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Sample records for z-score waist circumference

  1. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Methods Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference) for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth’s residence. Results Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10?years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8–3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5–3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures. However, contrary to our expectation, increased distance to the nearest fast food outlet was associated with higher BMI z-score, but not with waist circumference. Conclusions Food environments conducive to healthy eating may significantly influence health behaviors and outcomes. Efforts to increase the availability of supermarkets providing options/selections for health-promoting foods may significantly improve the dietary intake and reduce adiposity among youth with diabetes. PMID:22747523

  2. Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children?

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations. PMID:25479861

  3. Waist circumference and impaired fasting glucose screening in a Mediterranean population.

    PubMed

    Baena-Díez, José M; Elosua, Roberto; Cano, Juan F; Masiá, Rafael; Sala, Joan; Marrugat, Jaume; Schröder, Helmut

    2009-11-01

    We evaluate the merits of routine waist circumference measurements for screening of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Waist circumference and body mass index showed a strong association with the risk of IFG. The present data indicate the need for routine anthropometric measurements in clinical practice screening for IFG. PMID:19744741

  4. Evaluation of Internet-Based Interventions on Waist Circumference Reduction: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions are more cost-effective than conventional interventions and can provide immediate, easy-to-access, and individually tailored support for behavior change. Waist circumference is a strong predictor of an increased risk for a host of diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, independent of body mass index. To date, no study has examined the effect of Internet-based lifestyle interventions on waist circumference change. Objective This study aimed to systematically review the effect of Internet-based interventions on waist circumference change among adults. Methods This meta-analysis reviewed randomized controlled trials (N=31 trials and 8442 participants) that used the Internet as a main intervention approach and reported changes in waist circumference. Results Internet-based interventions showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (mean change –2.99 cm, 95% CI ?3.68 to ?2.30, I2=93.3%) and significantly better effects on waist circumference loss (mean loss 2.38 cm, 95% CI 1.61-3.25, I2=97.2%) than minimal interventions such as information-only groups. Meta-regression results showed that baseline waist circumference, gender, and the presence of social support in the intervention were significantly associated with waist circumference reduction. Conclusions Internet-based interventions have a significant and promising effect on waist circumference change. Incorporating social support into an Internet-based intervention appears to be useful in reducing waist circumference. Considerable heterogeneity exists among the effects of Internet-based interventions. The design of an intervention may have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:26199208

  5. Waist Circumference as Measure of Abdominal Fat Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Scott M.; Neeland, Ian J.; Turer, Aslan T.; Vega, Gloria Lena

    2013-01-01

    This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC), intraperitoneal fat (IPF), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black). Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF), ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF (R2 = 0.81 ? 0.88) with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65–0.82) and IPF (0.29–0.85). The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride (r = 0.358 (men) and 0.363 (women)) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.480 (men) and 0.517 (women)); after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride (r = 0.353 (men) and 0.348 (women)) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.290 (men) and 0.221 (women)). WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23762536

  6. Waist circumference as measure of abdominal fat compartments.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M; Neeland, Ian J; Turer, Aslan T; Vega, Gloria Lena

    2013-01-01

    This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC), intraperitoneal fat (IPF), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black). Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF), ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF (R (2) = 0.81 - 0.88) with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65-0.82) and IPF (0.29-0.85). The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride (r = 0.358 (men) and 0.363 (women)) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.480 (men) and 0.517 (women)); after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride (r = 0.353 (men) and 0.348 (women)) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.290 (men) and 0.221 (women)). WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23762536

  7. Correlation between waist and mid-thigh circumference and cardiovascular fitness in Korean college students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sung-Sik; Chung, Jae-Soon; So, Wi-Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated whether waist and mid-thigh circumference correlated with cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in a selected sample of Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 41 college students (25 males, 16 females; age, > 19?years) who visited the sports medicine laboratory at the Korea National University of Transportation in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea, to undergo measurements of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and waist and mid-thigh circumference. [Results] VO2max did not correlate with waist circumference or mid-thigh circumference in males, whereas VO2max was negatively correlated with mid-thigh circumference, but not waist circumference, in females. [Conclusion] Mid-thigh circumference was not associated with cardiovascular fitness or waist in male college students. However, it was associated with cardiovascular fitness in female college students. Well-designed studies are needed to investigate this further. PMID:26504348

  8. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK. 

    E-print Network

    Unwin, Nigel; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, Raj; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3...

  9. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  10. Waist Circumference, Pedometer Placement, and Step-Counting Accuracy in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Mark G.; Hannon, James C.; Eisenman, Patricia A.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Pett, Marjorie; Williams, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in waist circumference (WC) and pedometer placement (anterior vs. midaxillary vs. posterior) affect the agreement between pedometer and observed steps during treadmill and self-paced walking. Participants included 19 pairs of youth (9-15 years old) who were matched for sex, race, and height and stratified by…

  11. Are the Recent Secular Increases in Waist Circumference among Children and Adolescents Independent of Changes in BMI?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that the waist circumference of children and adolescents has increased over the last 25 years. However, given the strong correlation between waist circumference and BMI, it is uncertain if the secular trends in waist circumference are independent of those in BMI. Methods We analyzed data from 6- to 19-year-olds who participated in the 1988–1994 through 2011–2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess whether the trends in waist circumference were independent of changes in BMI, race-ethnicity and age. Results Mean, unadjusted levels of waist circumference increased by 3.7 cm (boys) and 6.0 cm (girls) from 1988–94 through 2011–12, while mean BMI levels increased by 1.1 kg/m2 (boys) and 1.6 kg/m2 (girls). Overall, the proportional changes in mean levels of both waist circumference and BMI were fairly similar among boys (5.3%, waist vs. 5.6%, BMI) and girls (8.7%, waist vs. 7.7%, BMI). As assessed by the area under the curve, adjustment for BMI reduced the secular increases in waist circumference by about 75% (boys) and 50% (girls) beyond that attributable to age and race-ethnicity. There was also a race-ethnicity interaction (p < 0.001). Adjustment for BMI reduced the secular trend in waist circumference among non-Hispanic (NH) black children (boys and girls) to a greater extent (about 90%) than among other children. Conclusions Our results indicate that among children in the U.S., about 75% (boys) and 50% (girls) of the secular increases in waist circumference since 1988–94 can be accounted for by changes in BMI. The reasons for the larger independent effects among girls and among NH blacks are uncertain. PMID:26506450

  12. Sitting Time and Waist Circumference Are Associated With Glycemia in U.K. South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jason M.R.; Bhopal, Raj; Douglas, Anne; Wallia, Sunita; Bhopal, Ruby; Sheikh, Aziz; Forbes, John F.; McKnight, John; Sattar, Naveed; Murray, Gordon; Lean, Michael E.J.; Wild, Sarah H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the independent contributions of waist circumference, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on glycemia in South Asians living in Scotland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 1,228 (523 men and 705 women) adults of Indian or Pakistani origin screened for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial. All undertook an oral glucose tolerance test, had physical activity and sitting time assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and had waist circumference measured. RESULTS Mean ± SD age and waist circumference were 49.8 ± 10.1 years and 99.2 ± 10.2 cm, respectively. One hundred ninety-one participants had impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, and 97 had possible type 2 diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, age (0.012 mmol ? L?1 ? year?1 [95% CI 0.006–0.017]) and waist circumference (0.018 mmol ? L?1 ? cm?1 [0.012–0.024]) were significantly independently associated with fasting glucose concentration, and age (0.032 mmol ? L?1 ? year?1 [0.016–0.049]), waist (0.057 mmol ? L?1 ? cm?1 [0.040–0.074]), and sitting time (0.097 mmol ? L?1 ? h?1 ? day?1 [0.036–0.158]) were significantly independently associated with 2-h glucose concentration. Vigorous activity time had a borderline significant association with 2-h glucose concentration (?0.819 mmol ? L?1 ? h?1 ? day?1 [?1.672 to 0.034]) in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS These data highlight an important relationship between sitting time and 2-h glucose levels in U.K. South Asians, independent of physical activity and waist circumference. Although the data are cross-sectional and thus do not permit firm conclusions about causality to be drawn, the results suggest that further study investigating the effects of sitting time on glycemia and other aspects of metabolic risk in South Asian populations is warranted. PMID:21464463

  13. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio cannot predict male semen quality: a report of 1231 subfertile Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Lu, J-C; Jing, J; Dai, J-Y; Zhao, A Z; Yao, Q; Fan, K; Wang, G-H; Liang, Y-J; Chen, L; Ge, Y-F; Yao, B

    2015-11-01

    There were controversial results between obesity-associated markers and semen quality. In this study, we investigated the correlations between age, obesity-associated markers including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC), the combination of age and obesity-associated markers, semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels in 1231 subfertile men. The results showed that BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR were positively related to age, and there were also positive relations between BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR and between sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), progressive motility (PR), sperm motility and per cent of normal sperm morphology (NSM). However, age, each of obesity-associated markers and the combination of obesity-associated markers and age were unrelated to any of semen parameters including total normal-progressively motile sperm count (TNPMS). Age, BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR were negatively related to serum testosterone and SHBG levels. However, only serum LH and FSH levels were negatively related to sperm concentration, NSM and sperm motility. In a conclusion, although age and obesity have significant impacts on reproductive hormones such as testosterone, SHBG and oestradiol, semen parameters related to FSH and LH could not be influenced, indicating that obesity-associated markers could not predict male semen quality. PMID:25418484

  14. Waist:height ratio, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome abnormalities in Colombian schooled adolescents: a multivariate analysis considering located adiposity.

    PubMed

    Agredo-Zúñiga, Ricardo Antonio; Aguilar-de Plata, Cecilia; Suárez-Ortegón, Milton Fabian

    2015-09-14

    Very few large studies in Latin America have evaluated the association between waist:height ratio (W-HtR) and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Further, multivariable analyses verifying the independence of located subcutaneous fat have not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of W-HtR and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic syndrome abnormalities and high LDL-cholesterol levels in schooled adolescents before and after adjusting for trunk skinfolds and BMI. The sample consisted of 831 boys and 841 girls aged 10-17 years. Biochemical, blood pressure and anthropometrical variables were measured. Age- and sex-specific quartiles of W-HtR and WC were used in Poisson regression models to evaluate the associations. High WC values (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) were associated with high TAG levels in both sexes (prevalence ratio, boys: 2·57 (95 % CI 1·91, 3·44); girls: 1·92 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·47); P0·05). High W-HtR (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) was only independently associated with high TAG in female adolescents (1·99 (95 % CI 1·55, 2·56); P<0·05). In conclusion, WC showed better association with cardiometabolic risk than W-HtR in the children of this study. This observation does not support W-HtR as a relevant adiposity marker for cardiovascular and metabolic risk in adolescence. PMID:26279413

  15. Optimal cut-off values of BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio for defining obesity in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; He, Yuan; Dong, Shengyong; Zhao, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhiheng; Song, Zhenya; Chang, Guang; Yang, Fang; Wang, Youjuan

    2014-11-28

    It has not been established which specific measures of obesity might be most appropriate for predicting CVD risk in Asians. The objectives of the present study were to determine the associations of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist:height ratio (WHtR) with CVD risk factors and to evaluate the optimal cut-off values to define overweight or obesity in Chinese adults. Data collected from seven nationwide health examination centres during 2008 and 2009 were analysed. The BMI, WC and WHtR of 244 266 Chinese adults aged ? 20 years included in the study were measured. Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to various anthropometric indices. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the optimal cut-off values to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and the metabolic syndrome. WHtR had the largest areas under the ROC curve for all CVD risk factors in both sexes, followed by WC and BMI. The optimal cut-off values were approximately 24·0 and 23·0 kg/m2 for BMI, 85·0 and 75·0 cm for WC, and 0·50 and 0·48 for WHtR for men and women, respectively. According to well-established cut-off values, BMI was found to be a more sensitive indicator of hypertension in both men and women, while WC and WHtR were found to be better indicators of diabetes and dyslipidaemia. A combination of BMI and central obesity measures was found to be associated with greater OR of CVD risk factors than either of them alone in both sexes. The present study demonstrated that WHtR and WC may be better indicators of CVD risk factors for Chinese people than BMI. PMID:25300318

  16. Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference change in midlife women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Changes in employment status have shown inconsistent associations with adiposity. This study tested whether the presence of elevated depressive symptoms explains variability in the time-varying association between employment status and central adiposity. Method Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference were assessed annually over 10 years in a multi-ethnic sample of 3220 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Linear mixed-effects models tested time-varying associations of employment status, depressive symptoms, and their interaction with waist circumference. Results Waist circumference increases were greatest during years of combined nonemployment and elevated depressive symptoms (1.00 cm/year), and lowest in years of full-time employment and elevated depressive symptoms (0.25 cm/year), compared to years of full-time employment and non-elevated depressive symptoms (0.51 cm/year). Employment status was unrelated to waist circumference in years without elevated depressive symptoms. The pattern of results was unchanged when analyses were restricted to pre-retirement observations, and did not vary according to waist circumference at baseline or ethnicity/race. Conclusions Identifying and managing depressive symptoms in midlife women who are not working may help prevent increases in central adiposity. PMID:24462272

  17. Biobehavioral and Psychological Differences Between Overweight Adults With and Without Waist Circumference Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda K.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiometabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between overweight adults with and without WC risk in four domains: demographic, clinical and biological, psychological, and behavioral. The sample (N = 87) was primarily sedentary, middle-aged, women, and African-Americans. The majority of participants had WC risk, those with WC risk were older, were women, and had higher body mass index, higher morning salivary cortisol levels, and more depressive symptoms than those without WC risk. Caloric and macronutrient intake did not differ between those with and without WC risk. Our findings could lead to the development of targeted interventions to prevent and/or reduce abdominal obesity, thereby reducing cardiometabolic risk. PMID:21053387

  18. Biobehavioral and psychological differences between overweight adults with and without waist circumference risk.

    PubMed

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda K; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2010-12-01

    Waist circumference (WC) has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiometabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between overweight adults with and without WC risk in four domains: demographic, clinical and biological, psychological, and behavioral. The sample (N?=?87) was primarily sedentary, middle-aged, women, and African-Americans. The majority of participants had WC risk, those with WC risk were older, were women, and had higher body mass index, higher morning salivary cortisol levels, and more depressive symptoms than those without WC risk. Caloric and macronutrient intake did not differ between those with and without WC risk. Our findings could lead to the development of targeted interventions to prevent and/or reduce abdominal obesity, thereby reducing cardiometabolic risk. PMID:21053387

  19. Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of macrovascular complications and morbidities associated to metabolic syndrome are increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The combination of T1DM with features of insulin resistance similar to that of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), sometimes called “double diabetes”, has been associated with central obesity. Since the most methods to accurately detect body fat and insulin resistance are not readily available, we propose that certain indirect indexes for detecting obesity as waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index, may be useful when screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM. Methods We performed a transversal evaluation (clinical and biochemical) in all the patients of the T1DM Clinic (n?=?120). We determined the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Statement Criteria by the American Heart Association/ National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation and the utility of certain anthropometric indexes for predicting double diabetes was evaluated. Results Thirty seven percent of the patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome using these criteria (n?=?30). These patients were significantly older (p?=?0.002), have a higher glycated hemoglobin (p?=?0.036), cholesterol (p?waist circumference (p?=?0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (p?waist-to-height ratio correctly classified the largest number of patients (68% of correctly classified) well as the waist circumference (66% of correctly classified) with an adequate specificity and sensibility. Meanwhile the most precise body mass index value only classified correctly to 61% of patients. Conclusion Our data show that waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio indexes are useful to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24594198

  20. Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy foods are nutrient dense and may be protective against long-term weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and annualized changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort who participa...

  1. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ?90th and WHtR ?0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ?0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded to 85th WHtR percentile irrespective of age and gender. Twelve percent children (95% CI 10.1-13.0) had a WC ?90th percentile and 16.5% children (95% CI 14.7-18.1) had a WHtR ?0.5 while 11% children (95% CI 8.9-11.6) had both WC ?90th percentile and WHtR ?0.5. Significant predictors of central obesity included higher grade, urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES), high-income neighborhood and higher parental education. Children studying in higher grade (aOR 5.11, 95% CI 1.76-14.85) and those living in urban area with high SES (aOR 82.34, 95% CI 15.76-430.31) showed a significant independent association. Urban area with high SES and higher parental education showed a significant independent association with higher WC and higher WHtR while higher grade showed a significant independent association with higher WC. Conclusions Comprehensive worldwide reference values are needed to define central obesity and the present study is the first one to report anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity for Pakistani school-aged children. Eleven percent children were centrally obese and strong predictors included higher grade, urban area with high SES and higher parental education. These findings support the need for developing a National strategy for childhood obesity and implementing targeted interventions, prioritizing the higher social class and involving communities. PMID:22104025

  2. Independent effects of waist circumference and physical activity on all-cause mortality in Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Craig, Cora L

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent effects of waist circumference (WC) and physical inactivity on the risk of mortality in women. This prospective cohort study included 5421 female participants 20-69 years of age in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. WC was measured with an anthropometric tape and leisure-time physical activity levels over the previous 12 months were assessed with a questionnaire. Mortality surveillance was conducted by data linkage with the Canadian Mortality Database through 31 December, 1993. The hazard ratios (HR) of mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption included as covariates in all models. A total of 225 deaths occurred over an average of 12.4 years of follow up (67 500 person-years of follow up). Physical activity (HR = 0.78; 95% C.I.: 0.64-0.95) and WC (HR = 1.17; 95% C.I.: 1.05-1.31) were associated with mortality when included in separate regression models. When included in the same model, both physical activity (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.96) and WC (HR = 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04-1.30) remained independent significant predictors of mortality. In conclusion, physical inactivity and high WC have significant independent risks of premature mortality among women. PMID:16770355

  3. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  4. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (weight: 44.9 ± 9.3 vs. 51.4 ± 10.6, P < 0.01; WC: 59.9 ± 8 vs. 64 ± 7.9, P < 0.01; BMI: 18.6 ± 3.1 vs. 20.6 ± 3.5, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The current study findings suggest that the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern is directly associated with waist circumference (marker of central obesity), while lacto vegetarian dietary pattern is reversely associated with weight, waist circumference and BMI. Special obesity pattern in Iranian young females can be justified by Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern”. PMID:26082846

  5. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity. PMID:26256530

  6. Liraglutide reduces the body weight and waist circumference in Chinese overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Yu, De-min; Chen, Li-ming; Chang, Bao-cheng; Ji, Qiu-di; Li, Shu-ying; Zhu, Mei; Ding, Sheng-hua; Zhang, Bao-zhen; Wang, Su-li; Li, Hong-tao; Lin, Jing-na; Wang, Mao-jun; Guo, Jian-chao; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhong-dong; Wu, Shen-tao; Yang, Ju-hong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activator, on body weight and waist circumference in Chinese overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 328 Chinese overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients were included in this multi-center, open-labeled and self-controlled clinical study. The patients were subcutaneously injected with liraglutide once daily for 24 weeks as add-on therapy to their previous hypoglycemic treatments. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software package version 11.5 for Windows. Results: Liraglutide treatment caused significant reduction of the mean body weight (from 86.61±14.09 to 79.10±13.55 kg) and waist circumference (from 101.81±13.96 to 94.29±14.17 cm), resulting in body weight lose of 5%–10% in 43.67% patients, and body weight loss above 10% in 34.06% patients, who had significant lower plasma creatinine levels. Baseline waist circumference, BMI and HOMA-IR were independently correlated with the body weight loss. Furthermore, liraglutide treatment significantly decreased HbA1c levels (from 8.66%±2.17% to 6.92%±0.95%) with HbA1c<7.0% in 35.37% patients, who had a significantly lower baseline level of HbA1c, but higher baseline levels of C peptide and glucagon. Moreover, liraglutide treatment resulted in greater body weight loss in patients with a long duration of diabetes, and better glycemic control in patients with a short duration of diabetes. Conclusion: Liraglutide significantly reduces body weight and waist circumference in Chinese overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with apparent visceral obesity, insulin resistance and a long duration of diabetes may have greater body weight loss; whereas patients with high insulin-secreting ability, hyperglucagonemia, and short-duration diabetes may obtain better glycemic control with liraglutide. PMID:25619391

  7. Built Environment and 1-Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M.; Acock, Alan; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50–75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006–2007 to 2007–2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard deviation, 4.3) and mean waist circumference increased by 1.76 cm (standard deviation, 5.6). Multilevel analyses revealed that neighborhoods with a high density of fast-food outlets were associated with increases of 1.40 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 2.04 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who visited fast-food restaurants frequently. In contrast, high-walkability neighborhoods were associated with decreases of 1.2 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 1.57 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who increased their levels of vigorous physical activity during the 1-year assessment period. Findings point to the negative influences of the availability of neighborhood fast-food outlets and individual unhealthy eating behaviors that jointly affect weight gain; however, better neighborhood walkability and increased levels of physical activity are likely to be associated with maintaining a healthy weight over time. PMID:19153214

  8. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 122:687–694;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307115 PMID:24800763

  9. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

  10. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

  11. Is Waist Circumference A Better Predictor of Diabetes Than Body Mass Index Or Waist-To-Height Ratio In Iranian Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Bezad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several measures of adiposity have been used for predicting diabetes. The results of studies regarding superiority of waist circumference (WC) to body mass index (BMI) are inconsistent. This study designed to compare the ability of different anthropometric measures in predicting diabetes and to determine their optimal cut-off values. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,000 representative sample among adults aged 20–80 years in Babol, the Northern Iran. The demographic data were collected in a household survey, and the anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured with a standard method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) ?126 mg/dl was considered as diabetes. receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the predictive ability of different anthropometric indexes and their optimal cut-off values for high FBS. Results: The overall prevalence rate of diabetes was 14.0% (14.4% in men vs. 13.5% in women, P = 0.65). The prevalence rate was significantly higher in older age (>60 years), low educated and obese (P = 0.001). The mean of BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly higher among diabetic in both sexes (P = 0.001). Among men, WC (area under the ROC curve [AUC] =0.64) and WHtR (AUC = 0.63) have slightly higher accuracy index compared with BMI (AUC = 0.62) or WHR (AUC = 0.60). In contrast, among women, WHtR (AUC = 0.69) and WC (AUC = 0.68) yielded slightly better predictive than BMI (AUC = 0.67). The optimal cut-off values obtained for BMI and WHtR were similar between two sexes (BMI = 24.95 kg/m2 for men and BMI = 25.2 kg/m2 for women, WHtR = 0.51 for both sexes) whereas the optimal cut-off value for WC was higher in men than women (98.5 cm men vs. 89.5 cm women). Conclusions: Overall WC and WHtR exhibited a slightly better discriminate performance than BMI for diabetes in both sexes, particularly in women. PMID:25789140

  12. Is the association of type II diabetes with waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio stronger than that with body mass index?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Q; Nyamdorj, R

    2010-01-01

    In total, 17 prospective and 35 cross-sectional studies in adults aged 18-74 years, with the aim of comparing betweenbody mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in their relation to the incidence and prevalence of type II diabetes, were reviewed. Among these studies, only a few have used C-statistic, paired homogeneity test or log-likelihood ratio test for formally comparing the differences. Five prospective studies, in which formal statistic tests have been made, came out with inconsistent findings: two results were in favour of WC in Mexicans African Americanss, respectively, one result was in favour of BMI in Pima Indians, and no difference was found in the other 2 studies. Among the 11 cross-sectional studies that have formally tested the differences, most found a higher odds ratio or slightly larger area under the ROC curve (AUC) for WC than for BMI. A meta-analysis based on the individual data of the Asian cohorts using a paired homogeneity test showed, however, that there was no difference in odds ratio between BMI and WC in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Mongolian and Filipino men. In conclusion, all studies included in this review showed that either BMI or WC (WHR) predicted or was associated with type II diabetes independently, regardless of the controversial findings on which of these obesity indicators is better. PMID:19724291

  13. Body fat distribution and noncommunicable diseases in populations: overview of the 2008 WHO Expert Consultation on Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio.

    PubMed

    Nishida, C; Ko, G T; Kumanyika, S

    2010-01-01

    A World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Consultation on Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) was convened in Geneva from 8 to 11 December 2008 to consider approaches to developing international guidelines for indices and action levels in order to characterize health risks associated with these measures of body fat distribution-alternative or complementary to the existing WHO guidelines for assessments of generalized obesity on the basis of body mass index. Six background papers prepared for the Consultation are compiled in this issue. These six papers examine a range of health outcomes and issues, including whether there is a basis for choosing WC over WHR and whether different action levels by gender, age, ethnicity, country or region are warranted. Although guidelines involving WC and WHR are potentially useful and clearly required, the challenges in identifying cutoffs for international guidelines should not be underestimated or oversimplified. The final report and outcomes of the Expert Consultation will be published by WHO. PMID:19935820

  14. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  15. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, María Lola; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n = 110) Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC) of 0.651 (P = 0.008), cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P < 0.001), cut-off point of ?90?cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P = 0.008), cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ?0.62 and WHtR ?0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P = 0.006) and AUC of 0.717 (P = 0.014) for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ? 0.6) could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents. PMID:25574166

  16. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A.; Cohen, Daniel D.; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food. PMID:24514426

  17. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

  18. The association of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and waist circumference in northern adults in Iran: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) level and Waist Circumference (WC) in men and women among 25–65 years old people in the north of Iran. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional and analytical research gender that carried out on the 1797 subjects (941 males and 856 females) between 25–65 years old using multistage cluster sampling technique. FBG was measured in the morning after a 12-hour fast and was determined by using laboratory kits (enzymatic methods) and spectrophotometry technique. Central obesity was defined based on World Health Organization criteria: waist circumference ?102 cm and ?88 cm in men and women, respectively. The SPSS.16 software was used for statistical analysis. Results As whole, the mean of FBG in women (98.3?±?40.1 mg/dl) was higher than in men (94.6?±?32.2 mg/dl). Also, the mean of WC in men 4.5 cm was lower than in women. In men, the mean of FBG statistically differs between normal and central obese subjects both in 35–45 year-age group (P?=?0.001) and in 45–55 year-age group (P?=?0.042). As whole, in men, the FBG level increased up 2.82 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC with the highest rate in 35–45 year-age group. In totally, in women, the FBG level increased up 3.48 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC and in 25–35 year-age group and it was higher than in other age groups. In men, the regression coefficients were constant with age increasing while in women it was decreased. Constant trend in men and decreasing trend in women with age was shown between FBG and WC. The cut-off point of WC for detecting of diabetes obtained 89 cm and 107 cm in men and women, respectively. Conclusion The positive correlation was seen between WC and FBG level and it was declined with age in women. Cut-off point for detecting of diabetes in men was less than in women. WC is useable as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among adults in the north of Iran. PMID:24393143

  19. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Elvestad Gabrielsen, Maiken; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. Participants 148?731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ?16?years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Primary outcome measures Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. Results The data included up to 66?809 never-smokers, 43?009 former smokers and 38?913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by ?0.40% (95% CI ?0.57% to ?0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being ?0.31% (95% CI ?0.42% to ?0.19), ?0.08% (?0.19% to 0.03%) and ?0.74% (?0.96% to ?0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (?0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (?0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. Conclusions For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity. PMID:26264275

  20. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity Improvement in Abdominal Obesity Diagnosis Using Cluster Analysis during Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Añez, Roberto; Toledo, Alexandra; Bello, Luis; Apruzzese, Vanessa; González, Robys; Chacín, Maricarmen; Cabrera, Mayela; Cano, Clímaco; Velasco, Manuel; López-Miranda, José

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of metabolic phenotypes during the construction of ROC curves for waist circumference (WC) cutpoint selection. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,902 subjects of both genders were selected from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study database. Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TSCA) was applied to select metabolically healthy and sick men and women. ROC curves were constructed to determine WC cutoff points by gender. Results. Through TSCA, metabolic phenotype predictive variables were selected: HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-?cell for women and HOMA2-IR, HOMA2-?cell, and TAG for men. Subjects were classified as healthy normal weight, metabolically obese normal weight, healthy and metabolically disturbed overweight, and healthy and metabolically disturbed obese. Final WC cutpoints were 91.50?cm for women (93.4% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity) and 98.15?cm for men (96% sensitivity, 99.5% specificity). Conclusions. TSCA in the selection of the groups used in ROC curves construction proved to be an important tool, aiding in the detection of MOWN and MHO which cannot be identified with WC alone. The resulting WC cutpoints were <91.00?cm for women and <98.00?cm for men. Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter subjects during classification. PMID:25945356

  2. The Relationship between Waist Circumference and Work-related Injury in Reference to the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between waist circumference and work-related injury in reference to the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods By analyzing data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the rate of injury experience according to socioeconomic status, including occupational property, of 8,261 subjects. We performed logistic regression analysis with work-related injury experience rate as dependent variable and waist circumference as an independent variable, Odds ratios (OR) were calculated, which reflect the likelihood of work-related injury experience rate, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) while controlling for relevant covariates with stratifying by sex, age, nature of injury, site of injury and occupational group. Results Among 797 persons who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 293 persons (36.8%) had work-related injury experience. After adjusting the confounding variables, the work-related injury was related to abnormal waist circumference (OR?=?1.35; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.78). In subgroups, ORs were higher in men (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.98), professional, manager, and administrator (OR?=?2.41; 95% CI: 1.10?~?5.28). Higher rate of injuries were noted in back and waist (OR?=?2.92; 95% CI: 1.49?~?5.73), and transport accident had increased risk (OR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.13?~?2.28). Conclusions Work-related injury rate differed depending on the waist circumference. The abdominal obesity was associated with higher risk of work-related injury. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for work-related injury management in Korea. PMID:24472303

  3. Combined Impact of Lifestyle Factors on Prospective Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study

    PubMed Central

    May, Anne M.; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noémie; Ekelund, Ulf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, Monique; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Braaten, Tonje; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person’s weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. Methods We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25–70) were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours) for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol) diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. Results Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI ?706, ?368) and 200 (?478, ?87) gram less weight and 0.95 (?1.27, ?0.639) and 0.99 (?1.29, ?0.69) cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. Conclusion The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain. PMID:23226361

  4. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (?=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (?=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time. PMID:22856616

  5. Increased waist circumference is independently associated with hypothyroidism in Mexican Americans: replicative evidence from two large, population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans are at an increased risk of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus it is conceivable that some components of the MS may be associated with the risk of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals. Our objective was to investigate and replicate the potential association of MS traits with thyroid dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Methods We conducted association testing for 18 MS traits in two large studies on Mexican Americans – the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–10. A total of 907 participants from 42 families in SAFHS and 1633 unrelated participants from NHANES 2007–10 were included in this study. The outcome measures were prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid function index (TFI) – a measure of thyroid function. For the SAFHS, we used polygenic regression analyses with multiple covariates to test associations in setting of family studies. For the NHANES 2007–10, we corrected for the survey design variables as needed for association analyses in survey data. In both datasets, we corrected for age, sex and their linear and quadratic interactions. Results TFI was an accurate indicator of clinical thyroid status (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve to detect clinical hypothyroidism, 0.98) in both SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10. Of the 18 MS traits, waist circumference (WC) showed the most consistent association with TFI in both studies independently of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). In the SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10 datasets, each standard deviation increase in WC was associated with 0.13 (p?

