholesterol (p?=?0.046), LDL-cholesterol (p?=?0.032), triglycerides (p?=?0.01), body mass index (p?=?0.046), waist circumference (p?=?0.008), fat mass (p?=?0.056) and insulin (p?=?0.046) and an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol (p?=?0.02). In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin), TRAIL levels continued to have an independent correlation with LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference (r2?=?0.04). Conclusions Serum TRAIL levels were weakly but significantly and independently associated with waist circumference, a marker of visceral adiposity, and with LDL-cholesterol. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological basis of these relationships. PMID:23472162

  5. Daily eating frequency and cardiometabolic risk factors in young Australian adults: cross-sectional analyses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kylie J; Blizzard, Leigh; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2012-09-28

    Eating frequency may be important in the development of overweight and obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors; however, the evidence is inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between the number of eating occasions and cardiometabolic risk factors in a national population-based sample of young adults. A cohort of 1273 men and 1502 women, aged 26-36 years, completed a meal pattern chart to record when they had eaten during the previous day (in hourly intervals). The total number of eating occasions was calculated. Diet quality was assessed, waist circumference was measured and a fasting blood sample was taken. Dietary intake was compared with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The associations between the number of eating occasions and cardiometabolic risk factors were calculated using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, education and physical activity. Most men ate three to five times per d and most women ate four to six times. The proportion of participants meeting dietary recommendations increased with the number of eating occasions. For men, an additional eating occasion was associated with reductions in mean values for waist circumference (-0·75 cm), fasting glucose (-0·02 mmol/l), fasting insulin (-0·34 mU/l; 2·04 pmol/l), TAG (-0·03 mmol/l), total cholesterol (-0·08 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol (-0·06 mmol/l). Adjustment for waist circumference attenuated the results. Significant trends were not observed for women. In conclusion, a higher number of eating occasions were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk factors in men. Many associations were mediated by waist circumference. PMID:22177728

  6. Central Adiposity & the Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Response to Cognitive Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Kaur, Sonya; Eagan, Danielle E.; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Pasha, Evan; Doan, Danh C.; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive adipose tissue, particularly with a centralized distribution, propagates hormonal and metabolic disturbance. The detrimental effects of adiposity may extend beyond the periphery and target the central nervous system, increasing vulnerability to cognitive decline. The aim of current study was to determine how central adiposity impacts the brain at midlife by examining the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to a challenging cognitive task. Methods Seventy-three adults, aged 40-60 years, completed a 2-Back verbal working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Central adiposity was assessed with waist circumference. The association between waist circumference and task-related activation in a priori regions of interest was modeled using bootstrapping regression models corrected for multiple-comparisons. Results Larger waist circumference was associated with diminished working-memory-related BOLD response in the right superior frontal gyrus (?=-0.008, p=0.001, 95% CI: -0.012 - -0.004) and left middle frontal gyrus (?=-0.009, p=0.002, 95% CI: -0.015 - -0.003), statistically adjusting for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol. Reduced task-related activation in the right superior frontal gyrus (r=-0.369, p=0.002) and left middle frontal gyrus (r=-0.266, p=0.025) were related to slower reaction time on the task, controlling for age and education. Conclusions Larger waist circumference predicted alterations in the BOLD response that coupled with decrements in task performance. While future studies are necessary, the results suggest that similar to its role in the periphery, central adiposity may be a robust predictor of metabolic and hormonal alterations that impinge upon central nervous system functioning. PMID:24418893

  7. Sex Steroid Hormone Levels and Body Composition in Men

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Margaret A.; Mekary, Rania A.; Chiu, Gretchen R.; Ding, Eric L.; Wittert, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that testosterone (T) is positively correlated with lean mass and inversely correlated with fat mass in men; however, the directionality of these associations, as well as the association with other hormones including estradiol (E2) and SHBG, is unclear. Methods: We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of E2, T, SHBG, and E2/T ratio with body composition among men ages 30 to 79 in the Boston Area Community Health/Bone Survey. Total, trunk, and appendicular lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline, and weight and waist/hip circumference were measured at baseline and follow-up. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were used to estimate the linear relationship between each body composition measure and log-transformed hormone variable. Results: In cross-sectional analyses of 821 men, T, calculated free T, and SHBG were inversely correlated with fat mass, weight, body mass index, waist/hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, with multivariable-adjusted correlations ranging from ?0.13 to ?0.37. Calculated free E2 was positively correlated with percentage total (r = .13) and trunk (r = .15) fat mass, and E2/T was positively correlated with all measures examined (r = .13–.40). There were no significant multivariable-adjusted longitudinal associations between baseline hormone levels and change in weight, body mass index, waist/hip circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio after an average follow-up of 4.8 years. Conclusions: We observed significant cross-sectional associations between hormone levels, including E2, T, and E2/T, and body composition measures in men. Longitudinal analyses showing no influence of baseline hormone levels on change in anthropometric measures imply that body composition affects hormone levels and not the reverse. PMID:23626004

  8. Probing Collimated Jets and Dusty Waists in Dying Stars with Keck LGSAO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sahai; D. Le Mignant; C. Sanchez Contreras; M. Stute; M. Morris

    2005-01-01

    The shaping of planetary nebulae (PNs) is probably the most exciting yet least understood problem in the late evolution of intermediate mass stars. PNs evolve from the envelopes of AGB stars via a supposedly short ( ˜1000 yr) pre-planetary nebula (PPN) phase. HST imaging of PPNs and PNs has shown the widespread presence of diverse bipolar and multipolar morphologies. In

  9. Wind tunnel investigations of glider fuselages with different waistings and wing arrangements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radespiel, R.

    1983-01-01

    The parameters fuselage pinch glider wing arrangement and fuselage leading edge radius of nine glider configurations were investigated in wind tunnel tests. Laminar separation bubbles were found on strongly recessed fuselages. These separations in the juncture between fuselage and wing are essential in the prevention of harmful aerodynamic drag. Drag reduction was measured with increasing pinch and the wing arrangement in the rear. These results are only valid for laminar flow on the fuselage leading edge.

  10. Waist-hip ratio and cognitive ability: is gluteofemoral fat a privileged store of neurodevelopmental resources?

    E-print Network

    Cosmides, Leda

    and their children are protected from cognitive decrements associated with teen births. These findings support attractive, the mean WHR and BMI were 0.68±0.04 and 18.09±1.21, respectively, in 300 Playboy models (Tovee et

  11. Design of Rhythm-Based Vibrotactile Stimuli Around the Waist: Evaluation of Two Encoding Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Barralon; Ginna Ng; Guy A. Dumont; Stephan K. W. Schwarz; J. Mark Ansermino

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two encoding parameters to facilitate the design of a rhythm-based tactile scheme for humans. The sense of touch has been used for many years to aid communication for people with sensory impairments. Now, vibrations are used in mobile phones and handheld computers but are generally very basic and do not fully exploit the potential of

  12. 4D EMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE WIRE AND WAIST SCAN METHODS IN THE ATF EXTRACTION LINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    (CSIC-UV), Valencia, Spain, S. Kuroda, KEK, Japan A. Scarfe, Cockroft Institute, Univ. Manchester, UK, M. Woodley colliders such as ILC or CLIC. The design, normal- ized horizontal emittance is ¾ ¢½¼ m¡rad and the target

  13. Head, Shoulders...Waist-to-Hips? A Study on Body Shape Preference in Infancy. 

    E-print Network

    Hawkins, Laura Bess

    2014-04-24

    , with a male and female figure shown side-by-side; and 2 large WHR displays, with a male and female figure shown side-by-side. Thus, the paired figures in Set A varied in body shape within stimulus sex. The paired figures in Set B, however, varied...

  14. Statewide Physical Fitness Testing: A BIG Waist or a BIG Waste?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Ede, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Statewide physical fitness testing is gaining popularity in the United States because of increased childhood obesity levels, the relations between physical fitness and academic performance, and the hypothesized relations between adult characteristics and childhood physical activity, physical fitness, and health behaviors. Large-scale physical…

  15. Monte Carlo simulation for the Touschek effect with the crab-waist scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscolo, M.; Raimondi, P.

    2012-10-01

    The Touschek effect is one of the dominant loss mechanisms for lepton storage rings of low emittance (i.e. high bunch density) and low or moderate beam energy. So, in the past years, for all lepton circular machines, either colliders or modern synchrotron light sources, either due to high bunch density or to beam energy, more and more efforts have been made for a comprehensive evaluation of this effect. This paper describes the simulation tool developed to evaluate the actions relevant to minimize the Touschek effect, such as position and shape of scrapers and detector shieldings, interaction region optics design with a particular attention to sextupoles for their relevant nonlinear effects. Relevant results obtained through the years at the low energy e+e- collider DA?NE are presented. A reduction of the luminosity normalized to the background of more than 1 order of magnitude is obtained with an increase in luminosity from 1031 to 1032cm-2s-1 and a small decrease in lifetime. The corresponding data Monte Carlo simulation comparison for each action taken is presented, showing an overall good agreement.

  16. 4D Emittance Measurements Using Multiple Wire and Waist Scan Methods in the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Rimbault, C.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; /Orsay, LAL; Alabau, M.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Scarfe, A.; /Manchester U.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Emittance measurements performed in the diagnostic section of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) extraction line since 1998 led to vertical emittances three times larger than the expected ones, with a strong dependence on intensity. An experimental program is pursued to investigate potential sources of emittance growth and find possible remedies. This requires efficient and reliable emittance measurement techniques. In the past, several phase-space reconstruction methods developed at SLAC and KEK have been used to estimate the vertical emittance, based on multiple location beam size measurements and dedicated quadrupole scans. These methods have been shown to be very sensitive to measurement errors and other fluctuations in the beam conditions. In this context new emittance measurements have been performed revisiting these methods and newly developed ones with a systematic approach to compare and characterise their performance in the ATF extraction line.

  17. Using simple harmonic motion to estimate walking distance for waist-mounted PDR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-Chan Lan; Wen-Yuah Shih

    2012-01-01

    A huge body of work utilized signal strength of short range signal (such as WiFi, Bluetooth, ultra sound or Infrared) to build a radio map for indoor localization, by deploying a great number of beacon nodes in the building. The drawback of such an infrastructure-based approach is that the deployment and calibration of the system is costly and labor-intensive. To

  18. HTTP as the Narrow Waist of the Future Internet Lucian Popa

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    .C. Berkeley Ion Stoica U.C. Berkeley ABSTRACT Over the past decade a variety of network architectures have of directly over IP, and HTTP itself might run on top of network layers other than IP. Given such scenario, we's path to cache the content, or to redirect the request to the closest or least loaded server storing

  19. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10?8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  20. Exploring Risk Factors in Latino Cardiovascular Disease: The Role of Education, Nativity, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y.; Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Garza, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined 3 cardiovascular disease risk factors by nativity and gender, evaluating evidence for education and health behaviors in explaining the “Hispanic Health Paradox.” Methods We analyzed 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for adults (n = 6032) to compare hypertension, high waist circumference, and diabetes for US- and foreign-born Mexican men and women. We controlled for age, depression, and health insurance. Results Cardiovascular disease risk factors differed by education, nativity, and gender. Higher education was associated with higher odds of hypertension and high waist circumference for men and women regardless of nativity. As education increased, the odds of diabetes increased for US-born women, showing a gradient for this population. Finally, foreign-born Mexican women with 5 to 19 years in the United States conferred the highest odds of having diabetes, whereas foreign-born men with less than 5 years in the United States had the lowest odds for high waist circumference and presence of diabetes. Conclusions Results contest assumptions of the Hispanic Health Paradox and suggest new approaches. New research can yield accurate information to ensure the development of appropriate interventions, decreasing health disparities endemic to a subgroup of Latinos. PMID:24028268

  1. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socio-economic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males?

    PubMed Central

    Dahly, Darren L; Adair, Linda S

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that lower birth order amplifies the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult males from a lower-income, developing country context. Design The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is an ongoing community-based, observational study of a one year birth cohort (1983). Subjects 970 young adult males, mean age 21.5 y (2005). Measurements Central adiposity measured by waist circumference; birth order; perinatal maternal characteristics including height, arm fat area, age, and smoking behavior; socioeconomic status at birth and in young adulthood. Results Lower birth order was associated with higher waist circumference and increased odds of high waist circumference, even after adjustment for socioeconomic status in young adulthood, and maternal characteristics that could impact later offspring adiposity. Furthermore, the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity was amplified in individuals characterized by lower birth order. Conclusions This research has failed to reject the mismatch hypothesis, which posits that maternal constraint of fetal growth acts to program developing physiology in a manner that increases susceptibility to the obesogenic effects of modern environments. PMID:20065964

  2. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p < .001), HDL-C (p = .010) and waist circumference (p = .016). Triglyceride and waist circumference was significantly decreased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. PMID:25566424

  3. The emergence of cardiometabolic disease risk in Chinese children and adults: consequences of changes in diet, physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Adair, L S; Gordon-Larsen, P; Du, S F; Zhang, B; Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    Strong secular declines in physical activity, increased fat and salt intake, and increased obesity, especially abdominal obesity, mark China's recent nutrition transition. The China Health and Nutrition 2009 Survey collected anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood samples from more than 9,000 individuals ? 7 years of age. We focus on elevated blood pressure and plasma markers of diabetes, inflammation and dyslipidemia. We used international definitions of cardiometabolic risk and estimated age- and sex-specific prevalence ratios for each outcome for high waist circumference or overweight. We used logistic regression to assess each risk factor's association with diet, physical activity, overweight and abdominal obesity. Cardiometabolic risk prevalence was high in all age groups Prevalence ratios for most risk factors were nearly doubled for overweight or high waist circumference groups. Prevalence ratios were higher in younger than older adults. Low physical activity consistently predicted higher cardiometabolic risk across most outcomes and age-sex groups. The co-occurrence of overweight and high waist circumference was highly predictive of dyslipidemia, elevated glycated haemoglobin and diabetes. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and their strong association with weight status and abdominal obesity in young adults portend increases in cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Early interventions will be required to reverse trends. PMID:24341758

  4. Effect of fasting with two meals on BMI and inflammatory markers of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shariatpanahi, Maryam Vahdat; Shariatpanahi, Zahra Vahdat; Shahbazi, Shaahin; Moshtaqi, Manoochehr

    2012-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome has been recognized as a proinflammatory state and inflammatory markers are associated with an increased risk for subsequent cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this clinical trial study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on High-sensitive C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen levels in metabolic syndrome. Sixty five male with metabolic syndrome who were admitted to Hospital were selected for the study. Waist circumference, BMI, FPG, HDL-C, TG, fibrinogen and hs-CRP were evaluated before and after month of Ramadan. The duration of study was thirty days. The dietary intake was estimated by 24 h recall before and after fasting. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the ATP III criteria. FPG, HDL-C, fibrinogen, hs-CRP, BMI and waist circumference were decreased significantly after study (p = 0.005, p = 0.002, p = 0.02, p = 0.01, p = 0.01, p = 0.01, respectively). There was no change in serum TG level (p = 0.21). Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated that after fasting, hs-CRP was related to waist circumference and BMI (r = 0.388, p = 0.01 and r = -0.439, p = 0.02, respectively). Change in the number and timing of meals and portioning the entire intake into two without changing the total energy consumption may have beneficial effects on anthropometry measures and inflammatory markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24199461

  5. [Identification of risk factors for chronic kidney disease among schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Naghettini, Alessandra Vitorino; Salgado, Cláudia Maria; Freitas, Jonathan Santana; Salgado, Luciana M R

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at identifying risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) among schoolchildren, a cross-sectional population study was carried out in six municipal schools in Goiânia, Brazil. We investigated: history of birthweight, enuresis, urinary incontinence, mictional urgency, family history of kidney disease, diabetes, arterial hypertension, percentiles of arterial blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). We evaluated 274 children, mean age of 8.06 ± 1.33 years, among which 139 (50.7%) were female. We detected: enuresis in 50 (18.2%); urinary incontinence in 34 (12.4%); mictional urgency in 49 (17.9%); BMI above P85 in 18.8% (45); waist circumference above P90 in 17 (6.9%); arterial blood pressure above P95 in 17 (7.1%). Also, we observed correlation between arterial blood pressure, obesity, and increased waist circumference, (p < 0.05). The study showed high frequency of abnormal voiding habits and increased BMI in this population. PMID:23099834

  6. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  7. Effects of Losartan vs. Enalapril on the Markers of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thanoon, Zeina A.; Mahmood, Isam H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of losartan and enalapril on the markers of metabolic syndrome. Methods One hundred and twenty six newly diagnosed hypertensive patients having other markers of metabolic syndrome participated in this study. The study was performed in the department of pharmacology, college of medicine at Ibn-Sina Teaching Hospital in Mosul city, Iraq, during the period between December 2007 and June 2009. The patients were divided into 2 main groups: 1) Losartan group: consisted of 60 patients, and 2) enalapril group: Consisted of 66 patients. Waist circumference, weight, Body mass index, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, triglyceride and HDL-cholestrol were measured before and after administration of therapy. The effects of therapy were assessed by statistically comparing the results before and after the drug administration. Results Comparison of waist circumference, blood pressure, FSG, triglycerides of the patients before drug administration (baseline data), with those of the controls showed a significant elevation, while HDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction. A significant reduction of waist circumference, BP, FSG and a significant elevation of HDL-cholesterol were also noted after therapy with both losartan and enalapril. Conclusion Both losartan and enalapril produced a significant reduction of markers of metabolic syndrome and may be regarded as effective drugs for treatment of hypertension in patients with markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22359721

  8. Distribution of CYP17? polymorphism and selected physiochemical factors of uterine leiomyoma in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Alleyne, Angela T; Austin, Shane; Williams, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is a major reproductive health disease among women and in particular Black women. The present study sought to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CYP17 (rs743572) was associated with the risk of developing uterine leiomyoma (UL) in affected women in Barbados; a majority Black population. It also sought to determine if BMI, waist circumference and oestradiol levels were associated with UL in this group. A total of 96 random persons were assessed in a case-control study using a PCR-RFLP assay, and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, and oestradiol levels were also assessed. Our results showed no genetic association with the risk of UL and this gene. The genetic distribution of CYP 17?- alleles resembled a normal Hardy-Weinberg distribution, and a relatively low risk of 0.25 at a confidence interval at 95%, of UL disease development. However, a significant association was found between oestradiol levels and fibroids, as well as oestradiol levels and BMI, at P < 0.05 among cases. Therefore our study indicates that significant associations between physiochemical factors comprising BMI, waist circumference, and oestrogen levels are disease indicators in this population. In conclusion, our findings suggest that obesity and its associated risk factors are important in a majority Black Caribbean population, although the sample size needs to be increased. PMID:25606420

  9. Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship with Metabolic Markers in Persons with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in the UAE: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Solafa M.; Skaria, Sijomol; Abusnana, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To report vitamin D status and its impact on metabolic parameters in people in the United Arab Emirates with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methodology. This cross-sectional study included 309 individuals with obesity and T2D who were randomly selected based on study criteria. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (s-25(OH)D), calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, glycemic profile, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed in fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results. Vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 50?nmol/L) was observed in 83.2% of the participants, with a mean s-25(OH)D of 33.8 ± 20.3?nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D correlated negatively (P < 0.01) with body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and positively (P < 0.01) with age and calcium concentration. Waist circumference was the main predictor of s-25(OH)D status. There was no significant association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic profile. Conclusion. There is an overwhelming prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our sample of the Emirati population with obesity and T2D. Association of s-25(OH)D with body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, markers of calcium homeostasis and cardiometabolic parameters suggests a role of vitamin D in the development of cardiometabolic disease-related process. PMID:25371907

