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1

Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that age-related change in waist circumference (to reflect central adiposity) during adolescence is a significant predictor of longitudinal change in cardiovascular disease risk, after adjustment for change in body mass index (BMI) z score (to reflect total adiposity) in a cohort of postmenarcheal adolescent females. We also tested whether race modified this relation. Design: We analyzed publicly available data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Longitudinal regression models were fitted to investigate the independent effects of changes in waist circumference on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results: Steeper age-related increases in waist circumference over time were associated with a greater increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, after adjustment for BMI z score, in white but not in black females. Change in waist circumference was not a statistically significant predictor of age-related changes in HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, and glucose concentrations, after adjustment for changes in BMI z score, in either white or black females. Conclusions: Our research suggests that monitoring waist circumference in addition to BMI z score has the potential to identify adolescents at risk of the emergence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, at least in white females. The data also suggest that race may modify the relation between fat distribution pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Tybor, David J; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Dallal, Gerard E; Daniels, Stephen R; Must, Aviva

2011-01-01

2

Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Methods Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference) for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth’s residence. Results Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10?years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8–3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5–3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures. However, contrary to our expectation, increased distance to the nearest fast food outlet was associated with higher BMI z-score, but not with waist circumference. Conclusions Food environments conducive to healthy eating may significantly influence health behaviors and outcomes. Efforts to increase the availability of supermarkets providing options/selections for health-promoting foods may significantly improve the dietary intake and reduce adiposity among youth with diabetes.

2012-01-01

3

Waist circumference in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: To evaluate waist circumference (WC) measured at 20-24 weeks of gestation as a predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: This cross-sectional study included 240 women at 20-24 weeks of gestation. At enrollment, WC was measured, and both prepregnancy and gestational body mass index (BMI) were estimated. According to the results of 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed at 24-28 weeks, subjects were allocated into two groups, non-GDM and GDM. WC sensitivity and specificity, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for BMI and WC were estimated, and a receiver operating characteristics curve was generated. Results: Of the 240 pregnant women enrolled, 31 (13%) had GDM. Prepregnancy BMI (OR?=?4.21), gestational BMI (OR?=?3.17) and WC at 20-24 weeks (OR?=?4.02) correlated with GDM risk. At 20-24 weeks, a WC of 85.5-88.5?cm was the optimal cutoff point for predicting GDM (Sens/Spec balance between 87.1/41.1% and 77.4/56.9%). Conclusion: At 20-24 weeks of gestation, WC values in the range of 86-88?cm showed to be a good performance in predicting GDM. PMID:24053462

Bolognani, Cláudia Vicari; de Sousa Moreira Reis, Lilian Barros; de Souza, Sulani Silva; Dias, Adriano; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; de Mattos Paranhos Calderon, Iracema

2014-06-01

4

Appropriateness of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio cutoffs for different ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) cutoffs have been identified from studies of predominantly European-derived populations. However, these cutoffs may not be appropriate for other ethnic groups. This paper reviews the literature regarding ethnic differences in body composition and the appropriateness of ethnic-specific WC and WHR cutoffs in various ethnic groups. Studies investigating ethnic-specific cutoffs were identified among

S A Lear; P T James; G T Ko; S Kumanyika

2010-01-01

5

Health behaviors, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) begin to gain attention as measures of adiposity and as important cardiometabolic disease risk factors also among children. Still, little research has been done on behavioral determinants of WC and WHtR in children. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between health behaviors, WC and WHtR in children.Methods:The study was a

R Lehto; C Ray; M Lahti-Koski; E Roos

2011-01-01

6

Waist circumference, body mass index, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular disease in Aboriginal people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate waist circumference (WC), waist–hip ratio, hip circumference and body mass index (BMI) as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Aboriginal Australians.Methods: This cohort study included 836 adults aged 20–74 y in a remote Aboriginal community. WC, waist–hip ratio, hip circumference and BMI were obtained from a screening program. The participants were followed for up to 10 y

Z. Wang; W. E. Hoy

2004-01-01

7

Appropriate waist circumference cutoff points for central obesity in Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe International Diabetes Federation consensus recently proposed a new definition for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, incorporating ethnically specific waist circumference (WC) cutoff points.

Sang Yeoup Lee; Hye Soon Park; Dae Jung Kim; Jee Hye Han; Seon Mee Kim; Guem Joo Cho; Dae Young Kim; Hyuk Sang Kwon; Sung Rae Kim; Chang Beom Lee; Seung Joon Oh; Cheol Young Park; Hyung Joon Yoo

2007-01-01

8

Variability in waist circumference measurements according to anatomic measurement site.  

PubMed

The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is widely advocated as a simple anthropometric marker of health risk; yet there remains no uniformly accepted protocol. This study determined whether the magnitude of WC differs across four measurement sites, and quantified the influence of site on the apparent prevalence of abdominal obesity. The predominantly white sample consisted of 223 men and 319 women (20-67 years). WC was measured using a nonstretching tape at the superior border of the iliac crest, midpoint between the iliac crest and lowest rib, umbilicus, and the minimal waist. Differences in WC across sites were tested using repeated measures ANOVA, adjusted for multiple comparisons. Inter- and intraobserver reliabilities across sites were estimated using intraclass correlation. In women, the mean WC for all sites were significantly different from each other, with the exception of the iliac crest and midpoint. In contrast, no significant differences between sites were found in men. Measurement site had an influence on the apparent prevalence of abdominal obesity (>88/102 cm), ranging from 23 to 34% in men and 31 to 55% in women. The reproducibility of WC was high at all sites and was comparable across levels of BMI. In conclusion, the magnitude of WC is influenced by measurement site, particularly in women. Small differences are amplified when dichotomous cut points rather than a continuum are used to define abdominal obesity. Adopting a standard measurement protocol will facilitate the interpretation and clinical utility of WC for obesity-related risk stratification. PMID:19343017

Mason, Caitlin; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

2009-09-01

9

Waist circumference associated with pulmonary function in children.  

PubMed

In adults abdominal obesity is related to lung dysfunction and waist circumference (WC) predicts pulmonary function. It is not known how WC affects pulmonary function in children. A cross-sectional study of 718 children 6-17 years of age was conducted in a rural community to determine the predictability of WC for pulmonary function in children. Height, weight, WC, and pulmonary function were measured. Multivariate analysis was conducted. WC was positively associated with FVC and FEV(1) and was more strongly associated with FVC than with FEV(1). Increase in WC significantly predicted a reduction in FEV(1)/FVC. After adjustment for sex, age, and height, an increase of 1 cm for WC was associated with an increase of 7 ml of FVC and 4 ml of FEV(1), and with an increase of 4 ml of FVC and 2 ml of FEV(1) with an additional adjustment for weight. Height and weight were not significantly associated with FEV(1)/FVC. WC but not body mass index predicted a decline of FEV(1)/FVC. WC had a larger impact on FVC than FEV(1). WC, but not BMI, was negatively associated with FEV(1)/FVC in children. PMID:19205050

Chen, Yue; Rennie, Donna; Cormier, Yvon; Dosman, James A

2009-03-01

10

Waist circumference as measure of abdominal fat compartments.  

PubMed

This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC), intraperitoneal fat (IPF), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black). Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF), ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF (R (2) = 0.81 - 0.88) with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65-0.82) and IPF (0.29-0.85). The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride (r = 0.358 (men) and 0.363 (women)) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.480 (men) and 0.517 (women)); after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride (r = 0.353 (men) and 0.348 (women)) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.290 (men) and 0.221 (women)). WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23762536

Grundy, Scott M; Neeland, Ian J; Turer, Aslan T; Vega, Gloria Lena

2013-01-01

11

Waist Circumference as Measure of Abdominal Fat Compartments  

PubMed Central

This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC), intraperitoneal fat (IPF), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black). Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF), ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF (R2 = 0.81 ? 0.88) with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65–0.82) and IPF (0.29–0.85). The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride (r = 0.358 (men) and 0.363 (women)) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.480 (men) and 0.517 (women)); after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride (r = 0.353 (men) and 0.348 (women)) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.290 (men) and 0.221 (women)). WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity.

Grundy, Scott M.; Neeland, Ian J.; Turer, Aslan T.; Vega, Gloria Lena

2013-01-01

12

Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Waist Circumference and Alanine Aminotransferase in Youth  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the liver component of the metabolic syndrome and is strongly associated with cardiometabolic diseases. In adults, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is inversely associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a blood biomarker for NAFLD. However, information regarding these associations is scarce for youth. Purpose To examine associations between CRF, waist circumference (WC) and ALT in youth. Methods Data were obtained from youth (n=2844, 12-19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2004. CRF was dichotomized into youth FITNESSGRAM® categories of “low” and “adequate” CRF. Logistic and quantile regression were used for a comprehensive analysis of associations, and variables with previously-reported associations with ALT were a priori included in the models. Results Results from logistic regression suggested that youth with low CRF had 1.5 times the odds of having an ALT>30 than youth with adequate CRF, although the association was not statistically significant (P=0.09). However, quantile regression demonstrated that youth with low CRF had statistically significantly higher ALT (+1.04, +1.05, and +2.57 U/L) at the upper end of the ALT distribution (80th, 85th, and 90th percentiles, respectively) than youth with adequate CRF. For every 1-cm increase in WC, the odds of having an ALT>30 increased by 1.06 (P<0.001), and the strength of this association increased across the ALT distribution. Conclusions Future studies should examine whether interventions to improve CRF can decrease hepatic fat and liver enzyme concentrations in youth with ALT ?80th percentile or in youth diagnosed with NAFLD.

Trilk, Jennifer L.; Ortaglia, Andrew; Blair, Steven N.; Bottai, Matteo; Church, Timothy S.; Pate, Russell R.

2012-01-01

13

Waist Circumference as Compared with Body-Mass Index in Predicting Mortality from Specific Causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhether waist circumference provides clinically meaningful information not delivered by body-mass index regarding prediction of cause-specific death is uncertain.MethodsWe prospectively examined waist circumference (WC) and body-mass index (BMI) in relation to cause-specific death in 225,712 U.S. women and men. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.1.ResultsDuring

Michael F. Leitzmann; Steven C. Moore; Annemarie Koster; Tamara B. Harris; Albert Hollenbeck; Arthur Schatzkin; Vineet Gupta

2011-01-01

14

Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Height Ratio Distributions in Polish and German Schoolchildren: Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) between Polish (PL) and German (GE) children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL (n = 11,326) GE (n = 8,218) participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity) corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m) for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI) prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower (P < 0.05) than those from Germany (boys: 4.4% (3.6-5.2) vs. 8.9% (7.3-10.5); girls: 10.7% (9.0-12.3) vs. 26.4% (23.2-29.6)), whereas, using the WHtR > 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5) vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9); they were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6) vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4). The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4) vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0), P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7) vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0), P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects.

Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Krzyzaniak, Alicja; Schwandt, Peter; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia

2013-01-01

15

Effect of Soymilk Consumption on Waist Circumference and Cardiovascular Risks among Overweight and Obese Female Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Soy milk replacement in the diet might have beneficial effects on waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, we are going to determine the effects of soy milk replacements on the waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adults. Methods: In this crossover randomized clinical trail, 24 over weight and obese female adults were on a diet with soy milk or the diet with cow's milk for four weeks. In the diet with soy milk only one glass of soy milk (240 cc) was replaced instead of one glass of cow's milk (240 cc). Measurements were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Waist circumference reduced significantly following soy milk period (mean percent change in soy milk period for waist circumference: -3.79 ± 0.51 vs. -1.78 ± 0.55 %; P = 0.02 in the cow's milk period). Blood pressure, weight, liver enzymes and glycemic control indices did not changed significantly after soy milk period compared to the cow's milk period. Conclusion: Among over weight and obese patients, soy milk can play an important role in reducing waist circumference. However, soy milk replacement had no significant effects on weight, glycemic control indices, liver enzymes, fibrinogen and blood pressure in a short term trial.

Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Nourieh, Zeinab; Attar, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh; Azadbakht, Leila

2012-01-01

16

Cut-off of body mass index and waist circumference to predict hypertension in Indian adults  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the cut-off values of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to predict hypertension in adults in north India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 801 subjects in Kanpur, aged 20 years and above, using multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to elicit the required information from the study participants and the diagnostic criteria for hypertension were taken according to the Seventh Joint National Committee Report on Hypertension (JNC-7). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the cut-off values of BMI and waist circumference to predict hypertension. RESULTS: The ROC analysis revealed that BMI is a good predictor of hypertension for both men (area under the ROC curve 0.714) and women (area under the ROC curve 0.821). The cut-off values of BMI for predicting hypertension were identified as ? 24.5 kg/m2 in men and ? 24.9 kg/m2 in women. Similarly, the ROC analysis for waist circumference showed that it is a good predictor of hypertension both for men (area under the ROC curve 0.784) and women (area under the ROC curve 0.815). The cut-offs for waist circumference for predicting hypertension were estimated as ? 83 cm for men and ? 78 cm for women. Adults with high BMI or high waist circumference had a higher prevalence of hypertension, respectively. CONCLUSION: Simple anthropometric measurements such as BMI and waist circumference can be used for screening people at increased risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful and early diagnostic evaluation. Policies and programs are required for primary and secondary prevention of hypertension.

Midha, Tanu; Krishna, Vinay; Nath, Bhola; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Rao, Yashwant Kumar; Pandey, Umeshwar; Kaur, Samarjeet

2014-01-01

17

Sitting Time and Waist Circumference Are Associated With Glycemia in U.K. South Asians  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the independent contributions of waist circumference, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on glycemia in South Asians living in Scotland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 1,228 (523 men and 705 women) adults of Indian or Pakistani origin screened for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial. All undertook an oral glucose tolerance test, had physical activity and sitting time assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and had waist circumference measured. RESULTS Mean ± SD age and waist circumference were 49.8 ± 10.1 years and 99.2 ± 10.2 cm, respectively. One hundred ninety-one participants had impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, and 97 had possible type 2 diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, age (0.012 mmol ? L?1 ? year?1 [95% CI 0.006–0.017]) and waist circumference (0.018 mmol ? L?1 ? cm?1 [0.012–0.024]) were significantly independently associated with fasting glucose concentration, and age (0.032 mmol ? L?1 ? year?1 [0.016–0.049]), waist (0.057 mmol ? L?1 ? cm?1 [0.040–0.074]), and sitting time (0.097 mmol ? L?1 ? h?1 ? day?1 [0.036–0.158]) were significantly independently associated with 2-h glucose concentration. Vigorous activity time had a borderline significant association with 2-h glucose concentration (?0.819 mmol ? L?1 ? h?1 ? day?1 [?1.672 to 0.034]) in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS These data highlight an important relationship between sitting time and 2-h glucose levels in U.K. South Asians, independent of physical activity and waist circumference. Although the data are cross-sectional and thus do not permit firm conclusions about causality to be drawn, the results suggest that further study investigating the effects of sitting time on glycemia and other aspects of metabolic risk in South Asian populations is warranted.

Gill, Jason M.R.; Bhopal, Raj; Douglas, Anne; Wallia, Sunita; Bhopal, Ruby; Sheikh, Aziz; Forbes, John F.; McKnight, John; Sattar, Naveed; Murray, Gordon; Lean, Michael E.J.; Wild, Sarah H.

2011-01-01

18

Association between Urinary Bisphenol A and Waist Circumference in Korean Adults.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, and food and beverage containers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between urinary concentrations of BPA and waist circumference in Korean adults. A total of 1,030 Korean adults (mean age, 44.3 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled in the study on the integrated exposure to hazardous materials for safety control, conducted by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety from 2010 to 2012. Abdominal obesity was defined as having a waist circumference of at least 90 cm and 85 cm for men and women, respectively. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the urinary BPA concentration quartile. Waist circumference was significantly higher among subjects with a urinary BPA concentration in the highest quartile relative to those in the lowest quartile (p = 0.0071). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between urinary BPA concentrations and body mass index, body fat, after adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, subjects with urinary BPA concentrations in the fourth quartile were more likely to be obese compared to those with urinary BPA concentrations in the first quartile (odds ratio, 1.938; 95% CI: 1.314~2.857; p for trend = 0.0106). These findings provide evidence for a positive association between urinary BPA concentration and waist circumference in Korean adults. PMID:24795798

Ko, Ahra; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Park, Jae-Hong; Kang, Hui-Seung; Lee, Hee-Seok; Hong, Jin-Hwan

2014-03-01

19

Association between Urinary Bisphenol A and Waist Circumference in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, and food and beverage containers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between urinary concentrations of BPA and waist circumference in Korean adults. A total of 1,030 Korean adults (mean age, 44.3 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled in the study on the integrated exposure to hazardous materials for safety control, conducted by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety from 2010 to 2012. Abdominal obesity was defined as having a waist circumference of at least 90 cm and 85 cm for men and women, respectively. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the urinary BPA concentration quartile. Waist circumference was significantly higher among subjects with a urinary BPA concentration in the highest quartile relative to those in the lowest quartile (p = 0.0071). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between urinary BPA concentrations and body mass index, body fat, after adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, subjects with urinary BPA concentrations in the fourth quartile were more likely to be obese compared to those with urinary BPA concentrations in the first quartile (odds ratio, 1.938; 95% CI: 1.314~2.857; p for trend = 0.0106). These findings provide evidence for a positive association between urinary BPA concentration and waist circumference in Korean adults.

Ko, Ahra; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Park, Jae-Hong; Kang, Hui-Seung; Lee, Hee-Seok

2014-01-01

20

Intake of macronutrients as predictors of 5-y changes in waist circumference13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The diet may influence the development of abdomi- nalobesity,butthefewstudiesthathaveprospectivelyexaminedthe relations between diet and changes in waist circumference (WC) have given inconsistent results. Objective: Associations between total energy intake, energy intake from macronutrients, and energy intake from macronutrient sub- groups based on different food sources and 5-y differences in WC (DWC) were investigated. Design: A Danish cohort of 22 570

Jytte Halkjær; Anne Tjønneland; Birthe L Thomsen; Kim Overvad; Thorkild IA Sørensen

21

Dietary patterns and changes in body mass index and waist circumference in adults1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity has increased > 20% in the past decade in the United States, and more than one-half of US adults are over- weight or obese. Objective: Our objective was to further elucidate the nutritional etiology of changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2) and waist circumference by dietary intake pattern. We hypothesized that a healthy dietary pattern would

PK Newby; Denis Muller; Judith Hallfrisch; Ning Qiao; Reubin Andres; Katherine L Tucker

22

Discrimination of Health Risk by Combined Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: NIH Clinical Guidelines (1998) recommend the measurement of waist circumference (WC, centimeters) within body mass index (BMI, kilograms per square meter) categories as a screening tool for increased health risk.Research Methods and Procedures: The Canada Heart Health Surveys (1986 through 1992) were used to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Canada and to test the use of

Christopher I. Ardern; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Ian Janssen; Robert Ross

2003-01-01

23

Validity of self-measured waist and hip circumferences: results from a community study in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Measures of central adiposity are better predictors of adverse health events than BMI. Nonetheless, BMI is more widely used in health research. One reason for this may be the limited research supporting the self-measurement of waist and hip circumference. The lack of validity studies is particularly acute in Asia. The main objective was to establish the validity of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference in a community setting and the correlation of those measures with BMI, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels. Methods A community based, cross-sectional survey. A “healthy living expo” at a shopping mall in a rural town on peninsular Malaysia One hundred and thirty six (136) individuals volunteered to participate in the study, 125 of whom met the inclusion criteria. The ethnic distribution of the participants was 80% Chinese, 17% Malay and 3% Indian. Most participants were female (60%), with participants’ ages ranging from 18 to 78 years (mean, 47.2). Self and assisted measurements of waist and hip were taken. Blood pressure, non-fasting blood glucose, height, and weight were also measured. Bland Altman plots and Lin’s concordance coefficient were used to measure agreement between self and assisted measures. Pearson’s correlation was used to examine the association of self and assisted measures with blood pressure, blood glucose, and BMI. Results There was a downwards bias in self measured waist (-0.81 cm) and hip (-1 cm) circumferences compared with assisted measures. The concordance for the self and assisted measures of waist, hip and the ratio of the two were, respectively, .96, .93 , and .84. The correlation between measures of central adiposity and BMI, blood pressure and blood glucose were similar for self and assisted measures. Conclusion The results provide additional support for the use of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference studies of central adiposity, but is limited by the specificity of the setting.

2013-01-01

24

Waist circumference as a vital sign in cardiology 20 years after its initial publication in the american journal of cardiology.  

PubMed

In 1994, we reported in The American Journal of Cardiology that a simple anthropometric measurement, waist circumference, was related to the amount of abdominal visceral adipose tissue measured by computed tomography. An elevated waist circumference was also found to be associated with several features of the cardiometabolic risk profile such as glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and an atherogenic dyslipidemic profile that included hypertriglyceridemia and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Although a linear relation was found between waist circumference and these metabolic alterations, we reported that a waist circumference value of about 100 cm was associated with a high probability of finding diabetogenic and atherogenic abnormalities. The present short report provides a brief update of issues that have been raised regarding the measurement of waist circumference and its clinical use over a period of 20 years since the original publication. PMID:24878123

Després, Jean-Pierre

2014-07-15

25

[Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].  

PubMed

The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults. PMID:24483977

Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

2014-01-01

26

Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

2000-01-01

27

Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity- related health risk1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The addition of waist circumference (WC) to body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2) predicts a greater variance in health risk than does BMI alone; however, whether the reverse is true is not known. Objective: We evaluated whether BMI adds to the predictive power of WC in assessing obesity-related comorbidity. Design: Subjects were 14 924 adult participants in the third

Ian Janssen; Peter T Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

28

Fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index and waist circumference among young female students in Isfahan  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is growing rapidly in our country. Nutrition is an important issue of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the waist circumference and the body mass index (BMI) among young female university students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 236 healthy female university students aged between 18 and 30 years old, who were selected randomly from the students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intake. Physical activity was assessed by daily recording of the physical activities. Findings: The prevalence of obesity, central adiposity and overweight was 1.7, 0.9 and 8.1%, respectively. The mean value of BMI and the waist circumference was 21.54 kg/m2 and 70.37 cm, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the fruit and vegetable intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.03) as well as BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.04) and also there was an inverse correlation between the fruit intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.01) and BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with the waist circumference. Conclusion: There were significant correlations between fruit and also fruit and vegetable and body weight and BMI among female university students. There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with waist circumference.

Ghalaeh, Reihaneh Seyed; Gholi, Zahra; Bank, Sahar Saraf; Azadbakht, Leila

2012-01-01

29

Waist Circumference, BMI, Smoking, and Mortality in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Measurement of waist circumference alone as a proxy of abdominal fat mass has been suggested as a simple clinical alternative to BMI for detecting adults with possible health risks due to obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: From 1993 to 1997, 27,178 men and 29,875 women, born in Denmark, 50 to 64 years of age, were recruited in the Danish prospective

Janne Bigaard; Anne Tjønneland; Birthe Lykke Thomsen; Kim Overvad; Berit Lilienthal Heitmann; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen

2003-01-01

30

Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Diabetes in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWaist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsData on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer

Tina Landsvig Berentzen; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Jytte Halkjaer; Anne Tjønneland; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Kim Overvad

2011-01-01

31

Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10??) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10??) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10??), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control. PMID:24023260

Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

2013-11-01

32

A comparison of body mass index, waist–hip ratio and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly: the Rotterdam study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare body mass index (BMI), waist–hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly.DESIGN: Population-based cohort study; mean follow-up was 5.4 y.SETTING: The Rotterdam Study.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6296 men and women; baseline age 55–102 y.MEASUREMENTS: Sex-specific all-cause mortality was compared between quintiles of BMI, WHR and waist circumference and between predefined categories

TLS Visscher; JC Seidell; A Molarius; D van der Kuip; A Hofman; JCM Witteman

2001-01-01

33

The Waist Circumference Measurement: A Simple Method for Assessing the Abdominal Obesity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Excess abdominal fat is an independent predictor of the risk factors and the morbidity of obesity related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular diseases. The Waist Circumference (WC) is positively correlated with the abdominal fat. Hence, the waist circumference is a valuable, convenient and a simple measurement method which can be used for identifying the individuals who are at an increased risk for the above mentioned diseases. Objectives To assess the abdominal obesity by measuring the waist circumference among the women who were aged 20 years and above in an urban slum of Chennai, India. To identify the socio -demographic factors which were associated with the abdominal obesity in the above study population. Settings and Design A community based and a cross sectional study was carried out in an urban slum of Chennai, India. Methods and Materials The present study was undertaken in an urban slum of Chennai city, among the women who were aged 20 years and above. One slum was selected randomly and the households in the slum were sampled by a systematic random sampling method. A pre-designed and a pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the information regarding the socio-demographic profile of the women. Their waist circumference was measured by using a flexible inch tape. As per the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO)(2000), the following cut off values for the waist circumference were used to assess the abdominal obesity for women: WC<80cms – normal and WC ? 80cms-abdominal obesity. Statistical Analysis It was done by using the Statistical Package For Social Science (SPSS ), version 11.5. The prevalence was expressed in percentage and the Chi square test was used to find its association with the factors. Results In the study population, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (WC ? 80 cms) was 29.8% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 25.9–34 %). A significant association was found between the age, religion, a higher socio-economic status and the abdominal obesity. No significant association was noted between the educational status, occupation, marital status, type of family and the abdominal obesity. Conclusion Abdominal obesity among the urban slum women is on the rise. The abdominal obesity was found to be significantly higher among the slum women with increasing age and in those who belonged to the muslim religion and to a higher socio-economic status.

R., Anuradha; S., Hemachandran; Ruma, Dutta

2012-01-01

34

Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.  

PubMed

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference. PMID:24257492

Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

2014-05-15

35

How well do waist circumference and body mass index reflect body composition in pre-pubertal children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the quantitative relationship between waist circumference (WC) and height (Ht), and subsequently the association between waist circumference index (WCI), body mass index (BMI) and body composition in pre-pubertal children.Design:Cross-sectional sample (n=227; boys=127) of pre-pubertal black children (age range 8.8–11.0 years) from the Bone Health sub-study of the Bt20 birth cohort study set in Soweto-Johannesburg, South Africa. Measures of

N Cameron; L L Jones; P L Griffiths; S A Norris; J M Pettifor

2009-01-01

36

Independent Association of Waist Circumference With Hypertension and Diabetes in African American Women, South Carolina, 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Introduction Obesity is associated with hypertension and diabetes, which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD); 53% of African American women are obese. Of the approximately 44% of African American women who are hypertensive, more than 87% are overweight or obese. Additionally, more than twice as many African American women (13.1%) as white women (6.1%) have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Obesity is usually measured using body mass index (BMI). However, abdominal adiposity may be more predictive of CVD risk than BMI. This study investigates the independent association of waist circumference with hypertension and diabetes in African American women. Methods As part of the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) program, we recruited 843 African American women (mean age 53.8 y [SD, 14.1 y]) from African Methodist Episcopal churches. If a participant reported she had hypertension or had measured systolic blood pressure at or higher than 140 mm Hg or measured diastolic blood pressure at or higher than 90 mm Hg, she was classified as having hypertension. To assess increased health risks associated with waist circumference, we used the World Health Organization’s standards to categorize waist circumference as normal risk (waist circumference <80 cm), increased risk (waist circumference 80–88 cm), or substantially increased risk (waist circumference >88 cm). We used logistic regression models to test predictors of hypertension and diabetes. Results Of 843 study participants, 205 had diabetes and 545 were hypertensive. Women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more were at increased risk for hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 7.17, P < .002) and diabetes (OR = 6.99, P < .001). Associations remained after controlling for all variables (hypertension OR = 5.53, P < .001; diabetes, OR = 5.38, P < .001). Conclusion After controlling for all variables, waist circumference was independently associated with a 5-fold risk in hypertension and diabetes in African American women.

Wilcox, Sara; Dowda, Marsha; Baruth, Meghan

2012-01-01

37

Waist Circumference and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference in Evaluation of Obesity in Children Aged Between 6 and 17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the cut?off values for waist circumference (WC) and mid?upper arm circumference (MUAC) and to assess their use in screening for obesity in children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements of a total of 2621 boys and 2737 girls aged 6?17 years were analyzed. WC and MUAC values were compared with ROC analysis using body mass index (BMI) cut?off values of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and using WC? 90th percentile.for MUAC. Results: In both genders, except for boys and girls in the 6?year age group and post?pubertal boys, the differences between area under curve (AUC) values for WC and MUAC were not significant, indicating that both indices performed equally well in predicting obesity. Sensitivity was suboptimal through age groups 6?9 years in the boys and sensitivity was suboptimal at 6, 7,14 and 17 years both in boys and girls. Conclusions: We conclude that MUAC can be a useful parameter in screening obesity and body fat distribution in children and, can be applied in epidemiological studies and in clinical practice. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Maz?c?oglu, M. Mumtaz; Ozturk, Ahmet; Cicek, Betul; Ustunbas, H. Bahri; Kurtoglu, Selim

2010-01-01

38

Body mass index, waist circumference and waist–hip ratio and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in European women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist–hip ratio (WHR) with serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding protein (IGFBP)-3.Design:Cross-sectional study on 2139 women participating in a case–control study on breast cancer and endogenous hormones. Data on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected by means of questionnaires. Body height, weight, waist and hip circumferences

I. T. Gram; T. Norat; S. Rinaldi; L. Dossus; A. Lukanova; B. Tehard; F. Clavel-Chapelon; C. H. van Gils; P. A. H. van Noord; P. H. M. Peeters; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; G. Nagel; J. Linseisen; P. H. Lahmann; H. Boeing; D. Palli; C. Sacerdote; S. Panico; R. Tumino; S. Sieri; M. Dorronsoro; J. R. Quirós; C. A. Navarro; A. Barricarte; M. J. Tormo; C. A. Gonzalez; K. Overvad; S. Paaske Johnsen; A. Olsen; A. Tjønneland; R. Travis; N. Allen; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; P. Stattin; A. Trichopoulou; V. Kalapothaki; T. Psaltopoulou; C. Casagrande; E. Riboli; R. Kaaks

2006-01-01

39

A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate cut-off points of waist circumference, body mass index and waist to hip ratio with respect to their ability to predict other individual and multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors.DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional surveys.SUBJECTS: A total of 9913 men and women aged 18–74, selected using health insurance registries from five Canadian provinces.MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric measures, other cardiovascular risk factors, receiver

CJ Dobbelsteyn; G Flowerdew

2001-01-01

40

Visceral adipose tissue is a better predictor of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis compared with waist circumference.  

PubMed

We investigated whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured by ultrasonography is better than waist circumference (WC) in predicting the presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. We recruited 100 individuals without a history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. VAT volume was measured by ultrasonography and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) by B-mode ultrasonography. Both VAT and WC were positively associated with body mass index, triglycerides, uric acid, systolic/diastolic blood pressure and high sensitivity C-reactive protein and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, only VAT was associated with CCA-IMT (r = 0.309, p = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that VAT, but not WC, was an independent predictor of carotid plaques after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio [OR] = 1.017, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.003-1.031, p = 0.017), and this association persisted after additional adjustment for WC (OR = 1.024, 95% CI = 1.003-1.031, p = 0.027). Our data suggest that VAT volume measured by ultrasonography may be a better predictor of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis than waist circumference in healthy individuals. PMID:24613215

Rallidis, Loukianos S; Baroutsi, Kyriaki; Zolindaki, Maria; Karagianni, Maria; Varounis, Christos; Dagres, Nikolaos; Lekakis, John; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria

2014-06-01

41

[Accuracy of body fat and waist circumference in predicting metabolic abnormalities indicating cardiovascular risk in adolescents].  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate the performance of percent body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC) in predicting metabolic abnormalities indicating cardiovascular risk in adolescents. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 573 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years from state public schools in Niterói, RJ. The Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve was used to evaluate the accuracy of WC and %BF in predicting alterations in blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose. Results: The best %BF cutoff points were 21% for boys, and 23% for girls, with sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of approximately 60%. The best WC cutoff points were 71 cm for boys, and 66 cm for girls (SE: 55% to 70%; SP: 55% to 78%). Conclusion: Even the best cutoff points misidentified high proportions of adolescents with metabolic abnormalities. Caution is recommended in the use of these indicators for cardiovascular risk screening in this age group. PMID:24936728

Moraes, Milena Miranda de; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da

2014-06-01

42

Different waist circumference measurements and prediction of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in children.  

PubMed

Summary: Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three waist circumference (WC) measurement sites to predict cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Brazilian children.Methods: 187 children (mean age = 9.9 ± 0.7 years) were evaluated for weight, height, WC at three different sites: midpoint between the lower rib and iliac crest (WC1), umbilicus (WC2), and narrowest waist (WC3). Skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) and blood pressure were also measured. Analyses for triglycerides, HDL-C and glucose were carried out in 141 children.Results: For boys, the most accurate predictor of overweight and obesity (from body mass index, BMI) and low HDL-C levels was WC3, and for high percentage of body fat (from skinfolds) was WC1. For girls, WC2 was the most accurate predictor of MS, and hypertriglyceridemia, and for overweight and obesity, high body fat percentage, and low HDL-C levels, WC3 was the best predictor. WC1 was the most accurate in the prediction of high blood pressure.Conclusions: Each WC measurement site was accurate in predicting cardiovascular risk factors and MS. However, our results indicate that WC3 was the best predictor of cardiovascular risk factors and MS in boys and girls. PMID:24331255

Andaki, Alynne Christian Ribeiro; Tinoco, Adelson Luiz Araújo; Mendes, Edmar Lacerda; Andaki Júnior, Roberto; Hills, Andrew P; Amorim, Paulo Roberto S

2012-01-01

43

Waist circumference and related anthropometric indices are associated with metabolic traits in severely obese subjects.  

PubMed

Increased waist circumference (WC) and related anthropometric indices have been shown to be, independently of body weight and body mass index (BMI), associated with adverse metabolic traits in many populations. It is unknown, however, whether WC also predicts adverse metabolic traits in severely obese subjects displaying a BMI greater than 35 kg/m(2). To address this question, we analyzed a dataset including 838 severely obese patients (597 women, BMI 44.6?±?6.2 kg/m(2); 241 men, BMI 44.3?±?5.7 kg/m(2)). Body weight, height, WC, hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured in all subjects along with the following metabolic blood markers: fasting glucose, insulin, glycolized hemoglobin levels, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low- and high-density cholesterol, and uric acid. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that WC as well as related anthropometric indices, in particular those accounting for subjects' height, were associated with many metabolic variables independently of body weight and BMI. In general, height-adjusted WC indices were more closely associated with metabolic traits in women than in men. Collectively, our findings suggest that body fat distribution also plays an important role in determining metabolic traits in severely obese subjects and that WC represents a valuable marker of abdominal/visceral obesity in this population. PMID:24338435

Zazai, Runa; Wilms, Britta; Ernst, Barbara; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

2014-05-01

44

Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as screening tools for cardiovascular risk factors in Guadeloupean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes, important cardiovascular risk factors, are strongly linked to obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are measures of obesity that can be useful in identifying individuals with these risk factors. We assessed which of the two measures is more informative at the population level. The study population included 5,149 consecutive women aged

Lydia Foucan; Jim Hanley; Jacqueline Deloumeaux; Samy Suissa

2002-01-01

45

Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices. Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

Ahranjani, SH Abbaszadeh; Kashani, H; Forouzanfar, MH; Meybodi, HR Aghaei; Larijani, B; Aalaa, M; Mohajeri-Tehrani, MR

2012-01-01

46

Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and metabolic syndrome in a Congolese community: further research is still to be undertaken  

PubMed Central

Introduction The criteria of positivity of waist circumference to define the metabolic syndrome as currently recommended for the population of sub-Saharan Africa do not take into account specific ethnic or regional variation. Methods The predictive value of different values of waist circumference compared with visceral fat as determined by OMRON BF510 body composition in 360 indigenous patients from Bukavu city between June 1, 2010 and May 30, 2011 was studied. Results The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a threshold value of 95 cm for men (sensitivity = 72.4%, specificity = 91.1%, area under the curve (99% CI) = 0.899 (0.833 to 0.965)) and 99 cm in women (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 78.3%, AUC (99% CI) = 0.844 (0.777 to 0.911)). This test also showed an independent effect on the probability of accumulation of visceral fat (Odd adjusted OR = 5.0 (99% CI: 2.1 to 11.7), p <0.0001). Conclusion The threshold value for pathological waist circumference currently used for black African populations may overpredict abdominal fat excess in women. Further studies are needed to provide adequate cutoffs in sub-Saharan populations.

Katchunga, Philippe Bianga; Hermans, Michel; Bamuleke, Bertrand Akonkwa; Katoto, Patrick Cimusa; Kabinda, Jeff Maotela

2013-01-01

47

Homocysteine levels in morbidly obese patients: its association with waist circumference and insulin resistance.  

PubMed

The association between morbid obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia (HH) remains controversial and the nature of this relationship needs to be clarified as several metabolic, lipidic, inflammatory and anthropometric alterations that accompany morbid obesity may be involved. In 66 morbidly obese patients, 47 women and 19 men aged 41 ± 12 years and 66 normo-weight subjects, 43 women and 23 men, aged 45 ± 11 years, we determined homocysteine (Hcy) levels along with lipidic, anthropometric, inflammatory and insulin resistance markers. In addition, we investigated the effect of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its components on Hcy levels. Obese patients had statistically higher Hcy levels than controls: 12.76 ± 5.30 ?M vs. 10.67 ± 2.50 ?M; p = 0.006. Moreover, morbidly obese subjects showed higher waist circumference, glucose, insulin, HOMA, leptin, triglycerides, fibrinogen, C reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001, respectively), and lower vitamin B12 (p = 0.002), folic acid and HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate regression analysis, waist circumference, glucose, leptin and folic acid levels were independent predictors for Hcy values (p < 0.050). When obese patients were classified as having MS or not, no differences in Hcy levels were found between the two groups (p = 0.752). Yet when we analysed separately each MS component, only abdominal obesity was associated with Hcy levels (p = 0.031). Moreover when considering glucose >110 mg/dL (NCEP-ATPIII criteria) instead of glucose intolerance >100 mg/dl (updated ATPIII criteria), it also was associated with HH (p = 0.042). These results were confirmed in the logistic regression analysis where abdominal obesity and glucose >115 mg/dL constitute independent predictors for HH (OR = 3.2; CI: 1.23-13.2; p = 0.032, OR: 4.6; CI: 1.7-22.2; p = 0.016, respectively). The results of our study indicate that increased Hcy levels are related mostly with abdominal obesity and with insulin resistance. Thus, HH may raise atherothrombotic and thromboembolic risk in these patients. PMID:22460264

Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; de la Fuente, Miguel; Solá, Eva; Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, R; Laiz, Begoña

2012-01-01

48

Waist circumference, ghrelin and selected adipose tissue-derived adipokines as predictors of insulin resistance in obese patients: Preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of the study was to estimate the association between anthropometric obesity parameters, serum concentrations of ghrelin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) in obese non-diabetic insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant patients. Material/Methods Study subjects included 37 obese (body mass index [BMI] ?30 kg/m2) out-clinic patients aged 25 to 66 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR. Serum fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and leptin were measured by using the ELISA method. Body weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured to calculate BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) values for all the patients. According to HOMA-IR, patients were divided into two groups: A, insulin sensitive (n=19); and B, insulin resistant (n=18). Results Patients with insulin resistance have greater mean waist circumference (WC) higher mean serum insulin level and leptin concentration, but lower concentrations of adiponectin and ghrelin. In the insulin-sensitive patient group we observed positive correlations between BMI and HOMA-IR, WC and HOMA-IR, and adiponectin and leptin, and negative correlations between ghrelin and HOMA-IR, WC and adiponectin, and WHR and adiponectin. In the insulin-resistant group, there was a positive correlation between resistin and ghrelin and a negative correlation between WHR and leptin. Conclusions Waist circumference, adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin are associated with insulin resistance and may be predictors of this pathology.