  6. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O’Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374 PMID:26418677

  7. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Children Selected for Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Using Mid Upper Arm Circumference and/or Weight-for-Height Z-Score

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Guesdon, Benjamin; Labar, Amy S.; Hanson, Kerstin; Langendorf, Celine; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Debate for a greater role of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measures in nutritional programming continues, but a shift from therapeutic feeding programs admitting children using MUAC and/or weight-for-height Z (WHZ) to a new model admitting children using MUAC only remains complicated by limited information regarding the clinical profile and response to treatment of children selected by MUAC vs. WHZ. To broaden our understanding of how children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ may differ, we aimed to investigate differences between children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ in terms of demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory and treatment response characteristics. Methods Using secondary data from a randomized trial in rural Niger among children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition, we compared children that would be admitted to a therapeutic feeding program that used a single anthropometric criterion of MUAC< 115 mm vs. children that are admitted under current admission criteria (WHZ< -3 and/or MUAC< 115 mm) but would be excluded from a program that used a single MUAC< 115 mm admission criterion. We assessed differences between groups using multivariate regression, employing linear regression for continuous outcomes and log-binomial regression for dichotomous outcomes. Results We found no difference in terms of clinical and laboratory characteristics and discharge outcomes evaluated between children that would be included in a MUAC< 115 mm therapeutic feeding program vs. children that are currently eligible for therapeutic feeding but would be excluded from a MUAC-only program. Conclusions A single anthropometric admission criterion of MUAC < 115 mm did not differentiate well between children in terms of clinical or laboratory measures or program outcomes in this context. If nutritional programming is to use a single MUAC-based criterion for admission to treatment, further research and program experience can help to identify the most appropriate criterion in a broad range of contexts to target children in most urgent need of treatment. PMID:26376281

  8. The Age-Specific Association of Waist Circumference and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingling; Yu, Weihong; Huang, Ping; Li, Chunying; Li, Yan; Wang, Meng; Xu, Qun; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Caixia; Qu, Bin; Zhao, Yanping; Niu, Meng; Wang, Ou; Gong, Fengying

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association of three most common obesity measures including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Design. Cross-sectional evaluation of the effect of anthropometric measures on CKD risk. Setting. Outpatient Department. Subjects. T2D patients who were treated between October 2012 and May 2013. Intervention. None. Main Outcome Measure. CKD risk. Results. On average, the patients had a mean age of 60.2 years, and 40% were males. CKD was present in 46% of all the patients. In multivariate logistic regression using the imputed data, higher WC was associated with greater odds of CKD (OR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.002–1.006, P = 0.030), but not BMI and WHR. Interestingly, we found that patients with very small WC seemed to have greater odds of CKD. We observed age-specific effect of WC such that the effect of WC on CKD risk is significant only in middle-aged T2D patients. Conclusion. Our study provides evidence for the association of WC with CKD in Chinese patients with T2D. T2D patients, especially middle-aged T2D patients, should reduce their WC to decrease CKD risk. PMID:26442120

  9. The Associations of Month of Birth With Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Leg Length: Findings From the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Methods We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ? 18.5 kg/m2. A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). Results MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March–July for BMI and March–June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m2 for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February–August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). Conclusions These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena. PMID:25716579

  10. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    PubMed Central

    EL Mabchour, Asma; Delisle, Hélène; Vilgrain, Colette; Larco, Philippe; Sodjinou, Roger; Batal, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in groups of African (Benin) and African ancestry (Haiti) Black subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin) and Port-au-Prince (Haiti), 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ?4 in women and ?5 in men); insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR); and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Youden’s index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results High atherogenicity index (59.5%), high blood pressure (23.2%), and insulin resistance (25% by definition) were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly the reverse of the generic cut-offs. The standard 0.50 cut-off of WHtR appeared valid for men, but it had to be increased to 0.59 in women. Conclusion CMR was widespread in these population groups. The present study suggests that in order to identify Africans with high CMR, WC thresholds will have to be increased in women and lowered in men. Data on larger samples are needed. PMID:26604808

  11. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-01

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (?BW) and WC change (?WC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ?BW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ?WC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ?BW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years. PMID:26458747

  12. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players.

    PubMed

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A W; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost-effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes. PMID:26640442

  13. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K; Sandling, Johanna K; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10(-7); Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches. PMID:25935004

  14. Optimal waist circumference cutoff points for the determination of abdominal obesity and detection of cardiovascular risk factors among adult Egyptian population

    PubMed Central

    Assaad-Khalil, Samir H.; Mikhail, Magued M.; Aati, Talaat Abdel; Zaki, Adel; Helmy, Myriam A.; Megallaa, Magdy H.; Hassanien, Rehab; Rohoma, Kamel H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best anthropometric measurement of obesity, and its optimal cutoff, that best predicts the presence of cardiovascular risk factors among adult Egyptian population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including a representative randomly chosen sample of the adult Egyptian population from all Alexandria Districts (the second largest governorate in Egypt) based on the multistage random technique. It included 3209 subjects (1567 men, 1642 women) aged 18–80 years from urban and rural areas. The response rate was 80.2%. History, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Laboratory investigations included fasting lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, and serum uric acid. Different criteria of metabolic syndrome were used and compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve and Youden index were used to determine predictability and cutoffs. Results: Waist circumference (WC) is the best to predict at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The optimal WC cutoffs were 100.5 and 96.25 cm for Egyptian men and women, respectively. The Joint Interim Statement definition (JIS) of metabolic syndrome was the best to predict cardiovascular disease in both genders and diabetes mellitus in women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity was 42.5%, 61%, respectively (ATPIII definition); 43.8%, 61% (American Heart Association definition); 44.3%, 76.4% (IDF definition); 33.8%, 51.7% (IDF definition with Egyptian cutoffs); and 41.5%, 51.7% (JIS with Egyptian cutoffs). Conclusion: WC cutoffs in Egyptians differ from those currently recommended. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity is high in Egypt, despite being lower on using the Egyptian cutoffs.

  15. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost–effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes. PMID:26640442

  16. Influence of central and extremity circumferences on all-cause mortality in men and women.

    PubMed

    Mason, Caitlin; Craig, Cora L; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2008-12-01

    For a given level of adiposity, greater lower body circumferences appear to exert a protective effect on several disease outcomes including cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, the independent associations between extremity circumferences and mortality have not been widely investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and shared influences of upper- and lower-body circumferences on the risk of mortality in a population-based sample of adults. The sample included 10,638 adults 20-69 years of age (5,012 men; 5,626 women) from the nationally representative 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS), who were monitored for over 12 years for mortality. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. Waist, hip, thigh, calf, and upper arm circumferences were measured using a flexible, nonelastic anthropometric tape. Sex-specific proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between standardized values (Z-scores) of extremity circumference measures, waist circumference (WC) and mortality. Age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity were collected by questionnaire and were included as covariates. During 131,563 person-years of follow-up, there were 340 deaths in men and 231 in women. After mutual adjustment, WC was positively associated with mortality whereas arm, thigh, and calf circumferences were significantly protective in men, and arm and thigh circumferences were protective in women. In conclusion, waist and extremity circumferences appear to have opposite, independent effects on mortality in this sample of Canadians. Independent of BMI and WC, men and women with larger extremity circumferences had a lower risk of mortality. PMID:18927548

  17. Waist circumference values equivalent to body mass index points for predicting absolute cardiovascular disease risks among adults in an Aboriginal community: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There have been suggestions that currently recommended waist circumference (WC) cut-off points for Australians of European origin may not be applicable to Aboriginal people who have different body habitus profiles. We aimed to generate equivalent WC values that correspond to body mass index (BMI) points for identifying absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting An Aboriginal community in Australia's Northern Territory. Participants From 1992 to 1998, 920 adults without CVD, with age, WC and BMI measurements were followed-up for up to 20?years. Outcome measures Incident CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) events during the follow-up period ascertained from hospitalisation data. We generated WC values with 10-year absolute risks equivalent for the development of CVD as BMI values (20–34?kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated time-failure model. Results There were 211 incident cases of CVD over 13?669 person-years of follow-up. At the average age of 35?years, WC values with absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks equivalent to BMI of 25?kg/m2 were 91.5, 91.8 and 91.7?cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding WC values were 92.5, 92.7 and 93?cm for females. WC values with equal absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks to BMI of 30?kg/m2 were 101.7, 103.1 and 102.6?cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding values were 99.2, 101.6 and 101.5?cm for females. Association between WC and CVD did not depend on gender (p=0.54). Conclusions WC ranging from 91 to 93?cm was equivalent to BMI 25?kg/m2 for overweight, and 99 to 103?cm was equivalent to BMI of 30?kg/m2 for obesity in terms of predicting 10-year absolute CVD risk. Replicating the absolute risk method in other Aboriginal communities will further validate the WC values generated for future development of WC cut-off points for Aboriginal people. PMID:26567258

  18. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20?years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35?kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7?years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5?cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9?cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5?cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7?cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5?cm for BMI=20?kg/m2, 91.5?cm for BMI=25?kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7?cm for BMI=30?kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9?cm for BMI=35?kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5?cm for BMI=20?kg/m2, 90.9?cm for BMI=25?kg/m2, 102.3?cm for BMI=30?kg/m2 and 113.7?cm for BMI=35?kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  19. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR) as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adult Population in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat; Chen, Cynthia; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Fallows, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and CVD risk factors in the local adult population. Methods and Findings This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%), aged 21–74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012) undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol). When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ?23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ?0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC. Conclusions BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore. PMID:25880905

  20. Does Neck-to-Waist Ratio Predict Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sherri Lynne; Vaccani, Jean-Philippe; Barrowman, Nick; Momoli, Franco; Bradbury, Carol L.; Murto, Kimmo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Central adiposity and large neck circumference are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults but have not been evaluated in children as predictors of OSA. Study objectives were to determine whether (1) anthropometric measures including neck-to-waist ratio are associated with OSA in older children; (2) body fat distribution, measured by neck-to-waist ratio, is predictive of OSA in overweight/obese children. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving children 7-18 years scheduled to undergo polysomnography at a tertiary care children's hospital. OSA was defined as total apnea-hypopnea index > 5 events/h and/or obstructive apnea index > 1 event/h. Recursive partitioning was used to select candidate predictors of OSA from: age, sex, height and weight percentile, body mass index (BMI) z-score, neck-to-waist ratio, tonsil size, and Mallampati score. These were then evaluated using log binomial models and receiver operator characteristic analysis. Results: Two hundred twenty-two participants were included; 133 (60%) were overweight/obese, 121 (55%) male,47 (21%) had OSA. Neck-to-waist ratio (relative risk [RR] 1.97 per 0.1 units, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.84) and BMI z-score (RR 1.63 per unit, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.05) were identified as independent predictors of OSA. Considering only overweight/obese children, neck-to-waist ratio (RR 2.16 per 0.1 units, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.59) and BMI z-score (RR 2.02 per unit, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.26) also independently predicted OSA. However, in children not overweight/obese, these variables were not predictive of OSA. Conclusions: Neck-to-waist ratio, an index of body fat distribution, predicts OSA in older children and youth, especially in those who were overweight/obese. Citation: Katz SL, Vaccani JP, Barrowman N, Momoli F, Bradbury CL, Murto K. Does neck-to-waist ratio predict obstructive sleep apnea in children? J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(12):1303-1308. PMID:25325606

  1. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype: Effect of Birthweight and Weight Gain in Childhood at 23 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Oliveira, Isabel; Silveira, Vera M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of birthweight and weight gain during different periods in childhood with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). Methods In 1982, all hospitals births in Pelotas, South Brazil, were identified, and the 5914 liveborn were examined and their mothers interviewed. This population has been followed for several times. In 2004–05, we tried to follow the whole cohort and the subjects were interviewed, examined, and a blood sample was collected. HWP was defined as a triglycerides ? 2 mmol/L and a waist circumference ? 90 cm for men, and triglycerides ? 1.5 mmol/L and waist circumference ? 85 cm for woman. Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the prevalence ratio. Results Subjects whose weight-for-age z-score at mean age of 42 months was one or more standard deviation above the mean, according to gender and age, were 8.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.60; 29.64) times more likely of presenting the HWP than those subjects whose weight-for-age z-score at 42 months was more than one standard deviation below the mean. Among those subjects whose birthweight was adequate-for-gestational age (AGA), conditional weight at 20 months was positively associated to the risk of HWP [relative risk: 1.59 (95%: confidence interval: 1.32; 1.92)], whereas for small for gestational age (SGA) subjects conditional weight was not associated with HWP [relative risk: 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 0.77; 1.43)], p-value for interaction 0.08. Conclusion Early weight gain among SGA infants, did not increase the risk of HWP in early adulthood, whereas among those who were AGA, early weight gain increased the risk of the having the phenotype in early adulthood. PMID:26309194

  2. Head circumference

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  3. Effects of whole and refined grains in a weight-loss diet on markers of metabolic syndrome in individuals with increased waist circumference: a randomized controlled-feeding trial123

    PubMed Central

    Harris Jackson, Kristina; West, Sheila G; Vanden Heuvel, John P; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Ross, Alastair B; Hill, Alison M; Grieger, Jessica A; Lemieux, Susan K; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Higher whole-grain (WG) intake is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, there is inconsistent clinical evidence with regard to the benefit of WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on MetS. Objective: We hypothesized that consuming WGs in the place of RGs would improve MetS criteria in individuals with or at risk of MetS. Design: A randomized, controlled, open-label parallel study was conducted in 50 overweight and obese individuals with increased waist circumference and one or more other MetS criteria. Participants consumed a controlled weight-loss diet containing either WG or RG (control) products for 12 wk. Body composition, MetS criteria and related markers, and plasma alkylresorcinols (compliance marker of WG intake) were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 wk. A subgroup (n = 28) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (AT). Results: Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups; however, the RG group tended to have higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.06). Alkylresorcinols increased with consumption of the WG diet and did not change with consumption of the RG diet (time × treatment, P < 0.0001), which showed dietary compliance. There were no differences in anthropometric changes between groups; however, weight, body mass index, and percentage of body AT decreased at both 6 and 12 wk (P < 0.05), and reductions in percentage of abdominal AT occurred by 6 wk and did not change between 6 and 12 wk (P = 0.09). Both glucose (P = 0.02) and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) were lower with the consumption of the WG compared with the RG diet. However, when noncompliant individuals (n = 3) were removed, the glucose effect was stronger (P = 0.01) and the HDL-cholesterol effect was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions: Replacing RGs with WGs within a weight-loss diet does not beneficially affect abdominal AT loss and has modest effects on markers of MetS. WGs appear to be effective at normalizing blood glucose concentrations, especially in those individuals with prediabetes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00924521. PMID:24944054

  4. Diet soda intake is associated with long-term increases in waist circumference in a bi-ethnic cohort of older adults: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Sharon PG; Williams, Ken; Hazuda, Helen P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet soda (DS) intake (DSI) has been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but its specific impact in older adults has not been addressed. Because central obesity increases cardiovascular risk, we examined the relationship between DSI and long-term waist circumference (WC) change (?WC) in the bi-ethnic San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING San Antonio, Texas, neighborhoods PARTICIPANTS SALSA examined 749 Mexican-American and European-American individuals ? 65 years old at baseline (BL: 1992-1996); 79.1% of survivors completed follow-up 1 (FU1) (2000-2001, n=474); 73.4%, FU2 (2001-2003, n=413); and 71.0%, FU3 (2003-2004, n=375). Participants completed a mean of 2.64 follow-up intervals, for 9.41 total follow-up years. MEASUREMENTS DSI, WC, height and weight were measured at outset and conclusion of each interval: BL-FU1, FU1-FU2, and FU2-FU3. RESULTS Adjusted for initial WC, demographics, physical activity, diabetes, and smoking, mean interval ?WC (95% confidence interval) for all DS users was almost triple that among non-users: 2.11 (1.45-2.76) vs. 0.77 (0.29-1.23) cm, respectively (p < 0.001). For non-, occasional, and daily DS users, adjusted interval ?WCs were 0.77 (0.29-1.23), 1.76 (0.96-2.57), and 3.04 (1.82-4.26) cm, respectively (p=0.002 for trend). This translates to ?WCs of 0.80, 1.83, and 3.16 inches, respectively, for these groups, over the total SALSA follow-up. In sub-analyses stratified separately by key covariates, ?WC point estimates were consistently higher among DS users. CONCLUSION In a striking dose-response relationship, increasing diet soda intake was associated with escalating abdominal obesity, a potential pathway for heightened cardiometabolic risk in this aging population. PMID:25780952

  5. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  6. Waist related anthropometric measures - simple and useful predictors of coronary artery disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sharanjit; Sharma, Anand; Singh, Harinder Jot

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the waist related anthropometric measures like waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist – hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. Methods: The study included 88 women aged 40-80 years. Waist circumference, hip circumference, height, weight, age, and other covariates were collected by questionnaire. The primary endpoint was incident coronary heart disease that was reported by physician. The data was analyzed statistically using ?2-test for quantitative data and student t-test. The significance of the results as determined in 95.0% confidence interval. Results: The mean age was 59.07 ± 11.53 in the study group and 54.36 ± 10.84 in the control group. The waist circumference in the study group was higher (95.443 ± 11.187) than the control group (74.886 ± 6.672) (p < 0.001). The mean waist to hip ratio (WHR) was 0.96 ± 0.08 in the study group and 0.78 ± 0.06 in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean waist to height ratio (WHtR) was 0.62 ± 0.07 in the study group and 0.48 ± 0.04 in the control group (p < 0.001). Waist derived measures were superior to BMI in predicting CAD. The unadjusted AUC (95% Confidence Interval) was 0.008 (0.006-0.095) for WHtR, 0.001 (0.00 0.002) for waist – hip ratio, and 1 (0.323-1.766) for body mass index. Conclusion: Waist related anthropometric measures are important predictors as CAD risk factors among middle-aged and older women, as compared to BMI. PMID:25755843

  7. Is waist-to-height ratio a useful indicator of cardio-metabolic risk in 6-10-year-old children?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health problem worldwide. Visceral obesity, particularly associated with cardio-metabolic risk, has been assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, but both methods use sex-and age-specific percentile tables and are influenced by sexual maturity. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is easier to obtain, does not involve tables and can be used to diagnose visceral obesity, even in normal-weight individuals. This study aims to compare the WHtR to the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) reference for BMI in screening for the presence of cardio-metabolic and inflammatory risk factors in 6–10-year-old children. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 175 subjects selected from the Reference Center for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents in Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were classified according to the 2007 WHO standard as normal-weight (BMI z score > ?1 and < 1) or overweight/obese (BMI z score ? 1). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glycemia, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), Homeostatic Model Assessment – Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), leukocyte count and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) were also analyzed. Results There were significant correlations between WHtR and BMI z score (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001), SBP (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001), DBP (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001), LDL (r = 0.25, p < 0.0008, HDL (r = ?0.28, p < 0.0002), TG (r = 0.26, p < 0.0006), HOMA-IR (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and CRP (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001). WHtR and BMI areas under the curve were similar for all the cardio-metabolic parameters. A WHtR cut-off value of > 0.47 was sensitive for screening insulin resistance and any one of the cardio-metabolic parameters. Conclusions The WHtR was as sensitive as the 2007 WHO BMI in screening for metabolic risk factors in 6-10-year-old children. The public health message “keep your waist to less than half your height” can be effective in reducing cardio-metabolic risk because most of these risk factors are already present at a cut point of WHtR ? 0.5. However, as this is the first study to correlate the WHtR with inflammatory markers, we recommend further exploration of the use of WHtR in this age group and other population-based samples. PMID:23758779

  8. [Study of the normal database that affects 3D-SSP Z-score mapping].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Haramoto, Masuo; Komatsu, Akio; Uchida, Kouji

    2004-03-01

    The effects of image reconstruction conditions and devices used on 3D-SSP analysis (Z-score mapping) were investigated. Images of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom were taken with the IRIX device or E.CAM. Using two methods of image reconstruction (FBP and OSEM), several kinds of phantom normal databases (PNDB) and signal data, with or without correction for attenuation, were obtained at varying Butterworth filter cutoff frequencies. The results of 3D-SSP analyses were compared between combinations of PNDB and signal data obtained under the same conditions of image reconstruction and combinations obtained under different conditions. The results of PNDB obtained with different devices were also analyzed. For combinations of PNDB and signal data both obtained with OSEM, the Z-score of signals was high. When FBP was used to obtain both PNDB and signal data, the Z-score and signal size tended to become greater and the false-positive rate tended to decrease as the Butterworth filter cutoff frequency became lower. Whether or not correction for attenuation was incorporated did not affect the results of analysis when the same method was used to collect both PNDB and signal data. If the method for image reconstruction differed between PNDB and signal data, the false-positive rate was relatively high. Using a different device to obtain PNDB resulted in a relatively high false-positive rate. We therefore recommend that the conditions for image reconstruction from signal data should be matched to the conditions for image reconstruction from PNDB. It seems impossible to share the same NDB among different devices. PMID:15131511

  9. Measuring Large Circumferences More Precisely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Louis E.; Rogers, Ernest E.

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectromechanical gauge measures circumference of large object with resolution of 10 to the negative 4th power inches. Measuring wheel held by spring against cylindrical surface to be measured. Laser reader detects code marks on side of wheel. Marks indicate distance traveled around circumference. Measures inside or outside circumference. Also measures distance between two marks on edge of plate or along beam or track.

  10. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (? (2)) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (? (2) = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (? (2) = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (? (2) = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD. PMID:26509145

  11. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (?2) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results. Six of 10 findings (60%) were statistically significant. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (?2 = 38.8, p = 0.0001). Conversely, studies neither lacked evidential value (?2 = 6.8, p = 0.87) nor lacked evidential value and were intensely p-hacked (?2 = 4.3, p = 0.98). Conclusion. Evidential value results confirm that exercise reduces BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD. PMID:26509145

  12. Distribution of Z-scores in a University cohort with an emphasis on "high" bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah L; Peace, Frederick; Lopez-Ben, Robert; Fineberg, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    High bone mineral density (BMD) is currently not defined by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry with a specific Z-score cutoff; however, it has been suggested that a Z-score greater than or equal to 2.5 is not normal. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. We evaluated a University dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry database over the previous 24 mo to define Z-score distributions. A Z-score greater than or equal to 2.5 was selected as the outcome event of interest in a logistic regression for adjusted odds ratio. The covariates were height; weight; body mass index (BMI); gender; menopausal status; use of female hormones; presence of insufficiency fractures after 50 yr of age; previous fractures; previous surgeries (back surgeries, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty); transplant history; presence of long-term chronic conditions (asthma, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or cystic fibrosis); eating disorder; current use of glucocorticoids; smoking status; and current and past use of osteoporosis pharmacological therapies. The study included a total of 8216 patients; 7212 (87.8%) were females, and 1044 (12.2%) were males. In the total population, 13.6% had a Z-score greater than or equal to 2.5 at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total hip. Only 0.2% of the males and 0.8% of the females had a Z-score greater than or equal to 2.5 at all 3 sites. The 97.5th percentiles for Z-scores in our population for men and women, respectively, were 3.4 and 3.9 at the lumbar spine, 1.5 and 2.1 at the femoral neck, and 1.6 and 2.2 at the total hip. The 99th percentile for Z-scores for men and women, respectively, were 4.9 and 4.7 at the lumbar spine, 2.4 and 2.7 at the femoral neck, and 2.2 and 2.7 at the total hip. At the lumbar spine, female gender and weight were found to be risk factors for a high Z-score (? 2.5). The use of glucocorticoids, bone-active medications, BMI, and smoking were significantly less likely to predict a lumbar spine Z-score greater than or equal to 2.5. A high total-hip Z-score is predicted by increasing weight, whereas those patients using bone-active medications were less likely to have high BMD at the total hip. At the femoral neck, there were no significant risk factors related to a Z-score greater than or equal to 2.5; those taking bone-active medications were significantly less likely to have a high Z-score. These data suggest that a high Z-score is common at 1 or more sites. Further research about the criteria for the diagnosis of high BMD is warranted. PMID:21029974

  13. Characteristics of Walkable Built Environments and BMI z-Scores in Children: Evidence from a Large Electronic Health Record Database

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Melly, Steven J.; Marshall, Richard; Sequist, Thomas D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity remains a prominent public health problem. Walkable built environments may prevent excess weight gain. Objectives: We examined the association of walkable built environment characteristics with body mass index (BMI) z-score among a large sample of children and adolescents. Methods: We used geocoded residential address data from electronic health records of 49,770 children and adolescents 4 to < 19 years of age seen at the 14 pediatric practices of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates from August 2011 through August 2012. We used eight geographic information system (GIS) variables to characterize walkable built environments. Outcomes were BMI z-score at the most recent visit and BMI z-score change from the earliest available (2008–2011) to the most recent (2011–2012) visit. Multivariable models were adjusted for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood median household income. Results: In multivariable cross-sectional models, living in closer proximity to recreational open space was associated with lower BMI z-score. For example, children who lived in closest proximity (quartile 1) to the nearest recreational open space had a lower BMI z-score (? = –0.06; 95% CI: –0.08, –0.03) compared with those living farthest away (quartile 4; reference). Living in neighborhoods with fewer recreational open spaces and less residential density, traffic density, sidewalk completeness, and intersection density were associated with higher cross-sectional BMI z-score and with an increase in BMI z-score over time. Conclusions: Overall, built environment characteristics that may increase walkability were associated with lower BMI z-scores in a large sample of children. Modifying existing built environments to make them more walkable may reduce childhood obesity. Citation: Duncan DT, Sharifi M, Melly SJ, Marshall R, Sequist TD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM. 2014. Characteristics of walkable built environments and BMI z-scores in children: evidence from a large electronic health record database. Environ Health Perspect 122:1359–1365;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307704 PMID:25248212

  14. Measuring head circumference

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide an evidence-based update emphasizing the importance of measuring head circumference (HC) in infants, with a focus on microcephaly. Quality of evidence PubMed and EMBASE (OvidSP) were searched. Search terms used were head circumference and infants and measurement; microcephaly and infants and measurement; idiopathic microcephaly and infants; and congenital microcephaly and infants. Most of the references for this review were published in 2000 or later. Most evidence is level II. Main message Serial measurement of HC should be incorporated into routine well-child care. Measure the distance around the back of the child’s head with a nonelastic tape measure held above the eyebrows and ears, and plot the measurement on an age- and sex-appropriate growth chart. Microcephaly is HC more than 2 SD below the mean. The most common disability associated with microcephaly is intellectual delay; other common concomitant conditions include epilepsy, cerebral palsy, language delay, strabismus, ophthalmologic disorders, and cardiac, renal, urinary tract, and skeletal anomalies. An interdisciplinary approach to microcephaly is warranted. Although there are no specific interventions to enhance brain growth, dietary or surgical interventions might be helpful in some cases. Infants with microcephaly who show developmental delays might benefit from early intervention programs or developmental physical and occupational therapy. Conclusion Early identification of HC concerns by family physicians can be a critical first step in identifying disorders such as microcephaly, leading to referral to pediatric specialists and, as needed, provision of family-centred early intervention services. PMID:26505062

  15. Correlation between psoriasis' severity and waist-to-height ratio*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Gleison Vieira; da Silva, Larissa Porto

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of ideal biomarkers, the research for clinical markers correlated to the severity of psoriasis and/or its comorbidities becomes crucial. Recently, studies have shown positive correlation between body mass index and prevalence and severity of psoriasis. Abdominal circumference showed stronger correlation with disease severity than body mass index. We evaluated the waist-to-height ratio in a sample of 297 adult patients with psoriasis and observed that it has a significant correlation with body mass index and PASI, and together with body mass index allows the identification of central obesity, reducing its subdiagnosis. PMID:25184937

  16. Defining the relationship between fetal Doppler indices, abdominal circumference and growth rate in severe fetal growth restriction using functional linear discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talmor, Alon; Daemen, Anneleen; Murdoch, Edile; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Giussani, Dino A.; Lees, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between Doppler measurements, size and growth rate in fetal growth restriction has not been defined. We used functional linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) to investigate these parameters taking account of the difficulties inherent in exploring relationships between repeated observations from a small number of cases. In 40 fetuses with severe growth restriction, serial abdominal circumference (AC), umbilical, middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus Doppler pulsatility index measurements were recorded. In 11 singleton fetuses with normal growth, umbilical artery pulsatility index only was measured. Data were expressed as z-scores in relation to gestation and analysed longitudinally using FLDA. In severe growth restriction, the Spearman correlation coefficients between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC z-score, MCA pulsatility index and AC z-score and ductus venosus pulsatility index z-score and AC z-score were, respectively: ?0.36, p = 4.4 × 10?7; 0.70, p = 1.1 × 10?17 and ?0.50, p = 8.1 × 10?4. No relationship was seen between Doppler parameters and growth rate. There was no relationship between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC nor growth rate in normally grown fetuses. In severe fetal growth restriction, Doppler changes are related to absolute fetal AC size, not growth rate. PMID:23966615

  17. Pattern Alteration: Even Hip Circumference 

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    When a garment is too tight in the hip area, crosswise wrinkles form above the hipline in front and in back. The garment also may cup under the seat area. When it's too loose, vertical folds fall from the waist to the hem in front and in back...

  18. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist and Metabolic Abnormalities in Brazilian Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and its association with metabolic abnormalities in schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 241 students aged 10 to 14 years from public schools (4 schools) and private (2 schools) from Paranavai town, in Parana State, Brazil. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference) and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL and LDL-C were analyzed. In statistical tests of Pearson partial correlation and multivariate logistic regression, considering p<0,05. Results The prevalence of HTW was 20,7% among schoolchildren, 14,1% in males and 6,6% among females with higher proportions aged 10–12 years old. Multivariate analysis indicated that the students who attended private schools were nearly three times more likely (95% CI: 1,2–5,6), to be diagnosed with HTW compared with those who attended public schools (p?=?0,006), and LDL-C was the only metabolic variable positively associated with the outcome (p?=?0,001), where the students categorized with elevated serum levels had odds 4,2 times (95% CI: 1,6–10,9) having the HTW compared to students in appropriate levels. Conclusion This study showed higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in students when compared to prospective studies in Brazil and worldwide. It also showed that the only metabolic alteration associated with HTW phenotype was LDL-C (low density lipoprotein). PMID:25397885

  19. Integrated Behavioral Z-Scoring Increases the Sensitivity and Reliability of Behavioral Phenotyping in mice: Relevance to Emotionality and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Seney, Marianne; Edgar, Nicole; Sibille, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Defining anxiety- and depressive-like states in mice (“emotionality”) is best characterized by the use of complementary tests, leading sometimes to puzzling discrepancies and lack of correlation between similar paradigms. To address this issue, we hypothesized that integrating measures along the same behavioral dimensions in different tests would reduce the intrinsic variability of single tests and provide a robust characterization of the underlying “emotionality” of individual mouse, similarly as mood and related syndromes are defined in humans through various related symptoms over time. We describe the use of simple mathematical and integrative tools to help phenotype animals across related behavioral tests (syndrome diagnosis) and experiments (meta-analysis). We applied z-normalization across complementary measures of emotionality in different behavioral tests after unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) or prolonged corticosterone exposure - two approaches to induce anxious-/depressive-like states in mice. Combining z-normalized test values, lowered the variance of emotionality measurement, enhanced the reliability of behavioral phenotyping, and increased analytical opportunities. Comparing integrated emotionality scores across studies revealed a robust sexual dimorphism in the vulnerability to develop high emotionality, manifested as higher UCMS-induced emotionality z-scores, but lower corticosterone-induced scores in females compared to males. Interestingly, the distribution of individual z-scores revealed a pattern of increased baseline emotionality in female mice, reminiscent of what is observed in humans. Together, we show that the z-scoring method yields robust measures of emotionality across complementary tests for individual mice and experimental groups, hence facilitating the comparison across studies and refining the translational applicability of these models. PMID:21277897

  20. Circumference 

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    According to social theorists, Westerners are increasingly inter-connected with other societies through the complex processes of modernity and globalization, thereby creating an increasingly multiethnic and religiously ...