  10. Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Obese Diabetic Emirati Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gariballa, Salah; Kosanovic, Melita; Yasin, Javed; El Essa, Awad

    2014-01-01

    Visceral obesity is more common in the Arab population and more closely related to morbidity, including diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Possible mechanisms that link visceral fat/obesity to diabetes and CVD complications include inflammation and increased oxidative stress; however, few data are available from the Arab population. Our aim was to determine whether increased adiposity in obese diabetic United Arab Emirates citizens is associated with sub-clinical inflammation and/or increased oxidative stress. A hundred diabetic patients who were part of a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements had their baseline characteristics assessed from anthropometric and clinical data following informed written consent. We used WHO figures to classify general and central obesity. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of antioxidants and markers of oxidative damage and inflammation. We found that increased adiposity measured by both body mass index and waist circumference was associated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and decreased vitamin C after adjusting for age, duration and treatment of diabetes (p < 0.05). Although there is a clear trend of increased inflammatory markers, notably CRP, and decreased antioxidants with increased BMI and waist circumference in both men and women, the results are statistically significant for women only. CRP were also inversely associated with HDL. Overall, we found that BMI underestimates the rates of obesity compared to waist circumference and that increased adiposity is associated with increased inflammation and decreased HDL and antioxidant status. PMID:25375631

  11. Birth weight, current anthropometric markers, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Boscaini, Camile; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5-13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  12. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stan?áková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  13. Tourniquet Pressure: The Effect of Limb Circumference and Systolic Blood Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. VAN ROEKEL; A. J. THURSTON

    1985-01-01

    Complications attributable to direct pressure may result from the use of pneumatic tourniquets during surgical procedures. Traditional estimates have determined the pressures employed rather than the minimal pressure necessary to produce a bloodless field.To determine this pressure, pre-operative and post-operative systolic blood pressures and the tourniquet pressure at which capillary bleeding occurred were measured in a group of patients undergoing

  14. Tourniquet pressure: the effect of limb circumference and systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Van Roekel, H E; Thurston, A J

    1985-06-01

    Complications attributable to direct pressure may result from the use of pneumatic tourniquets during surgical procedures. Traditional estimates have determined the pressures employed rather than the minimal pressure necessary to produce a bloodless field. To determine this pressure, pre-operative and post-operative systolic blood pressures and the tourniquet pressure at which capillary bleeding occurred were measured in a group of patients undergoing elective surgery of the upper and lower limbs. From these results two equations were derived, one for each of the upper and lower limbs, which give the minimum tourniquet pressures to produce bloodless fields. In an average sized, normotensive patient, 200mm Hg was found to be adequate for the upper limb and 250mm Hg for the lower limb. PMID:4031590

  15. Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary

    E-print Network

    Hu, Huosheng

    (MVC) in EMG Systems James A.R. Cannan and Huosheng Hu University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester Voluntary Contraction(MVC) is frequently used in human machine muscle interfaces, especially the ones using Elec- tromyography(EMG) and Acousticmyography(AMG). In some cases MVC alone is enough to adapt a system

  16. The relationship of adiposity and mortality among people with diabetes in the US general population: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Andy; Casagrande, Sarah S; Cowie, Catherine C

    2014-01-01

    Objective Several studies have found a U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in the general population. In similar studies among people with diabetes, the shape of the association is inconsistent. We investigated the relationship of BMI and waist circumference with mortality among people with diabetes. Setting The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the 1999–2004 NHANES Mortality Studies were designed to be representative of the US general population. Baseline data were collected in 1988–2004. Participants 2607 adults ?20?years of age with diabetes. Primary Outcome Measure Participants were followed through 31 December 2006 for mortality (n=668 deaths). Results Compared with people with a BMI 18.5–24.9?kg/m2, the HRs (95% CI) of mortality were 0.85 (0.60 to 1.21) for 25–29.9?kg/m2, 0.87 (0.57 to 1.33) for 30–34.9?kg/m2 and 1.05 (0.72 to 1.53) for ?35?kg/m2 after adjustment for age, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking status, education, income and diabetes duration. Compared with people in the lowest sex-specific quartile of waist circumference, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) of mortality were 1.03 (0.77 to 1.37) for the second quartile, 1.02 (0.73 to 1.42) for the third quartile and 1.12 (0.77 to 1.61) for the highest quartile of waist circumference. When modelled as a restricted quadratic spline with knots at the 10th, 50th and 90th centiles, BMI and waist circumference were not associated with mortality. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted and most found no significant association between measures of adiposity and mortality, but there were significant results suggesting a U-shaped association among people in the highest tertile of glycated haemoglobin (?7.1%), and there was an inverse association between BMI and mortality among people 20–44?years of age. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of the non-institutionalised US population with diabetes, BMI and waist circumference were not associated with risk of mortality. PMID:25406156

  17. The Shape of Things to Come? Household Dependency Ratio and Adolescent Nutritional Status in Rural and Urban Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Craig; Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Tessema, Fasil

    2013-01-01

    Several related demographic trends are occurring in developing countries: youth comprise a large portion of populations, fertility rates are declining, and urban dwellers are increasing. As fertility rates decline and populations age, the decline in the ratio of young dependents to working age adults is expected to free up household resources, which can be invested in human capital, including youth nutritional wellbeing. We test this hypothesis in a sample of youth (n = 1,934) in Southwestern Ethiopia. Multiple measures of achieved growth and nutritional status are explored (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body mass index (BMI) and body mass index for age z-score (BMIZ), weight for age z-score (WAZ), and height for age z-score (HAZ)). In multivariable models controlling for the effects of income, age, gender, and youth is workloads, youth living in rural settings had significantly lower weight (1.24 kg lighter), MUAC (0.67 cm lower), BMI (0.45 BMI lower), BMIZ (0.27 lower), HAZ (0.14 HAZ lower), and WAZ (0.3 WAZ lower) than urban youth (all P < 0.01). Compared with youth in the lowest dependency ratio households, results show that youth in households with the highest dependency ratios were estimated to be 1.3 kg lighter, have 0.67 cm smaller MUAC, and BMI that was 0.59 lower (all P<0.01). Similar results were found for WAZ (0.21 lower) and BMIZ (0.36 lower). Youth height and HAZ were not associated with household dependency. These results may point toward increasing levels of human capital investments in Ethiopian youth as fertility levels decline and populations urbanize. Am J Phys Anthropol 144:643–652, 2011. PMID:21404240

  18. Nutritional risk and anthropometric evaluation in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zamberlan, Patrícia; Leone, Cláudio; Tannuri, Uenis; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. METHOD: Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age, height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. RESULTS: We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation. PMID:23295591

  19. Early helminth infections are inversely related to anemia, malnutrition, and malaria and are not associated with inflammation in 6- to 23-month-old Zanzibari children.

    PubMed

    Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Goodman, David; Haji, Hamad J; Ramsan, Mahdi; Wright, Victoria J; Bickle, Quentin D; Tielsch, James M; Raynes, John G; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2009-12-01

    Helminths aggravate anemia and malnutrition among school children. We studied this association in a cross-sectional study of 6- to 23-month-old Zanzibari children (N = 2322) and a sub-sample of 690 children matched on age and helminth infection status. Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections were diagnosed along with recent fever, malaria infection, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb). Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-reactive protein (CRP), height, and weight were measured in the sub-sample. Infected children had higher Hb (beta = 5.44 g/L, P < 0.001) and MUAC-for-age Z score (beta = 0.30 Z, P < 0.001) compared with uninfected children after adjusting for covariates. Although helminths were not associated with inflammation, their association with Hb or MUAC-for-age Z score was modified by inflammation. Malaria-infected children were less likely to be infected with helminths (adjusted odds ratios 0.63 [95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.81]). Non-anemic, better nourished, or non-malaria-infected children may be more exploratory of their environments and therefore increase their exposure to soil-transmitted helminths. PMID:19996438

  20. Craniofacial anthropometric analysis in Down's syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Bagi?, Ivana; Verzak, Zeljko

    2003-01-01

    Past investigations of Down's syndrome (DS) have indicated that there are marked abnormalities in the craniofacial morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the craniofacial anthropometric variables which discriminate DS group from healthy population and also to observe the changes occurring with growth. Using noninvasive method of craniofacial anthropometry, craniofacial pattern profile (CFPP) analysis (from twenty-five anthropometric measurements per person) was performed in 104 DS individuals and 365 healthy controls, aged seven to fifty-seven and divided into four age ranges. Z-scores were calculated for each variable and the variations in the craniofacial region have been identified by multivariate discriminative analysis. The results showed that three variables (head length (g-op), head circumference (OFC) and outer canthal distance (ex-ex) were responsible for 85.68% variability (p < 0.001). The analysis of z-scores showed that the majority of variables were in subnormal (under -2 SD) and normal range (from -2SD to +2SD), but none of them was in the supernormal range (over the +2SD). Some craniofacial characteristics are age-related. On the basis of craniofacial anthropometric traits it was possible to separate even 91.35% of DS patients from the healthy population. It could be concluded that these findings demonstrate the usefulness of application of CFPP in defining abnormal craniofacial dimensions in DS individuals. PMID:12971167

  1. Gestational Diabetes Independently Increases Birth Length and Augments the Effects of Maternal BMI on Birth Weight: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Byström, Magdalena; Liu, Anthony; Quinton, Ann Elizabeth; Champion, Bernard Linton; Mann, Kristy; Peek, Michael; Nanan, Ralph Kay Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the interaction between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the individual neonatal growth parameters. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: A tertiary maternity service in Sydney, Australia, between 2005 and 2009. Population: A cohort of 8859 women. Methods: Generalized linear models. Main outcome measures: Neonatal growth parameters, represented by z-scores for infant birth weight (BW), birth length (BL), and head circumference (HC) in GDM and non-GDM groups. Results: Only GDM alone had an independent and positive effect on BL (p?=?0.02) but not on BW or HC. In addition, in pregnancies complicated with GDM, the association between maternal weight and BW was significantly stronger (p?z-score differences between BW and BL (p?

  2. Clinical profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anju; Mittal, Hema; Patil, Rahul; Debnath, Sanjib; Rai, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly. Materials and Methods: Children attending child development clinic with developmental delay were evaluated as per protocol. Z scores of head circumference were calculated using WHO charts. Clinical, radiological and etiological profile of those with microcephaly and those without was compared. Results: Of the 414 children with developmental delay 231 had microcephaly (z score ? -3). Mean age of children with microcephaly was 35.1 ± 27.9 months (range 4-184), males (72.7%). Comorbidities were epilepsy (42.9%), visual abnormality (26.4%), hearing abnormality (16.9%). Mean DQ was 29.75 + 17.8 in those with microcephaly was significantly lower compared to the rest (P = 0.002). Secondary microcephaly was associated with cerebral palsy in 69.7%. Other causes were congenital infections (4), inborn error of metabolism (3), post-meningoencephalitis (5), malformations (12), and syndromic (13). Neuroimaging was done in 118 (51.1%) cases of which 104 (88.1%) were abnormal. On comparison children with microcephaly had more epilepsy, lower developmental quotient, vision abnormalities findings as compared to normocephalic children with developmental delay (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Microcephaly was associated with lower, DQ, higher comorbidities in children with developmental delay. Spastic CP is commonly associated with microcephaly. PMID:24250161

  3. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  4. Reliability of near-infrared interactance body fat assessment relative to standard anthropometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, P J; Pitkäniemi, J; Pekkanen, J; Salomaa, V V

    1995-11-01

    We examined the repeatability of near-infrared interactance (NIR) body fat determination as compared with that of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist girth. Thirty-nine volunteers (16 men, 23 women) had percent body fat (%BF) measurements made with a portable NIR device as well as the standard anthropometric indices of height, weight, waist girth, and hip circumference. Frame size and physical activity levels were also determined. For each participant, three independent measurements of each index were made by two trained readers during a 2-week period. The two readers varied significantly in their measurement of %BF and hip circumference. The variability in %BF was largely due to differences between the first and the second measurements, and only for one of the readers. Second and third measurements were not statistically significantly different for either reader, suggestive of a training effect. Variance component calculations revealed that the reliability of NIR is 95.3%, compared with 99.9% for BMI; 93.4% for waist girth; and 82.4% for WHR, with the majority of the remaining variance accounted for by the method itself. We conclude that the NIR method has good repeatability, with low intra- and interobserver variability, provided that readers are carefully trained. However, the NIR device offers little advantage in reliability over conventional measures of adiposity such as waist girth or BMI, and requires additional input of weight, height, frame size, physical activity level, age, and gender data to calculate %BF. Associations of NIR and other anthropometric indices with cardiovascular risk factors in this population will provide additional insight into the merit of NIR body fat assessment. PMID:7490599

  5. Please cite this article in press as: Guilloux J-P, et al. Integrated behavioral z-scoring increases the sensitivity and reliability of behavioral phenotyping in mice: Relevance to emotionality and sex. J Neurosci Methods (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.20

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    and sex. J Neurosci Methods (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2011.01.019 ARTICLE IN PRESS GModel NSM-5881; No.of Pages11 Journal of Neuroscience Methods xxx (2011) xxx­xxx Contents lists available at Science and sex Jean-Philippe Guillouxa,b,1 , Marianne Seneya,1 , Nicole Edgara,c , Etienne Sibillea

  6. Lipid Profile In Relation To Anthropometric Indices and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi-Asl, Maryam; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehranghiz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Aliashrafi, Soudabeh; Sadein, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to investigate lipid profile in relation to anthropometric indices and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lipid profile and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated in 63 overweight or obese PCOS patients subdivided into insulin-resistant (IR) and non insulin-resistant (NIR) groups. IR was defined as homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ?3.8. Results: Fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were higher (P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.012) was lower in IR group. All of the anthropometric measures other than WHR and BMI showed significant correlations with several lipid parameters. Amongst, WHtR showed the strongest correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.37; P=0.004) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r=0.33; P=0.011) in the whole PCOS patients. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics (especially BMI and hip circum­ference) are more important parameters correlated to lipid profile than IR in overweight or obesePCOS patients, confirming the importance of early treat­ment of obesity to prevent dyslipidemia in the future. PMID:24688970

  7. Variations in Aging, Gender, Menopause, and Obesity and Their Effects on Hypertension in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu C.; Lo, Tsai C.; Chang, Jui H.; Kuo, Hsien W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. We assessed obesity, sex, menopause, and gender differences on hypertension in a Hakka-majority Taiwanese sample. Methods. 9621 subjects aged 20 and over participated in this community-based study. Trained nurses collected blood pressure (BP) measurements and anthropometric indices, including weight, height, hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results. Levels of systolic and diastolic BP significantly increased at a dose-dependent relationship based on four anthropometric indices (BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR); the slopes for SBP and DBP differed. After controlling for other covariates using multivariate logistic regression, we found the adjusted odds ratios (OR) of hypertension to be significantly related to the four anthropometric indices. Notably, the effect of obesity on the ORs for hypertension was considerably higher in premenopausal women, but we found no such phenomenon among men. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR had significant linear associations with BP. Conclusion. Obesity indices are significantly correlated with the risk of hypertension across gender and age, with BMI having the highest relative potency. The effect of obesity on the risk of hypertension is especially high in premenopausal women, implying a relationship between hormones and hypertension. PMID:25436143

  8. Variations in aging, gender, menopause, and obesity and their effects on hypertension in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu C; Lo, Tsai C; Chang, Jui H; Kuo, Hsien W

    2014-01-01

    Aim. We assessed obesity, sex, menopause, and gender differences on hypertension in a Hakka-majority Taiwanese sample. Methods. 9621 subjects aged 20 and over participated in this community-based study. Trained nurses collected blood pressure (BP) measurements and anthropometric indices, including weight, height, hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results. Levels of systolic and diastolic BP significantly increased at a dose-dependent relationship based on four anthropometric indices (BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR); the slopes for SBP and DBP differed. After controlling for other covariates using multivariate logistic regression, we found the adjusted odds ratios (OR) of hypertension to be significantly related to the four anthropometric indices. Notably, the effect of obesity on the ORs for hypertension was considerably higher in premenopausal women, but we found no such phenomenon among men. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR had significant linear associations with BP. Conclusion. Obesity indices are significantly correlated with the risk of hypertension across gender and age, with BMI having the highest relative potency. The effect of obesity on the risk of hypertension is especially high in premenopausal women, implying a relationship between hormones and hypertension. PMID:25436143

  9. Evaluation of Relation between Anthropometric Indices and Vitamin D Concentrations in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722

  10. Chronic Disease Burden Among Bhutanese Refugee Women Aged 18-65 Years Resettled in Northeast Ohio, United States, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Shakya, Sunita; Assad, Lori; Zullo, Melissa D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this community-based study was to assess the prevalence of chronic diseases among 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women resettled in Northeast Ohio, United States (US). A Nepali-language questionnaire was administered in a face-to-face mode. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, and hip and waist circumferences. The overall prevalence (95 % confidence interval) of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, asthma, heart disease, and cancer were 15.3 % (9.2-23.4), 6.4 % (2.3-10.9), 5.5 % (2.0-11.5), 2.7 % (0.6-7.8), and 1.8 % (0.2-6.4), respectively. Overweight/obesity was observed in 64.8 % of the women; 69.5 and 74.1 % had waist circumference >80 cm and waist-to-hip ratio ?85, respectively. Length of time in the US was not associated with the prevalence of the chronic conditions. This study suggests chronic conditions may be significant health issues among US resettled Bhutanese refugees and a larger population-based study to confirm the findings is warranted. PMID:24849870

  11. Factors associated with reported snoring among elderly patients attending the geriatric centre in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence Adekunle; Ogunbode, Adetola Morenikeji; Olowookere, Olufemi Oluwole

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Snoring is the major symptom of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) which is of immense public health importance. It is associated with some morbidities and mortality in the elderly. Few studies have addressed this problem in the elderly Nigerians. Methods Cross-sectional study of 843 elderly patients at the Geriatric Centre, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were collected on the following candidate variables which may be associated with snoring such as socio-demographic characteristics, morbidities, lifestyle habits and functional disability using Katz index. Anthropometric measurements such as body mass index and neck, waist and hip circumferences were taken. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 17. Results The point prevalence of reported snoring was 31.2%. Habitual snoring was reported by 24.8%. Snoring was significantly associated with obesity, moderate to severe oropharyngeal crowding, wide neck and waist circumferences in both sexes. Logistic regression analysis showed wide neck circumference (OR = 6.005; 95%CI= 2.150-16.770) among the males and obesity (OR = 2.028; 95%CI= 1.344-3.061) and moderate to severe oropharyngeal crowding (OR = 1.639; 95%CI= 1.057-2.543) in the females to be the most significant factors associated with snoring. Conclusion The high prevalence of snoring among elderly patients in Nigeria calls for concerted effort by healthcare workers to educate the elderly. PMID:25883736

  12. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. PMID:25183079

  13. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  14. Association of Calcium Intake, Dairy Product Consumption with Overweight Status in Young Adults (1995–1996): The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B.M.; Rajeshwari, R.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Yang, Su-Jau; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. Methods The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for ethnicity-gender groups separately. Results No significant association was found between dairy product consumption, calcium intake and overweight, defined by body mass index or waist circumference. However, there was a significant inverse association between calcium intake, low-fat dairy product consumption and waist-to-hip ratio in white males. Conclusion Increasing intake of calcium and low-fat dairy products may be associated with lower abdominal adiposity, particularly in young adult white males. PMID:17229900

  15. Obesity and the obesity paradox in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pritha P; Fonarow, Gregg C; Horwich, Tamara B

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population and is associated with an increased risk for the development of new-onset heart failure (HF). However, in acute and chronic HF, overweight and mild to moderate obesity is associated with substantially improved survival compared with normal weight. This phenomenon has been termed the "obesity paradox" in HF. The majority of data pertaining to the obesity paradox identifies obesity with body mass index; however, the reliability of this method has been questioned. Newer studies have explored the use of other measures of body fat and body composition, including waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, skinfold thickness, and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The relationship between the obesity paradox and cardiorespiratory fitness in HF is also discussed in this review, and we explore the various potential explanations for the obesity paradox and summarize the current evidence and guidelines for intentional weight loss treatments for HF in the obese population. PMID:25661554

  16. Familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric variables among the Lobana (nomadic origin) population in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Badaruddoza; Kaur, Punarjot

    2012-01-01

    Familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric characteristics was investigated among the Lobana (a tribal origin) population in Punjab, a North Indian state. A total of 505 individuals comprised the study sample, constituting 116 families of 3 generations. The study represents a multivariate model analysis, which includes family data with respect to blood pressure phenotypes and other metric measurements such as height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and 4 skinfold measurements. A higher correlation for almost all sets of anthropometric variables with blood pressure was found among the offspring generation as compared with the parental and grandparental generations. The study confirmed that the familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric measurements is strong in the offspring generation. The findings suggest that sharing a household environment has a significant effect on familial aggregation especially for systolic blood pressure. PMID:20566522

  17. Up to the waist in mud! : the assessment and application of earth-derivative architecture in rural Bangladesh

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, K. Iftekhar

    1991-01-01

    This thesis is about architecture that uses earth as the prime· building material in the context of rural Bangladesh. In extreme environmental conditions of annual floods, rain and atmospheric humidity, the use of earth, ...