Stepien, Mariusz; Rosniak-Bak, Kinga; Paradowski, Marek; Misztal, Malgorzata; Kujawski, Krzysztof; Banach, Maciej; Rysz, Jacek

2011-01-01

49

Waist Circumference Cutoff Points to Predict Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk in Turkish Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective. The waist circumference (WC) cutoff levels defined for the Caucasian people may not be representative for different ethnic groups. We determined sex specific WC cutoff points to predict obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk in Turkish adults. Design and Methods. The demographic characteristics of 1898 adult males and 2308 nonpregnant females from 24 provinces of 7 different regions of Turkey (mean age 47 ± 14?yrs) were evaluated. Results. The WC levels of 90?cm and 100?cm define overweight and obese males while the levels of 80?cm and 90?cm define overweight and obese females. With these cutoff values, 239 additional males (12.6%) are diagnosed as overweight and 148 additional males (7.8%) as obese. Instead, 120 females (5.1%) are free of being labeled as obese. Conclusions. This is the first nationwide study to show the action levels of WC for overweight and obese Turkish adults. The ideal cutoff levels of WC to predict metabolic syndrome are 90?cm and 80?cm for Turkish adult men and women, respectively. These values are easy to implement and suggested to be used by the physicians dealing with cardiometabolic disorders in Turkey.

Bayram, Fahri; Barcin, Cem; Ozsan, Muge; Kaya, Ahmet; Gedik, Vedia

2013-01-01

50

Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To investigate whether dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) were associated with subsequent weight and waist circumference change.Design:Population-based prospective cohort study.Setting:Five European countries, which are Denmark, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.Participants:A total of 89 432 participants, aged 20–78 years (mean =53 years) at baseline and followed for 1.9–12.5 years (mean=6.5 years). All participants were free

H. Du; A van der A. D; M M E van Bakel; N. Slimani; N. G. Forouchi; N J Wareham; J. Halkjaer; A. Tjonneland; M. U. Jakobsen; K. Overvad; M. B. Schulze; B. Buijsse; H. Boeing; D. Palli; G. Masala; T I A Sørensen; W H M Saris; E. J. M. Feskens

2009-01-01

51

Waist Circumference Is a Better Predictor than Body Mass Index of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Overweight Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waist circumference (WC) has been postulated to have stronger associations with biomarkers of coronary heart disease (CHD) than BMI. In this study, we measured the level of activity by determining steps walked per day and select biomarkers for CHD risk in 80 overweight or obese (BMI 25-37 kg\\/m2) premenopausal women to evaluate whether these biomarkers are associated with WC or

Ingrid Lofgren; Kristin Herron; Tosca Zern; Kristy West; Madhu Patalay; Neil S. Shachter; Sung I. Koo; Maria Luz Fernandez

52

Neck and waist circumference biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in a cohort of predominantly African-American college students: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the value of measuring neck and waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in college students (18 to 25 years of age). Participants (n=109) were 92% black, 62.4% female, 45.9% overweight or obese, and 20.2% prehypertensive or hypertensive. Overall, 41 (37.6%) students had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Percent body fat, assessed using whole-body air-displacement plethysmography, was positively correlated (P<0.0001) with neck and waist circumference (as measured at the midpoint between the right lower rib and suprailiac crest; hereafter "midpoint"). Neck circumference correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P ? 0.02) and both neck circumference and waist circumference-midpoint correlated with insulin (P ? 0.001) and triglycerides (P ? 0.002). The best-fit cutoffs were ? 83 cm waist circumference-midpoint and ? 88 cm waist circumference measured at the suprailiac crest for percent body fat in men and ? 75 cm waist circumference-midpoint for metabolic syndrome in women. The proportion of overweight and prehypertensive individuals among self-described healthy students underscores the need for screening tools that identify those who might benefit most from health interventions. Waist circumference-midpoint provides a simple yet sensitive method for the estimation of percent body fat and metabolic syndrome risk in primarily African-American college students. The novel use of neck circumference should be further investigated. PMID:24051106

Arnold, Thaddeus J; Schweitzer, Amy; Hoffman, Heather J; Onyewu, Chiatogu; Hurtado, Maria Eugenia; Hoffman, Eric P; Klein, Catherine J

2014-01-01

53

Waist circumference and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have reported an impact of central obesity on people’s health. The literature is scarce on the effects of waist circumference (WC) on pulmonary function. Our objective was to review the literature on the association between WC and pulmonary function. Methods A systematic review was carried out in the PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The search included published, in press and online documents up to December 2011. A meta-analysis was carried out to obtain the pooled effect, and a meta-regression was performed to evaluate sources of heterogeneity. Results From the 547 studies identified, 10 were included. The meta-analysis revealed an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function parameters, indicating that the effect was greater among men (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ? = ?15.9 (95% confidence interval = ?23.2, ?8.5); forced vital capacity (FVC) ? = ?16.6 (95% confidence interval = ?21.0, ?12.2)) compared with women (FEV1 ? = ?5.6 (95% confidence interval = ?9.1, ?2.1); FVC ? = ?7.0 (95% confidence interval = ?9.1, ?4.8)). The meta-regression identified sex as the characteristic that most contributed to the heterogeneity (R2 = 54.8% for FEV1 and R2 = 85.7% for FVC). Conclusions There seems to be an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function, mainly in men. More population-based studies should be performed, especially among children and adolescents, to confirm these findings.

2012-01-01

54

24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition  

PubMed Central

Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P?=?0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of ?0.21 kg (P?=?0.041, CI: ?0.40 to ?0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM.

Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.

2013-01-01

55

Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients’ weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. Results After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r?=?0.20), glycemia (r?=?0.20), triglycerides (r?=?0.32), LDL (r?=?0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r?=?0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r?=??0.21) (p?

2013-01-01

56

Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children  

PubMed Central

Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. According to the physical examination data in October, 2011, 124 normal weight, 53 overweight, and 82 obese students 8–15 years of age were randomly chosen from these schools on the basis of BMI-based age- and sex-specific criterion. First morning urine was collected in January, 2012, and fourteen urine phthalate metabolites (free plus conjugated) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the associations between naturally log-transformed urine phthalate metabolites and BMI or WC. Results The urine specific gravity-corrected concentrations of nine urine phthalate metabolites and five molar sums were positively associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children after adjustment for age and sex. However, when other urine phthalate metabolites were included in the models together with age and sex as covariables, most of these significant associations disappeared except for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, some associations showed sex- or age-specific differences. Conclusions Some phthalate exposures were associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study and lack of some important obesity-related covariables, further studies are needed to confirm the associations.

Wang, Hexing; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

2013-01-01

57

Thermoregulatory sympathetic nervous system activity and diet-induced waist-circumference reduction in obese Japanese women.  

PubMed

The present study is designed to investigate how and to what extent sympathovagal behavior in a balanced low-calorie diet relates to favorable changes of body mass, waist circumference, and/or metabolic risk factors. The study involved 28 mildly obese women without clinical complications, who underwent an 8-week calorie restriction program using a 1,200-kcal daily diet with an adequate nutrient content; including two regular meals, and one formula meal replacement. All subjects were examined before and after the dietary intervention. We measured anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and biochemical blood profiles for lipid metabolism. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated by heart rate variability power spectral analysis. The dietary intervention induced moderate, but significant reduction of waist circumference (-5.3% +/- 0.8%), body fat percentage (-5.8% +/- 0.8%), and body mass (-6.6% +/- 0.5%). Linear regression analysis showed that Deltavery low frequency (VLF) power reflecting energy metabolic- and thermoregulatory sympathetic function significantly correlated to Deltawaist circumference (r = -0.53, P < 0.01), Deltabody fat percentage (r = -0.39, P < 0.05), Deltabody mass (r = -0.43, P < 0.05), DeltaHDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio (HDL-C/TC) (r = 0.62, P < 0.001), and Deltanonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). A stepwise multiple regression analysis additionally revealed that Deltawaist circumference (P = 0.024), DeltaHDL-C/TC (P = 0.013), and DeltaNEFA (P = 0.016) were significant and independent factors, which contributing to the variance in DeltaVLF power (r(2) = 0.61). Although causes and consequences of obesity continue to elude researchers, the present study indicates that thermoregulatory sympathetic activity relates to moderate waist-circumference reduction together with favorable changes of blood lipid profiles after short-term dietary modification in mildly obese women. PMID:19384859

Fujibayashi, Mami; Hamada, Taku; Matsumoto, Tamaki; Kiyohara, Natsuki; Tanaka, Seitaro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Egawa, Kahori; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

2009-01-01

58

Association of lipid profile and waist circumference as cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obesity among school children in Qatar  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity is a national as well as worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight and obesity among Qatari children with lipid profile and waist circumference as adverse cardiovascular risk factors in children aged 6–11 years. International Obesity Task Force reference values were used to screen for overweight and obesity. Methods A cross-sectional study in a randomly selected sample was conducted in 315 Qatari primary school students aged 6–11 years. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated for 151 girls and 164 boys. Weight categories were based on International Obesity Task Force reference values. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were measured, and atherogenic index was calculated. Results In total, 31.71% of boys and 32.78% of girls were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children screened against International Obesity Task Force reference values had a significantly increased risk of high waist circumference (P < 0.0001), hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.002), low HDL-C (P = 0.017), and atherogenic index (P = 0.021) compared with children who were not overweight or obese. The partial correlation coefficient for the cardiovascular risk marker of waist circumference indicated a positive significant association with total cholesterol (r = 0.465, P = 0.003), triglycerides (r = 0.563, P < 0.001), and LDL-C (r = 0.267, P = 0.003), and a significant negative association with HDL-C (r = ?0.361, P = 0.004). Overweight and obesity significantly increase the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) of cardiovascular risk factors as follows: hypertriglyceridemia (OR 6.34, CI 2.49–13.44, P < 0.0001); LDL-C (OR 3.18, CI 1.04–9.75, P = 0.043); hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.88, CI 1.10–3.19, P = 0.020); and increased waist circumference (OR 1.40, CI 1.29–1.55, P = 0.022). Overweight and obesity significantly increased the risk of atherosclerosis (assessed by atherogenic index) by about two-fold (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.06–3.15, P = 0.025). Conclusion Overweight and obese children screened by International Obesity Task Force reference values are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.

Rizk, Nasser M; Yousef, Mervat

2012-01-01

59

Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 122:687–694;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307115

Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gosta; Pershagen, Goran; Ostenson, Claes-Goran

2014-01-01

60

Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study.  

PubMed

Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system.Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance.Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models.Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise.Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference.Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 122:687-694;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307115. PMID:24800763

Eriksson, Charlotta; Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

2014-07-01

61

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

62

Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Our aim was to differentiate the screening potential of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) for adult cardiometabolic risk in people of different nationalities and to compare both with body mass index (BMI). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for assessing the discriminatory power of anthropometric indices in distinguishing adults with hypertension, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and general cardiovascular outcomes (CVD). Thirty one papers met the inclusion criteria. Using data on all outcomes, averaged within study group, WHtR had significantly greater discriminatory power compared with BMI. Compared with BMI, WC improved discrimination of adverse outcomes by 3% (P < 0.05) and WHtR improved discrimination by 4-5% over BMI (P < 0.01). Most importantly, statistical analysis of the within-study difference in AUC showed WHtR to be significantly better than WC for diabetes, hypertension, CVD and all outcomes (P < 0.005) in men and women. For the first time, robust statistical evidence from studies involving more than 300 000 adults in several ethnic groups, shows the superiority of WHtR over WC and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors in both sexes. Waist-to-height ratio should therefore be considered as a screening tool. PMID:22106927

Ashwell, M; Gunn, P; Gibson, S

2012-03-01

63

Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young\\u000a and middle-aged Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health\\u000a checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and

Xin Ying; Zhen-ya Song; Chang-jun Zhao; Yan Jiang

2010-01-01

64

Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective Body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50?±?8.8?years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2) was 27.8?±?3.7 and 25.5?±?4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm) 94.1?±?9.7 and 84.3?±?10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5?hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r?=??0.280 and r?=??0.377, respectively, p?>?0.05 for both) and in women (r?=??0.514 and r?=??0.491, respectively, p?>?0.05 for both). In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness.

2013-01-01

65

Comparison of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist-to-Height Ratio for Predicting the Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by Age in Japanese Workers.  

PubMed

Background:?Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) has been suggested as a better screening tool than body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for assessing cardiometabolic risk. However, most previous studies did not consider age. Methods and Results:?Participants were 45,618 men and 8,092 women aged 15-84 years who received periodic health checkups in 9 companies in Japan. Clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors was defined by the existence of 2 or more of high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. In both men and women, unadjusted area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic curve for WHtR in detecting the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors was significantly higher than that for either BMI or WC; the AUCs for WHtR, BMI, and WC, respectively, were 0.734, 0.705, and 0.717 in men and 0.782, 0.762, and 0.755 in women. After adjustment for age, however, such differences were not observed; the corresponding values were 0.702, 0.701, and 0.696 in men. In women, the age-adjusted AUC for BMI was slightly higher than for other indices (WHtR, 0.721; BMI, 0.726; WC, 0.707). Conclusions:?The screening performance of WHtR for detecting the clustering cardiometabolic risk factors was not superior to that of BMI.??(Circ J?2014; 78: 1160-1168). PMID:24662439

Hori, Ai; Nanri, Akiko; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Nagahama, Satsue; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Nakamoto, Kengo; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Matsui, Aki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Okazaki, Hiroko; Sasaki, Naoko; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

2014-04-25

66

Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

2011-01-01

67

Waist circumference measurement site does not affect relationships with visceral adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in children  

PubMed Central

Background Different waist circumference (WC) measurement sites are used in clinical and epidemiological settings. Objectives To examine differences in WC measurement at four anatomic sites and how each WC measurement relates to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk factors in children. Methods 371 white and African American children aged 5–18 years had WC measured at four sites: minimal waist, midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib, superior border of the iliac crest, and the umbilicus. Abdominal VAT was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiometabolic risk factors were defined using NHLBI guidelines. Relationships between WC sites and VAT and risk factors were explored in each race-by-sex group. Results All WC sites were highly correlated (r = 0.97 to 0.99). Differences in absolute mean WC values existed in all race-by-sex groups, and this affected the prevalence of high WC (?90th percentile). Values were lowest for minimal waist and highest for umbilicus. Age-controlled partial correlations between WC and VAT were 0.81 to 0.89 (all p<0.001) and between WC and cardiometabolic risk factors were ?0.24 to ?0.41 and 0.19 to 0.52 (all p<0.05). Conclusions While the absolute values of WC at four anatomic locations differed, the relationships between WC values and both VAT and cardiometabolic risk factors were similar within all race-by-sex groups.

Harrington, Deirdre M.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Gupta, Alok K.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

2012-01-01

68

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Adiposity Index, and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Two Populations in Brazil: General and Amerindian  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design and methods A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ?126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs. Results The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor. Conclusion Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Mourao-Junior, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Krieger, Jose E.; Mill, Jose G.; Pereira, Alexandre C.

2014-01-01

69

Waist circumference is a strong and independent determinant of the distribution of HDL subfractions in overweight patients with cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Our aim was to determine the influence of waist circumference on the repartition of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions in patients with increased waist perimeter and one or more cardiovascular risk factor.Methods: All 117 patients without lipid-lowering therapy underwent routine clinical, biological evaluation and isolation of the following lipid subfractions: HDL2b, HDL2a, HDL3a, HDL3b, HDL3c and

David Rosenbaum; Boris Hansel; Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot; Randa Bittar; Xavier Girerd; Philippe Giral; Eric Bruckert

2012-01-01

70

Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

2011-01-01

71

Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A.; Cohen, Daniel D.; Rincon-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzon, Sandra; Duperly, John; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

2014-01-01

72

The association of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and waist circumference in northern adults in Iran: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) level and Waist Circumference (WC) in men and women among 25–65 years old people in the north of Iran. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional and analytical research gender that carried out on the 1797 subjects (941 males and 856 females) between 25–65 years old using multistage cluster sampling technique. FBG was measured in the morning after a 12-hour fast and was determined by using laboratory kits (enzymatic methods) and spectrophotometry technique. Central obesity was defined based on World Health Organization criteria: waist circumference ?102 cm and ?88 cm in men and women, respectively. The SPSS.16 software was used for statistical analysis. Results As whole, the mean of FBG in women (98.3?±?40.1 mg/dl) was higher than in men (94.6?±?32.2 mg/dl). Also, the mean of WC in men 4.5 cm was lower than in women. In men, the mean of FBG statistically differs between normal and central obese subjects both in 35–45 year-age group (P?=?0.001) and in 45–55 year-age group (P?=?0.042). As whole, in men, the FBG level increased up 2.82 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC with the highest rate in 35–45 year-age group. In totally, in women, the FBG level increased up 3.48 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC and in 25–35 year-age group and it was higher than in other age groups. In men, the regression coefficients were constant with age increasing while in women it was decreased. Constant trend in men and decreasing trend in women with age was shown between FBG and WC. The cut-off point of WC for detecting of diabetes obtained 89 cm and 107 cm in men and women, respectively. Conclusion The positive correlation was seen between WC and FBG level and it was declined with age in women. Cut-off point for detecting of diabetes in men was less than in women. WC is useable as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among adults in the north of Iran.

2014-01-01

73

Dietary Determinants of Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index - a Proxy Measure of Visceral Adiposity  

PubMed Central

Background Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype “waist circumference for a given body mass index (WCBMI)”, a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WCBMI. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WCBMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WCBMI (?WCBMI, cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED), macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), fibre and ?WCBMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WCBMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a ?WCBMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13) in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21) in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a ?WCBMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12) in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10) in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher ?WCBMI. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WCBMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.

Romaguera, Dora; Angquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Forouhi, Nita G.; Halkjaer, Jytte; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van der A, Daphne L.; Masala, Giovanna; Steffen, Annika; Palli, Domenico; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Overvad, Kim; Tj?nneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.

2010-01-01

74

The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m2 lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m2). The association between WC and education level was also of greater magnitude for women: compared with the lowest education level, average WC of women was lower by 5.2 cm for women in the highest category. For men the difference was 2.9 cm. Conclusion In this European cohort, there is an inverse association between higher BMI as well as higher WC and lower education level. Public Health Programs that aim to reduce overweight and obesity should primarily focus on the lower educated population.

2011-01-01

75

Optimal cutoff values for high-risk waist circumference in older adults based on related health outcomes.  

PubMed

The authors aimed to explore optimal cutoffs for high-risk waist circumference (WC) in older adults to assess the health risks of obesity. Prospective data from 4,996 measurements in 2,232 participants aged ?70 years were collected during 5 triennial measurement cycles (1992/1993-2005/2006) of a population-based cohort study, the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Cross-sectional associations of WC with pain, mobility limitations, incontinence, knee osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes were studied. Generalized estimating equations models were fitted with restricted cubic spline functions in order to carefully study the shapes of the associations. Model fits for applying different cutoffs to categorize WC in the association with all outcomes were tested using the quasi-likelihood under the Independence Criterion (QIC). On the basis of the spline regression curves, potential WC cutoffs of approximately 109 cm in men and 98 cm in women were proposed. Based on the model fit, cutoffs between 100 cm and 106 cm were equally applicable in men but should not be higher. In women, the QIC confirmed an optimal cutoff of 99 cm. PMID:21673122

Heim, Noor; Snijder, Marieke B; Heymans, Martijn W; Deeg, Dorly J H; Seidell, Jacob C; Visser, Marjolein

2011-08-15

76

Excess gains in weight and waist circumference associated with childbearing: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the association of childbearing with weight and waist circumference (WC) changes, we compared women with and without pregnancies or births during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN A multicenter, longitudinal observational study over 10 years. Comparison groups defined by the number of pregnancies and births during follow-up: P0 (0 pregnancies; nongravid), P1 (1+ miscarriages or abortions; ‘short’ pregnancies), B1 (1 birth), and B2 (2+ births). Mean changes in weight and WC for P1, B1 and B2 groups vs P0 were examined separately by race (black and white), baseline parity (nulliparous and parous) and baseline weight status (normal weight; BMI <25 kg/m2 and overweight; BMI ?25 kg/m2). SUBJECTS A population-based sample of 2070 women aged 18–30 y at baseline (1053 black subjects and 1017 white subjects) from Birmingham, Alabama, Chicago, Illinois, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Oakland, California were examined five times between 1985–1986 and 1995–1996. MEASURMENTS Weight and WC measurements were obtained using standardized protocol at baseline and examinations at years 2, 5, 7 and 10. Sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral attributes were assessed at baseline and follow-up examinations. RESULTS Gains in weight and WC associated with pregnancy and childbearing varied by race (P<0.001), baseline parity (P<0.05) and overweight status (P<0.001). Among overweight nulliparas, excess gains in weight (black subjects: 3–5 kg, white subjects: 5–6 kg) and WC (black subjects: 3–4 cm, white subjects: 5–6 cm) were associated with ‘short’ pregnancies and one or more birth(s) during follow-up compared to no pregnancies (P<0.01 and 0.001). Among normal weight nulliparas, excess gains in weight (about 1 kg) and WC (2–3 cm) were associated with follow-up birth(s) (P<0.05). Among women parous at baseline, no excess weight gains were found, but excess WC gains (2–4 cm) were associated with follow-up births. CONCLUSION Substantial excess weight gain is associated with both short pregnancies and a first birth in women overweight prior to initiation of childbearing. Excess weight gain was not associated with higher order births. Increases in waist girth were cumulative with both first and higher order births among overweight as well as normal weight women. Interventions to prevent obesity should be targeted at women who are overweight prior to initiation of childbearing. The impact of excess WC gains associated with childbearing on women’s future health risk should be evaluated further.

Gunderson, EP; Murtaugh, MA; Lewis, CE; Quesenberry, CP; West, DS; Sidney, S

2010-01-01

77

Waist circumference and obesity-associated risk factors among whites in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: clinical action thresholds1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Waist circumference (WC) is strongly linked to obesity-associated risks. However, currently proposed WC risk thresholds are not based on associations with obesity-related risk factors but rather with body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Objective: The objective was to determine the relations of WC to obesity-associated risk factors in a representative sample of US whites and to derive comparable risk

ShanKuan Zhu; ZiMian Wang; Stanley Heshka; Moonseong Heo; Myles S Faith; Steven B Heymsfield

78

Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance.Objective:The objective of this study is to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary protein, and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC).Methods:89 432 men and women from five countries participating

J. Halkjaer; A. Olsen; K. Overvad; M. U. Jakobsen; H. Boeing; B. Buijsse; D. Palli; G. Tognon; H. Du; D L van der A; N. G. Forouhi; N. J. Wareham; E. J. M. Feskens; T. I. A. Sorensen; A. Tjonneland; J Halkjær

2011-01-01

79

Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.  

PubMed

Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (?=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (?=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time. PMID:22856616

Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

2013-03-01

80

Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Waist circumference (WC) measured at one point in time is positively associated with the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is not clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the risk of MI in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in BMI (DBMI). Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 38,593 participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study was analysed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993–97 and 1999–02. Information on fatal and non-fatal MI was obtained from National Registers. Cases were validated by review of the medical records. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999–02 until December 30 2009. During 8.4 years of follow-up, 1,041 incident cases of MI occurred. WC was positively associated with the risk of MI, but weakly after adjustment for BMI. DWC was not associated with the risk of MI (HR per 5 cm change ?=?1.01 (0.95, 1.09) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI). Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with MI occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance WC was positively associated with the risk of MI in middle-aged men and women, but changes in WC were not. These findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be an insufficient target for prevention of MI in middle-aged men and women.

Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Stegger, Jakob Gerhard; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tj?nneland, Anne; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.; Overvad, Kim

2011-01-01

81

BMI and Waist Circumference; Cross-Sectional and Prospective Associations with Blood Pressure and Cholesterol in 12-Year-Olds  

PubMed Central

Objective Childhood and adolescent overweight, defined by body mass index (BMI) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Abdominal adiposity may be more important in associations with cardiovascular diseases but waist circumference (WC) has been rarely studied in children. We studied associations between BMI and WC and blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol in 12-year-old children and prospectively changes in BMI or WC status between age 8 and 12 years and BP and cholesterol at age 12. Study Design Weight, height, WC, BP and cholesterol concentrations were measured in 1432 children at age 12 years. Linear regression was used to study the associations between high BMI and large WC (>90th percentile) and BP and cholesterol. Results Systolic BP was 4.9 mmHg higher (95% (CI 2.5, 7.2) in girls and 4.2 mmHg (95%CI 1.9, 6.5) in boys with a high BMI. Large WC was also associated with higher systolic BP in girls (3.7 mmHg (95%CI 1.3, 6.1)) and boys (3.5 mmHg (95%CI 1.2, 5.8)). Diastolic BP and cholesterol concentrations were significantly positively (HDL cholesterol negatively) associated with high BMI and large WC, too. Normal weight children with a history of overweight did not have higher blood pressure levels or adverse cholesterol concentrations than children that were normal weight at both ages. Conclusion A high BMI and large WC were associated with higher BP levels and adverse cholesterol concentrations. WC should be taken into account when examining cardiovascular risk factors in children.

Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

2012-01-01

82

Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study.  

PubMed

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006-2007 to 2007-2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard deviation, 4.3) and mean waist circumference increased by 1.76 cm (standard deviation, 5.6). Multilevel analyses revealed that neighborhoods with a high density of fast-food outlets were associated with increases of 1.40 kg in weight (P<0.05) and 2.04 cm in waist circumference (P<0.05) among residents who visited fast-food restaurants frequently. In contrast, high-walkability neighborhoods were associated with decreases of 1.2 kg in weight (P<0.05) and 1.57 cm in waist circumference (P<0.05) among residents who increased their levels of vigorous physical activity during the 1-year assessment period. Findings point to the negative influences of the availability of neighborhood fast-food outlets and individual unhealthy eating behaviors that jointly affect weight gain; however, better neighborhood walkability and increased levels of physical activity are likely to be associated with maintaining a healthy weight over time. PMID:19153214

Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M; Acock, Alan; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

2009-02-15

83

Increased waist circumference is independently associated with hypothyroidism in Mexican Americans: replicative evidence from two large, population-based studies  

PubMed Central

Background Mexican Americans are at an increased risk of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus it is conceivable that some components of the MS may be associated with the risk of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals. Our objective was to investigate and replicate the potential association of MS traits with thyroid dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Methods We conducted association testing for 18 MS traits in two large studies on Mexican Americans – the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–10. A total of 907 participants from 42 families in SAFHS and 1633 unrelated participants from NHANES 2007–10 were included in this study. The outcome measures were prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid function index (TFI) – a measure of thyroid function. For the SAFHS, we used polygenic regression analyses with multiple covariates to test associations in setting of family studies. For the NHANES 2007–10, we corrected for the survey design variables as needed for association analyses in survey data. In both datasets, we corrected for age, sex and their linear and quadratic interactions. Results TFI was an accurate indicator of clinical thyroid status (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve to detect clinical hypothyroidism, 0.98) in both SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10. Of the 18 MS traits, waist circumference (WC) showed the most consistent association with TFI in both studies independently of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). In the SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10 datasets, each standard deviation increase in WC was associated with 0.13 (p?

2014-01-01

84

Body Mass Index, Waist-circumference and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Iranian Adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC alone.

Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

2013-01-01

85

High BMI and waist circumference are associated with a high prevalence of comorbidities in Older Americans Act programs in Georgia senior centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This study characterized the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and high waist circumference (WC) with the prevalence of\\u000a selected comorbidities among older adults receiving nutrition and wellness services from Georgia’s Older Americans Act programs\\u000a at senior centers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were a convenience sample (N = 759, mean age = 75 years, 81% female, 63% white, 36% black). Correction factors\\u000a were

D. M. Penn; J. G. Fischer; J. Sun Lee; D. B. Hausman; Mary Ann Johnson

2009-01-01

86

Generating expected growth curves and Z-scores for premature infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To establish a standard for expected growth of premature infants and generate Z-scores based on the standard.Study Design:Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate whether the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of birth weight, head circumference, and length from other studies were statistically different from the percentiles from Riddle. Z-scores were generated from the 10th, 50th, and

W R Riddle; S C DonLevy

2010-01-01

87

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

2002-01-01

88

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

89

Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference: associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity - a prospective study of three independent cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight (?BW) and waist circumference (?WC). Methods A total of 7,569 participants’ from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ?BW or ?WC. SNP-score?×?ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. Results We found no significant associations between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC. Regarding SNP-score?×?ascorbic acid interactions, each additional risk allele of the 14 WHR associated SNPs associated with a ?WC of 0.039?cm/year (P?=?0.02, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.073) per 100?mg/day higher ascorbic acid intake. However, the association to ?WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ?BW. Conclusion In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically predisposed to a high WHR. However, given the quite limited association any public health relevance is questionable.

2014-01-01

90

Comparison of Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, Percent Body Fat and Other Measure of Adiposity in Identifying Cardiovascular Disease Risks among Thai Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the abilities of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) to identify cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional study is comprised of 1,391 Thai participants (451 men and 940 women) receiving annual health check-ups. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to determine the association of the five anthropometric indices with metabolic parameters including fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and blood pressure. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors was determined according to tertile of each anthropometric measure. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to compare anthropometric measure as predictors of the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Metabolic parameters were more strongly associated with %BF and WHR and least correlated with BMI in men. Among women, BMI was most strongly correlated with metabolic parameters. In both genders, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors increased across successive tertiles for each anthropometric measure. Review of ROC curves indicated that %BF and WHR performed slightly better than other measures in identifying differences in CVD risk factors among men. BMI performed at least as well or better than other measures of adiposity among women. Conclusions These findings confirm high correlations between anthropometric measures and metabolic parameters. BMI, WC and other measures were not materially different in identifying cardiovascular disease risk factors. Although small differences were observed, the magnitudes of those differences are not likely to be of public health or clinical significance.

Paniagua, Linda; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Jiamjarasrangsi, Wiroj; Williams, Michelle A.

2013-01-01

91

Dietary beta-tocopherol and linoleic acid, serum insulin, and waist circumference predict circulating sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal women.  

PubMed

Reduced levels of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are implicated in the etiology of sex steroid-related pathologies and the metabolic syndrome. Dietary correlates of serum SHBG remain unclear and were studied in a convenient cross-sectional sample of healthy 30- to 40-y-old women (n = 255). By univariate analyses, serum SHBG correlated negatively with several indices of the metabolic syndrome, such as BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference (r = -0.36 to -0.44; P < 0.0001), fasting serum insulin (r = -0.41; P < 0.0001), serum triglycerides (r = -0.27; P < 0.0001), serum glucose (r = -0.23; P < 0.001), and plasma testosterone (r = -0.19; P = 0.002). Serum SHBG correlated positively with serum HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.33; P < 0.0001), plasma progesterone (r = 0.17; P = 0.007), and dietary intake of beta-tocopherol (r = 0.17; P = 0.006), and negatively with that of fructose (r = -0.13; P = 0.04). Principal component analysis (PCA) extracted 12 nutrient factors with eigenvalues > 1.0 from 54 nutrients and vitamins in food records. Multivariate regression analyses showed that the PCA-extracted nutrient factor most heavily loaded with beta-tocopherol and linoleic acid (P = 0.03) was an independent positive predictor of serum SHBG. When individual nutrients were the predictor variables, beta-tocopherol (P = 0.002), but not other tocopherols or fatty acids (including linoleic acid), was an independent positive predictor of serum SHBG. Circulating insulin (P = 0.02) and waist circumference (P = 0.002), but not serum lipids, were negative independent predictors of SHBG in all regression models. Additional studies are needed in women of other age groups and men to determine whether consumption of foods rich in beta-tocopherol and/or linoleic acid may increase serum SHBG concentrations and may thereby decrease the risk for metabolic syndrome and reproductive organ cancer. PMID:19339706

Nayeem, Fatima; Nagamani, Manubai; Anderson, Karl E; Huang, Yafei; Grady, James J; Lu, Lee-Jane W

2009-06-01

92

The association of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist–hip ratio with Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG antibodies and high-sensitive C-reactive protein at 31 years of age in Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Viruses and bacteria like Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori have been suggested to have a role in pathogenesis of overweight and obesity.Objective:We studied whether C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibodies are associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and\\/or waist–hip ratio (WHR), and whether the risk is more pronounced in the simultaneous presence of an ongoing inflammation as

T Lajunen; A Bloigu; M Paldanius; A Pouta; J Laitinen; A Ruokonen; A-L Hartikainen; M Savolainen; K-H Herzig; M Leinonen; P Saikku; M-R Järvelin

2011-01-01

93

Cut-off points of waist circumference and body mass index for detecting diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension according to National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance in Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction The cut-off points of waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) are varied according to different races. There is a dearth of information on these indices especially in Iranian adults. We sought to estimate the cut-off points of waist circumference and BMI for detecting diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Material and methods The data were gathered by the First Iranian Non-Communicable Disease Survey in 2005. In total, 70,981 participants between 25 and 64 years of old were selected via random multistage cluster sampling. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to show the cut-off points of waist circumference and BMI for detecting diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. The maximum value the sum of sensitivity and specificity indicated the cut-off point. Results The cut-off points of waist circumference according to maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for detecting hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia in men were 89.7 cm, 89.4 cm and 88.2 cm and in women were 93.9 cm, 96.2 cm and 90 cm respectively. The cut-off points of BMI according to maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for detecting hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia in men were 25.7 kg/m2, 24.8 kg/m2 and 24 kg/m2 and in women were 26.9 kg/m2, 26.3 kg/m2 and 26.1 kg/m2 respectively. Conclusions This was a population-based study on a huge sample on the basis of a national survey. The Iranian BMI was different from the values suggested by the WHO. The waist circumference in Iranian women was higher than that in men.

Shabnam, Abbaszadeh-Ahranjani; Homa, Kashani; Bagher, Larijani; Hossein, Forouzanfar Mohammad; Hamidreza, Afshani

2012-01-01

94

Waist circumference and BMI in relation to serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Cuban Americans with and without type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiposity by diabetes status and gender in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) was studied. Adult subjects, 226 females, 129 males participated in a case control, single time point study. Subjects with T2D were older, had higher waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). WC and BMI were associated with ln hs-CRP (P < 0.001). An interaction with diabetes status was found for BMI (P = 0.037). Gender showed a strong relationship with ln hs-CRP (P < 0.001), which was moderated by diabetes status. Only males without diabetes exhibited a significant relationship for both WC and BMI with ln hs-CRP. In this sample of Cuban-Americans, WC and BMI had stronger associations with ln hs-CRP but not with diabetes status. Obesity prevention and controlling for CRP levels may be necessary to eliminate its contributions to develop diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:20617007

Huffman, Fatma G; Whisner, Suzanne; Zarini, Gustavo G; Nath, Subrata

2010-03-01

95

Waist Circumference and BMI in Relation to Serum High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in Cuban Americans With and Without Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiposity by diabetes status and gender in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) was studied. Adult subjects, 226 females, 129 males participated in a case control, single time point study. Subjects with T2D were older, had higher waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). WC and BMI were associated with ln hs-CRP (P < 0.001). An interaction with diabetes status was found for BMI (P = 0.037). Gender showed a strong relationship with ln hs-CRP (P < 0.001), which was moderated by diabetes status. Only males without diabetes exhibited a significant relationship for both WC and BMI with ln hs-CRP. In this sample of Cuban-Americans, WC and BMI had stronger associations with ln hs-CRP but not with diabetes status. Obesity prevention and controlling for CRP levels may be necessary to eliminate its contributions to develop diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Huffman, Fatma G; Whisner, Suzanne; Zarini, Gustavo G; Nath, Subrata

2010-01-01

96

Gender-specific associations of objective and perceived neighborhood characteristics with body mass index and waist circumference among older adults in the english longitudinal study of ageing.  

PubMed

Objectives. We sought to determine whether objective and perceived neighborhood characteristics are independently associated with obesity indicators among older adults and whether associations differ by gender. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine mutually adjusted associations of objective area-level neighborhood deprivation and perceived individual-level neighborhood disorder in 2002-2003 with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) 2 years later among 6297 community-dwelling older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results. Associations between neighborhood characteristics and obesity indicators were evident for women only. Being in the most deprived quintile of neighborhood deprivation was associated with a BMI that was 1.18 kilograms per meters squared higher (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.54, 1.83) and a WC that was 2.42 centimeters higher (95% CI?=?0.90, 3.94) at follow-up in women after adjustment for baseline health status, socioeconomic factors, and neighborhood disorder. Neighborhood disorder was not independently associated with BMI or WC. Conclusions. Among women, greater objective neighborhood deprivation was independently associated with higher BMI and WC after 2 years. Public efforts to reduce obesity among community-dwelling older women may benefit most from addressing objective residential characteristics, over and above subjective perceptions. PMID:24832434

Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; Shankar, Aparna

2014-07-01

97

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and determination of optimal cut-off values of waist circumference in university employees from Angola  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Africans may be inconsistent due to lack of African-specific cut-off values of waist circumference (WC). This study determined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and defined optimal values of WC in Africans. Methods This cross-sectional study collected demographic, anthropometric and clinical data of 615 Universitary employees, in Luanda, Angola. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to assess cut-off values of WC. Results The crude prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was higher with the JIS definition (27.8%, age-standardised 14.1%) than with the ATP III definition (17.6%, age-standardised 8.7%). Optimal cut-off values of WC were 87.5 and 80.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among our African subjects. Our data suggest different WC cut-off values for Africans in relation to other populations.

Magalhaes, Pedro; Capingana, Daniel P; Mill, Jose G

2014-01-01

98

Structural vascular disease in Africans: Performance of ethnic-specific waist circumference cut points using logistic regression and neural network analyses: The SABPA study.  

PubMed

A recently proposed model for waist circumference cut points (RPWC), driven by increased blood pressure, was demonstrated in an African population. We therefore aimed to validate the RPWC by comparing the RPWC and the Joint Statement Consensus (JSC) models via Logistic Regression (LR) and Neural Networks (NN) analyses. Urban African gender groups (N=171) were stratified according to the JSC and RPWC cut point models. Ultrasound carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), blood pressure (BP) and fasting bloods (glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides) were obtained in a well-controlled setting. The RPWC male model (LR ROC AUC: 0.71, NN ROC AUC: 0.71) was practically equal to the JSC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.71, NN ROC AUC: 0.69) to predict structural vascular -disease. Similarly, the female RPWC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.84, NN ROC AUC: 0.82) and JSC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.82, NN ROC AUC: 0.81) equally predicted CIMT as surrogate marker for structural vascular disease. Odds ratios supported validity where prediction of CIMT revealed -clinical -significance, well over 1, for both the JSC and RPWC models in African males and females (OR 3.75-13.98). In conclusion, the proposed RPWC model was substantially validated utilizing linear and non-linear analyses. We therefore propose ethnic-specific WC cut points (African males, ?90 cm; -females, ?98 cm) to predict a surrogate marker for structural vascular disease. PMID:23934678

Botha, J; de Ridder, J H; Potgieter, J C; Steyn, H S; Malan, L

2013-10-01

99

Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the 'Be active, eat right' study  

PubMed Central

Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n?=?7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e.g. relatively tall or short children) to identify and monitor overweight in children. This may improve early identification and prevention of overweight and overweight-related health problems in children.

2013-01-01

100

Waist Circumference Is the Best Anthropometric Predictor for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine But Not Olanzapine  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (?0.50 vs. ?0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and associated cardiovascular disease.

Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

2010-01-01

101

Body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, fasting blood glucose in a sample of moroccan adolescents aged 11-17 years.  