  1. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  2. Neck Circumference, along with Other Anthropometric Indices, Has an Independent and Additional Contribution in Predicting Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bi-xia; Zhu, Ming-fan; Wu, Ting; Zhou, Jing-ya; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhou, Rui-fen; Wang, Li-jun; Chen, Yu-ming; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Previous studies have indicated that neck circumference is a valuable predictor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but little evidence is available for fatty liver disease. We examined the association of neck circumference with fatty liver disease and evaluated its predictive value in Chinese adults. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 4053 participants (1617 women and 2436 men, aged 20-88) recruited from the Health Examination Center in Guangzhou, China between May 2009 and April 2010. Anthropometric measurements were taken, abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Covariance, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed. Results The mean neck circumference was greater in subjects with fatty liver disease than those without the disease in both women and men after adjusting for age (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of fatty liver disease for quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1) of neck circumference were 7.70 (4.95-11.99) for women and 12.42 (9.22-16.74) for men. After further adjusting for other anthropometric indices, both individually and combined, the corresponding ORs remained significant (all P-trends<0.05) but were attenuated to 1.94-2.53 for women and 1.45-2.08 for men. An additive interaction existed between neck circumference and the other anthropometric measures (all P<0.05). A high neck circumference value was associated with a much greater prevalence of fatty liver disease in participants with both high and normal BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values. Conclusions Neck circumference was an independent predictor for fatty liver disease and provided an additional contribution when applied with other anthropometric measures. PMID:25679378

  3. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleliani de Cassia; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Camilo, Daniella Fernandes; Antonio, Maria Ângela R. de G. M.; Cassani, Roberta Soares L.; Geloneze, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve. RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services. PMID:25119754

  4. Blood levels related to the Z-score of bone mineral density in young males and females.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Min-Tae; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Ahn, Jae-Ouk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood levels related to the bone mineral density by using the dual energy X-ray absorption for females before menopause and males younger than 50?years old. [Subjects and Methods] Between August 1, and September 15, 2013, the Z-score was measured in females before menopause and males younger than 50?years old using a bone mineral density measuring instrument. After the measurement, the subjects were classified into two groups, that is, the below expectations and within expectations groups. Next, we analyzed and compared the differences in age, body mass index, and blood levels between the 2 groups. [Results] The results showed a correlation of 0.212 for total protein, -0.317 for alanine aminotransferase, -0.199 for gamma-glutamyl transferase, -0.358 for alkaline phosphatase, 0.266 for uric acid, -0.313 for lactate dehydrogenase, 0.244 for creatinine, -0.234 for the red blood cell count, and -0.230 for the red cell distribution width in patients with less than expected level for their age. [Conclusion] In conclusion, osteoporosis may occur in females before menopause and males younger than 50?years old, and aggressive attention is required for prevention and treatment. PMID:25995569

  5. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries123

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline HD; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. Objective: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. Design: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from ?0.6 (Brazil) to ?2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3–0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: ?0.3 (Brazil) to ?1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. Conclusions: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. PMID:25008854

  6. A Methodology of Analysis for Monitoring Treatment Progression with 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) in a Single-Subject Design.

    PubMed

    Krigbaum, Genomary; Wigton, Nancy L

    2015-09-01

    19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) is a modality using 19-electrodes with real-time normative database z-scores, suggesting effective clinical outcomes in fewer sessions than traditional neurofeedback. Thus, monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome is necessary. The area of focus in this study was a methodology of quantitative analysis for monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome with 19ZNF. This methodology is noted as the Sites-of-Interest, which included repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) and t-tests for z-scores; it was conducted on 10 cases in a single subject design. To avoid selection bias, the 10 sample cases were randomly selected from a pool of 17 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Available client outcome measures (including self-report) are briefly discussed. The results showed 90% of the pre-post comparisons moved in the targeted direction (z = 0) and of those, 96% (80% Bonferroni corrected) of the t-tests and 96% (91% Bonferroni corrected) of the rANOVAs were statistically significant; thus indicating a progression towards the mean in 15 or fewer 19ZNF sessions. All cases showed and reported improvement in all outcome measures (including quantitative electroencephalography assessment) at case termination. PMID:25777656

  7. Infinite circumference limit of conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Tada, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    We argue that an infinite circumference limit can be obtained in two-dimensional conformal field theory by adopting {L}0-({L}1+{L}-1)/2 as a Hamiltonian instead of L0. The theory obtained has a circumference of infinite length and hence exhibits a continuous and heavily degenerated spectrum as well as the continuous Virasoro algebra. The choice of this Hamiltonian was inspired partly by the so-called sine-square deformation, which is found in the study of a certain class of quantum statistical systems. The enigmatic behavior of sine-square deformed systems such as the sharing of their vacuum states with the closed boundary systems can be understood by the appearance of an infinite circumference.

  8. Non-waisted fuselage design for supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, James O. (Inventor); Agrawal, Shreekant (Inventor); Antani, Dhamanshu L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for designing a non-waisted fuselage for supersonic wing/fuselage configurations that increases the fuselage volume and improves the supersonic aerodynamic performance compared to a conventional waisted-fuselage configuration. The method entails removing the waisted region of an existing waisted-fuselage configuration by linearly reconstructing cross-sections between the endpoints representing the waisted cross-sectional area portion to create a modified fuselage configuration without waisting. This configuration will have increased fuselage volume and improved supersonic aerodynamic performance. The fuselage camber can then be optimized using non-linear aerodynamic methods to further increase the supersonic aerodynamic performance.

  9. Correlation of Waist-to-hip Ratio (WHR) and Oxidative Stress in Patients of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Gulati, Rajiv; Tauheed, Nazia; Pervez, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation is thought to play a crucial role in the generation of atherosclerotic lesions of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: The case-control study contained 120 subjects divided in two groups, 60 patients with AMI and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Ratio of Waist Circumference (WC) to Hip Circumference (HC) (waist-to-hip ratio) of all the subjects was recorded. Antioxidant status of the individuals was determined by measuring the serum levels of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Estimation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation was used as a surrogate marker of free radical activity. Results: WHR was found to be significantly higher in patients of AMI as compared to controls. MDA levels were significantly high and antioxidants molecules GPx and SOD were significantly decreased in AMI patients as compared with control (p<0.001). WHR correlated positively to serum level of MDA and inversely to the serum level of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: High Waist-to-hip ratio is associated with high concentrations of malondialdehyde level and low concentration of antioxidant’s enzyme. This results in increased oxidative stress, a major causative factor of AMI. PMID:24596709

  10. Waist Compression in the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    E-print Network

    Younger, John G.

    2000-01-01

    Elite Minoan women (Bronze Age Crete) practiced waist compression (or corsetting). This study gives the evidence for this practice and uses the experience of modern practictioners of waist compression, as given in blogs on websites, to reproduce...

  11. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  12. Effect of Breastfeeding on Head Circumference of Children from Impoverished Communities

    PubMed Central

    Xavier Júnior, Antonio Fernando Silva; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study investigated the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on head circumference (HC) among children living in impoverished communities. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among children 12–60 months old from the 39 quilombos located in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. HC deficit was defined by a z-score of less than ?2 from the median (based on the 2006 World Health Organization growth standards). Prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance, and estimates were adjusted for possible confounders (anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related variables). Results We evaluated 725 children (365 boys and 360 girls). The prevalence of HC deficit was 13.3% among those children who were exclusively breastfed for less than 30 days, 10.6% among those exclusively breastfed for 30–119 days, and 5.8% among those who were exclusively breastfed for 120 days or more. Even after controlling for possible confounding variables, exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months decreased the risk of HC deficit (prevalence ratio, 0.48; 95% CI 0.24, 0.99). Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months was associated with a larger HC in children exposed to great social vulnerability in impoverished communities. PMID:23414229

  13. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    E-print Network

    Hermann, Silke; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; May, Anne M.; Kunst, Anton; Besson, Herve; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noemie; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Molina, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodriguez, Laudina; Crowe, Francesca L.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; van Boeckel, Petra G. A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Overvad, Kim; Uhre Jakobsen, Marianne; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Vineis, Paolo; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Steffen, Annika; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Johansson, Ingegerd; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Braaten, Tonje; Fagherazzi, Guy; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mouw, Traci; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2011-03-17

    of energy intake to energy expenditure (n = 10,209), pregnant women (n = 623), and subjects with implausible anthropometric measurements (n = 376). The analytical cohort consisted of 141,230 men and 336,637 women. Anthropometric measurements In most EPIC... MONICA Project. Am J Public Health 2000, 90(8):1260-1268. 6. Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, Bergmann M, Schulze MB, Overvad K, van der Schouw YT, Spencer E, Moons KGM, Tjonneland A, et al: General and Abdominal Adiposity and Risk of Death in Europe. N...

  14. The Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors Of Body Composition in Post CSCI Wheelchair Rugby Players (Preliminary Investigations)

    PubMed Central

    Zwierzchowska, Anna; G?owacz, Marta; Batko-Szwaczka, Agnieszka; Dudzi?ska-Griszek, Joanna; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Drozd, Mi?osz; Szewieczek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The enforced sedentary lifestyle and muscle paresis below the level of injury are associated with adipose tissue accumulation in the trunk. The value of anthropometric indicators of obesity in patients with spinal cord injuries has also been called into question. We hypothesized that the Body Mass Index recommended by the WHO to diagnose obesity in general population has too low sensitivity in case of wheelchair rugby players. The study group comprised 14 wheelchair rugby players, aged 32.6 ± 5.1 years, who had sustained CSCI (paralysis of lower limbs and upper extremities). The research tool was the Tanita Viscan visceral and trunk fat analyzer AB140 using the abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate the visceral fat level (Vfat) and trunk fat percentage (Tfat). The AB140 analyzer also allowed the measurement of body composition of those individuals who could not assume an upright position. Our analyses revealed high and very high correlation coefficients between Vfat and WC (r=0.9), WHtR (r=0.7) and Tfat (r=0.9) whereas the correlation between Vfat and the BMI was weak, especially in the subgroup with Vfat < 13.5% (r=0.2). The subgroup with Vfat>13.5 exhibited a moderate-level relationship between the BMI and visceral fat increase. It was concluded that the BMI had a low sensitivity for predicting obesity risk in wheelchair rugby players after CSCI. The sensitivity of WC measurement was higher and thus, it may be stated that it constitutes an objective tool for predicting obesity risk in post-CSCI wheelchair rugby players. PMID:25713660

  15. The Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as Predictors Of Body Composition in Post CSCI Wheelchair Rugby Players (Preliminary Investigations).

    PubMed

    Zwierzchowska, Anna; G?owacz, Marta; Batko-Szwaczka, Agnieszka; Dudzi?ska-Griszek, Joanna; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Drozd, Mi?osz; Szewieczek, Jan

    2014-09-29

    The enforced sedentary lifestyle and muscle paresis below the level of injury are associated with adipose tissue accumulation in the trunk. The value of anthropometric indicators of obesity in patients with spinal cord injuries has also been called into question. We hypothesized that the Body Mass Index recommended by the WHO to diagnose obesity in general population has too low sensitivity in case of wheelchair rugby players. The study group comprised 14 wheelchair rugby players, aged 32.6 ± 5.1 years, who had sustained CSCI (paralysis of lower limbs and upper extremities). The research tool was the Tanita Viscan visceral and trunk fat analyzer AB140 using the abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate the visceral fat level (Vfat) and trunk fat percentage (Tfat). The AB140 analyzer also allowed the measurement of body composition of those individuals who could not assume an upright position. Our analyses revealed high and very high correlation coefficients between Vfat and WC (r=0.9), WHtR (r=0.7) and Tfat (r=0.9) whereas the correlation between Vfat and the BMI was weak, especially in the subgroup with Vfat < 13.5% (r=0.2). The subgroup with Vfat>13.5 exhibited a moderate-level relationship between the BMI and visceral fat increase. It was concluded that the BMI had a low sensitivity for predicting obesity risk in wheelchair rugby players after CSCI. The sensitivity of WC measurement was higher and thus, it may be stated that it constitutes an objective tool for predicting obesity risk in post-CSCI wheelchair rugby players. PMID:25713660

  16. RESEARCH LETTERS waist/hip ratio accounted for only 18%. Waist/hip ratio

    E-print Network

    Cornelissen, Piers

    emerges as the major factor in determining sexual attractiveness, since it is a good predictor of health's sexual attractiveness is based on cues of reproductive potential. We compared two potential cues of body waist/hip ratio,4,5 and, therefore, should be more important in determination of sexual attractiveness

  17. Experience with DAFNE upgrade including crab waist

    E-print Network

    Milardi, C; Biagini, M; Biscari, C; Bocci, A; Boscolo, M; Bossi, F; Buonomo, B; Clozza, A; Delle Monache, G O; Demma, T; Di Pasquale, E; Di Pirro, G; Drago, A; Gallo, A; Ghigo, A; Guiducci, S; Ligi, C; Marcellini, F; Mazzitelli, G; Murtas, F; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Quintieri, L; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Sgamma, F; Spataro, B; Stecchi, A; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Vaccarezza, C; Zobov, M; Esposito, M; Branchini, P; Valente, P; Levichev, E; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Smaluk, V; Arnaud, N; Breton, D; Burmistrov, L; Stocchi, A; Variola, A; Viaud, B F; Bettoni, S; Ohmi, K; Teytelman, D

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 DA?NE was up­grad­ed to op­er­ate in a regime of large Pi­win­s­ki angle, with a novel IR op­tics, re­duced ver­ti­cal beta at the in­ter­ac­tion point, and ad­di­tion­al sex­tupoles pro­vid­ing for crab waist col­li­sions. The spe­cif­ic lu­mi­nos­i­ty was boost­ed by more than a fac­tor of four, and the peak lu­mi­nos­i­ty was more than dou­bled with re­spect to the max­i­mum value ob­tained with the orig­i­nal col­lid­er con­fig­u­ra­tion. The DA?NE com­mis­sion­ing as well as the first ex­pe­ri­ence with large Pi­win­s­ki angle and crab waist col­li­sions scheme will be re­port­ed.

  18. Measuring chest circumference change during respiration with an electromagnetic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an off-the-shelf DC motor is modified into a chest belt and used to successfully measure circumference change on a mechanical chest model, while simultaneously harvesting significant power. Chest circumference change can provide information on tidal volume, which is vital in assessing lung function. The chest circumference change is calculated from the motor's voltage output. Calculated values are within 0.95mm of measured circumference changes, with a standard deviation of 0.37mm. The wearable motor can also harvest at least 29.4µW during normal breathing. PMID:24110093

  19. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  20. Efficacy of mid-upper arm circumference in identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children during nutrition rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Saeed, Hibbah Araba; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although it is crucial to identify those children likely to be treated in an appropriate nutrition rehabilitation programme and discharge them at the appropriate time, there is no golden standard for such identification. The current study examined the appropriateness of using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children. We also assessed its discrepancy with the Weight-for-Height based diagnosis, the rate of recovery, and the discharge criteria of the children during nutrition rehabilitation. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study present findings from 156 children (aged 6-59 months) attending a supplementary feeding programme at Makadara and Jericho Health Centres, Eastern District of Nairobi, Kenya. Records of age, weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference were selected at three stages of nutrition rehabilitation: admission, follow-up and discharge. The values obtained were then used to calculate z-scores as defined by WHO Anthro while estimating different diagnostic indices. RESULTS Mid-upper arm circumference single cut-off (< 12.5 cm) was found to exhibit high values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio at both admission and discharge. Besides, children recorded higher rate of recovery at 86 days, an average increment of 0.98 cm at the rate of 0.14mm/day, and a weight gain of 13.49gm/day, albeit higher in female than their male counterparts. Nevertheless, children admitted on basis of low MUAC had a significantly higher MUAC gain than WH at 0.19mm/day and 0.13mm/day respectively. CONCLUSIONS Mid-upper arm circumference can be an appropriate tool for identifying malnourished children for admission to nutrition rehabilitation programs. Our results confirm the appropriateness of this tool for monitoring recovery trends and discharging the children thereafter. In principle the tool has potential to minimize nutrition rehabilitation costs, particularly in community therapeutic centres in developing countries. PMID:26060539

  1. Modern Replication of Eratosthenes' Measurement of the Circumference of Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes' experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38,874?km, measured at Rosebud,…

  2. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was ?1.25 (1.14) (n ?=? 801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n ?=? 797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  3. Recurrent waist tumor subsequent to percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, SHUSUAN; LIU, SULAI; TAN, PINGPING; SONG, TIEYONG; XIE, YU; ZENG, FUHUA; LIU, ZHIZHONG; HAN, WEIQING; MO, ZENGNAN; QI, LIN

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 39-year old male patient with a recurrent waist tumor that occurred subsequent to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). The patient initially underwent PCNL for the management of right calculus of the kidney. Six years later, the patient underwent local mass resection for a tumor at the waist, which was subsequently diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. However, seven months subsequent to local resection, the patient presented to the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya Medical School with a one-month history of a recurrent tumor located at the right waist. Physical examination identified no visible skin lesions; however, a palpable hard nodule was present over the right waist. Imaging studies, consisting of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT, indicated no additional metastases. Therefore, the patient underwent local mass resection of the waist tumor. Subsequent histological examination determined a diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma. Considering the previously conducted PCNL surgery and the diagnosis, it is proposed that the recurrent waist tumor originated from renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also termed renal adenocarcinoma. However, no evidence of the original RCC tumor was identified. Therefore, the selection of an effective treatment strategy was challenging. PMID:26171018

  4. Evaluation of a rural community pharmacy-based Waist Management Project: bringing the program to the people.

    PubMed

    Kellow, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Time constraints and lack of awareness of risk factors for future chronic disease development prevent many young adults from accessing lifestyle programs offered by local health services. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a rural pharmacy-based multidisciplinary healthy lifestyle pilot program on reducing risk factors for chronic disease development among young adults. Individuals under the age of 50 with chronic disease risk factors were referred to the program. All subjects were provided with free after-hours nutritional counselling from a dietitian at the local community pharmacy, a comprehensive medication review conducted by the pharmacist, gym membership and access to cooking classes and supermarket tours. Selected participants also received bulk-billed GP appointments and assistance with establishing a home vegetable garden. Body weight, waist circumference, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were assessed at baseline and after program conclusion. Forty participants regularly attended the program between March 2009 and March 2010. At program conclusion, mean body weight was reduced by 3.8±6.7kg (P<0.001) and waist circumference reduced by 3.9±6.5cm (P<0.001). Fruit consumption increased by 1.2±0.2 serves/day (P<0.001) and vegetable intake increased by 1.6±1.0 serves/day (P<0.001). Participants also spent an average of 88.0±47.7 more min/week (P<0.001) engaged in physical activity on completion of the program. The community pharmacy provided an accessible location for the delivery of a successful chronic disease risk reduction program targeting young adults in a rural area. PMID:21616019

  5. Topological constraints on the dynamics of wasp-waist ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Ferenc; Liu, Wei-Chung; Wyatt, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    Small pelagic fish species like anchovy or sardines are of high ecological and economical importance. As marine food webs are fished down, these small pelagics tend to be more exploited and overfished. It is not yet very well known what the possible effects of their collapse can be, therefore there is an urgent need to outline a theoretical framework for understanding their dynamics. These fish occupy very special position in food webs, ensuring energy transfer between species lower and higher levels, while forming narrow "wasp-waists" poor in number of species (but very abundant). Our purpose was to quantify the interaction structure of model food webs of equal complexity but different levels of "wasp-waistedness". We analysed the topological properties of the webs by characterising every direct and indirect interactions between individual species, as well as by assessing the relative positional importance of each species in each web. We found that (1) the shorter the interaction pathways considered, the weaker the predictive power of node degree for positional importance, (2) the importance of species varies more in wasp-waist food webs, (3) if longer indirect chain effects are considered, indirect effects can well be stronger than direct ones, (4) interactions between coexisting wasp-waist species are stronger than the average, and (5) the "self-regulatory" looping effects are also stronger for wasp-waist species. Based on the topological properties of the networks, our results describe constraints acting on the dynamical behaviour of wasp-waist ecosystems. We give explanations, from this viewpoint, for regime shifts in which one WW species replaces another, and for the unpredictable dynamics of these fish stocks. From a marine conservation viewpoint, we illustrate that as the abundance of wasp-waist species decreases, the architecture of energy flows becomes highly vulnerable and unreliable. We provide an approach for quantifying these structural changes.

  6. Measurement of Gastric Circumference in Foetuses with Oesophageal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hoopmann, M.; Kagan, K. O.; Borgmeier, F.; Seitz, G.; Arand, J.; Wagner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The specific recognition of oesophageal atresia (OA) with or without a tracheal fistula in a foetus is a diagnostic challenge for prenatal medicine. The aim of the present work is to analyse the value of the measurement of gastric size in the diagnosis of this significant malformation. Materials and Methods: Altogether, the examinations of 433 pregnancies between the 18.4 and 39.1 weeks of gestation were retrospectively analysed. 59 of these foetuses exhibited an OA. By means of a linear regression analysis with normal foetuses, significant parameters influencing gastric size were examined. Subsequently the gastric sizes were transformed into z values and a comparison was made between OA with and without fistulae with the help of t tests. Results: In the normal foetuses there was a significant association between the gastric circumference and the abdominal circumference (circumference?=?6.809?+?0.179 × abdominal circumference, r?=?0.686, p?circumference was below the 5th percentile. In detail, there were 13 (34.2?%) foetuses with a fistula and 21 (100?%) without a fistula. The average z values in the normal group and in the groups of OA with fistula and without fistula amounted to 0.0 (SD 1.0), ?1.3 (SD 2.2) and ?4.5 (SD 1.0). Conclusion: Measurements of the gastric circumference below the 5th percentile should lead to further diagnostic measures, especially when associated with polyhydramnios. Although OA without a fistula is always conspicuous, only about one in three OAs with fistula are associated with a significantly smaller stomach. PMID:26719598

  7. Modern replication of Eratosthenes’ measurement of the circumference of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes’ experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38?874?km, measured at Rosebud, Victoria, Australia, and Jimboomba, Queensland, Australia with an error of 2.9%. This exceeds the accuracy of Eratosthenes, although not of the modern recreation of his experiment between Syene and Alexandria. The experiment described in this paper might form a useful model for cooperation between schools in different countries.

  8. Particle Beam Waist Location in Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Adrian Down

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    Particle Beam Waist Location in Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Adrian Down Department of Physics Experiments using high energy particle accelerators have led to discoveries about the structure of matter, astrophysical processes, and the early history of the uni- verse [1]. Future colliders that accelerate particles

  9. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  10. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  11. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  12. A 12-week randomized double-blind parallel pilot trial of Sinetrol XPur on body weight, abdominal fat, waist circumference, and muscle metabolism in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Cases, Julien; Romain, Cindy; Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Rouanet, Jean Max

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated to increased risk of developing non-communicable diseases that might dramatically affect life expectancy according World Health Organization. Overweight, obesity, and decline in physical activity are correlated to a significant propensity to lose skeletal muscle mass as a result of prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress whereas cohort surveys and clinical investigations have demonstrated health benefits of Citrus-based polyphenols to reverse such regression. Overweight men were included in a double-blind, randomized, parallel pilot trial where they received daily for a 12-week period 900?mg of a Citrus-based polyphenol extract, Sinetrol® XPur. Body composition, anthropometric, and blood parameters were assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. After 12 weeks, while the silhouette slimmed down, metabolic parameters were significantly improved and skeletal muscle catabolism held back. These data suggest that over a 12-week period, the efficacy of the supplement improve both overweight process and correlated skeletal muscle mass metabolism. PMID:26037199

  13. Implementation of Double-Waist Chicane Optics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Dao, T.; Dell'Orco, D.; Rafael, F.; Harrington, D.; Hettel, R.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Rarback, H.; Ringwall, A.; Safranek, J.; Scott, B.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Widmeyer, M.; Yoon, Moohyun; /POSTECH

    2006-08-16

    The SPEAR3 accelerator upgrade opened up two 7.6m racetrack straights in the magnet lattice. In one of these straights, we recently added a magnetic chicane to separate two insertion device (ID) beam lines by 10mrad. A quadrupole triplet in the center creates a ''double focus'' optics with {beta}y = 1.6m at the middle of each ID, hence the term ''double-waist chicane''. The new optics also reduced {beta}y in the four matching straights adjacent to the racetrack straights to 2.5m. In this paper, we outline design features of the optics and physical implementation of the lattice.

  14. The Short Circumference Damping Ring Design for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Korostelev, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Kubo, K.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Naito, T.; Urakawa, J.; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    The ILC damping ring tentative design is driven by the operational scenario of the main linac, the beam-dynamics demand of producing a stable and high-quality beam, the injection/extraction scheme and the kicker performance. In this paper, a short circumference damping ring design based on TME cells is described. The ring accommodates injection kickers which provide a flat top of 280 nsec and a 60 nsec rise and fall time and very fast strip-line kickers for beam extraction with a 2 nsec rise and fall time for 3-MHz operation.

  15. The Formation of Very Narrow Waist Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    Noam Soker; Saul Rappaport

    1999-11-09

    We discuss the interaction of the slow wind blown by an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star with a collimated fast wind (CFW) blown by its main sequence or white dwarf companion, at orbital separations in the range of several AU to about 200 AU. The CFW results from accretion of the AGB wind into an accretion disk around the companion. The fast wind is collimated by the accretion disk. We argue that such systems are the progenitors of bipolar planetary nebulae and bipolar symbiotic nebulae with a very narrow equatorial waist between the two polar lobes. We conduct a population synthesis study of the formation of planetary nebulae in binary systems which quantitatively supports the proposed model. We show the number of expected systems that blow a CFW is in accord with the number found from observations, to within the many uncertainties involved. Overall, we find that 5 per cent of all planetary nebulae are bipolars with very narrow waists. Our population synthesis not only supports the CFW model, but more generally supports the binary model for the formation of bipolar planetary nebulae.

  16. Preferred Women’s Waist-to-Hip Ratio Variation over the Last 2,500 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men’s mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men’s preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25886537

  17. The Cross-Sectional Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio and Cognitive Performance in Postmenopausal Women Enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, Diana R.; Zhang, Yinghua; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Espeland, Mark A.; Van Horn, Linda; McTigue, Kathleen M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Powell, Lynda; Kooperberg, Charles; Coker, Laura H.; Hoffmann, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine if body weight (BMI) is independently associated with cognitive function in postmenopausal women and the relationship between body fat distribution as estimated by waist-hip-ratio (WHR) and cognitive function. DESIGN Cross-sectional data analysis SETTING Baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. PARTICIPANTS 8745 postmenopausal women aged 65–79 years, free of clinical evidence of dementia and completed baseline evaluation in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. MEASUREMENTS Participants completed a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), health and lifestyle questionnaires, and standardized measurements of height, weight, body circumferences and blood pressure. Statistical analysis of associations between 3MSE scores, BMI and WHR after controlling for known confounders. RESULTS With the exception of smoking and exercise, vascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, waist measurement, heart disease and diabetes, were significantly associated with 3MSE score and were included as co-variables in subsequent analyses. BMI was inversely related to 3MSE scores, for every 1 unit increase in BMI, 3MSE decrease 0.988 (p=.0001) after adjusting for age, education and vascular disease risk factors. BMI had the most pronounced association with poorer cognitive functioning scores among women with smaller waist measurements. Among women with the highest WHR, cognitive scores increased with BMI. CONCLUSION Increasing BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in women with smaller WHR. Higher WHR, estimating central fat mass, is associated with higher cognitive function in this cross-sectional study. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism for this association. PMID:20646100

  18. Wasp-Waist Interactions in the North Sea Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Fauchald, Per; Skov, Henrik; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Johns, David; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-01-01

    Background In a “wasp-waist” ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus), suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that “wasp-waist” interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades. PMID:21829494

  19. Efficacy of a First Course of Ibuprofen for Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure in Extremely Preterm Newborns According to Their Gestational Age-Specific Z-Score for Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Madeleneau, Doriane; Aubelle, Marie-Stephanie; Pierron, Charlotte; Lopez, Emmanuel; Patkai, Juliana; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Gascoin, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns. Study design This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0–27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea): 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA) were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes. Results The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2–12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3–70.5] p=0.003). Conclusion There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction. PMID:25875583

  20. Supine Length, Weight and Head Circumference at Birth in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean plus or minus standard deviation of boys' and girls' (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 plus or minus 30 and…

  1. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  2. Measuring the Circumference of the Earth at Primary School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Folco, Emmanuel; Jasmin, David; Hibon-Hartmann, Mireille

    The French program ""La main a la pate"" is leading an international and cooperative project gathering each year more than 100 schools all over the world. Following in the footsteps of Eratosthenes invites teachers and pupils at primary schools to measure the circumference of the Earth following the first method developed by the Greek scientist Eratosthenes 2 200 years ago. The protocol consists in a series of experimental activities which allow a progressive approach of the various scientific notions at play (light rays and shadows the shape of the Earth the solar noon etc). Pupils are invited to reproduce the observations of Eratosthenes and to adapt its method by developing their own instruments. Finally they can compute their own estimation of the size of our planet by exchanging easily their measurements through Internet with others classes from many countries. We will present the progressive protocol and its entertaining activities as well as the specific cooperative tools which have been created to help and follow up the teachers in the course of the project: a scientists' and trainers' network an Internet forum and a data base where all the measurements gathered can be exchanged between the participants.

  3. Anthropometry of the Human Scaphoid Waist by Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer; Hofmeister, Eric P; Renninger, Christopher; Kroonen, Leo T

    2015-01-01

    Published measurements for the scaphoid are scarce. The purpose of this study is to define anthropometric norms for the waist of the scaphoid to assist in optimizing bone graft quantity and implant use. Computed tomography images of the wrist were reviewed by three surgeons. Anthropometric data were gathered, including the scaphoid waist diameter in two dimensions and the scaphoid waist volume. Each study was measured twice, allowing for determination of inter- and intraobserver reliability. Forty-three studies were examined (23 female and 20 male). Average measurements of the scaphoid waist were 11.28 ± 0.26 mm in the sagittal plane and 8.70 ± 0.17 mm in the coronal plane, and the waist volume was 715 ± 33.0 mm3. Specific measures of the narrowest portion of the scaphoid are provided by this study. Measurements of the scaphoid waist through the use of three-dimensional imaging are an accurate method with good inter- and intraobserver reliability. The measurements obtained from this study can be applied to guide graft and implant selection for treatment of scaphoid waist fractures and nonunions. PMID:26688990

  4. A micronutrient powder with low doses of highly absorbable iron and zinc reduces iron and zinc deficiency and improves weight-for-age Z-scores in South African children.