  18. In-Fiber Mach—Zehnder Interferometer Based on Waist-Enlarged Taper and Core-Mismatching for Strain Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Shan; Qiao, Xue-Guang; Shao, Min; Liu, Qin-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61077006, 60727004, and 61077060, the China National Petroleum Corporation Science and Technology Development Projects under Grant No 2014B-4012, and the Science Research Plan Projects of Shaanxi Education Department under Grant No 14JK1580.

  19. Impact of waist\\/hip ratio on the therapeutic efficacy of lumbosacral corsets for chronic muscular low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Toda

    2002-01-01

    .  ?A series of 143 new outpatients who had had chronic low back pain for longer than 3 months, with neither a positive straight\\u000a leg raise test nor radiographic abnormality including lumbar spondylosis, were treated for 4 weeks with a traditional lumbosacral\\u000a corset or one with a front-to-back tensile band (extensile corset). Randomization was performed according to birth date. Radiographs\\u000a were

  20. Abdominal obesity and other risk factors largely explain the high CRP in Indigenous Australians relative to the general population, but not gender differences: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Indigenous Australians, which may contribute to their high risk of cardiovascular disease. We compared CRP levels in Indigenous Australians and the general population, accounting for obesity and other risk factors. Methods Cross-sectional study of CRP and risk factors (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, and smoking status) in population-based samples from the Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region (DRUID) study, and the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study (AusDiab) follow-up. Results CRP concentrations were higher in women than men and in DRUID than AusDiab. After multivariate adjustment, including waist circumference, the odds of high CRP (>3.0 mg/L) in DRUID relative to AusDiab were no longer statistically significant, but elevated CRP was still more likely in women than men. After adjusting for BMI (instead of waist circumference) the odds for elevated CRP in DRUID participants were still higher relative to AusDiab participants among women, but not men. Lower HDL cholesterol, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and higher diastolic blood pressure were associated with having a high CRP in both men and women, while current smoking was associated with high CRP in men but not women. Conclusions High concentrations of CRP in Indigenous participants were largely explained by other risk factors, in particular abdominal obesity. Irrespective of its independence as a risk factor, or its aetiological association with coronary heart disease (CHD), the high CRP levels in urban Indigenous women are likely to reflect increased vascular and metabolic risk. The significance of elevated CRP in Indigenous Australians should be investigated in future longitudinal studies. PMID:21078191

  1. Body composition as a predictor of blood pressure in three communities in Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Idema, K T; Hsu-Hage, B H; Li, Y H; Wahlqvist, M L; Rao, X; Zhang, K; Kuang, T H; Zhang, D L; Dai, Z R

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mean blood pressure (BP), anthropometric and body compositional measurements in three Chinese communities and to examine relationships between BP and body composition in these communities. A total of 935 adult (aged >= 25 years) men and women were randomly sampled from three communities (Chauzhou County speaking Teochew, Meixian County speaking Hakka, and Xinhui speaking Cantonese) in Guangdong Province, China. Self-administered questionnaires about food habits, lifestyle and health status were completed. Body weight, stature, waist and hip circumferences and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, fat free mass, total body fat mass and the percentage body fat were calculated to assess body composition. No significant differences were found in stature, body mass index, umbilical circumference, hip circumference, fat free mass, percentage body fat and defined hypertension between the three communities. However, the waist to hip ratio was lower in Chauzhou men than Meixian women. The mean BPs were different between the communities and mean blood pressure was the highest in the Chauzhou community. Intra-community non-parametric relations between BP and body composition were found mostly in men with increased total and abdominal fatness positively related to BP. The relationships of the aggregate communities with blood pressure were found consistent with those for intra-community analyses, although the body fatness-blood pressure relationship was then evident without exception. Anthropometrically assessed body composition predicts BP in Chinese men, but to a lesser extent, in Chinese women in Guangdong Province, China. PMID:24394900

  2. Breastfeeding and Its Prospective Association with Components of the GH-IGF-Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Adiposity Measures in Young Adulthood – Insights from Linear and Quantile Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Anke L. B.; Walz, Helena; Kroke, Anja; Wudy, Stefan A.; Riedel, Christina; von Kries, Rüdiger; Joslowski, Gesa; Remer, Thomas; Cheng, Guo; Buyken, Anette E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding may lower chronic disease risk by long-term effects on hormonal status and adiposity, but the relations remain uncertain. Objective To prospectively investigate the association of breastfeeding with the growth hormone- (GH) insulin-like growth factor- (IGF) axis, insulin sensitivity, body composition and body fat distribution in younger adulthood (18–37 years). Design Data from 233 (54% female) participants of a German cohort, the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study, with prospective data on infant feeding were analyzed. Multivariable linear as well as quantile regression were performed with full breastfeeding (not: ?2, short: 3–17, long: >17 weeks) as exposure and adult IGF-I, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) -1, -2, -3, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fat mass index, fat-free mass index, and waist circumference as outcomes. Results After adjustment for early life and socio-economic factors, women who had been breastfed longer displayed higher adult IGFBP-2 (ptrend?=?0.02) and lower values of HOMA-IR (ptrend?=?0.004). Furthermore, in women breastfeeding duration was associated with a lower mean fat mass index (ptrend?=?0.01), fat-free mass index (ptrend?=?0.02) and waist circumference (ptrend?=?0.004) in young adulthood. However, there was no relation to IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 (all ptrend>0.05). Associations for IGFBP-2 and fat mass index were more pronounced at higher, for waist circumference at very low or high percentiles of the distribution. In men, there was no consistent relation of breastfeeding with any outcome. Conclusions Our data suggest that breastfeeding may have long-term, favorable effects on extremes of adiposity and insulin metabolism in women, but not in men. In both sexes, breastfeeding does not seem to induce programming of the GH-IGF-axis. PMID:24236134

  3. Advanced glycation end products measured by skin autofluorescence in a population with central obesity.

    PubMed

    den Engelsen, Corine; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J; Salomé, Philippe L; Rutten, Guy E

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is enhanced by chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress and this process may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF), a measure of accumulation of AGEs in skin collagen, is associated with vascular disease in patients with diabetes.   Because central obesity enhances oxidative stress people with central obesity might already have increased accumulation of AGEs before diabetes or cardiovascular disease become manifest. To test this hypothesis, we compared the distribution of skin AF and its association with clinical and biochemical parameters in individuals with and without central obesity. Skin AF was measured by a validated AGE Reader in 816 persons with and 431 persons without central obesity, aged 20-70 y. Mean skin AF increased with age and smoking and was higher in centrally obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals (p = 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p = 0.13). Mean skin AF in the subgroups without central obesity and without other risk factors (n = 106), central obesity without other risk factors (n = 74) and central obesity with other risk factors (n = 742) was 1.63 ± 0.37, 1.74 ± 0.44 and 1.87 ± 0.43 AU, respectively (p for trend < 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p for trend = 0.12). In the group with central obesity age, current smoking, alcohol consumption, waist circumference, creatinine clearance and hs-CRP were independently associated with skin AF (R(2) = 29.4%). Waist circumference hardly contributed to the explained variance. The relationship between waist circumference and skin AF is not as obvious as we hypothesized. PMID:22870350

  4. Factors Associated With Body Weight Status of Iranian Postgraduate Students in University of Putra Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Maryam; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh; Abu Saad, Hazizi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are foundations of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional status of Iranian students studying oversea has never been investigated. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between body weight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis. Results: From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI. Conclusions: The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders. PMID:25414886

  5. Effects of C358A missense polymorphism of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase on weight loss after a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; Conde, Rosa

    2011-05-01

    The Pro129THr, C385A, polymorphism of FAAH gene (rs324420C>A) has been associated with overweight and obesity. We investigate the role of this polymorphism on anthropometric and metabolic responses to a weight loss program. Obese individuals (n = 122) were assessed at baseline and after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet. There were 76.2% (n = 93) homozygotes for the C allele, 23.8% (n = 27) AC heterozygotes, and 1.6% (n = 2) homozygotes for the A allele. After the dietary intervention, all individuals decreased their body weight (in kilograms), body mass index (in kilograms per square meter), fat mass (in kilograms), waist circumference (in centimeters), and systolic blood pressure (in millimeters of mercury). In mutant-type group, the decrease in weight was 3.5 ± 3.6 kg (decrease in wild-type group, 2.4 ± 3.8 kg); and the decrease in waist circumference was 5.4 ± 6.4 cm (decrease in wild-type group, 2.6 ± 4.8 cm). Individuals with the A/C or AA genotype had a significant reduction (P < .05) in glucose (96.5 ± 12.5 vs 92.3 ± 10.5 mg/dL; difference, 2.68 ± 1.81 mg/dL), total cholesterol (215.3 ± 49 vs 193.3 ± 27.6 mg/dL; difference, 14.31 ± 7.21 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (133.6 ± 53 vs 106.7 ± 39.2 mg/dL; difference, 15.87 ± 9.61 mg/dL) levels. The A allele at rs324420 in the FAAH gene was associated with larger improvements in glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, and waist circumference after a dietary intervention. PMID:20716455

  6. Variants in the CNR1 and the FAAH genes and adiposity traits in the community

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Manning, Alisa K.; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josée; Cupples, L. Adrienne; McAteer, Jarred B.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Meigs, James B.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of the endocannabinoid receptor 1 leads to weight loss and an improved metabolic risk profile in overweight and obese individuals. We hypothesize that common genetic variants in the CNR1 (encoding endocannabinoid receptor 1) and FAAH genes (encoding fatty acid amide hydrolase, a key enzyme hydrolyzing endocannabinoids) are associated with adiposity traits. We genotyped 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CNR1 and 9 SNPs in the FAAH gene in 2,415 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 61±10 years; 52.6% women; mean BMI 28.2±5.4 kg/m2; 30.3% obese) and studied them for association with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of adiposity (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, change over time in BMI and waist circumference, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue) using linear mixed-effect models. The selected SNPs captured 85% (r2=0.8) of the common variation (minor allele frequency >5%) at the CNR1 locus and 96% (r2=0.8) of the common variation at the FAAH locus (defined as the genomic segment containing the gene +20 kb upstream and +10 kb downstream). After correction for multiple testing, none of the SNPs in the CNR1 gene or in the FAAH gene displayed statistical evidence for association with BMI, waist circumference and visceral adipose tissue or subcutaneous adipose tissue (all P>0.18). Despite comprehensive SNP mapping across the genes and their regulatory regions in a large unselected sample, we failed to find evidence for an association of common variants in the CNR1 and FAAH genes with measures of adiposity in our community-based sample. PMID:19165169

  7. Sleep Apnea Is Related to the Atherogenic Phenotype, Lipoprotein Subclass B

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Kip, Kevin E.; Drumheller, Oliver J.; Rice, Thomas B.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen; Reis, Steven E.; Strollo, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep apnea has been implicated as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). An association between the severity of sleep apnea and total cholesterol levels has previously been reported. However, the association with small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration (subclass B), one of the strongest predictors of atherosclerosis, is unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep apnea and LDL subclass B, considering body size. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational cohort of participants enrolled in a cardiovascular health study. Sleep apnea was assessed with a validated portable monitor. Lipid panels included total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL subclasses A, B, and A/B. Sleep apnea was analyzed categorically using the apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Results: A total of 519 participants were evaluated. Mean age was 58.7 ± 7.4 years; BMI was 29.6 ± 5.7; 65% were female; 59% were Caucasian, and 37% were African American. Among participants with abnormal waist circumference by ATP III criteria, moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI ? 25) was not independently associated with LDL subclass B. In contrast, among participants with normal waist circumference, moderate to severe sleep apnea was associated with 4.5-fold odds of having LDL subclass B. Conclusions: Sleep apnea is independently associated with an atherogenic phenotype (LDL subclass B) in non-obese individuals. The association between sleep apnea and LDL subclass B in those with normal waist circumference may account, in part, for the increased risk of atherosclerosis and subsequent vascular events. Citation: Luyster FS; Kip KE; Drumheller OJ; Rice TB; Edmundowicz D; Matthews K; Reis SE; Strollo PJ. Sleep apnea is related to the atherogenic phenotype, lipoprotein subclass B. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):155-161. PMID:22505860

  8. Relation between oxidative stress and climacteric symptoms in early postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cagnacci, A; Cannoletta, M; Palma, F; Bellafronte, M; Romani, C; Palmieri, B

    2015-08-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relation between climacteric symptoms or other risk factors for cardiovascular disease and oxidative status of postmenopausal women. Methods Cross-sectional investigation performed at the outpatient service for the menopause at the University Hospital, on 50 apparently healthy women in physiological postmenopause. The whole-blood free oxygen radical test (FORT), free oxygen radical defence (FORD), age, months since menopause, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, estradiol, lipids, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (glucose/insulin and HOMA-IR), and fibrinogen were evaluated. The Greene Climacteric Scale with its subscales was used to evaluate climacteric symptoms. The pulsatility index, an index of downstream blood flow resistance, was determined for both the internal carotid artery and the brachial artery. Results The waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.540; p = 0.0001), estradiol (r = 0.548; p = 0.0004) and waist circumference (r = 0.345; p = 0.02) were independently related to blood FORT. The score in the Greene vasomotor subscale was the only parameter independently related to blood FORD (r = 0.554; p = 0.0001). FORT was not related to the artery pulsatility index, while FORD was negatively related to the pulsatility index of both the internal carotid (r = 0.549; p = 0.0001) and the brachial (r = 0.484; p = 0.0001) arteries. Discussion In postmenopausal women, abdominal adiposity and hypoestrogenism increase oxidative stress. Climacteric symptoms, particularly vasomotor symptoms, markedly reduce antioxidant defences. Lower antioxidant defences are associated with higher resistance to blood flow in the great arteries. In women early after the menopause, visceral fat, hypoestrogenism and climacteric symptoms may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25536006

  9. Measures of Body Shape and Adiposity as Related to Incidence of Age-Related Eye Diseases: Observations From the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Kerri P.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effect of obesity on the incidence of age-related eye disease. Methods. Participants of the Beaver Dam Eye Study were examined every 5 years over a 20-year period (1988–1990 through 2008–2010). Lens and fundus photographs were used to evaluate presence and severity of cataract and macular degeneration. Height and weight were measured at all examinations. Waist and hip circumference were measured at all examinations beginning at the first follow-up (1993–1995). Models of ocular outcomes over 15 years were stratified by sex and smoking status. Results. Overall, 2641 participants contributed 5567 person-visits to 15-year incidence analysis. Female nonsmokers had increased risk of late AMD associated with higher body mass index (BMI; hazard ratio [HR] per 2.5 kg/m2 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.50, P < 0.001), waist to hip ratio (HR per 0.1 cm/cm 1.95, 95% CI 1.33–2.86, P < 0.001), waist circumference (HR per 5 cm 1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, P < 0.001), and waist to height ratio (HR per 0.1 cm/cm 1.74, 95% CI 1.31–2.31, P < 0.001). Increased BMI was also associated with early AMD in female nonsmokers (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19, P = 0.02). Conclusions. Female nonsmokers had risk of late AMD associated with increasing measures of greater obesity and increased risk of early AMD associated with greater BMI. PMID:24667857

  10. Adiposity among children in Norway by urbanity and maternal education: a nationally representative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International research has demonstrated that rural residency is a risk factor for childhood adiposity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the urban-rural gradient in overweight and obesity and whether the association differed by maternal education. Methods Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured in a nationally representative sample of 3166 Norwegian eight-year-olds in 2010. Anthropometric measures were stratified by area of residence (urbanity) and maternal education. Risk estimates for overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio ?0.5 were calculated by log-binomial regression. Results Mean BMI and WC and risk estimates of overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio ?0.5 were associated with both urbanity and maternal education. These associations were robust after mutual adjustment for each other. Furthermore, there was an indication of interaction between urbanity and maternal education, as trends of mean BMI and WC increased from urban to rural residence among children of low-educated mothers (p?=?0.01 for both BMI and WC), whereas corresponding trends for children from higher educational background were non-significant (p?>?0.30). However, formal tests of the interaction term urbanity by maternal education were non-significant (p-value for interaction was 0.29 for BMI and 0.31 for WC). Conclusions In this nationally representative study, children living rurally and children of low-educated mothers had higher mean BMI and waist circumference than children living in more urban areas and children of higher educated mothers. PMID:24028668

  11. Anthropometric measurements for the prediction of the metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study on adolescents and young adults from southern india

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Vasan; N Thomas; S Christopher; F S Geethanjali; T V Paul; C B Sanjeevi

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine which anthropometric measurement correlates best with the metabolic abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults.DesignCross-sectional study.SettingSchools, high schools and universities.Participants1359 adolescents and young adults aged 14–25 years.Main outcome measuresAnthropometric predictors of metabolic abnormalities as classified by International Diabetes Federation definition.ResultsThe waist circumference (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.43: p?0.01) and the abdominal skin

  12. A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in many countries including India. Yoga may be an effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategy in India, particularly given its cultural familiarity. Methods This was a parallel, randomized controlled pilot study to collect feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on yoga for diabetes risk factors among people at high risk of diabetes. Primary outcomes included: changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and cholesterol. We also looked at measures of psychological well-being including changes in depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect and perceived stress. Forty-one participants with elevated fasting blood glucose in Bangalore, India were randomized to either yoga (n?=?21) or a walking control (n?=?20). Participants were asked to either attend yoga classes or complete monitored walking 3–6 days per week for eight weeks. Randomization and allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers and group assignments delivered in sealed, opaque envelopes generated by off-site study staff. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Results This study was feasible in terms of recruitment, retention and adherence. In addition, yoga participants had significantly greater reductions in weight, waist circumference and BMI versus control (weight ?0.8?±?2.1 vs. 1.4?±?3.6, p?=?0.02; waist circumference ?4.2?±?4.8 vs. 0.7?±?4.2, p?waist circumference when compared to a walking control. Yoga offers a promising lifestyle intervention for decreasing weight-related type 2 diabetes risk factors and potentially increasing psychological well-being. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identified NCT00090506. PMID:24980650

  13. Optimal Cut-Off Values of Anthropometric Markers to Predict Hypertension in North Indian Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilpi Gupta; Satwanti Kapoor

    The aim of the study was to determine the cut-offs of anthropometric markers for detecting hypertension in an endogamous North\\u000a Indian population. A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect data from 578 adult Aggarwal Baniya subjects (271 men\\u000a and 307 women, mean age: 43.4 ± 5.3 and 38.7 ± 4.9 respectively) using multistage, stratified sampling method. Individual\\u000a body weight, height, waist circumference (WC),

  14. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association of variables related to obesity and asthma. Asthma was defined either by the presence of symptoms with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or by a self-report of a physician-made diagnosis. The following variables were separately tested for associations with asthma: socioeconomic characteristics, schooling, physical activity, smoking status, anthropometry and spirometry. Results No association was detected between asthma confirmed by BHR and obesity indicators, odds ratio (OR) = 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.69 - 1.68) for obesity assessed by body mass index ? 30 kg/m2; OR = 1.02 (0.74 - 1.40) for obesity assessed by abnormal waist-to-height ratio; and, OR = 0.96 (0.69 - 1.33) for abnormal waist circumference. On the contrary, a previous diagnosis of asthma was associated with obesity, OR = 1.48 (1.01 - 2.16) for body mass index ? 30 kg/m2; OR = 1.48 (1.13 - 1.93) for abnormal waist-to-height ratio; and, OR = 1.32 (1.00 – 1.75) for abnormal waist circumference. Female gender, schooling ? 12 years and smoking were associated with BHR-confirmed asthma. Physically inactive subjects were associated with a previous diagnosis of asthma. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the relationship between asthma and obesity in epidemiological studies depends on the definition adopted. Certain components of asthma, for instance, symptoms may be more prone to the obesity influence than other ones, like bronchial hyperresponsiveness. PMID:23035704

  15. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner.