PubMed

Objectives. The study aimed to assess the relationship between body fat and each of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to test the effectiveness of fat mass (FM), percent of body fat (PBF), BMI, and WC in predicting high levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Methods. A total of 167 adolescents aged 11-17 years were recruited from Rabat region. BMI and WC were determined using standard equipments. FM and PBF were derived from isotope dilution technique. FBG was determined by the hexokinase method. Results. Regardless of the weight status, BMI showed a strong positive correlation with FM and PBF in both genders. WC was significantly correlated with FM in boys and girls, and with PBF in different groups of girls and boys of the study sample. However, there was no significant relationship between WC and PBF in normal weight and overweight-obese groups of boys. FBG was highly correlated with FM and PBF in girls of the study sample and in overweight-obese girls. Similar significant relationship between FBG and both BMI and WC was observed in overweight-obese girls, while there was no significant association between FBG and other variables in boys and normal-weight girls. Conclusion. BMI and WC were closely associated with FM and PBF, respectively. However, the degree of these associations depends on gender and weight status. BMI may provide a better proxy estimate of overall adiposity than WC; nevertheless, both of them would appear to be a reasonable surrogate for FM and PBF as screening tools to identify adolescents at risk of developing excess body fat and high level of FBG. PMID:22175010

Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Barakat, Amina; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Najat; Aguenaou, Hassan

2012-01-01

102

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Fat, Fasting Blood Glucose in a Sample of Moroccan Adolescents Aged 11-17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The study aimed to assess the relationship between body fat and each of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to test the effectiveness of fat mass (FM), percent of body fat (PBF), BMI, and WC in predicting high levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Methods. A total of 167 adolescents aged 11–17 years were recruited from Rabat region. BMI and WC were determined using standard equipments. FM and PBF were derived from isotope dilution technique. FBG was determined by the hexokinase method. Results. Regardless of the weight status, BMI showed a strong positive correlation with FM and PBF in both genders. WC was significantly correlated with FM in boys and girls, and with PBF in different groups of girls and boys of the study sample. However, there was no significant relationship between WC and PBF in normal weight and overweight-obese groups of boys. FBG was highly correlated with FM and PBF in girls of the study sample and in overweight-obese girls. Similar significant relationship between FBG and both BMI and WC was observed in overweight-obese girls, while there was no significant association between FBG and other variables in boys and normal-weight girls. Conclusion. BMI and WC were closely associated with FM and PBF, respectively. However, the degree of these associations depends on gender and weight status. BMI may provide a better proxy estimate of overall adiposity than WC; nevertheless, both of them would appear to be a reasonable surrogate for FM and PBF as screening tools to identify adolescents at risk of developing excess body fat and high level of FBG.

Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Barakat, Amina; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Najat; Aguenaou, Hassan

2012-01-01

103

Prevalence of elevated blood pressure and its relationship with fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference among a group of Moroccan overweight adolescents.  

PubMed

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among a group of adolescents and to assess the relationship of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) with body fat mass (BFM), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 167 subjects aged 11-17 years were recruited, 29.3% and 12.6% were overweight and obese respectively. BMI, WC, SBP and DBP were determined using standardized equipment. BFM was estimated by the deuterium oxide dilution. Hypertension (HT) and prehypertension (pre-HT) were observed in 17.4% and 9.6%, of the study population, respectively. The prevalence of HT and pre-HT was significantly higher in boys and in overweight-obese groups (p = 0.044; p = 0.003 respectively). Both SBP and DBP were significantly higher in overweight-obese compared to healthy-weight groups (p < 0.001; p = 0.002 respectively). SBP was significantly higher in boys than girls (p = 0.013). With some exceptions, SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BMI, WC and BFM in the study population and different weight-status groups of both genders. The relationship of blood pressure with BMI appeared to be more significant than with WC and BFM. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in boys than girls and in overweight-obese than healthy-weight adolescents. Overall SBP and DBP were associated with BFM, BMI and WC. However, the strong association between these variables was seen in girls, and the greater risk of developing hypertension could be associated with increasing BMI. PMID:24306156

Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Barkat, Amina; Aguenaou, Hassan; Mokhtar, Najat

2013-01-01

104

Fibre intake among the Belgian population by sex-age and sex-education groups and its association with BMI and waist circumference.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to assess total dietary fibre intake and the main contributors to fibre intake in the Belgian population by sex-age and sex-education groups and to investigate its relationship with BMI and waist circumference (WC). The participants of the Belgian food consumption survey (2004) were randomly selected. Information about food intake was collected using two repeated, non-consecutive 24 h recall interviews. A total of 3083 individuals ( ? 15 years; 1546 men and 1537 women) completed both interviews. The main contributors to total fibre intake (17·8 g/d) were cereals and cereal products (34 %; 5·9 g/d), potatoes and other tubers (18·6 %; 3·3 g/d), fruits (14·7 %; 2·8 g/d) and vegetables (14·4 %; 2·6 g/d). Legume fibre intake was extremely low (0·672 %; 0·139 g/d). In all sex-age and sex-education groups, total fibre intake was below the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Men (21 g/d) consumed significantly more fibre than women (17·3 g/d) (P < 0·001). Lower educated men and higher educated women reported the highest fibre intake. A significant inverse association was found between total fibre intake and WC (? = - 0·118, P < 0·001). Fruit-derived fibre was positively associated with WC (? = 0·731, P = 0·001). In summary, total fibre intake was inversely associated with WC, whereas fruit-derived fibre intake was positively associated with WC in the Belgian population. PMID:21443812

Lin, Yi; Huybrechts, Inge; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Bolca, Selin; De Keyzer, Willem; De Vriese, Stephanie; Polet, Anja; De Neve, Melissa; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

2011-06-01

105

Association between dietary phytochemical index and 3-year changes in weight, waist circumference and body adiposity index in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study  

PubMed Central

Background High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have favorable effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI) in relation to 3-year change in weight, waist circumference (WC), body adiposity index (BAI) among Tehranian adults. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1938 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary PI was calculated. Anthropometric measures were assessed both at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple regression models were used to estimate mean difference changes in anthropometrics associated with various dietary PI. Results The mean age of participants was 40.4?±?13.0 y, at baseline, respectively. Mean weight gain was 1.49?±?5.06 kg (1.65?±?5.3 kg in men and 1.34?±?4.9 kg in women) during 3-year period. After adjustment for potential confounding variables including age at baseline, sex, BMI, educational levels, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein, dietary intakes of whole grains in the highest quartile category of PI were inversely associated with 3-year changes in weight and WC (P for trend <0.05). Dietary intake of fruits in the highest quartile was also associated with lower weight gain during the study period (P for trend <0.05). There was significant inverse association between the highest quartile category of dietary PI with the 3-year changes in weight and BAI (P for trend <0.05). Conclusion Higher dietary PI could have favorable effects on prevention of weight gain and reduction of body adiposity in adults.

2012-01-01

106

Reference intervals of complete blood count constituents are highly correlated to waist circumference: Should obese patients have their own "normal values?".  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI), the prevalent indicator of obesity, is not easily grasped by patients nor physicians. Waist circumference (WC) is correlated to obesity, is better understood and has a stronger relationship to the metabolic syndrome. We compiled WC, complete blood count (CBC) parameters as well as other pertinent data of 6766 25-55-year-old US volunteers sampled in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in the years 2005-2010. To determine reference intervals of typical US patients visiting their clinician, we used minimal exclusion criteria. We compiled hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count, mean platelet volume, and counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, we also compiled serum C reactive protein and serum iron. The three major US races were studied and reference interval diagrams were constructed for each CBC parameter plotted against WC. WBC count, RDW, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and red blood cell count increase with WC. Conversely, serum iron and MCH and MCV decrease. These relationships may be related to insulin resistance and chronic activation of the immune system and the resulting low-grade inflammatory state. WC is a strong predictor for many CBC parameters, suggesting that WC should be taken into account when evaluating blood count results. Clinicians who take care of obese patients should be aware of altered hematology and investigate and treat accordingly. Am. J. Hematol. 89:671-677, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24644218

Vuong, Jennifer; Qiu, Yuelin; La, Myanh; Clarke, Gwen; Swinkels, Dorine W; Cembrowski, George

2014-07-01

107

Influence of central and extremity circumferences on all-cause mortality in men and women.  

PubMed

For a given level of adiposity, greater lower body circumferences appear to exert a protective effect on several disease outcomes including cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, the independent associations between extremity circumferences and mortality have not been widely investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and shared influences of upper- and lower-body circumferences on the risk of mortality in a population-based sample of adults. The sample included 10,638 adults 20-69 years of age (5,012 men; 5,626 women) from the nationally representative 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS), who were monitored for over 12 years for mortality. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. Waist, hip, thigh, calf, and upper arm circumferences were measured using a flexible, nonelastic anthropometric tape. Sex-specific proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between standardized values (Z-scores) of extremity circumference measures, waist circumference (WC) and mortality. Age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity were collected by questionnaire and were included as covariates. During 131,563 person-years of follow-up, there were 340 deaths in men and 231 in women. After mutual adjustment, WC was positively associated with mortality whereas arm, thigh, and calf circumferences were significantly protective in men, and arm and thigh circumferences were protective in women. In conclusion, waist and extremity circumferences appear to have opposite, independent effects on mortality in this sample of Canadians. Independent of BMI and WC, men and women with larger extremity circumferences had a lower risk of mortality. PMID:18927548

Mason, Caitlin; Craig, Cora L; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

2008-12-01

108

Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP), mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP), mono-n-butyl (MBP), and mono-benzyl (MBzP) phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP) phthalate (2001–2002). Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002), and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03), and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02) and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02). There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different biologic and hormonal effects. Although our study has limitations, both of these factors could explain some of the variation in the observed associations. These preliminary data support the need for prospective studies in populations at risk for obesity.

Hatch, Elizabeth E; Nelson, Jessica W; Qureshi, M Mustafa; Weinberg, Janice; Moore, Lynn L; Singer, Martha; Webster, Thomas F

2008-01-01

109

Impact of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index on Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Adults: A National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey  

PubMed Central

Background We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings 46,024 participants aged ?20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007–2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96–2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67–2.12) and 1.12 (0.99–1.26); 5.70 (5.24–6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39–1.65) and 1.69 (1.57–1.82); and 3.73 (3.42–4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98–2.35) and 1.33 (1.25–1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Zhaojun; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

2013-01-01

110

Sagittal abdominal diameter is a more independent measure compared with waist circumference to predict arterial stiffness in subjects with type 2 diabetes - a prospective observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropometric measurements are useful in clinical practice since they are non-invasive and cheap. Previous studies suggest that sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be a better measure of visceral fat depots. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore and compare how laboratory and anthropometric risk markers predicted subclinical organ damage in 255 patients, with type 2 diabetes, after four years. Methods Baseline investigations were performed in 2006 and were repeated at follow-up in 2010. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and at follow-up in a cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes aged 55–65 years old. Results There were significant correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB) (r?=?0.144, p?=?0.03), C - reactive protein (CRP) (r?=?0.172, p?=?0.009) at baseline and IMT measured at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age, treatment with statins and Hba1c, the associations remained statistically significant. HbA1c, total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol did not correlate to IMT at follow-up. Baseline body mass index (BMI) (r?=?0.130, p?=?0.049), waist circumference (WC) (r?=?0.147, p?=?0.027) and sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) (r?=?0.184, p?=?0.007) correlated to PWV at follow-up. Challenged with sex, SBP and HbA1c, the association between SAD, not WC nor BMI, and PWV remained statistically significant (p?=?0.036). In a stepwise linear regression, entering both SAD and WC, the association between SAD and PWV was stronger than the association between WC and PWV. Conclusions We conclude that apoB and CRP, but not LDL-cholesterol predicted subclinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, SAD was more independent in predicting arterial stiffness over time, compared with WC, in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes.

2013-01-01

111

Z-Score Training, Combinatorics, and Phase Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live Z-score neurofeedback training introduces neural training based on simultaneously meeting multiple quantitative EEG-based conditions related to power, dispersion (amplitude asymmetry), coherence, and phase (Thatcher, 2008). The greater strength of the approach lies in being able to train tens, hundreds, or even thousands of criteria simultaneously. In taking multithreshold training to a quantitatively new level, Z-score training provides a holistic

Lincoln Stoller

2011-01-01

112

Neopterin, a Marker of Interferon-Gamma-Inducible Inflammation, Correlates with Pyridoxal-5?-Phosphate, Waist Circumference, HDL-Cholesterol, Insulin Resistance and Mortality Risk in Adult Boston Community Dwellers of Puerto Rican Origin  

PubMed Central

Interferon-gamma (IFNG), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, increases concentrations of neopterin, a stable pteridine derivative, due to IFNG-induced transcriptional activation of the rate-limiting enzyme of pteridines biosynthesis. Neopterin concentrations were reported to correlate with metabolic syndrome (MetS), the cause of increased mortality risk, in subjects of European ancestry. We were interested to assessed neopterin correlations with clinical markers of MetS and mortality risk in population with a different genetic background, i.e., Puerto Ricans residents of Boston. Since inflammation is associated with pyridoxal-5?-phosphate (PLP) deficiency, we assessed correlations of neopterin with PLP. Plasma neopterin concentrations were evaluated in 592 adult (45–75 years of age) participants of Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Neopterin concentrations correlated with abdominal obesity (waist circumference, r = 0.085, p < 0.038), HDL cholesterol (r = ?0.15, p < 0.0001), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, r = 0.08, P < 0.03), and plasma pyridoxal-5?-phosphate (PLP (r = ?0.13, P = 0.002). Neopterin concentrations of >16 nmol/L at baseline were associated with the increased risk of mortality in 113 subjects followed for 6 years. The present results together with previously reported data in European subjects suggest a similar pattern of neopterin correlations with MetS and mortality risk in population with different genetic backgrounds. PLP is a cofactor of IFNG-induced key enzymes of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Since PLP deficiency is associated with the increased production of diabetogenic kynurenine derivative, xanthurenic acid, our results suggest that up-regulated IFNG production might contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Assessment of neopterin concentrations might help to monitor the activity of IFNG-inducible inflammation associated with aging-associated medical and psychiatric disorders.

Tucker, K. L.; Requintina, P.; Summergrad, P.

2011-01-01

113

Neopterin, a Marker of Interferon-Gamma-Inducible Inflammation, Correlates with Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate, Waist Circumference, HDL-Cholesterol, Insulin Resistance and Mortality Risk in Adult Boston Community Dwellers of Puerto Rican Origin.  

PubMed

Interferon-gamma (IFNG), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, increases concentrations of neopterin, a stable pteridine derivative, due to IFNG-induced transcriptional activation of the rate-limiting enzyme of pteridines biosynthesis. Neopterin concentrations were reported to correlate with metabolic syndrome (MetS), the cause of increased mortality risk, in subjects of European ancestry. We were interested to assessed neopterin correlations with clinical markers of MetS and mortality risk in population with a different genetic background, i.e., Puerto Ricans residents of Boston. Since inflammation is associated with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) deficiency, we assessed correlations of neopterin with PLP. Plasma neopterin concentrations were evaluated in 592 adult (45-75 years of age) participants of Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Neopterin concentrations correlated with abdominal obesity (waist circumference, r = 0.085, p < 0.038), HDL cholesterol (r = -0.15, p < 0.0001), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, r = 0.08, P < 0.03), and plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP (r = -0.13, P = 0.002). Neopterin concentrations of >16 nmol/L at baseline were associated with the increased risk of mortality in 113 subjects followed for 6 years. The present results together with previously reported data in European subjects suggest a similar pattern of neopterin correlations with MetS and mortality risk in population with different genetic backgrounds. PLP is a cofactor of IFNG-induced key enzymes of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Since PLP deficiency is associated with the increased production of diabetogenic kynurenine derivative, xanthurenic acid, our results suggest that up-regulated IFNG production might contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Assessment of neopterin concentrations might help to monitor the activity of IFNG-inducible inflammation associated with aging-associated medical and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22308202

Oxenkrug, G; Tucker, K L; Requintina, P; Summergrad, P

2011-06-01

114

Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cut-Points in Multi-Ethnic Populations from the UK and India: The ADDITION-Leicester, Jaipur Heart Watch and New Delhi Cross-Sectional Studies  

PubMed Central

Aims To derive cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for minority ethnic groups that are risk equivalent based on endogenous glucose levels to cut-points for white Europeans (BMI 30 kg/m2; WC men 102 cm; WC women 88 cm). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional data from participants aged 40–75 years: 4,672 white and 1,348 migrant South Asian participants from ADDITION-Leicester (UK) and 985 indigenous South Asians from Jaipur Heart Watch/New Delhi studies (India). Cut-points were derived using fractional polynomial models with fasting and 2-hour glucose as outcomes, and ethnicity, objectively-measured BMI/WC, their interaction and age as covariates. Results Based on fasting glucose, obesity cut-points were 25 kg/m2 (95% Confidence Interval: 24, 26) for migrant South Asian, and 18 kg/m2 (16, 20) for indigenous South Asian populations. For men, WC cut-points were 90 cm (85, 95) for migrant South Asian, and 87 cm (82, 91) for indigenous South Asian populations. For women, WC cut-points were 77 cm (71, 82) for migrant South Asian, and 54 cm (20, 63) for indigenous South Asian populations. Cut-points based on 2-hour glucose were lower than these. Conclusions These findings strengthen evidence that health interventions are required at a lower BMI and WC for South Asian individuals. Based on our data and the existing literature, we suggest an obesity threshold of 25 kg/m2 for South Asian individuals, and a very high WC threshold of 90 cm for South Asian men and 77 cm for South Asian women. Further work is required to determine whether lower cut-points are required for indigenous, than migrant, South Asians.

Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Gray, Laura J.; Henson, Joseph; Webb, David; Guru, Arvind; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Rajeev; Vikram, Naval; Sattar, Naveed; Davies, Melanie J.; Khunti, Kamlesh

2014-01-01

115

Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

2003-01-01

116

Screening for recombinant human erythropoietin using [Hb], reticulocytes, the OFF hr score , OFF z  score and Hb z  score : status of the Blood Passport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (retic%) and OFFhr score are well-implemented screening tools to determine potential recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) abuse in athletes.\\u000a Recently, the International Cycling Union implemented the OFF\\u000a z score and the Hb\\u000a z score in their anti-doping testing programme. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of these indirect screening\\u000a methods. Twenty-four human subjects divided into

Andreas Bornø; Niels J. Aachmann-Andersen; Thor Munch-Andersen; Carl J. Hulston; Carsten Lundby

2010-01-01

117

Larger Hip Circumference Independently Predicts Health and Longevity in a Swedish Female Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The waist circumference is widely viewed as a simple but effective measure for assessing obesity-related health risks, whereas measurement of the hip circumference is not currently prioritized. This study examines health risks associated specifically with hip circumference in a cohort of Swedish women, to determine whether information may be lost by excluding the hip circumference from health surveys.Research Methods

Lauren Lissner; Cecilia Björkelund; Berit L. Heitmann; Jaap C. Seidell; Calle Bengtsson

2001-01-01

118

Is waist-to-height ratio a useful indicator of cardio-metabolic risk in 6-10-year-old children?  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity is a public health problem worldwide. Visceral obesity, particularly associated with cardio-metabolic risk, has been assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, but both methods use sex-and age-specific percentile tables and are influenced by sexual maturity. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is easier to obtain, does not involve tables and can be used to diagnose visceral obesity, even in normal-weight individuals. This study aims to compare the WHtR to the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) reference for BMI in screening for the presence of cardio-metabolic and inflammatory risk factors in 6–10-year-old children. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 175 subjects selected from the Reference Center for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents in Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were classified according to the 2007 WHO standard as normal-weight (BMI z score > ?1 and < 1) or overweight/obese (BMI z score ? 1). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glycemia, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), Homeostatic Model Assessment – Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), leukocyte count and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) were also analyzed. Results There were significant correlations between WHtR and BMI z score (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001), SBP (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001), DBP (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001), LDL (r = 0.25, p < 0.0008, HDL (r = ?0.28, p < 0.0002), TG (r = 0.26, p < 0.0006), HOMA-IR (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and CRP (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001). WHtR and BMI areas under the curve were similar for all the cardio-metabolic parameters. A WHtR cut-off value of > 0.47 was sensitive for screening insulin resistance and any one of the cardio-metabolic parameters. Conclusions The WHtR was as sensitive as the 2007 WHO BMI in screening for metabolic risk factors in 6-10-year-old children. The public health message “keep your waist to less than half your height” can be effective in reducing cardio-metabolic risk because most of these risk factors are already present at a cut point of WHtR ? 0.5. However, as this is the first study to correlate the WHtR with inflammatory markers, we recommend further exploration of the use of WHtR in this age group and other population-based samples.

2013-01-01

119

Waist-to-Height Ratio as a Predictor of Coronary Heart Disease among Women  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of our study is to prospectively evaluate and compare the waist circumference-to-height ratio (WHtR) to waist-hip ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index as predictors of subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) in a group of predominantly post-menopausal women. Methods The data comes from a prospective cohort study. The included subjects were 45563 women from the Nurses' Health Study cohort, aged 40-65 years in 1986, who were free of heart disease, stroke and cancer. Waist circumference, hip circumference, height, weight, age, and other covariates were collected by questionnaire. The primary endpoint was incident coronary heart disease that was reported by June 2002. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were estimated non-parametrically for each of anthropometric measures, and differences between that for WHtR and the other measures, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relationships with risk of CHD. Results Waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio and waist circumference were similar in predicting subsequent risk of CHD. All three waist derived measures were superior to BMI in predicting CHD. The unadjusted AUC (95% Confidence Interval) were 0.62 (0.60,0.64) for WHtR, 0.63 (0.61,0.65) for waist-hip ratio, 0.62 (0.60,0.64) for waist-circumference, and 0.57 (0.55,0.59) for body mass index. Conclusion Waist-height ratio is comparable to waist circumference and waist-hip ratio for prediction of coronary heart disease incidence among middle-aged and older women, but superior to BMI. Future studies are warranted to corroborate these results in other populations.

Page, John H; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Hu, Frank; Albert, Christine M; Chae, Claudia U; Manson, JoAnn E

2014-01-01

120

[Neurological diseases and SPECT--analysis using easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS)].  

PubMed

We developed a method for automated diagnosis of brain perfusion SPECT and designated this method as an easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS). In this software program, voxel-by-voxel Z-score analysis after voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values; Z-score = ( [control mean] - [individual value] )/ (control SD) is performed. These Z-score maps are displayed by overlay on tomographic sections and by projection with averaged Z-score of 14mm thickness to surface rendering of the anatomically standardized MRI template. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images into a stereotactic space is performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2. This program has an advantage of capability of incorporation of SPM results into automated analysis of Z-score values as a volume of interest (VOI). A specific VOI can be determined by group comparison of SPECT images for patients with a neuropsychiatric disease with those for healthy volunteers using SPM. Even if a center can construct a normal database with good quality comprising a large number of healthy volunteers, other centers have not been able to use this normal database because of differences between the used gamma cameras, collimators and physical correction algorithms. Since SPECT exhibits greater variations in image quality among different centers than PET, conversion of SPECT images may be necessary for sharing a normal database. In this eZIS software, we incorporated a newly developed program for making it possible to share a normal database in SPECT studies. A Hoffman 3-dimensional brain phantom experiment was conducted to determine systematic differences between SPECT scanners. SPECT images for the brain phantom were obtained using two different scanners. Dividing these two phantom images after anatomical standardization by SPM created a 3-dimensional conversion map. The use of a conversion map obtained from SPECT images of the same phantom provided very similar SPECT data despite extreme differences between scanners. The present method may be useful for combining normal databases from different centers and greatly enhance the diagnostic value of brain SPECT imaging by standardization of data analysis using a common normal database. PMID:17533974

Matsuda, Hiroshi

2007-05-01

121

Z-Score Reference Values for Height in Turkish Children Aged 6 to 18 Years  

PubMed Central

Ob­jec­ti­ve: Standard deviation score or Z-score reference charts are used in some countries in preference to percentile charts and are considered as better tools in assessing children with measurements outside the accepted limits of normality. Growth data for Istanbul children have previously been reported as percentiles; hence, the aim of this study is to present these data in Z-score reference tables. Data on secular trend in height in Turkish children will also be presented. Methods: Height and weight data based on a total of 11 664 height and 11 655 weight measurements in 1100 boys and 1020 girls between 6 and 18 years of age obtained by biannual visits to schools were analyzed. All children came from well-to-do families and were all healthy. All measurements were made by two trained technicians. The LMS method was used in the analyses. The results were expressed as Z-score values for age. Results: Heights of the boys and girls in all age groups were close to the updated USA growth references and showed an upward trend from previous data on Turkish children. Conclusions: Height growth in Turkish school-age children of high socioeconomic level conforms to the updated growth data for USA children and also shows a secular trend. The data also point to the importance of updating local growth data periodically.

Gunoz, Hulya; Bundak, Ruveyde; Furman, Andrzej; Darendeliler, Feyza; Saka, Nurcin; Bas, Firdevs; Neyzi, Olcay

2014-01-01

122

Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses  

PubMed Central

Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods.

ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

2013-01-01

123

Circumference and Arc Length  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will introduce you to circumference of a circle, and how to find the measurement of the edge of a piece of pizza! (Arc length!) Ok. Let's make sure you remember circumference of a circle, you know, the distance around a circle? Click on the following link and take notes! Circle Circumference Now we can use that to find the arc length, or the length of the crust part of the edge of a pizza! Take notes: Arcs in Circles Now, let's ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-24

124

Where is the human waist? Definitions, manual compared toscanner measurements.  

PubMed

Where exactly is the human waist? How do definitions work for women who deviate from the conventional body shape? Does the measuring instrument matter? Waist is conventionally understood to be a measurable zone within the abdominal region of the torso, a zone of considerable importance. There needs to be a good consistent waist definition, one accurate and valid for everyone. Incorrect definition and measurement will result in technical errors, commercial wastage and customer dissatisfaction. This paper investigates the waist's location and size from the point of view of garment construction for 90 adult women scanned and manually measured in a breast reduction study at Flinders Medical Center, South Australia. There are differing definitions of the location of the human waist as well as different measuring instruments. This study compares:• Two definitions:• ISO 8559, 2.1.11 and • CAESAR, Waist Circumference Preferred.• Two different instruments:• the traditional tape measure, and • software-extracted computer-aided anthropometry (CAA). Substantial discrepancies between the results from these two locations-definitions were found. The choice of instrument used seriously affects the measurement obtained. This study demonstrates three things:• waist is not horizontal for a significant sub group of the population,• CAA extracted waist measurements are not accurate (same as real values) or valid (measures the characteristic) for a sub group, and • manually measured CAESAR Preferred Waist accurately and validly measured all individuals studied. There is a clear need to modify ISO waist definition for garment construction to include the full range of anatomical variation encountered amongst women. PMID:22317337

Veitch, Daisy

2012-01-01

125

INSULIN DYNAMICS PREDICT BODY MASS INDEX AND Z-SCORE RESPONSE TO INSULIN SUPPRESSION OR SENSITIZATION PHARMACOTHERAPY IN OBESE CHILDREN  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the use of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) to predict efficacy of insulin sensitization (metformin) or suppression (octreotide) because insulin resistance and insulin hypersecretion may impact pharmacotherapeutic efficacy in obese children. Study design Forty-three and 24 obese children, with and without central nervous system (CNS) insult, underwent OGTT. Insulin sensitivity was expressed as composite insulin sensitivity index (CISI), and secretion as corrected insulin response (CIRgp). Those without CNS insult received metformin (weight-based dosing) for 6 to 16 months. Those with CNS insult received octreotide SQ 15 ?g/kg/d for 6 months. Body mass index (BMI) and z-score responses were modeled using CIRgp and CISI. Results Metformin: With CIRgp and CISI = 1, BMI z-score in white children declined by 0.23 over the first 4 months (P < .001), and by 0.14 over the next year (P = .33). Each 2-fold increase in CIRgp or CISI attenuated BMI z-score reduction, but with wide uncertainty (P = .24). Black children exhibited little response. Octreotide: With CIRgp and CISI = 1, BMI z-score decreased by 0.23 in the first 4 months (P = .052). Efficacy was dependent on an interaction between CIRgp and CISI (P = .051). Conclusions Efficacy of metformin was predicted by pretreatment insulin resistance. Efficacy of octreotide was predicted by insulin hypersecretion and sensitivity.

Lustig, Robert H.; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.; Bacchetti, Peter; Lazar, Ann A.; Velasquez-Mieyer, Pedro A.; Christensen, Michael L.

2006-01-01

126

Height and Height Z-Score Are Related to Calcium Absorption in Five to Fifteen-Year-Old Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Understanding the relationship between calcium absorp- tion and growth has been limited. We have developed a database of calcium absorption measurements in 315 girls aged 5.0-15.0 yr. Design: We have used this database to assess the relationship be- tween height, its age- and gender-normalized value (height Z-score), and calcium absorptive efficiency. Results: Overall, height was significantly related to calcium

Steven A. Abrams; Ian J. Griffin; Keli M. Hawthorne; Lily Liang

127

Improved Classification of Coronary Artery Abnormalities Based Only on Coronary Artery z-Scores After Kawasaki Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competing definitions and classifications of coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) after Kawasaki disease (KD) have been arbitrarily\\u000a defined based on clinical experience. We sought to propose a classification system for CAAs based only on coronary artery\\u000a z-scores. All echocardiograms performed between 1990 and 2007 on patients with a previous history of KD were reviewed. Coronary\\u000a artery luminal dimensions were converted to

Cedric Manlhiot; Kyle Millar; Fraser Golding; Brian W. McCrindle

2010-01-01

128

Food purchased away from home as a predictor of change in BMI z-score among girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between eating food purchased away from home (FAH) and longitudinal change in body mass index (BMI) z-score among girls, and to assess the longitudinal tracking of eating FAH from childhood through adolescence.DESIGN: Participants kept 7-day dietary records at two points in time. The records included the place and time for all foods consumed. We recorded

O M Thompson; C Ballew; K Resnicow; A Must; L G Bandini; H Cyr; W H Dietz

2004-01-01

129

TASSER_low-zsc: an approach to improve structure prediction using low z-score-ranked templates.  

PubMed

In a variety of threading methods, often poorly ranked (low z-score) templates have good alignments. Here, a new method, TASSER_low-zsc that identifies these low z-score-ranked templates to improve protein structure prediction accuracy, is described. The approach consists of clustering of threading templates by affinity propagation on the basis of structural similarity (thread_cluster) followed by TASSER modeling, with final models selected by using a TASSER_QA variant. To establish the generality of the approach, templates provided by two threading methods, SP(3) and SPARKS(2), are examined. The SP(3) and SPARKS(2) benchmark datasets consist of 351 and 357 medium/hard proteins (those with moderate to poor quality templates and/or alignments) of length < or =250 residues, respectively. For SP(3) medium and hard targets, using thread_cluster, the TM-scores of the best template improve by approximately 4 and 9% over the original set (without low z-score templates) respectively; after TASSER modeling/refinement and ranking, the best model improves by approximately 7 and 9% over the best model generated with the original template set. Moreover, TASSER_low-zsc generates 22% (43%) more foldable medium (hard) targets. Similar improvements are observed with low-ranked templates from SPARKS(2). The template clustering approach could be applied to other modeling methods that utilize multiple templates to improve structure prediction. PMID:20635423

Pandit, Shashi B; Skolnick, Jeffrey

2010-10-01

130

Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Unhealthy Body Change in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in unhealthy body change was examined in a sample of 143 women university students. They\\u000a completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), reported their level of concern with weight and with WHR,\\u000a and used unmarked measuring tapes to record their subjective (self-perceived), ideal, and objective (measured) waist and hip circumference.\\u000a Although body shape was reported

Alexander J. Mussap

2007-01-01

131

Variations in truncal body circumferences affect fat mass quantification with bioimpedance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To test the hypothesis that variations in trunk circumferences influence the accuracy of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of percent fat mass (%FM).Subjects and Methods:%FM was predicted with BIA, and compared with air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in a small sample of 35 overweight (OW), 21 normal weight and 8 underweight volunteers. Waist and hip circumferences were assessed, and 15 of the

V Haas; S Engeli; T Hofmann; A Riedl; S Haufe; P Kast; S Wiesner; J Böhnke; J Jordan; M Boschmann

2012-01-01

132

Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, Müller MJ, Plachta-Danielzik S, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, von Kries R. 2014. Differences in BMI z-scores between offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers: a longitudinal study of German children from birth through 14 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:761–767;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307139

Fenske, Nora; Muller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rudiger

2014-01-01

133

Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age.  

PubMed

Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood.Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence.Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores.Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4-5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles.Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4-5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution.Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, Müller MJ, Plachta-Danielzik S, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, von Kries R. 2014. Differences in BMI z-scores between offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers: a longitudinal study of German children from birth through 14 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:761-767;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307139. PMID:24695368

Riedel, Christina; Fenske, Nora; Müller, Manfred J; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rüdiger

2014-07-01

134

Gross Correlation between Waist Hip Ratio and Blood Sugar Level in a Village.  

PubMed

Introduction: Diabetes is one of the major public health problems in Nepal. Very few studies on correlation between waist hip ratio and random blood sugar have been done in remote areas of Nepal particularly in minor ethnic groups like Thami. This study attempted to compare waist hip ratio and blood sugar level in Thami community. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in sub-health post of Lapilang village of Dolakha district of Nepal. A total of 243 local inhabitants from Thami Tribe participated in the study. Waist hip ratio was calculated after taking measurements of waist and hip using flexible measuring tape; and, blood glucose level was measured by glucometer. Results: The mean age of the participants was 46.02 years; among participants 126 (51.9%) were males and 117 (48.1%) were females. Mean waist hip ratio was 0.87, mean blood sugar level was 124.5 mg%. Increase in Waist hip ratio correlated significantly with increase in random blood sugar level both in males (p=0.008) and females (p=0.007). Conclusions: Increase in waist hip ratio is associated with increase in random blood sugar level. Therefore, there is a need of public awareness program to reduce waist circumference thus reducing weight of people to prevent development of diabetes mellitus in long run. Keywords: blood sugar level; diabetes; thami community; waist hip ratio. PMID:24362661

Kharal, P M; Prasad, P N; Aacharya, R P

2013-01-01

135

A weight-gain-for-gestational-age z score chart for the assessment of maternal weight gain in pregnancy123  

PubMed Central

Background: To establish the unbiased relation between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and perinatal health, a classification for maternal weight gain is needed that is uncorrelated with gestational age. Objective: The goal of this study was to create a weight-gain-for-gestational-age percentile and z score chart to describe the mean, SD, and selected percentiles of maternal weight gain throughout pregnancy in a contemporary cohort of US women. Design: The study population was drawn from normal-weight women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies who delivered at the Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, 1998–2008. Analyses were based on a randomly selected subset of 648 women for whom serial prenatal weight measurements were available through medical chart record abstraction (6727 weight measurements). Results: The pattern of maternal weight gain throughout gestation was estimated by using a random-effects regression model. The estimates were used to create a chart with the smoothed means, percentiles, and SDs of gestational weight gain for each week of pregnancy. Conclusion: This chart allows researchers to express total weight gain as an age-standardized z score, which can be used in epidemiologic analyses to study the association between pregnancy weight gain and adverse or physiologic pregnancy outcomes independent of gestational age.

Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Bodnar, Lisa M

2013-01-01

136

Prescreening tools for diabetes and obesity-associated dyslipidaemia: comparing BMI, waist and waist hip ratio. The D.E.S.I.R. Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the sensitivities of BMI, waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR) in identifying subjects who should be screened for diabetes and/or for obesity-associated dyslipidaemia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Central-western France. Participants More than 3000 men and women, aged 40 to 64 years, from the French study: Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome (D.E.S.I.R.). Main outcome measures Sensitivity and specificity for screened diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ? 7.0 mmol/l) and screened dyslipidaemia (triglycerides ? 2.3 mmol/l and/or HDL-cholesterol < 0.9/1.1 mmol/l (men/women)) according to BMI, waist circumference and WHR.. Results Sensitivities increased as more corpulent subjects were screened, but they increased slowly after screening the top 30%: BMI ? 27/26 kg/m2 (men/women) or waist ? 96/83 cm or WHR ? 0.96/0.83, These values were chosen as thresholds. In men, BMI had a non-significantly higher sensitivity than waist or WHR for both diabetes and dyslipidaemia (77% vs 74% and 66% P < 0.3, 0.09; 56% vs 54% and 49% P < 0.5, 0.16). For women, waist had a slightly higher sensitivity than BMI or WHR (82% vs 77% and 77% P < 0.8, 0.7) for diabetes; for dyslipidaemia, waist and WHR had similar sensitivities, higher than for BMI (65% and 67% vs 54% P < 0.16, 0.13). Conclusions We propose that for screening in a French population 40 to 64 years of age, the more obese 30% of the population, identified either by BMI, waist or WHR be screened for diabetes and obesity-associated dyslipidaemia.

Balkau, Beverley; Sapinho, David; Petrella, Anne; Mhamdi, Leila; Cailleau, Martine; Arondel, Dominique; Charles, Marie-Aline

2006-01-01

137

Waist-to-hip ratio is a better screening measure for cardiovascular risk factors than other anthropometric indicators in Tehranian adult men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is essential to identify the best anthropometric index in any population to predict chronic disease risk.OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) to predict cardiovascular risk factors in an urban adult population of Tehranian men.DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: A representative sample of 4449 men aged

A Esmaillzadeh; P Mirmiran; F Azizi

2004-01-01

138

The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in young adults from the Southern Region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and its associated factors among subjects that have been followed up from birth. In 1982, all maternity hospitals in the city of Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil, were visited and all births were recorded. Babies whose parents lived in the urban area of Pelotas were subsequently followed up on several occasions. A 22 to 23-year follow-up of this birth cohort was carried out in 2004 and 2005. The presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as waist circumference ? 90 cm and triglyceride levels ? 177 mg/dL for males, and waist circumference ? 85 cm and triglyceride levels ? 133 mg/dL for females. The prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 5.9% and 4.5% among men and women, respectively. Among males, a sedentary lifestyle during leisure time, smoking and obesity were associated with the presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, whereas among females the condition was positively associated with skin color, family income, obesity and dietary fat intake. PMID:23703005

Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel; Silveira, Vera M

2013-05-01

139

Laboratory assessment by combined z score values in proficiency tests: experience gained through the European Union proficiency tests for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The obligation for accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency tests under ISO 17025, performing multiresidue methods (MRMs) for pesticide residues, involves the reporting of a large number of individual z scores making the evaluation of the overall performance of the laboratories difficult. It entails, time and again, the need for ways to summarise the laboratory's overall assessment into a unique combined index. In addition, the need for ways to continually evaluate the performance of the laboratory over the years is equally acknowledged. For these reasons, following 14 years of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables (EUPT-FV), useful formulas have been designed to globally evaluate the assessment of the participating laboratories. The aim is to achieve a formula which is easy to understand, which can be applied and which fits the purposes of long-term evaluation detecting positive and negative trends. Moreover, consideration is needed for a fair compensation of bad results in MRM, taking into account the large number of compounds that are covered. It is therefore important to be aware of the difficulties in getting satisfactory values from a wide range of compounds. This work presents an evaluation of the main well-established combined z score formulas together with those new ones developed here which have been applied to the European proficiency test results (EUPTs) over the years. Previous formulas such as the rescaled sum of z score (RSZ), the sum squared of z score (SSZ) and the relative laboratory performance (RLP) are compared with the newer ones: the sum of weighted z scores (SWZ) and the sum of squared z scores (SZ2). By means of formula comparisons, conclusions on the advantages, drawbacks and the most fit-for-purpose approach are achieved. PMID:20571782

Medina-Pastor, P; Mezcua, M; Rodríguez-Torreblanca, C; Fernández-Alba, A R

2010-08-01

140

Weight gain and sudden infant death syndrome: changes in weight z scores may identify infants at increased risk  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To investigate patterns of infant growth that may influence the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).?DESIGN—Three year population based case control study with parental interviews for each death and four age matched controls. Growth was measured from prospective weight observations using the British 1990 Growth Reference.?SETTING—Five regions in England (population greater than 17 million, more than 470 000 live births over three years).?SUBJECTS—247 SIDS cases and 1110controls.?RESULTS—The growth rate from birth to the final weight observation was significantly poorer among the SIDS infants despite controlling for potential confounders (SIDS mean change in weight z score (?zw) = ?0.38 (SD 1.40) v controls = +0.22 (SD 1.10), multivariate: p < 0.0001). Weight gain was poorer among SIDS infants with a normal birth weight (above the 16th centile: odds ratio (OR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.07, p < 0.0001) than for those with lower birth weight (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.61-1.95, p = 0.76). There was no evidence of increased growth retardation before death.?CONCLUSIONS—Poor postnatal weight gain was independently associated with an increased risk of SIDS and could be identified at the routine six week assessment.?