    PubMed

    Troesch, Barbara; van Stuijvenberg, Martha E; van Stujivenberg, Martha E; Smuts, Cornelius M; Kruger, H Salomè; Biebinger, Ralf; Hurrell, Richard F; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in a single serving. The aim was to test the efficacy of a low-iron and -zinc (each 2.5 mg) MNP containing iron as NaFeEDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), and an exogenous phytase active at gut pH. In a double-blind controlled trial, South African school children with low iron status (n = 200) were randomized to receive either the MNP or the unfortified carrier added just before consumption to a high-phytate maize porridge 5 d/wk for 23 wk; primary outcomes were iron and zinc status and a secondary outcome was somatic growth. Compared with the control, the MNP increased serum ferritin (P < 0.05), body iron stores (P < 0.01) and weight-for-age Z-scores (P < 0.05) and decreased transferrin receptor (P < 0.05). The prevalence of iron deficiency fell by 30.6% (P < 0.01) and the prevalence of zinc deficiency decreased by 11.8% (P < 0.05). Absorption of iron from the MNP was estimated to be 7-8%. Inclusion of an exogenous phytase combined with NaFeEDTA and AA may allow a substantial reduction in the iron dose from existing MNP while still delivering adequate iron and zinc. In addition, the MNP is likely to enhance absorption of the high native iron content of complementary foods based on cereals and/or legumes. PMID:21178093

  5. Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Sedentary Bouts and Breaks in Sedentary Time with Cardiometabolic Risk in Children with a Family History of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Travis John; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Mathieu, Marie-Ève; Henderson, Mélanie; O’Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. Purpose To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8–11 years with a family history of obesity. Methods Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort) were collected from 2005–2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score. Results After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1–4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all p<0.05). The number of sedentary bouts lasting 5–9 minutes was negatively associated with waist circumference in girls only, while the number of bouts lasting 10–14 minutes was positively associated with fasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all p<0.05). Leisure time computer/video game use was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk score and waist circumference in boys, while TV viewing was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, waist circumference, and BMI Z-score in girls (all p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that frequent interruptions in sedentary time are associated with a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile and highlight the deleterious relationship between screen time and cardiometabolic risk among children with a family history of obesity. PMID:24278117

  6. Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

    2014-06-01

    'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate. PMID:24755099

  7. Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist

    SciTech Connect

    Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2014-04-21

    We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

  8. Correlation between waist:height ratio and serum nitric oxide level in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Wafaa I; Abd El Maksoud, Rania A S; Hashad, Doaa I; El Azhary, Nesrine M; Abonayeem, Shaimaa M Al Saied

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of early childhood. This study shows that nitric oxide levels positively correlate with the clinical severity of AD, waist:height ratio, and weight. PMID:25580996

  9. Apparatus for precision focussing and positioning of a beam waist on a target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Dana H. (inventor); Gunter, William D. (inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to optical focussing apparatus and, more particularly, to optical apparatus for focussing a highly collimated Gaussian beam which provides independent and fine control over the focus waist diameter, the focus position both along the beam axis and transverse to the beam, and the focus angle. A beam focussing and positioning apparatus provides focussing and positioning for the waist of a waisted beam at a desired location on a target such as an optical fiber. The apparatus includes a first lens, having a focal plane f sub 1, disposed in the path of an incoming beam and a second lens, having a focal plane f sub 2 and being spaced downstream from the first lens by a distance at least equal to f sub 1 + 10 f sub 2, which cooperates with the first lens to focus the waist of the beam on the target. A rotatable optical device, disposed upstream of the first lens, adjusts the angular orientation of the beam waist. The transverse position of the first lens relative to the axis of the beam is varied to control the transverse position of the beam waist relative to the target (a fiber optic as shown) while the relative axial positions of the lenses are varied to control the diameter of the beam waist and to control the axial position of the beam waist. Mechanical controllers C sub 1, C sub 2, C sub 3, C sub 4, and C sub 5 control the elements of the optical system. How seven adjustments can be made to correctly couple a laser beam into an optical fiber is illustrated. Prior art systems employing optical techniques to couple a laser beam into an optical fiber or other target simply do not provide the seven necessary adjustments. The closest known prior art, a Newport coupler, provides only two of the seven required adjustments.

  10. Association of the Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents: The Three Cities Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Robespierre C.; Coutinho, Mário; Bramorski, Marco A; Giuliano, Isabela C.; Pavan, Júlia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1) of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4) presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio) of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated systolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) above the upper tertile (Q3). WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00) presented the largest area under the curve (AUC) [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647)] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578)] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651)] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699)] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circumference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787)]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening programs. PMID:21677765

  11. Inability of waist-to-height ratio to predict new onset diabetes mellitus among older adults in Taiwan: a five-year observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ren-Jieh; Wu, Yung-Hung; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal obesity plays a significant role in cardiometabolic health. Due to the difficulties to quantify abdominal obesity, a number of proxy indicators have been developed, including waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip (WTH) ratio, and waist-to-height (WHtR) ratio. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of WHtR predicting new onset diabetes mellitus (NOD) among older adults in rural Taiwan. In 2000, 372 subjects (mean age=61.8±11.3 years, 57.8% females) living in the Tou-Cheng Township of I-Lan County participated in the study and 250 of them (6 deceased, mean age of survivors=67.1±10.7 years, 58.9% females) were successfully followed in 2005. The mean BMI of the primary cohort was 25.0±3.6 kg/m(2); the proportion of obesity and overweight was 47.8% and 21.0%, respectively. The mean WHtR was 0.57±0.07, and the prevalence of high WHtR (>0.5) was 83.9%. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 18.5% and 19.6%, respectively. Comparisons between subjects with high WHtR (>0.5) and low WHtR (<0.5) showed significant cardiovascular risk factor clustering in high WHtR group, but serum cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol similar in both groups. In 2005, the prevalence of DM and IFG among 244 survivors was 24.9% and 24.1%, respectively. Overall, the cumulative incidence of NOD during the 5-year follow-up was 8.2% (20/244), which was 8.7% (18/206) in high WHtR group and 5.3% (2/38) in low WHtR group (p=0.489). Adjusted for age and sex, IFG was the only independent risk factor for NOD in this study (odds ratio=OR=9.21, 95% confidence interval=CI=2.70-31.46), but not the high WHtR. In conclusion, high WHtR is a common phenomenon (83.9%) of community-living older adults in rural Taiwan and it did not predict significantly NOD in 5-year follow-up. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the predictability of WHtR in NOD among older adults and to compare the effectiveness of WHtR with other conventional risk factors. PMID:20627333

  12. Growth of "waist" ZnO twin rods through hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lixia; Yu, Xianjin; Zhang, Lipeng; Yang, Ping

    2014-04-01

    The factors that govern the deposition and structure of "waist" ZnO twin rods from aqueous solution through hydrothermal synthesis were discussed in details. Pencil-like ZnO hexagonal twin rods were obtained in Zn(2+) + HMTA system on ITO glass substrates with ZnO buffer layer deposited in advance. As a contrast, a series of experiments were preceded with TBAB or on bare Cu sheet, Zn sheet, and Al sheet to research lattice-match influences on ZnO nucleation. A series of "waist" ZnO hexagonal twin rods were synthesized and the morphology of each "waist" was shown. The forming of different waists results from the different lattice-match effects between substrates and ZnO crystal. We demonstrated ZnO hexagonal twin rods synthesis on Cu, Al, Zn sheet by normal hydrothermal synthesis and revealed different forming schemes of these varying "waists" of the twin structures. On the basis of our research, not only some new ways of synthesizing ZnO twin rods were proposed but a new idea of applying metal to nano-devices used in piezoelectric area. PMID:24734760

  13. Stable Isotope Analysis Challenges Wasp-Waist Food Web Assumptions in an Upwelling Pelagic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as ‘wasp-waist’ ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for ?13C and ?15N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007–2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729

  14. Gait Control for Redundant Legged Biped Robot at Constant Velocity and Constant Height of the Waist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Ryoichi; Haishi, Masahiko; Shibata, Masaaki

    In this paper, we propose a gait control method for redundant legged biped robot based on leg center of mass (COM) position control at constant velocity and constant height of the waist. The developed biped robot has redundant legs, which have 4 degree-of-freedoms (DOFs) on each in the saggital plane. The redundant DOF enables to move its leg tip position and its leg COM position independently. Therefore proposed robot has structural capability to control the leg COM position for keeping the projection of the total COM inside the support polygon without upper body motion. Such capability enables the stable static walk in the arbitrarily desired velocity and height of the waist motion. The validity of the proposed method for the static walk at constant velocity and constant height of the waist in the leg COM position control for redundant legged biped robot is confirmed by several results of simulation and experiment.

  15. Anthropometric Measures and Fasting Insulin Levels in Children Before and after Cure of Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Margaret F; Graf, Jennifer; Gokarn, Nirmal; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Children with Cushing syndrome present with growth delay and excess adiposity that tends to be generalized rather than centripetal. There are no prospective studies of this phenotype as it evolves before and after treatment in children. The aims of this study were to evaluate children prior to and one-year after surgical cure compared to controls and to determine fasting insulin levels and their possible association with waist circumference and waist-height ratio, pre- and post-cure of Cushing syndrome. Methods 30 children with Cushing syndrome were evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment and compared to 14 age and body mass index-matched controls. Results Only triceps skin fold z- score showed a significant difference between patients with active Cushing syndrome and controls. A positive correlation between fasting insulin levels and waist circumference z- score was found for children with Cushing syndrome; this association persisted one-year following cure. Conclusions Unlike adults affected with Cushing syndrome, upper arm muscle area of children with Cushing syndrome did not differ from obese children without Cushing syndrome. The persistence of a positive correlation between waist circumference and fasting insulin despite remission of Cushing syndrome suggests that children with a history of Cushing syndrome may have an increased risk for adverse long-term effects of increased abdominal fat mass. Clinical Trial numbers: NCT00001595, NCT00001452, NCT00005927 PMID:22154461

  16. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW) in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls) from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds) were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004) were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex) and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL). The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%), without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence. PMID:25913494

  17. Long-Term Effects of the RealFit Intervention on Body Composition, Aerobic Fitness, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Maria W.J.; Kremers, Stef P.J.; Mulkens, Sandra; Mujakovic, Suhreta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: RealFit is a 13-week weight reduction program for youth that focuses on nutrition, physical activity (PA), psychology, and parental participation. The short-term effectiveness of the RealFit intervention, in terms of body composition, aerobic fitness, and dietary and PA behavior, having been proven, the present study evaluated the long-term effects of the intervention. Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design. Height, weight, waist circumference, aerobic fitness, and self-reported dietary and PA behavior were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after the 13-week RealFit intervention (T1), after 5 months (T2), and 1 year (T3) of follow-up. A total of 86 adolescents participated in the intervention group. The control group (n=32) comprised overweight adolescents who did not receive any treatment. Results: One year after the RealFit intervention, significant decreases in BMI z-score (mean difference [MD]: ?0.39) and waist circumference (MD, ?3.24) were found. The comparison between the intervention and control groups, controlling for confounders, resulted in a significant difference (BMI z-score: ?0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.67 to ?0.15; waist circumference: ?8.07; 95% CI: ?11.58 to ?4.56). The results for dietary and PA behavior consistently showed favorable changes in the intervention group. Conclusions: The RealFit intervention appears to have significant favorable long-term effects on BMI z-score and waist circumference. These changes in body composition obviously represent changes in adolescents' energy balance-related behavior. Taking all results and limitations into account, it may cautiously be concluded that RealFit is an effective weight loss intervention. PMID:25302441

  18. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  19. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  20. Brief Report: A Preliminary Study of Fetal Head Circumference Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Hickey, Martha; Stanley, Fiona J.; Newnham, John P.; Pennell, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal head circumference (HC) growth was examined prospectively in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD participants (N = 14) were each matched with four control participants (N = 56) on a range of parameters known to influence fetal growth. HC was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation and again at birth…

  1. TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth

    E-print Network

    Pickett, Galen T.

    TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth On two dates during the year, the geometric relationship of Earth to the Sun produces "equinox", a word literally meaning and sunset is approximately 12 hours everywhere on Earth. b) The Sun is directly overhead at noon

  2. In the Spirit of Eratosthenes: Measuring the Circumference of the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charischak, Ihor

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the mathematics and science underlying Eratosthenes' measurement of the circumference of Earth in about 200 B.C. and provides a lesson plan so that small groups of high school students can duplicate the measurements. Equipment needed and related Web sites are listed, and a model chart to record measurements is provided. (PEN)

  3. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing.

    PubMed

    Zorko, Martin; Nemec, Bojan; Babi?, Jan; Lešnik, Blaz; Supej, Matej

    2015-09-01

    Recently alpine skis with a wider waist width, which medially shifts the contact between the ski edge and the snow while turning, have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to determine the knee joint kinematics during turning while using skis of different waist widths (65mm, 88mm, 110mm). Six highly skilled skiers performed ten turns on a predefined course (similar to a giant slalom course). The relation of femur and tibia in the sagital, frontal and coronal planes was captured by using an inertial motion capture suit, and Global Navigation Satellite System was used to determine the skiers' trajectories. With respect of the outer ski the knee joint flexion, internal rotation and abduction significantly decreased with the increase of the ski waist width for the greatest part of the ski turn. The greatest abduction with the narrow ski and the greatest external rotation (lowest internal rotation) with the wide ski are probably the reflection of two different strategies of coping the biomechanical requirements in the ski turn. These changes in knee kinematics were most probably due to an active adaptation of the skier to the changed biomechanical conditions using wider skis. The results indicated that using skis with large waist widths on hard, frozen surfaces could bring the knee joint unfavorably closer to the end of the range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as potentially increasing the risk of degenerative knee injuries. Key pointsThe change in the skis' waist width caused a change in the knee joint movement strategies, which had a tendency to adapt the skier to different biomechanical conditions.The use of wider skis or, in particular, skis with a large waist width, on a hard or frozen surface, could unfavourably bring the knee joint closer to the end of range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as may potentially increase the risk of degenerative knee injuries.The overall results of the abduction and internal rotation in respect to turn radii and ground reaction forces indicated that the knee joint movements are likely one of the key points in alpine skiing techniques. However, the skiing equipment used can still significantly influence the movement strategy. PMID:26336348

  4. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Zorko, Martin; Nemec, Bojan; Babi?, Jan; Lešnik, Blaz; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Recently alpine skis with a wider waist width, which medially shifts the contact between the ski edge and the snow while turning, have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to determine the knee joint kinematics during turning while using skis of different waist widths (65mm, 88mm, 110mm). Six highly skilled skiers performed ten turns on a predefined course (similar to a giant slalom course). The relation of femur and tibia in the sagital, frontal and coronal planes was captured by using an inertial motion capture suit, and Global Navigation Satellite System was used to determine the skiers’ trajectories. With respect of the outer ski the knee joint flexion, internal rotation and abduction significantly decreased with the increase of the ski waist width for the greatest part of the ski turn. The greatest abduction with the narrow ski and the greatest external rotation (lowest internal rotation) with the wide ski are probably the reflection of two different strategies of coping the biomechanical requirements in the ski turn. These changes in knee kinematics were most probably due to an active adaptation of the skier to the changed biomechanical conditions using wider skis. The results indicated that using skis with large waist widths on hard, frozen surfaces could bring the knee joint unfavorably closer to the end of the range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as potentially increasing the risk of degenerative knee injuries. Key points The change in the skis’ waist width caused a change in the knee joint movement strategies, which had a tendency to adapt the skier to different biomechanical conditions. The use of wider skis or, in particular, skis with a large waist width, on a hard or frozen surface, could unfavourably bring the knee joint closer to the end of range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as may potentially increase the risk of degenerative knee injuries. The overall results of the abduction and internal rotation in respect to turn radii and ground reaction forces indicated that the knee joint movements are likely one of the key points in alpine skiing techniques. However, the skiing equipment used can still significantly influence the movement strategy. PMID:26336348

  5. Interaction region for crab waist scheme of the Future Electron-Positron Collider (CERN)

    E-print Network

    Bogomyagkov, A

    2015-01-01

    Design study in CERN of the accelerator that would fit 80-100 km tunnel called Future Circular Colliders (FCC) includes high-luminosity $e^+ e^?$ collider (FCC-ee) with center-of-mass energy from 90 to 350 GeV to study Higgs boson properties and perform precise measurements at the electroweak scale [1–3]. Crab waist interaction region provides collisions with luminosity higher than 2 × 10$^{36}$ cm$^{?2}$ sec$^{?1}$ at beam energy of 45 GeV. The small values of the beta functions at the interaction point and distant final focus lenses are the reasons for high nonlinear chromaticity limiting energy acceptance of the whole ring. The paper describes interaction region for crab waist collision scheme in the FCC-ee, principles of tuning the chromaticity correction section in order to provide large energy acceptance.

  6. Waist–hip ratio and breast cancer risk in urbanized Nigerian women

    PubMed Central

    Adebamowo, Clement A; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Adenipekun, Adeniyi A; Oyesegun, Rasheed A; Campbell, Oladapo B; Akang, Effiong E; Rotimi, Charles N; Olopade, Olunfunmilayo I

    2003-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between waist–hip ratio and the risk of breast cancer in an urban Nigerian population. Methods Between March 1998 and August 2000, we conducted a case–control study of hospital-based breast cancer patients (n = 234) and population-based controls (n = 273) using nurse interviewers in urban Southwestern Nigeria. Results Multivariable logistic regression showed a significant association between the highest tertile of waist–hip ratio and the risk of breast cancer (odds ratio= 2.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.05–6.80) among postmenopausal women. No association was found in premenopausal women. Conclusion The present study, the first in an indigenous African population, supports other studies that have shown a positive association between obesity and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:12631394

  7. Cross-validation of Waist-Worn GENEA Accelerometer Cut-Points

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Whitney A.; Bassett, David R.; Freedson, Patty S.; John, Dinesh; Steeves, Jeremy A.; Conger, Scott A.; Ceaser, Tyrone G.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Sasaki, Jeffer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the classification accuracy of the waist GENEA cut-points developed by Esliger et al. for predicting intensity categories across a range of lifestyle activities. Methods Each participant performed one of two routines, consisting of seven lifestyle activities (home/office, ambulatory, and sport). The GENEA was worn on the right waist and oxygen uptake was continuously measured using the Oxycon mobile. A one-way chi-square was used to determine the classification accuracy of the GENEA cut-points. Cross tabulation tables provided information on under- and over-estimations, and sensitivity and specificity analyses of the waist cut-points were also performed. Results Spearman’s rank order correlation for the GENEA SVMgs and Oxycon mobile MET values was 0.73. For all activities combined, the GENEA accurately predicted intensity classification 55.3% of the time, and increased to 58.3% when stationary cycling was removed from the analysis. The sensitivity of the cut-points for the four intensity categories ranged from 0.244 to 0.958 and the specificity ranged from 0.576 to 0.943. Conclusion In this cross-validation study, the proposed GENEA cut-points had a low overall accuracy rate for classifying intensity (55.3%) when engaging in 14 different lifestyle activities. PMID:24496118

  8. Lattice design for an ILC damping ring with 3 km circumference

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2004-10-11

    We describe a simple lattice that meets the specifications for the damping times and horizontal and longitudinal emittances for the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings. The circumference of a little over 3 km leads to a bunch spacing of around 3 ns, which will require advances in kicker technology for injection and extraction. We present the lattice design, and initial results of studies of the acceptance and collective effects. With the high bunch charge and close spacing, the ion and electron cloud effects are expected to be severe; however, the simple structure of the lattice allows for easy variation of the circumference and bunch spacing, which may make it useful for future investigations.

  9. Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  10. Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon.

  11. Head circumference and brain size in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-11-30

    Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and statistical significance for both head circumference and total brain volume in autism. Our literature search strategy identified 261 and 391 records, respectively; 27 studies defining percentages of macrocephalic patients and 44 structural brain imaging studies providing total brain volumes for patients and controls were included in our meta-analyses. Head circumference was significantly larger in autistic compared to control individuals, with 822/5225 (15.7%) autistic individuals displaying macrocephaly. Structural brain imaging studies measuring brain volume estimated effect size. The effect size is higher in low functioning autistics compared to high functioning and ASD individuals. Brain overgrowth was recorded in 142/1558 (9.1%) autistic patients. Finally, we found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Our results provide conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this endophenotype in multi-biomarker diagnostic panels for clinical use. PMID:26456415

  12. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue; Bai, Mei; Duan, Zhe; Luo, Yun; Marusic, Aljosa; Robert-Demolaize, Guillaume; Shen, Xiaozhe

    2015-05-03

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  13. Measurement of the luminosity at the DAFNE collider upgraded with the crab waist scheme

    E-print Network

    M. Boscolo; F. Bossi; B. Buonomo; G. Mazzitelli; F. Murtas; P. Raimondi; G. Sensolini; M. Schioppa; F. Iacoangeli; P. Valente; N. Arnaud; D. Breton; L. Burmistrov; A. Stocchi; A. Variola; B. Viaud; P. Branchini

    2009-09-10

    The test of the crab waist collision scheme, undergoing at the e+e- Frascati DAFNE accelerator complex since February 2008, requires a fast and accurate measurement of the absolute luminosity, as well as a full characterization of the background conditions. Three different monitors, a Bhabha calorimeter, a Bhabha GEM tracker and a gamma bremsstrahlung proportional counter have been designed, tested and installed around the interaction point end of 2007-beginning of 2008. In this paper, we describe these detectors and present their performances in various operation conditions during the 2008 and 2009 DAFNE runs.

  14. Measurement of the luminosity at the DAFNE collider upgraded with the crab waist scheme

    E-print Network

    Boscolo, M; Buonomo, B; Mazzitelli, G; Murtas, F; Raimondi, P; Sensolini, G; Schioppa, M; Iacoangeli, F; Valente, P; Arnaud, N; Breton, D; Burmistrov, L; Stocchi, A; Variola, A; Viaud, B; Branchini, P

    2009-01-01

    The test of the crab waist collision scheme, undergoing at the e+e- Frascati DAFNE accelerator complex since February 2008, requires a fast and accurate measurement of the absolute luminosity, as well as a full characterization of the background conditions. Three different monitors, a Bhabha calorimeter, a Bhabha GEM tracker and a gamma bremsstrahlung proportional counter have been designed, tested and installed around the interaction point end of 2007-beginning of 2008. In this paper, we describe these detectors and present their performances in various operation conditions during the 2008 and 2009 DAFNE runs.

  15. Corpus Callosum Segment Circumference Is Associated With Response Control in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Melanie A.; Crocetti, Deana; Mahone, E. Mark; Denckla, Martha B.; Suskauer, Stacy J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Response control is impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the corpus callosum's role in response control, we compared callosal morphology in 64 children with ADHD and 64 typically developing children, aged 7 to 13 years, and investigated the relationships between callosal morphology and response control. Area and circumference of 5 callosal segments (genu, rostral body, midbody, isthmus, and splenium) were normalized for cerebral volume and examined for correlation with mean reaction time, intrasubject variability, and/or commission error rate from a go/no-go task. There were no between-group differences in segment areas or circumferences. Reaction time correlated with midbody circumference for boys with ADHD and isthmus circumference for girls with ADHD. For the entire cohort, rostral body circumference correlated with intra-subject variability. Impaired response control in ADHD is associated with anomalies in frontal interhemispheric connections. Future studies examining callosal shape will illuminate the anatomic basis of correlations between callosal segment circumference and response control. PMID:20139403

  16. Investigation on pressure-tapping methods of long waist cone flow meter using CFD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Can; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng; Yu, Xuelian

    2012-03-01

    Differential pressure (DP) flow meters are playing an increasingly important role in multiphase flow in petroleum industry. The long waist cone flow meter, as a new type of DP flow meter, is introduced in this paper. And its flow field in a horizontal pipe of 50mm diameter is numerically simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), in search of the optimum pressure-tapping method. The results of numerical simulations indicate that the long waist cone flow meter has the merits of the annular channel flow meters by forming an annular flow in annular channel region, which makes it possible to improve the repeatability and accuracy of measurement. The high pressure port at the 1D upstream of the cone's entrance section and the low pressure port at the middle of annular channel region and 3D downstream of the cone's exit section are the optimum pressure-tapping methods. The relative error of discharge coefficient is within ±0.5%. This investigation will provide a theoretical and design basis for the development of new DP flow meters.

  17. 432- ?m laser's beam-waist measurement for the polarimeter/interferometer on the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. X.; Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Wu, M. Q.; Lan, T.; Zhu, X.; Zou, Z. Y.; Yang, Y.; Wei, X. C.; Zeng, L.; Li, G. S.; Gao, X.

    2014-10-01

    A far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter/interferometer (PI) system is under development for measurements of the current-density and the electron-density profiles in the EAST tokamak. The system will utilize three identical 432- ?m CHCOOH lasers pumped by a CO2 laser. Measurements of the laser beam's waist size and position are basic works. This paper will introduce three methods with a beam profiler and several focusing optical elements. The beam profiler can be used to show the spatial energy distribution of the laser beam. The active area of the profiler is 12.4 × 12.4 mm2. Some focusing optical elements are needed to focus the beam in order for the beam profiler to receive the entire laser beam. Two principles and three methods are used in the measurement. The first and the third methods are based on the same principle, and the second method adopts an other principle. Due to the fast and convenient measurement, although the first method is a special form of the third and it can only give the size of beam waist, it is essential to the development of the experiment and it can provide guidance for the choices of the sizes of the optical elements in the next step. A concave mirror, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) lens and a polymethylpentene (TPX) lens are each used in the measurement process. The results of these methods are close enough for the design of PI system's optical path.

  18. Persistently High Hip Circumference after Bariatric Surgery Is a Major Hurdle to Successful Hip Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Menachem M.; Courville, Amber B.; Sumner, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of class III obesity (BMI ? 40?kg/m2) in black women is 18%. As class III obesity leads to hip joint deterioration, black women frequently present for orthopedic care. Weight loss associated with bariatric surgery should lead to enhanced success of hip replacements. However, we present a case of a black woman who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with the expectation that weight loss would make her a better surgical candidate for hip replacement. Her gastric bypass was successful as her BMI declined from 52.0?kg/m2 to 33.7?kg/m2. However, her hip circumference after weight loss remained persistently high. Therefore, at surgery the soft tissue tunnel geometry presented major challenges. Tunnel depth and immobility of the soft tissue interfered with retractor placement, tissue reflection, and surgical access to the acetabulum. Therefore a traditional cup placement could not be achieved. Instead, a hemiarthroplasty was performed. After surgery her pain and reliance on external support decreased. But her functional independence never improved. This case demonstrates that a lower BMI after bariatric surgery may improve the metabolic profile and decrease anesthesia risk, but the success of total hip arthroplasties remains problematic if fat mass in the operative field (i.e., high hip circumference) remains high. PMID:24711820

  19. Circumference imaging for optical based identification of cylindrical and conical objects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.A.; Sitter, D.N.; Ferrell, R.K.; Breeding, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    Inspection and identification of cylindrical or conical shaped objects presents a unique challenge for a machine vision system. Due to the circular nature of the objects it is difficult to image the whole object using traditional area cameras and image capture methods. This work describes a unique technique to acquire a two dimensional image of the entire surface circumference of a cylindrical/conical shaped object. The specific application of this method is the identification of large caliber (155 mm) ammunition rounds in the field as they are transported between or within vehicles. The proposed method utilizes a line scan camera in combination with high speed image acquisition and processing hardware to acquire images from multiple cameras and generate a single, geometrically accurate, surface image. The primary steps involved are the capture of multiple images as the ammunition moves by on the conveyor followed by warping to correct for the distortion induced by the curved projectile surface. The individual images are then tiled together to form one two-dimensional image of the complete circumference. Once this image has been formed an automatic identification algorithm begins the feature extraction and classification process.

  20. Test of "crab-waist" collisions at the DAPhiNE Phi factory.

    PubMed

    Zobov, M; Alesini, D; Biagini, M E; Biscari, C; Bocci, A; Boni, R; Boscolo, M; Bossi, F; Buonomo, B; Clozza, A; Delle Monache, G O; Demma, T; Di Pasquale, E; Di Pirro, G; Drago, A; Gallo, A; Ghigo, A; Guiducci, S; Ligi, C; Marcellini, F; Mazzitelli, G; Milardi, C; Murtas, F; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Quintieri, L; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Sgamma, F; Spataro, B; Stecchi, A; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Vaccarezza, C; Schioppa, M; Esposito, M; Branchini, P; Iacoangeli, F; Valente, P; Levichev, E; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Smaluk, V; Arnaud, N; Breton, D; Burmistrov, L; Stocchi, A; Variola, A; Viaud, B F; Bettoni, S; Ohmi, K; Teytelman, D

    2010-04-30

    The electron-positron collider DAPhiNE, the Italian Phi factory, has been recently upgraded in order to implement an innovative collision scheme based on large crossing angle, small beam sizes at the crossing point, and compensation of beam-beam interaction by means of sextupole pairs creating a "crab-waist" configuration in the interaction region. Experimental tests of the novel scheme exhibited an increase by a factor of 3 in the peak luminosity of the collider with respect to the performances reached before the upgrade. In this Letter we present the new collision scheme, discuss its advantages, describe the hardware modifications realized for the upgrade, and report the results of the experimental tests carried out during commissioning of the machine in the new configuration and standard operation for the users. PMID:20482112

  1. Test of ''Crab-Waist'' Collisions at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi} Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Zobov, M.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M. E.; Biscari, C.; Bocci, A.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.

    2010-04-30

    The electron-positron collider DA{Phi}NE, the Italian {Phi} factory, has been recently upgraded in order to implement an innovative collision scheme based on large crossing angle, small beam sizes at the crossing point, and compensation of beam-beam interaction by means of sextupole pairs creating a ''crab-waist'' configuration in the interaction region. Experimental tests of the novel scheme exhibited an increase by a factor of 3 in the peak luminosity of the collider with respect to the performances reached before the upgrade. In this Letter we present the new collision scheme, discuss its advantages, describe the hardware modifications realized for the upgrade, and report the results of the experimental tests carried out during commissioning of the machine in the new configuration and standard operation for the users.

  2. Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem dynamics: Navigating the “ predator pit” topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Many marine ecosystems exhibit a characteristic “wasp-waist” structure, where a single species, or at most several species, of small planktivorous fishes entirely dominate their trophic level. These species have complex life histories that result in radical variability that may propagate to both higher and lower trophic levels of the ecosystem. In addition, these populations have two key attributes: (1) they represent the lowest trophic level that is mobile, so they are capable of relocating their area of operation according to their own internal dynamics; (2) they may prey upon the early life stages of their predators, forming an unstable feedback loop in the trophic system that may, for example, precipitate abrupt regime shifts. Experience with the typical “boom-bust” dynamics of this type of population, and with populations that interact trophically with them, suggests a “predator pit” type of dynamics. This features a refuge from predation when abundance is very low, very destructive predation between an abundance level sufficient to attract interest from predators and an abundance level sufficient to satiate available predators, and, as abundance increases beyond this satiation point, decreasing specific predation mortality and population breakout. A simple formalism is developed to describe these dynamics. Examples of its application include (a) a hypothetical mechanism for progressive geographical habitat expansion at high biomass, (b) an explanation for the out-of-phase alternations of abundances of anchovies and sardines in many regional systems that appear to occur without substantial adverse interactions between the two species groups, and (c) an account of an interaction of environmental processes and fishery exploitation that caused a regime shift. The last is the example of the Baltic Sea, where the cod resource collapsed in concert with establishment of dominance of that ecosystem by the cod’s ‘wasp-waist” prey, herring and sprat.