    PubMed

    Bera, T K; Rajapurkar, M V

    1993-07-01

    Forty male high school students, age 12-15 yrs, participated for a study of yoga in relation to body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power. Ths Ss were placed into two subsets viz., yoga group and control group. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance anaerobic power were measured using standard method. The duration of experiment was one year. The result of ANCOVA revealed that a significant improvement in ideal body weight, body density, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power was observed as a result of yoga training. This study could not show significant change in body fat (midaxillary), skeletal diameters and most of the body circumferences. It was evident that some of the fat-folds (tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, umbilical, thigh and calf) and body circumferences (waist, umbilical and hip) were reduced significantly. PMID:8276501

  16. Efficacy of ‘Itrifal Saghir’, a combination of three medicinal plants in the treatment of obesity; A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbal combination of Itrifal Saghir (triphala) has been widely used in traditional medicine. And brings health benefits such as antioxidant effect and scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide radicals activity and substantiated in traditional medicine a anti-obesity. Material and method In this study we aimed to assess the efficacy of this herbal medicinal on reduction of weight and body mass index (BMI) of simple obese subjects in comparison with placebo. Obese subjects aged between 16 and 60 years were selected for 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design. Subjects were randomly assigned to take 5 grams of either the Itrifal Saghir (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31), 2 times daily for 12 weeks. Measures of body weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), were assessed at baseline and once every four weeks during the 12 week treatment period. The safety was evaluated by means of measuring the liver and kidney function. Homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as [fasting insulin (?U/mL)?×?fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5]. Results Compared to placebo group, in treatment group the mean difference of effective weight loss was 4.82Kg (CI95% 3.52 - 6.11, ??waist circumference was 4.01 cm (CI 95% 2.13 - 5.90, ??circumference was 3. 21 cm (CI 95% 1.96 - 4.45, ??

  17. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  18. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  19. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  20. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin G.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam D.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Belfiore, Marco; Bouquillon, Sonia; Campion, Dominique; De Leeuw, Nicole; De Vries, Bert B. A.; Esko, Tõnu; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Gratacòs, Mònica; Guilmatre, Audrey; Hoyer, Juliane; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kooy, Frank R.; Kurg, Ants; Le Caignec, Cédric; Männik, Katrin; Platt, Orah S.; Sanlaville, Damien; Van Haelst, Mieke M.; Villatoro Gomez, Sergi; Walha, Faida; Wu, Bai-Lin; Yu, Yongguo; Aboura, Azzedine; Addor, Marie-Claude; Alembik, Yves; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Arveiler, Benoît; Barth, Magalie; Bednarek, Nathalie; Béna, Frédérique; Bergmann, Sven; Beri, Mylène; Bernardini, Laura; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Bonneau, Dominique; Bottani, Armand; Boute, Odile; Brunner, Han G.; Cailley, Dorothée; Callier, Patrick; Chiesa, Jean; Chrast, Jacqueline; Coin, Lachlan; Coutton, Charles; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; David, Albert; De Freminville, Bénédicte; Delobel, Bruno; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Demeer, Bénédicte; Descamps, Dominique; Didelot, Gérard; Dieterich, Klaus; Disciglio, Vittoria; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Drunat, Séverine; Duban-Bedu, Bénédicte; Dubourg, Christèle; El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S.; Elliott, Paul; Faas, Brigitte H. W.; Faivre, Laurence; Faudet, Anne; Fellmann, Florence; Ferrarini, Alessandra; Fisher, Richard; Flori, Elisabeth; Forer, Lukas; Gaillard, Dominique; Gerard, Marion; Gieger, Christian; Gimelli, Stefania; Gimelli, Giorgio; Grabe, Hans J.; Guichet, Agnès; Guillin, Olivier; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heron, Délphine; Hippolyte, Loyse; Holder, Muriel; Homuth, Georg; Isidor, Bertrand; Jaillard, Sylvie; Jaros, Zdenek; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Joly Helas, Géraldine; Jonveaux, Philippe; Kaksonen, Satu; Keren, Boris; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Koolen, David A.; Kroisel, Peter M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Labalme, Audrey; Landais, Emilie; Lapi, Elisabetta; Layet, Valérie; Legallic, Solenn; Leheup, Bruno; Leube, Barbara; Lewis, Suzanne; Lucas, Josette; Macdermot, Kay D.; Magnusson, Pall; Marshall, Christian R.; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Mccarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Antonietta Mencarelli, Maria; Merla, Giuseppe; Moerman, Alexandre; Mooser, Vincent; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Mucciolo, Mafalda; Nauck, Matthias; Coumba Ndiaye, Ndeye; Nordgren, Ann; Pasquier, Laurent; Petit, Florence; Pfundt, Rolph; Plessis, Ghislaine; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Paolo Ramelli, Gian; Rauch, Anita; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Reis, Andre; Renieri, Alessandra; Richart, Cristobal; Ried, Janina S.; Rieubland, Claudine; Roberts, Wendy; Roetzer, Katharina M.; Rooryck, Caroline; Rossi, Massimiliano; Saemundsen, Evald; Satre, Véronique; Schurmann, Claudia; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Tengström, Carola; Thorsteinsdóttir, Unnur; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Touraine, Renaud; Vallée, Louis; Van Binsbergen, Ellen; Van Der Aa, Nathalie; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Vulto-Van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Waeber, Gérard; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Witwicki, Robert M.; Zwolinksi, Simon; Andrieux, Joris; Estivill, Xavier; Gusella, James F.; Gustafsson, Omar; Metspalu, Andres; Scherer, Stephen W.; Stefansson, Kari; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Froguel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Both underweight and obesity have been associated with increased mortality1,2. Underweight, defined as body mass index (BMI) ? 18,5 kg/m2 in adults 3 and ? ?2 standard deviations (SD) in children4,5, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions such as failure to thrive (FTT) 6–8, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa9,10. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported 11, 12. We previously demonstrated that hemizygosity of a ~600 kb region on the short arm of chromosome 16 (chr16:29.5–30.1Mb), causes a highly-penetrant form of obesity often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities13. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with underweight. We identified 138 (132 novel cases) duplication carriers (108 unrelated carriers) from over 95,000 individuals clinically-referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID), psychiatric disorders or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight (mean Z-score ?0.6; p=4.4×10?4) and BMI (mean Z-score ?0.5; p=2.0×10?3). In particular, half of the boys younger than 5 years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of FTT, while adult duplication carriers have an 8.7-fold (p=5.9×10?11; CI_95=[4.5–16.6]) increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a significant trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive feeding behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference (mean Z-score ?0.9; p=7.8×10?6). Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus, correlating with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not within flanking regions. The reciprocal impact of these 16p11.2 copy number variants suggests that severe obesity and being underweight can have mirror etiologies, possibly through contrasting effects on eating behaviour. PMID:21881559

  1. Fractures on bisphosphonates in osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG): pQCT shows poor bone density and structure.

    PubMed

    Streeten, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Sheila; Eliades, Myrto; Jaimungal, Sarada; Chandrasekaran, Sruti; Kathleen, Ryan; Holmes Morton, D; Puffenberger, Erik G; Herskovitz, Rita; Leonard, Mary B

    2015-08-01

    Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of childhood osteoporosis and blindness due to inactivating mutations in LDL receptor-like protein 5 (LRP5). We and others have reported improvement in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA in OPPG on short term bisphosphonates. Long-term data on bisphosphonate use in OPPG and measures of volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical structure are not available. In addition, no long-term DXA data on untreated OPPG is available. The aims of this study were to: (1) record low trauma fractures and longitudinal aBMD by DXA in 5 OPPG patients on chronic bisphosphonate treatment, and in 4 OPPG patients never treated (2) to perform tibia peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) to evaluate volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical structure and calf muscle area in 6 OPPG patients and 14 unaffected first degree family members. pQCT results were converted to sex-specific Z-scores for age and adjusted for tibia length based on data in >700 reference participants. We observed 4 fractures (3 femoral shafts) in 3 OPPG patients while on bisphosphonates, after each achieved significant improvement in aBMD. OPPG participants had significantly lower mean trabecular vBMD (-1.51 vs. 0.17, p=0.002), cortical area (-2.36 vs. 0.37; p<0.001) and periosteal circumference (-1.86 vs. -0.31, p=0.001) Z-scores, compared with unaffected participants and had a trend toward lower muscle area Z-score (-0.69 vs. 0.47, p=0.12). These data demonstrate substantial bone fragility despite improvements in aBMD. The pQCT data provide insight into the fragility with substantial deficits in trabecular vBMD and cortical dimensions, consistent with OPPG effects of bone formation. Treatment that improves bone quality is needed to reduce fractures in OPPG. PMID:25892485

  2. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in rural area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    PENA, GEÓRGIA G.; DUTRA, MÍRIAM SANTOS; GAZZINELLI, ANDREA; CORRÊA-OLIVEIRA, RODRIGO; VELASQUEZ-MELENDEZ, GUSTAVO

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. Methods The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ? 18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index, body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. Results The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h2=52%), glucose (h2=51%), high-density lipoprotein (HDLc; h2=58%), and waist circumference (WC; h2=49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin with body mass index (BMI;?g=0.48), WC (?g=0.47) and HDLc (?g= ?0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g=0.53) and HDLc (?g=?0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. Conclusions Glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  3. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Petrovi?-Oggiano, Gordana; Glibeti?, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Koni?-Risti?, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4?kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1?cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100?mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  4. Scarcity of atrial fibrillation in a traditional African population: a community-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In western societies, atrial fibrillation is an increasingly common finding among the elderly. Established risk factors of atrial fibrillation include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation has almost exclusively been studied in western populations where these risk factors are widely present. Therefore, we studied the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation in a traditional African community. Methods In rural Ghana, among 924 individuals aged 50 years and older, we recorded electrocardiograms to detect atrial fibrillation. As established risk factors, we documented waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), capillary glucose level, blood pressure, and electrocardiographic myocardial infarction. In addition, we determined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL6), a proinflammatory cytokine, and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. We compared the risk factors with reference data from the USA. Results Atrial fibrillation was detected in only three cases, equalling 0.3% (95% CI 0.1–1.0%). Waist circumference, BMI, and capillary glucose levels were very low. Hypertension and myocardial infarction were uncommon. Circulating levels of IL6 were similar, but those of CRP were lower compared with the USA. Conclusion Atrial fibrillation is very scarce in this traditional African community. Its low prevalence compared with western societies can be explained by the rareness of its established risk factors, which are closely related to lifestyle, and by possible unmeasured differences in other risk factors or genetic factors. PMID:25037974

  5. Personality and the Leading Behavioral Contributors of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Turiano, Nicholas A.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Gruenewald, Tara L.; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Personality traits predict both health behaviors and mortality risk across the life course. However, there are few investigations that have examined these effects in a single study. Thus, there are limitations in assessing if health behaviors explain why personality predicts health and longevity. Method Utilizing 14-year mortality data from a national sample of over 6,000 adults from the Midlife in the United States Study, we tested whether alcohol use, smoking behavior, and waist circumference mediated the personality–mortality association. Results After adjusting for demographic variables, higher levels of Conscientiousness predicted a 13% reduction in mortality risk over the follow-up. Structural equation models provided evidence that heavy drinking, smoking, and greater waist circumference significantly mediated the Conscientiousness–mortality association by 42%. Conclusion The current study provided empirical support for the health-behavior model of personality— Conscientiousness influences the behaviors persons engage in and these behaviors affect the likelihood of poor health outcomes. Findings highlight the usefulness of assessing mediation in a structural equation modeling framework when testing proportional hazards. In addition, the current findings add to the growing literature that personality traits can be used to identify those at risk for engaging in behaviors that deteriorate health and shorten the life span. PMID:24364374

  6. Associations of Fast Food Restaurant Availability With Dietary Intake and Weight Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000–2004

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Smith, Adam E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Gore, Larry D.; Zhang, Lei; Wyatt, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States. Methods. We investigated cross-sectional associations of FFR availability with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 4740 African American Jackson Heart Study participants (55.2 ±12.6 years, 63.3% women). We estimated FFR availability using circular buffers with differing radii centered at each participant's geocoded residential location. Results. We observed no consistent associations between FFR availability and BMI or waist circumference. Greater FFR availability was associated with higher energy intake among men and women younger than 55 years, even after adjustment for individual socioeconomic status. For each standard deviation increase in 5-mile FFR availability, the energy intake increased by 138 kilocalories (confidence interval [CI] = 70.53, 204.75) for men and 58 kilocalories (CI = 8.55, 105.97) for women. We observed similar associations for the 2-mile FFR availability, especially in men. FFR availability was also unexpectedly positively associated with total fiber intake. Conclusions. FFR availability may contribute to greater energy intake in younger African Americans who are also more likely to consume fast food. PMID:21551382

  7. Adiposity measures predict olfactory processing speed in older adult carriers of the Apolipoprotein E ?4 allele

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, R.; Bartholow, J.; Green, E.; Morgan, C.D.; Murphy, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study investigated the relationship between adiposity and P3 latency. Methods Fifty-one adults in two age groups (18-25 and 65+) participated. Odor stimuli were delivered via olfactometer as participants focused on a computer screen. Each stimulus was followed by presentation on the screen of four odor identification choices. Participants attempted identification by button press. Olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) were recorded. BMI and waist circumference were measured as indicators of adiposity. Results In bivarate analyses with all participants included, positive correlations for P3 latency with both BMI and waist circumference were observed, indicating that as adiposity increased latencies also increased. When each age group was separately examined, correlations between adiposity measures and latency remained statistically significant for older adults. Furthermore, ApoE ?4 allele status was examined. Latencies remained positively correlated with adiposity in older adult ?4 carriers; but not in non-carriers. Conclusions This study indicates that adiposity predicts olfactory processing speed in older adults, specifically in ?4 carriers. Significance The results suggest that olfactory processing speed may be a useful measure for detecting and following the effects of adiposity on brain integrity and cognitive function in those at genetic risk for AD. PMID:22055839

  8. Diabetes prevention in the New York City Sikh Asian Indian community: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nadia S; Zanowiak, Jennifer M; Wyatt, Laura C; Kavathe, Rucha; Singh, Hardayal; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-05-01

    India has one of the highest burdens of diabetes worldwide, and rates of diabetes are also high among Asian Indian immigrants that have migrated into the United States (U.S.). Sikhs represent a significant portion of Asian Indians in the U.S. Diabetes prevention programs have shown the benefits of using lifestyle intervention to reduce diabetes risk, yet there have been no culturally-tailored programs for diabetes prevention in the Sikh community. Using a quasi-experimental two-arm design, 126 Sikh Asian Indians living in New York City were enrolled in a six-workshop intervention led by community health workers. A total of 108 participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys between March 2012 and October 2013. Main outcome measures included clinical variables (weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol) and health behaviors (changes in physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge). Changes were significant for the treatment group in weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge, and between group differences were significant for glucose, diabetes knowledge, portion control, and physical activity social interaction. Retention rates were high. Findings demonstrate that a diabetes prevention program in the Sikh community is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious. PMID:24852392

  9. Impact of Overweight and Obesity on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Value of Tissue Doppler Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kossaify, Antoine; Nicolas, Nayla

    2013-01-01

    Background Diastolic dysfunction is a common cause of heart failure with preserved systolic function in obese patients. Objective To assess diastolic function in a series of overweight and obese patients using conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Setting and method University hospital; left ventricular diastolic function was evaluated in 99 patients (mean age 61.59 ± 13.9 years); body mass index and waist circumference were assessed, and patients were subdivided into three groups according to their body mass index (kg/m2): [normal, (18.5–24.9); overweight, (25–29.9); obese, (>29.9)]. Peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral flow and peak early (E?) diastolic mitral annulus velocities were measured. Results Diastolic dysfunction was significantly higher in the overweight/obese groups compared to the normal body mass index group. The analysis was made with regard to waist circumference and other clinical characteristics, and multivariate regression analysis showed a direct and independent effect of body mass index on diastolic function [OR: 2.75; CI: 1.34–5.67; P = 0.006]. Discussion was made in view of the latest clinical data. Also, an insight into normal weight obesity is presented and discussed. Conclusion Overweight and obesity are found to have an independent negative impact on diastolic function as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging. PMID:23471126

  10. Measuring Body Composition in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Amanda Faith

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research shows obesity to be more prevalent amongst individuals with intellectual disability (ID) making correct measurement of body composition crucial. This study reviewed the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing body composition in individuals with ID. Methods. Authors conducted electronic searches through PubMed (1990 to present) and PsycINFO (1990 to present) and assessed relevant articles independently based on scoping review guidelines. Reviewers included primary research related to the validity and reliability of body composition measures on individuals with ID. Results. Searches identified six articles assessing body composition methods used on individuals with ID including body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), waist circumference, tibia length, and anthropometric girth measurements. BMI and waist circumference appear suitable measures but skinfold thickness measurements may not be advisable due to participants' noncompliance resulting in a lack of precision and inaccurate results. Conclusions. The current literature contains too few well-conducted studies to determine the precision and validity of body composition measures on individuals with ID. There may be a need to devise further regression equations that apply to individuals with specific types of ID in order to increase the reliability and validity of body composition measurements. PMID:23762539

  11. Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

  12. Treadmill walking effects on grip strength in young men with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-C J J; Ringenbach, D R S; Snow, M