Blair, P.; Nadin, P.; Cole, T.; Fleming, P.; Smith, I.; Platt, M. W.; Berry, P; Golding, J.; the, C; CARPENTER, R

2000-01-01

141

Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters.

Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

2013-01-01

142

A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities  

PubMed Central

Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Marechal, Eric

2005-01-01

143

Direct relationship of body mass index and waist circumference with body tissue distribution in elderly persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To explore the relationship of BMI and WC with muscle\\/adipose tissue mass ratios and with trunk adipose tissue distribution,\\u000a based on an anatomical 5-compartment model, by dissection of cadavers of elderly persons.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Cross-sectional explorative study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Brussels Cadaver Analysis Study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Cadavers of twenty-nine white Caucasian elderly persons (17 females and 12 males, aged 78,1±6,9 years).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  Whole body and trunk composition were

Aldo Scafoglieri; S. Provyn; Ivan Bautmans; P. Van Roy; J. P. Clarys

144

The superiority of waist-to-height ratio as an anthropometric index to evaluate clustering of coronary risk factors among non-obese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds. Overtly obesity is relatively rare among the Japanese despite the high prevalence of metabolic disorders, which suggests the need to develop simple and effective methods for assessing metabolic risks among the non-obese individuals as part of public health education.Methods. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (W\\/Ht) as indices for evaluation of clustering of coronary

Shiun Dong Hsieh; Takashi Muto

2005-01-01

145

Predictive Ability of Waist-to-Height in Relation to Adiposity in Children Is Not Improved With Age and Sex-Specific Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ?0.5 indicates increased health risk in children and adults. However, because of residual correlation between WHtR and height in children, dividing waist circumference by height to the power of one may be insufficient to correctly adjust for height during growth. This study aimed to determine whether age and sex-specific exponents which properly adjust for height affect

Rachael W. Taylor; Sheila M. Williams; Andrea M. Grant; Barry J. Taylor; Ailsa Goulding

2011-01-01

146

Augmenting BMI and Waist-Height Ratio for Establishing More Efficient Obesity Percentiles among School-going Children  

PubMed Central

Research Questions: 1. Are all the existing methods for estimating the obesity and overweight in school going children in India equally efficient? 2. How to derive more efficient obesity percentiles to determine obesity and overweight status in school-going children aged 7-12 years old? Objectives: 1. To investigate and analyze the prevalence rate of obesity and overweight children in India, using the established standards. 2. To compare the efficiency among the tools with the expected levels in the Indian population. 3. To establish and demonstrate the higher efficiency of the proposed percentile chart. Study Design: A cross-sectional study using a completely randomized design. Settings: Government, private-aided, unaided, and central schools in the Thrissur district of Kerala. Participants: A total of 1500 boys and 1500 girls aged 7-12 years old. Results: BMI percentiles, waist circumference percentiles, and waist to height ratio are the ruling methodologies in establishing the obese and overweight relations in school-going children. Each one suffers from the disadvantage of not considering either one or more of the obesity contributing factors in human growth dynamics, the major being waist circumference and weight. A new methodology for mitigating this defect through considering BMI and waist circumference simultaneously for establishing still efficient percentiles to arrive at obesity and overweight status is detailed here. Age-wise centiles for obesity and overweight status separately for boys and girls aged 7-12 years old were established. Comparative efficiency of this methodology over BMI had shown that this could mitigate the inability of BMI to consider waist circumference. Also, this had the advantage of considering body weight in obesity analysis, which is the major handicap in waist to height ratio. An analysis using a population of 1500 boys and 1500 girls has yielded 3.6% obese and 6.2% overweight samples, which is well within the accepted range for Indian school-going children. Conclusion: The percentiles for school-going children based on age and sex were derived by comparing all other accepted standards used for measurement of obesity and overweight status. Hence, augmenting BMI and waist to height ratio is considered to be the most reliable method for establishing obesity percentiles among school-going children.

Panjikkaran, Seeja Thomachan; Kumari, KS

2009-01-01

147

Relationship of Circumference to Diameter ~ Understanding Pi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will develop an understanding of the meaning of pi and how it relates to the relationship to circumference and diameter. This is a hands-on activity where students measure circular objects and calculate the relationship of the circumference to the diameter.

Speece, Cindy

2012-07-25

148

Neck circumference and central obesity are independent predictors of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography  

PubMed Central

Excess of adiposity is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, but it remains unclear if the distribution of fat is an effect modifier or if the risk is mediate by hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. We investigated the association of central in addition to general obesity with coronary artery disease (CAD). A case-control study was conducted in 376 patients, aged 40 years or more, with chronic coronary disease, undergoing elective coronary angiography. Excess of adiposity was evaluated by the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and neck circumference. Cases (n=155) were patients referred for coronary angiography with at least 50% of coronary stenosis in at least one epicardial vessels or their branches, with diameter greater than 2.5 mm. Controls (n=221) were patients referred for coronary angiography without significant coronary disease. Odds ratios and 95%CI for significant coronary stenosis were calculated using multiple logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, years at school, smoking, hypertension, HDL-cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and an adiposity index. There was a predominance of men and individuals older than 50 years among cases. The waist-hip ratio increased four times the chance of CAD, even after the control for confounding factors, including BMI. Neck circumference above the 90th Percentile doubled the chance of CAD, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Neck circumference and waist-hip ratio are independent predictors of CAD, even taking into account traditional risk factors for CAD. These findings highlight the need of anthropometric assessment among patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

Zen, Vanessa; Fuchs, Flavio D; Wainstein, Marco V; Goncalves, Sandro C; Biavatti, Karina; Riedner, Charles E; Fuchs, Felipe C; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Rhoden, Ernani L; Ribeiro, Jorge P; Fuchs, Sandra C

2012-01-01

149

Hypertriglyceridemic waist: A useful screening phenotype in preventive cardiology?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide increase in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes represents a tremendous challenge for the Canadian health care system, especially if we consider that this phenomenon may largely be explained by the epidemic of obesity. However, despite the well-recognized increased morbidity and mortality associated with an elevated body weight, there is now more and more evidence highlighting the importance of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (visceral adipose tissue) as the fat depot conveying the greatest risk of metabolic complications. In this regard, body fat distribution, especially visceral adipose tissue accumulation, has been found to be a key correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic and inflammatory metabolic abnormalities now often referred to as the metabolic syndrome. This dysmetabolic profile is predictive of a substantially increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) even in the absence of hyperglycemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or hypertension. For instance, some features of the metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, elevated apolipoprotein B and small low-density lipoprotein particles – the so-called atherogenic metabolic triad) have been associated with a more than 20-fold increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease in middle-aged men enrolled in the Quebec Cardiovascular Study. This cluster of metabolic complications has also been found to be predictive of a substantially increased risk of CAD beyond the presence of traditional risk factors. These results emphasize the importance of taking into account in daily clinical practice the presence of metabolic complications associated with abdominal obesity together with traditional risk factors to properly evaluate the cardiovascular risk profile of patients. From a risk assessment standpoint, on the basis of additional work conducted by several groups, there is now evidence that the simultaneous presence of an elevated waist circumference and fasting triglyceride levels (a condition that has been described as hypertriglyceridemic waist) may represent a relevant first-step approach to identify a subgroup of individuals at higher risk of being carriers of the features of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, a moderate weight loss in initially abdominally obese patients is associated with a selective mobilization of visceral adipose tissue, leading to improvements in the metabolic risk profile predictive of a reduced risk of CAD and type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, hypertriglyceridemic waist as a marker of visceral obesity and related metabolic abnormalities is a useful and practical clinical phenotype to screen persons at risk for CAD and type 2 diabetes.

Lemieux, Isabelle; Poirier, Paul; Bergeron, Jean; Almeras, Natalie; Lamarche, Benoit; Cantin, Bernard; Dagenais, Gilles R; Despres, Jean-Pierre

2007-01-01

150

Reference values and Z-scores for subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness - results from a large population-based sample (Framingham) and comparison with the non-exposed Osteoarthritis Initiative reference cohort  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective To establish sex-specific (subregional) reference values of cartilage thickness and potential maximal Z-scores in the femorotibial joint. Methods The mean cartilage thickness (ThCtAB.Me) in femorotibial compartments, plates and subregions was determined on coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from a population-based sample (Framingham) and from a healthy reference sample of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Results 686 Framingham participants (309 men, 377 women, age 62 ± 8 years) had no radiographic femorotibial osteoarthritis (OA) (“normals”) and 376 (156 men, 220 women) additionally had no MRI features of cartilage lesions (“supernormals”). The Framingham “normals” had thinner cartilage in the medial (3.59 mm) than in the lateral femorotibial compartment (3.86 mm). Medially, the femur displayed thicker cartilage (1.86 mm) than the tibia (1.73 mm), and laterally the tibia thicker cartilage (2.09 mm) than the femur (1.77 mm). The thickest cartilage was observed in central, and the thinnest in external femorotibial subregions. Potential maximal Z-scores ranged from 5.6 to 9.8 throughout the subregions; men displayed thicker cartilage but similar potential maximal Z-scores as women. Mean values and potential maximal Z-scores in Framingham “supernormals” and non-exposed OAI reference participants (112 participants without symptoms or risk factors of knee OA) were similar to Framingham “normals”. Conclusions We provide reference values and potential maximal Z-scores of cartilage thickness in middle aged to elderly non-diseased populations without radiographic OA. Results were similar for “supernormal” participants without MRI features of cartilage lesions, and in a cohort without OA symptoms or risk factors. A cartilage thickness loss of around 27% is required for attaining a Z-score of ?2.

Eckstein, F.; Yang, M.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.W.; Hudelmaier, M.; Picha, K.; Baribaud, F.; Wirth, W.; Felson, D.T.

2010-01-01

151

Attend To Precision: Circumference and Diameter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #6âattend to precision. The video clip shows two important instances of the idea of precision; that precision is important in their measurements of the circumference and diameter and in their use of vocabulary in context as they discover the relationship between circumference, diameter, circles, and pi. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

152

Circle Problems - Radius, Diameter, Circumference and Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "fill-in-the-blank" worksheet allows students to generate radius, diameter, circumference, and area for circles given only one of those measurements. There are eight problems and students may check their problems at the end or get a hint when they are stuck. There is also linksin the instructions which review the formulae for the area and circumference of a circle that they can consult as they solve.

2006-01-01

153

Waist dermatoses in Indian women wearing saree.  

PubMed

Presence of any skin lesion along the waistline in 140 female patients was recorded. We found that most of them had some lesions over the waist, but only few of them accepted the fact. The commonest cutaneous change observed were hyperpigmentation and scaling. But we failed to find any association with diabetes, atopy, skin type, abesity or the type of fabric. PMID:17642842

Eapen, B R; Shabana, S; Anandan, S

2003-01-01

154

G-GMD Circumference of a circle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose we define $\\pi$ to be the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 1: Explain why the circumference of a circle with radius $r \\gt 0$ is $2\\...

155

Effect of Breastfeeding on Head Circumference of Children from Impoverished Communities  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This study investigated the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on head circumference (HC) among children living in impoverished communities. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among children 12–60 months old from the 39 quilombos located in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. HC deficit was defined by a z-score of less than ?2 from the median (based on the 2006 World Health Organization growth standards). Prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance, and estimates were adjusted for possible confounders (anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related variables). Results We evaluated 725 children (365 boys and 360 girls). The prevalence of HC deficit was 13.3% among those children who were exclusively breastfed for less than 30 days, 10.6% among those exclusively breastfed for 30–119 days, and 5.8% among those who were exclusively breastfed for 120 days or more. Even after controlling for possible confounding variables, exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months decreased the risk of HC deficit (prevalence ratio, 0.48; 95% CI 0.24, 0.99). Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months was associated with a larger HC in children exposed to great social vulnerability in impoverished communities.

Xavier Junior, Antonio Fernando Silva; de Assuncao, Monica Lopes; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

2013-01-01

156

Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women were selected among study participants of Multiethnic Cohort, who were of ages 60–65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 40 kg/m2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (p=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (p=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (p=0.03) and percent liver fat (p=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size may also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants may be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution.

Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loic

2012-01-01

157

Head Circumference, Brain Weight, and Tumor Burden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure to diagnose an ependymoma at an appropriately early age led to an incomplete excision and a tumor burden too great for radiotherapy to control. The development of normative curves for brain weight correlated with head circumference allowed for the estimates of the extremes of possible growth rates of the tumor. The importance of early diagnosis and combined surgical

Ellsworth C. Alvord

1986-01-01

158

Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators in several epidemiologic studies have observed an inverse association between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk, while others have not. The authors used data from the Women's Health Initiative to study the association of anthropometric factors with lung cancer risk. Over 8 years of follow-up (1998-2006), 1,365 incident lung cancer cases were ascertained among 161,809 women. Cox

Geoffrey C. Kabat; Mimi Kim; Julie R. Hunt; Rowan T. Chlebowski; Thomas E. Rohan

2008-01-01

159

Built Environment and 1Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006-2007 to 2007-2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard

M. Moore; Alan Acock; Naruepon Vongjaturapat

2009-01-01

160

Neck circumference as an independent predictive contributor to cardio-metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The predictive potentials of neck circumference (NC) for cardio-metabolic risks remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NC independently contributes to the prediction of cardio-metabolic risks beyond body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHpR) in a large Chinese population. Methods A total of 4201 participants (2508 men and 1693 women) aged 20-85 were recruited from the Health Examination Centre between May 2009 and April 2010, anthropometric indices, biochemical and clinical parameters were measured. Receiver operating characteristic, partial correlation and logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate the association of the anthropometric indices to cardio-metabolic risks separately by gender. Results Neck circumference was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (r=0.250 and 0.261), fasting blood glucose (FBP) (r=0.177), TG (r=0.240), TC (r=0.143) and LDL-C (r=0.088) and negatively correlated with HDL-C (r=-0.202) in males (all P<0.01). Similar results were found in females with the exception of TC. The AUCs of NC for metabolic abnormalities ranged from 0.558 (Increased LDL-C) to 0.683 (MS-rf) in men and 0.596 (Increased LDL-C) to 0.703 (MS-rf) in women (P<0.01). The NC of ?37 cm for men and ?33 cm for women were the best cut-off points for metabolic syndrome. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of NC in men and women respectively were 1.29 (1.12-1.48) and 1.44 (1.20-1.72) for metabolic syndrome risk factors (MS-rf), 1.15 (1.01-1.32) and 1.22 (1.03-1.46) for high BP, 1.16 (1.02-1.33) and 1.42 (1.18-1.71) for increased TG, and 1.26 (1.06-1.50) and 1.32 (1.06-1.65) for increased FBP; the adjusted OR of NC in women for decreased HDL-C was 1.29 (1.10-1.51). Conclusions Neck circumference was significantly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors and independently contributed to the prediction of cardio-metabolic risks beyond the classical anthropometric indices in adults of China.

2013-01-01

161

Predicting percent body fat from circumference measurements.  

PubMed

All U.S. Navy service members are required to meet percent body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF can be separated from active duty. Currently, %BF predictions are determined by circumference measurements and a prediction equation (circumference equation = CEQ). In view of the importance these prediction results have for personnel retention, a validation study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of %BF prediction for a population determined to be overfat by the CEQ. The population for the validation study comprised men with 22%BF or greater and women with 30%BF or greater. Values for %BF were determined for 49 men and 50 women by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and circumference measurements at the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL) using a regression equation developed at the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC), San Diego, California. The HW and CEQ values were compared to a superset of the original NHRC population. The correlation coefficients for the NSMRL validation group were lower than those reported in the original NHRC group. The results are attributed to the restricted range of NSMRL data and greater error of prediction at extreme ranges of values. A medical diagnostic model was used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of CEQ. It shows that the Navy's current procedures produce a 6.8 to 18% false positive rate for individuals declared as having excess body fat. The data suggest that caution should be utilized when using the CEQ method for individual career decisions. PMID:8437737

Shake, C L; Schlichting, C; Mooney, L W; Callahan, A B; Cohen, M E

1993-01-01

162

[Waist-hip and waist-thigh index in obesity especially in relation to weight reduction].  

PubMed

Waist-hip index (WHI) and waist-thigh index (WTI) were determined in 18 obese males and 24 females, respectively, before and after weight reduction, in comparison to this in 12 males and 10 females in normal weight. Under weight reduction the two indices in males were significantly reduced in correlation to the relative weight. In females analogous changes could not be proved. Furthermore, the WHI was significantly lower in persons with normal weight than in obese ones (males and females), the WTI only in females. - In obese males, however, not in males with normal weight the WHI processes a prediction value for the atherogenic risk, which is at least adequate to the value of up to now wellknown parameters (relative weight, body mass index etc.). PMID:2609698

Beykirch, H; Reuter, W; Hunecke, I

1989-11-01

163

Birth month associations with height, head circumference, and limb lengths among peruvian children.  

PubMed

Associations between season of birth and body size, morbidity, and mortality have been widely documented, but it is unclear whether different parts of the body are differentially sensitive, and if such effects persist through childhood. This may be relevant to understanding the relationship between early life environment and body size and proportions. We investigated associations between birth month and anthropometry among rural highland (n?=?162) and urban lowland (n?=?184) Peruvian children aged 6 months to 8 years. Stature; head-trunk height; total limb, ulna, tibia, hand, and foot lengths; head circumference; and limb measurements relative to head-trunk height were converted to internal age-sex-specific z scores. Lowland and highland datasets were then analyzed separately for birth month trends using cosinor analysis, as urban conditions likely provide a more consistent environment compared with anticipated seasonal variation in the rural highlands. Among highland children birth month associations were significant most strongly for tibia length, followed by total lower limb length and stature, with a peak among November births. Results were not significant for other measurements or among lowland children. The results suggest a prenatal or early postnatal environmental effect on growth that is more marked in limb lengths than trunk length or head size, and persists across the age range studied. We suggest that the results may reflect seasonal variation in maternal nutrition in the rural highlands, but other hypotheses such as variation in maternal vitamin D levels cannot be excluded. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:115-124, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24482290

Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

2014-05-01

164

Neck circumference as a measure of neck fat and abdominal visceral fat in Chinese adults  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a unique pathogenic fatty deposit, in that it is closely correlated with risk of cardiovascular diseases. The present study is to investigate the usefulness of neck circumference (NC) to indicate VAT. Methods Participants aged 35 to 75 years who had taken abdomen and neck computer tomography (CT) examination were included in this study. Neck adipose tissue, abdominal VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas, as well as sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) were measured by CT. Body anthropometrics and metabolic parameters including blood glucose, lipid profiles and blood pressure were also measured. Results A lower abdomen CT examination was carried out on a total of 177 patients (87 male and 90 female) with a mean age of 59 years. Of the 177 participants, 15 men and 15 women also took a neck CT examination. With a comparable age and BMI, neck adipose area was correlated with abdominal VAT area significantly in men (r?=?0.57, p?=?0.028) and women (r?=?0.53, p?=?0.041). NC is positively correlated with VAT both in men (r?=?0.49, p?waist circumference (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) correlated significantly with VAT both in men and women (r?=?0.68, 0.42, 0.46 in men and 0.50, 0.23, 0.39 in women, p?waist hip ratio (WHR) displayed the weakest least correlation in men (r?=?0.32, p?=?0.001) and no correlation in women (r?=?0.08, p?=?0.442). Additionally, BMI was more strongly correlated with VAT than NC in both sexes (both p?

2014-01-01

165

Measuring chest circumference change during respiration with an electromagnetic biosensor.  

PubMed

In this paper, an off-the-shelf DC motor is modified into a chest belt and used to successfully measure circumference change on a mechanical chest model, while simultaneously harvesting significant power. Chest circumference change can provide information on tidal volume, which is vital in assessing lung function. The chest circumference change is calculated from the motor's voltage output. Calculated values are within 0.95mm of measured circumference changes, with a standard deviation of 0.37mm. The wearable motor can also harvest at least 29.4µW during normal breathing. PMID:24110093

Padasdao, Bryson; Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

2013-01-01

166

Agreement between body mass index, calf circumference, arm circumference, habitual energy intake and the MNA in hospitalized elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  This study aimed to assess the agreement between body mass index, calf circumference, arm circumference, habitual energy intake\\u000a and the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and then assess the accuracy of these parameters in relation to the MNA.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  The nutritional status of 132 hospitalized elderly was assessed with the MNA, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC)\\u000a and arm circumference (AC).

Vânia Aparecida Leandro-Merhi; José Luiz Braga De Aquino; José Gonzaga Teixeira De Camargo

167

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Adults in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) performed better than, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) in relation to hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults in Beijing. Methods A total of 5720 adults (2371 men and 3349 nonpregnant women) aged 18 to 79 years were selected from the general population in a cross-sectional study. Data from a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, and blood sample were obtained. Results The area under curve (AUC) values for WHtR (0.661–0.773) were significantly higher than those for BMI for all outcomes in both sexes, except that WHtR and BMI had similar AUCs for dyslipidemia in men. The AUCs for WHtR were significantly higher than those for WC with respect to hypertension in both sexes, and to diabetes in women. AUCs for the relationships between anthropometric indices and the three outcomes were larger in women than in men, and tended to decrease with age. Optimal cutoffs for WHtR were 0.51–0.53 and 0.48–0.50 in men and women, respectively. With regard to the current Chinese criteria for BMI (?24 kg/m2), WC (?90 cm for men, and ?85 cm for women), and the recommended cutoff of WHtR (?0.5), WHtR yielded the greatest odds ratio for hypertension and diabetes in both sexes, and dyslipidemia in women. BMI had the highest odds ratio for dyslipidemia in men. The odds ratios of anthropometric indices for hypertension and diabetes, but not for dyslipidemia, were higher in women than in men. The association between anthropometric indices and the three outcomes decreased with age. Conclusion WHtR performed better than BMI and WC for the association with hypertension and diabetes. More studies should be conducted to explore the age differences in the relationships between obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors.

Cai, Li; Liu, Aiping; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

2013-01-01

168

Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between the HW phenotype and risk for CKD in a community population aged 40 years and older. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1, Waist circumference >90 cm in men or >85 cm in women and triglycerides ?2 mmol/l; Group 3, Waist circumference ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women and triglycerides <2 mmol/l; Group 2, The remaining participants. The prevalence of the three subgroups and CKD were determined. The association between HW phenotype and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 13.0). Results After adjusting for age and sex, Group 1 was associated with CKD (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.01, 4.73, P<0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders and unlikely to be in the causal pathway between the HW phenotype and CKD, Group 1 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 2.65 (95% CI 1.65, 4.26, P<0.001). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association of Group 1 and CKD was still significant (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26, 3.45, P?=?0.004). Group 2 was associated with CKD (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29, 2.53, P?=?0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders, Group 2 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 1.75 (95% CI 1.22, 2.51, P?=?0.002). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association between Group 2 and CKD still existed. The OR for CKD was 1.48 (95% CI 1.01, 2.16, P?=?0.046). Conclusion Our results showed that HW phenotype was associated with CKD in the population aged 40 years and older.

Shao, Xiaofei; Liu, Xinyu; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthofer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

2014-01-01

169

Sex assessment on the basis of long bone circumference.  

PubMed

Discriminant functions have long been used to classify individuals into groups according to the dimensions of their bones. Although lengths, widths, and diameters have been extensively used, the circumferences have not been adequately validated. In this work, the importance that the circumferences of long bones can have in assigning the sex of ancient human remains is demonstrated. The functions produced by using just one circumference achieved accuracies higher than 80%, and circumference at the radial tuberosity of the radius is able to classify 92.8% of skeletons from the Late Roman site of Mas Rimbau/Mas Mallol (Spain). When functions are produced by using more than one circumference, they can achieve the uppermost classification attained in this sample. The functions also showed that the arm circumference functions are more useful than those of the leg, probably because male individuals of the population had greater mechanical stress than did females. The classification percentages, as well as other statistical values for the functions, demonstrated the great ability of long bone circumferences in helping to classify the sex of individuals of other sites of the Mediterranean area besides the ones examined in this study. PMID:11042535

Safont, S; Malgosa, A; Subirà, M E

2000-11-01

170

Circumference Correction Chicanes for Damping Rings(LCC-0008)  

SciTech Connect

Several large low-emittance damping rings are presently being designed to meet the requirements of future linear colliders. These rings tend to have relatively large circumferences {approx}300 m so that they can damp many trains of bunches at the same time. With the large circumference, the path length around the ring may become quite sensitive to thermal and ground motion effects. In addition, most of the rings include damping wigglers whose path length varies with their strength.

Emma, P

2004-04-22

171

Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.  

PubMed

We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

2012-01-01

172

Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor  

PubMed Central

We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; Lopez, Antonio; Gonzalez, Rafael C.

2012-01-01

173

Blind men prefer a low waist-to-hip ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that men in Western societies are attracted to low female waist-to-hip ratios (WHR). Several explanations of this preference rely on the importance of visual input for the development of the preference, including explanations stressing the role of visual media. We report evidence showing that congenitally blind men, without previous visual experience, exhibit a preference for low female

Johan C. Karremans; Willem E. Frankenhuis; Sander Arons

2010-01-01

174

Alternative Class Ranks Using Z-Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in…

Brown, Philip H.; Van Niel, Nicholas

2012-01-01

175

A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 0·5 could be a suitable global boundary value.  

PubMed

This systematic review collated seventy-eight studies exploring waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) or BMI as predictors of diabetes and CVD, published in English between 1950 and 2008. Twenty-two prospective analyses showed that WHtR and WC were significant predictors of these cardiometabolic outcomes more often than BMI, with similar OR, sometimes being significant predictors after adjustment for BMI. Observations from cross-sectional analyses, forty-four in adults, thirteen in children, supported these predictions. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed mean area under ROC (AUROC) values of 0·704, 0·693 and 0·671 for WHtR, WC and BMI, respectively. Mean boundary values for WHtR, covering all cardiometabolic outcomes, from studies in fourteen different countries and including Caucasian, Asian and Central American subjects, were 0·50 for men and 0·50 for women. WHtR and WC are therefore similar predictors of diabetes and CVD, both being stronger than, and independent of, BMI. To make firmer statistical comparison, a meta-analysis is required. The AUROC analyses indicate that WHtR may be a more useful global clinical screening tool than WC, with a weighted mean boundary value of 0·5, supporting the simple public health message 'keep your waist circumference to less than half your height'. PMID:20819243

Browning, Lucy M; Hsieh, Shiun Dong; Ashwell, Margaret

2010-12-01

176

Birth weight and head circumference standards for English twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to provide reliable up to date information on birth weights and occipitofrontal head circumference measurements in relation to gestational age for English newborn twins. Records from 36 maternity units in England, mainly from 1988-92, have provided data on birth weights for over 19,000 newborn twins with gestational ages ranging from 23 to 41 weeks, and on

J M Buckler; M Green

1994-01-01

177

Dose-Response Effect of Cocaine on Newborn Head Circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the relationship between head circumference, birth weight, and cocaine dose in healthy term and near-term newborns exposed to cocaine in utero. Methods. We used radioimmune assay (RIAH) of co- caine metabolite in maternal hair to quantify third tri- mester cocaine exposure in 240 healthy newborn infants (gestational age: >36 weeks). Cocaine exposure was cat- egorized into 3

David A. Bateman; Claudia A. Chiriboga

2000-01-01

178

Approximating the Circumference and Area of a Circle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry, difficulty level 2. Take a circle and circumscribe a square and inscribe a square. Constuct a square between the other two squares, and compare the area and the perimeter of the middle square with the area and circumference of the circle.

Forum, Math; Fetter, Annie

2001-01-01

179

A micronutrient powder with low doses of highly absorbable iron and zinc reduces iron and zinc deficiency and improves weight-for-age Z-scores in South African children.  

PubMed

Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in a single serving. The aim was to test the efficacy of a low-iron and -zinc (each 2.5 mg) MNP containing iron as NaFeEDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), and an exogenous phytase active at gut pH. In a double-blind controlled trial, South African school children with low iron status (n = 200) were randomized to receive either the MNP or the unfortified carrier added just before consumption to a high-phytate maize porridge 5 d/wk for 23 wk; primary outcomes were iron and zinc status and a secondary outcome was somatic growth. Compared with the control, the MNP increased serum ferritin (P < 0.05), body iron stores (P < 0.01) and weight-for-age Z-scores (P < 0.05) and decreased transferrin receptor (P < 0.05). The prevalence of iron deficiency fell by 30.6% (P < 0.01) and the prevalence of zinc deficiency decreased by 11.8% (P < 0.05). Absorption of iron from the MNP was estimated to be 7-8%. Inclusion of an exogenous phytase combined with NaFeEDTA and AA may allow a substantial reduction in the iron dose from existing MNP while still delivering adequate iron and zinc. In addition, the MNP is likely to enhance absorption of the high native iron content of complementary foods based on cereals and/or legumes. PMID:21178093

Troesch, Barbara; van Stuijvenberg, Martha E; van Stujivenberg, Martha E; Smuts, Cornelius M; Kruger, H Salomè; Biebinger, Ralf; Hurrell, Richard F; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zimmermann, Michael B

2011-02-01

180

Adiposity indices in the prediction of insulin resistance in prepubertal Colombian children  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare BMI with abdominal skinfold thickness (ASF), waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) in prepubertal Colombian children. Design We calculated age- and sex-specific Z-scores for BMI, ASF, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and three other skinfold-thickness sites. Logistic regression with stepwise selection (P = 0·80 for entry and P = 0·05 for retention) was performed to identify predictors of IR and extreme IR, which were determined by age- and sex-specific Z-scores to identify the ? 90th and ? 95th percentile of homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR), respectively. We used receiver operating characteristic curves to compare the area under the curve between models. Setting Bucaramanga, Colombia. Subjects Children (n 1261) aged 6–10 years in Tanner stage 1 from a population-based study. Results A total of 127 children (seventy girls and fifty-seven boys) were classified with IR, including sixty-three children (thirty-three girls and thirty boys) classified with extreme IR. Only ASF and BMI Z-scores were retained as predictors of IR by stepwise selection. Adding ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·794 (95% CI 0·752, 0·837) to 0·811 (95% CI 0·770, 0·851; P for contrast = 0·01). In predicting extreme IR, the addition of ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·837 (95% CI 0·790, 0·884) to 0·864 (95% CI 0·823, 0·905; P for contrast = 0·01). Conclusions ASF Z-score predicted IR independent of BMI Z-score in our population of prepubertal children. ASF and BMI Z-scores together improved IR risk stratification compared with BMI Z-score alone, opening new perspectives in the prediction of cardiometabolic risk in prepubertal children.

Mueller, Noel T; Pereira, Mark A; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Rodriguez, Diana C; Duran, Alvaro E; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Villa-Roel, Cristina

2012-01-01

181

Attenuated metabolic effect of waist measurement in Japanese female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Waist circumference (WC) was measured in 200 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM: male 106, female 94, mean age 61 years old) who had been admitted in our hospital, and relationship with various risk factors to predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was analyzed. There was a positive and statistically significant trend in WC levels with an increasing number of CVD risk factors in male patients, whereas no significant trend of WC was observed in female patients. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for WC to predict the presence of two or more risk factors of CVD depicted greater area under the curve in male patients (0.732) than that in female patients (0.571). Apart from positive correlation with fasting serum C-peptide (S-CPR) and log-transformed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (log HS-CRP) in both genders, WC was positively correlated with log-transformed triglyceride (log TG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and negatively with HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) in male patients, whereas it was negatively correlated with HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in female patients. The change of WC after administration (DeltaWC) was correlated with DeltaS-CPR, DeltaLDL-C, DeltaSBP and DeltaDBP in male patients, while no relationship was observed in female patients. In conclusion, WC is a reliable marker to predict future CVD events at least in Japanese male, but not female patients with T2DM. PMID:18786739

Tajiri, Yuji; Takei, Ryoko; Mimura, Kazuo; Umeda, Fumio

2008-10-01

182

FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European and African-American youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity,

Gaifen Liu; Haidong Zhu; Vasiliki Lagou; Bernard Gutin; Inger S Stallmann-Jorgensen; Frank A Treiber; Yanbin Dong; Harold Snieder

2010-01-01

183

Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: You can enter up to 10 e-mail addresses (separate with commas): * Send to: * Your e-mail: E-mail a copy to myself The information used on this

184

Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

185

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

186

The association between low physical fitness and high body mass index or waist circumference is increasing with age in children: the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate physical fitness and body composition of children involved in the ‘Québec en Forme’ (QEF) Project and to compare data obtained to the reference values of the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS).Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 1140 children (591 boys and 549 girls) of first (7 years), second (8 years) and fourth (10 years) grade from primary schools in the

M Brunet; J-P Chaput; A Tremblay

2007-01-01

187

Association between waist circumference (WC) values and hypertension, heart disease (HD) and diabetes, reported by the elderly - SABE survey: Health, wellness and aging, 2000 and 2006.  

PubMed

The positive association between WC and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus (DM) and HD calls for investigation in the elderly. The objective of the present study was to identify WC values, so as better to determine the risk of these diseases. This was a longitudinal study using the data of 405 elderly participants of the SABE Survey: Health, Well-being and Aging, undertaken in São Paulo, in 2000 and 2006. The study variables were WC, sex, age group, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) (2000) and SAH, DM and HD (2006). The area under the Receiver Operating Caracteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) and confidence intervals of 95% was used to estimate the performance of WC values in correctly discriminating among the elderly, according to the reference or not to diseases associated with WC. WC critical values were identified by the highest positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) equal to zero. The AUC showed the satisfactory performance of WC critical values in discriminating between reports of DM in individuals of 60-74 years of age. The WC critical values identified were ?87cm for women and ?99cm for men, which presented a better performance in relation to the AUC value than to the WC values commonly used. The WC critical values identified in this study showed better discriminatory power of foretelling reference to DM than did the WC values commonly used. PMID:24708903

A G Gouveia, Luiza; Marucci, Maria de Fátima N; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira

2014-01-01

188

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: You can enter up to 10 e-mail addresses (separate with commas): * Send to: * Your e-mail: E-mail a copy to myself The information used on this

189

Rice-eating pattern and the risk of metabolic syndrome especially waist circumference in Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome poses a serious health threat in Asian countries. Rice is a staple food in Korea, and carbohydrate intake is associated with the risk of MetS. We hypothesized that various rice-eating patterns in a carbohydrate-based diet would have different effects on the risk of MetS. Methods Participants were 26,006 subjects enrolled in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2004 and 2006. They were classified into four dietary patterns - white rice, rice with beans, rice with multi-grains, and mixed based on their food frequency questionnaire responses. We compared metabolic risk traits according to the rice-eating patterns. Results Nutrients consumption and the presence of MetS risk factors differed according to rice-eating patterns. In men odds ratio(OR) for central obesity was slightly elevated in mixed group(1.18). In women, the risk for central obesity and abnormal fasting glucose were lower in the rice with beans group (adjusted OR =0.79, 0.83 respectively) and central obesity in rice with multi-grains(adjusted OR=0.91) than the white rice group. In postmenopausal women, ORs for central obesity (0.78) and abnormal fasting glucose (0.75) in the rice with beans group and ORs for central obesity (0.83), abnormal HDL-cholesterol (0.87) and MetS(0.85) in the rice with multi-grains group was lower than those in white rice group. In premenopausal women, the risk for central obesity (OR=0.77) was reduced in the rice with beans group. Conclusion The risk for MetS was lower in the rice with beans and rice with multi-grains groups compared with the white rice group, particularly in postmenopausal women.

2013-01-01

190

Body fat determination by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and its relation to body mass index and waist circumference in Hong Kong Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in the Chinese population of Hong Kong and to investigate whether the newly proposed lower BMI cut-offs for obesity in the Asia-Pacific Region recommended jointly by the International Association for the Study of Obesity, the International Obesity Task Force and the WHO are appropriate for Hong

M He; KCB Tan; ETS Li; AWC Kung

2001-01-01

191

Does antenatal corticosteroid therapy affect birth weight and head circumference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether antenatal corticosteroid use is associated with weight and head circumference at birth.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of nonanomalous newborns admitted to 100 neonatal intensive care units from 23 to 34 6\\/7 weeks of gestation using multivariable analysis of variance that controlled for several potentially confounding variables.RESULTS: There were 14,338 cases of birth weight and 13,670

James A Thorp; Philip G Jones; Eric Knox; Reese H Clark

2002-01-01

192

Implementation of Double-Waist Chicane Optics in SPEAR3  

SciTech Connect

The SPEAR3 accelerator upgrade opened up two 7.6m racetrack straights in the magnet lattice. In one of these straights, we recently added a magnetic chicane to separate two insertion device (ID) beam lines by 10mrad. A quadrupole triplet in the center creates a ''double focus'' optics with {beta}y = 1.6m at the middle of each ID, hence the term ''double-waist chicane''. The new optics also reduced {beta}y in the four matching straights adjacent to the racetrack straights to 2.5m. In this paper, we outline design features of the optics and physical implementation of the lattice.

Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Dao, T.; Dell'Orco, D.; Rafael, F.; Harrington, D.; Hettel, R.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Rarback, H.; Ringwall, A.; Safranek, J.; Scott, B.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Widmeyer, M.; /SLAC, SSRL; Yoon, Moohyun; /POSTECH

2006-08-16

193

Waist height ratio: A universal screening tool for prediction of metabolic syndrome in urban and rural population of Haryana  

PubMed Central

Aims: To compare waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and define an appropriate cut-off, which is most closely predictive of the non-adipose components of the IDF metabolic syndrome (MetS) definition. Methods and Results: A total of 3,042 adults (1,693 in rural area and 1,349 in urban area) were screened for the presence of MetS according to the IDF definition. Among 3,042 adults selected as subjects, 1,518 were male and 1,524 were female. The receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was done to determine the optimal cut-off value and the best discriminatory value of each of these anthropometric parameters to predict two or more non-obese components of metabolic syndrome. The area under ROC (AURC) for WC was superior to that for other anthropometric variables. The optimal cut-off value of WC in urban and rural males was >89 cm, which is higher than that in urban and rural females at 83 cm and 79 cm, respectively; the optimal cut-off for WHtR was >0.51 in rural females, 0.52 in rural males, and 0.53 in both urban males and females. Both parameters were found to be better than BMI and WHR. ROC and AURC values for WC were better than those for WHtR in men and women in both urban and rural areas (P = 0.0054); however, when the entire study cohort was analyzed together, irrespective of gender and place of residence, then at a value of 0.52, WHtR scored over WC as a predictor of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Although the predictive value of different gender-specific WC values is clearly superior to other anthropometric measures for predicting two or more non-adipose components of MetS, a single value of WHtR irrespective of gender and the area of residence can be used as a universal screening tool for the identification of individuals at high risk of development of metabolic complications.

Rajput, Rajesh; Rajput, Meena; Bairwa, Mohan; Singh, Jasminder; Saini, Ompal; Shankar, Vijay

2014-01-01

194

Determination of maturity at birth: further observations on a maturity scoring system for head circumference and mid-arm circumference.  

PubMed

Over a 3-month period, 114 infants were analysed to establish the reliability and usefulness of the maturity scoring for mid-arm circumference (MAC) and head circumference using the Dubowitz system as standard. Total maturity scores of the two methods showed highly significant correlation with gestational age. There was also a highly significant correlation between total maturity scores of both methods. The usefulness of the model was suggested by its comparable accuracy to the Dubowitz system. The model, however, was a significantly more rapid method of assessment. The clinical usefulness of the model was reinforced by its ability to distinguish between appropriately grown preterm low-birth weight (LBW) and growth retarded term LBW infants. The model is a rapid, reliable and useful method of determination of maturity at birth. PMID:8513729

Eregie, C O

1993-01-01

195

Estimate the Circumference of the Earth using Eratosthenes' Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, from the Real World Learning Objects Resource Library, helps students estimate the circumference of the earth by recreating "Eratosthenes' amazing experiment utilizing data generated from the Stevens-sponsored telecollaborative project the Noon Day Project." This site explains the 60-minute activity, complete with learning goals, step-by-step classroom procedures, materials, assessment activities, and resources for further information. The "Content Materials" section contains instructions for students, background information, and graphics to help students understand Eratosthenes' experiment. Combining math and science principles, this is an excellent ready-to-use and easy-to-adapt resource for educators to use in the trigonometry classroom.