  3. Comparison of head circumference in an Israeli child population with United States and British standards.

    PubMed

    Palti, H; Peritz, E; Flug, D; Gitlin, M; Adler, B

    1983-01-01

    The head circumference (HC) growth pattern of infants from 1 to 24 months of age was studied in a Jerusalem community. The means of HC of the study population are smaller for each age and sex group than those of the National Center of Health Statistics, USA reference population, London children and the Nellhaus standard. The regression of HC on length explains about 20% of the variance. In an analysis of variance controlling for social class, birth order and length, the differences by region of origin of the mother were not significant. The smaller HC of the study population is probably due to these children being shorter and lighter than the above-mentioned western populations. Malnutrition as a factor for small HC was excluded. PMID:6838166

  4. Ultrasonic fetal weight prediction: role of head circumference and femur length.

    PubMed

    Weiner, C P; Sabbagha, R E; Vaisrub, N; Socol, M L

    1985-06-01

    The accurate sonographic estimate of fetal weight is helpful in those instances when the fetal weight estimate might alter clinical management. Most sonographic weight predicting formulas have been based predominantly on measurements from the term fetus and then applied to the preterm fetus. Yet, the morphology of the preterm and term fetus differs considerably. The authors have examined the predictive accuracy of three published sonographic formulas in 69 preterm fetuses scanned within 48 hours of delivery. The mean birth weight was 1396 g. Thirty-nine of the infants were less than 1500 g. Sixty-two percent were products of pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. The results were compared with new equations derived from combinations of head and abdominal circumferences, biparietal diameter, and femur length obtained from the first 33 fetuses and then tested on the remaining 36. Whereas each formula correlated highly with birth weight, the selected new formula was more accurate than the published formulas by each criteria examined. In contrast to the latter, the mean error (actual minus predicted weight) of most new equations did not significantly differ from zero when tested prospectively. In addition, it appeared that the accuracy of two new formulas not incorporating femur length could be further enhanced in the group of fetuses whose femur length differed from the mean by at least 2 standard deviations by multiplying the predicted weight by the ratio of actual to mean femur length. The authors conclude that the use of head circumference and femur length coupled with a population restricted to the preterm fetus enhances the accuracy of sonographic weight predictions. PMID:3889747

  5. BMI, BMI indices, and waist-to-height changes during teen years in girls are influenced by childhood BMI

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Frank M; Huang, Bin; Morrison, John A; Horn, Paul S; Daniels, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined longitudinal changes in waist-to-height ratio and components of BMI among black and white females. Methods Girls were recruited at age 9 through the NHLBI Growth and Health Study (NGHS), and followed annually over ten years. Girls were grouped into low (<20th %tile), middle, and high (>80th %tile) BMI on the basis of race-specific BMI percentile rankings at age 9, and low, middle, and high waist-to-height ratio, on the basis of waist-to-height ratio at age 11. BMI was partitioned into fat mass and fat-free mass index (FMI and FFMI). Results Girls accrued fat mass at a greater rate than fat-free mass, and the ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass increased from ages 9 through 18. There was a significant increase in this ratio after age at peak height velocity. Participants with elevated BMI and waist-to-height ratios at age 18 tended to have been elevated at ages 9 and 11, respectively. There were strong correlations between BMI at age 9 with several outcomes at age 18: BMI (0.76) and FMI (0.72), weaker but significant with FFMI (0.37), and ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass (0.53). Additionally, there was significant tracking of elevated BMI from ages 9 through 18. Conclusions In girls, higher BMI levels during childhood lead to greater waist-to-height ratios and greater than expected changes in BMI at age 18, with disproportionate increases in fat mass. These changes are especially evident in blacks and after the pubertal growth spurt. PMID:20159501

  6. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  7. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Hatano, Taku; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Satoh, Katsuya; Kimura, Akio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of autopsy-verified MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 46-year-old patient with a 16-month history of abnormal behavior, progressive dementia, insomnia, and speech disturbances without family history. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, insomnia, speech disturbance, gait disturbance and bilaterally exaggerated tendon reflexes. Both brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, including 14-3-3 protein, yielded normal results. An easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis for (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata. PRNP gene analysis revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Neuropathological examinations revealed severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. A slight depletion of Purkinje cells was observed. PrP immunostaining showed no obvious PrP deposits in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, or brainstem; however, mild synaptic-type PrP deposits with some smaller plaque-like structures were only partially observed in the localized region of the frontal lobe with the spongiform change. Western blot analyses of protease-resistant PrP showed a type 2 pattern. In conclusion, eZIS analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images is useful for detecting both thalamic and medullary lesions. This is the first case of medullary lesions detected in a live patient with MM2-thalamic-type sCJD using SPECT. PMID:26421831

  8. Interplay between top-down, bottom-up, and wasp-waist control in marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; McKinnell, Skip

    2006-02-01

    In October 2004, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) sponsored a symposium to consider “ Mechanisms that regulate North Pacific ecosystems: Bottom up, top down, or something else?” It sought to examine how marine populations, particularly the upper-trophic-level species, are regulated and to understand how energy flows through marine ecosystems. This introductory essay examines aspects of control mechanisms in pelagic marine ecosystems and some of the issues discussed during the symposium and in the 11 papers that were selected for this special issue. At global scales, the greatest biomass of fishes, seabirds and marine mammals tends to occur in regions of the world ocean with high primary production, e.g., the sub-arctic seas and up-welling regions of continental shelves. These large-scale animal distribution patterns are driven by food availability, not the absence of predators. At regional scales however, it is likely that current predation or past predation events have shaped local distributions, at least in marine birds and pinnipeds. Wasp-waist control occurs when one of the intermediate trophic levels is dominated by a single species, as occurs with small pelagic fishes of the world’s up-welling zones. Processes in these ecosystems may have features that result in a switch from bottom-up to top-down control.

  9. DAFNE Setup And Operation With the Crab-Waist Collision Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /SLAC

    2011-10-21

    In the second half of 2007 a major upgrade has been implemented on the Frascati DA{Phi}NE collider in order to test the novel idea of Crab-Waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, built and installed to realize the new configuration. At the same time the performances of relevant hardware components, such as fast injection kickers and shielded bellows have been improved relying on new design concepts. The collider has been successfully commissioned in this new configuration. The paper describes several experimental results about linear and non-linear optics setup and optimization, damping of beam-beam instabilities and discusses the obtained luminosity performances. DA{Phi}NE [1] is the Frascati lepton collider working at the c m. energy of the {Phi} meson resonance (1020). It came in operation in 2001 and till summer 2007 provided luminosity, in sequence, to three different experiments which logged a total integrated luminosity of {approx} 4.4 fb{sup -1}. During these years the collider reached its best performances in terms of luminosity and background (L{sub peak} = 1.6 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} L{sub day} {approx} 10 pb{sup -1}) by means of several successive upgrades, relying on the experience gathered during the collider operations and implemented exploiting the shutdowns required for the experiment change over [2, 3, 4].

  10. Ideal female body shape: role of body weight and waist-to-hip ratio.

    PubMed

    Singh, D

    1994-11-01

    Interrelationships of female body fat distribution as measured by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), overall body size, perceived attractiveness, youthfulness, health, and need to lose weight were investigated. Drawings showing thin females with high WHRs and heavier females with low WHRs were presented to college-age women with low and high scores on the Restrained Eating Scale (Herman & Polivy. [1980]. Obesity [pp. 208-225]. Philadelphia: Saunders) and men who ranked figures for various attributes. Female subjects, regardless of their eating style, as well as male subjects, judged heavier female target figures with low WHRs as more attractive and healthier than thinner figures with higher WHRs. The rankings for youthfulness and need to lose weight were not systematically affected by the size of the WHR. Female subjects perceived heavier female target figures with low WHR to represent ideal female figures. Female subjects with a restrained eating style felt their own body was not similar to idealized female figures and expressed unhappiness with their body shape; this was not true of unrestrained eaters. It is proposed that female attractiveness and ideal female shape may be more influenced by WHR than overall body size. PMID:7833962

  11. Heat Transfer Over the Circumference of a Heated Cylinder in Transverse Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Ernst; Wenner, Karl

    1943-01-01

    A method for recording the local heat-transfer coefficients on bodies in flow was developed. The cylinder surface was kept at constant temperature by the condensation of vapor except for a narrow strip which is heated separately to the same temperature by electricity. The heat-transfer coefficient at each point was determined from the electric heat output and the temperature increase. The distribution of the heat transfer along the circumference of cylinders was recorded over a range of Reynolds numbers of from 5000 to 426,000. The pressure distribution was measured at the same time. At Reynolds numbers up to around 100,000 high maximums of the heat transfer occurred in the forward stagnation point at and on the rear side at 180C, while at around 80 the heat-transfer coefficient on both sides of the cylinder behind the forward stagnation point manifested distinct minimums. Two other maximums occurred at around 115 C behind the forward stagnation point between 170,000 and 426,000. At 426,000 the heat transfer at the location of those maximums was almost twice as great as in the forward stagnation point, and the rear half of the cylinder diffused about 60 percent of the entire heat, The tests are compared with the results of other experimental and theoretical investigations.

  12. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1989-08-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but the sexual orientation of individuals, when derived from the early stage of erectile response to brief stimuli that were from their onset of moderate erotic strength. PCR assessment has been of the degree of erection to stimuli of 2-10 min duration. No success has been reported using PCR measures of erection to classify subjects individually as to their sexual orientation. Classification of groups of 30 but not 6 homosexuals was successful using their PCRs to nudes. Attempts to identify rapists and pedophiles from normals, and aggressive from nonaggressive rapists and pedophiles by PCRs have failed to be replicated. In comparing PVRs and PCRs, Wheeler and Rubin used as stimuli three 10-min presentations of a film which apparently did not immediately introduce erotic material. This procedure would not elicit meaningful PVRs. Though never validated as a measure of individuals' sexual arousal, PCR measures of erection are currently widely recommended for assessment and determining treatment of individual sex offenders. If these assessments could affect or are believed by the offenders to affect the outcome of the legal processes in which they are involved, the procedure is not only scientifically unsupported, it is unethical. PMID:2673137

  13. Genome-Wide Mapping of Loci Explaining Variance in Scrotal Circumference in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Márcia C.; Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Ito, Pier K. R. K.; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Sölkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Schenkel, Flávio S.; McEwan, John; Cole, John B.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility. PMID:24558400

  14. Factors influencing waist/hip ratio in randomly selected pre- and post-menopausal women in the dom-project (preliminary results).

    PubMed

    Tonkelaar, I D; Seidell, J C; van Noord, P A; Baanders-van Halewijn, E A; Jacobus, J H; Bruning, P F

    1989-01-01

    In 452 pre- and post-menopausal women aged 41-75, participating in a breast cancer screening programme, we studied the associations between several factors and waist/hip ratio. Differences in waist/hip ratio between pre- and post-menopausal women could be accounted for by age and degree of obesity. In post-menopausal women, waist/hip ratio was positively related to age, independently of the degree of obesity. Post-menopausal women who reported to use oestrogens for menopausal complaints were found to have lower waist/hip values compared to non-users (0.74 vs 0.78 P less than 0.05). Waist/hip ratio was not related to age at menopause, age at menarche or parity. We confirmed that the Quetelet's index is positively related to waist/hip ratio and that, at least before menopause, smokers have higher waist/hip values compared to non-smokers although the mechanisms for such an association remain obscure. Hypertension was associated with abdominal fat distribution in premenopausal but not in post-menopausal women. Diabetes mellitus was associated with abdominal fat distribution in post-menopausal women. These observations in this cross-sectional study suggest that environmental factors (smoking and oestrogen use after menopause) relate to the distribution of fat over the body. The other observations illustrate the importance of stratifying for menopausal status in studies on fat distribution in women. PMID:2621054

  15. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo; García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Hernández-López, Leonor Estela

    2015-01-01

    We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs) and body mass indices (BMIs). Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6?mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b ± s.e. = ?0.000003 ± 0.000001; ?t94 = ?2.12, adjusted R2 = ?0.008, ?P = 0.03). Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days. PMID:26351453

  16. Functional group biodiversity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems questions the wasp-waist trophic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréon, Pierre; Arístegui, Javier; Bertrand, Arnaud; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Field, John C.; Gibbons, Mark J.; Tam, Jorge; Hutchings, Larry; Masski, Hicham; Mullon, Christian; Ramdani, Mohamed; Seret, Bernard; Simier, Monique

    2009-12-01

    The species diversity of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems (EBUEs) is studied and compared with the aim of better understanding their functioning. Functional groups (FGs) of organisms were defined according to their taxonomy, body size and trophic level (TL), and span from plankton to top predators. Four large sub-divisions are defined in each system: two latitudinal sub-divisions (north and south) and two zonal sub-divisions (inshore and offshore), resulting in four sub-ecosystems per EBUE. A semi-quantitative approach is used in which only the dominant species (contributing 90% of overall biomass) are considered. EBUEs are compared in regard to their species composition, dominant species richness and evenness within FGs. The data are interpreted, focusing on latitudinal, zonal and depth gradients of diversity. Trophic flows (inflow and outflow) through the small pelagic fish FG are derived from different Ecopath models. This analysis of the four ecosystems and their sub-divisions does not provide support for the expected wasp-waist food web structure and functioning, with a single or several species of small pelagic fish primarily channelling the energy flow from lower to higher TL. Instead, similar low levels of richness were observed in many FGs of intermediate TL, allowing several energy transfer pathways. The gamma diversity is high due to the geographical distance between EBUEs and the presence or absence of rivers, but not to differences in their latitudinal position. The beta diversity is also high, due to the same factors plus the variation in shelf width and the contrast between inshore and offshore sub-divisions. The differences in richness and evenness among EBUEs are minor and do not explain the higher secondary and tertiary productivity of the Humboldt ecosystem.

  17. Center of pressure control for balance maintenance during lateral waist-pull perturbations in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masahiro; Bair, Woei-Nan; Rogers, Mark W

    2015-04-13

    When balance is disturbed, location of the center of pressure (COP) contributes to a person's ability to recover from a perturbation. This study investigated COP control prior to first step lift-off (FSLO) during lateral perturbations in older non-fallers and fallers. 38 non-fallers and 16 fallers received lateral waist-pulls at 5 different intensities. Crossover stepping responses at the intensity level where the largest number of subjects responded with crossover steps were analyzed. Whole-body center of mass (COM) and COP positions in the medio-lateral (ML) direction with respect to the base of support (BOS), and COP velocity were calculated. An inverted pendulum model was used to define the BOS stability boundary at FSLO, which was also adjusted using the COP position at FSLO (functional boundary). No significant differences were found in the COP velocities between fallers and non-fallers (p>.093). However, the COP positions for fallers were located significantly more medial at FSLO (p?.01), resulting in a significantly reduced functional boundary. Although the stability margins, measures of stability based on the BOS, were significantly larger than zero for fallers (p?.004), they were not significantly different from zero for the functional boundary, i.e., reaching the functional stability limit. Fallers had reduced functional limits of stability in the ML direction, which would predispose them to more precarious stability conditions than non-fallers. This could be a cause for taking more steps than non-fallers for balance recovery as we observed. The functional boundary estimation may be a more sensitive marker of balance instability than the BOS boundary. PMID:25728580

  18. Anatomy of Main Coronary Artery Location: Radial Position around the Aortic Root Circumference.

    PubMed

    Almuwaqqat, Zakaria; Tranquilli, Maryann; Elefteriades, John

    2012-09-01

    There is a relative dearth of fundamental anatomic information regarding the radial component of right and left coronary ostial location along the circumference of the aortic root. Recent literature has emphasized the importance of this anatomic component in the orientation of coronary buttons for the composite graft operation, especially as regards the use of porcine biological roots or design of novel mechanical or biological composite grafts. Problems in orientation of reattached buttons can lead to life-threatening ischemia. We assessed the radial location of native coronary arteries or coronary artery buttons by high-definition computed tomography scan in 100 patients (75 consecutive aneurysm patients undergoing aortic root replacement [ARR] and 25 control patients undergoing coronary artery bypass). We excluded six patients with unclear coronary anatomy and one with an anomalous origin. The center point of the aortic lumen was located, radii were drawn from there to each coronary ostium, and the angle was computed geometrically. The mean angle between the radii for the right and left coronary ostia was 122.9 degrees. The angle was similar for bicuspid and tri-leaflet aneurysm patients, 121.0 and 122.7 degrees, respectively. The angle was similar for aneurysm patients (121.6 degrees) and for controls (126.5 degrees). The angle showed very little variation among individuals for the overall group (standard deviation [SD] 13.1 degrees), for the aneurysm patients (SD 13.4 degrees), and for the controls (SD 12 degrees). This angle is different from that of the porcine roots (145 degrees) which are commonly used for ARR. The normal human angular separation between the right and left coronary ostia is 122.9 degrees for both aneurysm and control patients. This anatomic relationship is very different from that of porcine aortic roots. This anatomy needs to be borne in mind intraoperatively. This anatomic relationship can be used in the design of novel aortic root biological or composite grafts. PMID:23997554

  19. Adjusting head circumference for covariates in autism: clinical correlates of a highly heritable continuous trait

    PubMed Central

    Chaste, Pauline; Klei, Lambertus; Sanders, Stephan J.; Murtha, Michael T.; Hus, Vanessa; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Yu, Timothy W.; Fombonne, Eric; Geschwind, Daniel; Grice, Dorothy E.; Ledbetter, David H.; Lord, Catherine; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa Lese; Martin, Donna M.; Morrow, Eric M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Sutcliffe, James S.; State, Matthew W.; Devlin, Bernie; Cook, Edwin H.; Kim, Soo-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brain development follows a different trajectory in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) than in typically developing children. A proxy for neurodevelopment could be head circumference (HC), but studies assessing HC and its clinical correlates in ASD have been inconsistent. This study investigates HC and clinical correlates in the Simons Simplex Collection cohort. METHODS We used a mixed linear model to estimate effects of covariates and the deviation from the expected HC given parental HC (genetic deviation). After excluding individuals with incomplete data, 7225 individuals in 1891 families remained for analysis. We examined the relationship between HC/genetic deviation of HC and clinical parameters. RESULTS Gender, age, height, weight, genetic ancestry and ASD status were significant predictors of HC (estimate of the ASD effect=0.2cm). HC was approximately normally distributed in probands and unaffected relatives, with only a few outliers. Genetic deviation of HC was also normally distributed, consistent with a random sampling of parental genes. Whereas larger HC than expected was associated with ASD symptom severity and regression, IQ decreased with the absolute value of the genetic deviation of HC. CONCLUSIONS Measured against expected values derived from covariates of ASD subjects, statistical outliers for HC were uncommon. HC is a strongly heritable trait and population norms for HC would be far more accurate if covariates including genetic ancestry, height and age were taken into account. The association of diminishing IQ with absolute deviation from predicted HC values suggests HC could reflect subtle underlying brain development and warrants further investigation. PMID:23746936

  20. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam H.; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n?=?3521, age range?=?42–71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1–Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with ?-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P?circumference in the development of DM. PMID:26681338

  1. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES).

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam H; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n?=?3521, age range?=?42-71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1-Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with ?-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P?circumference in the development of DM. PMID:26681338

  2. The effects of waist-to-hip ratio and body weight on male judgements of female physical attractiveness, wife desirability, and health, both within and between cultures. 

    E-print Network

    McLean, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary theories maintain that female physical attractiveness has evolved to honestly signal health and reproductive potential. Both a low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a critical range of body weight have received ...

  3. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Thi, Hai Nguyen; Khanh, Dung Khu Thi; Thu, Ha Le Thi; Thomas, Emma G.; Lee, Katherine J.; Russell, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW) and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age. Materials and Methods An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8) were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared. Results 485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–0.99), and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92–0.96). The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ?7.4cm for foot length; ?30.4cm for chest circumference; and ? 9.0cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements) but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm). Conclusions All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure that the application of these measures is reliable in community settings. PMID:26555356

  4. Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-03-01

    During the reign of King Sejong (??, 1418-1450) in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(?), Jin(?), and Yuan(?) dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak), and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (??) based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree) like Honsang (a celestial globe). We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial) has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter). This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.

  5. The occipitofrontal circumference: reliable prediction of the intracranial volume in children with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Rijken, Bianca Francisca Maria; den Ottelander, Bianca Kelly; van Veelen, Marie-Lise Charlotte; Lequin, Maarten Hans; Mathijssen, Irene Margreet Jacqueline

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis are characterized by the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. These patients are at risk for developing elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). There are several factors known to contribute to elevated ICP in these patients, including craniocerebral disproportion, hydrocephalus, venous hypertension, and obstructive sleep apnea. However, the causal mechanism is unknown, and patients develop elevated ICP even after skull surgery. In clinical practice, the occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) is used as an indirect measure for intracranial volume (ICV), to evaluate skull growth. However, it remains unknown whether OFC is a reliable predictor of ICV in patients with a severe skull deformity. Therefore, in this study the authors evaluated the relation between ICV and OFC. METHODS Eighty-four CT scans obtained in 69 patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis treated at the Erasmus University Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital were included. The ICV was calculated based on CT scans by using autosegmentation with an HU threshold < 150. The OFC was collected from electronic patient files. The CT scans and OFC measurements were matched based on a maximum amount of the time that was allowed between these examinations, which was dependent on age. A Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the correlations between OFC and ICV. The predictive value of OFC, age, and sex on ICV was then further evaluated using a univariate linear mixed model. The significant factors in the univariate analysis were subsequently entered in a multivariate mixed model. RESULTS The correlations found between OFC and ICV were r = 0.908 for the total group (p < 0.001), r = 0.981 for Apert (p < 0.001), r = 0.867 for Crouzon-Pfeiffer (p < 0.001), r = 0.989 for Muenke (p < 0.001), r = 0.858 for Saethre- Chotzen syndrome (p = 0.001), and r = 0.917 for complex craniosynostosis (p < 0.001). Age and OFC were significant predictors of ICV in the univariate linear mixed model (p < 0.001 for both factors). The OFC was the only predictor that remained significant in the multivariate analysis (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The OFC is a significant predictor of ICV in patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis. Therefore, measuring the OFC during clinical practice is very useful in determining which patients are at risk for impaired skull growth. PMID:25929971

  6. Association between muscular strength and metabolic risk in Japanese women, but not in men.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Tomoko; Asaka, Meiko; Ishijima, Toshimichi; Kawano, Hiroshi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO(2)max) and muscular strength (grip strength) are associated with individual and clustered metabolic risk factors independently of abdominal adiposity in Japanese men (n=110) and women (n=110) aged 20-69 years. Blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were assessed and metabolic risk score was calculated, which is the sum of the z scores for each individual risk factor. Waist circumference was measured and the area of visceral fat was assessed by MRI. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that VO(2)max was inversely associated with TG in men (p<0.05) and grip strength was negatively associated with FPG and metabolic risk score in women (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively), independently of waist circumference. Adjusting for visceral fat instead of waist circumference, similar results were obtained in women (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), but the association between VO(2)max and TG in men was attenuated to nonsignificant. This cross-sectional study demonstrates that muscular strength is inversely associated with plasma glucose levels and clustered metabolic risk factors independently of abdominal adiposity in Japanese women, but not in men. PMID:21804295

  7. Assessing the short-term outcomes of a community-based intervention for overweight and obese children: The MEND 5-7 programme

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L R; Chadwick, P; Radley, D; Kolotourou, M; Gammon, C S; Rosborough, J; Sacher, P M

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to report outcomes of the UK service level delivery of MEND (Mind,Exercise,Nutrition...Do it!) 5-7, a multicomponent, community-based, healthy lifestyle intervention designed for overweight and obese children aged 5–7?years and their families. Design Repeated measures. Setting Community venues at 37 locations across the UK. Participants 440 overweight or obese children (42% boys; mean age 6.1?years; body mass index (BMI) z-score 2.86) and their parents/carers participated in the intervention. Intervention MEND 5-7 is a 10-week, family-based, child weight-management intervention consisting of weekly group sessions. It includes positive parenting, active play, nutrition education and behaviour change strategies. The intervention is designed to be scalable and delivered by a range of health and social care professionals. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was BMI z-score. Secondary outcome measures included BMI, waist circumference, waist circumference z-score, children's psychological symptoms, parenting self-efficacy, physical activity and sedentary behaviours and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables. Results 274 (62%) children were measured preintervention and post-intervention (baseline; 10-weeks). Post-intervention, mean BMI and waist circumference decreased by 0.5?kg/m2 and 0.9?cm, while z-scores decreased by 0.20 and 0.20, respectively (p<0.0001). Improvements were found in children's psychological symptoms (?1.6 units, p<0.0001), parent self-efficacy (p<0.0001), physical activity (+2.9?h/week, p<0.01), sedentary activities (?4.1?h/week, p<0.0001) and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables per day (both p<0.0001). Attendance at the 10 sessions was 73% with a 70% retention rate. Conclusions Participation in the MEND 5-7 programme was associated with beneficial changes in physical, behavioural and psychological outcomes for children with complete sets of measurement data, when implemented in UK community settings under service level conditions. Further investigation is warranted to establish if these findings are replicable under controlled conditions. PMID:23645925

  8. Modified Taylor-Couette Flow in Multiply-Waisted Hourglass Geometries Simulations based upon Reaction-Diffusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Hou, Yu; Kowalski, Adam; Wiener, Richard

    2006-05-01

    The Reaction-Diffusion model predicted a period doubling cascade to chaos in a situation analagous Taylor- Couette flow with hourglass geometry. This cascade to chaos was discovered in the actual fluid flow experiments. We model Taylor-Couette flow in a cylindrical geometry with multiple waists of super-critical flow connected by regions of barely super-critical flow by corresponding Reaction-Diffusion models. We compare our results to the findings of an ongoing experimental program. H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991). Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).

  9. Luminosity and background measurements at the e +e -DA?NE collider upgraded with the crab waist scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; Raimondi, P.; Sensolini, G.; Schioppa, M.; Iacoangeli, F.; Valente, P.; Arnaud, N.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Viaud, B.; Branchini, P.

    2010-09-01

    The crab waist collision scheme has been successfully tested at the e +e - Frascati collider during the 2008-2009 runs: the gain in luminosity is consistent with the predictions while the background remains sustainable. Among the various inputs used by the DA?NE accelerator team to steer this new machine and improve its performances, key online information, absolute luminosity and background level measurements, has been provided by the LUMI detectors: a Bhabha calorimeter and two gamma bremsstrahlung proportional counters. This paper focuses on the results achieved with this experimental setup, described in details in another article.

  10. Refractive index sensor based on combination of tilted fiber Bragg grating and waist-enlarged fusion bitaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohang; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Jingyi; Li, Yi; Dong, Xinyong

    2015-12-01

    Refractive index measurement by using the combination of a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) and a waist-enlarged fusion bitaper (WEFBT) is proposed and demonstrated. The both devices can couple light between core and cladding modes with coupling coefficients depending on ambient refractive index. It is found that the proposed refractive index sensor offers two measurement ranges respectively from 1.333 to 1.428 and from 1.383 to 1.453 when different sensing segment is used, in addition to advantages of reflection operation mode and intensity-modulated measurement.

  11. Chest Circumference as a Predictive Parameter of Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography Radiation Doses from Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Erdem Sagsoz, M.; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Ogul, Hayri; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our aim in this study was to determine the relationship between chest circumference and the radiation doses received by breast tissues during Dual-Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) cardiac scans. Materials and Methods: Routine cardiac DSCT examinations with similar exposure lengths were applied to 30 female patients. The scanogram image, multi-slice helical scan x-ray tube voltage and anode-cathode current were adjusted automatically according to attenuation for each patient during the scanogram acquisition. The standard protocol was otherwise applied to all patients. The 30 patients had an average weight of 67.8±15.3 kg, and the average length of the scanned region was 278.0±11.6 mm. Radiation doses were calculated from the dose-length product (DLP) and the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) scanner data values. The correlations between radiation dose and chest circumference were investigated. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: For routine cardiac DSCT scans, the average values were as follows: total DLP: 715.54±317.01 mGycm, CTDIvol: 40.79±19.41 mGy, and effective dose (ED): 17.89±7.93 mSv. The chest circumference of patients correlates well with their radiation exposure (p<0.01). Conclusion: The distribution of different tissues throughout the human body may vary among races and genders. Because of this, many researchers use body mass index (BMI) to set image quality and predict the radiation dose distribution from general computed tomography (CT) examinations. Additional anthropomorphic phantom studies should be conducted to determine more accurate conversion factors and, hence, better ED predictions. PMID:25610247

  12. Treatment of Nonunion of Scaphoid Waist with Ni-Ti Shape-Memory Alloy Connector and Iliac Bone Graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lie-Hu; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Wu, Ya-Le; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-07-01

    After fracture, the unique anatomy and blood supply of the scaphoid itself predisposes to nonunion. Scaphoid nonunion presents a formidable challenge to surgeons because of the difficulties for fixation, and the high failure rate after treatment. The Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy can provide compressive stress at the nonunion site, which is the key point for bone healing. Hence, we designed a shape-memory bone connector named arched shape-memory connector (ASC). We conducted a retrospective study looking at the union rate and complications and correlating the outcome of treatment with this device. The study reviewed a cohort of six consecutive patients presenting with scaphoid waist nonunion, who were treated with ASC and iliac cancellous bone grafting at our center from August 2002 to December 2007. The patients with nonunion achieved a 100% union rate. All the patients who achieved union had good pain relief and improved function. Our study demonstrates that scaphoid waist nonunions can be successfully treated by ASC and iliac bone grafting.