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relation between grip strength and anthropometric factors and the impact of an aerobic exercise on grip strength in young men with Down syndrome (DS). This study was a pre-post design. Twelve males with DS were assigned to an exercise group, who walked using an incremental protocol on a treadmill for 20 min at aerobic levels. Eight additional persons with DS were assigned to an attentional control group, who watched a video. Measure of grip strength was tested pre- and post-interventions. The results showed positively significant relationship among grip strength and age (r=.74, p<.01), weight (r=.52, p=.02), body mass index (r=.61, p=.01) and waist circumference (r=.54, p=.02). In addition, Grip strength was slightly improved after exercise (p=.03) but decreased after control condition. The results showed that anthropometric factors, such as age, weight, body mass index and waist circumference, were positively correlated with grip strength in young men with DS. Further, improvement in grip strength can be found even after a single exercise session. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining an active lifestyle in persons with DS for performing activities of daily living. PMID:24317185

  13. Relationship between history of smoking, metabolic and inflammatory markers, parameters of body composition and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Rom, O; Karkabi, K; Reznick, A Z; Keidar, Z; Aizenbud, D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking history expressed by pack-years, metabolic and inflammatory markers, parameters of body composition (BC) and muscle strength among heavy smokers. A detailed smoking history was obtained from 49 heavy smokers (age?=?44?±?12, pack-years?=?31?±?23). Blood samples were analyzed for levels of glucose, lipids, liver enzymes and C-reactive protein (CRP). Anthropometric measurements included waist circumference and assessment of BC by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Muscle strength was assessed by handgrip dynamometry and predicted one-repetition maximum (p1RM) tests. Positive correlations were found between pack-years of smoking, fasting glucose, alkaline phosphatase and CRP levels. Pack-years were also positively correlated with waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), whole-body and trunk fat mass measured by both DEXA and BIA. A negative correlation was found between pack-years of smoking and muscle strength measured by p1RM for the leg press exercise. After adjustment for age, sex and BMI, a positive correlation remained between pack-years of smoking and CRP levels. In conclusion, after controlling for possible confounders, smoking history was found to be positively associated with CRP levels among heavy smokers. PMID:25468009

  14. Effects of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Petrovi?-Oggiano, Gordana; Takic, Marija; Glibeti?, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Koni?-Risti?, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45-65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4?kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1?cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100?mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  15. Association between adolescence obesity and metabolic syndrome: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nouri, Fatemeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is more prevalent among Iranian adolescences. This study aimed to find the relationship between obesity and MetS among different education grades of Iranian adolescence. Materials and Methods: Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were measured. Trained individuals measured waist circumference and blood pressure. MetS was defined according to the De Ferranti definition. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.6% and 6.2% in junior and 11.5% and 4.3% in high school students, respectively. Obese subjects in both grades have higher waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride than comparable groups. Multiple logistic regression models showed that overweight and obesity were strongly associated with MetS components analyzed. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight and obese in junior high school students were 1.47 and 2.23 times more likely to be having high TG, respectively, whereas overweight and obese in high school-students were also more likely to have elevated TG [ORs 1.94 (1.28-2.94), 4.96 (2.39-10.3) respectively]. Conclusion: Obese children have the highest prevalence of MetS. Prevalence of MetS-related components has reached high level among Iranian adolescences that were overweight or obese. PMID:25143919

  16. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hyder, Melissa L.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R. Sue; Poston, Walker S. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073

  17. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sara A; Hyder, Melissa L; Haddock, Christopher K; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R Sue; Poston, Walker S Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34-0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42-3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073

  18. Effects of 5-Year Interventions on Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Factories and Offies Employees of Isfahan and Najafabad: Worksite Intervention Project-Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Sarafzadegan, Nizal; Zare, Karim; Sadeghi, Shahriar; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Rabiei, Katayoun; Boshtam, Mansoreh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Effects of 5-year interventions of Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program on cardiovascular risk factors of factories and offices employees were studied in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention area) compared to Arak (control area). METHODS We had especial interventions for nutrition, physical activity and smoking as well as hypertension and obesity screening systems in all offices and factories, and other risk factors screening systems whenever possible. Before and after the interventions, questionnaires containing demographic and other required data were completed for the two populations; height, weight and blood pressure (BP) were measured and a fasting and 2h blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood sugar (BS) and lipid levels. RESULTS The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity decreased, but low HDL increased in office staff (P < 0.01). Waist circumference, HDL and total cholesterol mean values decreased, and diastolic BP and fasting and 2h BS increased among the intervention group. In factory workers, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity decreased, while low HDL prevalence increased in intervention group (P < 0.001). Mean values of waist circumference, HDL and total cholesterol, and triglyceride decreased significantly (P < 0.001), while diastolic BP and fasting BS increased. CONCLUSION It seems that Worksite Intervention Project has a protective effect on CVD risk factors in factories and offices employees. So, the modifiable project can be used as an applicable tool for health improvement in worksites which creates tangible changes in employees’ lifestyle. PMID:22577423

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontitis in Gullah African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sora, Nicoleta D.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Leite, Renata S.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To assess associations of metabolic syndrome, and its individual components, with extent of severe periodontitis among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods We performed a secondary data analysis (N=283) using a cross-sectional study population of Gullah African Americans with T2DM. Extent of severe periodontitis was assessed as total diseased tooth-sites/person (evaluated as separate outcomes: 6+mm clinical attachment level [CAL], 5+mm periodontal probing depth [PPD]) using negative binomial regression techniques. Primary independent variables assessed in separate models included metabolic syndrome (yes/no), each metabolic syndrome component (low HDL, hypertension, high triglycerides, large waist circumference) and glycemic control (poor/good). Results Multivariable CAL-model results showed a significant association for metabolic syndrome status with extent of severe periodontitis (RR=2.77, p=0.03). The separate multivariable CAL-model including each metabolic syndrome component showed marginally increased rates among those with large waist circumference (RR=2.33, p=0.09) and those with HbA1c ? 7% (RR=1.73, p=0.06). Multivariable PPD-models showed marginally increased rates among those with metabolic syndrome (RR=2.18, p=0.06). Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is associated with the extent of severe periodontitis in this Gullah population with T2DM. PMID:23557538

  20. Nutritional, metabolic and cardiovascular correlations of morning cortisol in health care workers in a gastroenterology service.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aline; Soares, Rafael Marques; Pezzi, Fernanda; Karkow, Francisco Juarez; Faintuch, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Workplace stress has been associated with obesity. Diminished body weight has also been anticipated in some contexts. Objective In a cohort of healthcare personnel, morning cortisol was compared to nutritional and metabolic variables, aiming to identify the correlates of such marker. Methods Population n=185, 33.8 ± 9.8 years, 88.1% females, body mass index (BMI) 25.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2, included nurses and other nosocomial professionals, the majority with high social-economic status (75.2%). Participants were stratified according to BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Fasting plasma cortisol and the Framingham Coronary Risk Score was calculated. Results Mean cortisol was acceptable (19.4 ± 7.9 µg/dL) although with elevation in 21.6%. No correlation with FBG or MS occurred, and nonobese persons (BMI <25) exhibited the highest values (P=0.049). Comparison of the lowest and highest cortisol quartiles confirmed reduced BMI and waist circumference in the former, with unchanged Framingham Coronary Risk Score. Conclusion Cortisol correlated with reduced BMI. Despite low BMI and waist circumference, Framingham Coronary Risk Score was not benefitted, suggesting that exposure to cardiovascular risk continues, besides psychological strain. Initiatives to enhance organizational and staff health are advisable in the hospital environment. PMID:26039824

  1. Parent Report of Binge Eating in Hispanic, African American and Caucasian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Camden A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mirza, Nazrat M.

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth. However, there are limited data on the relationship between binge eating and weight in racial or ethnically diverse youth. We therefore examined 409 obese (BMI ? 95th percentile for age and sex) treatment-seeking Hispanic (29.1%), Caucasian (31.7%), and African American (39.2%), boys and girls (6-18y). Weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat were measured to assess body composition. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Children’s Depressive Inventory and disordered eating cognitions were measured with the Children’s Eating Attitudes Test. Accounting for age, sex, body fat mass, and height, the odds of parents reporting that their child engaged in binge eating were significantly higher among Caucasian compared to African American youth, with Hispanic youth falling non-significantly between these two groups. Youth with binge eating had greater body adiposity (p = .02), waist circumference (p = .02), depressive symptoms (p = .01), and disordered eating attitudes (p = .04), with no difference between racial or ethnic group. We conclude that, regardless of race or ethnicity, binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth and is associated with adiposity and psychological distress. Further research is required to elucidate the extent to which binge eating among racially and ethnically diverse youth differentially impacts weight loss outcome. PMID:23265393

  2. Restrictive pulmonary deficit is associated with inflammation in sub-optimally controlled obese diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Terence A. R.; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Nayak, B. Shivananda

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean data linking inflammation, pulmonary dysfunction and diabetes is unavailable. Spirometry, acanthosis nigricans, hs-CRP were assessed in 109 type 2 diabetics (43% males) mean age=55.6 years, BMI=29.29 kg/m2, waist circumference=103.86 cm. Residual FEV1/FVC increased with age (P=0.005), BMI (P=0.011) and waist circumference (P=0.003). Residual FVC related inversely to hs-CRP (–0.178), P<0.06) systolic (–0.028, P<0.031), diastolic (–0.247, P<0.010) pressure and weight (–0.25, P<0.009). Residual FEV1 related inversely to diastolic pressure (–0.219, P<0.023), hs-CRP (–0.234, P<0.015), acanthosis nigricans (–0.029, P<0.029). HbA1C and residual FEV1 predict high hs-CRP (P=0.011, P=0.046). Low FVC with inflammation presents in poorly controlled obese diabetics. PMID:23825761

  3. Effects of a Promotor-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity: Familias Sanas y Activas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This within-participants, single time-series study tested a train-the-trainer, promotor-based physical activity (PA) intervention to improve fitness and health indicators. Methods. Thirty unpaid promotores were trained to promote PA through free exercise classes. Measurements of 337 female community participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months assessed changes in health indicators, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), aerobic fitness, and hamstring flexibility, as well as self-reported health indicators (PA, depression) and psychosocial factors (barriers, self-efficacy, and social support—all specific to PA). Results. Mixed effects models showed intervention participation improved systolic blood pressure (P ? .001), waist circumference (P ? .001), fitness (P ? .001), and hamstring flexibility (P ? .001). We also noted improvements in use of community resources (P ? .05), depressed mood and anhedonia (P ? .01), perceived barriers to be physically active (P ? .05), and community support for PA (P ? .001). Self-efficacy decreased (P ? .05), and participation dose (i.e., exposure), as measured by attendance at exercise classes, was not associated with observed changes. Conclusions. Promotores can promote PA in their community and achieve meaningful changes in the residents' health. PMID:22021294

  4. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  5. Three distinct clustering patterns in metabolic syndrome abnormalities are differentially associated with dietary factors in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee Young; Song, Won O; Park, Minseon; Song, YoonJu

    2014-05-01

    Dietary factors are not consistently associated with metabolic syndrome abnormalities. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that distinct clustering patterns exist in metabolic syndrome abnormalities and that those patterns are differentially associated with dietary factors. To test this hypothesis, we examined distinct clustering patterns of metabolic syndrome abnormalities and their association with dietary factors in Korean adults. A total of 141 subjects were recruited through the Family Medicine Division of the General Hospital in Seoul. Subjects who had complete data on waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid indicators, and no medication usage were included in this study. Dietary intake data were obtained by multiple 24-hour recalls (2-4 days) through on-site or telephone interviews. To identify clustering patterns of metabolic syndrome abnormalities, factor analysis was used for waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three distinct clustering patterns were identified: (1) high blood pressure, (2) dyslipidemia, and (3) high blood glucose. The high blood pressure pattern was significantly associated with higher alcohol intake and lower carbohydrate intake. The dyslipidemia pattern was significantly associated with a diet of high glycemic index and glycemic load. The high blood glucose pattern was associated with lower carbohydrate intake. Metabolic syndrome abnormalities had 3 distinct clustering patterns independently associated with dietary factors. Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load were strongly linked with the dyslipidemia pattern, and high alcohol intake was linked with the high blood pressure pattern in Korean adults. PMID:24916551

  6. Associations between Childhood Body Size, Composition, Blood Pressure and Adult Cardiac Structure: The Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Roy T.; Yen, Miao-Shan; Daniels, Stephen; Sun, Shumei S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether childhood body size, composition and blood pressure are associated with adult cardiac structure by estimating childhood “age of divergence.” Methods 385 female and 312 male participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study had echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness. Also available were anthropometric measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat free mass, total body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, taken in both childhood and adulthood. The age of divergence is estimated as the lowest age at which childhood measurements are significantly different between patients with low and high measurements of adult cardiac structure. Results Childhood body mass index is significantly associated with adult left ventricular mass (indexed by height) in men and women (ages of divergence: 7.5 years and 11.5 years, respectively), and with adult interventricular septal thickness in boys (age of divergence: 9 years). Childhood waist circumference indexed by height is associated with left ventricular mass (indexed by height) in boys (age of divergence: 8 years). Cardiac structure was in general not associated with childhood body composition and blood pressure. Conclusions Though results are affected by adult body size, composition and blood pressure, some aspects of adult cardiac structure may have their genesis in childhood body size. PMID:25191997

  7. Birth Weight and Risk of Adiposity among Adult Inuit in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Carstensen, Bendix; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating the association between birth weight and measures of body composition and fat distribution in adulthood. Methods The study was based on cross-sectional data from a total of 1,473 adults aged 18–61 years in two population-based surveys conducted in Greenland between 1999–2001 and 2005–2010. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) estimated by ultrasound. The associations to birth weight were analyzed using linear regression models and quadratic splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. Results Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. Conclusions Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated with adiposity in adulthood. More studies are needed to explore a potential inverse association between birth size and VAT. PMID:25551382

  8. Grip strength and lower limb extension power in 19–72-year-old Danish men and women: the Health2006 study

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Nina; Linneberg, Allan; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess muscular fitness by hand grip strength (HGS) and lower limb extension power (LEP) and to explore associations with age, leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and body composition. Study population A population-based sample of 19–72-year-old men and women were invited to participate in the health survey 'Health2006'. The response rate was 43.8% (N=3471), 55% were women, and the mean age was 49±13?years. Methods Height, weight, waist circumference, HGS and LEP were measured and participants answered a self-administered questionnaire. LEP was measured in a subsample of subjects (n=438). Gender-stratified multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Data were adjusted for age, height and waist circumference. Results A large inter-individual variation was found in HGS and LEP. Both measures declined with age and were highly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.0001). LTPA was positively associated with HGS in men (p=0.0002) and women (p<0.0001) in the total sample, but in the subsample was significant in men only (p=0.004); the association between LTPA and LEP was significant in women only (p=0.02). Conclusion In this large population-based study sample, muscular fitness declined with age and LTPA was associated with HGS in both genders. The findings emphasise the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle at any age. PMID:22021882

  9. Flaxseed Lignan Complex Administration in Older Human Type 2 Diabetics Manages Central Obesity and Prothrombosis—An Invitation to Further Investigation into Polypharmacy Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Barre, D. E.; Mizier-Barre, K. A.; Stelmach, E.; Hobson, J.; Griscti, O.; Rudiuk, A.; Muthuthevar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Animal and human study evidence supports the hypothesis that flaxseed lignan complex (FLC) at a dose of 600?mg secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG)/day for three months would combat hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, central obesity, prothrombotic state, inflammation, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Methods. Sixteen type 2 diabetic patients completed this double-blind, randomised crossover placebo-controlled study. A univariate repeated measures analysis of covariance (significance P < 0.05) was followed by a mixed linear model effects analysis corrected for multiple comparisons (MCC). Results. Prior to MCC, FLC caused decreased fasting plasma glucose, A1c, inflammation (c-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), and increased bleeding time. After correction for multiple comparisons, FLC induced a statistically significant increase in bleeding time and smaller waist circumference gain. No treatment effect occurred in the other variables before or after adjustment. Conclusions. It is concluded that FLC significantly increased bleeding time thus reducing the prothrombotic state, reduced central obesity gain as measured by waist circumference, and did not affect significantly the other dependent variables measured after adjustment for multiple comparisons. These findings, not yet published in human type 2 diabetes, suggest that this FLC dose over at least three months, may, subject to further investigation, reduce polypharmacy. PMID:23094144

  10. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Delay or Prevent Type 2 Diabetes after Gestational Diabetes: Walking for Exercise and Nutrition to Prevent Diabetes for You

    PubMed Central

    Bogossian, F. E.; Wilkinson, S. A.; Gibbons, K. S.; Kim, C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To develop a program to support behaviour changes for women with a history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and a Body Mass Index (BMI) > 25?kg/m2 to delay or prevent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods. Women diagnosed with GDM in the previous 6 to 24 months and BMI > 25 kg/m2 were randomized to an intervention (I) (n = 16) or a control (C) (n = 15) group. The intervention was a pedometer program combined with nutrition coaching, with the primary outcome increased weight loss in the intervention group. Secondary outcomes included decreased waist and hip measurements, improved insulin sensitivity and body composition, increased physical activity, and improved self-efficacy in eating behaviours. Results. Median (IQR) results were as follows: weight: I ?2.5 (2.3)?kg versus C +0.2 (1.6)?kg (P = 0.009), waist: I ?3.6 (4.5)?cm versus C ?0.1 (3.6)?cm (P = 0.07), and hip: I ?5.0 (3.3)?cm versus C ?0.2 (2.6)?cm (P = 0.002). There was clinical improvement in physical activity and eating behaviours and no significant changes in glucose metabolism or body composition. Conclusion. A pedometer program and nutrition coaching proved effective in supporting weight loss, waist circumference, physical activity, and eating behaviours in women with previous GDM.