Koen, Joshua

2009-11-16

196

The Short Circumference Damping Ring Design for the ILC  

SciTech Connect

The ILC damping ring tentative design is driven by the operational scenario of the main linac, the beam-dynamics demand of producing a stable and high-quality beam, the injection/extraction scheme and the kicker performance. In this paper, a short circumference damping ring design based on TME cells is described. The ring accommodates injection kickers which provide a flat top of 280 nsec and a 60 nsec rise and fall time and very fast strip-line kickers for beam extraction with a 2 nsec rise and fall time for 3-MHz operation.

Korostelev, M.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Kubo, K.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Naito, T.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

2006-03-14

197

Wasp-Waist Interactions in the North Sea Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background In a “wasp-waist” ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus), suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that “wasp-waist” interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades.

Fauchald, Per; Skov, Henrik; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Johns, David; Tveraa, Torkild

2011-01-01

198

Using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference to End Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Leads to Higher Weight Gains in the Most Malnourished Children  

PubMed Central

Objective The World Health Organization recommends discharging children admitted to nutrition programs treating severe acute malnutrition, with a low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC <115 mm) when weight gain is >15%. When this recommendation is followed, the most severely malnourished children receive a shorter treatment compared to children that are less severely malnourished. This study assesses whether using MUAC >125 mm as discharge criteria eliminates this effect. Methods and Findings Data from 753 children cured from a Médecins Sans Frontières outpatient nutrition program in Gedaref, North Sudan were analyzed. MUAC >125 mm was used as discharge criteria. Length of stay and percent weight gain of children were compared in relation to nutritional status on admission. Children with low MUAC on admission had a longer duration of treatment (p?=?0.000) and also a higher percent weight gain (p?=?0.000) than children with higher MUAC. Similar results with weight-for-height z-scores categories were shown with both duration of treatment (p?=?0.000) and percent weight gain (p?=?0.000). Conclusion This study shows that using MUAC as the discharge criteria eliminates the effect of shorter treatment in most severely malnourished children compared to least severely malnourished, as is observed with percent weight gain. The findings directly address the main concern that has been identified with the current WHO recommendation of using percent weight gain. MUAC could be used as discharge criteria, instead of percent weight gain, as having a longer duration of treatment and a higher percent weight gain for the most malnourished is highly desirable.

Dale, Nancy M.; Myatt, Mark; Prudhon, Claudine; Briend, Andre

2013-01-01

199

Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Sedentary Bouts and Breaks in Sedentary Time with Cardiometabolic Risk in Children with a Family History of Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. Purpose To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8–11 years with a family history of obesity. Methods Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort) were collected from 2005–2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score. Results After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1–4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all p<0.05). The number of sedentary bouts lasting 5–9 minutes was negatively associated with waist circumference in girls only, while the number of bouts lasting 10–14 minutes was positively associated with fasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all p<0.05). Leisure time computer/video game use was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk score and waist circumference in boys, while TV viewing was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, waist circumference, and BMI Z-score in girls (all p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that frequent interruptions in sedentary time are associated with a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile and highlight the deleterious relationship between screen time and cardiometabolic risk among children with a family history of obesity.

Saunders, Travis John; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Henderson, Melanie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

2013-01-01

200

In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference.  

PubMed Central

Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neurodevelopment in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms and enzyme activity, and infant growth and neurodevelopment, we are conducting a prospective, multiethnic cohort study of mothers and infants delivered at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. In this report we evaluate the effects of pesticide exposure on birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age among 404 births between May 1998 and May 2002. Pesticide exposure was assessed by a prenatal questionnaire administered to the mothers during the early third trimester as well as by analysis of maternal urinary pentachlorophenol levels and maternal metabolites of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. Neither the questionnaire data nor the pesticide metabolite levels were associated with any of the fetal growth indices or gestational age. However, when the level of maternal PON1 activity was taken into account, maternal levels of chlorpyrifos above the limit of detection coupled with low maternal PON1 activity were associated with a significant but small reduction in head circumference. In addition, maternal PON1 levels alone, but not PON1 genetic polymorphisms, were associated with reduced head size. Because small head size has been found to be predictive of subsequent cognitive ability, these data suggest that chlorpyrifos may have a detrimental effect on fetal neurodevelopment among mothers who exhibit low PON1 activity.

Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Wetmur, James G; Birman-Deych, Elena; Obel, Josephine; Lapinski, Robert H; Godbold, James H; Holzman, Ian R; Wolff, Mary S

2004-01-01

201

Postprandial hyperlipidemia: another correlate of the "hypertriglyceridemic waist" phenotype in men.  

PubMed

Fasting hypertriglyceridemia has been reported to be predictive of an exaggerated triglyceride (TG) response to an oral fat load. Abdominal obesity has also been associated with postprandial hyperlipidemia. The objective of the present study was to quantify the contribution of abdominal obesity and fasting hypertriglyceridemia to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia. For that purpose, potential differences in postprandial TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) levels were examined among men characterized by the absence/presence of the "hypertriglyceridemic waist" phenotype following a standardized breakfast with a high fat content (64% calories as fat). Sixty-nine men (mean age +/- S.D.: 45.1 +/- 10.5 years) were classified according to waist girth (< 90 or >/ or = 90 cm) and fasting TG concentrations (< 2.0 or > or = 2.0 mmol/l). Subjects characterized by "hypertriglyceridemic waist" (waist > or = 90 cm and fasting TG > or = 2.0 mmol/l) showed the highest TRL-TG concentrations (P < 0.0001) throughout the entire postprandial period (8 h) as well as elevated concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and apo B-100 in all TRL fractions (large, medium and small) compared to subjects with low fasting TG levels who had waist girth values either above or below 90 cm. These higher postprandial TRL-TG levels among carriers of the "hypertriglyceridemic waist" phenotype also led to significantly greater postprandial TG-total area under the curve (AUC) in total TRLs resulting mainly from the increased concentrations of large- and medium-sized TRLs. Furthermore, subjects characterized by the "hypertriglyceridemic waist" phenotype displayed higher fasting insulin concentrations and postprandial insulin AUC compared to men with low fasting plasma TG levels and low waist girth values. In conclusion, results of the present study indicate that postprandial hyperlipidemia is associated with the simultaneous presence of abdominal obesity and elevated fasting TG concentrations: a condition that we have described as the "hypertriglyceridemic waist" phenotype. PMID:14644404

Blackburn, Patricia; Lamarche, Benoît; Couillard, Charles; Pascot, Agnès; Bergeron, Nathalie; Prud'homme, Denis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean Pierre

2003-12-01

202

Waist-to-height ratio is a better obesity index than body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio for predicting diabetes, hypertension and lipidemia.  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI, kg/m.sq) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are widely used as obesity indices for diabetes and cardiovascular risks. Lower adult height was related to diabetes and stroke. Waist-girth was proved important for visceral obesity. Incorporating waist-girth and height as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), we reported earlier--"Waist-to-height ratio is an important predictor of hypertension and diabetes". We readdressed this index in a larger sample with two-sample OGTT and lipid profiles. In a cluster sampling of 16,818 rural inhabitants, considering age > or = 20 y, 5713 subjects were found eligible. Of them, 4923 (M/F=2321/2602) volunteered for height, weight, blood pressure, waist-girth and hip-girth. Fasting venous blood (5 ml) was drawn for plasma glucose, total cholesterol (T-chol), Triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotien (HDL-c). Overall, 1565 participants were undertaken for OGTT. The mean (SD) values of BMI, WHR and WHtR for subjects with diabetes and hypertension were significantly higher in either sex. The level significance was highest for WHtR. The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension increased significantly with higher quintiles of BMI, WHR and WHtR (chi sq values were largest in WHtR for both events). Partial correlation coefficients, controlling for age and sex, showed that BMI, WHR and WHtR significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, FBG, T-chol and TG. In the entire correlation matrix, the 'r' values were the highest for WHtR. Taking diabetes and hypertension as dependent variables, logistic regression also showed the highest odds ratio in higher WHtR than BMI and WHR. We conclude that WHtR was proved again a valuable obesity index for predicting diabetes, hypertension and lipidemia. PMID:14674615

Sayeed, M A; Mahtab, H; Latif, Z A; Khanam, P A; Ahsan, K A; Banu, A; Azad Khan, A K

2003-04-01

203

Supine Length, Weight and Head Circumference at Birth in Central Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean plus or minus standard deviation of boys' and girls' (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 plus or minus 30 and…

Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Rafiei, Mohammad

2007-01-01

204

Supine length, weight and head circumference at birth in central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean ± standard deviation of boys’ and girls’ (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 ± 30 and 497 ± 31 (p <

S. M. T. Ayatollahi; Mohammad Rafiei

2007-01-01

205

Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

2010-07-01

206

Experimental stress-strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally determine tensile force-elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force-elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress-strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

2014-04-01

207

Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.  

PubMed

'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate. PMID:24755099

Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

2014-06-01

208

Large breasts and narrow waists indicate high reproductive potential in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical characteristics, such as breast size and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), function as important features used by human males to assess female attractiveness. Males supposedly pay attention to these features because they serve as cues to fecundity and health. Here, we document that women with higher breast- to-underbreast ratio (large breasts) and women with relatively low WHR (narrow waists) have higher

Grazyna Jasienska; Anna Ziomkiewicz; Peter T. Ellison; Susan F. Lipson; Inger Thune

2004-01-01

209

The cores of waveguide structure in waist of fused biconical tapered coupler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presents the results of investigation of wave-guide structures of fused biconical tapered couplers fabricated from single-mode quartz fibers with various GeO2 concentrations in the cores. It has been demonstrated that the cross-section dimensions differ in the coupler waists. The authors assume that the experimentally observed dependence of the wave-guide-to-wave-guide coupling in the coupler waist on the fusion mode

G. D. Basiladze; V. N. Berzhansky; A. I. Dolgov; E. T. Milyukova

2008-01-01

210

Apparatus for precision focussing and positioning of a beam waist on a target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to optical focussing apparatus and, more particularly, to optical apparatus for focussing a highly collimated Gaussian beam which provides independent and fine control over the focus waist diameter, the focus position both along the beam axis and transverse to the beam, and the focus angle. A beam focussing and positioning apparatus provides focussing and positioning for the waist of a waisted beam at a desired location on a target such as an optical fiber. The apparatus includes a first lens, having a focal plane f sub 1, disposed in the path of an incoming beam and a second lens, having a focal plane f sub 2 and being spaced downstream from the first lens by a distance at least equal to f sub 1 + 10 f sub 2, which cooperates with the first lens to focus the waist of the beam on the target. A rotatable optical device, disposed upstream of the first lens, adjusts the angular orientation of the beam waist. The transverse position of the first lens relative to the axis of the beam is varied to control the transverse position of the beam waist relative to the target (a fiber optic as shown) while the relative axial positions of the lenses are varied to control the diameter of the beam waist and to control the axial position of the beam waist. Mechanical controllers C sub 1, C sub 2, C sub 3, C sub 4, and C sub 5 control the elements of the optical system. How seven adjustments can be made to correctly couple a laser beam into an optical fiber is illustrated. Prior art systems employing optical techniques to couple a laser beam into an optical fiber or other target simply do not provide the seven necessary adjustments. The closest known prior art, a Newport coupler, provides only two of the seven required adjustments.

Lynch, Dana H. (inventor); Gunter, William D. (inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (inventor)

1991-01-01

211

Association of the Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents: The Three Cities Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1) of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4) presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio) of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated systolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) above the upper tertile (Q3). WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00) presented the largest area under the curve (AUC) [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647)] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578)] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651)] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699)] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circumference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787)]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening programs.

Ribeiro, Robespierre C.; Coutinho, Mario; Bramorski, Marco A; Giuliano, Isabela C.; Pavan, Julia

2010-01-01

212

Use of mid-arm and chest circumferences to predict birth weight in rural north India.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the most appropriate surrogate indicator and its cut off point for identifying low birthweight babies in northern India. STUDY SETTING: A secondary level hospital at Ballabgarh. The patients were from nearby rural and urban areas and mostly belonged to lower and middle socioeconomic strata. PARTICIPANTS: These comprised 733 singleton newborns delivered in the hospital between April and December 1991. DESIGN: Birth weight, arm circumference, and chest circumference were measured in all the newborns. Different cut off points for each index were identified and their validity was tested. Based on the regression equations, a simple chart was drawn up and was used to predict weights for different arm and chest circumferences in the hospital and community settings. MAIN RESULTS: Cut off points for arm and chest circumferences of 8.5 cm and 29.5 cm respectively gave a sensitivity and specificity of around 80%. When the chart based on the regression equations was tested in both the hospital and the community, chest circumference was found to be the better of the two indicators. CONCLUSION: Chest circumference seems to be the most appropriate surrogate measure for birth weight. Cut off points of 29.5 cm and 27.5 cm seem to be satisfactory for predicting birth weight below 2500 g and 1800 g respectively. The birthweight prediction card using chest circumference was effective in predicting birth weight.

Kapoor, S K; Kumar, G; Anand, K

1996-01-01

213

Effect of enteric biopsy closure orientation on enteric circumference and volume of saline needed for leak testing.  

PubMed

This study describes the effect of enteric biopsy closure orientation on circumference and volume of saline needed for leak testing. There were significant differences in circumference measurements at baseline, central circumference of longitudinally closed sites, and volume of saline for leak testing. PMID:24381348

Matz, Brad M; Boothe, Harry W; Wright, James C; Boothe, Dawn M

2014-01-01

214

Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Based Nutrition Programming: Evidence for a New Approach in Regions with High Burden of Acute Malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Background In therapeutic feeding programs (TFP), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) shows advantages over weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an independent criterion for screening children 6–59 months old. Here we report outcomes and treatment response from a TFP using MUAC ?118 mm or oedema as sole admission criteria for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Methods Patient data from September 2007 to March 2009 for children admitted by MUAC ?118 mm or oedema to a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) TFP in Burkina Faso were retrospectively analyzed. Analysis included anthropometric measurements at admission and discharge, program outcomes and treatment response. Results Of 24,792 patient outcomes analyzed, nearly half (48.8%; n?=?12,090) were admitted with MUAC 116–118 mm. Most patients (88.7%; n?=?21,983) were 6–24 months old. At admission, 52.7% (n?=?5,041) of those with MUAC 116–118 mm had a WHZ

Goossens, Sylvie; Bekele, Yodit; Yun, Oliver; Harczi, Geza; Ouannes, Marie; Shepherd, Susan

2012-01-01

215

Circumference reduction and cellulite treatment with a TriPollar radiofrequency device: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A wide variety of treatments for circumference reduction and cellulite are available, but most procedures offer suboptimal clinical effect and\\/or delayed therapeutic outcome. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of the TriPollar radiofrequency device for cellulite treatment and circumference reduction. Methods Thirty-nine females with cellulite received eight weekly TriPollar treatments. Treatment areas included the abdomen, thighs, buttocks and

W Manuskiatti; C Wachirakaphan; N Lektrakul; S Varothai

2009-01-01

216

Engineering Trials on Supermesh Trawls GM 3 (4320 Meshes Circumference) Made of Polyamide and GM 6 (5640 Meshes Circumference) with a Front Part Made of Dyneema SK-60.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to investigate the effect of new and thinner twines for the big meshes, experiments on pelagic trawls were done in December 1988 and January 1989 on board FRV 'Tridens'. Considering the tremendous raise in circumference of the net mouth on commer...

D. Tianyuan B. van Marlen

1989-01-01

217

Genetic relationships between scrotal circumference and female reproductive traits.  

PubMed

Records for yearling scrotal circumference (SC; n = 7,580), age at puberty in heifers (AP; n = 5,292), age at first calving (AFC; n = 4,835), and pregnancy, calving, or weaning status following the first breeding season (PR1, CR1, or WR1, respectively; n = 7,003) from 12 Bos taurus breeds collected at the Meat Animal Research Center (USDA) between 1978 and 1991 were used to estimate genetic parameters. Age at puberty (AP) was defined as age in days at first detected ovulatory estrus. Pregnancy (calving or weaning) status was scored as one for females conceiving (calving or weaning) given exposure during the breeding season and as zero otherwise. The final model for SC included fixed effects of age of dam at breeding (AD), year of breeding (Y), and breed (B) and age in days at measurement as a covariate. Fixed effects in models for AP and AFC were AD, Y, B, and month of birth. Fixed effects in models for PR1, CR1, and WR1 included AD, Y, and B. For all traits, random effects in the model were direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environmental, and residual. Analyses for a three-trait animal model were carried out with SC, AP, and a third trait (the third trait was AFC, PR1, CR1, or WR1). A derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood algorithm was used to estimate the (co)variance components. Direct and maternal heritability estimates were 0.41 and 0.05 for SC; 0.16 and 0.03 for AP; 0.08 and 0.00 for AFC; 0.14 and 0.02 for PR1; 0.14 and 0.03 for CR1; and 0.12 and 0.01 for WR1. Genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects within trait were -0.26, -0.63, -0.91, -0.79, -0.66, and -0.85 for SC, AP, AFC, PR1, CR1, and WR1, respectively. Direct genetic correlations between SC and AP and between those traits and AFC, PR1, CR1, and WR1 ranged from -0.15 (between SC and AP) to 0.23 (between AP and WR1). Estimates of heritability indicate that yearling SC should respond to direct selection better than AP, AFC, PR1, CR1, and WR1. Variation due to maternal genetic effects was small for all traits. No strong genetic correlations were detected between SC and female reproductive traits or between AP and the other female traits. These results suggest that genetic response in female reproductive traits through sire selection on yearling SC is not expected to be effective. PMID:12643482

Martínez-Velázquez, G; Gregory, K E; Bennett, G L; Van Vleck, L D

2003-02-01

218

Body mass index and waist/height ratio for prediction of severity of coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Background To determine whether waist-to-height ratio correlates with coronary artery disease (CAD) severity better, than the body mass index (BMI) as assessed by coronary angiography in Bangladeshi population. Methods This cross sectional study was done on patients in Department of Cardiology in DMCH and those referred in the cath-lab of the Department of Cardiology for CAG during November 2009 to October 2010 involving 120 patients. They were divided into group-A (with coronary score ?7) and group-B (coronary score <7) depending on Gensisni score. Result There were no statistically significant difference regarding the distribution of age, sex and clinical diagnosis and parameters between the two groups. The mean age of patients was 51.7?±?8.2 years and 48.8?±?9.1 years in Group A and Group B respectively with a male predominance in both the groups. Patients in group A had higher BMI ?25 and waist to height ratio (?0.55) than Group B which showed a statistically significant association (p?Waist-to-height ratio and Waist-to-height ratio with BMI. Multivariate analysis also yeilded that a patient with BMI ?25 kg/m2 and waist-to height ratio of ?0.55 are 3.06 times and 6.77 times, more likely to develop significant coronary artery disease respectively. Conclusion The waist-to-height ratio showed better correlation with the severity of coronary artery disease than the BMI.

2014-01-01

219

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

2013-01-01

220

Correlates of head circumference growth in infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Previous research has demonstrated that children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder show an abnormal acceleration of head growth during the first year of life. This study attempts to replicate these findings and to determine whether overgrowth is associated with clinical outcome. Measurements of head circumference, body length, and body weight taken during the first 2 years of life were obtained from a sample of 35 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and compared to both national normative data (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and a control group of 37 healthy infants. Results demonstrated that compared to national averages, infants who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder had a significantly smaller head circumference at birth to 2 weeks and a significantly larger head circumference by 10 to 14 months. Children with autism spectrum disorder were also significantly longer and heavier beginning at 1 to 2 months. However, when overall length and weight were controlled, head circumference was not bigger in the autistic spectrum disorder group compared to local controls. Correlations between head circumference and clinical outcome were significant for 5 of the 30 clinical variables that were run, suggesting that there appears to be no simple or straightforward relationship between head circumference and clinical outcome. Smaller head circumference at birth to 2 weeks was associated with a greater number of symptoms related to social impairment and a greater total number of autism spectrum disorder symptoms based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fourth Edition criteria. Larger head circumference at 15 to 25 months was also associated with a greater number of symptoms of social impairment. In addition, greater head circumference change during the first 2 years was associated with poorer performance on the visual reception subtest of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and a smaller number of stereotyped and repetitive behaviors and interests based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. These findings support previous findings of accelerated brain growth during the first year of life in autism spectrum disorder and question whether growth factors might contribute to both accelerated brain growth and overall body growth. PMID:17641255

Mraz, Krista D; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Makin, Sarah; Fein, Deborah

2007-06-01

221

Factors associated with small head circumference at birth among infants born before the 28th week  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We sought to identify risk factors for congenital microcephaly in extremely low gestational age newborns. STUDY DESIGN Demographic, clinical, and placental characteristics of 1445 infants born before the 28th week were gathered and evaluated for their relationship with congenital microcephaly. RESULTS Almost 10% of newborns (n = 138), rather than the expected 2.2%, had microcephaly defined as a head circumference >2 SD below the median. In multivariable models, microcephaly was associated with nonwhite race, severe intrauterine growth restriction, delivery for preeclampsia, placental infarction, and being female. The risk factors for a head circumference between <1 and >2 SD below the median were similar to those of microcephaly. CONCLUSION Characteristics associated with fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia are among the strongest correlates of microcephaly among children born at extremely low gestational ages. The elevated risk of a small head among nonwhites and females might reflect the lack of appropriate head circumference standards.

McElrath, Thomas F.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Kuban, Karl; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Onderdonk, Andrew; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

2010-01-01

222

Prenatal Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and Obesity at 9 Years of Age in the CHAMACOS Study Cohort.  

PubMed

In-utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), has been hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity later in life. We examined the associations of maternal serum concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy with body mass index, obesity, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat in 9-year-old children (n = 261) in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California (2000-2010). We found associations between prenatal exposure to DDT and DDE and several measures of obesity at 9 years of age in boys but not in girls. For example, among boys, 10-fold increases in prenatal DDT and DDE concentrations were associated with increased odds of becoming overweight or obese (for o,p'-DDT, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 6.3; for p,p'-DDT, adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.5; and for p,p'-DDE, adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.94, 4.13). The odds ratios for girls were nonsignificant. Results were similar for body mass index z score, waist circumference z score, and odds of increased waist circumference but were less consistent for percentage of body fat. The difference by sex persisted after considering pubertal status. These results provide support for the chemical obesogen hypothesis. PMID:24722999

Warner, Marcella; Wesselink, Amelia; Harley, Kim G; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda

2014-06-01

223

Separating Bedtime Rest from Activity Using Waist or Wrist-Worn Accelerometers in Youth  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA) over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week) in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10–18 years old, 47 females) during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n?=?41) were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer, respectively. The selected optimal activity cut points were 500 and 3,000 counts/min for waist and wrist-worn accelerometers, respectively. Bedtime rest and activity were correctly classified by the algorithm in the validation group (n?=?40) by both waist- (sensitivity: 0.983, specificity: 0.946, area under ROC curve: 0. 872) and wrist-worn (0.999, 0.980 and 0.943) accelerometers. The decision tree classified bedtime rest correctly with higher accuracy than commonly used automated algorithm for both waist- and wrist-warn accelerometer (all p<0.001). We concluded that cut points developed and validated for waist- and wrist-worn uniaxial accelerometer have a good power for accurate separation of time spent in bedtime rest from activity in youth.

Tracy, Dustin J.; Xu, Zhiyi; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari; Chen, Kong Y.; Buchowski, Maciej S.

2014-01-01

224

Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but

Nathaniel McConaghy

1989-01-01

225

Penile Length and Circumference: A Study on 3,300 Young Italian Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The knowledge of normal variations in the size of male external genitalia is of considerable interest to several disciplines. We carried out an extensive study in young Italian males to provide estimates of normal variations of penile dimensions.Methods: The penile length in flaccid and stretched states and the penile circumference were measured in a random group of 3,300 young

Roberto Ponchietti; Nicola Mondaini; Massimiliano Bonafè; Filippo Di Loro; Stefano Biscioni; Lorenzo Masieri

2001-01-01

226

Correlation of Head Circumference and Crown-Rump Length in Newborn Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 305 consecutive neonatal autopsies done by two prosectors showed a high correlation between the head circumference (HC) and crown-rump length (CR). The calculated formula can be stated approximately as HC = 0.9 CR + 2.5 cm, and the two measurements are for all practical purposes equal in the immediate neonatal period, regardless of race, sex, age and

S.-S. Yang; Y.-C. Chen; A. J. Brough; J. Bernstein

1975-01-01

227

Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All U.S. Navy service members are required to meet percent body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF can be separated from active duty. Currently, %BF predictions are determined by circumfere...

C. L. Shake C. Schlichting L. W. Mooney

1993-01-01

228

Brief Report: A Preliminary Study of Fetal Head Circumference Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fetal head circumference (HC) growth was examined prospectively in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD participants (N = 14) were each matched with four control participants (N = 56) on a range of parameters known to influence fetal growth. HC was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation and again at birth…

Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Hickey, Martha; Stanley, Fiona J.; Newnham, John P.; Pennell, Craig E.

2011-01-01

229

Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference.  

PubMed

To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (N = 10,768 individuals of European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy and/or birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N = 19,089). rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P = 8.1 × 10(-9)) and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P = 2.8 × 10(-10)) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P = 3.8 × 10(-7) for rs7980687 and P = 1.3 × 10(-7) for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P = 3.9 × 10(-6)). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal have shown genome-wide association with adult intracranial volume, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life. PMID:22504419

Taal, H Rob; St Pourcain, Beate; Thiering, Elisabeth; Das, Shikta; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Warrington, Nicole M; Kaakinen, Marika; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Freathy, Rachel M; Geller, Frank; Guxens, Mònica; Cousminer, Diana L; Kerkhof, Marjan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ikram, M Arfan; Beilin, Lawrence J; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Buxton, Jessica L; Charoen, Pimphen; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Eriksson, Johan; Evans, David M; Hofman, Albert; Kemp, John P; Kim, Cecilia E; Klopp, Norman; Lahti, Jari; Lye, Stephen J; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; O'Reilly, Paul F; Prokopenko, Inga; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Steegers, Eric A P; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiesler, Carla; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Breteler, Monique M B; Decarli, Charles; Breteler, Monique M B; Debette, Stéphanie; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Vernooij, Meike W; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Grant, Struan F A; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; van der Heijden, Albert J; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lathrop, Mark; McArdle, Wendy L; Mølgaard, Anne; Newnham, John P; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pouta, Annneli; Ring, Susan M; Sovio, Ulla; Standl, Marie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wichmann, H-Erich; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; DeCarli, Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia M; McCarthy, Mark I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Estivill, Xavier; Hattersley, Andrew T; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Pennell, Craig E; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

2012-05-01

230

Growth of Head Circumference in Autistic Infants during the First Year of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the increase in head circumference (HC) of 85 autistic infants (64 boys and 21 girls) during their first year of life. The data were collected from their "mother-and-baby" notebooks. This notebook is a medical record of the baby's growth and development delivered to the parents of all babies born in Japan. This is a…

Fukumoto, Aya; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiromichi; Nishimura, Mio; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Miyazaki, Masahito; Mori, Kenji; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kagami, Shoji

2008-01-01

231

Neural Substrate of Body Size: Illusory Feeling of Shrinking of the Waist  

PubMed Central

The perception of the size and shape of one's body (body image) is a fundamental aspect of how we experience ourselves. We studied the neural correlates underlying perceived changes in the relative size of body parts by using a perceptual illusion in which participants felt that their waist was shrinking. We scanned the brains of the participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that activity in the cortices lining the left postcentral sulcus and the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus reflected the illusion of waist shrinking, and that this activity was correlated with the reported degree of shrinking. These results suggest that the perceived changes in the size and shape of body parts are mediated by hierarchically higher-order somatosensory areas in the parietal cortex. Based on this finding we suggest that relative size of body parts is computed by the integration of more elementary somatic signals from different body segments.

2005-01-01

232

Effect of 635nm Low-level Laser Therapy on Upper Arm Circumference Reduction  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a noninvasive method for reducing upper arm circumference. Design: Randomized, double-blind study whereby healthy subjects (N=40) with a body mass index of 20 to 35kg/m2 received three 20-minute low-level laser therapy (N=20) or sham treatments (N=20) each week for two weeks. Measurements: Upper arm circumference was measured after three and six treatments and two weeks post-treatment. Primary success criterion was the proportion of subjects achieving a combined reduction in arm circumference of ?1.25cm measured at three equally spaced points between the elbow and the shoulder. Secondary outcomes included total measurement change at each time point and subjective satisfaction ratings. Results: After six treatments, the low-level laser therapy group showed a combined reduction in arm circumference of 3.7cm versus 0.2cm in the sham treatment group (p<0.0001). Significantly more subjects in the low-level laser therapy group (N=12; 60%) achieved ?1.5cm total decrease in upper arm circumference versus sham-treated subjects (N=0; 0%) (p<0.0005). Low-level laser therapy treatment resulted in a combined reduction in arm circumference of 2.2cm after three treatments and 3.7cm after six treatments (for each, p<0.0001) indicating a progressive and cumulative treatment effect. Body mass index remained unchanged for all subjects. A significantly greater number of subjects in the low-level laser therapy treatment group were satisfied with their results (p<0.05), believed their upper arm appearance improved (p<0.0005), and indicated the results exceeded expectations (p<0.05). The treatments were painless and no adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Noninvasive low-level laser therapy is safe, painless, and effective in reducing upper arm circumference and is associated with a high degree of subject satisfaction.

2012-01-01

233

Falls Management: Detection and Prevention, using a Waist-mounted Triaxial Accelerometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a distributed falls management system capable of real-time falls detection in an unsupervised living context and remote longitudinal tracking of falls risk parameters using a waist-mounted triaxial accelerometer. A self-administrable falls risk assessment is used to facilitate falls prevention. A Web-interface allows clinicians to monitor the status of individuals and track their compliance with exercise interventions. Early identification

Michael R. Narayanan; Steven R. Lord; Marc M. Budge; Branko G. Celler; Nigel H. Lovell

2007-01-01

234

Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist-to-hip ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60

Devendra Singh

1993-01-01

235

Photonic crystal waveguide cavity with waist design for efficient trapping and detection of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

For manipulating nanometric particles, we propose a photonic crystal waveguide cavity design with a waist structure to enhance resonance characteristic of the cavity. For trapping a polystyrene particle of 50 nm radius on the lateral side of the waist, the optical force can reach 2308 pN/W with 24.7% signal transmission. Threshold power of only 0.32 mW is required for stable trapping. The total length of the device is relatively short with only ten photonic crystal periods, and the trapping can occur precisely and only at the waist. The designed cavity can also provide particle detection and surrounding medium sensing using the transmission spectrum with narrow linewidth. The simulated figure of merit of 110.6 is relatively high compared with those obtained from most plasmonic structures for sensing application. We anticipate this design with features of compact, efficient, and versatile in functionality will be beneficial for developing lab-on-chip in the future. PMID:24664027

Lin, Pin-Tso; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lee, Po-Tsung

2014-03-24

236

Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

237

Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon.

238

Equations describing percentiles for birth weight, head circumference, and length of preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To describe growth of prematurely born infants and create a growth chart adequate to assess growth of infants with less than 29 completed weeks of gestation.Study design:Birth weight, head circumference and length measurements of 7425 liveborn preterm infants from 1985 to 1997 were retrieved from a longitudinal database maintained by the neonatology division. The 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th,

W R Riddle; S C DonLevy; B J LaFleur; S T Rosenbloom; J P Shenai

2006-01-01

239

Growth references for height, weight, and head circumference for Argentine children with achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prepare growth references for height, weight, and head circumference for Argentine children with Achondroplasia,\\u000a 228 children (114 boys) aged 0–18 years attending the Growth Clinic at Hospital Garrahan were measured between 1992 and 2009.\\u000a Centiles were calculated by LMS, a method for summarizing growth data which adjusts for skewness. Curves for centiles are\\u000a obtained using the formula: $$

Mariana del Pino; Virginia Fano; Horacio Lejarraga

2011-01-01

240

Assessment of Waist-to-Hip Ratio Attractiveness in Women: An Anthropometric Analysis of Digital Silhouettes.  

PubMed

The low proportion of waist to hip size in females is a unique and adaptive human feature. In contemporary human populations, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is negatively associated with women's health, fecundity, and cognitive ability. It is, therefore, hypothesized that men will prefer women with low WHR. Although this prediction is supported by many studies, considerable disagreement persists about which WHR values are the most attractive and the importance of WHR for attractiveness of the female body. Unfortunately, the methods applied thus far are flawed in several ways. In the present study, we investigated male preferences for female WHR using a high precision assessment procedure and digitally manufactured, high quality, anthropometrically informed stimuli which were disentangled from body mass covariation. Forty men were requested to choose the most attractive silhouette consecutively from six series (2 levels of realism × 3 levels of body mass), each consisting of 26 female images that varied in WHR (from .60 to .85 by .01). Substantial inter-individual variation in the choices made was observed. Nevertheless, low and average WHR values were chosen more frequently than above-average values or values below the normal variation of the trait. This preference pattern mirrors the relationship between WHR and mate value, suggesting that the preferences are adaptive. PMID:23975738

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2014-07-01

241

Inflammatory status in older women with and without metabolic syndrome: is there a correlation with risk factors?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the inflammatory status in older women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to correlate inflammatory parameters, anthropometric measures, metabolic profile, and blood pressure with MetS Z-score. Methods This cohort transversal study included 129 older women assigned into two groups: with MetS (n = 48; 66.4 ± 4.4 years; 68.1 ± 8.3 kg; 1.51 ± 0.06 m; 29.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2) and without MetS (n = 81; 68.0 ± 5.8 years; 61.0 ± 9.4 kg; 1.53 ± 0.06 m; 26.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2). Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (General Electric-GE model 8548 BX1L, year 2005, Lunar DPX type, software Encore 2005; Rommelsdorf, Germany) and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results There was no difference between the groups regarding age, height, fat mass, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, older women with MetS presented higher body mass, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip and waist-height ratio, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, MetS Z-score, tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, and lower lean body mass values compared to women without MetS. Moreover, there were correlations between MetS Z-score and body mass (r = 0.20), waist circumference (r = 0.26), waist-hip (r = 0.32) and waist-height ratio (r = 0.24), blood glucose (r = 0.24), insulin (r = 0.24), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = 0.32), triglycerides (r = 0.39), tumor necrosis factor-? (r = 0.28), interferon-? (r = 0.22), and inverse correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = ?0.32). MetS Z-score was positively associated with systolic (r = 0.92), diastolic (r = 0.94), and mean blood pressure (r = 0.98). Conclusion Older women with MetS have higher cytokine levels, anthropometric measures, metabolic profile, and blood pressure. Inflammatory cytokines may help to improve the understanding of the progression status of MetS in older persons.

de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Karnikowski, Margo Gomes Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Prestes, Jonato

2013-01-01

242

Corpus callosum segment circumference is associated with response control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  

PubMed

Response control is impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the corpus callosum's role in response control, we compared callosal morphology in 64 children with ADHD and 64 typically developing children, aged 7 to 13 years, and investigated the relationships between callosal morphology and response control. Area and circumference of 5 callosal segments (genu, rostral body, midbody, isthmus, and splenium) were normalized for cerebral volume and examined for correlation with mean reaction time, intrasubject variability, and/or commission error rate from a go/no-go task. There were no between-group differences in segment areas or circumferences. Reaction time correlated with midbody circumference for boys with ADHD and isthmus circumference for girls with ADHD. For the entire cohort, rostral body circumference correlated with intrasubject variability. Impaired response control in ADHD is associated with anomalies in frontal interhemispheric connections. Future studies examining callosal shape will illuminate the anatomic basis of correlations between callosal segment circumference and response control. PMID:20139403

McNally, Melanie A; Crocetti, Deana; Mahone, E Mark; Denckla, Martha B; Suskauer, Stacy J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

2010-04-01

243

Abdominal circumference and recurrent hospitalizations may affect the clinical outcome of patients with acute heart failure  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure, low body mass index has been associated with increased mortality. The hypothesis for the present study was that asymptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) could have an effect on the in-hospital mortality of patients admitted with acute heart failure. METHODS: The effect of PAD (documented by ankle-brachial index [ABI]) on in-hospital mortality was examined among 143 patients who were admitted with acute heart failure (mean [± SD] age 75±12 years; 76 women and 67 men). The mean body mass index was 29.5±7.4 kg/m2, the mean ABI was 0.9±0.2 and the mean abdominal circumference was 107.7±22.5 cm. RESULTS: Nine patients died (one man and eight women; P=0.02). Forty patients had PAD (documented by an ABI of lower than 0.9); among them, five patients (12.5%) died, while among the 103 patients who did not have PAD (ABI of 0.9 or greater), four patients (3.9%) died (P=0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the body mass index of patients who died compared with those who survived (27.14±7.93 kg/m2 versus 29.79±7.56 kg/m2, respectively) (P=0.38). Patients who died had a lower abdominal circumference (94.87±26.96 cm versus 109.25±20.29 cm) (P=0.05). Recurrent hospitalizations were more prevalent among patients who died (six patients were readmitted and four of them died [66%], while only five patients died among 133 patients who were not rehospitalized [3.8%]; P=0.001). In a multiple regression analysis, abdominal circumference and rehospitalization had an independent impact on in-hospital mortality, while PAD did not. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality of patients admitted with acute heart failure is dependent on abdominal circumference and recurrent hospitalizations. PAD does not affect the in-hospital clinical outcome.

Blum, Arnon; Sirchan, Rizak; Abu-Shkara, Fadi; Keinan-Boker, Lital

2011-01-01

244

The relationship between neck circumference and pregnancy-induced hypertension in the third trimester pregnant women.  

PubMed

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between neck circumference (NC) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in the third trimester pregnant women. Methods: The study included 126 women who were in the third trimester pregnancy. All subjects completed a standard sleep questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and ultrasonic testing. Results: Pregnant women with NC ?34.7?cm had significantly higher frequency of PIH than pregnant women with NC <34.7?cm (35.6% versus 2.5%, ?(2?)=?25.863, p?=?0.000). Conclusions: The increase of NC was independent risk factor for PIH in the third trimester pregnant women. PMID:24392861

Shao, Jun-Tao; Yu, Jie; Qi, Jun-Qiao; Liu, Xiao-Dong

2014-08-01

245

Associations of Youth and Adulthood Body-Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio with Attachment Styles and Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current cross-sectional study examined whether body-mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio are associated with adult attachment.\\u000a Participants were 1,570 men and women participating in Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. BMI was measured in youth\\u000a and in adulthood and waist-hip ratio in adulthood. A single measure of attachment style was conducted when participants were\\u000a aged 24–39 years. In age and

Mirka Hintsanen; Markus Jokela; Laura Pulkki-Råback; Jorma S. A. Viikari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2010-01-01

246

Observer variation in measurements of waist-hip ratio and the abdominal sagittal diameter.  