  13. Identification of a dietary pattern associated with greater cardiometabolic risk in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Appannah, G.; Pot, G.K.; Huang, R.C.; Oddy, W.H.; Beilin, L.J.; Mori, T.A.; Jebb, S.A.; Ambrosini, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Energy dense, high fat, low fibre diets may contribute to obesity in young people, however their relationships with other cardiometabolic risk factors are unclear. We examined associations between an ‘energy-dense, high-fat and low-fibre’ dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors, and the tracking of this DP in adolescence. Methods and results Data was sourced from participants in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort Study. At 14 and 17 y, dietary intake, anthropometric and biochemical data were measured and z-scores for an ‘energy dense, high fat and low fibre’ DP were estimated using reduced rank regression (RRR). Associations between DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined using regression models. Tracking of DP z-scores was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A 1 SD unit increase in DP z-score between 14 and 17 y was associated with a 20% greater odds of high metabolic risk (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) and a 0.04 mmol/L higher fasting glucose in boys (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08); a 28% greater odds of a high-waist circumference (95% CI: 1.00, 1.63) in girls. An increase of 3% and 4% was observed for insulin and HOMA (95% CI: 1%, 7%), respectively, in boys and girls, for every 1 SD increase in DP z-score and independently of BMI. The DP showed moderate tracking between 14 and 17 y of age (r = 0.51 for boys, r = 0.45 for girls). Conclusion An ‘energy dense, high fat, low fibre’ DP is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and tends to persist throughout adolescence. PMID:26026208

  14. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Metabolic Risk and Quality of Life in Hong Kong Chinese Adults with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention to improve metabolic risk profiles and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We conducted a controlled trial within an university-affiliated hospital. 173 Chinese men and women aged 18 or above were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the control group (n = 86). Primary outcomes included 12-week change in metabolic risk factors and MetS z score. Secondary outcome was HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey at 12 weeks). Results The mean age of participants was 52.0 (SD 7.4, range 31-71) years. Analysis involving the entire study population revealed that the yoga group achieved greater decline in waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05), and MetS z score (p<0.01). Yoga training also improved general health perceptions (p<0.01), physical component score (p<0.01), and social functioning (p<0.01) domains score of HRQoL. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the mean change of systolic/diastolic blood pressures or high-density lipid protein cholesterol (all p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the intervention effects on waist circumference and MetS z score between the MetS subgroups (both p>0.05). Conclusion A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention improves metabolic risk profiles and HRQoL in Chinese adults with and without MetS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000816752 PMID:26111165

  15. Added impact of obesity and insulin resistance in nocturnal blood pressure elevation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Torro, Isabel; Aguilar, Francisco; Alvarez, Julio; Alcon, Jose; Pascual, Jose Maria; Redon, Josep

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between insulin resistance and the ambulatory blood pressure components in obese children and adolescents. Eighty-seven overweight and obese white children and adolescents of both sexes, of European origin from 6 to 18 years of age (mean age: 10.9+/-2.7 years), were selected. Obesity was defined on the basis of a threshold body mass index z score >2 (Cole's least mean square method) and overweight with a body mass index from the 85th to 97th percentile. A validated oscillometric method was used to measure ambulatory BP (Spacelabs 90207) during 24 hours. Fasting glucose and insulin were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment index was calculated. Subjects were grouped into tertiles of homeostasis model assessment index. No significant differences in terms of age, sex, and body mass index z score distribution were observed among groups. When adjusted by age, sex, and height, nocturnal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher in subjects in the highest homeostasis model assessment index tertile (>4.7) as compared with those of the other groups, whereas no differences were observed for awake systolic blood pressure or heart rate. Whereas body mass index z score was more closely related with blood pressure and heart rate values, waist circumference was strongly related with insulin resistance. Moreover, both waist circumference and insulin resistance were mainly associated with higher nocturnal but not with awake blood pressure. The early increment of nocturnal blood pressure and heart rate associated with hyperinsulinemia may be a harbinger of hypertension-related insulin resistance and may contribute to heightened cardiovascular risk associated with this condition. PMID:18195166

  16. Stunting, adiposity, and the individual-level “dual burden” among urban lowland and rural highland peruvian children

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Background The causes of the “dual burden” of stunting and obesity remain unclear, and its existence at the individual level varies between populations. We investigate whether the individual dual burden differentially affects low socioeconomic status Peruvian children from contrasting environments (urban lowlands and rural highlands), and whether tibia length can discount the possible autocorrelation between adiposity proxies and height due to height measurement error. Methods Stature, tibia length, weight, and waist circumference were measured in children aged 3–8.5 years (n?=?201). Height and body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated using international reference data. Age-sex-specific centile curves were also calculated for height, BMI, and tibia length. Adiposity proxies (BMI z score, waist circumference-height ratio (WCHtR)) were regressed on height and also on tibia length z scores. Results Regression model interaction terms between site (highland vs. lowland) and height indicate that relationships between adiposity and linear growth measures differed significantly between samples (P?

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

  18. Abdominal fat mass is associated with adaptive immune activation: the CODAM Study.

    PubMed

    Thewissen, Marielle M; Damoiseaux, Jan G; Duijvestijn, Adriaan M; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M; van der Kallen, Carla J; Feskens, Edith J; Blaak, Ellen E; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Stehouwer, Coen D; Cohen Tervaert, Jan W; Ferreira, Isabel

    2011-08-01

    Abdominal fat-related activation of the innate immune system and insulin resistance (IR) are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Recent data support an important role of the adaptive immune system as well. In this study, we investigate the association between waist circumference and markers of systemic adaptive immune activation, and the potential mediating role of innate immune activation and/or IR herein. The study population consisted of 477 (304 men) individuals (mean age: 59.4 ± 7.0 years) in whom waist circumference, HOMA2-IR (IR derived from homeostasis model assessment), and markers of innate (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, serum amyloid A (SAA)) and adaptive (neopterin, soluble CD25 (sCD25)) immune activation were measured. These markers were compiled into an adaptive and innate immune activation score by averaging the respective z-scores. After adjustments for age, sex, glucose metabolism, smoking status, prior cardiovascular disease, and other risk factors, waist circumference was associated with the adaptive (standardized regression coefficient ? = 0.12 (95% confidence intervals: 0.04-0.20)) and the innate immune activation scores (? = 0.24 (0.17-0.31)), and with HOMA2-IR (? = 0.49 (0.42-0.56)). The innate immune activation score and HOMA2-IR were also positively associated with the adaptive immune activation score (? = 0.31 (0.21-0.40) and ? = 0.11 (0.02-0.21), respectively). The association between waist circumference and the adaptive immune activation score was completely abolished when further adjusted for innate immune activation and HOMA2-IR (to ? = -0.01 (-0.10-0.08)), and the specific mediation "effects" attributable to each of these variables were 58% and 42%, respectively. We conclude that abdominal obesity is associated with systemic adaptive immune activation and that innate immune activation and IR constitute independent and equally important pathways explaining this association. PMID:21253003

  19. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’s education, maternal age, parity, BMI, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference respectively (p<0.05 for all) and Kohs’ block design score (visuo-spatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p<0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities and attention and concentration. In conclusion higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuo-spatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  20. Endoscopic Modified Medial Maxillectomy for Resection of an Inverted Papilloma Originating from the Entire Circumference of the Maxillary Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Kota; Ishigaki, Takashi; Ida, Yutaro; Yamada, Yuki; Hosono, Sachiko; Edamatsu, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    For treatment of a sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP), it is essential to have a definite diagnosis, to identify its origin by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to select the appropriate surgical approach based on the staging system proposed by Krouse. Recently, a new surgical approach named endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) was proposed. This approach can preserve the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct. We successfully treated sinonasal IP with EMMM in a 71-year-old female patient. In this patient, the sinonasal IP originated from the entire circumference of the maxillary sinus. EMMM is not a difficult procedure and provides good visibility of the operative field. Lacrimation and empty nose syndrome do not occur postoperatively as the nasolacrimal duct and inferior turbinate are preserved. EMMM is considered to be a very favorable approach for treatment of sinonasal IP. PMID:26146581

  1. Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation into the Potential Role of Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Preference within the Assortative Mating Hypothesis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Walker, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Of particular interest to studying the etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is the potential for multiple risk factors to combine through non-random mechanisms--assortative mating. Both genetic influences and a high-testosterone prenatal environment have been implicated in the etiology of ASDs, and given that waist-hip ratio (WHR) is…

  3. Adenovirus 36 infection: a role in dietary intake and response to inpatient weight management in obese girls.

    PubMed

    Zamrazilová, H; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I; Atkinson, R L; Dušátková, L; Sedlá?ková, B; Lee, Z P; Kunešová, M; Hill, M; Hainer, V

    2015-12-01

    Human adenovirus 36 (Adv36) increases adiposity and is more prevalent in overweight and obese children. Dietary intake in animal models is comparable regardless of Adv36 status. The effects of Adv36 on obesity treatment outcomes have not been clarified. The aim of this study is to investigate the pre-treatment dietary intake and the response to a 4-week inpatient weight management in 184 obese adolescent girls aged 13.0-17.9 years with respect to the presence of Adv36 antibodies. Evaluation of 3-day dietary records did not show any difference in daily intake of energy and essential nutrients between Adv36 antibody positive and negative girls. After the intervention Adv36 positive girls presented with significantly greater decrease of waist circumference (P=0.020), z-score of waist circumference (P=0.024), waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.007) and weight-to-height ratio (P=0.019) compared with Adv36 negative girls. On the contrary, the sum of four skinfolds decreased significantly more in Adv36 negative than in Adv36 positive individuals (P=0.013). Neither body fat percentage nor metabolic and hormonal parameters showed any significant relevance to Adv36 status in response to weight loss intervention. In conclusion, energy restriction in Adv36 antibody positive girls was associated with greater decrease of abdominal obesity and preservation of subcutaneous fat tissue than in those antibody negative. PMID:26303351

  4. Body Mass and Circumference of Upper Arm Are Associated with Race Performance in Ultraendurance Runners in a Multistage Race--The Isarrun 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Welzel, Ulrich; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association of anthropometric parameters with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage ultraendurance run, in which athletes had to run 338 km within 5 consecutive days. In 17 male successful finishers, calculations of body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, extremity circumference,…

  5. Genetic and Environmental Relationships between Head Circumference Growth in the First Year of Life and Sociocognitive Development in the Second Year: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Ozaki, Koken; Suzuki, Kunitake; Yamagata, Shinji; Kawahashi, Ikko; Ando, Juko

    2012-01-01

    Although growth in head circumference (HC) during infancy is known to predict later childhood outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this association with later sociocognitive abilities remain undetermined. Thus, using a sample of 241 pairs of normally developing Japanese twins, this study investigated the underpinnings of the association between HC…

  6. Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) - CTN 0037: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    BMI), and waist circumference Baseline, each supervised exercise session To measure resting heart rateBMI), and waist circumference. For those partici- pants in the exercise intervention, resting heart rate

  7. Disruption of the gastroesophageal junction by central obesity and waist belt: role of raised intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; McColl, K E L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major reason for the recent increase in incidence of reflux disease and cancers at the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) and is mediated through a rise in the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) but the exact mechanisms are unclear. Raised IAP from obesity and with application of waist belt produces mechanical distortion of the GOJ through formation of partial hiatus hernia. Even though there is no trans-sphincteric acid reflux, there is increased ingress of acid into the lower sphincter (intra-sphincteric reflux) as a consequence of raised IAP. In addition, short segment acid reflux is more evident in obese subjects with a belt on. Acid pocket is also enlarged in hiatus hernia, and acts as a reservoir of acid available to reflux whenever the sphincter fails. Above mechanisms may explain the common occurrence of cardiac lengthening and inflammation found in asymptomatic obese subjects. The inflamed cardia is also immunohistochemically similar to non-intestinal Barrett's mucosa, which is of etiological importance for cancers at the GOJ. Interventions that can reduce the mechanical distortion and acid exposure at the GOJ, including diet, exercise, drugs, sphincter augmentation therapy, and surgery, are clinically relevant in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease but more data are needed whether if these strategies are also effective in preventing cancer. As a conclusion, raised IAP produces silent mechanical disruption of the GOJ, which may explain the high occurrence of cancers in this region and it is potentially reversible with early interventions. PMID:24575877

  8. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  9. Template-free synthesis of Nd0.1Bi0.9FeO3 nanotubes with large inner diameter and wasp-waisted hysteresis loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Guo, F.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, X.; Xu, X. L.; Gao, J.; Liu, W. F.

    2015-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanotubes of Nd0.1Bi0.9FeO3 (NBFO) with an inner diameter of ˜50 nm were synthesized via sol-gel based electrospinning without template assistant. The phases, morphologies, crystalline structures, and magnetic properties of these 1D nanostructures were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and SQUID, respectively. It was found that the calcination condition plays a crucial role in determining the morphologies and the magnetic properties. Interestingly, these 1D NBFO nanotubes exhibit wasp-waisted magnetic hysteresis with a lower coercivity and larger saturation magnetization, which were prevalent in natural rocks and artificial composite materials. The origin of these wasp-waisted hysteresis loops was discussed.

  10. A kinematic human-walking model for the normal-gait-speed estimation using tri-axial acceleration signals at waist location.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Sun, Kuan-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at estimating the human walking speed using wearable accelerometers by proposing a novel virtual inverted pendulum model. This model not only keeps the important characteristics of both the biped rolling-foot and the inverted pendulum model, but also makes the speed estimation feasible using human body acceleration. Rather than using statistical methods, the proposed kinematic walking model enables calibration of the parameters during walking using only one tri-axial accelerometer on the waist that collects the user's body acceleration. In addition, this model also includes the effect of rotation of the waist within a walking cycle, which improves the estimation accuracy. Experimental results for a group of humans show a 0.58% absolute error mean and 0.72% error deviation, which is far better than the results of other known studies with accelerometers mounted on the upper body. PMID:23529073

  11. Comparison of five methods in predicting difficult laryngoscopy: Neck circumference, neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio, the ratio of height to thyromental distance, upper lip bite test and Mallampati test

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Attari, Mohammadali; Khazaei, Mehdi; Zamani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preoperative airway assessment tests have been presented to help in anticipating a difficult airway. We conducted this study to compare five methods in prediction of difficult laryngoscopy: Neck circumference (NC), NC to thyromental distance ratio (NC/TMD), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), upper lip bite test (ULBT) and Mallampati test (MMT). These five methods are the most commonly used ones and have different powers for it. It was not clear which of these methods predicts difficult laryngoscopy better. Materials and Methods: Six hundred consecutive patients participated in this study. NC, NC/TMD and RHTMD were measured, and ULBT and MMT were performed and recorded. The laryngoscopy view was graded according to Cormack and Lehane's scale (CLS) and difficult laryngoscopy was defined as CLS grades 3 and 4. Accuracy of tests in predicting difficult laryngoscopy was assessed using the area under a receiver-operating characteristic curve. Results: The area under the curve in ULBT and RHTMD were significantly larger than that in TMD, NC and MMT. No statistically significant differences were noted between TMD, NC and MMT (all P > 0.05) (ULBT = RHTMD > NC/TMD > TMD = NC = MMT). RHTMD (>22.7 cm) exhibited the highest sensitivity (sensitivity = 64.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.9–74.7) and the most specific test was ULBT (specificity = 99.41%, 95% CI: 98.3–99.9). Conclusion: RHTMD and ULBT as simple preoperative bedside tests have a higher level of accuracy compared to NC/TMD, TMD, NC, MMT in predicting a difficult airway. PMID:26261824

  12. Relationship of Early Pregnancy Waist-to-Hip Ratio versus Body Mass Index with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Basraon, Sanmaan K; Mele, Lisa; Myatt, Leslie; Roberts, James M; Hauth, John C; Leveno, Kenneth J; Varner, Michael W; Wapner, Ronald J; Thorp, John M; Peaceman, Alan M; Ramin, Susan M; Sciscione, Anthony; Tolosa, Jorge E; Sorokin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Objective?To determine the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and insulin resistance (IR) in obesity defined by body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or both combined. Methods?Secondary analysis of a randomized multicenter trial of antioxidant supplementation versus placebo in nulliparous low-risk women to prevent pregnancy associated hypertension. Women between 9 and 16 weeks with data for WHR and BMI were analyzed for GDM (n?=?2,300). Those with fasting glucose and insulin between 22 and 26 weeks (n?=?717) were analyzed for IR by homeostatic model assessment of IR (normal,???75th percentile). WHR and BMI were categorized as normal (WHR,?

  13. Anthropometric predictors of visceral adiposity in normal-weight and obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Marcus, Carole L; Kim, Christopher; Gallagher, Paul R; Schwab, Richard; Bradford, Ruth M; Zemel, Babette S

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and fat distribution patterns [subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] are important predictors of future cardiometabolic risk. As accurate VAT measurement entails imaging, surrogate anthropometric measurements that would be cheaper and quicker to obtain would be highly desirable. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be better than other VAT surrogate measures in adults, but the value of SAD to predict magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined VAT in adolescents of different races, sexes, and pubertal stages has not been determined. Aim To test the hypothesis that SAD correlates more strongly with volumetric VAT than other anthropometric measurements, independent of age, sex, race, and Tanner stage. Subjects and methods Twenty-eight normal-weight and 44 obese adolescents underwent Tanner staging, anthropometric examinations, and abdominal MRI for volumetric partitioned fat calculation. Results VAT increased exponentially in the body mass index (BMI) > 97th percentile range. SAD, waist circumference (WC), BMI, and BMI Z-score correlated strongly with VAT (correlation coefficients of 0.85–0.86, all p-values < 0.0005); waist–hip ratio was less predictive of VAT (r = 0.68, p < 0.0005). On hierarchical regression, the strongest predictors of VAT in obese subjects were BMI Z-score and SAD (R2 = 0.34 vs. 0.31, respectively, p < 0.0005); in normal-weight subjects, most anthropometric measures predicted VAT equally (R2 = 0.16–0.18, p-values = 0.018–0.026). Conclusions Unlike adults, in obese adolescents, SAD is not the strongest predictor of visceral adiposity. BMI Z-score is equivalently predictive and, together with BMI, provides sufficient information to assess visceral adiposity; more specialized anthropometric measurements (e.g., SAD and WC) do not add additional predictive value. PMID:23710887

  14. Neck Circumference Is a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Short-Sleeping Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Lilian; Piaggi, Paolo; Mattingly, Megan; Zhao, Xiongce; Lucassen, Eliane; Rother, Kristina I.; Sumner, Anne E.; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The constellation of metabolic syndrome, although controversial with regard to its clinical usefulness, is epidemiologically related to increased diabetes risk and cardiovascular mortality. Our goal was to investigate the associations among neck circumference (NC), obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSAS), and metabolic syndrome in obese men and women sleeping less than 6.5?hr per night. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of obese men and premenopausal obese women sleeping less than 6.5?hr per night. We enrolled 120 individuals (92 women), age 40.5±6.9 years and body mass index (BMI) 38.6±6.5?kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome severity was assessed by a score and OSAS was defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ?5. Metabolic end endocrine parameters were measured, and sleep duration was determined by actigraphy and validated questionnaires. Results: Metabolic syndrome was found in 41% and OSAS in 58% (28% had both). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were 3 years older and more often Caucasian; they had higher RDI scores, larger NC, more visceral fat, lower serum adiponectin, higher 24-hr urinary norepinephrine (NE) excretion, and lower growth hormone concentrations. A NC of ?38?cm had a sensitivity of 54% and 58% and a specificity of 70% and 79% in predicting the presence of metabolic syndrome and OSAS, respectively. RDI, adiponectin, and NC accounted for approximately 30% of the variability in the metabolic syndrome score, as estimated by an age-, gender-, and race-corrected multivariate model (R2=0.376, P<0.001). Conclusion: Greater NC is associated with OSAS and metabolic syndrome in short-sleeping obese men and premenopausal obese women. Addition of NC to the definition of metabolic syndrome should be considered and needs to be validated in future studies. PMID:24571423

  15. The effects of bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction on isokinetic knee muscular function and thigh circumference in college students.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Yeon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Lee, Kyung Soon; Kim, Young Mi

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction on isokinetic muscular function and thigh circumference in college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 17 college students who were recruited and randomly assigned to bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction and bodyweight-based exercise groups. Participants performed front lunges and squats at ratings of perceived exertion of 11-13 three times a week during a 6-week training period. The peak torque/ body weight (%) of the knee flexor and extensor was measured using a HUMAC NORM System (Cybex 770-NORM(®), Cybex International, Medway, MA, USA), and the circumference of the thigh was measured. PASW Statistics was used for data analysis. [Results] There were significant differences in the peak torque/ body weight (%) of the flexors in both thighs (at 180°/sec) after bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction. In addition, the circumference changes in both thighs were significant after bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction and between the two groups. [Conclusion] This study suggests that bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction may be an effective method to improve the muscle power and hypertrophy of the lower extremity in a clinical setting. PMID:26504274

  16. The effects of bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction on isokinetic knee muscular function and thigh circumference in college students

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Yeon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Lee, Kyung Soon; Kim, Young Mi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction on isokinetic muscular function and thigh circumference in college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 17 college students who were recruited and randomly assigned to bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction and bodyweight-based exercise groups. Participants performed front lunges and squats at ratings of perceived exertion of 11–13 three times a week during a 6-week training period. The peak torque/ body weight (%) of the knee flexor and extensor was measured using a HUMAC NORM System (Cybex 770-NORM®, Cybex International, Medway, MA, USA), and the circumference of the thigh was measured. PASW Statistics was used for data analysis. [Results] There were significant differences in the peak torque/ body weight (%) of the flexors in both thighs (at 180°/sec) after bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction. In addition, the circumference changes in both thighs were significant after bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction and between the two groups. [Conclusion] This study suggests that bodyweight-based exercise with blood flow restriction may be an effective method to improve the muscle power and hypertrophy of the lower extremity in a clinical setting. PMID:26504274

  17. Association of eating behaviors and BMI among elementary school students from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Lizárraga, Samuel; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Armendáriz-Anguiano, Ana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE) with body max index (BMI) among elementary schools children in Mexico. 5th and 6th grade students were recruited from two schools. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obese children were classified according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) BMI z-score. The TFEQ-R18 questionnaire was applied to assess behavioral patterns. Gender differences of UE and EE were observed. Private school children had higher scores of CR and UE. Children with CR were three times more likely to have abdominal obesity (AO) and children with OW or O were more likely to have UE. Children attending the private school and those with AO had higher CR scores; private school children, those with overweight or obesity and with AO had higher UE scores. PMID:26040395

  18. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P < 0.001], BMI [-1.38 kg · m(?)(2), P < 0.001], BMI-Z [-0.5 z-scores, P < 0.001], sit and reach [+3.0 cm, P < 0.001], standing jump [+0.1 m, P = 0.021] and shuttle run [+10.3 laps, P = 0.019]. Retention rate was 82.3%. All programme sessions were delivered and participants' mean satisfaction scores ranged from 4.2 to 4.6 out of 5. The findings demonstrate that CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents. PMID:25972203

  19. Association of DASH Diet With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth With Diabetes Mellitus The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Bortsov, Andrey; Günther, Anke L.B.; Dabelea, Dana; Reynolds, Kristi; Standiford, Debra A.; Liu, Lenna; Williams, Desmond E.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Bell, Ronny; Marcovina, Santica

    2015-01-01

    Background We have shown that adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is related to blood pressure in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We explored the impact of the DASH diet on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods and Results Between 2001 and 2005, data on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein particle density, apolipoprotein B, body mass index, waist circumference, and adipocytokines were ascertained in 2130 youth aged 10 to 22 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, categorized into the DASH food groups, and assigned an adherence score. Among youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus, higher adherence to the DASH diet was significantly and inversely associated with low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and A1c in multivariable-adjusted models. Youth in the highest adherence tertile had an estimated 0.07 lower low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and 0.2 lower A1c levels than those in the lowest tertile adjusted for confounders. No significant associations were observed with triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein particle density, adipocytokines, apolipoprotein B, body mass index Z score, or waist circumference. Among youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus, associations were observed with low-density lipoprotein particle density and body mass index Z score. Conclusions The DASH dietary pattern may be beneficial in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease risk in youth with diabetes mellitus. PMID:21422385

  20. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  1. Peer-supported diabetes prevention program for Turkish- and arabic-speaking communities in australia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Hadj, Elaine; Hussein, Amal; Young, Doris

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are more prevalent in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities than mainstream Australians. Purpose. To develop, implement, and evaluate culturally sensitive peer-supported diabetes education program for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk middle-aged Turkish- and Arabic-speaking people. Methods. A two-day training program was developed. Ten bilingual peer leaders were recruited from existing health and social networks in Melbourne and were trained by diabetes educators. Each leader recruited 10 high-risk people for developing diabetes. Questionnaires were administered, and height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and three months after the intervention. The intervention comprised two 2-hour group sessions and 30 minutes reinforcement and support telephone calls. Results. 94 individuals (73% women) completed the program. Three months after the program, the participants' mean body weight (before?=?78.1?kg, after?=?77.3; Z score?=?-3.415, P = 0.001) and waist circumference (Z?=?-2.569, P = 0.004) were reduced, their diabetes knowledge was enhanced, and lifestyle behaviours were significantly improved. Conclusions. A short diabetes prevention program delivered by bilingual peers was associated with improved diabetes awareness, changed lifestyle behaviour, and reduction in body weight 3 months after intervention. The findings are encouraging and should stimulate a larger control-designed study. PMID:24959573

  2. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  3. Sleep duration and body mass index among southern Brazilian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bó; Vitolo, Márcia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Prevention and treatment of overweight are particularly complex, reinforcing the importance of studies aimed at clarifying their range of causes and effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between night sleep duration and anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional analysis was performed from data from 348 children aged 3 and 4 years in São Leopoldo/RS. Night sleep duration was reported by their mothers and body mass index, waist circumference and skinfold thickness were measured according to standard protocol. The analyses were adjusted for energy intake and hours of television watching. Overweight children had, on average, 0.39 hours less sleep than those with normal weight (9.77 ± 1.44 versus 10.17 ± 1.34; 95% CI 0.03 to 0, 76). We observed an inverse association between night sleep duration and z score values of body mass index for age (B = -0.12 95% CI -0.22 - -0.02). Waist circumference and skinfold thickness showed an inverse relationship with sleep duration, but without any statistic differences. Among preschool children in southern Brazil, smaller night sleep duration was associated with higher body mass index. PMID:23337988

  4. Prediction Equations for Body-fat Percentage in Indian Infants and Young Children Using Skinfold Thickness and Mid-arm Circumference

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Bandana; Bose, Kaushik; Shaikh, Saijuddin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop prediction equations for fat-mass percentage in infants in India based on skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, and age. Skinfold thicknesses and mid-arm circumference of 46 apparently-healthy infants (27 girls and 19 boys), aged 6–24 months, from among the urban poor attending a well baby clinic of a hospital in Kolkata were measured. Their body-fat percentage was measured using the D2O dilution technique as the reference method. Equations for body-fat percentage were developed using a stepwise forward regression model using skinfold thicknesses, mid-arm circumference, and age as independent variables, and the body-fat percentage was derived by D2O dilution as the dependent variable. The new prediction equations are: body-fat percentage=-69.26+5.76×B-0.33×T2+5.40×M+0.01×A2 for girls and body-fat percentage=-8.75+3.73×B+2.57×S for boys, where B=biceps skinfold thickness, T=triceps skinfold thickness, and S=suprailiac skinfold thickness all in mm, M=mid-arm circumference in cm, and A=age in month. Using the D2O dilution technique, the means (SD) of the calculated body-fat percentage were 17.11 (7.25) for girls and 16.93 (6.62) for boys and, using the new prediction equations, these were 17.11 (6.25) for girls and 16.93 (6.02) for boys. The mean of the differences of paired values in body-fat percentage was zero. The mean (SD) of the differences of paired values for body-fat percentage derived by the D2O technique and the new equations, applied on an independent sample of 23 infants (11 girls and 12 boys) were -0.93 (6.56) for girls and 1.14 (2.43) for boys; the 95% confidence limits of the differences of paired values for body-fat percentage were -2.03 to +3.89 for girls and -0.26 to +2.54 for boys. Given that the trajectories of growth during infancy and childhood are a major risk factor for a group of diseases in adulthood, including coronary heart disease and diabetes, these predictive equations should be useful in field studies. PMID:20635632

  5. Effect of a hands-free wire on specific absorption rate for a waist-mounted 1.8 GHz cellular telephone handset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troulis, S. E.; Scanlon, W. G.; Evans, N. E.

    2003-06-01

    A common feature of cellular telephony is the use of a 'hands-free' audio extension lead connected to a waist-worn handset. Interaction between the transmitting antenna, the wire and the user's body can occur, with detrimental effects including polar pattern degradation, reduced efficiency and localized increases in specific absorption rate (SAR). Using a realistic full-body model of an adult male, finite difference time domain analysis was employed to investigate the coupling between a hip-mounted 1.8 GHz handset fitted with a monopole antenna and a 1 m long wire representing a hands-free wire. Conduction current densities were computed for three identifiable coupling modes: magnetic-only, conductive-only and combined conductive-and-magnetic. Magnetic-only coupling was dominant. Without the lead, placing the handset at waist height led to a 42.8% increase in the total energy deposited in the body, compared to use at the head. Introducing the lead further increased the body loss, with a reduction in system radiation efficiency from 52% to 43.7%. Without the hands-free lead, the peak 1 g and 10 g SARs were 0.450 W kg-1 and 0.265 W kg-1, respectively, for 125 mW transmit power. With the hands-free lead connected, these values increased to 1.14 W kg-1 and 0.430 W kg-1, respectively.

  6. Comparison of Two Optimization Methods to Derive Energy Parameters for Protein Folding: Perceptron and Z Score

    E-print Network

    Mirny, Leonid

    methods are of similar quality and fairly closely related. This finding indicates that standard, naturally energy parameters from known native protein conformations and corresponding sets of decoys. One is based by a the sequence of amino acids, by S the conformation (represented by its contact map,1 and by w the set of energy

  7. Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This pragmatic evaluation investigated the effectiveness of the Children’s Health, Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE!) Project, a cluster randomised intervention to promote healthy weight using an educational focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Methods Participants (n = 318, aged 10–11 years) from 6 Intervention and 6 Comparison schools took part in the 20 weeks intervention between November 2010 and March/April 2011. This consisted of a teacher-led curriculum, learning resources, and homework tasks. Primary outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-scores. Secondary outcomes were objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and food intake. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at post-intervention (20 weeks), and at follow-up (30 weeks). Data were analysed using 2-level multi-level modelling (levels: school, student) and adjusted for baseline values of the outcomes and potential confounders. Differences in intervention effect by subgroup (sex, weight status, socio-economic status) were explored using statistical interaction. Results Significant between-group effects were observed for waist circumference at post-intervention (? for intervention effect =?1.63 (95% CI = ?2.20, -1.07) cm, p<0.001) and for BMI z-score at follow-up (?=?0.24 (95% CI = ?0.48, -0.003), p=0.04). At follow-up there was also a significant intervention effect for light intensity physical activity (?=25.97 (95% CI = 8.04, 43.89) min, p=0.01). Interaction analyses revealed that the intervention was most effective for overweight/obese participants (waist circumference: ?=?2.82 (95% CI = ?4.06, -1.58) cm, p<0.001), girls (BMI: ?=?0.39 (95% CI = ?0.81, 0.03) kg/m2, p=0.07), and participants with higher family socioeconomic status (breakfast consumption: ?=8.82 (95% CI = 6.47, 11.16), p=0.07). Conclusions The CHANGE! intervention positively influenced body size outcomes and light physical activity, and most effectively influenced body size outcomes among overweight and obese children and girls. The findings add support for the effectiveness of combined school-based physical activity and nutrition interventions. Additional work is required to test intervention fidelity and the sustained effectiveness of this intervention in the medium and long term. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03863885. PMID:23819701

  8. The combination of daily breakfast consumption and optimal breakfast choices in childhood is an important public health message.