  11. The association of anthropometry indices with gout in Taiwanese men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the association of anthropometry indices with gout and to compare the performance of indices to predict gout in Taiwanese men. Methods There were 1443 male subjects aged more than 20 years who participated in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT, 1993–1996). Anthropometric evaluation consisted of weight, height, hip and waist circumference (WC) with later body mass index (BMI), waist to height (WHtR) and waist to hip (WHR) estimations. We conducted 4 logistic models to determine the relationships between anthropometric indices and gout. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare the predictive performance and to identify the optimal cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity of these indices for gout in men. Results After controlling for other covariables, the adjusted odds ratios for the mid and top tertiles of WHtR were 2.55 (95% CI: 1.16, 5.59) and 3.01 (95% CI: 1.13, 7.99), respectively, but no linear association was found for BMI, WHR and WC. In ROC curve, the greatest area under curve was 0.684 for WHtR and the cut-off point of WHtR was 0.57. Conclusions WHtR had a significant linear association with gout in Taiwanese men and was superior to BMI, WHR and WC. PMID:23947924

  12. The discrimination of dyslipidaemia using anthropometric measures in ethnically diverse populations of the Asia-Pacific Region: the Obesity in Asia Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Barzi, F; Woodward, M; Czernichow, S; Lee, C M Y; Kang, J H; Janus, E; Lear, S; Patel, A; Caterson, I; Patel, J; Lam, T H; Suriyawongpaisal, P; Huxley, R

    2010-02-01

    Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is only detectable through blood testing, which may not be feasible in resource-poor settings. As dyslipidaemia is commonly associated with excess weight, it may be possible to identify individuals with adverse lipid profiles using simple anthropometric measures. A total of 222 975 individuals from 18 studies were included as part of the Obesity in Asia Collaboration. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association between measures of body size and dyslipidaemia. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist : hip ratio (WHR) and waist : height ratio were continuously associated with the lipid variables studied, but the relationships were consistently stronger for triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The associations were similar between Asians and non-Asians, and no single anthropometric measure was superior at discriminating those individuals at increased risk of dyslipidaemia. WHR cut-points of 0.8 in women and 0.9 in men were applicable across both Asians and non-Asians for the discrimination of individuals with any form of dyslipidaemia. Measurement of central obesity may help to identify those individuals at increased risk of dyslipidaemia. WHR cut-points of 0.8 for women and 0.9 for men are optimal for discriminating those individuals likely to have adverse lipid profiles and in need of further clinical assessment. PMID:19493299

  13. VAT=TAAT-SAAT: Innovative Anthropometric Model to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue Without Resort to CT-Scan or DXA

    PubMed Central

    Samouda, Hanen; Dutour, Anne; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Dadoun, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a combination of a selected but limited number of anthropometric measurements predicts visceral adipose tissue (VAT) better than other anthropometric measurements, without resort to medical imaging. Hypothesis Abdominal anthropometric measurements are total abdominal adipose tissue indicators and global measures of VAT and SAAT (subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). Therefore, subtracting the anthropometric measurement the more correlated possible with SAAT while being the least correlated possible with VAT, from the most correlated abdominal anthropometric measurement with VAT while being highly correlated with TAAT, may better predict VAT. Design and Methods BMI participants' range was from 16.3 to 52.9 kg m?2. Anthropometric and abdominal adipose tissues data by computed tomography (CT-Scan) were available in 253 patients (18-78 years) (CHU Nord, Marseille) and used to develop the anthropometric VAT prediction models. Results Subtraction of proximal thigh circumference from waist circumference, adjusted to age and/or BMI, predicts better VAT (Women: VAT = 2.15 × Waist C ? 3.63 × Proximal Thigh C + 1.46 × Age + 6.22 × BMI ? 92.713; R2 = 0.836. Men: VAT = 6 × Waist C ? 4.41 × proximal thigh C + 1.19 × Age ? 213.65; R2 = 0.803) than the best single anthropometric measurement or the association of two anthropometric measurements highly correlated with VAT. Both multivariate models showed no collinearity problem. Selected models demonstrate high sensitivity (97.7% in women, 100% in men). Similar predictive abilities were observed in the validation sample (Women: R2 = 76%; Men: R2 = 70%). Bland and Altman method showed no systematic estimation error of VAT. Conclusion Validated in a large range of age and BMI, our results suggest the usefulness of the anthropometric selected models to predict VAT in Europides (South of France). PMID:23404678

  14. Diabetes mellitus and its association with central obesity and disability among older adults: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Miret, Marta; Chatterji, Somnath; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between various factors and diabetes type II (DM) with a particular emphasis on indicators of central obesity, and to compare the effect of DM on disability among elder populations (? 50 years old) in nine countries. Data were available for 52,946 people aged ? 18 years who participated in the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health and the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe studies conducted between 2007 and 2012. DM was defined as self-report of physician diagnosis. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Disability status was assessed with the WHODAS II questionnaire. The overall prevalence of DM was 7.9% and ranged from 3.8% (Ghana) to 17.6% (Mexico). A 10 cm increase in waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio of >0.5 were associated with a significant 1.26 (India) to 1.77 (Finland), and 1.68 (China, Spain) to 5.40 (Finland) times higher odds for DM respectively. No significant associations were observed in Mexico and South Africa. DM was associated with significantly higher disability status in all countries except Mexico in the model adjusted for demographics and smoking. The inclusion of chronic conditions associated with diabetes in the model attenuated the coefficients in varying degrees depending on the country. A considerable proportion of the studied older population had DM. Central obesity may be a key factor for the prevention of DM among older populations globally. Prevention of DM especially among the older population globally may contribute to reducing the burden of disability. PMID:25688991

  15. Adiposity, Obesity, and Arterial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, Martin J.; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G.; McEniery, Carmel M.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08–0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05–0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index–linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  16. Central adiposity after breast cancer diagnosis is related to mortality in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle study.

    PubMed

    George, Stephanie M; Bernstein, Leslie; Smith, Ashley W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) after breast cancer diagnosis are associated with all-cause or breast cancer-specific mortality and explored potential biological pathways mediating these relationships. Our analysis included 621 women diagnosed with local or regional breast cancer who participated in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle study. At 30 (±4) months postdiagnosis, trained staff measured participants' waist and hip circumferences and obtained fasting serum samples for biomarker assays for assays of insulin, glucose, C-peptide, insulin growth factor-1 and binding protein-3, C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin. We estimated multivariate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for death over ~9.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for measured body mass index, treatment, comorbidities, race/ethnicity, diet quality, and postdiagnosis physical activity, WC was positively associated with all-cause mortality (HRq4:q1: 2.99, 95 % CI 1.14, 7.86) but its positive association with breast cancer-specific mortality was not statistically significant (HRq4:q1: 2.69, 95 % CI 0.69, 12.01). WHR was positively associated with all-cause mortality (HRq4:q1: 2.10, 95 % CI 1.08, 4.05) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HRq4:q1: 4.02, 95 % CI 1.31, 12.31). After adjustment for homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) score and C-reactive protein, risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant. In this diverse breast cancer survivor cohort, postdiagnosis WC and WHR were associated with all-cause mortality. Insulin resistance and inflammation may mediate the effects of central adiposity on mortality among breast cancer patients. PMID:25056184

  17. Is thyroid-stimulating hormone within the normal reference range a risk factor for atherosclerosis in women?

    PubMed

    Boggio, Anna; Muzio, Fulvio; Fiscella, Michela; Sommariva, Domenico; Branchi, Adriana

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between overt hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk has been well documented and some data also suggest an association between cardiovascular risk and subclinical hypothyroidism. The aim of our study was to investigate, in a large cohort of euthyroid women, the association of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) within the normal reference range with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was carried out on 744 women with normal thyroid function (TSH 0.3-4.9 ?U/mL). Women with TSH above the median (?2.1 ?U/mL) were more obese, had greater waist girth, were more hypertensive and had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), blood sugar (BG) and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than women with TSH below the median. TSH was significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, BG, TG, TC, HDL-C and hypertension. Multiple backward stepwise regression analysis with age, waist circumference and TSH as independent variables confirmed the strong association of TSH with BG, TG, HDL-C and hypertension. A total of 205 patients (28%) fulfilled the definition criteria of the metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly greater in patients with TSH above than in patients with TSH below the median. Results of logistic analysis, including age and TSH as predictor variables, confirmed the association of TSH with metabolic syndrome.The results of this study suggest that TSH in the upper limits of the reference range (above 2.1 ?U/ml) is associated with a less favourable cardiometabolic profile and consequently with a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22203234

  18. Characteristics of Abdominal Obesity in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Nam, Hyung Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of community-dwelling spinal cord injury (SCI) persons with obesity, including diet, socioeconomic factors, weight reduction method, and frequency of body weight and abdominal circumference measurements. Methods We developed a questionnaire based on 'the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009'. A total of 371 community-dwelling SCI persons were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were SCI persons older than 20 years with more than 1 year elapsed since the injury. Trained investigators visited SCI persons' home to complete the questionnaire and measure abdominal obesity (AO) as defined by the waist circumference. Results Prevalence of AO was 29.2% in SCI persons and 27.4% in the general population (GP), showing no significant difference. Education showed correlation with AO in both SCI persons and the GP. The injury level, type of injury and income did not show any correlation with AO in SCI persons. Only 28.8% and 48.8% of SCI persons measured their waist circumference and body weight within the past year, respectively. Also, SCI persons with AO thought that their body was less obese compared to persons with AO in the GP (p<0.001). The method of weight reduction was diet modification in 53.6% of SCI persons with AO, which was higher than 37.1% of persons with AO in the GP. Conclusion In SCI persons, obesity perception as well as socioeconomic factors correlated with AO, but these were not relevant factors in the GP. Therefore, development of a specific and intensive weight control program for SCI persons is necessary. PMID:23869331

  19. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between DXA (n=875) and other adiposity measures including body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, circumferences, and bioimpedance. We also computed correlations between lean body mass measures. Results 50.0% of the children were female and 36.5% were non-white. Mean (SD) BMI was 17.2 (3.1) and total fat mass by DXA was 7.5 (3.9) kg. DXA total fat mass was highly correlated with BMI (rs=0.83), bioimpedance total fat (rs=0.87), and sum of skinfolds (rs=0.90), and DXA trunk fat was highly correlated with waist circumference (rs=0.79). Correlations of BMI with other adiposity indices were high, e.g., with waist circumference (rs=0.86) and sum of subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (rs=0.79). DXA fat-free mass and bioimpedance fat-free mass were highly correlated (rs=0.94). Conclusions In school-aged children, BMI, sum of skinfolds, and other adiposity measures were strongly correlated with DXA fat mass. Although these measurement methods have limitations, BMI and skinfolds are adequate surrogate measures of relative adiposity in children when DXA is not practical. PMID:23799991

  20. Ethnic differences in acylation stimulating protein (ASP) in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Xie, Xiang; Cianflone, Katherine; Lapointe, Marc; Guan, Jie; Bu-jiaer, Gao Wa Bai; Chen, Dan; Zhao, Wei-Yun; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) stimulates adipocyte triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport. The aim was to examine ethnic difference in ASP and the relation to lipid profile and other parameters among Han, Uygur, and Kazak healthy populations matched for BMI, age and gender distribution. Methods: 331 healthy persons were recruited in total (age 30-60 yr): 137 Han, 114 Uygur, and 80 Kazak. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, ankle brachial index (ABI), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in all participants. Fasting concentrations of fasting glucose, uric acid, and lipids, including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ASP, complement C3, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Results: ASP in Uygurs was significantly lower than Han subjects (P=0.0003). The Uygurs demonstrated the highest C3 (P<0.001), CRP (P=0.001), and NEFA concentrations (P=0.008), the lowest %ASP/C3 (P<0.001) and TC levels (P=0.0008) vs those in Han and Kazak populations. In the Han group, glucose, the average ABI (an index of peripheral response) and diastolic blood pressure were significantly different from both Uygur and Kazak group (P=0.0007, P=0.0003, P=0.0001) while Kazaks show the lowest waist/hip circumference (WHR) (P=0.0003). Conclusion: There are ethnic differences in ASP, C3, CRP and lipid profiles in healthy Han, Uygur, and Kazak populations. Overall, the Uygur populations presents with a disadvantageous metabolic profile as compared to Han and Kazak groups. PMID:25932241

  1. Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shao J; Sullivan, Thomas; Gibson, Robert A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne J; Makrides, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula. PMID:24502951

  2. Narrow-waisted Gaussian beams for aperture-generated scattering from planar conducting surfaces with complex coatings described by higher order impedance boundary conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Galdi; Leopold B. Felsen; Innocenzo M. Pinto

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we use higher order impedance boundary conditions (HOIBCs) for studying high frequency asymptotic two-dimensional (2-D) scattering of truncated aperture-generated electromagnetic fields from planar conducting surfaces coated by multiple layers of homogeneous bi-anisotropic media. The reflected field syntheses are carried out via asymptotic reduction of rigorous plane-wave spectral integrals, which are subsequently discretized and transformed to the spatial

  3. Will smaller plates lead to smaller waists? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect that experimental manipulation of dishware size has on energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E; Nolan, S; Tudur-Smith, C; Boyland, E J; Harrold, J A; Hardman, C A; Halford, J C G

    2014-10-01

    It has been suggested that providing consumers with smaller dishware may prove an effective way of helping people eat less and preventing weight gain, but experimental evidence supporting this has been mixed. The objective of the present work was to examine the current evidence base for whether experimentally manipulated differences in dishware size influence food consumption. We systematically reviewed studies that experimentally manipulated the dishware size participants served themselves at a meal with and measured subsequent food intake. We used inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between smaller and larger dishware size conditions. Nine experiments from eight publications were eligible for inclusion. The majority of experiments found no significance difference in food intake when participants ate from smaller vs. larger dishware. With all available data included, analysis indicated a marginal effect of dishware size on food intake, with larger dishware size associated with greater intake. However, this effect was small and there was a large amount of heterogeneity across studies (SMD: -0.18, 95% confidence interval: -0.35, 0.00, I(2)?=?77%). Evidence to date does not show that dishware size has a consistent effect on food intake, so recommendations surrounding the use of smaller plates/dishware to improve public health may be premature. PMID:25040672

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residues in breast milk and maternal psychopathologies and infant growth from suburban area of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalç?n, Songul Siddika; Örün, Emel; Yalç?n, Suzan; Aykut, Osman

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the breast milk; to assess the effect of detectable OCPs on maternal-infant characteristics and; to evaluate the relation between OCPs and the maternal psychopathologies [Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ), Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)] and infant growth. DDT, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin and heptachlor were detected in 89.3, 70.7, 58.7 and 34.7?% of the samples, respectively. Mothers with low monthly family income had detectable DDTs less frequently. The frequencies of detectable heptachlor epoxide were significantly higher in mothers with gestational nausea. Anaemic mothers had more frequently detectable alpha-HCH. Z scores of head circumference were inversely correlated with beta-HCH and DDT levels. The heptachlor epoxide levels were positively correlated with PBQ, MIBS and indexes of BSI. No relation was detected between EPDS and OCPs. Further studies are needed for changes in maternal psychopathologies. PMID:25155352

  5. Predicted implications of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2013-08-14

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n?=?631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of <125?mm were studied. By simulation, 10%, 15% and 20% weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC <115?mm still being moderately or severely wasted at theoretical discharge. In children with admission MUAC 115-124?mm, 10% of weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission. PMID:23941395

  6. Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and child growth during the first year of life

    SciTech Connect

    Garced, Sheyla, E-mail: sgarced@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Program, 17 E 102nd Street, CAM Building, 3 West, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1057, New York, NY 10029 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Program, 17 E 102nd Street, CAM Building, 3 West, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1057, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Torres-Sanchez, Luisa, E-mail: ltorress@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta Maria Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] [National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta Maria Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E., E-mail: mcebrian@cinvestav.mx [Department of Toxicology, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F., Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Claudio, Luz, E-mail: luz.claudio@mssm.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Program, 17 E 102nd Street, CAM Building, 3 West, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1057, New York, NY 10029 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Program, 17 E 102nd Street, CAM Building, 3 West, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1057, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta Maria Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] [National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta Maria Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Background: Due to its long-term persistence in the environment and its ability to cross the placental barrier, prenatal p,p Prime -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) exposure continues to be a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth, at birth and during the first year of life. Methods: 253 pregnant women were recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 in a prospective cohort in Morelos, Mexico. Serum levels of DDE were measured during each trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Using the generalized mixed-effects models, the association between DDE and child growth parameters (weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, BMI-for-age and head circumference-for-age Z-scores) from birth to 1 year of age was assessed. Maternal dietary intake was considered as covariable among others. Results: DDE levels were 6.3{+-}2.8 ng/mL (first trimester), 6.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (second trimester), and 7.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (third trimester). After adjusting for potential confounder variables, no significant associations were observed with prenatal DDE exposure and each of the selected parameters. Conclusions: Our results show no evidence of an association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth during the first year of life.

  7. Postoperative cranial vault growth in premature sagittal craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Philipp; Zemann, Wolfgang; Jacobsen, Christine; Grätz, Klaus Wilhelm; Obwegeser, Joachim Anton

    2013-01-01

    Various techniques for the correction of sagittal craniosynostosis have been described in the literature. Nevertheless, there is a lack of consensus regarding surgical procedure and timing, although a long-term anthropometric analysis may shed light on this controversy. The aim of the current study was to collect serial anthropometric data of children before and after total cranial vault remodeling and to evaluate cranial vault growth pattern. Twenty-nine Swiss children with a surgical age between 8 and 10 months were included in this 5-year follow-up. Anthropologic data of sex- and age-matched healthy Swiss children served as a control. A standardized time protocol (before, after, 6 wk after surgery, 6 mo after surgery, and then annually until the age of six) for anthropometric skull measurements (head circumference, cranial length, breadth, and cephalic index) was used. Data were converted into the z score for standardized intercenter comparison. Postoperatively, all patients showed a marked benefit in cranial vault shape. Significant differences in long-term cranial growth pattern could be seen and a relapse into a dolichocephal skull growth. Both observations were rated as clinically irrelevant. PMID:23348273

  8. Association between Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Birth Size Measures in a Diverse Population in Southern US

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Racette, Susan B.; Ganiban, Jody; Nguyen, Thuy G.; Kocak, Mehmet; Carroll, Kecia N.; Völgyi, Eszter; Tylavsky, Frances A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased interest in promoting nutrition during pregnancy, the association between maternal dietary patterns and birth outcomes has been equivocal. We examined maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy as a determinant of offspring’s birth weight-for-length (WLZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and head circumference (HCZ) Z-scores in Southern United States (n = 1151). Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by seven dietary patterns. Multivariable linear regression models described the association of WLZ, WAZ, LAZ, and HCZ with diet patterns controlling for other maternal and child characteristics. In bivariate analyses, WAZ and HCZ were significantly lower for processed and processed-Southern compared to healthy dietary patterns, whereas LAZ was significantly higher for these patterns. In the multivariate models, mothers who consumed a healthy-processed dietary pattern had children with significantly higher HCZ compared to the ones who consumed a healthy dietary pattern (HCZ ?: 0.36; p = 0.019). No other dietary pattern was significantly associated with any of the birth outcomes. Instead, the major outcome determinants were: African American race, pre-pregnancy BMI, and gestational weight gain. These findings justify further investigation about socio-environmental and genetic factors related to race and birth outcomes in this population. PMID:25690420

  9. The shape of beauty: determinants of female physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Maryanne L; Voracek, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Rarely has one research area gained as much attention as that which is observed for female physical attractiveness. The past decade has resulted in numerous, exciting developments, particularly with respect to three proposed determinants of beauty: waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), and curvaceousness. The goal of our paper is to provide a highly necessary review of contemporary research on the female attractiveness, including an in-depth examination of these factors. In our review, we first discuss WHR, an index of fat deposition, which is calculated by measuring the circumference of the waist compared to the circumference of the hips. WHR is controlled by the sex hormones, and increases as women age, and hence, may influence perceptions of attractiveness. This factor has been hotly contested, as some researchers have claimed that a WHR of approximately 0.7 is universally most attractive, whereas others have found inconsistent findings, or suggest the importance of other factors, such as BMI. Body mass index (BMI), calculated by dividing the body weight (in kilograms) by height (in meters) squared, serves as a measure of body fat. Although WHR and BMI are correlated, they lead to different conclusions, and the importance of BMI as a measure of female attractiveness is debated in the literature. Similar to WHR research, BMI and its role in attractiveness is not cross-culturally consistent and is affected by the availability of resources within a given environment. It may be the case that both WHR and BMI influence female attractiveness. However, there has been little investigation of this possibility. We have explored this issue in our research, which revealed that both influence attractiveness, but in addition, we noticed that curvaceousness was also a factor. Curvaceousness is the degree of "hourglass" shape as determined, for example, by the size of the bust, relative to the circumference of the hips and waist, and the size of the buttocks. However, curvaceousness does not appear to be temporally stable as a marker of attractiveness, and it is not consistent across modes of presentation. For example, models in male-oriented magazines are more curvaceous than models in female-oriented magazines. In summary, faced with these recent findings, it is difficult to ascertain agreement among the various factors, especially when researchers investigate each determinant in isolation. We conclude that, although researchers have made many important initial steps in examining female attractiveness, there remains much to be discovered. PMID:17173598