PubMed

In an out-patient weight loss study of 63 patients (54 female, 9 male), 53 completed a 16 week treatment with a low calorie diet and a 9 g/day fibre supplement. In these 53 patients, the average weight loss was 8.3 kg (s.e.m. 0.8). Waist-hip ratio (WHR) and abdominal sagittal diameter (SagD) were measured as indicators of fat distribution and visceral adipose tissue (visceral AT) was estimated by anthropometric computerized tomography calibrated equations. Four observers measured WHR and SagD ten times in eight patients. Two dietitians examined the patients throughout the clinical trial at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 16. Furthermore, two physicians examined the patients at week 12 in the trial. Two- and three-way analyses of variance were performed to estimate the contribution of single factors to the total variance. The contribution of observers, 3.2% and 3.8%, respectively, was of the same magnitude as the error variance (2.9% and 4.8% respectively) which is a measure of the intra-observer variation. The two dietitians had very similar recordings and contributed only 0.3% and 0.9% to the total variance for WHR and SagD, respectively. The contributions of the two physicians to the total variance were 0.0% for WHR and 0.4% for SagD. It is concluded that there is no need to use several observers or repeated measurements of waist, hip and SagD in clinical anti-obesity trials. PMID:8392497

Rasmussen, M H; Andersen, T; Breum, L; Hilsted, J; Gøtzsche, P C

1993-06-01

247

Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem dynamics: Navigating the “ predator pit” topographies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many marine ecosystems exhibit a characteristic “wasp-waist” structure, where a single species, or at most several species, of small planktivorous fishes entirely dominate their trophic level. These species have complex life histories that result in radical variability that may propagate to both higher and lower trophic levels of the ecosystem. In addition, these populations have two key attributes: (1) they represent the lowest trophic level that is mobile, so they are capable of relocating their area of operation according to their own internal dynamics; (2) they may prey upon the early life stages of their predators, forming an unstable feedback loop in the trophic system that may, for example, precipitate abrupt regime shifts. Experience with the typical “boom-bust” dynamics of this type of population, and with populations that interact trophically with them, suggests a “predator pit” type of dynamics. This features a refuge from predation when abundance is very low, very destructive predation between an abundance level sufficient to attract interest from predators and an abundance level sufficient to satiate available predators, and, as abundance increases beyond this satiation point, decreasing specific predation mortality and population breakout. A simple formalism is developed to describe these dynamics. Examples of its application include (a) a hypothetical mechanism for progressive geographical habitat expansion at high biomass, (b) an explanation for the out-of-phase alternations of abundances of anchovies and sardines in many regional systems that appear to occur without substantial adverse interactions between the two species groups, and (c) an account of an interaction of environmental processes and fishery exploitation that caused a regime shift. The last is the example of the Baltic Sea, where the cod resource collapsed in concert with establishment of dominance of that ecosystem by the cod’s ‘wasp-waist” prey, herring and sprat.

Bakun, Andrew

2006-02-01

248

Effect of head circumference on parameters of pattern reversal visual evoked potential in healthy adults of central India.  

PubMed

Visual evoked response testing has been one of the most exciting clinical tools to be developed from neurophysiologic research in recent years and has provided us with an objective method of identifying abnormalities of the afferent visual pathways. Investigation were carried out to see whether the head circumference influence the pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) parameters. The study comprised of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) recordings in 400 eyes of 200 normal subjects. Two hundred fourty eight eyes were males and 152 eyes were from 76 female subjects recruited from the Central Indian population in the age range of 40-79 years. Visual evoked potential (VEP) recordings were performed in accordance to the standardized methodology of International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) Committee Recommendations and International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) Guidelines and montages were kept as per 10-20 International System of EEG Electrode placements. The stimulus configuration in this study consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board was generated (full field) and displayed on a VEP Monitor by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an Evoked Potential Recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II). VEP latencies, duration and amplitude were measured in all subjects and the data were analyzed. The correlation of all the electrophysiological parameters with head circumference was evaluated by Pearson's correlation co-efficient (r) and its statistical significance was evaluated. The prediction equations for all the VEP parameters with respect to head circumference were derived. We found a positive correlation of P 100 latency and N 155 latency with mean head circumference, while a highly significant negative correlation were noted of P 100 amplitude with head circumference. N 70 latency was significantly correlated with head circumference. P 100 duration showed in negative correlation with head circumference. These findings suggest that VEP latencies, duration and amplitude are influenced by the head circumference of the individual in a sample of healthy subjects and head circumference can be a useful predictor of VEP peak latencies, amplitude and duration. PMID:23671950

Kothari, R; Singh, R; Singh, S; Bokariya, P

2012-06-01

249

BMI, BMI indices, and waist-to-height changes during teen years in girls are influenced by childhood BMI  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examined longitudinal changes in waist-to-height ratio and components of BMI among black and white females. Methods Girls were recruited at age 9 through the NHLBI Growth and Health Study (NGHS), and followed annually over ten years. Girls were grouped into low (<20th %tile), middle, and high (>80th %tile) BMI on the basis of race-specific BMI percentile rankings at age 9, and low, middle, and high waist-to-height ratio, on the basis of waist-to-height ratio at age 11. BMI was partitioned into fat mass and fat-free mass index (FMI and FFMI). Results Girls accrued fat mass at a greater rate than fat-free mass, and the ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass increased from ages 9 through 18. There was a significant increase in this ratio after age at peak height velocity. Participants with elevated BMI and waist-to-height ratios at age 18 tended to have been elevated at ages 9 and 11, respectively. There were strong correlations between BMI at age 9 with several outcomes at age 18: BMI (0.76) and FMI (0.72), weaker but significant with FFMI (0.37), and ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass (0.53). Additionally, there was significant tracking of elevated BMI from ages 9 through 18. Conclusions In girls, higher BMI levels during childhood lead to greater waist-to-height ratios and greater than expected changes in BMI at age 18, with disproportionate increases in fat mass. These changes are especially evident in blacks and after the pubertal growth spurt.

Biro, Frank M; Huang, Bin; Morrison, John A; Horn, Paul S; Daniels, Steven R

2013-01-01

250

A New Way to Measure Mid-Upper-Arm Circumference in African Villages  

PubMed Central

In 2011 we published a study on how to detect the threshold for malnutrition in children, simply using their own hands and without any technical tool. The fight against malnutrition can only be reached when its measurements involve every single child, almost continuously, in the affected villages. In this paper we try to show that, thanks to our method, it is possible to use mid-upper-arm-circumference as a measurement for malnutrition in children, discriminating between severe and moderate malnutrition and providing the basis for the decision on whether to admit a child to a nutritional rehabilitation unit or not. We trained 63 participants in four groups (Group 1: doctors and clinical officers; Group 2: nurses and students; as Group 3 we defined the 20 best participants and Group 4 consisted of 10 more intensely trained participants) to measure the circumference of 9 different artificial arms (between 9 and 13 cm) using their own fingers and hands. The training was short and consisted of an introduction of 5 min, a first training phase of 10-15 min, a test, the critical discussion of the results, a second training phase of 5 min and a final test. We found that 95.3% of participants in the general group and 97.9% in the intensely trained group have identified the severely malnourished child; 87.3% in the general group and 91.9% in the intensely trained group have additionally identified the moderately malnourished child. Both groups haven’t admitted the well nourished child to a therapeutic feeding program retaining their resources. The third group reached without any additional training the results in the above categories. A subsequent discussion with the participants on the influence of procurement, maintenance and pricing of our tool, found our method much less vulnerable than others. We conclude that this method should be considered as a future training in the villages to detect the trend towards malnutrition early enough.

Pollach, Gregor; Bradley, Eleanore; Cole, Abigail; Jung, Kai

2014-01-01

251

Waist to Hip Ratio, Body Mass Index and Subsequent Kidney Disease and Death  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity are important public health concerns. We examined the association between anthropomorphic measures and incident CKD and mortality. Design Cohort Setting and Participants Individual patient data pooled from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study Exposures Waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) Outcomes Incident CKD defined as serum creatinine rise of >0.4 mg/dL with baseline creatinine ?1.4 mg/dL in men and 1.2 mg/dL in women and final creatinine above these levels, and, in separate analyses, as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline ?15 mL/min/1.73m2 with baseline eGFR ?60 and final eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Analysis Multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and outcomes. Cox models to evaluate a secondary composite outcome of all-cause mortality and incident CKD. Results Among 13,324 individuals, mean WHR was 0.96 in men and 0.89 in women and mean BMI was 27.2 kg/m2 in both men and women. Over 9.3 years, 300 (2.3%) in creatinine-based models and 710 (5.5%) in eGFR-based models developed CKD. In creatinine-based models, each standard deviation increase in WHR was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD [Odds ratio=1.22 (1.05, 1.43)] and the composite outcome [Hazard ratio=1.12 (1.06, 1.18)], while each standard deviation increase in BMI was not associated with CKD [Odds ratio=1.05 (0.93, 1.20)] and appeared protective for the composite outcome [Hazard ratio=0.94 (0.90, 0.99)]. Results of eGFR-based models were similar. Limitations Single measures of creatinine, no albuminuria data. Conclusions WHR but not BMI is associated with incident CKD and mortality. Assessment of CKD risk should utilize WHR rather than BMI as an anthropomorphic measure of obesity.

Elsayed, Essam F; Sarnak, Mark J; Tighiouart, Hocine; Griffith, John L; Kurth, Tobias; Salem, Deeb N; Levey, Andrew S; Weiner, Daniel E

2014-01-01

252

Hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype predicts diabetes: a cohort study in Chinese urban adults  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertriglycedemic-waist (HTGW) phenotype is a simple and inexpensive screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether the HTGW phenotype predicts prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese urban adults. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and eight (2908) subjects including 1957 men and 951 women, aged 20 years and older, free of prediabetes and diabetes at baseline were enrolled in 2008 and followed for 3 years. Meanwhile, new cases of prediabetes and diabetes were identified via annual physical examination. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of HTGW phenotype with the incidence of prediabetes and diabetes. Results One thousand five hundred and thirty-three (1533) new prediabetes and 90 new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow-up period. The accumulated incidence of prediabetes and diabetes was 52.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Compared with the normal waist normal triglyceride (NWNT) group, those in the HTGW group had higher incidence of prediabetes and diabetes for both men and women. The hazard ratio (HR) for developing prediabetes in the presence of HTGW phenotype at baseline was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.04-2.19) in women, not in men (HR=1.01; 95% CI = 0.82-1.24), after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The HR for developing diabetes were 4.46 (95% CI = 1.88-10.60) in men and 4.64 (95% CI = 1.20-17.97) in women for people who were HTGW phenotype at baseline, after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Conclusions The HTGW phenotype can be used as a simple screening approach to predict diabetes. By using this approach, it is possible to identify individuals at high-risk for diabetes, which is of great significance in reducing the incidence of diabetes among Chinese urban adults.

2012-01-01

253

DAFNE Setup And Operation With the Crab-Waist Collision Scheme  

SciTech Connect

In the second half of 2007 a major upgrade has been implemented on the Frascati DA{Phi}NE collider in order to test the novel idea of Crab-Waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, built and installed to realize the new configuration. At the same time the performances of relevant hardware components, such as fast injection kickers and shielded bellows have been improved relying on new design concepts. The collider has been successfully commissioned in this new configuration. The paper describes several experimental results about linear and non-linear optics setup and optimization, damping of beam-beam instabilities and discusses the obtained luminosity performances. DA{Phi}NE [1] is the Frascati lepton collider working at the c m. energy of the {Phi} meson resonance (1020). It came in operation in 2001 and till summer 2007 provided luminosity, in sequence, to three different experiments which logged a total integrated luminosity of {approx} 4.4 fb{sup -1}. During these years the collider reached its best performances in terms of luminosity and background (L{sub peak} = 1.6 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} L{sub day} {approx} 10 pb{sup -1}) by means of several successive upgrades, relying on the experience gathered during the collider operations and implemented exploiting the shutdowns required for the experiment change over [2, 3, 4].

Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /SLAC

2011-10-21

254

Optimal Waist-to-Hip Ratios in Women Activate Neural Reward Centers in Men  

PubMed Central

Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of “good genes” in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (?0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing.

Platek, Steven M.; Singh, Devendra

2010-01-01

255

Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

2012-01-01

256

Reductions in thigh and infraumbilical circumference following treatment with a novel device combining ultrasound, suction, and massage.  

PubMed

Liposuction is the gold standard of body contouring procedures. Many patients, however, will not tolerate the invasiveness and subsequent recovery time associated with this procedure, despite the likelihood of superior results. Consequently, patients opt for minimally invasive forms of body contouring that require several treatments, have fewer associated side effects, and afford more modest improvements. The MedSculpt device is one such modality that combines computerized massage, vacuum suction, and ultrasound with a continuous sinusoidal pulse delivered at a frequency of 3 Hz. The efficacy of this device was assessed in the reduction of thigh and abdominal circumferences. Five patients were included in this pilot study. A total of 12 treatments were performed on a semiweekly basis to 2 abdomens and 3 pairs of thighs. Photographs and circumferential measurements of each area were obtained prior to, and at the conclusion of, the treatment course. The treatments were well tolerated and without side effects. The mean reduction in thigh circumference was 2.25 cm or 4%, with a 5 cm reduction in 1 subject. Although limited improvement was seen in supraumbilical circumference, the mean reduction in infraumbilical circumference was 6.5 cm or 7.3%, with a 10 cm reduction in 1 subject. Mild improvement in skin tone, texture, and the appearance of cellulite was observed in all study participants. The results observed after 12 treatments were similar to or better than those seen with other minimally invasive, body contouring devices. PMID:18335646

Foster, K Wade; Kouba, David J; Hayes, Jennifer; Freeman, Valerie; Moy, Ronald L

2008-02-01

257

Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: A response to McAnulty and Adams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In replying to my review of the validity and ethics of penile circumference responses (PCRs) as measures of sexual arousal McAnulty and Adams misinterpreted the review as claiming penile volume responses (PVRs) were superior to PCRs in assessing rapists and child molesters. No such claim was made. The lack of validity of PCR assessment of individual rapists and child molesters

Nathaniel McConaghy

1992-01-01

258

Penile circumference, skin conductance, and ranking responses of child molesters and “Normals” to sexual and nonsexual visual stimuli+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty male child molesters confined in a maximum sercurity psychiatric insti- tution were compared with eleven non-sex offender patients from the same insti- tution and ten persons from the community. Each subject was shown a total of 20 slides which were of persons varying in age and sex as well as neutral or non- person slides. Penile circumference and skin

VERNON L. QUINSEY; CARY M. STEINMAN; S BERGERSEN; T HOLMES

1975-01-01

259

Effect of antenatal and postnatal corticosteroid therapy on weight gain and head circumference growth in the nursery  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of antenatal and postnatal corticosteroids on head circumference growth and weight gain from birth to discharge.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of nonanomalous newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from 23 to 34 6\\/7 weeks of gestation. Independent variables included maternal age, race, nulliparity, poor prenatal care, multiple gestation, obstetric complications, alcohol, tocolytic

James A Thorp; Philip G Jones; Joyce L Peabody; Eric Knox; Reese H Clark

2002-01-01

260

New cross sectional stature, weight, and head circumference references for Down's syndrome in the UK and Republic of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To present a growth reference for children with uncomplicated Down's syndrome living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Data are available for height and weight in the age range 0–18 years, including the first three months of life, and for head circumference in the first year.Methods: The study sample was drawn from 16 discrete geographical areas and was

M E Styles; T J Cole; J Dennis; M A Preece

2002-01-01

261

Weight, length, and head circumference curves for boys and girls of between 20 and 42 weeks' gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of available growth curves for preterm infants is limited because they exclude infants of less than 28 weeks' gestation. We describe growth curves for weight, length, and head circumference for boys and girls of between 20 and 42 weeks' gestation.

D V Keen; R G Pearse

1988-01-01

262

Correlation of birth weight and head circumference with deviated nasal septum in newborns—a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deviated nasal septum is known to occur in newborns. It is related to birth trauma or to intrauterine pressures inflicted\\u000a on the fetus. The present study underlines as interesting relationship between birthweight, gestational period and head circumference\\u000a with frequency of septal deviations in newborns.

R. Bhatia; S. K. Kaker; V. P. Sood; I. C. Verma; R. C. Deka

1984-01-01

263

Actual focal length of a symmetric biconvex microlens and its application in determining the transmitted beam waist position.  

PubMed

The actual focal length of a three-dimensional continuous profile symmetric biconvex microlens with normal monochromatic plane wave illumination is theoretically determined using a full-field separation of variables method in the oblate spheroidal coordinate system. The investigations are performed for microlenses of 5, 10, and 20 wavelength diameters by calculating the electromagnetic field distributions inside of and adjacent to the microlenses. The importance and potential application of the microlens actual focal length in the design of microlens optical systems are demonstrated by showing that for normal monochromatic TEM00 mode Gaussian beam illumination, the transmitted beam waist position through a single microlens, calculated using Self's beam waist position transformation formula [Appl. Opt.22, 658 (1983)] with the microlens actual focal length, closely matches the exact value given by the separation of variables method. PMID:20962947

Wang, Jian; Barton, John P

2010-10-20

264

Is there an independent association between waist-to-hip ratio and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women and to determine a point of WHR above which the chances of having cardiovascular risk factors increased. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 2892 pre- and postmenopausal women aged 20–78 years with body mass index (BMI) ?25 selected from

Fereidoun Azizi; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Parvin Mirmiran; Elaheh Ainy

2005-01-01

265

Eye-Tracking of Men’s Preferences for Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Breast Size of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of human physical traits and mate preferences often use questionnaires asking participants to rate the attractiveness\\u000a of images. Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), breast size, and facial appearance have all been implicated in assessments by\\u000a men of female attractiveness. However, very little is known about how men make fine-grained visual assessments of such images.\\u000a We used eye-tracking techniques to measure

Barnaby J. Dixson; Gina M. Grimshaw; Wayne L. Linklater; Alan F. Dixson

2011-01-01

266

Estimation of Variance Components and Prediction of Breeding Values for Scrotal Circumference and Weaning Weight in Limousin Cattle 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variance and covariance components were estimated for yearling scrotal circumference and weaning weight from Limousin field data. Records of 8,226 bulls were used to evaluate 584 sires and 653 maternal grandsires. Data included all herdbook records of bulls with a recorded scrotal circumference and their weaning contemporaries. Analyses were performed by restricted maximum likelihood tech- niques employing the expected maximization

L. L. Keeton; R. D. Green; B. L. Golden; K. J. Anderson

2010-01-01

267

Functional group biodiversity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems questions the wasp-waist trophic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The species diversity of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems (EBUEs) is studied and compared with the aim of better understanding their functioning. Functional groups (FGs) of organisms were defined according to their taxonomy, body size and trophic level (TL), and span from plankton to top predators. Four large sub-divisions are defined in each system: two latitudinal sub-divisions (north and south) and two zonal sub-divisions (inshore and offshore), resulting in four sub-ecosystems per EBUE. A semi-quantitative approach is used in which only the dominant species (contributing 90% of overall biomass) are considered. EBUEs are compared in regard to their species composition, dominant species richness and evenness within FGs. The data are interpreted, focusing on latitudinal, zonal and depth gradients of diversity. Trophic flows (inflow and outflow) through the small pelagic fish FG are derived from different Ecopath models. This analysis of the four ecosystems and their sub-divisions does not provide support for the expected wasp-waist food web structure and functioning, with a single or several species of small pelagic fish primarily channelling the energy flow from lower to higher TL. Instead, similar low levels of richness were observed in many FGs of intermediate TL, allowing several energy transfer pathways. The gamma diversity is high due to the geographical distance between EBUEs and the presence or absence of rivers, but not to differences in their latitudinal position. The beta diversity is also high, due to the same factors plus the variation in shelf width and the contrast between inshore and offshore sub-divisions. The differences in richness and evenness among EBUEs are minor and do not explain the higher secondary and tertiary productivity of the Humboldt ecosystem.

Fréon, Pierre; Arístegui, Javier; Bertrand, Arnaud; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Field, John C.; Gibbons, Mark J.; Tam, Jorge; Hutchings, Larry; Masski, Hicham; Mullon, Christian; Ramdani, Mohamed; Seret, Bernard; Simier, Monique

2009-12-01

268

Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Might Be an Alternative to Metabolic Syndrome for Predicting Future Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background In some cross-sectional studies, hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) has been recommended as an alternative to metabolic syndrome (MetS) for screening individuals at high risk for diabetes mellitus (DM). However, little information is about the predictive power of HTGW for future DM. The aims of the study were to assess the DM predictive power of HTGW compared with MetS based on the follow-up data over 15 years collected from a general Chinese population. Methods And Findings: The data were collected in 1992 and then again in 2007 from the same group of 687 individuals without DM in 1992. For the whole population (n =687), multivariate analysis showed presence of HTGW was associated with a 4.1-fold (95%CI: 2.4-7.0, p < 0.001) increased risk and presence of MetS was associated with a 3.7-fold (95%CI: 2.2-6.2, p < 0.001) increased risk for future DM. For the population without elevated fasting plasma glucose (n = 650), multivariate analysis showed presence of HTGW was associated with a 3.9-fold (95%CI: 2.2-7.0, p < 0.001) increased risk and presence of MetS was associated with a 3.7-fold (95%CI: 2.1-6.6, p < 0.001) increased risk for future DM. Conclusions HTGW could predict future DM independently, and the predictive power was similar to MetS. HTGW might be an alternative to MetS for predicting future DM. For simpler and fewer components, HTGW might be more practical than MetS, and it might be recommended in most clinical practices. This finding might be more useful for the individuals who only have elevated WC and TG. Although these individuals are without MetS, they are still at high risk for future DM, similarly to the individuals with MetS.

He, Jiyun; Wang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

269

Heat Transfer Over the Circumference of a Heated Cylinder in Transverse Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for recording the local heat-transfer coefficients on bodies in flow was developed. The cylinder surface was kept at constant temperature by the condensation of vapor except for a narrow strip which is heated separately to the same temperature by electricity. The heat-transfer coefficient at each point was determined from the electric heat output and the temperature increase. The distribution of the heat transfer along the circumference of cylinders was recorded over a range of Reynolds numbers of from 5000 to 426,000. The pressure distribution was measured at the same time. At Reynolds numbers up to around 100,000 high maximums of the heat transfer occurred in the forward stagnation point at and on the rear side at 180C, while at around 80 the heat-transfer coefficient on both sides of the cylinder behind the forward stagnation point manifested distinct minimums. Two other maximums occurred at around 115 C behind the forward stagnation point between 170,000 and 426,000. At 426,000 the heat transfer at the location of those maximums was almost twice as great as in the forward stagnation point, and the rear half of the cylinder diffused about 60 percent of the entire heat, The tests are compared with the results of other experimental and theoretical investigations.

Schmidt, Ernst; Wenner, Karl

1943-01-01

270

Neck circumference and early stage atherosclerosis: the cardiometabolic risk in Chinese (CRC) study  

PubMed Central

Background Neck circumference (NC) has been previously related to cardiometabolic risk factors. In this study we examined the association between NC and early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. Methods The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 2,318 men and women (18-64 y) were included in the final analyses. Carotid radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV), carotid femoral PWV (cfPWV), carotid artery dorsalis pedis PWV (cdPWV) and NC were measured. Results After adjustment for age, sex, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index (BMI), high NC was significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV, cdPWV and crPWV (P = 0.001, 0.049, and 0.038; respectively). In addition, we found significant interaction between hypertension status and NC level in relation to cfPWV, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, lipids and heart rate(P for interaction?=?0.034). The associations between NC and cfPWV were significant (P?=?0.02) among those with hypertension, but not significant among those without hypertension. Conclusions Our data showed that high NC was associated with an increased risk of early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults, independent of other metabolic risk factors. Hypertension might modify the association between NC and cfPWV.

2014-01-01

271

Genome-wide mapping of loci explaining variance in scrotal circumference in Nellore cattle.  

PubMed

The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility. PMID:24558400

Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Márcia C; Zavarez, Ludmilla B; Ito, Pier K R K; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M; Sölkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Schenkel, Flávio S; McEwan, John; Cole, John B; da Silva, Marcos V G B; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Garcia, José Fernando

2014-01-01

272

Body mass index and high-density lipoproteins in Cherokee Indian children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Native Americans are predisposed to insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk. Therefore, we studied whether BMI (body mass index) in a population of Cherokee children and adolescents is associated with HDL-C (HDL cholesterol), and the HDL particles Lp (lipoprotein) A-I and LpA-I:A-II. Subjects were grouped by BMI Z score quartiles within three gender-specific age brackets (5-9, 10-14, and 15-19 y) to examine for trends in lipoprotein and HOMA-IR (homeostasis index insulin resistance) values associated with adiposity and age. HDL-C decreased by BMI Z score quartiles in all three age groups for both genders. HDL-C, LpA-I, and LpA-I:A-II decreased with age in boys but not girls. Log HOMA-IR increased by BMI Z score quartiles in all three age groups for both genders. Linear regression modeling showed BMI Z score, triglyceride, and age to be associated with HDL-C, whereas HOMA-IR was associated with LpA-I:A-II but not with HDL-C or LpA-I. When waist circumference was substituted for BMI Z score in the same models, it was associated with HDL-C and both lipoprotein particles. In conclusion, adiposity is more associated with HDL-C lowering than with declines in the lipoprotein particles. HOMA-IR is less associated with HDL-C but may selectively influence LpA-I:A-II. Greater decreases in HDL-C, LpA-I, and LpA-I:A-II with age in boys is attributed to gender-specific hormonal changes. The early onset of HDL lowering in these Native American children and adolescents, particularly boys, warrants intervention strategies to prevent obesity and associated cardiovascular risk. PMID:16148059

Blackett, Piers R; Blevins, Kathleen S; Stoddart, Martha; Wang, Wenyu; Quintana, Elaine; Alaupovic, Petar; Lee, Elisa T

2005-09-01

273

Head Circumference of Infants Born to Mothers with Different Educational Levels; The Generation R Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Head circumference (HC) reflect growth and development of the brain in early childhood. It is unknown whether socioeconomic differences in HC are present in early childhood. Therefore, we investigated the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and HC in early childhood, and potential underlying factors. Methods The study focused on Dutch children born between April 2002 and January 2006 who participated in The Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Maternal educational level was used as indicator of SEP. HC measures were concentrated around 1, 3, 6 and 11 months. Associations and explanatory factors were investigated using linear regression analysis, adjusted for potential mediators. Results The study included 3383 children. At 1, 3 and 6 months of age, children of mothers with a low education had a smaller HC than those with a high education (difference at 1 month: ?0.42 SD; 95% CI: ?0.54,?0.30; at 3 months: ?0.27 SD; 95% CI ?0.40,?0.15; and at 6 months: ?0.13 SD; 95% CI ?0.24,?0.02). Child’s length and weight could only partially explain the smaller HC at 1 and 3 months of age. At 6 months, birth weight, gestational age and parental height explained the HC differences. At 11 months, no HC differences were found. Conclusion Educational inequalities in HC in the first 6 months of life can be mainly explained by pregnancy-related factors, such as birth weight and gestational age. These findings further support public health policies to prevent negative birth outcomes in lower socioeconomic groups.

Bouthoorn, Selma H.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Moll, Henriette A.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein

2012-01-01

274

Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often\\u000a exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This\\u000a study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of HC growth were more likely than those

Lauren M. Elder; Geraldine Dawson; Karen Toth; Deborah Fein; Jeff Munson

2008-01-01

275

Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.  

PubMed

Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index. PMID:21734821

Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

2011-04-01

276

Developmental Correlates of Head Circumference at Birth and Two Years in a Cohort of Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the developmental correlates of microcephaly evident at birth and at 2 years in a cohort born at extremely low gestational age. Methods We assessed development and motor function at 2 years of 958 children born before the 28th week of gestation, comparing those who had microcephaly at birth or 2 years with children with normal head circumference while considering the contribution of neonatal cranial ultrasound lesions. Results A total of 11% of infants in our sample had microcephaly at 2 years. Microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, predicts severe motor and cognitive impairments at 2 years. A total of 71% of children with congenital microcephaly had a normal head circumference at 2 years and had neurodevelopmental outcomes comparable with those with normal head circumference at birth and 2 years. Among children with microcephaly at 2 years, more than half had a Mental Developmental Index <70, and nearly a third had cerebral palsy. The risks were increased if the child also had cerebral white matter damage on a cranial ultrasound scan obtained 2 years previously. Conclusion Among extremely low gestational age newborns, microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, is associated with motor and cognitive impairment at age 2.

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Westra, Sjirk; Miller, Cindy; Rosman, N. Paul; Leviton, Alan

2009-01-01

277

Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoendemic Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder) were taken from 1024 individuals examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population). An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Windows package was used for entering and analysis of data. Results Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females). The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip) than females (14 mf/skin snip) (p<0.01). A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient=+0.90; p<0.01), and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities. Conclusion Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch.

Uttah, EC

2010-01-01

278

Treatment of Nonunion of Scaphoid Waist with Ni-Ti Shape-Memory Alloy Connector and Iliac Bone Graft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After fracture, the unique anatomy and blood supply of the scaphoid itself predisposes to nonunion. Scaphoid nonunion presents a formidable challenge to surgeons because of the difficulties for fixation, and the high failure rate after treatment. The Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy can provide compressive stress at the nonunion site, which is the key point for bone healing. Hence, we designed a shape-memory bone connector named arched shape-memory connector (ASC). We conducted a retrospective study looking at the union rate and complications and correlating the outcome of treatment with this device. The study reviewed a cohort of six consecutive patients presenting with scaphoid waist nonunion, who were treated with ASC and iliac cancellous bone grafting at our center from August 2002 to December 2007. The patients with nonunion achieved a 100% union rate. All the patients who achieved union had good pain relief and improved function. Our study demonstrates that scaphoid waist nonunions can be successfully treated by ASC and iliac bone grafting.

Cao, Lie-Hu; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Wu, Ya-Le; Zhang, Chun-Cai

2011-07-01

279

Pulsed-laser crossed-beam thermal lens spectrometry for detection in a microchannel: influence of the size of the excitation beam waist.  

PubMed

Crossed-beam thermal lens spectrometry is especially designed for the detection of very small samples in capillary tubes and more generally in microfluidic devices. In this work, the effect of the size of the excitation beam with respect to the size of the sample microchannel has been investigated. Although the signal is inversely proportional to the size of the excitation waist into the sample, the use of large waists may provide greater sensitivities when short-pulse excitation lasers are used and allows easier optimization of the optical design. On the contrary, the use of small beam waists reduces the edge effects that can arise depending on the nature and thickness of the walls of the sample holder. Moreover, small beams provide better spatial resolution and have allowed the measurement of flow velocities as low as 1 mm s(-1). PMID:15479529

Ghaleb, Khalil Abbas; Georges, Joseph

2004-09-01

280

The breed and season effects on scrotal circumference and semen characteristics of hair sheep rams under tropical conditions.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the breed and season effects on scrotal circumference (SC) and semen characteristics of 28 mature hair sheep rams kept under tropical conditions. SCs, sperm concentration (SPC) and abnormal sperm were significantly affected by breed effect (p < 0.001). The season effect was significant in SPC (p < 0.0001) while ejaculate volume, mass motility and SPC were affected by breed × season interaction effect (p < 0.001). It can be concluded that the magnitude of the breed and season effects were not sufficient to affect the reproductive capacity of hair sheep rams throughout the year. PMID:22372836

Cárdenas-Gallegos, M A; Aké-López, J R; Centurión-Castro, F; Magaña-Monforte, J G

2012-12-01

281

Antenatal supplementation with folic acid + iron + zinc improves linear growth and reduces peripheral adiposity in school-age children in rural Nepal123  

PubMed Central

Background: We previously reported that a randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplements in rural Nepal decreased the risk of low birth weight by ?15%. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and body composition in children of supplemented mothers through school age. Design: Mothers received 1 of 5 micronutrient supplements daily: folic acid, folic acid + iron, folic acid + iron + zinc, multiple micronutrients, or a control. All of the supplements contained vitamin A. Children born during this trial were revisited at age 6–8 y to measure height, weight, midupper arm circumference, waist circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Arm fat and muscle area were estimated by using standard formulas, and height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index–for-age z scores were calculated by using the World Health Organization growth standard. Results: Of the 3771 surviving children, 3324 were revisited and consented to anthropometric measurements. Maternal supplementation with folic acid + iron + zinc resulted in an increase in mean height (0.64 cm; 95% CI: 0.04, 1.25) and a reduction in mean triceps skinfold thickness (?0.25 mm; 95% CI: ?0.44, ?0.06), subscapular skinfold thickness (?0.20 mm; 95% CI: ?0.33, ?0.06), and arm fat area (?0.18 cm2; ?0.34, ?0.01). No significant differences were found between groups in mean weight or body mass index–for-age z scores, waist circumference, or arm muscle area. Other micronutrient combinations including a multiple micronutrient formulation failed to show a growth benefit. Conclusion: Antenatal supplementation with zinc may benefit child growth, particularly in areas where a deficiency of this nutrient is common.

Stewart, Christine P; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Khatry, Subarna K

2009-01-01

282

Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC.

Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Volzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2012-01-01

283

Interaction of Waist\\/Hip Ratio and Family History on the Risk of Hormone Receptor-defined Breast Cancer in a Prospective Study of Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors previously reported an interaction of waist\\/hip ratio and family history on the risk of breast cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Here they reexamine this association based on 9 additional years of follow- up, stratifying on tumor receptors for estrogen and progesterone. Data on risk factors and family history of breast cancer were ascertained in 1986. The

Thomas A. Sellers; Jenny Davis; James R. Cerhan; Robert A. Vierkant; Janet E. Olson; V. Shane Pankratz; John D. Potter; Aaron R. Folsom

284

Effects of Sibutramine Use on Weight, Body Mass Index, Waist \\/ Hip Ratio, and Blood Lipid Parameters, Compared to Placebo, in Obese Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide obesity is a chronic condition that is characterized by accumulation of extra fat in the body and that results in increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of sibutramine, an anorectic medication, on body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist\\/hip ratio and blood lipid parameters in obese individuals. The study enrolled

Yusuf Özkan; Taner Akdere; Emir Dönder

285

Differential associations of leptin with adiposity across early childhood  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined associations of perinatal and 3-year leptin with weight gain and adiposity through 7 years. Design and Methods In Project Viva, we assessed plasma leptin from mothers at 26–28 weeks’ gestation (n=893), umbilical cord vein at delivery (n=540), and children at 3 years (n=510) in relation to body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, and dual X-ray absorptiometry body fat. Results 50.1% of children were male and 29.5% non-white. Mean(SD) maternal, cord, and age 3 leptin concentrations were 22.9(14.2), 8.8(6.4), and 1.8(1.7) ng/mL, respectively, and 3- and 7-year BMI z-scores were 0.46(1.00) and 0.35(0.97), respectively. After adjusting for parental and child characteristics, higher maternal and cord leptin was associated with less 3- year adiposity. For example, mean 3-year BMI z-score was 0.5 lower (95%CI:?0.7,?0.2; p-trend=0.003) among children whose mothers’ leptin concentrations were in the top vs. bottom quintile. In contrast, higher age 3 leptin was associated with greater weight gain and adiposity through age 7 [e.g., change in BMI z-score from 3 to 7 years was 0.2 units (95%CI:?0.0,0.4; p-trend=0.05)]. Conclusions Higher perinatal leptin was associated with lower 3-year adiposity, whereas higher age 3 leptin was associated with greater weight gain and adiposity by 7 years.

Boeke, Caroline E.; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Zera, Chloe A.; Gillman, Matthew W.

2013-01-01

286

Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

2012-12-01

287

Effects of the circumference of codends and a new design of square-mesh panel in reducing unwanted by-catch in the New South Wales oceanic prawn-trawl fishery, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects on the escape of small fish from prawn-trawl codends due to (i) codend circumference and (ii) a new design of square-mesh panel were investigated in the New South Wales oceanic prawn-trawl fishery. Simultaneous comparisons of two conventional diamond-mesh codends, constructed with posterior sections of 100 and 200 meshes circumference, respectively, showed that halving this circumference significantly altered the selectivity

M. K. Broadhurst; S. J. Kennelly

1996-01-01

288

Comparison of two optimization methods to derive energy parameters for protein folding: Perceptron and Z score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods were proposed re- cently to derive energy parameters from known native protein conformations and corresponding sets of decoys. One is based on finding, by means of a perceptron learning scheme, energy parameters such that the native conformations have lower ener- gies than the decoys. The second method maximizes the difference between the native energy and the average energy

Michele Vendruscolo; Leonid A. Mirny; Eugene I. Shakhnovich; Eytan Domany

2000-01-01

289

Hallmarks of Posttraumatic Stress: Symptom Z-Scores in a Tsunami-Affected Tourist Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To date, little research has been published on the prominence of the various psychiatric symptoms that result from exposure to a natural disaster. In our study of stress-related symptoms among Norwegian tourists who were repatriated after the 2004 southeast Asian tsunami, we evaluated to what extent symptom scores differed between individuals who were exposed to the disaster and those

Trond Heir; Leiv Sandvik; Lars Weisæth

2009-01-01

290

The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

Wiseman, Jennifer

2010-01-01

291

Blocking Glutamate Receptors in the Waist Area of the Parabrachial Nucleus Decreases Taste Reactivity Behaviors in Conscious Rats  

PubMed Central

The “waist” area (W) of the parabrachial nucleus contains neurons that receive orosensory input and play a role in the initiation of oromotor behaviors. Immunohistochemical data indicate that neurons in W receive glutamatergic input and express glutamate receptors, but a behavioral role for glutamate neurotransmission within W has not been investigated. To determine the role of specific glutamate receptors in taste reactivity behaviors, glutamate receptor blockers were delivered into W by reverse microdialysis during intraoral infusion of 0.1 M sodium chloride, 0.1 M sucrose, 0.03 M hydrochloric acid, and 0.003 M quinine hydrochloride. Blocking ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)/kainate ionotropic glutamate receptors in W with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium (CNQX) reduced ingestive taste reactivity behaviors to each tastant by 72–85% compared with baseline levels (P’s?

Biondolillo, Joseph W.; Williams, Learnel A.

2009-01-01

292

Body Mass and Circumference of Upper Arm Are Associated with Race Performance in Ultraendurance Runners in a Multistage Race--The Isarrun 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated the association of anthropometric parameters with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage ultraendurance run, in which athletes had to run 338 km within 5 consecutive days. In 17 male successful finishers, calculations of body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, extremity circumference,…

Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Welzel, Ulrich; Kohler, Gotz

2009-01-01

293

Growth in weight, recumbent length, and head circumference for preterm low-birthweight infants during the first three years of life using gestation-adjusted ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 867 preterm low-birthweight participants in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) were used to develop reference data for growth status at an age and for increments from term to 36 month gestation-adjusted age (GAA). Weight, length and head circumference were recorded at 4 month intervals in the first year and at 6 month intervals in the second

Shumei S Guo; Alex F Roche; Wm. Cameron Chumlea; Patrick H Casey; William M Moore

1997-01-01

294

Genetic and Environmental Relationships between Head Circumference Growth in the First Year of Life and Sociocognitive Development in the Second Year: A Longitudinal Twin Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although growth in head circumference (HC) during infancy is known to predict later childhood outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this association with later sociocognitive abilities remain undetermined. Thus, using a sample of 241 pairs of normally developing Japanese twins, this study investigated the underpinnings of the association between HC…

Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Ozaki, Koken; Suzuki, Kunitake; Yamagata, Shinji; Kawahashi, Ikko; Ando, Juko

2012-01-01

295

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Birth Weight, Birth Length, Head Circumference, and Gestational Age by Use of Population-based Parent Offspring Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial correlations in birth weight and gestational age have been explained by fetal and maternal genetic factors, mainly in studies on offspring of twins. The aim of the present intergenerational study was to estimate and compare fetal and maternal genetic effects and shared sibling environmental effects on birth weight and gestational age and also on crown-heel length and head circumference.

Astrid Lunde; Kari Klungsøyr Melve; K. Gjessing; Rolv Skjærven; Lorentz M. Irgens

2007-01-01

296

Pilot intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary urban middle school girls: a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school physical activity club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions controlling for baseline measures showed no statistically significant group differences, but the directionality of differences was consistent with greater intervention group improvement for minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity/hour (t = 0.95, p = .35), cardiovascular fitness (t = 1.26, p = .22), body mass index (BMI; t = -1.47, p = .15), BMI z score (t = -1.19, p = .24), BMI percentile (t = -0.59, p = .56), percentage body fat (t = -0.86, p = .39), and waist circumference (t = -0.19, p = .85). Findings support testing with a larger sample. PMID:22472632

Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Maier, Kimberly S; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek Ladrig, Stacey M

2012-08-01

297

Fasting Plasma Glucose and Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Normoglycemic Outpatient Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether fasting plasma glucose (FPG) within a normoglycemic range is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) among children and adolescents in an outpatient setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects (780; age 6–16 years) with FPG <100 mg/dL were divided into tertiles of FPG. RESULTS BMI, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell (WBC) count (P < 0.0001) increased across tertiles of FPG. Subjects with high-normal FPG (89–99 mg/dL) showed a higher risk of insulin resistance, hypertension, and high WBC count compared with subjects with low-normal FPG, independent of BMI z score. CONCLUSIONS In outpatient children and adolescents, higher FPG within the normal range is associated with several CMRF, independent of obesity. Thus the simple measurement of FPG may help identify subjects who warrant some monitoring in relation to cardiovascular risk.