    PubMed

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Briassoulis, George; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Savva, Savvas C; Solea, Tonia; Hebestreit, Antje; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Kourides, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Tornaritis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with children's diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors. Study sample consisted of 1558 children aged 4-8 years from Cyprus. Breakfast frequency was assessed through a parental questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and blood pressure were examined in relation to breakfast frequency consumption. Habitual breakfast consumers' daily nutrient intake was assessed through a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, according to their breakfast choices. Girls who have breakfast on a daily basis had lower mean BMI and BMI z-score; they were also less likely of having abnormal levels of serum triglycerides, atheromatic index (total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio) and diastolic blood pressure after controlling for several confounding factors. Within regular breakfast consumers, of both boys and girls, those having ready to eat cereals had a superior nutrient intake profile. Daily breakfast consumption along with good breakfast choices is an important public health message for Cypriot children. PMID:24512299

  9. A New Approach to Define and Diagnose Cardiometabolic Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Brønd, Jan Christian; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Sardinha, Luis B.; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; McMurray, Robert G.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Kriemler, Susi; Møller, Niels Christian; Bugge, Anna; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the performance of a new definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which better describes metabolic dysfunction in children. Methods. 15,794 youths aged 6–18 years participated. Mean z-score for CVD risk factors was calculated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters best described the metabolic dysfunction by analysing the score against independent variables not included in the score. Results. More youth had clustering of CVD risk factors (>6.2%) compared to the number selected by existing MetS definitions (International Diabetes Federation (IDF) < 1%). Waist circumference and BMI were interchangeable, but using insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) instead of fasting glucose increased the score. The continuous MetS score was increased when cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and leptin were included. A mean z-score of 0.40–0.85 indicated borderline and above 0.85 indicated clustering of risk factors. A noninvasive risk score based on adiposity and CRF showed sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and an area under the curve of 0.92 against IDF definition of MetS. Conclusions. Diagnosis for MetS in youth can be improved by using continuous variables for risk factors and by including CRF and leptin. PMID:25945355

  10. A new approach to define and diagnose cardiometabolic disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Brønd, Jan Christian; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Sardinha, Luis B; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; McMurray, Robert G; Barros, Mauro V G; Kriemler, Susi; Møller, Niels Christian; Bugge, Anna; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the performance of a new definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which better describes metabolic dysfunction in children. Methods. 15,794 youths aged 6-18 years participated. Mean z-score for CVD risk factors was calculated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters best described the metabolic dysfunction by analysing the score against independent variables not included in the score. Results. More youth had clustering of CVD risk factors (>6.2%) compared to the number selected by existing MetS definitions (International Diabetes Federation (IDF) < 1%). Waist circumference and BMI were interchangeable, but using insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) instead of fasting glucose increased the score. The continuous MetS score was increased when cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and leptin were included. A mean z-score of 0.40-0.85 indicated borderline and above 0.85 indicated clustering of risk factors. A noninvasive risk score based on adiposity and CRF showed sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and an area under the curve of 0.92 against IDF definition of MetS. Conclusions. Diagnosis for MetS in youth can be improved by using continuous variables for risk factors and by including CRF and leptin. PMID:25945355

  11. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue; Xue, Hongmei; Duan, Ruonan; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Lishi; Harvey, Louise; Cheng, Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI) and dietary energy density (ED) were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR) were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI) (p ? 0.04). However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China. PMID:26151177

  12. Population-Referenced Percentiles for Waist-Worn Accelerometer-Derived Total Activity Counts in U.S. Youth: 2003 – 2006 NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Wolff-Hughes, Dana L.; Bassett, David R.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA) and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC) per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual's total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6 – 19 y. Methods Data from the 2003 – 2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6 – 19 years with at least 4 d of ? 10 hours of accelerometer wear time (N?=?3698). MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ?4 metabolic equivalents (METs) for youth 6 – 17 y or minutes with ?2020 counts for youth 18 – 19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days. Results For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA. Conclusion Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents. PMID:25531290

  13. Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Obesity: NHANES (2001–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Buser, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens and suspected endocrine disruptors. Prenatal exposure to PAHs has been associated with obesity in early childhood. Objective: We examined the association of urinary PAH metabolites with adiposity outcomes [body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference (WC), and rate of obesity] in children and adolescents. Methods: We performed whole-sample analyses of 3,189 individuals 6–19 years of age who participated in the 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We performed multivariate linear and logistic regression to analyze the association of BMI z-score, WC, and obesity with concentrations of single urinary PAH compounds and the sum of PAHs. Furthermore, the analyses were stratified by developmental stage [i.e., children (6–11 years) and adolescents (12–19 years)]. Results: BMI z-score, WC, and obesity were positively associated with the molecular mass sum of the PAHs and the total sum of naphthalene metabolites. Most associations increased monotonically with increasing quartiles of exposure among children 6–11 years of age, whereas dose–response trends were less consistent for adolescents (12–19 years of age). Neither total PAHs nor total naphthalene metabolites were associated with overweight in either age group, and there was little evidence of associations between the outcomes and individual PAHs. Conclusions: Total urinary PAH metabolites and naphthalene metabolites were associated with higher BMI, WC, and obesity in children 6–11 years of age, with positive but less consistent associations among adolescents. Citation: Scinicariello F, Buser MC. 2014. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood obesity: NHANES (2001–2006). Environ Health Perspect 122:299–303;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307234 PMID:24380973

  14. Association of early childhood abdominal circumference and weight gain with blood pressure at 36?months of age: secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl A; Crozier, Sarah R; Robinson, Siân M; Godfrey, Keith M; Lawrence, Wendy T; Law, Catherine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether changes in measures of fat distribution and body size during early life are associated with blood pressure at 36?months of age. Design Analysis of data collected from a prospective cohort study. Setting Community-based investigation in Southampton, UK. Participants 761 children with valid blood pressure measurements, born to women participating in the Southampton Women’s Survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Anthropometric measurements were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36?months and conditional changes between the time points calculated. Blood pressure was measured at 36?months. Factors possibly influencing the blood pressure were assessed using linear regression. All independent variables of interest and confounding variables were included in stepwise multiple regression to identify the model that best predicted blood pressure at 36?months. Results Greater conditional gains in abdominal circumference (AC) between 0–6 and 24–36?months were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures at 36?months (p<0.001). Subscapular skinfold and height gains were weakly associated with higher blood pressures, while greater weight gains between 0–6, 12–24 and 24–36?months were more strongly associated, but the dominant influences were AC gains, particularly from 0–6 to 24–36?months. Thus one SD score increases in AC between 0–6 and 24–36?months were associated with 1.59?mm?Hg (95% CI 0.97 to 2.21) and 1.84?mm?Hg (1.24 to 2.46) higher systolic blood pressures, respectively, and 1.04?mm?Hg (0.57 to 1.51) and 1.02?mm?Hg (0.56, 1.48) higher diastolic pressures, respectively. Conclusions Conditional gains in abdominal circumference, particularly within 6?months of birth and in the year preceding measurement, were more positively associated with blood pressure at 36?months than gains in other anthropometric measures. Above-average AC gains in early childhood may contribute to adult hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24993768

  15. Preference for Women's Body Mass and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Tsimane' Men of the Bolivian Amazon: Biological and Cultural Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N?=?66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation. PMID:25148034

  16. Preference for women's body mass and waist-to-hip ratio in Tsimane' men of the Bolivian Amazon: biological and cultural determinants.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N?=?66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation. PMID:25148034

  17. The interaction of waist-hip ratio and conicity index with subcutaneous adiposity in two ethnic groups: native British and migrant Pakistani men.

    PubMed

    Bose, K

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the relationship between two indices of abdominal fatness, the waist-hip ratio (WHR) und conicity index (CI), with subcutaneous adiposity (5 trunk and 4 extremity skinfolds) in adult native British (n = 262) and migrant Pakistani (n = 100) men, resident in Peterborough, East Anglia, England. Both groups had similar body mass index (BMI), WHR and CI. Significant ethnic differences (age controlled) were observed in mean values for all trunk as well as forearm skinfolds between the two groups. The results indicated that, in general, there was no ethnic heterogeneity in the relationship (age controlled) of both the indices of abdominal adiposity with the skinfolds. However, the distributions, age, age2 and WHR controlled; and age, age2 and CI controlled, of subscapular (SUBSF), suprailiac (SUPSF), abdomen (ASF), midaxillary (MIDSF), chest (CSF), forearm (FSF) and medial calf (MCSF) skinfolds were significantly different between the two groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Pakistanis had significantly higher mean SUBSF, SUPSF, ASF, MIDSF, CSF and significantly lower mean FSF and MCSF than Whites, after controlling the effect of WHR. Similar significant ethnic differences were observed when the effect of CI was controlled for. This significant association of ethnicity remained even when the combined effects of WHR and CI were removed. PMID:11591053

  18. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian’An; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Gräßler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J

    2011-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?9 to P = 1.8 × 10?40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?3 to P = 1.2 × 10?13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

  19. Radians & Radius Circumference = 2r

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    a force on the door (F21=-F12) #12;13 Centripetal acceleration t v tt vv a if if = - - = The change=(v/2)/v vs/t ac=v2/r #12;14 Centripetal acceleration ac=v2/r directed to the center of the circular. ac atangential atotal= (ac 2+atangential 2) #12;16 Forces that can cause centripetal acceleration

  20. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... goal. Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks. If most of your fat is around your ... measure your waist, visit Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk . For more information about losing weight or maintaining ...

  1. Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution

    E-print Network

    Hunter, David J.

    To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ...

  2. The effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on arm volume and arm circumference in women treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lane, K; Jespersen, D; McKenzie, D C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on changes in arm volume in breast cancer survivors. A total of 16 female breast cancer survivors with no clinical history of lymphoedema volunteered. The 20-week exercise programme consisted of resistance and aerobic exercise with the addition of dragon boat training at week 8. Arm circumference at two sites (CIRC10, CIRC15), arm volume (VOL), and upper body strength (1-RM) were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2), and week 20 (T3). All statistical tests were two-sided (alpha < or = 0.05). No significant differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities at any of the three time points were found. All variables significantly increased from T1 to T3 (CIRC10: difference, d = 0.49 cm, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.25-0.73, P = 0.000; CIRC15: d = 1.33 cm, CI = 0.78-1.88, P = 0.000; VOL: d = 100 mL, CI = 69-130, P = 0.000). As well, 1-RM significantly increased from T1 to T3 (d = 10.8 kg, CI = 5.6-16.1; P = 0.000). In summary, participation in a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training resulted in a significant increase in upper extremity volume over time. However, the changes were consistent for both arms and the significant gain in upper body muscular strength likely accounted for the increase in arm volume. PMID:16098120

  3. Assessment of Under Nutrition of Bangladeshi Adults Using Anthropometry: Can Body Mass Index Be Replaced by Mid-Upper-Arm-Circumference?

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Tania; Karim, Md. Nazmul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Md. Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Body-mass-index (BMI) is widely accepted as an indicator of nutritional status in adults. Mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC) is another anthropometric-measure used primarily among children. The present study attempted to evaluate the use of MUAC as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition, and thus to suggest a suitable cut-off value. Methods A cross-sectional study in 650 adult attendants of the patients of Dhaka-Hospital, of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) was conducted during 2012. Height, weight and MUAC of 260 male and 390 female aged 19–60 years were measured. Curve estimation was done to assess the linearity and correlation of BMI and MUAC. Sensitivity and specificity of MUAC against BMI<18.5 was determined. Separate Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for male and female. Area under ROC curve and Youden's index were generated to aid selection of the most suitable cut-off value of MUAC for undernutrition. A value with highest Youden's index was chosen for cut-off. Results Our data shows strong significant positive correlation (linear) between MUAC and BMI, for males r = 0.81, (p<0.001) and for females r = 0.828, (p<0.001). MUAC cut-off <25.1 cm in males (AUC 0.930) and <23.9 cm in females (AUC 0.930) were chosen separately based on highest corresponding Youden's index. These values best correspond with BMI cut-off for under nutrition (BMI <18.5) in either gender. Conclusion MUAC correlates closely with BMI. For the simplicity and easy to remember MUAC <25 cm for male and <24 cm for female may be considered as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition. PMID:25875397

  4. Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Ti?li; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. PMID:24838901

  5. Psychosocial and Behavioral Predictors of Inflammation in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study

    E-print Network

    Ruvinsky, Ilya

    , socioeconomic status), anthropometric (height, weight, waist circumference, percent body fat), behavioral (alcohol consumption, smoking, sleep quality, dietary quality), and psychosocial data (perceived stress

  6. Population-specific short-form mini nutritional assessment with body mass index or calf circumference can predict risk of malnutrition in community-living or institutionalized elderly people in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan; Wang, Yi-Chen; Liao, Chiu-Ying

    2010-09-01

    A simple, reliable, noninvasive, and easy-to-use instrument is important for successful monitoring of emerging nutrition problems in elderly people. The objectives of this study were to determine whether adoption of population-specific body mass index (BMI) cutpoints would improve the predictive ability of the short-form Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and whether calf circumference could be an acceptable alternative to BMI in the short-form MNA without compromising its predictive ability. Using convenience sampling, the study recruited 301 community-living, 109 care center-living, and 68 nursing home-living elderly people, 65 years or older, as subjects. Subjects were evaluated with the short-form MNA in three versions: (a) the original, (b) Taiwan version 1 (T1), that adopted population-specific BMI cutpoints, and (c) Taiwan version 2 (T2), which substituted calf circumference for BMI, and with the long-form MNA-T2 as a reference. The ability of the short forms to predict the long-form MNA-T2 was evaluated with binary classification and analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results were analyzed with an SPSS for Windows 12.0 software package (version 12.0.1C, 2000, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Results showed that adoption of population-specific anthropometric BMI cutpoints improved the predictive ability of the short-form MNA, whereas replacement of BMI with calf circumference further improved the predictive ability of the scale (kappa values of the binary classification tests were 0.596, 0.742, and 0.843 for community-living; 0.560, 0.683, and 0.839 for care center-living; and 0.346, 0.454, and 0.522 for nursing home-living elderly for the original, T1, and T2 MNA short-form versions, respectively). These results suggest that modification of a measurement tool according to cultural or anthropometric features of the target population is necessary. The study also shows that calf circumference can be an acceptable alternative to BMI in the short-form MNA. Because measuring calf circumference is easier and less time-consuming then measuring BMI, the modified tool can make periodic nutritional screening an easier job and routine nutritional screening a more realistic goal in geriatric care. PMID:20800124

  7. A pilot study of preemptive morphine analgesia in preterm neonates: effects on head circumference, social behavior, and response latencies in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Ward, Wendy L; Paule, Merle G; Hall, R Whit; Anand, K J S

    2012-01-01

    Use of preemptive analgesia in Neonatal Intensive Care Units is recommended for severe and/or invasive procedures. However, the potential long-term consequences of such analgesia, which may be prolonged, are only beginning to be studied. In this pilot study, a subset of subjects previously enrolled in the Neurological Outcomes and Preemptive Analgesia in Neonates (NEOPAIN) trial was assessed at early childhood. These ex-preterm infants (born at 23-32 weeks of gestational age) required intubation within 72 h postpartum and were randomized to receive either preemptive morphine analgesia (maximum of 14 days) or placebo within 8h post-intubation. At 5-7 years of age, neuropsychological outcomes, morphometrics, adaptive behavior, parent-rated behavior, motivation, and short-term memory were measured. Although overall IQ and academic achievement did not differ between the morphine treated (n=14) and placebo (n=5) groups, preemptive morphine analgesia was associated with distinct differences in other outcome variables. Head circumference of morphine treated children was approximately 7% smaller (Cohen'sd: 2.83, effect size large) and body weight was approximately 4% less (Cohen'sd: 0.81, effect size large); however, height did not differ. In the short-term memory task (delayed matching to sample), morphine treated children exhibited significantly longer choice response latencies than placebo children (3.86±0.33 and 2.71±0.24 s, respectively) (p<0.03) and completed approximately 27% less of the task than placebo children (Cohen'sd: 0.96, effect size large). Parents described morphine treated children as having more social problems, an effect specific to creating and maintaining friendships (Cohen'sd: -0.83, effect size large). Despite the small sample size and the preliminary nature of this study, these results are strongly suggestive of long-lasting effects of preemptive morphine analgesia. A larger investigation with more comprehensive assessments of some of these key features will enable a more complete understanding of the relationship between preemptive morphine treatment and long-term neurocognitive, behavioral, and adaptive outcomes. PMID:22094261

  8. Prenatal and Postnatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Body Mass Index in Childhood in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schall, Raul Aguilar; Chevrier, Jonathan; Tyler, Kristin; Aguirre, Helen; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina T.; Lustig, Robert H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been associated with increased body weight and fat deposition in rodents. Objectives: We examined whether prenatal and postnatal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percent body fat, and obesity in 9-year-old children (n = 311) in the CHAMACOS longitudinal cohort study. Methods: BPA was measured in spot urine samples collected from mothers twice during pregnancy and from children at 5 and 9 years of age. Results: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with decreased BMI at 9 years of age in girls but not boys. Among girls, being in the highest tertile of prenatal BPA concentrations was associated with decreased BMI z-score (? = –0.47, 95% CI: –0.87, –0.07) and percent body fat (? = –4.36, 95% CI: –8.37, –0.34) and decreased odds of overweight/obesity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.91] compared with girls in the lowest tertile. These findings were strongest in prepubertal girls. Urinary BPA concentrations at 5 years of age were not associated with any anthropometric parameters at 5 or 9 years, but BPA concentrations at 9 years were positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, and overweight/obesity at 9 years in boys and girls. Conclusions: Consistent with other cross-sectional studies, higher urinary BPA concentrations at 9 years of age were associated with increased adiposity at 9 years. However, increasing BPA concentrations in mothers during pregnancy were associated with decreased BMI, body fat, and overweight/obesity among their daughters at 9 years of age. PMID:23416456

  9. A School-Based Intervention for Diabetes Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [±SD] age, 11.3±0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS There was a decrease in the primary outcome — the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity — in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P = 0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P = 0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. CONCLUSIONS Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.) PMID:20581420

  10. Initial screening of children treated with second-generation antipsychotics points to an association between physical activity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Cote, Anita T; Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2014-11-01

    Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications, used to treat youth for a wide-range of mental health conditions, are associated with excessive weight gain and other comorbidities, placing these individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the effect of physical activity (PA) on cardiovascular risk in these children. Anthropometrics, fasting blood sample and self-report PA were obtained in 386 children diagnosed with mental health conditions (6-18 y). PA was classified as below (<60 min/day) or meets (?60 min/day) current recommended guidelines for daily PA in children. SGA-treated (n = 166) and SGA-naïve (n = 220) were compared in the analysis. The SGA-treated children had higher (p < .05) BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, fasting glucose, and LDL-cholesterol than SGA-naïve children. Waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, HDL cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly different by PA status. After adjusting for SGA-treatment duration, sex, age, and ethnicity, higher PA was associated with lower insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in SGA-treated (mean, 95% CI; below vs. meets: 2.10 [1.84, 2.37] vs. 1.59 [1.37, 1.81], p = .046) but not in SGA-naïve (1.70 [1.47, 1.94] vs. 1.55 [1.35, 1.75], p = .707) children. Upon initial screening, SGA-treated children that reported meeting the minimal recommendations for daily PA displayed lower measures of adiposity and improved insulin resistance. PMID:25372380

  11. Height and height Z-score are related to calcium absorption in five- to fifteen-year-old girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CONTEXT: Understanding the relationship between calcium absorption and growth has been limited. We have developed a database of calcium absorption measurements in 315 girls aged 5.0-15.0 yr. DESIGN: We have used this database to assess the relationship between height, its age- and gender-normalized...

  12. The difference between the radiographic and the operative angle of inclination of the acetabular component in total hip arthroplasty: use of a digital protractor and the circumference of the hip to improve orientation.

    PubMed

    Meermans, G; Goetheer-Smits, I; Lim, R F; Van Doorn, W J; Kats, J

    2015-05-01

    A high radiographic inclination angle (RI) contributes to accelerated wear and has been associated with dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA). With freehand positioning of the acetabular component there is a lack of accuracy, with a trend towards a high radiographic inclination angle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of a digital protractor to measure the operative inclination angle (OI) could improve the positioning of the acetabular component in relation to a 'safe zone'. We measured the radiographic inclination angles of 200 consecutive uncemented primary THAs. In the first 100 the component was introduced freehand and in the second 100 a digital protractor was used to measure the operative inclination angle. The mean difference between the operative and the radiographic inclination angles (?RI-OI) in the second cohort was 12.3° (3.8° to 19.8°). There was a strong correlation between the circumference of the hip and ?RI-OI. The number of RI outliers was significantly reduced in the protractor group (p = 0.002). Adjusting the OI, using a digital protractor and taking into account the circumference of the patient's hip, improves the RI significantly (p < 0.001) and does not require additional operating time. PMID:25922452

  13. Metabolic syndrome risk assessment in children: use of a single score

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate a score of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and set a cutoff point of this score for the prediction of MetS risk. METHODS: The study included a random sample of 348 children aged 8 and 9 years of Viçosa, Southeast Brazil. Factor analysis by principal components (PCA) was used to determine, among various risk factors, those with higher degrees of intercorrelation. The chosen variables were: waist circumference (PC), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TAG) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Z-scores were created for each one of these parameters and the sum of these z-scores constituted the MetS score. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the cutoff of MetS score, using as gold standard the presence or absence of MetS determined according to criteria age-modified. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS in the sample was 8.9% by adopting specific criteria for age, and 24% when considering the cutoff of MetS score. The selected cutoff point of 1.86 was accurate to predict the MetS risk in this sample due to its high sensitivity (96.7%), specificity (82.7%) and AUC of 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: This original Brazilian study presents the MetS score as a suitable alternative for the study of Metabolic Syndrome in children, given the lack of consensus for the definition of this syndrome in childhood. PMID:25649382

  14. Impact of nutritional recovery with linear growth on the concentrations of adipokines in undernourished children living in Brazilian slums.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vinicius J B; Neves, Andrea P O; Franco, Maria do C P; Clemente, Ana P G; Sawaya, Ana L

    2014-09-28

    Undernutrition in early life has been reported to be closely associated with the development of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Adequate treatment is important for reversing these effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of undernutrition and anthropometric recovery on the weights and heights of children in relation to the concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A total of 119 children (aged 6-16 years) from the slums of São Paulo were selected according to their nutritional status and divided into three groups as follows: control (healthy without intervention, n 38) with a height-for-age Z score (HAZ) and a BMI-for-age Z score (BAZ) > -1·6; undernourished (HAZ and/or BAZ < -1·6, n 54); recovered from undernutrition (after treatment in a rehabilitation centre; HAZ and BAZ > -1·6, n 27). Blood samples were collected to determine insulin, glucose, leptin, adiponectin and PAI-1 concentrations. Leptin concentrations in the undernourished group were lower than those in the control and recovered groups (mean 0·92 (95% CI 0·67, 1·25), 2·03 (95% CI 1·46, 2·82) and 1·66 (95% CI 1·15, 2·44) ng/ml, P=0·003), which had similar leptin concentrations. There were no differences in adiponectin and PAI-1 concentrations among the groups. A positive correlation between waist circumference and leptin concentrations was observed in all the girls and boys of the control group (control: r 0·729, P<0·01; undernourished: r 0·490, P<0·05; and recovered: r 0·829, P<0·01; r 0·673, P<0·05). Stronger correlations between leptin and insulin concentrations were observed in the recovered group. The results of the present study indicate that normal leptin concentrations are found when normal height and weight are achieved. PMID:25069062

  15. FastStats: Body Measurements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Compartir Data are for the U.S. Measured average height, weight, and waist circumference for adults ages 20 years and over Men: Height (inches): 69.3 Weight (pounds): 195.5 Waist circumference (inches): 39.7 Women: Height (inches): 63. ...

  16. Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

  17. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Häkkinen, K; Kyröläinen, H

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

  18. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Márcia; Melges, Ana Paula B.; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel S.; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz A.; Sarni, Roseli Oselka S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2). Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room) for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL), lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides), oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes) and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62%) and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57%) subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10%) and 36/61 (59%), respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [?=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001)]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents. PMID:24676190

  19. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in obese children.

    PubMed

    Carolan, E; Hogan, A; O'Connell, J; Fallon, M; Byrne, D; O'Shea, D; Cody, D

    2015-05-01

    Childhood Obesity poses a public health problem in Ireland. Complications associated include metabolic disease and cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of obese Irish children. Assessments were performed on obese children attending weight management clinic. Pedometers and self report physical activity questionnaires were administered to each participant to determine physical activity levels. Fifty-nine children (21 prepubertal and 38 pubertal/post-pubertal) were metabolically profiled. Mean ± SD of z scores for BMI, Waist Circumference and Body Fat % were +3.29 ± 0.48, +3.98 ± 0.73 and +2.75 ± 0.50 respectively. 43% (n = 9) prepubertal and 68% (n = 26) pubertal/postpubertal children had at least one other cardiovascular risk factor in addition to obesity. Increased moderate-vigorous physical activity levels correlated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors. There is a significant prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among obese pre-pubertal children and pubertal/post-pubertal adolescents attending an Irish obesity clinic. PMID:26062237

  20. Sleep Duration Predicts Cardiometabolic Risk in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    IglayReger, Heidi B.; Peterson, Mark D.; Liu, Dongmei; Parker, Christine A.; Woolford, Susan J.; (Sallinen) Gafka, Bethany J.; Hassan, Fauziya; Gordon, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the independent contributions of objectively measured sleep duration and fragmentation on cardiometabolic risk accumulation in free-living obese adolescents. Study design Characteristics of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose) were measured in obese adolescents and standardized residuals(z-scores) were summed (inverse high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) to create a continuous cardiometabolic risk score (cMetScore), adjusted for age, sex, and race. Sleep and physical activity were objectively measured in habitual, free-living conditions for 7 days (SenseWear Pro3, BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; n = 37; 54% female, ages 11–17 years). Associations between sleep duration and cMetScore were assessed via multiple linear regression. Results Body mass index, total sleep time, and sleep session length were each correlated with cMetScore (P < .05 all). Total sleep time was inversely and independently associated with cMetScore (r = ?0.535, P = .001) and was the best independent predictor of metabolic risk. Conclusions Sleep duration inversely predicts cardiometabolic risk in obese adolescents, even when we controlled for various measures of physical activity, anthropometry, and adiposity. Further research should investigate the biological mechanism of this relationship and the potential treatment effect of sleep intervention in decreasing cardiometabolic risk in this population. PMID:24612904

  1. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those <18 years were determined using International Obesity Task Force BMI cut-offs, while adult cut-offs of BMI ? 25 and ? 30 kg/m2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ? 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ? 94 cm for males and ? 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile relates to changes in nutrition and diet, but variation in factors such as infectious disease burden and physical activity patterns, as well as social influences, need to be investigated. As obesity and adult short stature are risk factors for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes, this combination of early stunting and adolescent obesity may be an explosive combination. PMID:20338024

  2. Insulin Resistance of Normal Weight Central Obese Adolescents in Korea Stratified by Waist to Height Ratio: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Kyoung; Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Hyun Young; Han, Kyung Do; Jeon, Yeon Jin; Jung, In Ah; Kim, Shin Hee; Cho, Kyoung Soon; Park, So Hyun; Jung, Min Ho; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate insulin resistance of normal weight central obese 13–18-year-old male and female adolescents stratified by waist to height ratio (WHR). Methods. Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES) conducted during 2008–2010. Central obesity was defined as that in the upper quartile of age and sex specific WHR. Subjects were classified into no central obesity normal weight (NW), central obesity normal weight (CONW), no central obesity overweight (OW), and central obesity overweight (COOW). Results. The prevalence of CONW was 9.6% (83/832) in female and 7.0% (61/909) in male. CONW showed higher levels of insulin (P < 0.006), HOMA-IR (P < 0.006), and ALT (P < 0.001) than NW in female. CONW had higher levels of insulin (P < 0.0001), HOMA-IR (P < 0.0001), and WBC count (P < 0.021) and lower level of HDL (P < 0.0001) than NW in male. WHR and BMI had similar significant correlations with MS components. CONW showed 2.5 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21–5.00) more likelihood to have high insulin resistance than NW in male. Conclusions. Screening for central obesity using WHR in clinical setting is recommended. PMID:26257779

  3. Changes in weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index at birth of healthy term newborns in nine cities in China during the period of rapid social development 1985-2005.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Qin; Li, Hui

    2015-12-01

    The changes in the anthropometric parameters at birth of healthy singleton term newborns in nine cities in China were analyzed by means of the data collected in three large-scale cross-sectional physical growth surveys in 1985, 1995, and 2005 (n=6660, 7109 and 6144). Between 1985 and 2005, average increases in body weight (BW), body length (BL), ponderal index (PI), and head circumference (HC) of newborns were statistically significant: 107g, 0.2cm, 0.6kg/m(3) and 0.4cm, respectively. The relative increase in BW was more than that in BL (3.4% vs 0.4%) in the last two decades, leading to an increase in PI. The distribution of birth size shifted slightly to the right, and the proportion of macrosomia increased from 3.2% in 1985 to 3.4% in 1995 and to 4.3% in 2005. The increases in BW and PI and the increase in rate of macrosomia are concerns from public health perspectives. PMID:26277527

  4. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  5. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the breakdown of food particles that produce sulfur compounds, and from bacteria on the gums and ... DDS, MAGD. " High-protein foods can produce more sulfur compounds, especially overnight on the surface of the ...

  6. Does bone resorption stimulate periosteal expansion? A cross-sectional analysis of ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), genetic markers of the RANKL pathway, and periosteal circumference as measured by pQCT.

    PubMed

    Kemp, John P; Sayers, Adrian; Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Deere, Kevin; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ring, Susan M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Joel; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievänen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Smith, George Davey; Fraser, William D; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Ohlsson, Claes; Tobias, Jon H

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that bone resorption acts to increase bone strength through stimulation of periosteal expansion. Hence, we examined whether bone resorption, as reflected by serum ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), is positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC), in contrast to inverse associations with parameters related to bone remodeling such as cortical bone mineral density (BMDC ). CTX and mid-tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans were available in 1130 adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, time of sampling, tanner stage, lean mass, fat mass, and height. CTX was positively related to PC (?=0.19 [0.13, 0.24]) (coefficient=SD change per SD increase in CTX, 95% confidence interval)] but inversely associated with BMDC (?=-0.46 [-0.52,-0.40]) and cortical thickness [?=-0.11 (-0.18, -0.03)]. CTX was positively related to bone strength as reflected by the strength-strain index (SSI) (?=0.09 [0.03, 0.14]). To examine the causal nature of this relationship, we then analyzed whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within key osteoclast regulatory genes, known to reduce areal/cortical BMD, conversely increase PC. Fifteen such genetic variants within or proximal to genes encoding receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were identified by literature search. Six of the 15 alleles that were inversely related to BMD were positively related to CTX (p<0.05 cut-off) (n=2379). Subsequently, we performed a meta-analysis of associations between these SNPs and PC in ALSPAC (n=3382), Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) (n=938), and the Young Finns Study (YFS) (n=1558). Five of the 15 alleles that were inversely related to BMD were positively related to PC (p<0.05 cut-off). We conclude that despite having lower BMD, individuals with a genetic predisposition to higher bone resorption have greater bone size, suggesting that higher bone resorption is permissive for greater periosteal expansion. PMID:24014423

  7. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

  8. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Andersen, Rikke; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Objective To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. Results 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P<0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, low physical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all P<0.005); however, after mutual adjustments for movement behaviors, physical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P<0.03). Further adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (all P>0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P?=?0.005). Conclusion The present findings indicate that physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration should all be targeted to improve cardio-metabolic risk markers in childhood; this is possibly mediated by adiposity. PMID:25102157

  9. Energy Balance and Obesity

    Cancer.gov

    Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

  10. Web-Based Workshop & Webinar Series: Obesity Education and Resources for Medical Students 

    E-print Network

    Shroads, Laurie

    2015-08-07

    websites to create the content for each of the three webinars. 16 Table 2 Key Words for Webinar Development Body Mass Index Waist Circumference Weight Loss Calorie Intake DASH Diet Mediterran- ean Diet Physical Activity Guidelines...

  11. IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H{sub 2} EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 {mu}m PAH ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.