  10. Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Kasar, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Neelam A.; Bhadoria, Pooja; Pradhan, Sambit; Kabirpanthi, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the difference in the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in urban and rural populations and the association of hypertension with various determinants. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 villages and 15 urban wards of Jabalpur District of Central India. Nine hundred and thirty-nine individuals aged 20 years and above (624 from rural areas and 315 from urban areas) were included in the study. The prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors was assessed in the urban and rural populations. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, behavioral, and dietary factors. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure measurements were taken using the standard methodology. The glucose oxidase–peroxidase and cholesterol oxidase–cholesterol peroxidase methods were used to measure plasma glucose and serum cholesterol, respectively. Bivariate analysis was followed by multivariate analysis to detect the odds of getting hypertension with various risk factors for the urban and rural populations separately. Hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) - VII criteria. Results: The response rate was 97%. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 17%, with 21.4% in the urban population and 14.8% in the rural population. Significantly higher mean values of weight, height, body mass index (BMI), hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and serum cholesterol levels were mapped in the urban population in comparison with the rural population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified increasing age, parental history of hypertension, tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing, physical inactivity, high estimated per capita salt consumption, and BMI ?27.5 kg/m2 as independent predictors for hypertension in the urban population, while in the rural population, increasing age, physical inactivity, central obesity, tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking were independent predictors for hypertension. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors was high in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive health promotion programs to encourage lifestyle modification. PMID:24695988

  11. Regular Consumption from Fast Food Establishments Relative to Other Restaurants Is Differentially Associated with Metabolic Outcomes in Young Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M.; Jacobs, David R.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25–42 y in 1992–93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fast food consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [?0.014 mmol/L (CI, ?0.215, ?0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, ?8.3, ?2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fast food intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes. PMID:19776183

  12. Upper Airway Collapsibility is Associated with Obesity and Hyoid Position

    PubMed Central

    Genta, Pedro R.; Schorr, Fabiola; Eckert, Danny J.; Gebrim, Eloisa; Kayamori, Fabiane; Moriya, Henrique T.; Malhotra, Atul; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Upper airway anatomy plays a major role in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. An inferiorly displaced hyoid as measured by the mandibular plane to hyoid distance (MPH) has been consistently associated with OSA. The hyoid is also a common landmark for pharyngeal length, upper airway volume, and tongue base. Tongue dimensions, pharyngeal length, and obesity are associated with OSA severity, although the link between these anatomical variables and pharyngeal collapsibility is less well known. We hypothesized that obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI), neck and waist circumferences, and variables associated with hyoid position (pharyngeal length, upper airway volume, and tongue dimensions) would be associated with passive pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Academic hospital. Patients: 34 Japanese-Brazilian males age 21 to 70 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: We performed computed tomography scans of the upper airway, overnight polysomnography, and Pcrit measurements in all subjects. On average, subjects were overweight (BMI = 28 ± 4 kg/m2) and OSA was moderately severe (apnea-hypopnea index = 29 [13–51], range 1–90 events/h). Factor analysis identified two factors among the studied variables: obesity (extracted from BMI, neck and waist circumferences) and hyoid position (MPH, pharyngeal length, tongue length, tongue volume, and upper airway volume). Both obesity and hyoid position correlated with Pcrit (r = 0.470 and 0.630, respectively) (P < 0.01). In addition, tongue volume, tongue length, pharyngeal length, and MPH correlated with waist and neck circumferences (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Pharyngeal critical closing pressure is associated with obesity and hyoid position. Tongue dimensions, pharyngeal length, and the mandibular plane to hyoid distance are associated with obesity variables. These findings provide novel insight into the potential factors mediating upper airway collapse in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Genta PR, Schorr F, Eckert DJ, Gebrim E, Kayamori F, Moriya HT, Malhotra A, Lorenzi-Filho G. Upper airway collapsibility is associated with obesity and hyoid position. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1673-1678. PMID:25197805

  13. Evaluation of 41 Candidate Gene Variants for Obesity in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort by Multi-Locus Stepwise Regression

    PubMed Central

    Knüppel, Sven; Rohde, Klaus; Meidtner, Karina; Drogan, Dagmar; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity has become a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. It is thought to originate from multiple genetic and environmental determinants. The aim of the current study was to introduce haplotype-based multi-locus stepwise regression (MSR) as a method to investigate combinations of unlinked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for obesity phenotypes. Methods In 2,122 healthy randomly selected men and women of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, the association between 41 SNPs from 18 obesity-candidate genes and either body mass index (BMI, mean?=?25.9 kg/m2, SD?=?4.1) or waist circumference (WC, mean?=?85.2 cm, SD?=?12.6) was assessed. Single SNP analyses were done by using linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and other covariates. Subsequently, MSR was applied to search for the ‘best’ SNP combinations. Combinations were selected according to specific AICc and p-value criteria. Model uncertainty was accounted for by a permutation test. Results The strongest single SNP effects on BMI were found for TBC1D1 rs637797 (??=??0.33, SE?=?0.13), FTO rs9939609 (??=?0.28, SE?=?0.13), MC4R rs17700144 (??=?0.41, SE?=?0.15), and MC4R rs10871777 (??=?0.34, SE?=?0.14). All these SNPs showed similar effects on waist circumference. The two ‘best’ six-SNP combinations for BMI (global p-value?=?3.45?10–6 and 6.82?10–6) showed effects ranging from ?1.70 (SE?=?0.34) to 0.74 kg/m2 (SE?=?0.21) per allele combination. We selected two six-SNP combinations on waist circumference (global p-value?=?7.80?10–6 and 9.76?10–6) with an allele combination effect of ?2.96 cm (SE?=?0.76) at maximum. Additional adjustment for BMI revealed 15 three-SNP combinations (global p-values ranged from 3.09?10–4 to 1.02?10–2). However, after carrying out the permutation test all SNP combinations lost significance indicating that the statistical associations might have occurred by chance. Conclusion MSR provides a tool to search for risk-related SNP combinations of common traits or diseases. However, the search process does not always find meaningful SNP combinations in a dataset. PMID:23874820

  14. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR?=?0.57;95%CI:0.43?0.76;p?0.0001) and men (OR?=?0.67;95%CI: 0.51?0.87;p?=?0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR?=?0.71;95%CI:0.54?0.93;p?=?0.005) and women (OR?=?0.79;95%CI:0.59?1.05;p>0.05) who consume ?1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ?1 portion was associated with obesity (OR?=?1.51;95%CI:1.00?2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR?=?1.65;95%CI:1.08?2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore, confirmatory studies are needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23593300

  15. Utility of telephone survey methods in population-based health studies of older adults: an example from the Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Random digit dialing is often used in public health research initiatives to accrue and establish a study sample; however few studies have fully described the utility of this approach. The primary objective of this paper was to describe the implementation and utility of using random digit dialing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) for sampling, recruitment and data collection in a large population-based study of older adults [Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study]. Methods Using random digit dialing, older adults (>?=?55?years) completed health behavior and outcome and demographic measures via CATI. After completing the CATI, participants were invited to receive a step pedometer and waist circumference tape measure via mail to gather objectively derived ambulatory activity and waist circumference assessments. Results Overall, 36,000 telephone numbers were called of which 7,013 were deemed eligible for the study. Of those, 4,913 (70.1%) refused to participate in the study and 804 (11.4%) participants were not included due to a variety of call dispositions (e.g., difficult to reach, full quota for region). A total of 1,296 participants completed telephone interviews (18.5% of those eligible and 3.6% of all individuals approached). Overall, 22.8% of households did not have an age 55+ resident and 13.6% of individuals refused to participate, Average age was 66.5?years, and 43% were male. A total of 1,081 participants (83.4%) also submitted self-measured ambulatory activity (i.e., via step pedometer) and anthropometric data (i.e., waist circumference). With the exception of income (18.7%), the rate of missing data for demographics, health behaviors, and health measures was minimal (<1%). Conclusions Older adults are willing to participate in telephone-based health surveys when randomly contacted. Researchers can use this information to evaluate the feasibility and the logistics of planned studies using a similar population and study design. PMID:24884997

  16. Obesity and Survival to Age 85 Years without Major Disease or Disability in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Waring, Molly E.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Seguin, Rebecca; Bell, Christina L.; Gass, Margery; Manini, Todd M.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Context The impact of obesity on late-age survival without disease or disability in women is unknown. Objective To investigate if higher baseline body mass index and waist circumference affects women’s survival to age 85 years without major chronic disease (coronary disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, or hip fracture) and mobility disability. Design, Setting, Participants Examination of 36,611 women from the Women’s Health Initiative who could have reached age 85 years or older if they survived to the last outcomes evaluation on September 17, 2012. Recruitment was from 40 US Clinical Centers from October 1993–December 1998. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of baseline body mass index and waist circumference with the outcomes, adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Mutually-exclusive classifications: 1) survived without major chronic disease and without mobility disability (“healthy”); 2) survived with ?1 major chronic disease at baseline, but without new disease or disability (“prevalent diseased”); 3) survived and developed ?1 major chronic disease but not disability during study follow-up (“incident diseased”); 4) survived and developed mobility disability with or without disease (“disabled”); and 5) did not survive (“died”). Results Mean (SD) baseline age was 72.4 (3.0) years (range: 66–81). The distribution of women classified as healthy, prevalent diseased, incident diseased, disabled, and died was 19%, 15%, 23%, 18%, and 25%, respectively. Compared to normal-weight women, underweight and obese women were more likely to die before age 85 years. Overweight and obese women had higher risks of incident disease and mobility disability. Disability risks were striking. Relative to normal-weight women, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mobility disability was 1.6 (1.5–1.8) for overweight women and 3.2 (2.9–3.6), 6.6 (5.4–8.1), and 6.7 (4.8–9.2), for class I, II, and III obesity, respectively. Waist circumference >88 centimeters was also associated with higher risk of earlier death, incident disease, and mobility disability. Conclusions Overall and abdominal obesity were important and potentially modifiable factors associated with dying or developing mobility disability and major chronic disease before age 85 years in older women. PMID:24217806

  17. Modulation of adipocytokines response and weight loss secondary to a hypocaloric diet in obese patients by -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Sagrado, M G; Conde, R

    2008-03-01

    Decreased expression or function of UCP3 (uncoupling protein 3) could reduce energy expenditure and increase the storage of energy as fat. Some studies have pointed to a role of UCP3 in the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis, diet induced obesity, and regulation of lipids as metabolic substrates. The C/C genotype of a polymorphism in the UCP3 promoter (-55C-->T) is associated with an increased expression of UCP3 mRNA in muscle. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene on adipocytokines response and weight loss secondary to a hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A population of 107 obese (body mass index >30) nondiabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Before and after three months of a hypocaloric diet, an indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3-day written food records, and biochemical analysis were performed. The lifestyle modification program consisted of a hypocaloric diet (1520 kcal, 52% of carbohydrates, 25% of lipids and 23% of proteins). The exercise program consisted of aerobic exercise for at least 3 times per week (60 minutes each). The mean age was 49.5+/-34.5 years and the mean BMI 34.5+/-4.8, with 27 males (25.3%) and 80 females (74.7%). Ninety patients (25 males/65 females) (83.6%) had the genotype 55CC (wild group) and 17 patients (2 male/15 females) (16.4%) 55CT (mutant group). The percentage of responders (weight loss) was similar in both groups (wild group: 84.7% vs. mutant group: 81.8%). BMI, weight, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio decreased in the wild group and RMR and VO (2) were increased. In the mutant group, BMI and weight decreased. Leptin and IL-6 levels have a significant decrease in the wild group (9.6%: p<0.05) and (30.5%: p<0.05), respectively. Patients with -55CC genotype have a significant decrease in leptin, interleukin 6, BMI, weight, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio weight, fat mass, and systolic blood pressure. PMID:18348082

  18. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Quantification of Visceral Fat

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Sanjiv; Rothney, Megan P.; Peters, Dawn M.; Wacker, Wynn K.; Davis, Cynthia E.; Shapiro, Michael D.; Ergun, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for metabolic syndrome and through it diabetes as well as cardiovascular disease. Visceral fat (VF) rather than subcutaneous fat (SF) is the major predictor of adverse events. Currently, the reference standard for measuring VF is abdominal X-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requiring highly used clinical equipment. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can accurately measure body composition with high-precision, low X-ray exposure, and short-scanning time. The purpose of this study was to validate a new fully automated method whereby abdominal VF can be measured by DXA. Furthermore, we explored the association between DXA-derived abdominal VF and several other indices for obesity: BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and DXA-derived total abdominal fat (AF), and SF. We studied 124 adult men and women, aged 18–90 years, representing a wide range of BMI values (18.5–40 kg/m2) measured with both DXA and CT in a fasting state within a one hour interval. The coefficient of determination (r2) for regression of CT on DXA values was 0.959 for females, 0.949 for males, and 0.957 combined. The 95% confidence interval for r was 0.968 to 0.985 for the combined data. The 95% confidence interval for the mean of the differences between CT and DXA VF volume was ?96.0 to ?16.3 cm3. Bland–Altman bias was +67 cm3 for females and +43 cm3 for males. The 95% limits of agreement were ?339 to +472 cm3 for females and ?379 to +465 cm3 for males. Combined, the bias was +56 cm3 with 95% limits of agreement of ?355 to +468 cm3. The correlations between DXA-derived VF and BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and DXA-derived AF and SF ranged from poor to modest. We conclude that DXA can measure abdominal VF precisely in both men and women. This simple noninvasive method with virtually no radiation can therefore be used to measure VF in individual patients and help define diabetes and cardiovascular risk. PMID:22282048

  19. Evaluation of performance, sheath score and scrotal circumference of Brangus bulls based on the species of origin of their Y chromosome 

    E-print Network

    Herring, Andy Dale

    1991-01-01

    and YRMK was low (. 07&r &. 16). There appears to be a relationship between occurrence of extended prepuce and puberty. Phenotypic correlations seen in females between navel flap score and WWT and YWT were similar to those seen in the males. Selection... to be favorably related to several fertility traits important to efficient beef production, including total sperm output (Hahn et al. , 1969; Neely et al. , 1982; Knights et al. , 1984), age of puberty in males (Lunstra et al. , 1978) and age of puberty...

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Intrusive Growth of Fusiform Initials in Relation to Radial Growth and Expanding Cambial Circumference in Pinus sylvestris L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Karczewska; J. Karczewski; W. W?och; J. Jura-Morawiec; P. Kojs; M. Iqbal; J. Krawczyszyn

    2009-01-01

    This study on the cambium of Pinus sylvestris L. examines the intrusive growth of fusiform cambial initials and its possible contribution to the tangential and radial\\u000a expansions of the cambial cylinder. The location and extent of intrusive growth of the fusiform initials were determined by\\u000a microscopic observations and by mathematical modeling. In order to meet the required circumferential expansion of

  1. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pumprla, Jiri; Howorka, Kinga; Kolackova, Zuzana; Sovova, Eliska

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF), non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/ patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol) were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) have been examined before, after the 1 st and 4 th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4 th session (p<0.001), and during follow-up after 1 and 3 months (p<0.001 and p<0.02, resp.). There was a significant correlation (r=-0.58, p=0.007) between reduction of abdominal circumference and initial very-low frequency (VLF) spectral power at 1 month follow-up. A significant increase of cumulative spectral power in low frequency (p=0.02) and reduction in high frequency (p=0.05) band have been observed immediately (20 +14 minutes) after the treatment. On the contrary, no sustained impact on autonomic balance has been recorded 39 +18 days after the treatment. A significant correlation between the initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to one treatment was observed in VLF and total spectral bands (r>0.59, p<0.04). Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  2. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    PubMed Central

    Gaida, J; Cook, J; Bass, S; Austen, S; Kiss, Z

    2004-01-01

    Background: Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into the aetiology of this condition. Objectives: To examine whether anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength distinguished elite female basketball players with unilateral or bilateral patellar tendinopathy. Methods: Body composition, anthropometry, and muscle strength were compared in elite female basketball players with unilateral (n = 8), bilateral (n = 7), or no (n = 24) patellar tendinopathy. Body composition was analysed using a dual energy x ray absorptiometer. Anthropometric measures were assessed using standard techniques. Knee extensor strength was measured at 180°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer. z scores were calculated for the unilateral and bilateral groups (using the no tendinopathy group as controls). z scores were tested against zero. Results: The tibia length to stature ratio was approximately 1.3 (1.3) SDs above zero in both the affected and non-affected legs in the unilateral group (p<0.05). The waist to hip ratio was 0.66 (0.78) SD above zero in the unilateral group (p<0.05). In the unilateral group, leg lean to total lean ratio was 0.42 (0.55) SD above zero (p<0.07), the trunk lean to total lean ratio was 0.63 (0.68) SD below zero (p<0.05), and leg fat relative to total fat was 0.47 (0.65) SD below zero (p<0.09). In the unilateral group, the leg with pathology was 0.78 (1.03) SD weaker during eccentric contractions (p<0.07). Conclusions: Unilateral patellar tendinopathy has identifiable risk factors whereas bilateral patellar tendinopathy may not. This suggests that the aetiology of these conditions may be different. However, interpretation must respect the limitation of small subject numbers. PMID:15388543

  3. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Oryu, Makoto; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities and is defined as the presence of three or more of the following factors: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. Obesity, which is accompanied by metabolic dysregulation often manifested in the metabolic syndrome, is an established risk factor for many cancers. Adipose tissue, particularly visceral fat, is an important metabolic tissue as it secretes systemic factors that alter the immunologic, metabolic, and endocrine milieu and also promotes insulin resistance. Within the growth-promoting, proinflammatory environment of the obese state, cross-talk between macrophages, adipocytes, and epithelial cells occurs via obesity-associated hormones, adipocytokines, and other mediators that may enhance cancer risk and progression. This paper synthesizes the evidence on key molecular mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link. PMID:23304125

  4. Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: a pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila M; Murphy, Mary M; Heshka, Stanley; Katz, David L

    2014-02-01

    Being overweight and obese are significant health concerns for men and women, yet despite comparable needs for effective weight loss and maintenance strategies, little is known about the success of commercial weight loss programs in men. This study tests the hypothesis that men participating in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) had significantly greater weight loss than men receiving limited support from health professionals for weight loss (controls). A pooled analysis of weight loss and related physiologic parameter data from 2 randomized clinical trials was conducted. After 12 months, analysis of covariance tests showed that men in the commercial program group (n = 85) lost significantly more weight (P < .01) than men in the control group (n = 84); similar significant differences were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. These results suggest that participation in a commercial weight loss program may be a more effective means to lose weight and maintain weight loss. PMID:24461320

  5. The DIAMOND system in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in an obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Lebovitz, Harold E.; Kiciak, Adam; Zgliczy?ski, Wojciech; Tarnowski, Wies?aw

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. As the majority of antidiabetic medications are of limited efficacy and patient adherence to long-term therapy is one of the main limiting factors of effective blood glucose and body weight control, new therapies are still looked for. The DIAMOND system seems to be one of the most promising among them. This system recognizes natural electrical activity of the stomach and automatically applies electrical stimulation treatment during/after eating with subsequent modulation of signals transmitted to the regulatory centers in the brain in order to provoke an early response of the gut typical of a full meal. We present the case of a 47-year-old obese woman with type 2 diabetes. During treatment with this system, serum glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels significantly decreased. Body weight loss and waist circumference reduction were observed. Additionally, beneficial effect on lipid profile was found. PMID:25562004