Di Bonito, Procolo; Sanguigno, Eduardo; Forziato, Claudia; Saitta, Francesco; Iardino, Maria Rosaria; Capaldo, Brunella

2011-01-01

298

Relation of total and beverage-specific alcohol intake to body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: A study of self-defense officials in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the independent associations of total and beverage-specific ethanol consumption with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in middle-aged Japanese males, because of the scarcity of epidemiologic data in Japan. The subjects were 2227 male self-defense officials who received a pre-retirement health examination at the Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka, Kumamoto, and Sapporo Hospitals. Data on alcohol intake, smoking,

Yutaka Sakurai; Takashi Umeda; Koichi Shinchi; Satoshi Honjo; Kazuo Wakabayashi; Isao Todoroki; Hiroshi Nishikawa; Shinsaku Ogawa; Mitsuhiko Katsurada

1997-01-01

299

ApoC-III bound to apoB-containing lipoproteins increase with insulin resistance in Cherokee Indian youth.  

PubMed

Because Native Americans are predisposed to obesity and type 2 diabetes associated with coronary artery disease, we assessed whether apoC-III bound to apoB-containing (LpB:C-III) and apoA-containing (LpA:C-III) lipoproteins, total apoC-III, apoB, and plasma lipids are associated with insulin resistance, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference in Cherokee children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years (n = 975). A cross-sectional analysis was done to determine associations of the lipoproteins with the homeostasis index (HOMA-IR) and BMI. When the data were grouped by quartiles for HOMA-IR and separated by three 5-year age groups (5-9, 10-14, and 15-19 years), the trend for LpB:C-III, triglyceride, and BMI z score to increase was significant for all age groups and both genders (P < .001). The trend to increase LpB:C-III with age was greater in boys (P < .0001) than in girls (P < .05) who tended to plateau after the age of 10 years. In contrast, the ratio of LpA:C-III to LpB:C-III decreased and the decrease was greater in boys (P < .0001) than girls (P < .01). Body mass index z score and waist circumference were correlated with LpB:C-III, triglyceride, apoB, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol within each gender (P < .001). In multiple regression models, LpB:C-III, the dependent variable, was associated with HOMA-IR for both genders. We conclude that increases in LpB:C-III in childhood and adolescence are associated with insulin resistance and obesity supporting the need for prevention programs. PMID:15690311

Blackett, Piers R; Blevins, Kathleen S; Quintana, Elaine; Stoddart, Martha; Wang, Wenyu; Alaupovic, Petar; Lee, Elisa T

2005-02-01

300

Fish oil supplementation is beneficial on caloric intake, appetite and mid upper arm muscle circumference in children with leukaemia.  

PubMed

A randomised trial was carried out to determine the effect of supplementation of fish oil among 51 children with leukaemia aged 4 to 12 years on appetite level, caloric intake, body weight and lean body mass. They were randomly allocated into the trial group (TG) and the control group (CG). At baseline, 30.8% of TG subjects and 44.0% of CG subjects were malnourished and 7.7% of subject from TG and 28.0% from CG were classified as stunted. The majority of subjects from TG and CG were in the mild malnutrition category for mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC)-for-age. The TG group showed significant increment in MUAMC (0.13 cm vs -0.09 cm) compared with CG at 8 weeks (p<0.001). There was a significant higher increase for appetite level (0.12±0.33) (p<0.05) and an increasing trend on energy and protein intake in the TG group (213±554 kcal; 3.64 ±26.8 g) than in the CG group. In conclusion, supplementation of fish oil has a positive effect on appetite level, caloric intake and MUAMC among children with leukaemia. PMID:23017308

Abu Zaid, Zalina; Shahar, Suzana; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Noor Aini

2012-01-01

301

Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males), during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5%) (group A; n: 72) or gained weight (group B). Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ( and , resp.), BMI (), z-score BMI (), waist circumference (), fat mass (), LDL-C (), Tg/HDL-C ratio (), fasting and postprandial insulin (), and HOMA (), while HDL-C () and QUICKI increased (). Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (), waist circumference (), SBP (), and in QUICKI (), while fat mass (), fasting insulin (), and HOMA () decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

2011-01-01

302

Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children.  

PubMed

Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males), during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1-5%) (group A; n: 72) or gained weight (group B). Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P < .005 and P < .05, resp.), BMI (P < .0001), z-score BMI (P < .0001), waist circumference (P < .0001), fat mass (P < .005), LDL-C (P < .05), Tg/HDL-C ratio (P < .05), fasting and postprandial insulin (P < .005), and HOMA (P < .005), while HDL-C (P < .05) and QUICKI increased (P < .005). Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (P < .0001), waist circumference (P < .005), SBP (P < .005), and in QUICKI (P < .005), while fat mass (P < .05), fasting insulin (P < .05), and HOMA (P < .05) decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity. PMID:21603203

Marcano, Henry; Fernández, Maricelia; Paoli, Mariela; Santomauro, Mercedes; Camacho, Nolis; Cichetti, Rosanna; Molina, Zarela; Valeri, Lenin; Lanes, Roberto

2011-01-01

303

Peer-Supported Diabetes Prevention Program for Turkish- and Arabic-Speaking Communities in Australia  

PubMed Central

In Australia, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are more prevalent in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities than mainstream Australians. Purpose. To develop, implement, and evaluate culturally sensitive peer-supported diabetes education program for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk middle-aged Turkish- and Arabic-speaking people. Methods. A two-day training program was developed. Ten bilingual peer leaders were recruited from existing health and social networks in Melbourne and were trained by diabetes educators. Each leader recruited 10 high-risk people for developing diabetes. Questionnaires were administered, and height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and three months after the intervention. The intervention comprised two 2-hour group sessions and 30 minutes reinforcement and support telephone calls. Results. 94 individuals (73% women) completed the program. Three months after the program, the participants' mean body weight (before?=?78.1?kg, after?=?77.3; Z score?=??3.415, P = 0.001) and waist circumference (Z?=??2.569, P = 0.004) were reduced, their diabetes knowledge was enhanced, and lifestyle behaviours were significantly improved. Conclusions. A short diabetes prevention program delivered by bilingual peers was associated with improved diabetes awareness, changed lifestyle behaviour, and reduction in body weight 3 months after intervention. The findings are encouraging and should stimulate a larger control-designed study.

Sulaiman, Nabil; Hadj, Elaine; Hussein, Amal; Young, Doris

2013-01-01

304

Effects of a Culturally Grounded Community-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Obese Latino Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and preliminary effects of a culturally grounded, community-based diabetes prevention program among obese Latino adolescents. Methods Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (body mass index [BMI] percentile = 96.3 ± 1.1, age = 15.0 ± 0.9 years) completed a 12-week intervention that included weekly lifestyle education classes delivered by bilingual/bicultural promotoras and three, 60-minute physical activity sessions per week. Participants were assessed for anthropometrics (height, weight, BMI, and waist circumference), cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity/inactivity, nutrition behaviors, and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results The intervention resulted in significant decreases in BMI z score, BMI percentile, and waist circumference; increases in cardiorespiratory fitness; and decreases in physical inactivity and dietary fat consumption. In addition to these changes, the intervention led to significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in 2-hour glucose levels. Conclusions These results support the feasibility and efficacy of a community-based diabetes prevention program for high-risk Latino youth. Translational approaches that are both culturally grounded and biologically meaningful represent a novel and innovative strategy for closing the obesity-related health disparities gap.

Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Konopken, Yolanda; Hoppin, Erica; Keller, Colleen S.; Ortega, Rocio; Castro, Felipe Gonzalez

2012-01-01

305

Long-term outcomes of thigh circumference, stifle range-of-motion, and lameness after unilateral tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.  

PubMed

Our study evaluated thigh circumference (TC), stifle range of motion (ROM), and lameness in dogs one to five years after unilateral tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). We hypothesised that TC, stifle ROM, and lameness would not be different to the unoperated limb (control), one to five years after surgery. Patients that were one to five years post-TPLO were reviewed and were included if they had a unilateral TPLO, and no additional clinical evidence of orthopaedic disease. Standing mid-thigh TC measurements and stifle extension and flexion angles were made in triplicate. Clinical lameness was graded blindly. Data were evaluated statistically using paired t-tests for TC and stifle flexion and extension. Significance was set at p <0.05. Twenty-nine dogs met the inclusion criteria. Mean results for the surgery limbs and control limbs were 39.5 +/- 5.5 cm and 40.1 +/- 5.6 cm for TC, 36.6 +/- 6.8 degrees and 28.6 +/- 4.3 degrees for stifle flexion, and 155.2 +/- 6.6 degrees and 159.8 +/- 4.9 degrees for stifle extension, respectively. The mean TC for the operated limb was 98.5% of the control limb. A significant difference was found between the operated and the control limbs for all measurements. Time after surgery had no apparent affect on outcome. Four of 29 dogs (14%) exhibited some lameness in the TLPO limb during evaluation (one dog was 1 to 2 years postoperative and three dogs were 2 to 3 years postoperative). These results indicate that TC and stifle ROM in the TLPO limb do not return to control-limb measurements one to five years after a TPLO surgery. The clinical significance is unknown as TC returned to 98.5% of control, and the source of lameness in the lame dogs was not identified. PMID:19997674

Moeller, E M; Allen, D A; Wilson, E R; Lineberger, J A; Lehenbauer, T

2010-01-01

306

Decreasing abdominal circumference is associated with improving estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with lifestyle modification in Japanese men: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The link between changes in a subject's metabolic syndrome components and his estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was evaluated in healthy Japanese men. We used data from 120 Japanese men (45.5 ± 8.4 years) with a 1-year follow up. eGFR was defined by a new equation developed for Japan. There were no significant differences in eGFR between men with and without metabolic syndrome components at baseline. Subjects were given advice for dietary and lifestyle improvement. At the 1-year follow up, almost all metabolic syndrome components were significantly improved. However, eGFR was significantly decreased. The changes in eGFR were weakly correlated with abdominal circumference (r?-0.232, p?0.0106). A decrease in abdominal circumference may be associated with improving eGFR in Japanese men. PMID:22189476

Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Shikata, Kenichi; Makino, Hirofumi; Numata, Takeyuki

2011-12-01

307

Effect of Continuing or Stopping Smoking during Pregnancy on Infant Birth Weight, Crown-Heel Length, Head Circumference, Ponderal Index, and Brain:Body Weight Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether stopping smoking between the first prenatal care visit and the 32nd week of pregnancy affects the smoking-associated changes in five infant anthropometric indices. The study population consisted of 15,185 births in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1991 and 1992. The associations between birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference, ponderal index,

Anna A. Lindley; Stan Becker; Ronald H. Gray; Allen A. Herman

308

Association of Body Mass Index of HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and Infant Weight, Body Mass Index, Length, and Head Circumference: The NISDI Perinatal Study  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) of HIV-1-infected women and their infants’ perinatal outcomes. The study population consisted of women enrolled in the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal Study with data allowing calculation of the BMI adjusted for length of gestation (adjBMI), who delivered singleton infants. Outcome variables included infant growth parameters at birth (weight, BMI, length and head circumference) and gestational age. Of 697 women from Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil and Mexico who were included in the analysis, the adjBMI was classified as underweight for 109 (15.6%), normal for 418 (60.0%), overweight for 88 (12.6%) and obese for 82 (11.8%). Median infant birth weight, BMI, birth length and head circumference differed significantly according to maternal adjBMI (P?0.0002). Underweight mothers gave birth to infants with lower weight, lower BMI, shorter length and smaller head circumference, while infants born to normal, overweight and obese mothers were of similar size.

Cruz, Maria Leticia S.; Harris, D. Robert; Read, Jennifer S.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Succi, Regina C.M.

2008-01-01

309

The combination of daily breakfast consumption and optimal breakfast choices in childhood is an important public health message.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with children's diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors. Study sample consisted of 1558 children aged 4-8 years from Cyprus. Breakfast frequency was assessed through a parental questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and blood pressure were examined in relation to breakfast frequency consumption. Habitual breakfast consumers' daily nutrient intake was assessed through a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, according to their breakfast choices. Girls who have breakfast on a daily basis had lower mean BMI and BMI z-score; they were also less likely of having abnormal levels of serum triglycerides, atheromatic index (total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio) and diastolic blood pressure after controlling for several confounding factors. Within regular breakfast consumers, of both boys and girls, those having ready to eat cereals had a superior nutrient intake profile. Daily breakfast consumption along with good breakfast choices is an important public health message for Cypriot children. PMID:24512299

Papoutsou, Stalo; Briassoulis, George; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Savva, Savvas C; Solea, Tonia; Hebestreit, Antje; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Kourides, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Tornaritis, Michael

2014-05-01

310

The test characteristics of head circumference measurements for pathology associated with head enlargement: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The test characteristics of head circumference (HC) measurement percentile criteria for the identification of previously undetected pathology associated with head enlargement in primary care are unknown. Methods Electronic patient records were reviewed to identify children age 3 days to 3 years with new diagnoses of intracranial expansive conditions (IEC) and metabolic and genetic conditions associated with macrocephaly (MGCM). We tested the following HC percentile threshold criteria: ever above the 95th, 97th, or 99.6th percentile and ever crossing 2, 4, or 6 increasing major percentile lines. The Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization growth curves were used, as well as the primary care network (PCN) curves previously derived from this cohort. Results Among 74,428 subjects, 85 (0.11%) had a new diagnosis of IEC (n = 56) or MGCM (n = 29), and between these 2 groups, 24 received intervention. The 99.6th percentile of the PCN curve was the only threshold with a PPV over 1% (PPV 1.8%); the sensitivity of this threshold was only 15%. Test characteristics for the 95th percentiles were: sensitivity (CDC: 46%; WHO: 55%; PCN: 40%), positive predictive value (PPV: CDC: 0.3%; WHO: 0.3%; PCN: 0.4%), and likelihood ratios positive (LR+: CDC: 2.8; WHO: 2.2; PCN: 3.9). Test characteristics for the 97th percentiles were: sensitivity (CDC: 40%; WHO: 48%; PCN: 34%), PPV (CDC: 0.4%; WHO: 0.3%; PCN: 0.6%), and LR+ (CDC: 3.6; WHO: 2.7; PCN: 5.6). Test characteristics for crossing 2 increasing major percentile lines were: sensitivity (CDC: 60%; WHO: 40%; PCN: 31%), PPV (CDC: 0.2%; WHO: 0.1%; PCN: 0.2%), and LR+ (CDC: 1.3; WHO: 1.1; PCN: 1.5). Conclusions Commonly used HC percentile thresholds had low sensitivity and low positive predictive value for diagnosing new pathology associated with head enlargement in children in a primary care network.

2012-01-01

311

Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background This pragmatic evaluation investigated the effectiveness of the Children’s Health, Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE!) Project, a cluster randomised intervention to promote healthy weight using an educational focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Methods Participants (n = 318, aged 10–11 years) from 6 Intervention and 6 Comparison schools took part in the 20 weeks intervention between November 2010 and March/April 2011. This consisted of a teacher-led curriculum, learning resources, and homework tasks. Primary outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-scores. Secondary outcomes were objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and food intake. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at post-intervention (20 weeks), and at follow-up (30 weeks). Data were analysed using 2-level multi-level modelling (levels: school, student) and adjusted for baseline values of the outcomes and potential confounders. Differences in intervention effect by subgroup (sex, weight status, socio-economic status) were explored using statistical interaction. Results Significant between-group effects were observed for waist circumference at post-intervention (? for intervention effect =?1.63 (95% CI = ?2.20, -1.07) cm, p<0.001) and for BMI z-score at follow-up (?=?0.24 (95% CI = ?0.48, -0.003), p=0.04). At follow-up there was also a significant intervention effect for light intensity physical activity (?=25.97 (95% CI = 8.04, 43.89) min, p=0.01). Interaction analyses revealed that the intervention was most effective for overweight/obese participants (waist circumference: ?=?2.82 (95% CI = ?4.06, -1.58) cm, p<0.001), girls (BMI: ?=?0.39 (95% CI = ?0.81, 0.03) kg/m2, p=0.07), and participants with higher family socioeconomic status (breakfast consumption: ?=8.82 (95% CI = 6.47, 11.16), p=0.07). Conclusions The CHANGE! intervention positively influenced body size outcomes and light physical activity, and most effectively influenced body size outcomes among overweight and obese children and girls. The findings add support for the effectiveness of combined school-based physical activity and nutrition interventions. Additional work is required to test intervention fidelity and the sustained effectiveness of this intervention in the medium and long term. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03863885.

2013-01-01

312

Effect of a hands-free wire on specific absorption rate for a waist-mounted 1.8 GHz cellular telephone handset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common feature of cellular telephony is the use of a 'hands-free' audio extension lead connected to a waist-worn handset. Interaction between the transmitting antenna, the wire and the user's body can occur, with detrimental effects including polar pattern degradation, reduced efficiency and localized increases in specific absorption rate (SAR). Using a realistic full-body model of an adult male, finite difference time domain analysis was employed to investigate the coupling between a hip-mounted 1.8 GHz handset fitted with a monopole antenna and a 1 m long wire representing a hands-free wire. Conduction current densities were computed for three identifiable coupling modes: magnetic-only, conductive-only and combined conductive-and-magnetic. Magnetic-only coupling was dominant. Without the lead, placing the handset at waist height led to a 42.8% increase in the total energy deposited in the body, compared to use at the head. Introducing the lead further increased the body loss, with a reduction in system radiation efficiency from 52% to 43.7%. Without the hands-free lead, the peak 1 g and 10 g SARs were 0.450 W kg-1 and 0.265 W kg-1, respectively, for 125 mW transmit power. With the hands-free lead connected, these values increased to 1.14 W kg-1 and 0.430 W kg-1, respectively.

Troulis, S. E.; Scanlon, W. G.; Evans, N. E.

2003-06-01

313

Effects of a low glycemic load or a low-fat dietary intervention on body weight in obese Hispanic American children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial1234  

PubMed Central

Background: In Hispanic children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance is considerably greater than in non-Hispanic white children. A low–glycemic load diet (LGD) has been proposed as an effective dietary intervention for pediatric obesity, but to our knowledge, no published study has examined the effects of an LGD in obese Hispanic children. Objective: We compared the effects of an LGD and a low-fat diet (LFD) on body composition and components of metabolic syndrome in obese Hispanic youth. Design: Obese Hispanic children (7–15 y of age) were randomly assigned to consume an LGD or an LFD in a 2-y intervention program. Body composition and laboratory assessments were obtained at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 mo after intervention. Results: In 113 children who were randomly assigned, 79% of both groups completed 3 mo of treatment; 58% of LGD and 55% of LFD subjects attended 24-mo follow-up. Compared with the LFD, the LGD decreased the glycemic load per kilocalories of reported food intakes in participants at 3 mo (P = 0.02). Both groups had a decreased BMI z score (P < 0.003), which was expressed as a standard z score relative to CDC age- and sex-specific norms, and improved waist circumference and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) at 3, 12, and 24 mo after intervention. However, there were no significant differences between groups for changes in BMI, insulin resistance, or components of metabolic syndrome (all P > 0.5). Conclusions: We showed no evidence that an LGD and an LFD differ in efficacy for the reduction of BMI or aspects of metabolic syndrome in obese Hispanic youth. Both diets decreased the BMI z score when prescribed in the context of a culturally adapted, comprehensive weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01068197.

Mirza, Nazrat M; Palmer, Matilde G; Sinclair, Kelly B; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B; Ludwig, David S; Yanovski, Jack A

2013-01-01

314

Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)  

PubMed Central

Background: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. Objectives: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006–2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was –132 g (95% CI: –207, –56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was –0.33 cm (95% CI: –0.61, –0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women.

Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hardie, Laura J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Merlo, Domenico F.; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Rydberg, Per; Segerback, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Tornqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C.

2012-01-01

315

Common Variants of FTO Are Associated with Childhood Obesity in a Cross-Sectional Study of 3,126 Urban Indian Children  

PubMed Central

Background FTO variants are robustly associated with obesity and related traits in many population and shown to have variable impact during life course. Although studies have shown association of FTO variants with adiposity in adult Indian, its association in Indian children is yet to be confirmed. Methods Here we examined association of FTO variants (rs9939609 and rs8050136) with obesity and related anthropometric and biochemical traits in 3,126 Indian children (aged 11–17 years) including 2,230 normal-weight and 896 over-weight/obese children. We also compared effects observed in the present study with that observed in previous studies on South Asian adults and children of other ethnic groups. Results The variant rs9939609 showed significant association with risk of obesity [OR?=?1.21, P?=?2.5×10?3] and its measures BMI, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference [? range?=?0.11 to 0.14 Z-score units; P range?=?1.3×10?4 to 1.6×10?7] in children. The observed effect sizes in Indian children were similar to those reported for European children. Variant rs9939609 explained 0.88% of BMI variance in Indian children. The effect sizes of rs9939609 on BMI and WC were ?2 fold higher in children than adults. Interestingly rs9939609 was also associated with serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) [??=?0.10 Z-score, P?=?5.8×10?3]. The other variant rs8050136 was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs9939609 (r2?=?0.97) and provided similar association results. Conclusion The study provides first report of association of FTO variants with obesity and related anthropometric traits in Indian children with higher impact in children compared to adults. We also demonstrated association of FTO variant with serum levels of TSH, indicating putative influence of FTO in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.

Chauhan, Ganesh; Ghosh, Saurabh; Marwaha, Raman K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

2012-01-01

316

Creation and Validation of the Singapore Birth Nomograms for Birth Weight, Length and Head Circumference Based on a 12-year Birth Cohort.  

PubMed

Introduction: Both gestation and birth weight have significant impact on mortality and morbidity in newborn infants. Nomograms at birth allow classification of infants into small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) categories, for risk stratification and more intensive monitoring. To date, the growth charts for preterm newborn infants in Singapore are based on the Fenton growth charts, which are constructed based on combining data from various Western growth cohorts. Hence, we aim to create Singapore nomograms for birth weight, length and head circumference at birth, which would reflect the norms and challenges faced by local infants. Materials and Methods: Growth parameters of all babies born or admitted to our unit from 2001 to 2012 were retrieved. Following exclusion of outliers, nomograms for 3 percentiles of 10th, 50th, and 90th were generated for the gestational age (GA) ranges of 25 to 42 weeks using quantile regression (QR) combined with the use of restricted cubic splines. Various polynomial models (second to third degrees) were investigated for suitability of fit. The optimum QR model was found to be a third degree polynomial with a single knotted cubic spline in the mid-point of the GA range, at 33.5 weeks. Check for goodness of fit was done by visual inspection first. Next, check was performed to ensure the correct proportion: 10% of all cases fall above the upper 90th percentile and 10% fall below the lower 10th percentile. Furthermore, an alternative formula-based method of nomogram construction, using mean, standard deviation (SD) and assumption of normality at each gestational age, was used for counterchecking. Results: A total of 13,403 newborns were included in the analysis. The new infant-foetal growth charts with respect to birth weight, heel-crown length and occipitofrontal circumference from 25 to 42 weeks gestations with the 10th, 50th and 90th were presented. Conclusion: Nomograms for birth weight, length and head circumference at birth had significant impact on neonatal practice and validation of the Singapore birth nomograms against Fenton growth charts showed better sensitivity and comparable specificity, positive and negative predictive values. PMID:25028138

Poon, Woei Bing; Fook-Chong, Stephanie Mc; Ler, Grace Yl; Loh, Zhi Wen; Yeo, Cheo Lian

2014-06-01

317

A Novel Z-Score???Based Method to Analyze Candidate Genes for Age-Related Hearing Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Approximately half of the variance of Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI) is attrib- utable to environmental risk factors, and the other half to genetic factors. None of these genes has ever been identified, but the genes involved in mono- genic nonsyndromic hearing impairment are good candidates. Here we define and validate a quantita- tive trait value for ARHI, correcting for

Erik Fransen; Lut Van Laer; Nele Lemkens; Goele Caethoven; Kris Flothmann; Paul Govaerts; Paul Van de Heyning; Guy Van Camp

2004-01-01

318

Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution  

PubMed Central

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?9 to P = 1.8 × 10?40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?3 to P = 1.2 × 10?13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.

Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Magi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian'An; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tonu; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltan; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proenca, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dorr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grassler, Jurgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Pare, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietilainen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstrale, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tonjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; J?rgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas

2011-01-01

319

Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.  

PubMed

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?? to P = 1.8 × 10???) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?³ to P = 1.2 × 10?¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian'an; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Lango Allen, Hana; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grässler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M

2010-11-01

320

Association of early childhood abdominal circumference and weight gain with blood pressure at 36 months of age: secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess whether changes in measures of fat distribution and body size during early life are associated with blood pressure at 36?months of age. Design Analysis of data collected from a prospective cohort study. Setting Community-based investigation in Southampton, UK. Participants 761 children with valid blood pressure measurements, born to women participating in the Southampton Women’s Survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Anthropometric measurements were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36?months and conditional changes between the time points calculated. Blood pressure was measured at 36?months. Factors possibly influencing the blood pressure were assessed using linear regression. All independent variables of interest and confounding variables were included in stepwise multiple regression to identify the model that best predicted blood pressure at 36?months. Results Greater conditional gains in abdominal circumference (AC) between 0–6 and 24–36?months were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures at 36?months (p<0.001). Subscapular skinfold and height gains were weakly associated with higher blood pressures, while greater weight gains between 0–6, 12–24 and 24–36?months were more strongly associated, but the dominant influences were AC gains, particularly from 0–6 to 24–36?months. Thus one SD score increases in AC between 0–6 and 24–36?months were associated with 1.59?mm?Hg (95% CI 0.97 to 2.21) and 1.84?mm?Hg (1.24 to 2.46) higher systolic blood pressures, respectively, and 1.04?mm?Hg (0.57 to 1.51) and 1.02?mm?Hg (0.56, 1.48) higher diastolic pressures, respectively. Conclusions Conditional gains in abdominal circumference, particularly within 6?months of birth and in the year preceding measurement, were more positively associated with blood pressure at 36?months than gains in other anthropometric measures. Above-average AC gains in early childhood may contribute to adult hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease risk.

Nowson, Caryl A; Crozier, Sarah R; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Lawrence, Wendy T; Law, Catherine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

2014-01-01

321

Repeated fetal betamethasone treatment and birth weight and head circumference 1 1 The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of repeated courses of betamethasone on birth weight and head circumference.Methods: We conducted a historical cohort study of inpatients receiving betamethasone therapy over 5 years. We compared birth weights and head circumferences of infants whose mothers received one course of betamethasone with those of infants whose mothers received multiple courses. Multiple regression analysis was used

Stuart D Shelton; Kim A Boggess; Amy P Murtha; Amy O Groff; William N. P Herbert

2001-01-01

322

Prevalence of obesity among adolescents in Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria using body mass index and waist hip ratio: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a global epidemic not just among adults but also among children and adolescents. This study described the prevalence and pattern of obesity among in-school adolescents in Ile-Ife, Osun State using two standard methods, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) with a view of comparing the two methods as well as identifying any correlation between the two methods. Materials and Methods: Five hundred male and female respondents, aged 10-19 years, were randomly selected through a multistage sampling technique from private and public schools in Ife Central Local Government Area. Quantitative data were collected with the aid of a pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of respondents, BMI and WHR, were recorded. Chi square and linear regression analyses were used. Statistical significance was tested at the 5% level. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 4.2% using BMI of which 12 (57.1%) were females and nine (42.9%) were males. There was significant association between sex and BMI, ?2 = 9.490 (P = 0.020). Using WHR, the prevalence was 37.2% of which 180 (96.8%) were females and six (3.2%) were males. There was also significant association between sex and WHR (P < 0.001). Weak correlation (r = 0.02) was found between BMI and WHR among the females, P = 0.043. Conclusion: There was a difference in the prevalence of obesity using the two methods. Although, the correlation between the two methods was weak among females, WHR yielded a higher prevalence for obesity with remarkable difference especially among the females. Prevention of adolescent obesity should be encouraged especially among females.

Sabageh, Adedayo O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.

2013-01-01

323

Genotype by environment interaction for post-weaning weight gain, scrotal circumference, and muscling score of composite beef cattle in different regions of Brazil.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to characterize and define homogenous production environments of composite beef cattle in Brazil in terms of climatic and geographic variables by using multivariate exploratory techniques; to evaluate the presence of genotype by environment interaction (GxE) for post-weaning weight gain (PWG), yearling scrotal circumference (SC), and yearling muscling (MUS). Hierarchical and nonhierarchical cluster analysis was used to group farms located in regions with similar environmental variables into clusters. Six clusters of farms were formed. The effect of sire-cluster interaction was tested by single-trait analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated by multi-trait analysis considering the same trait to be different in each cluster. The effect of sire-cluster interaction was significant (P <0.01) for PWG and MUS. Estimates of genetic correlations among clusters ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 for PWG, 0.64 to 0.89 for SC, and 0.18 to 0.80 for MUS. These results indicate the need for a genetic analysis on a regional basis or inclusion of the GxE effect in the statistical model to permit appropriate evaluation of the animals. PMID:24782162

Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Cardoso, F F; Albuquerque, L G; Balieiro, J C C; Pereira, R J; Ferraz, J B S

2014-01-01

324

Dose Effect of Cardiorespiratory Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

As an ancillary report to a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)–funded trial, we examined the effects of 6 months of exercise training at 50%, 100%, and 150% of the NIH Consensus Recommendations for physical activity (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure/wk [KKW]) versus a nonexercise control group on the metabolic syndrome (MS) in sedentary, overweight, moderately hypertensive, postmenopausal women. We examined the clinically defined National Cholesterol Education Program MS, individual components scores, and summed z-scores, expressed as a continuous variable (zMS), using chi-square and general linear models to assess the clinical and progressive nature of MS, respectively. Our results showed significant improvements in zMS for all exercise groups and MS for the 8- and 12 KKW groups only (all, p for trend = 0.02). Post hoc analyses showed that 12 KKW for zMS and 8 and 12 KKW for MS was significant versus the control group (all, p <0.05). When examining the composite scores, we observed significant trends for improvement in waist circumference (p for trend = 0.001), fasting glucose (p for trend = 0.01), and systolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.02), which appeared to be dose dependent, given the additive nature for incorporating the within-group improvements in waist circumference (4, 8, and 12 KKW), fasting glucose (8 and 12 KKW), and systolic blood pressure (12 KKW). Our results suggest that low-to-moderate intensity cardiorespiratory exercise appears to improve components of the MS in postmenopausal women at levels at or greater than NIH recommendations and that zMS improves at half the NIH recommendations. Greater levels of energy expenditure appear to enhance this effect by incorporating a greater number of requisite MS composite scores.

Earnest, Conrad P.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Swift, Damon L.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

325

Beverage Consumption Patterns of Children Born at Different Risk of Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice has been associated with overweight in children. Objective This study prospectively assessed beverage consumption patterns and their relationship with weight status in a cohort of children born at different risk for obesity. Methods and Procedures Participants were children born at low risk (n = 27) or high risk (n = 22) for obesity based on maternal prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2). Daily beverage consumption was generated from 3-day food records from children aged 3–6 years and coded into seven beverage categories (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, caloric and noncaloric soda, soft drinks including and excluding fruit juice). Child anthropometric measures were assessed yearly. Results High-risk children consumed a greater percentage of daily calories from beverages at age 3, more fruit juice at ages 3 and 4, more soft drinks (including fruit juice) at ages 3–5, and more soda at age 6 compared to low-risk children. Longitudinal analyses showed that a greater 3-year increase in soda intake was associated with an increased change in waist circumference, whereas a greater increase in milk intake was associated with a reduced change in waist circumference. There was no significant association between change in intake from any of the beverage categories and change in BMI z-score across analyses. Discussion Children’s familial predisposition to obesity may differentially affect their beverage consumption patterns. Future research should examine the extent to which dietary factors may play a role in pediatric body fat deposition over time.

Kral, Tanja V.E.; Stunkard, Albert J.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Moore, Renee H.; Faith, Myles S.

2010-01-01

326

A School-Based Intervention for Diabetes Risk Reduction  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [±SD] age, 11.3±0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS There was a decrease in the primary outcome — the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity — in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P = 0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P = 0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. CONCLUSIONS Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.)

2010-01-01

327

Cross-sectional association between maximal estimated cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome for men and women in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between estimated maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Patients Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (N=38,659) participants examined between 1979–2006. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of participants to examine CRF levels defined as low (lower 20%), moderate (middle 40%) and high (upper 40%) of age/gender specific distributions versus NCEP derived MetSyn expressed as a summed z-score continuous variable. We used a general linear model for continuous variables, chi-square for distribution of categorical variables, and multiple linear regression for single and cumulative MetS scores adjusted for BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake and family history of cardiovascular disease. Results We observed significant inverse trends for MetS vs. CRF in both genders (p-for-trend, < 0.001). CRF associations vs. individual components were: Waist circumference (men, ?= ?0.14, r2 = 0.78; women, ?= ?0.04, r2 = 0.71), triglycerides (men, ?= ?0.29, r2 = 0.18; women, ?= ?0.17, r2 = 0.18), HDL-cholesterol (men, ?= 0.25, r2 = 0.17; women, ?= 0.08, r2 = 0.19), fasting glucose (men, ?= ?0.09, r2 = 0.09; women, ?= 0.09, r2 = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (men, ?= ?0.09, r2 = 0.09; women, ?= ?0.01, r2 = 0.21), and diastolic blood pressure (men, ?= ?0.07, r2 = 0.12; women, ?= ?0.05, r2 = 0.14). All associations except for systolic blood pressure (both genders) and glucose (women) are significant (p<0.001). Conclusion CRF demonstrated a strong inverse relationship with MetS in both genders with the strongest single associative component being waist circumference.

Artero, Enrique G.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

2013-01-01

328

Polymorphisms in NRXN3, TFAP2B, MSRA, LYPLAL1, FTO and MC4R and their effect on visceral fat area in the Japanese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant risk factor of metabolic syndrome is intra-abdominal fat accumulation, which is determined by waist circumference and waist–hip ratio measurements and visceral fat area (VFA) that is measured by computed tomography (CT). There is evidence that waist circumference and waist–hip ratio in the Caucasian population are associated with variations in several genes, including neurexin 3 (NRXN3), transcription factor AP-2?

Kikuko Hotta; Michihiro Nakamura; Takahiro Nakamura; Tomoaki Matsuo; Yoshio Nakata; Seika Kamohara; Nobuyuki Miyatake; Kazuaki Kotani; Ryoya Komatsu; Naoto Itoh; Ikuo Mineo; Jun Wada; Masato Yoneda; Atsushi Nakajima; Tohru Funahashi; Shigeru Miyazaki; Katsuto Tokunaga; Manabu Kawamoto; Hiroaki Masuzaki; Takato Ueno; Kazuyuki Hamaguchi; Kiyoji Tanaka; Kentaro Yamada; Toshiaki Hanafusa; Shinichi Oikawa; Hironobu Yoshimatsu; Kazuwa Nakao; Toshiie Sakata; Yuji Matsuzawa; Yusuke Nakamura; Naoyuki Kamatani

2010-01-01

329

Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio.

Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Tigli; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

2014-01-01

330

Smoking Cessation Early in Pregnancy and Birth Weight, Length, Head Circumference, and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Umbilical and Chorionic Vessels An Observational Study of Healthy Singleton Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Reduced production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in fetal vessels in pregnant smokers may lower the blood flow to the fetus and result in lower birth weight, length, and head circumference. The present study measured endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity in fetal umbilical and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome.

Malene R. Andersen; Ulf Simonsen; Niels Uldbjerg; Christian Aalkjær; Steen Stender

331

Metabolic Abnormalities and Viral Replication is Associated with Biomarkers of Vascular Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children may be at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. We compared levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction among HIV-infected children with and without hyperlipidemia to HIV-exposed, uninfected children (HEU) enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), and determined factors associated with these biomarkers. Design Prospective cohort study Methods Biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1)); coagulant dysfunction (fibrinogen and P-selectin); endothelial dysfunction (soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), and E-selectin); and metabolic dysfunction (adiponectin) were measured in 226 HIV-infected and 140 HEU children. Anthropometry, body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, HIV disease severity, and antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Results The median ages were 12.3 y (HIV-infected) and 10.1 y (HEU). Body mass index (BMI) Z-scores, waist and hip circumference, and percent body fat were lower among HIV-infected. Total and non-HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children had higher MCP-1, fibrinogen, sICAM, and sVCAM levels. In multivariable analyses in the HIV-infected children alone, BMI z-score was associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen, but lower MCP-1 and sVCAM. Unfavorable lipid profiles were positively associated with IL6, MCP1, fibrinogen, and P- and E-selectin, whereas increased HIV viral load was associated with markers of inflammation (MCP1 and CRP) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM and sVCAM). Conclusions HIV-infected children have higher levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction than do HEU children. Risk factors associated with higher biomarkers include unfavorable lipid levels and active HIV replication.

Miller, Tracie L.; Borkowsky, William; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Dooley, Laurie; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Hazra, Rohan; McFarland, Elizabeth J.; Mendez, Armando J.; Patel, Kunjal; Siberry, George K.; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Worrell, Carol J.; Jacobson, Denise L.

2011-01-01

332

Trends in adiposity in Brazilian 7-10-year-old schoolchildren: evidence for increasing overweight but not obesity between 2002 and 2007.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The negative health consequences of childhood overweight/obesity (OW/OB) are well known. Therefore, an accurate monitoring of the OW/OB prevalence is essential. Anthropometry is the most practical and cost-effective method for nutritional status evaluation. Aim: To describe trends in the nutritional status among 7-10-year-old children by investigating changes in the prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, obesity, risk and excess abdominal adiposity, and to study changes in height-for-age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Subjects and methods: A school-based sample of 7-10-year-old children participated in two cross-sectional studies in 2002 (n?=?2936) and 2007 (n?=?1232) in Florianopolis, southern Brazil. Prevalence of stunting, risk and excess abdominal adiposity and changes in the distribution of height-for-age, BMI-for-age, WC-for-age z-scores were evaluated. Three BMI-based references were used to define the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity. Results: Between 2002-2007, the prevalence of stunting, thinness, obesity and excess abdominal adiposity remained stable, whereas overweight (including obesity) increased 10-23% in boys and 18-21% in girls, depending on the BMI reference used. The risk of abdominal adiposity increased in boys, but not in girls. No significant change was observed in mean height, BMI, WC-for-age z-scores. Conclusions: This study identified a potential levelling off in the prevalence of obesity and excess abdominal adiposity, but a continuing increase in the prevalence of overweight. PMID:24274584

Leal, Danielle Biazzi; de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg; González-Chica, David Alejandro; da Costa, Filipe Ferreira

2014-05-01

333

Associations between diet, lifestyle factors, and telomere length in women123  

PubMed Central

Background: Leukocyte telomere length is associated with diseases of aging, but there is limited knowledge of diet and lifestyle determinants. Objective: The objective was to examine cross-sectionally the association between diet, body composition, and lifestyle factors on leukocyte telomere length in women. Design: Leukocyte telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 2284 female participants from the Nurses’ Health Study, who were selected as controls for an investigation of biological predictors of cancer. Diet, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were assessed by questionnaire. Results: After multivariate adjustment, dietary fiber intake was positively associated with telomere length (z score), specifically cereal fiber, with an increase of 0.19 units between the lowest and highest quintiles (P = 0.007, P for trend = 0.03). Although total fat intake was not associated with telomere length, polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (?0.26 units, quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: P = 0.002, P for trend = 0.02), specifically linoleic acid intake, was inversely associated with telomere length after multivariate adjustment (?0.32 units; P = 0.001, P for trend = 0.05). Waist circumference was inversely associated with telomere length [0.15-unit difference in z score in a comparison of the highest (?32 in, 81.28 cm) with the lowest (?28 in, 71.12 cm) category (P = 0.01, P for trend = 0.02) in the multivariate model]. We found no association between telomere length and smoking, physical activity, or postmenopausal hormone use. Conclusion: Although the strength of the associations was modest in this population of middle- and older-age women, our results support the hypothesis that body composition and dietary factors are related to leukocyte telomere length, which is a potential biomarker of chronic disease risk.