  6. Emotional psychopathology and increased adiposity: follow-up study in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression Inventory and the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Kids. Body fat percentage (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were also determined. Following analysis with adjusted multiple regression models, the results indicated that symptoms of depression and separation anxiety were significantly associated with increased WC and BMI in boys, and that somatic symptoms were associated with increased WC and %BF in girls. Diagnosis of social phobia, panic disorder or dysthymia led to significantly increased WC and/or BMI in boys and dysthymia increased WC in girls. These findings suggest that emotional psychopathology in preadolescence is associated with increased weight gain and abdominal fat in adolescence. PMID:23434271

  7. iStart smart: a primary-care based and community partnered childhood obesity management program for Chinese-American children: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kwan, Monica; Mac, Allison; Chin, Nai-Ching; Liu, Katrina

    2013-12-01

    Children who are ethnic minorities, low income and live in urban neighborhoods are at higher risk for obesity. This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of a primary care-based and community partnered obesity intervention in Chinese American children. An experimental design with a historical comparison group was used to explore the feasibility of an obesity intervention for overweight Chinese American children, ages 7-12. Data were collected on weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference, physical activity, food intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy about diet and physical activity at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months post-baseline. Significant improvements in BMI, blood pressure, and nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy were found in the intervention group. Intervention group reduced their BMI compared to the comparison group (F = 8.65, p = .004). An obesity intervention in primary care setting is feasible and demonstrates a short-term effect on weight loss in Chinese American children. PMID:23595264

  8. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789

  9. Determining Best Practices to Reduce Occupational Health Risks in Firefighters.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Suzanne L; Phillips, Jonathan S; Twilbeck, Travis J

    2015-07-01

    McDonough, SL, Phillips, JS, and Twilbeck, TJ. Determining best practices to reduce occupational health risks in firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 2041-2044, 2015-The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters. PMID:25563676

  10. Paradoxical topiramate-induced hyperphagia successfully treated with phentermine in a woman with migraine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jacinta L; Rolan, Paul E

    2015-08-01

    We report a 49-year-old female migraineur who experienced paradoxical hyperphagia and concurrent intrusive food thoughts leading to rapid weight gain and a substantial increase in waist circumference. A significant reduction in migraine frequency was also observed during topiramate treatment, a widely used migraine prophylactic agent which is generally associated with weight loss. Withdrawal of topiramate saw appetite return to baseline levels, however, migraine frequency was again increased. Topiramate was reinitiated in combination with phentermine, a drug indicated for weight management, without reoccurrence of adverse effects. Migraine control was maintained and progressive weight loss ensued. Combination treatment with phentermine may be a useful strategy should other patients experience this adverse reaction while gaining therapeutic anti-migraine benefit from topiramate. PMID:25911503

  11. Central adiposity is significantly higher in female compared to male in Pakistani type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Omer; Fiazuddin, Faraz; Shaheryar, Ayesha; Niaz, Warda; Siddiqui, Danial; Awan, Safia; Ram, Nanik; Akhter, Jaweed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) rates are increasing rapidly in South Asians. Cardiovascular complications are more frequent and occur earlier in our patients than patients in many other ethnic groups. Reasons for this are not fully understood. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the body total and central fat percentage in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and to check correlation with BMI, waist circumference and metabolic profile. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted at endocrine clinic, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan, from May to December 2012. Materials and Methods: Patients of either gender with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly selected. A separate proforma for each patient was recorded for demographics, risk factors, bioelectrical impedance measurement for body fat and investigations. Statistical Analysis: Correlation between body fat and other covariate were compared by Pearson correlation coefficient test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: One hundred and seventy five patients (95 male and 80 female) with mean age of 54.1 ± 12 years were evaluated. Mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 years, mean HbA1c was 8.1% and 53.7% were on oral agents and rest were on insulin with or without oral agents. Hypertension was present in 65.7%, 13.7% had known coronary artery disease and 2.3% had cerebrovascular disease. Mean BMI in males was 29.1 ± 4.74 kg/m2 and females 31.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2. Mean waist circumference in males was 107.3 ± 16.6 cm and 103 ± 12 cm in females. Total body fat percentage (%BF) in males was 30.9 ± 7.1% and females 40 ± 8.2% with 89% of the total cohort having total body fat percentage above the normal, less than 25% central fat percentage was 13.3 ± 5.2% in males and 14.6 ± 5.5% in females with 79.4% of cohort having increased central fat (normal <9%). Total and central body fat correlated with BMI (r = 0.68, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) but not with HbA1c, triglyceride level or with fasting or random blood glucose levels. Women had significantly higher total body fat percentage compared to men (P < 0.001) although central fat percentage was similar in both sexes. Conclusions: High body fat percentage, waist circumference are seen especially in woman and central body fat percentage in both sexes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. Body fat percentage should be measured and followed as this may be an important contributing factor to the high macrovascular complication rate in this part of world. PMID:25593830

  12. Individual dietetic consultations in first episode psychosis: a novel intervention to reduce cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Scott; Harris, Stacey; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Samaras, Katherine; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B

    2015-02-01

    Individual dietetic consultations were trialled in a community-based first-episode psychosis program. Participants received eight individualised dietetic consultations, plus weekly shopping tours and cooking groups. The outcome measure was waist circumference (WC). In total, 30 patients commenced the program. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed, a statistically significant reduction in WC (mean=2.1±5.4 cm, t=2.1, df=29, p=0.04). Similar results were found for the 14 participants who attended all eight sessions (mean WC reduction=2.9±4.7 cm, t=2.3, df=13, p=0.04). Dietetic consultations were feasible and effective in reducing WC, and could enhance programs to reduce cardiometabolic risk in youth with psychosis using lifestyle interventions. PMID:25523060

  13. Rimonabant: a cannabinoid receptor type 1 blocker for management of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Eli V; Cannon, Christopher P

    2006-05-16

    Rimonabant is a first selective blocker of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) being developed for the treatment of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity and smoking. In four large trials, after one year of treatment, rimonabant 20 mg led to greater weight loss and reduction in waist circumference compared with placebo. Therapy with rimonabant is also associated with favorable changes in serum lipid levels and an improvement in glycemic control in prediabetes patients and in type 2 diabetic patients. At the same dose, rimonabant significantly increased cigarette smoking quit rates as compared with placebo. Rimonabant seems to be well tolerated, with a primary side effect of mild nausea. As an agent with a novel mechanism of action, rimonabant has a potential to be a useful adjunct to lifestyle and behavior modification in treatment of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity and smoking. PMID:16697306

  14. Effect of fruits and vegetables on metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Young; Kang, Hee Tak; Han, Kyung Hwa; Shim, Jae Yong

    2015-06-01

    Evidence regarding the effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on metabolic syndrome remains inconclusive. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane, we searched for relevant studies published before 10 December 2013. Of the 383 articles identified, eight randomized controlled trials with 396 participants (205 in intervention groups and 191 in control groups) were included in the final analyses. Fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (standardized mean difference: -0.29; 95% confidence interval: -0.57 to -0.02; p?=?0.04); however, such intake did not affect waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in metabolic syndrome patients. In a subgroup analysis, there were no statistically significant differences found according to the intervention period and provision type. Our results suggest an inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and diastolic blood pressure in metabolic syndrome patients. PMID:25945735

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes in adults.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tarko, Laura; McDermott, Katie; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Whereas the adverse impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on emotional and psychosocial well-being has been well investigated, its impact on physical health has not. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of ADHD on lifestyle behaviors and measures of adverse health risk indicators. Subjects were 100 untreated adults with ADHD and 100 adults without ADHD of similar age and sex. Unhealthy lifestyle indicators included assessments of bad health habits, frequency of visits to healthcare providers, and follow through with recommended prophylactic tests. Assessments of adverse health risk indicators included measurements of cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. No differences were identified in health habits between subjects with and without ADHD, but robust differences were found in a wide range of adverse health risk indicators. ADHD is associated with an adverse impact in health risk indicators well known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:25211634

  16. [Abdominal obesity associated to medical-related absenteeism at a company of metal-mechanical industry in Cali, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Agredo Zúñiga, Ricardo A; García Ordoñez, Emily S; Osorio, Carlos; Escudero, Natalia; López-Albán, Carlos A; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was examined the abdominal obesity prevalence and association with medical-related absenteeism. A cross-sectional study in 185 men from the metal-mechanical industry was conducted. Sociodemografic and antropometrics data of was gathered, waist circumference was measured as an indicator of abdominal obesity. The prevalence of central obesity was 28.7 %. Subjects with higher values of central obesity showed higher frequency, higher duration and higher costs of medical-related absenteeism, however, this relationship was not significant. We conclude that abdominal obesity is highly frequent in this sample; however, since it's a reversible risk, enterprises could get benefits from preventive and promotional programs destiny to control this problem. PMID:23949511

  17. Improvement in binge eating in non-diabetic obese individuals after 3 months of treatment with liraglutide - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Robert, Sarah Anne; Rohana, Abdul Ghani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Chinna, Karuthan; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue on appetite and plasma ghrelin in non-diabetic obese participants with subclinical binge eating (BE). Forty-four obese BE participants (mean age: 34±9 years, BMI: 35.9±4.2kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups for 12 weeks. All participants received standard advice for diet and exercise. Binge eating score, ghrelin levels and other anthropometric variables were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Participants who received liraglutide showed significant improvement in binge eating, accompanied by reduction in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Ghrelin levels were significantly increased which may potentially diminish the weight loss effects of liraglutide beyond the intervention. PMID:25870084

  18. Genetic and environmental effects on the bone development of the hand and wrist in chinese young twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li Yan; Tan, Ji Bin; Zhao, Jing Lan; Jiang, Fa Chun; Tian, Xiao Cao; Ning, Feng; Wang, Shao Jie; Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zeng Chang; Zhao, Zhong Tang

    2015-03-01

    We assessed genetic and environmental effects on bone development of the hand and wrist, and on key anthropometric measures in Chinese young twins. In total, 139 monozygotic and 95 dizygotic twin pairs aged from 5 to 18 years were recruited. The twin correlations of total hand and wrist scores for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 0.71 and 0.36, respectively. Bivariate model analysis showed moderate genetic correlations only for total skeletal maturity vs. weight and total skeletal maturity vs. waist circumference (r, 0.51 and 0.46, respectively). Our findings demonstrated that genetic factors played important roles in bone development of the hand and wrist in Chinese young twins, and that these genetic effects might be distinct from those influencing anthropometric measures. PMID:25800451

  19. Peer effects on obesity in a sample of European children.

    PubMed

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis; Kovács, Éva; Lauria, Fabio; Konstabel, Kenn; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Vyncke, Krishna; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries. Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus - the more collectivist regions in our sample - while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand with fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children's weight with that of friends and schoolmates. PMID:26115518

  20. Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, Margarita M

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n?=?1314 participants aged 20-79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health "Semanas del Corazon" events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference:??88?cm in women and ?102?cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41-0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05-1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84-1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63-1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity. PMID:25953598

  1. Association of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein with the Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Gyawali, Prajwal; Shrestha, Rojeet; Tuladhar, Eans Tara; Jha, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Several studies have suggested hsCRP to be used as a marker for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. So, we aimed to evaluate the association between hsCRP levels and the components of MetS in diabetic and non-diabetic population. Materials and Methods: Type II diabetic patients (T2DM) (n= 121) and healthy controls (n= 121) were enrolled for the study. Anthropometric measurements were taken along with blood pressure from the arm. Ten ml of blood was collected after overnight fasting for the measurement of lipid profile, hsCRP, C-peptide and glucose levels. Insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was estimated by HOMA2 calculator utilizing glucose and C-peptide values. All participants were classified into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence of MetS. Data were analysed through SPSS 14 software. Results: hsCRP, C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were significantly higher in T2DM subjects when compared with controls. As the number of the components of MetS increased, there was a linear increase in hsCRP levels in whole study population (p trend <.001), diabetic subjects (p trend <.001), as well as in controls (p trend <.001). HOMA2-IR and hsCRP levels were found to be better than LDL cholesterol and waist circumference for predicting the presence of MetS. Conclusion: hsCRP was found to be better than LDL cholesterol and waist circumference for the prediction of MetS. Hence, hsCRP could be used as a defining marker of MetS in the near future. PMID:25120975

  2. Association between arterial stiffness and serum L-octanoylcarnitine and lactosylceramide in overweight middle-aged subjects: 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjoo; Jung, Saem; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Existing data on the association between being overweight and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk in adults are inconsistent. We prospectively and longitudinally investigated the effects of weight on arterial stiffness and plasma metabolites in middle-aged subjects (aged 40-55 years). A group of 59 individuals who remained within the range of overweight during repeated measurements over a 3-year period was compared with a control group of 59 normal weight subjects who were matched for age and gender. Changes in metabolites by UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) were examined. At baseline, the overweight group showed higher BMI, waist circumference, triglyceride, free fatty acid (FFA), glucose, insulin, and hs-CRP, and lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. After 3 years, the changes in waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP), triglyceride, FFA, glucose, insulin, hs-CRP, and ba-PWV observed in the overweight group were significantly different from those in the control group after adjusting for baseline levels. Furthermore, the overweight group showed greater increases in L-octanoylcarnitine (q=0.006) and decanoylcarnitine (q=0.007), and higher peak intensities of L-leucine, L-octanoylcarnitine, and decanoylcarnitine. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the change in ba-PWV was independently and positively associated with changes in L-octanoylcarnitine, lactosylceramide, and SBP, and with baseline BMI. Our results indicate that the duration of overweight is an important aggravating factor for arterial stiffness, especially during middle age. Additionally, an age-related increase in plasma L-octanoylcarnitine, lactosylceramide, SBP, and baseline BMI are independent predictors of increased arterial stiffness in middle-aged individuals. PMID:25781947

  3. Androgenetic alopecia, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance: Is there any association? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Shoeib, Mohamed Abdel Moneim; El Shafiee, Maather Kamel; Hassan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although several previous studies have investigated the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR) with androgenetic alopecia (AGA), the results have been inconsistent. Aim: We attempted to assess the presence of MS and IR in patients with AGA. This may help to detect if AGA can be considered as a clue for underlying serious systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: One hundred male patients with stages III-VII AGA, in Hamilton-Norwood classification, and 100 normal, gender- and age-matched control subjects were included. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured for the all participants. The presence of MS and IR was evaluated. Results: There were statistically significant differences regarding mean values of body weight (P < 0.001), height (P = 0.002), waist circumference (P < 0.001), body mass index (P < 0.001), systolic (P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), fasting glucose (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.01), fasting insulin (P = 0.02) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P < 0.001) between cases and controls. A statistically significant association was found between AGA and MS (P = 0.002) and between AGA and IR (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that waist circumference (>102 cm) was the most significant risk factor for developing MS. It increased the risk of MS by 1.25-folds (95% CI = 1.10-1.42, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results support the recommendation for assessing MS and IR in all young males with stage III or higher AGA. Early intervention is critical to reduce the risk and complications of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. PMID:25165643

  4. Risk factors for cancers of unknown primary site: Results from the prospective EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Kaaks, Rudolf; Sookthai, Disorn; Hemminki, Kari; Krämer, Alwin; Boeing, Heiner; Wirfält, Elisabet; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Quirós, J Ramón; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Larrañaga, Nerea; Brennan, Paul; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Riboli, Elio; Canzian, Federico

    2014-11-15

    Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) may be called an "orphan" disease, as it is diagnosed when metastases are detected while the primary tumor typically remains undetected, and because little research has been done on its primary causes. So far, few epidemiological studies, if any, have addressed possible risk factors for CUP. We analyzed data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (N=476,940). During prospective follow-up, a total of 651 cases of incident cases of CUP were detected (ICD-O-2 code C809). Proportional hazards models were conducted to examine the associations of lifetime history of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, levels of education and anthropometric indices of adiposity with risk of being diagnosed with CUP. Risk of being diagnosed with CUP was strongly related to smoking, with a relative risk of 3.66 [95% C.I., 2.24-5.97] for current, heavy smokers (26+ cigarettes/day) compared to never smokers (adjusted for alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference and level of education) and a relative risk of 5.12 [3.09-8.47] for cases with CUP who died within 12 months. For alcohol consumption and level of education, weaker associations were observed but attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjusting for smoking and indices of obesity. Finally, risk of CUP was increased by approximately 30 per cent for subjects in the highest versus lowest quartiles of waist circumference. Our analyses provide further documentation, in addition to autopsy studies, that a substantial proportion of cancers of unknown primary site may have their origin in smoking-related tumors, in particular. PMID:24692151

  5. Genetic and Clinical Factors Affecting Plasma Clozapine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Edman, Gunnar; Bertilsson, Leif; Hukic, Dzana Sudic; Lavebratt, Catharina; Eriksson, Sven V.; Ösby, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess (1) the variance of plasma clozapine levels; (2) the relative importance of sex, smoking habits, weight, age, and specific genetic variants of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 (UGT1A4), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) on plasma levels of clozapine; and (3) the relation between plasma clozapine levels, fasting glucose levels, and waist circumference. Method: There were 113 patients on clozapine treatment recruited from psychosis outpatient clinics in Stockholm County, Sweden. Patients had genotype testing for single nucleotide polymorphisms: 2 in MDR1, 3 in CYP1A2, and 1 in UGT1A4. Multiple and logistic regression were used to analyze the relations. Results: There was a wide variation in plasma concentrations of clozapine (mean = 1,615 nmol/L, SD = 1,354 nmol/L), with 37% of the samples within therapeutic range (1,100–2,100 nmol/L). Smokers had significantly lower plasma clozapine concentrations than nonsmokers (P ? .03). There was a significant association between the rs762551 A allele of CYP1A2 and lower plasma clozapine concentration (P ? .05). Increased fasting glucose level was 3.7-fold more frequent in CC and CA genotypes than AA genotype (odds ratio = 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.72). There was no significant relation between higher fasting glucose levels, larger waist circumference, and higher clozapine levels. Conclusions: It is difficult to predict plasma clozapine concentration, even when known individual and genetic factors are considered. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended in patients who are treated with clozapine.

  6. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61) were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1) placebo; 2) 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3) 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d) intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy) and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and % body fat (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). Polyunsaturated fat intake was associated with the % change in waist circumference (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). Dietary saturated fat was not associated with any changes in anthropometrics or the plasma lipidome. Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals. PMID:21970320

  7. Nutritional outcomes related to household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ihabi, A N; Rohana, A J; Wan Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N; Zalilah, M S; Rusli, A Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    During the past two decades, the rates of food insecurity and obesity have risen. Although a relationship between these two seemingly-paradoxical states has not been repeatedly seen in men, research suggests that a correlation between them exists in women. This study examines nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted, and 223 households with mothers aged 18-55 years, who were non-lactating, non-pregnant, and had at least one child aged 2-12 years, were purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered that included the Radimer/Cornell Scale, items about sociodemographic characteristics, and anthropometric measurements. Of the households, 16.1% were food-secure whereas 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity: 29.6% of households were food-insecure, 19.3% contained individuals who were food-insecure, and 35.0% fell into the 'child hunger' category. The result reported that household-size, total monthly income, income per capita, and food expenditure were significant risk factors of household food insecurity. Although there was a high prevalence of overweight and obese mothers (52%) and 47.1% had at-risk waist-circumference (> or = 80 cm), no significant association was found between food insecurity, body mass index, and waist-circumference. In conclusion, the rates of household food insecurity and overweight and obesity were high in the study population, although they are looking paradoxical. Longitudinal studies with larger sample-sizes are recommended to further examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. PMID:24592589

  8. Comparison of anthropometric measures as predictors of cancer incidence: A pooled collaborative analysis of 11 Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer. PMID:25810218