Cassidy, Aedin; De Vivo, Immaculata; Liu, Yan; Han, Jiali; Prescott, Jennifer; Hunter, David J

2010-01-01

334

National Adolescent Treatment Trial for Obesity in Kuwait (NATTO): project design and results of a randomised controlled trial of a good practice approach to treatment of adolescent obesity in Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Background Few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for the treatment of adolescent obesity have taken place outside the western world. This RCT tested whether a simple ‘good practice’ intervention for the treatment of adolescent obesity would have a greater impact on weight status and other outcomes than a referral to primary care (control) in adolescents in Kuwait City. Methods We report on an assessor-blinded RCT of a treatment intervention in 82 obese 10- to 14-year-olds (mean age 12.4, SD 1.2 years), randomised to a good practice treatment or primary care control group over 6 months. The good practice intervention was intended as relatively low intensity (6 hours contact over 24 weeks, group-based), aiming to change sedentary behaviour, physical activity, and diet. The primary outcome was a change in body mass index (BMI) Z score; other outcomes were changes in waist circumference and blood pressure. Results The retention of subjects to follow up was acceptable (n?=?31 from the intervention group, and n?=?32 from the control group), but engagement with both the intervention and control treatment was poor. Treatment had no significant effect on BMI Z score relative to control, and no other significant benefits to intervention were observed. Conclusions The trial was feasible, but highlights the need to engage obese adolescents and their families in the interventions being trialled. The trial should inform the development of future adolescent obesity treatment trials in the Gulf States with the incorporation of qualitative assessment in future intervention trials. Trial registration RCT Registered as National Adolescent Treatment Trial for Obesity in Kuwait (NATTO): http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN37457227, 1 December 2009.

2014-01-01

335

Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children: the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.  

PubMed

We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were analysed. In total 1481 children aged 11-12 years completed a questionnaire (including questions on sleep) and underwent a medical examination. We measured body mass index, waist circumference, total- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. Results showed that in girls, some sleep characteristics were related to anthropometrics (body mass index, waist circumference) and cholesterol. Girls who had a long time in bed (11-12.5 h) had 0.16 lower body mass index z-score (95% confidence interval -0.31; -0.01) and 0.99 cm smaller waist circumference (95% confidence interval -2.01; -0.13) compared with girls who spent 10-10.5 h in bed. Girls who went to bed late and rose early had 0.16 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.31) and 0.08 mm higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.14) than 'early to bed/early rise' girls. Girls with night-time awakenings had 0.14 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.03; 0.25) than girls without night-time awakenings. Girls who felt sleepy/tired ?1 day per week had 0.10 mm lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval -0.16; -0.04) and 0.17 mm higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.32) than girls who did not feel sleepy. No associations were found for boys. Sleep characteristics were not related to blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin, and effect sizes of the associations in girls were small. Therefore, we consider it premature to propose that improved sleep could reduce cardiovascular risk during childhood. PMID:24118590

Berentzen, Nina E; Smit, Henriëtte A; Bekkers, Marga B M; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; De Jongste, Johan C; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H

2014-02-01

336

Shared care obesity management in 3-10 year old children: 12 month outcomes of HopSCOTCH randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether general practice surveillance for childhood obesity, followed by obesity management across primary and tertiary care settings using a shared care model, improves body mass index and related outcomes in obese children aged 3-10 years. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 22 family practices (35 participating general practitioners) and a tertiary weight management service (three paediatricians, two dietitians) in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Children aged 3-10 years with body mass index above the 95th centile recruited through their general practice between July 2009 and April 2010. Intervention Children were randomly allocated to one tertiary appointment followed by up to 11 general practice consultations over one year, supported by shared care, web based software (intervention) or “usual care” (control). Researchers collecting outcome measurements, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Main outcome measures Children’s body mass index z score (primary outcome), body fat percentage, waist circumference, physical activity, quality of diet, health related quality of life, self esteem, and body dissatisfaction and parents’ body mass index (all 15 months post-enrolment). Results 118 (60 intervention, 56 control) children were recruited and 107 (91%) were retained and analysed (56 intervention, 51 control). All retained intervention children attended the tertiary appointment and their general practitioner for at least one (mean 3.5 (SD 2.5, range 1-11)) weight management consultation. At outcome, children in the two trial arms had similar body mass index (adjusted mean difference ?0.1 (95% confidence interval ?0.7 to 0.5; P=0.7)) and body mass index z score (?0.05 (?0.14 to 0.03); P=0.2). Similarly, no evidence was found of benefit or harm on any secondary outcome. Outcomes varied widely in the combined cohort (mean change in body mass index z score ?0.20 (SD 0.25, range ?0.97-0.47); 26% of children resolved from obese to overweight and 2% to normal weight. Conclusions Although feasible, not harmful, and highly rated by both families and general practitioners, the shared care model of primary and tertiary care management did not lead to better body mass index or other outcomes for the intervention group compared with the control group. Improvements in body mass index in both groups highlight the value of untreated controls when determining efficacy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000055303.

2013-01-01

337

Food Responsiveness, Parental Food Control and Anthropometric Outcomes among Young American Indian Children: Cross-sectional and Prospective Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective Assess cross-sectional and prospective associations between food responsiveness and parental food control and anthropometric outcomes among American Indian children. Design Parents/caregivers completed psychosocial surveys and trained staff measured children’s anthropometry at baseline (kindergarten) and at follow-up (1st grade) as part of a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start). Setting On/near the Pine Ridge Indian reservation. Participants 422 child (51% female, mean age = 5.8 years, 30% overweight/obese) and parent/caregiver (89% mothers) dyads. Main Outcome Measures Two independent variables (child’s Food Responsiveness and Parental Control scales) and six child anthropometric dependent variables (overweight status, body mass index z-score, % body fat, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold). Linear regression analyses, stratified by sex and adjusted for age and treatment condition. Results Baseline Food Responsiveness scale scores were positively associated with all six baseline anthropometric outcomes among boys (P’s all <.01), but not girls. Parental Control scale scores were not significantly associated with outcomes and no prospective associations were statistically significant. Conclusions Responsiveness to food may be associated with excess adiposity in young American Indian boys, however, the effects are not detectable over time. Obesity prevention programs for American Indian children may benefit by addressing eating without hunger among boys.

Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Hannan, Peter; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Himes, John H.; Story, Mary

2013-01-01

338

Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth  

PubMed Central

Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9–10 year old children and 264 17–18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the “Lie Scale” from the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity.

Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J.; Baranowski, Tom

2010-01-01

339

Peak Oxygen Uptake Responses to Training in Obese Adolescents: A Multilevel Allometric Framework to Partition the Influence of Body Size and Maturity Status  

PubMed Central

The influence of body size and maturation on the responses in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) to a 12-week aerobic training and nutritional intervention in obese boys (n = 30; 10–16 years) was examined using multilevel allometric regressions. Anthropometry, sexual maturity status, peak VO2, and body composition were measured pre- and postintervention. Significant decrements for body mass, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference and increments for stature, fat-free mass, and peak oxygen uptake were observed after intervention. Partitioning body size on peak VO2, the responses of the individuals to training were positive (11.8% to 12.7% for body mass; 7.6% to 8.1% for fat-free mass). Body mass and fat-free mass were found as significant explanatory variables, with an additional positive effect for chronological. The allometric coefficients (k?) in the initial models were k? = 0.883 and k? = 1.058 for body mass and fat-free mass, respectively. The coefficients decreased when age was considered (k? = 0.530 for body mass; k? = 0.860 for fat-free mass). Including maturity indicator in the models was not significant, thus the influence of variability in sexual maturity status in responses to exercise-based intervention in peak VO2 may be mediated by the changes in body dimensions.

Carvalho, Humberto M.; Milano, Gerusa E.; Lopes, Wendell A.; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Radominski, Rosana B.; Leite, Neiva

2013-01-01

340

Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Häkkinen, K; Kyröläinen, H

2014-04-01

341

Obesity: new insight into the anthropometric classification of fat distribution shown by computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty eight women presenting for routine computed tomography had their waist, hip, and thigh circumferences measured. The ratio of the area of intra-abdominal fat to the area of subcutaneous fat shown in the computed tomogram taken at the umbilical level was calculated and found to correlate highly significantly with the ratio of waist to hip circumference. The correlation between these

M Ashwell; T J Cole; A K Dixon

1985-01-01

342

Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention trial on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study  

PubMed Central

Background School-based interventions that target prevention of overweight and obesity in children have been tested with mixed results. Thus, successful interventions are still called for. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent school-based intervention programme targeting physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours on anthropometric outcomes. Methods A 20-month intervention was evaluated in a cluster randomised, controlled study of 1324 11-year-olds. Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age z-score (BMIz), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) and weight status (International Obesity Task Force's cut-offs). Weight, height and WC were measured objectively; pubertal status was self-reported and parental education was self-reported by the parents. Intervention effects were determined by one-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression, after checking for clustering effects of school, and moderating effects of gender, pubertal status and parental education. Results Beneficial effects were found for BMI (p=0.02) and BMIz (p=0.003) in girls, but not in boys. While a beneficial effect was found for BMI (p=0.03) in participants of parents reporting a high level of education, a negative effect was found for WTHR in participants with parents reporting a low level of education (p=0.003). There were no intervention effects for WC and weight status. Conclusions A multicomponent 20-month school-based intervention had a beneficial effect on BMI and BMIz in adolescent girls, but not in boys. Furthermore, children of higher educated parents seemed to benefit more from the intervention, and this needs attention in future interventions to avoid further increase in social inequalities in overweight and obesity.

Grydeland, May; Bjelland, Mona; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bergh, Ingunn Holden; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Lien, Nanna

2014-01-01

343

The relationships of body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage with blood pressure and its hemodynamic determinants in Korean adolescents: a school-based study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Obesity is an important risk factor for hypertension in adolescents. We investigated the relationship of obesity-related indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-height ratio [WHR], and body fat percentage [%BF]) with blood pressure and the hemodynamic determinants of blood pressure in Korean adolescents. Methods In 2008, 565 adolescents, aged 12-16 years, were examined. The %BF of the participants was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Echocardiography and brachial artery pulse tracing were used to estimate the stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), total vascular resistance (TVR), and total arterial compliance (TAC). Results We noted that BMI, WHR, and %BF were positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The positive correlation between BMI and blood pressure (SBP and DBP) persisted after adjustment for WHR and %BF. However, after adjustment for BMI, the positive associations between blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and WHR as well as %BF, were not noted. With regard to the hemodynamic factors, BMI, but not WHR and %BF, was an independent positive factor correlated with SV and CO. TVR had an independent negative association with BMI; however, it was not associated with WHR or %BF. Moreover, we noted that BMI, WHR, and %BF did not affect TAC. Conclusion In Korean adolescents, BMI had an independent positive correlation with SBP and DBP, possibly because of its effects on SV, CO, and TVR. WHR and %BF are believed to indirectly affect SBP and DBP through changes in BMI.

Kim, Na Young; Hong, Young Mi; Jung, Jo Won; Kim, Nam Su; Noh, Chung Il

2013-01-01

344

Socio-Economic Status and Z-Score Standardized Height-for-Age of U.S.-Born Children (Ages 2-6)  

PubMed Central

This study explores socio-economic gradients in height (stature-for-age) among a nationally representative sample of 2–6 year old children in the United States. We use NHANES III (1988–1994) Youth data linked with a special Natality Data supplement which contains information from birth certificates among sampled NHANES III Youth who are less than 7 years of age. Our results indicate significant socioeconomic gradients for both maternal education and family income, net of controls for confounders, including: birth weight, gestational age, family size, and parental heights. These results are in stark contrast to those from other developed countries that seem to indicate diminished or eliminated socioeconomic disparities, net of known confounders. In the United States, it appears that socio-economic gradients have an effect on birth outcomes, and continue to have an additional direct and independent effect on height, even in early childhood.

Finch, Brian Karl; Beck, Audrey N.

2011-01-01

345

Weight and height z-scores improve after initiating ART among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Deficits in growth observed in HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings can be reversed with antiretroviral treatment\\u000a (ART). However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations. This study was undertaken\\u000a to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of\\u000a undernutrition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 2007 and

Catherine G Sutcliffe; Janneke H van Dijk; Bornface Munsanje; Francis Hamangaba; Pamela Sinywimaanzi; Philip E Thuma; William J Moss

2011-01-01

346

Do Changes in Sex Steroid Hormones Precede or Follow Increases in Body Weight during the Menopause Transition? Results from The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation  

PubMed Central

Context: Whether menopause-related changes in sex steroids account for midlife weight gain in women or whether weight drives changes in sex steroids remains unanswered. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize the potential reciprocal nature of the associations between sex hormones and their binding protein with waist circumference in midlife women. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study included 1528 women (mean age 46 yr) with 9 yr of follow-up across the menopause transition from the observational Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Main Outcome Measures: Waist circumference, SHBG, testosterone, FSH, and estradiol were measured. Results: Current waist circumference predicted future SHBG, testosterone, and FSH but not vice versa. For each sd higher current waist circumference, at the subsequent visit SHBG was lower by 0.04–0.15 sd, testosterone was higher by 0.08–0.13 sd, and log2 FSH was lower by 0.15–0.26 sd. Estradiol results were distinct from those above, changing direction across the menopause transition. Estradiol and waist circumference were negatively associated in early menopausal transition stages and positively associated in later transition stages (for each sd higher current waist circumference, future estradiol was lower by 0.15 sd in pre- and early perimenopause and higher by 0.38 sd in late peri- and postmenopause; P for interaction <0.001). In addition, they appeared to be reciprocal, with current waist circumference associated with future estradiol and current estradiol associated with future waist circumference. However, associations in the direction of current waist circumference predicting future estradiol levels were of considerably larger magnitude than the reverse. Conclusions: These Study of Women's Health Across the Nation data suggest that the predominant temporal sequence is that weight gain leads to changes in sex steroids rather than vice versa.

Tepper, Ping G.; Crawford, Sybil; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Santoro, Nanette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Greendale, Gail A.

2012-01-01

347

Central adiposity, regional fat distribution, and the risk of cholecystectomy in women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Whether central adiposity contributes independently of total adiposity to the risk for gall stones is inconclusive. We examined prospectively indicators of central adiposity in relation to the occurrence of gall stone disease. Methods We evaluated the relationship between abdominal circumference and waist to hip ratio and risk of cholecystectomy in a cohort of women who had no history of gall stone disease. As part of the Nurses' Health Study, the women reported on questionnaires their weights, heights, and waist and hip circumferences, and the occurrence of cholecystectomy. A total of 42?312 women, aged 39–66?years in 1986, who were free of prior gall stone disease, provided complete waist and hip circumference measurements in 1986. Results We documented 3197 cases of cholecystectomy during 514?283 person years of follow up. After adjusting simultaneously for regional (waist circumference or waist to hip ratio) and total adiposity (body mass index) measures as well as for other risk factors of gall stone disease, women with a height adjusted waist circumference of 36?inches or larger had a relative risk (RR) of 1.96 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53–2.51; p trend <0.0001) compared with women with a height adjusted waist circumference of less than 26?inches. Waist to hip ratio was directly associated with the risk, with an RR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.16–1.66; p trend <0.0001) for women with a waist to hip ratio of 0.86 or higher compared with women with a waist to hip ratio of less than 0.70. Conclusion Abdominal circumference and waist to hip ratio were associated with an increased risk of cholecystectomy, independently of body mass index in women.

Tsai, C-J; Leitzmann, M F; Willett, W C; Giovannucci, E L

2006-01-01

348

Waypoint navigation with a vibrotactile waist belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presenting waypoint navigation on a visual display is not suited for all situations. The present experiments investigate if it is feasible to present the navigation information on a tactile display. Important design issue of the display is how direction and distance information must be coded. Important usability issues are the resolution of the display and its usefulness in vibrating environments.

Jan B. F. Van Erp; Hendrik A. H. C. Van Veen; Chris Jansen; Trevor Dobbins

2005-01-01

349

Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Monday, July 14, 2014 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... the gums and tongue," says Academy of General Dentistry spokesperson Bruce DeGinder, DDS, MAGD. " High-protein foods ...

350

Effect of school based physical activity programme (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in primary schoolchildren: cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effectiveness of a school based physical activity programme during one school year on physical and psychological health in young schoolchildren. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 28 classes from 15 elementary schools in Switzerland randomly selected and assigned in a 4:3 ratio to an intervention (n=16) or control arm (n=12) after stratification for grade (first and fifth grade), from August 2005 to June 2006. Participants 540 children, of whom 502 consented and presented at baseline. Intervention Children in the intervention arm (n=297) received a multi-component physical activity programme that included structuring the three existing physical education lessons each week and adding two additional lessons a week, daily short activity breaks, and physical activity homework. Children (n=205) and parents in the control group were not informed of an intervention group. For most outcome measures, the assessors were blinded. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measures included body fat (sum of four skinfolds), aerobic fitness (shuttle run test), physical activity (accelerometry), and quality of life (questionnaires). Secondary outcome measures included body mass index and cardiovascular risk score (average z score of waist circumference, mean blood pressure, blood glucose, inverted high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides). Results 498 children completed the baseline and follow-up assessments (mean age 6.9 (SD 0.3) years for first grade, 11.1 (0.5) years for fifth grade). After adjustment for grade, sex, baseline values, and clustering within classes, children in the intervention arm compared with controls showed more negative changes in the z score of the sum of four skinfolds (?0.12, 95 % confidence interval ?0.21 to ?0.03; P=0.009). Likewise, their z scores for aerobic fitness increased more favourably (0.17, 0.01 to 0.32; P=0.04), as did those for moderate-vigorous physical activity in school (1.19, 0.78 to 1.60; P<0.001), all day moderate-vigorous physical activity (0.44, 0.05 to 0.82; P=0.03), and total physical activity in school (0.92, 0.35 to 1.50; P=0.003). Z scores for overall daily physical activity (0.21, ?0.21 to 0.63) and physical quality of life (0.42, ?1.23 to 2.06) as well as psychological quality of life (0.59, ?0.85 to 2.03) did not change significantly. Conclusions A school based multi-component physical activity intervention including compulsory elements improved physical activity and fitness and reduced adiposity in children. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15360785.

2010-01-01

351

Measuring the Circumference of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student. In the course of the project, students learn about Eratosthenes and his experiment, do a similar experiment by collaborating with other schools, and analyze and reflect on the collected data to determine the accuracy of their measurements and what they learned. The project provides instructions, activities, reference materials, on-line help, and a teacher area.

2007-12-12

352

Measuring the Circumference of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student. In the course of the project, students learn about Eratosthenes and his experiment, do a similar experiment by collaborating with other schools, and analyze and reflect on the collected data to determine the accuracy of their measurements and what they learned. The project provides instructions, activities, reference materials, on-line help, and a teacher area.

353

The CANadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry (CANPWR): Study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Over recent decades, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased markedly in developed and developing countries, and the impact of obesity on health throughout the lifespan has led to urgent calls for action. Family-based weight management interventions that emphasize healthy lifestyle changes can lead to modest improvements in weight status of children with obesity. However, these interventions are generally short in duration, reported in the context of randomized controlled trials and there are few reports of outcomes of these treatment approaches in the clinical setting. Answering these questions is critical for improving the care of children with obesity accessing outpatient health services for weight management. In response, the CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) was designed with the following three primary aims: 1. Document changes in anthropometric, lifestyle, behavioural, and obesity-related co-morbidities in children enrolled in Canadian pediatric weight management programs over a three-year period; 2. Characterize the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of change in anthropometric and obesity-related co-morbidities; 3. Examine the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of program attrition. Methods/Design This prospective cohort, multi-centre study will include children (2–17 years old; body mass index ?85th percentile) enrolled in one of eight Canadian pediatric weight management centres. We will recruit 1,600 study participants over a three-year period. Data collection will occur at presentation and 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-months follow-up. The primary study outcomes are BMI z-score and change in BMI z-score over time. Secondary outcomes include anthropometric (e.g., height, waist circumference,), cardiometabolic (e.g., blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemia), lifestyle (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary activity), and psychosocial (e.g., health-related quality of life) variables. Potential determinants of change and program attrition will include individual-, family-, and program-level variables. Discussion This study will enable our interdisciplinary team of clinicians, researchers, and trainees to address foundational issues regarding the management of pediatric obesity in Canada. It will also serve as a harmonized, evidence-based registry and platform for conducting future intervention research, which will ultimately enhance the weight management care provided to children with obesity and their families.

2014-01-01

354

IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H{sub 2} EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 {mu}m PAH ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a {approx}1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H{sub 2} lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 {mu}m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of {approx}1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H{sub 2} transitions is found to be 1.94 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T {approx} 1000 K) H{sub 2} gas is 7.95 {+-} 0.19 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10{sup -3}, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H{sub 2} ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H{sub 2} data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3{<=}} n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub s} {<=} 10 km s{sup -1} for the redshifted gas and v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 {mu}G, and just 3 {mu}G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

Barsony, Mary [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Drive, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace A. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); O'Linger, JoAnn, E-mail: mbarsony@stars.sfsu.ed, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.or, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: joanno@ipac.caltech.ed [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2010-09-01

355

Obesity May Raise Risk of COPD  

MedlinePLUS

... preventive medicine at the University of Regensburg in Germany. "But maintaining a normal waist circumference and recommended ... of epidemiology and preventive medicine, University of Regensburg, Germany; Norman Edelman, M.D., senior medical consultant, American ...

356

77 FR 47073 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of health status including weight, height (i.e., body mass index or BMI), waist circumference, secondhand smoke exposure...accelerometer, i.e., an electronic meter worn next to the body. In addition, the respondent will maintain a...

2012-08-07

357

Energy Balance and Obesity  

Cancer.gov

Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

358

Obesity and Your Digestive Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Death Decreased Quality of Life AMERICAN COLLEGE OF GASTROENTEROLOGY Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference It is ... Helpful Links to Learn More American College of Gastroenterology www.acg.gi.org/obesity Great tools including ...

359

77 FR 23263 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...risk behaviors, and other behavioral factors in specific geographic areas where CTG...awardees are implementing interventions related to CTG strategic directions. Information...height (i.e., body mass index or BMI), waist circumference, secondhand...

2012-04-18

360

The Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids): Design and Methods  

PubMed Central

The Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids) is a three-arm, randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of two behavioral weight management interventions in an important and at-risk population, overweight and obese children and their parents in rural counties. Participants will include 240 parent-child dyads from nine rural counties in north central Florida. Dyads will be randomized to one of three conditions: (a) a Family-Based Behavioral Group Intervention, (b) a Parent-Only Behavioral Group Intervention, and (c) an Education Control Condition. Child and parent participants will be assessed at baseline (month 0), post-treatment (month 12) and follow-up (month 24). Assessment and intervention sessions will be held at Cooperative Extension Service offices within each participating county. The primary outcome measure is change in child BMI z-score. Additional key outcome measures include child body fat, waist circumference, dietary intake, physical activity, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, physical fitness, quality of life, and program and participants costs. Parent BMI, dietary intake, and physical activity also will be assessed. Randomized controlled trials testing the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions in real-world community-based settings are extremely valuable, but much too rare. The E-FLIP for Kids trial will evaluate the impact of a community based intervention delivered to families in rural settings utilizing the existing Cooperative Extension Service network on long-term child behavior, weight status and biological markers of diabetes and early cardiovascular disease. If successful, a Parent-Only intervention program may provide a cost-effective and practical intervention for families in underserved rural communities.

Janicke, David M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Perri, Michael G.; Bobroff, Linda B.; Mathews, Anne E.; Brumback, Babette A.; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Silverstein, Janet H.

2010-01-01

361

Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8?years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds). Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings). Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured outcomes. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials NTR 2555 MEC AzM/UM NL 31988.068.10 / MEC 10-3-052

2012-01-01

362

Strong influence of variants near MC4R on adiposity in children and adults: a cross-sectional study in Indian population.  

PubMed

Common variants near melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene are shown to be associated with adiposity but have varied effects in different age groups. Among Indians, studies have shown association of these variants with obesity in adults, but their association in children is yet to be confirmed. We evaluated association of rs17782313 and rs12970134 near MC4R with adiposity and related traits in Indians including 1362 children and 4077 adults (consisting of 2049 diabetic and 2028 nondiabetic adult subjects). Both variants rs17782313 and rs12970134 showed strong association with adiposity measures (weight, body mass index and waist circumference) in children (P-range 7.6 × 10(-5)-3.8 × 10(-12)) and nominal association in nondiabetic adults (P-range 0.05-0.003). Effect sizes on adiposity measures in children (? range 0.22-0.26 Z-score) were ~3-fold higher compared with adults (? range 0.06-0.08). The minor alleles of both variants showed borderline association (P-range 0.08-0.04) with risk of type 2 diabetes in adults. Meta-analysis of rs12970134 in >12?000 Indian adults corroborated its association with adiposity (P?2.2 × 10(-9)), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (P=4.0 × 10(-5)) and type 2 diabetes (P=0.003) with only moderate heterogeneity, suggesting similar effect on adult Indians residing in different geographical regions. In conclusion, the study demonstrates association of variants near MC4R with obesity and related traits in Indian children and adults, with higher impact during childhood. PMID:23151679

Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Tabassum, Rubina; Chauhan, Ganesh; Kaur, Ismeet; Ghosh, Saurabh; Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

2013-01-01

363

Adiposity, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and asthma in u.s. Children.  

PubMed

Rationale: Whether allergic airway inflammation mediates the association between overweight or obesity and childhood asthma is unknown. Objectives: To examine adiposity, asthma, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in U.S. children. Methods: Cross-sectional study of indicators of adiposity or obesity, FeNO (a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation), and asthma in 2,681 children aged 6-17 years in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adiposity measures included body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Measurements and Main Results: BMI, PBF, and WC were associated with asthma among children with low FeNO (odds ratio, 1.54-1.68; P < 0.01), but not among children with increased FeNO. Among children without asthma, BMI, PBF, and WC were associated with higher FEV1 and FVC, and lower FEV1/FVC. Among children with asthma and a high FeNO, all adiposity indicators were associated with decreased FEV1/FVC (? = -1.5% to -1.7% per z score) but not with FEV1 or FVC. Higher BMI or PBF was associated with worse asthma severity or control in children with asthma and increased FeNO, but not in children with asthma and low FeNO. Similar results were obtained in a secondary multivariate analysis of overweight or obesity (defined as BMI ?85th percentile) and asthma or indicators of asthma severity or control, stratified by FeNO level. Conclusions: Adiposity indicators are associated with asthma in children with low FeNO. Among children with asthma, adiposity indicators are associated with worse asthma severity or control in those with high FeNO. PMID:24922361

Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Celedón, Juan C

2014-07-01

364

Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated.

de Assuncao, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilario da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antonio Carlos Moreira

2014-01-01

365

Age impacts on the independent relationships of leptin with cardiometabolic risk and surrogate markers of enhanced early atherogenesis in black and white patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

We examined the potential impact of demographic characteristics on the independent leptin-metabolic cardiovascular risk factor and leptin-endothelial activation relationships in black and white patients with RA. Leptin concentrations and those of endothelial activation molecules including soluble E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were measured in 217 RA patients (51.6% black). We determined associations in potential confounder and mediator-adjusted mixed regression models. No independent associations between leptin concentrations and cardiovascular risk were present in all patients and either women and men or black and white patients. However, age impacted on several leptin-cardiovascular risk relations (interaction P < 0.05). In patients aged <50 years (lower quartile), after but not before adjustment for waist circumference and body mass index in addition to other confounders, leptin concentrations associated with overall endothelial activation as estimated by an SD (z) score of endothelial activation molecule concentrations (partial R = 0.341, P = 0.04). In patients aged 50-58 years (second quartile), leptin concentrations related to those of HDL cholesterol (partial R = -0.365, P = 0.01) and total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio (partial R = 0.299, P = 0.04), and in those aged 59-63 years (third quartile), paradoxically related to low systolic and mean blood pressure (partial R = -0.438, P = 0.005 and partial R = -0.370, P = 0.02, respectively). Patients with RA aged <50 years experience an independent adiposity-driven leptin-endothelial activation relationship in the absence of leptin-metabolic risk factor associations. Young but not older patients with RA may sustain obesity-induced endothelial activation that is directly mediated by leptin. PMID:24399454

Dessein, Patrick H; Norton, Gavin R; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Tsang, Linda; Solomon, Ahmed

2014-03-01

366

Prevalence of Obesity and the Relationship between the Body Mass Index and Body Fat: Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference are widely used as convenient indices of adiposity, yet there are limitations in their estimates of body fat. We aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity using criteria based on the BMI and waist circumference, and to examine the relationship between the BMI and body fat.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis population-based,

Julie A. Pasco; Geoffrey C. Nicholson; Sharon L. Brennan; Mark A. Kotowicz

2012-01-01

367

The Association of Adiposity and Overactive Bladder Appears to Differ by Gender: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigate the association of different measures of adiposity (waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI)) with overactive bladder (OAB) (urinary frequency and urgency) and whether the association varies by gender or age and if it persists when models are adjusted for other confounders. Materials and Methods Data are from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) epidemiologic survey, a random sample of 5503 Boston, MA residents aged 30 to 79 years with equal representation from three race/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). Statistical analyses involved nonparametric loess models and multivariable logistic regression. Results We show distinct patterns by gender for the association of various adiposity measures and OAB. Waist-to-hip ratio is not significantly associated with OAB in either gender. For women, the prevalence of OAB increases as waist (odds ratio (OR) adjusted for other confounders = 1.10 per 10 cm increase) or hip (OR=1.12 per 10 cm increase) circumference or BMI (OR=1.03 per kg/m2 increase) increases. For men, the prevalence of OAB decreases as adiposity increases (OR=0.65 per 10 cm increase in waist circumference, OR=0.71 per 10 cm increase in hip circumference, OR=0.87 per kg/m2 in BMI), but only to a certain point (waist circumference=100 cm, hip circumference=115 cm, BMI=27.5 kg/m2). At that point, the prevalence of OAB increases with increasing adiposity (OR=1.19 per 10 cm increase in waist circumference, OR=1.16 per 10 cm increase in hip circumference, OR=1.08 per kg/m2 in BMI). Conclusion The relationship between adiposity and OAB varies by gender.

Link, Carol L.; Steers, William D.; Kusek, John W.; McKinlay, John B.

2010-01-01

368

Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to cardiometabolic risk in children: cross-sectional findings from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Lower levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk among children. However, little is known about the independent and combined associations of PA and SB as well as different types of these behaviours with cardiometabolic risk in children. We therefore investigated these relationships among children. Methods The subjects were a population sample of 468 children 6–8 years of age. PA and SB were assessed by a questionnaire administered by parents and validated by a monitor combining heart rate and accelerometry measurements. We assessed body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma lipids and lipoproteins and blood pressure and calculated a cardiometabolic risk score using population-specific Z-scores and a formula waist circumference?+?insulin?+?glucose?+?triglycerides - HDL cholesterol?+?mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We analysed data using multivariate linear regression models. Results Total PA was inversely associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (??=?-0.135, p?=?0.004), body fat percentage (??=?-0.155, p?waist circumference (??=?0.097, p?=?0.033) and systolic blood pressure (??=?0.096, p?=?0.039). Resting was directly associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (??=?0.092, p?=?0.049), triglycerides (??=?0.131, p?=?0.005), VLDL triglycerides (??=?0.134, p?=?0.009), VLDL cholesterol (??=?0.147, p?=?0.004) and LDL cholesterol (??=?0.105, p?=?0.023). Other types of PA and SB had less consistent associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions The results of our study emphasise increasing total and unstructured PA and decreasing watching TV and videos and other sedentary behaviours to reduce cardiometabolic risk among children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01803776.

2014-01-01

369

Morphometric variables related to metabolic profile in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  

PubMed

Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of waist circumference and body weight with circulating markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and hepatic function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After a 12-h fast, blood was collected from 39 adult captive chimpanzees for measurement of serum glucose, BUN, creatinine, albumin, cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total and direct bilirubin, triglyceride, and insulin, and waist circumference and body weight were measured. Waist circumference was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostatic model assessment method, and albumin in female chimpanzees and with triglyceride in female and male chimpanzees. Body weight was correlated significantly with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in female chimpanzees and triglyceride in male chimpanzees. Male chimpanzees were heavier and had lower diastolic blood pressure, greater creatinine, albumin, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin values than did female chimpanzees. The relationships between waist circumference and blood pressure and triglyceride are consistent with those reported in humans and other primate species. In conclusion, our study is the first work to demonstrate a relationship between waist circumference and metabolic risk factors in chimpanzees. Results demonstrated that waist circumference was associated with more metabolic risk factors than was body weight, particularly in female chimpanzees. PMID:22330355

Andrade, Marcia C R; Higgins, Paul B; Mattern, Vicki L; De La Garza, Melissa A; Brasky, Kathleen M; Voruganti, V Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G

2011-10-01

370

Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... involves using three key measures: Body mass index (BMI) Waist circumference Risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity Body ... should lose weight. Your doctor will evaluate your BMI, waist measurement, and other risk factors for heart disease. The good news is even ...

371

ORIGINAL REPORTS :C ARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND RELATED RISK FACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Indian Americans aged 29- 59 years using the NCEP ATP III criteria was similar to rates reported in urban populations in India. Low HDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia, high waist circumference, and high blood pressure were most prevalent risk factors in this study. Among obesity measures, waist girth was significantly associated with most risk factors for

Kiran B. Misra; Sarah W. Endemann; Mandeep Ayer

372

Anthropometric factors and ovarian cancer risk in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the associations of measured anthropometric factors, including general and central adiposity, with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Methods: In 93 incident EOC cases from a Swedish population-based prospective cohort study, seven anthropometric factors; height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage, waist- and hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio (WHR), were categorized by

Jenny Brändstedt; Björn Nodin; Jonas Manjer; Karin Jirström

2011-01-01

373

Predicting Incident Diabetes in Jamaica: The Role of Anthropometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the performance of the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) in predicting incident diabetes in Jamaica.Research Methods and Procedures: A cohort of 728 nondiabetic adults (290 men and 438 women), ages 25 to 74 years and residents of Spanish Town, Jamaica, were followed for a mean of 4 years. Participants

Lincoln A. Sargeant; Franklyn I. Bennett; Terrence E. Forrester; Richard S. Cooper; Rainford J. Wilks

2002-01-01

374

Cut-off points for anthropometric indices of adiposity: differential classification in a large population of young women.  

PubMed

Anthropometric indices of adiposity include BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio. In the recruitment phase of a prospective cohort study carried out between 1998 and 2002 we studied a population sample of 11 786 white Caucasian non-pregnant women in Southampton, UK aged 20-34 years, and explored the extent to which proposed cut-off points for the three indices identified the same or different women and how these indices related to adiposity. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured and fat mass was estimated from skinfold thicknesses; fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height1.65. Of the subjects, 4869 (42 %) women were overweight (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) and 1849 (16 %) were obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). A total of 890 (8 %) subjects were not overweight but had a waist circumference > or = 80 cm and 748 (6 %) subjects were overweight but had a waist circumference < 80 cm (6 %). Of the women, 50 % had a BMI > or = 25 kg/m2 or a waist circumference > or = 80 cm or a waist:height ratio > or = 0.5. Of the variation in fat mass index, 85 % was explained by BMI, 76 % by waist circumference and 75 % by waist:height ratio. Our findings demonstrate that many women are differentially classified depending on which index of adiposity is used. As each index captures different aspects of size in terms of adiposity, there is the need to determine how the three indices relate to function and how they can be of use in defining risk of ill health in women. PMID:18634708

Duggleby, Sarah L; Jackson, Alan A; Godfrey, Keith M; Robinson, Siân M; Inskip, Hazel M

2009-02-01

375

Anthropometric risk factors for elevated blood pressure in adolescents in Turkey aged 11–17  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between anthropometric parameters and elevated blood pressure in adolescents, we measured\\u000a blood pressure (BP), height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness, waist circumference (WC), and mid-upper-arm circumference\\u000a (MUAC) in 2,860 student volunteers aged 11–17 years in Kayseri, Turkey. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-arm-span ratio\\u000a (WASR), body mass index (BMI), arm-fat area (AFA), and fat percentage (FP) were also

Mustafa Mumtaz Mazicioglu; Bektas Murat Yalcin; Ahmet Ozturk; Hasan Basri Ustunbas; Selim Kurtoglu

2010-01-01

376

Relationships between weekly walking distance and adiposity in27,596 women are nonlinear with respect to both distance andadiposity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-sectional relationships of weekly walking distance to BMI, body circumferences, and bra cup sizes are reported for 27,596 women. The percent reductions between walking 40-50 km\\/wk and < 10km\\/wk were greatest for BMI, substantial for waist circumference and cupsize, and least for hip and chest circumferences. The relationships between distance and adiposity were nonlinear with respect to both the

Paul T

2004-01-01

377

Relationship between the chromosome nucleoli-forming regions and somatometric parameters in humans.  

PubMed

Relationship between activity of nucleolar organizer regions in chromosomes and somatometric parameters was studied in residents of the Kursk region. Significant differences in the somatometric parameters were revealed between the three groups differing by the number of nucleolar organizer regions, which can be explained by different proliferative activities in these groups. A greater number of nucleolar organizer regions was associated with a trend to greater body weight and body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip circumference ratio, and shoulder width in men and increased body height, greater body weight and body mass index, hip circumference, and leg length in women. PMID:19526137

Amelina, I V; Medvedev, I N

2009-01-01

378

Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI), Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

Gopinath, S.; Ganesh, B. Amirtha; Manoj, K.; Rubiya

2012-01-01

379

Phenotype presentation of hypophosphatemic rickets in adults.  

PubMed

Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a group of rare disorders caused by excessive renal phosphate wasting. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 38 HR patients was to characterize the phenotype of adult HR patients. Moreover, skeletal and endodontic severity scores were defined to assess possible gender differences in disease severity in patients with genetically verified X-linked HR. Compared to normal reference data, i.e., z = 0, HR patients had significantly lower final height, with a mean difference in z-score of -1.9 (95% CI -2.4 to -1.4, P < 0.001). Compared to paired z-scores of final height, z-scores of leg length were significantly lower and those of sitting height were significantly higher (P < 0.001), resulting in disproportion as indicated by the significantly elevated sitting height ratio, mean difference in z-score of 2.6 (95% CI 2.1-3.1, P < 0.001). Z-scores of head circumference (median 1.4, range -0.4 to 5.5, P < 0.001) and z-scores of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (median 1.9, range -1.5 to 8.6, P < 0.001) were significantly elevated compared to normal reference data. The relative risk (RR) of fracture was reduced (RR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.57, P < 0.001). The skeletal severity score tended to be higher in males compared to females (P = 0.07), and no gender difference in endodontic severity was found. In conclusion, adult HR patients were characterized by short stature and were disproportioned. They had elevated BMD of the lumbar spine and a reduced risk of fractures. We found a tendency for males to be more severely affected than females. PMID:20524110

Beck-Nielsen, Signe S; Brusgaard, Klaus; Rasmussen, Lars M; Brixen, Kim; Brock-Jacobsen, Bendt; Poulsen, Mette R; Vestergaard, Peter; Ralston, Stuart H; Albagha, Omar M E; Poulsen, Sven; Haubek, Dorte; Gjørup, Hans; Hintze, Hanne; Andersen, Mette G; Heickendorff, Lene; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Gram, Jeppe

2010-08-01