    2010-09-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a {approx}1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H{sub 2} lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 {mu}m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of {approx}1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H{sub 2} transitions is found to be 1.94 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T {approx} 1000 K) H{sub 2} gas is 7.95 {+-} 0.19 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10{sup -3}, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H{sub 2} ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H{sub 2} data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3{<=}} n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub s} {<=} 10 km s{sup -1} for the redshifted gas and v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 {mu}G, and just 3 {mu}G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

  12. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  13. Association study of common polymorphisms in MSRA, TFAP2B, MC4R, NRXN3, PPARGC1A, TMEM18, SEC16B, HOXB5 and OLFM4 genes with obesity-related traits among Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, David; Nóbrega, Clévio; Rodríguez-López, Raquel; Manco, Licínio

    2014-06-01

    At least 52 genetic loci were associated with obesity-related traits. However, little is known about the genetic basis of obesity among children. This study aims to test whether 10 polymorphisms in obesity-related genes methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), transcription factor AP-2 beta (TFAP2B), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), neurexin 3 (NRXN3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A), transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18), homolog of S. cerevisiae Sec16 (SEC16B), homeobox B5 (HOXB5) and olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) are associated with the risk of obesity in Portuguese children. A total of 730 children aging from 6 to 12 years old, recruited randomly from public schools in Portugal, were analysed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained and children were classified into three phenotypic groups, normal weight (n=256), overweight (n=320) and obese (n=154), according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Polymorphisms were genotyped by allelic discrimination TaqMan assays. The MC4R rs12970134 polymorphism was nominally associated with body mass index (BMI) (P=0.035), BMI Z-score (P=0.043) and waist circumference (P=0.020), and borderline associated with weight (P=0.053). Near nominal associations were also found for the PPARGC1A rs8192678 polymorphism with weight (P=0.061), and for the MSRA rs545854 polymorphism with BMI (P=0.055) and BMI Z-score (P=0.056). Furthermore, logistic regression showed that MC4R rs12970134 and TFAP2B rs987237 were nominally, respectively, associated (P=0.029) and borderline associated (P=0.056) with the obese phenotype. This study highlighted the possible association of MC4R, PPARGC1A, MSRA and TFAP2B polymorphisms with several obesity-related traits in a sample of Portuguese children. The two significant associated TFAP2B rs987237 and MC4R rs12970134 polymorphisms showed an opposite direction of effect to that in the original reports. PMID:24670271

  14. Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

  15. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (? = -0.10, p = 0.02 and ? = -0.78, p < 0.01, respectively). At follow-up, sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (? = -0.08, p < 0.05). There was a significant positive relationship between consumption of sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (? = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results suggest that strategies for reducing sugar intake need to target particular food groups. Consequently, this information could be of value to obesity- and metabolic disease-prevention strategies. PMID:26729156

  16. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    PubMed

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Abderrahmane, Abderraouf Ben; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents. PMID:26701117

  17. Association of Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants with Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits in Early Childhood: The Rhea Mother–Child Cohort (Crete, Greece)

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Vaggelis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Karachaliou, Marianna; Fthenou, Eleni; Venihaki, Maria; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Oken, Emily; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase risk of obesity later in life. Objective We examined the relation of in utero POPs exposure to offspring obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors at 4 years of age in the Rhea mother–child cohort in Crete, Greece (n = 689). Methods We determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in first-trimester maternal serum. We measured child weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, blood pressure (BP), blood levels of lipids, C-reactive protein, and adipokines at 4 years of age. Childhood obesity was defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for body mass index (BMI) as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results On multivariable regression analyses, a 10-fold increase in HCB was associated with a higher BMI z-score (adjusted ? = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.86), obesity [relative risk (RR) = 8.14; 95% CI: 1.85, 35.81], abdominal obesity (RR = 3.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 11.28), greater sum of skinfold thickness (? = 7.71 mm; 95% CI: 2.04, 13.39), and higher systolic BP (? = 4.34 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.63, 8.05) at 4 years of age. Prenatal DDE exposure was associated with higher BMI z-score (? = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.5), abdominal obesity (RR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.70, 8.30), and higher diastolic BP (? = 1.79 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.13, 3.46). PCBs were not significantly associated with offspring obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to DDE and HCB was associated with excess adiposity and higher blood pressure levels in early childhood. Citation Vafeiadi M, Georgiou V, Chalkiadaki G, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Karachaliou M, Fthenou E, Venihaki M, Sarri K, Vassilaki M, Kyrtopoulos SA, Oken E, Kogevinas M, Chatzi L. 2015. Association of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants with obesity and cardiometabolic traits in early childhood: the Rhea mother–child cohort (Crete, Greece). Environ Health Perspect 123:1015–1021;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409062 PMID:25910281

  18. Obesity and Your Digestive Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to the ?oor. Relax, exhale, and measure your waist. BMI = weight in pounds x 703 Height in inches 2 or weight in kg height in meters 2 What is your BMI? __________ What is your waist circumference? __________ Do you know the general medical risks ...

  19. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  20. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to cardiometabolic risk in children: cross-sectional findings from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk among children. However, little is known about the independent and combined associations of PA and SB as well as different types of these behaviours with cardiometabolic risk in children. We therefore investigated these relationships among children. Methods The subjects were a population sample of 468 children 6–8 years of age. PA and SB were assessed by a questionnaire administered by parents and validated by a monitor combining heart rate and accelerometry measurements. We assessed body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma lipids and lipoproteins and blood pressure and calculated a cardiometabolic risk score using population-specific Z-scores and a formula waist circumference?+?insulin?+?glucose?+?triglycerides - HDL cholesterol?+?mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We analysed data using multivariate linear regression models. Results Total PA was inversely associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (??=?-0.135, p?=?0.004), body fat percentage (??=?-0.155, p?waist circumference (??=?0.097, p?=?0.033) and systolic blood pressure (??=?0.096, p?=?0.039). Resting was directly associated with the cardiometabolic risk score (??=?0.092, p?=?0.049), triglycerides (??=?0.131, p?=?0.005), VLDL triglycerides (??=?0.134, p?=?0.009), VLDL cholesterol (??=?0.147, p?=?0.004) and LDL cholesterol (??=?0.105, p?=?0.023). Other types of PA and SB had less consistent associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions The results of our study emphasise increasing total and unstructured PA and decreasing watching TV and videos and other sedentary behaviours to reduce cardiometabolic risk among children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01803776. PMID:24766669

  1. Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilário da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

  2. Weight Status Measures Collected in the Healthy Communities Study: Protocols and Analyses.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Christopher J; McIver, Kerry L; Sagatov, Robyn D F; Arteaga, S Sonia; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is one of the largest studies to assess the relationship between characteristics of community programs and policies to prevent childhood obesity and obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol that was developed for collecting the anthropometric data for the study and the procedures for analyzing the data. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyses will be completed by mid-2016. During in-home visits, Healthy Communities Study staff collected height, weight, and waist circumference measurements from child participants and height and weight measurements from adult participants. The protocol for obtaining these measurements was adapted from the protocol used by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with modifications to accommodate assessments conducted in homes rather than in a Mobile Examination Center. In addition to anthropometric data from in-home visits, the Healthy Communities Study collected retrospective height and weight measurements from the medical records of child participants. These data were used to calculate trajectories of BMI and BMI z-scores. The study implemented procedures for ensuring the accuracy of the in-home measurements and abstracted medical data. These procedures included automatically checking the ranges on entered data, reviewing data for end-digit patterns, and abstracting selected medical records using two independent abstractors to assess agreement. The collection of longitudinal height and weight measures will allow researchers to address several pressing questions related to how characteristics of community programs and policies are associated with obesity-related outcomes among children. PMID:26384935

  3. Screening for Dysglycemia in Overweight Youth Presenting for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Katherine M.; Xu, Liqin; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Yusuf, Zaheera; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the performance of current screening recommendations for detecting dysglycemia in children and adolescents with obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study, an oral glucose tolerance test and demographic (age, sex, family history of diabetes, and ethnicity), clinical (BMI z score, waist circumference, and pubertal stage), and laboratory variables used in current pediatric screening criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus were measured in 259 overweight or obese youth aged 5–17 years. Glycemic status was based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) thresholds. The performance (sensitivity and specificity) of current screening criteria and newly developed models to identify isolated IGT were compared. RESULTS Dysglycemia was present in 20.8% of the cohort. Of the 54 participants with dysglycemia, 68% had a normal fasting glucose and were identified with the 2-h glucose test. Current ADA criteria had low sensitivity (41.7% [95% CI 25.6–57.8]) and moderate specificity (69.5% [63.5–75.6]) to identify IGT. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the addition of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or FPG did not improve the ROC area under the curve (AUC) (HbA1c: 0.64 vs. 0.63; P = 0.54; HbA1c + FPG: 0.66; P = 0.42), but adding triglyceride level did (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.63; P = 0.03). A simple model with fasting triglyceride level >1.17 mmol/L improved AUC compared with ADA screening criteria (0.68 vs. 0.57; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of IGT is high among obese children and youth. Current screening criteria have low sensitivity to detect isolated IGT. Although adding nonfasting laboratory values to history and physical measures does not improve diagnostic accuracy, adding fasting lipid profile improves predictive value. PMID:22271926

  4. Is the association of continuous metabolic syndrome risk score with body mass index independent of physical activity? The CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; shafiee, Gita; Kelishadi, Roya; Babaki, Amir Eslami Shahr; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Arefirad, Tahereh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Asayesh, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although the association of body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is well documented, there is little knowledge on the independent and joint associations of BMI and physical activity with MetS risk based on a continuous scoring system. This study was designed to explore the effect of physical activity on interactions between excess body weight and continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) in a nationwide survey of Iranian children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data on 5,625 school students between 10 and 18 years of age were analyzed. BMI percentiles, screen time activity (STA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) levels, and components of cMetS risk score were extracted. Standardized residuals (z-scores) were calculated for MetS components. Linear regression models were used to study the interactions between different combinations of cMetS, LTPA, and BMI percentiles. RESULTS Overall, 984 (17.5%) subjects were underweight, whereas 501 (8.9%) and 451 (8%) participants were overweight and obese, respectively. All standardized values for cMetS components, except fasting blood glucose level, were directly correlated with BMI percentiles in all models (P-trend < 0.001); these associations were independent of STA and LTPA levels. Linear associations were also observed among LTPA and standardized residuals for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, and waist circumference (P-trend < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that BMI percentiles are associated with cMetS risk score independent of LTPA and STA levels. PMID:26244080

  5. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene association with overweight and asthma in children and adolescents and its relationship with physical fitness

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Neiva; Lazarotto, Leilane; Milano, Gerusa Eisfeld; Titski, Ana Claudia Kapp; Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; de Mattos, Fernanda; de Andrade, Fabiana Antunes; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of ?2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) with the occurrence of asthma and overweight and the gene's influence on anthropometric, clinic, biochemical and physical fitness variables in children and adolescents. Methods: Subjects were evaluated for allelic frequencies of the ?2-adrenergic receptor gene, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist circumference (WC), pubertal stage, resting heart rate (HRres), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), Homeostasis Metabolic Assessment (HOMA2-IR), Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The participants were divided in four groups: overweight asthmatic (n=39), overweight non-asthmatic (n=115), normal weight asthmatic (n=12), and normal weight non-asthmatic (n=40). Results: Regarding the Gln27Glu polymorphism, higher total cholesterol was observed in usual genotype individuals than in genetic variant carriers (p=0.04). No evidence was found that the evaluated polymorphisms are influencing the physical fitness. The Arg16 allele was found more frequently among the normal weight asthmatic group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.02), and the Glu27 allele was more frequently found in the overweight asthmatics group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.03). Conclusions: The association of Arg16 allele with the occurrence of asthma and of the Glu27 allele with overweight asthmatic adolescents evidenced the contribution of the ?2-adrenergic receptor gene to the development of obesity and asthma. PMID:26409918

  6. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  7. The Associations between Anthropometric Indices and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeon Hui; Kang, Ji Young; Ha, Jick Hwan; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Moon, Hwa Sik; Lee, Sang Haak

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that OSA and obesity are strongly associated, few Asian studies have examined the associations between anthropometric obesity indices and OSA, especially in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric obesity indices on OSA in a Korean population. Methods Anthropometric indices, including neck circumference, waist circumference, and body mass index, were assessed in 383 consecutive subjects with suspected OSA. Results Of the 383 subjects assessed, 316 (82.5%) were diagnosed with OSA. Neck circumference (r?=?0.518), waist circumference (r?=?0.570), and body mass index (r?=?0.512) were correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (p<0.001, for all). After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking, a logistic regression model showed that neck circumference [odds ratio (OR), 1.414; p<0.001)], waist circumference (OR, 1.114; p<0.001), and body mass index (OR, 1.364; p<0.001) were associated with OSA. The linear regression model showed that neck circumference (??=?3.748, p<0.001), waist circumference (??=?1.272, p<0.001), and body mass index (??=?3.082, p<0.001) were associated with apnea-hypopnea index. The cut-off values for predicting OSA were determined as 34.5 cm for neck circumference, 76.5 cm for waist circumference, and 23.05 kg/m2 for body mass index for females, and 38.75 cm for neck circumference, 88.5 cm for waist circumference, and 24.95 kg/m2 for body mass index for males. Conclusion Increased anthropometric indices were significantly associated with the presence and severity of OSA in a Korean population. In addition, this study demonstrated the cut-off values for body mass index, waist circumference, and neck circumference for increased OSA risk. PMID:25474257

  8. Adherence to an overweight and obesity treatment: how to motivate a patient?

    PubMed Central

    Rizo, Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore anthropometric changes in normal-weight, overweight and obese subjects who did not dropout or fail a weight loss program over the 16 treatment weeks to improve patient motivation and treatment adherence. Methods. A clinical intervention study was conducted among 271 (including 100 dropouts and/or failures) obese and overweight patients who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for the purpose of nutritional assessment. They were subject to a personalized weekly follow-up consultation over the course of 16 weeks in which initial and the final Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2), photographs, food consumption patterns, percentage weight loss, waist and hip circumference were registered and grouped according to BMI, measuring treatment response. Data’s nonparametric statistical comparison was made. Results. In 62 patients from the BMI < 25 group, there is weight loss of 2.6% (3.1 SD), 5.5% (3.3 SD) in waist circumference and 3.0% (2.5 SD) in hip circumference. In 67 patients from the 25 ? BMI < 30 group, there is weight loss of 3.8% (4.1 SD), 5.7% (4.5 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.7% (3.0 SD) in hip circumference loss. In 42 patients from the BMI > 30 group, there is weight loss of 4.8% (3.7 SD), 7.0% (3.6 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.9% (2.4 SD) in hip circumference loss. Monitoring is done every 4 weeks by the Friedman test, with significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.001). Patients do not drop out of treatment because they start to see physical results in waist decrease. When comparing final values of initial waist/hip circumference ratios and waist/height ratios, a clear decrease in the three BMI groups was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion. After three weeks of continuous treatment patients improved in all overweight and obesity parameter indicators; there were not statistically significant differences in hip circumference (HC) and waist loss (WC) (%) among the three BMI groups (normal-weight, overweight, and obesity). In contrast, there were statistically significant differences in weight loss (%) and waist-to-hip ratios. Based on anthropometric outcomes and patient perception of their body image it can be concluded that the waist circumference loss is the parameter that retains obese patients in the weight loss program. PMID:25101227

  9. Deficits in Bone Density and Structure in Children and Young Adults Following Fontan Palliation

    PubMed Central

    Avitabile, Catherine M.; Goldberg, David J.; Zemel, Babette S.; Brodsky, Jill L.; Dodds, Kathryn; Hayden-Rush, Christina; Whitehead, Kevin K.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Rychik, Jack; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survival of patients with congenital heart disease has improved such that there are now more adults than children living with these conditions. Complex single ventricle congenital heart disease requiring Fontan palliation is associated with multiple risk factors for impaired bone accrual. Bone density and structure have not been characterized in these patients. Methods Tibia peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical dimensions, and calf muscle area in 43 Fontan participants (5–33 years old), a median of 10 years following Fontan palliation. pQCT outcomes were converted to sex- and race-specific Z-scores relative to age based on >700 healthy reference participants. Cortical dimensions and muscle area were further adjusted for tibia length. Results Height Z-scores were lower in Fontan compared to reference participants (mean±SD: ?0.291.00 vs. 0.250.93, p<0.001); BMI Z-scores were similar (0.160.88 vs. 0.351.02, p=0.1). Fontan participants had lower trabecular vBMD Z-scores (?0.850.96 vs. 0.011.02, p<0.001); cortical vBMD Z-scores were similar (?0.170.98 vs. 0.001.00, p=0.27). Cortical dimensions were reduced with lower cortical area (?0.590.84 vs. 0.000.88, p<0.001) and periosteal circumference (?0.500.82 vs. 0.000.84, p<0.001) Z-scores, compared to reference participants. Calf muscle area Z-scores were lower in the Fontan participants (?0.450.98 vs. 0.000.96, p=0.003) and lower calf muscle area Z-scores were associated with smaller periosteal circumference Z-scores (R=0.62, p<0.001). Musculoskeletal deficits were not associated with age, Fontan characteristics, parathyroid hormone or vitamin D levels. Conclusions Children and young adults demonstrate low trabecular vBMD, cortical structure and muscle area following Fontan. Muscle deficits were associated with smaller periosteal dimensions. Future studies should determine the fracture implications of these deficits and identify interventions to promote musculoskeletal development. PMID:25882907

  10. Effects of low glycaemic index/low glycaemic load vs. high glycaemic index/ high glycaemic load diets on overweight/obesity and associated risk factors in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hobl, Lisa Patricia; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the available literature data investigating the effects of low glycaemic index/low glycamic load dietary regimens on anthropometric parameters, blood lipid profiles, and indicators of glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of trials with restrictions to randomized controlled trials, but no limitations concerning language and publication date. Parameters taken into account were: body weight, body mass index, z-score of body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, height, waist cicrumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, HOMA-index, glycosylated haemoglobin, and C-reactive protein. Meta-analyses were performed for each parameter to assess pooled effect in terms of weighted mean differences between the post-intervention (or differences in means) of the low glycaemic index diets and the respective high glycaemic index counterparts. Data analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.3. software. Nine studies enrolling 1.065 children or adolescents met the inclusion criteria. Compared to diets providing a high gylcaemic index, low glycaemic index protocols resulted in significantly more pronounced decreases in serum triglycerides [mean differences -15.14 mg/dl, 95 %-CI (-26.26, -4.00)] and HOMA-index [mean difference -0.70, 95 %-CI (-1.37, -0.04), fixed-effects model only]. Other parameters under investigation were not affected by either low or high glycaemic indices. The present systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence of a beneficial effect of a low glycaemic index/load diet in children and adolescents being either overweight or obese. Regarding the limitations of this analysis, further studies adopting a homogenous design are necessary to assure the present findings. Since low glycaemic index/load regimens were not associated with a deterioration of the outcome parameters, these diets should not be categorically excluded when looking for alternatives to change lifestyle habits in this age group. PMID:26489667

  11. Neither a zinc supplement nor phytate-reduced maize nor their combination enhance growth of 6- to 12-month-old Guatemalan infants.

    PubMed

    Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K Michael; Westcott, Jamie E; Solomons, Noel W; Raboy, Victor; Das, Abhik; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L; Krebs, Nancy F

    2010-05-01

    After age 6 mo, the combination of breast-feeding and unfortified plant-based complementary feeding provides inadequate zinc (Zn). Additionally, high phytate intakes compromise the bioavailability of zinc. Our principal objective in this randomized controlled, doubly masked trial was to determine the effect of substituting low-phytate maize, a daily 5-mg zinc supplement, or both, in infants between ages 6-12 mo on impaired linear growth velocity, a common feature of zinc deficiency. In the Western Highlands of Guatemala, 412 infants were randomized to receive low-phytate or control maize. Within each maize group, infants were further randomized to receive a zinc supplement or placebo. Length, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. There were no significant differences between the 2 maize groups or between the Zn supplement and placebo groups and no treatment interaction was observed for length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) or head circumference Z-scores. Overall mean (+/- SD) Z-scores at 6 mo for combined treatment groups were: LAZ, -2.1 +/- 1.1; WLZ, 0.7 +/- 1.0; and head circumference Z-score, -0.7.0 +/- 1.0. At 12 mo, these had declined further to: LAZ, -2.5 +/- 1.1; WLZ, -0.0 +/- 0.9; and head circumference Z-score, -0.9 +/- 1.1; 83.3% were stunted and 2% were wasted. Low linear growth in older Guatemalan infants was not improved with either low-phytate maize or a daily 5-mg zinc supplement. Low contribution of maize to the complementary food of the infants negated any potential advantage of feeding low-phytate maize. PMID:20335626

  12. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

  13. A cross-sectional study of prevalence of overweight and obesity among bus drivers and conductors of North-West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) in Belgaum Division, Belgaum.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B A; Joshi, A V; Katti, S M; Mallapur, M D; Karikatti, S S

    2013-03-01

    Obesity has become a major chronic disorder affecting a large population more than any other disease in the world. To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among bus drivers and conductors of North-West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) in Belgaum, and to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them the study had been undertaken in Belgaum. Randomly selected 365 drivers and 370 conductors were personally interviewed using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire. Physical examination was done to measure height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference. Body mass index was measured to assess overweight and obesity. Waist circumference and waist hip ratio were used to assess central obesity. Summary figures like rates were calculated. Chi- square test was used to test the difference of prevalence between drivers and conductors. The study showed that in drivers 43.3% were overweight, 22.2% were obese and 23.8% were having a waist circumference > or = 102 cm. Among conductors 28.1% were overweight, 16.2% were obese and 18.1% were having a waist circumference of > or = 102cm.The prevalence of over-weight and obesity was high among drivers compared to conductors. Drivers were also more centrally obese than conductors.These differences were found to be statistically significant. Considering the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among drivers and conductors, necessary preventive measures need to be promoted. PMID:24592753

  14. Anthropometric trends and the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in a Lithuanian urban population aged 45–64 years

    PubMed Central

    Luksiene, Dalia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Bernotiene, Gailute; Peasey, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate trends in anthropometric indexes from 1992 to 2008 and to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in relation to anthropometric indexes (body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio). Methods: Data from the three surveys (1992–2008) are presented. A random sample of 5147 subjects aged 45–64 years was selected for statistical analysis. During follow-up there were 141 deaths from cardiovascular disease (excluding those with cardiovascular disease at entry). Cox’s regression was used to estimate the associations between anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular disease mortality. Results: During a 17-year period among men, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ?30 kg/m2) increased from 18.4% to 32.1% (p<0.001) and a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.9) from 59.3% to 72.9% (p<0.001). The risk profile of obesity did not change in women, but prevalence of a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.85) increased from 25.9% to 41.5% (p<0.001). Multivariable-adjusted Cox’s regression models showed that body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio were associated with cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men (hazard ratios 1.40, 1.45, 1.49, 1.46 respectively (p<0.01)). Conclusions: Our data indicate that anthropometric measures such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio and waist:height ratio are good indicators of cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men aged 45–64 years. PMID:26261188

  15. Effectiveness of telenutrition in a women's weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Kuzmar, Isaac E; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Rizo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of telenutrition versus traditional nutritional consultations for female obese patients in need of nutritional treatment. Methods. A comparative clinical study was conducted among 233 obese or overweight women (including 20 who dropped out and 60 who failed) who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for nutritional assessment and chose either telenutrition or a traditional consultation that included a weekly follow-up consultation over 16 weeks, food consumption patterns, Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m(2)) registeration and waist and hip circumference registeration. Treatment responses and differences between telenutrition and the traditional consultations were made according to BMI, waist, hip and initial-waist/height ratio (iWaist), calculating for the relative risk. Results. In 68 (29.2%) women who chose traditional attention, 9 (37.5%) dropped out, 24 (40%) failed and 35 (23.5%) were successful, showing 1.4% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.8% (3.4 SD) in waist circumference, 4.5% (2.8 SD) in hip circumference and 0.04% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. In 165 (70.8%) women who chose telenutrition, 15 (62.5%) dropped out, 36 (60%) failed and 114 (76.5%) were successful, showing 1.1% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.0% (3.2 SD) in waist circumference, 3.5% (3.1 SD) in hip circumference and 0.03% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. A significance level of p < 0.05 is considered. Conclusion. Telenutrition has a failure or dropout risk factor of about half of the value of traditional consultation, and showed slight, statistically significant differences. This study concludes that telenutrition can support or sometimes replace traditional consultations when developing weight loss programs for obese women. PMID:25674363

  16. Effectiveness of telenutrition in a women’s weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Rizo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of telenutrition versus traditional nutritional consultations for female obese patients in need of nutritional treatment. Methods. A comparative clinical study was conducted among 233 obese or overweight women (including 20 who dropped out and 60 who failed) who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for nutritional assessment and chose either telenutrition or a traditional consultation that included a weekly follow-up consultation over 16 weeks, food consumption patterns, Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2) registeration and waist and hip circumference registeration. Treatment responses and differences between telenutrition and the traditional consultations were made according to BMI, waist, hip and initial-waist/height ratio (iWaist), calculating for the relative risk. Results. In 68 (29.2%) women who chose traditional attention, 9 (37.5%) dropped out, 24 (40%) failed and 35 (23.5%) were successful, showing 1.4% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.8% (3.4 SD) in waist circumference, 4.5% (2.8 SD) in hip circumference and 0.04% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. In 165 (70.8%) women who chose telenutrition, 15 (62.5%) dropped out, 36 (60%) failed and 114 (76.5%) were successful, showing 1.1% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.0% (3.2 SD) in waist circumference, 3.5% (3.1 SD) in hip circumference and 0.03% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. A significance level of p < 0.05 is considered. Conclusion. Telenutrition has a failure or dropout risk factor of about half of the value of traditional consultation, and showed slight, statistically significant differences. This study concludes that telenutrition can support or sometimes replace traditional consultations when developing weight loss programs for obese women. PMID:25674363

  17. Hydroxyurea and Growth in Young Children With Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Patricia E.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Goldsmith, Jonathan; Casella, James F.; Reed, Caroline K.; Rogers, Zora R.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Thompson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growth impairment is a known complication of sickle cell disease. Effects of hydroxyurea (HU) on growth in very young children are not known. METHODS: Height, weight, BMI, and head circumference (HC) were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards in BABY HUG, a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 2-year clinical trial of HU in 193 children 9 to 18 months of age. Anthropometric data were closely monitored and converted to z scores by using WHO standardized algorithms for descriptive analyses. The treatment and placebo groups were compared longitudinally by using a mixed model analysis. RESULTS: At entry, the z scores of BABY HUG children were higher than WHO norms. After 2 years of HU or placebo treatment, there were no significant differences between the groups, except for the mean HC z scores at study exit (HU: +0.8 versus placebo: +1.0, P = .05). Baseline z scores were the best predictors of z scores at study exit. The absolute neutrophil count, absolute reticulocyte count, and total white blood cell count had significant negative correlations with growth measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both groups had normal or near normal anthropometric measures during the study. The HC z scores at study entry and exit were slightly greater than WHO norms. Higher baseline white blood cell count, absolute reticulocyte count, and absolute neutrophil count were associated with poorer growth. The significance of the slightly lower HC in the treatment group at study exit is not clear. Trends toward normalization of weight and height and effects on HC will be monitored in ongoing BABY HUG follow-up studies. PMID:25157002

  18. Monochromatic cycles and the monochromatic circumference in 2-coloured graphs

    E-print Network

    Scott, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Li, Nikiforov and Schelp conjectured that a 2-edge coloured graph G with order n and minimal degree strictly greater than 3n/4 contains a monochromatic cycle of length l, for all l at least four and at most n/2. We prove this conjecture for sufficiently large n and also find all 2-edge coloured graphs with minimal degree equal to 3n/4 that do not contain all such cycles. Finally we show that, for all positive constants d and sufficiently large n, a 2-edge coloured graph G of order n with minimal degree at least 3n/4 either contains a monochromatic cycle of length at least (2/3+d/2)n, or, in one of the two colours, contains a cycle of all lengths between three and (2/3-d)n.

  19. THE AREA AND CIRCUMFERENCE OF A MITCH RUDOMINER

    E-print Network

    Rudominer, Mitch

    their history. To begin with, how should one interpret the formulas A = r2 and C = 2r? It is tempting to take. Suppose also that you have some rope with you. Using a short piece of rope you draw a circle in the wet sand. You do this by holding one end of the rope down with one hand, or a stick. Then you pull the rope

  20. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Cho, Ying-Chun; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Hu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Li-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol) and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance. PMID:26137484

  1. An analogue of Gromov's waist theorem for coloring the cube

    E-print Network

    Karasev, Roman

    2011-01-01

    It is proved that if we partition a $d$-dimensional cube into $n^d$ small cubes and color the small cubes into $m+1$ colors then there exists a monochromatic connected component consisting of at least $f(d, m) n^{d-m}$ small cubes.

  2. Sufficiently good measures of obesity: the case of a developing country.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is pandemic, but no consensus has yet emerged regarding appropriate tools for measuring it. Medical research based on populations in the developed world has largely dismissed body mass index (BMI) because it is a weak predictor of some health outcomes. In contrast, social science research still relies on it for its simplicity and ready availability in surveys. This paper uses consistent definitions and measures to select sufficiently good predictors of health and economic outcomes from among the anthropometrics that are considered alternatives to BMI. The results from the Indonesian Family Life Survey indicate that BMI and waist circumference are better predictors than waist-to-height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio. This paper argues that given its advantages, BMI is an adequate measure of obesity for Indonesia and possibly for the developing world. Further, if BMI is to be replaced, waist circumference is preferable to other anthropometrics. PMID:24423615

  3. Arterial stiffness in obese children: Role of adiposity and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Deepa S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Kinare, Arun S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore association of adiposity and physical activity with arterial stiffness and to propose optimal waist circumference cutoffs, corresponding to 90th percentile of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for Indian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Data on weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity and right Carotid artery Intima-Media-Thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), elasticity modulus (Ep), stiffness index(?), arterial compliance (AC) were assessed in 250 children (72 normal-weight and 178 overweight/obese) aged 6-17 years from Pune city, India. Body composition was measured using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Total, 37.1% normal-weight and 98.2% overweight/obese children had high adiposity (>95th body fat percentile). Positive association of PWV and Ep (r = 0.5) also ?(r = 0.25) with BMI (Body Mass Index), waist circumference and body fat (P < 0.05) was observed. Physical activity was inversely associated with PWV (r =-0.2), ?(r =-0.13), Ep (r =-0.12) and positively with AC (r = 0.12) (P < 0.05). PWV significantly increased with increasing body fat for each tertile of physical activity (P < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed waist circumference, BMI, body fat and physical activity as independent associates for PWV after adjusting for age (P < 0.05). The cutoff of waist circumference yielding sensitivity and specificity for predicting the risk of high PWV was (?0.43, ?0.44) for boys and girls with sensitivity in boys (girls) of 78% (87%) and specificity in boys (girls) 51% (70%). The observed cutoffs are less than the NHANES-III cutoff values of waist circumference for 90th percentiles according to age and sex. Conclusion: High adiposity and low physical activity are adversely related to arterial stiffness in Indian children. PMID:24701433

  4. Dietary Energy Density: A Mediator of Depressive Symptoms and Abdominal Obesity or Independent Predictor of Abdominal Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Gary, Rebecca; Tohill, Beth C.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Higgins, Melinda K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the U.S., Europe, and throughout the world, abdominal obesity prevalence is increasing. Depressive symptoms may contribute to abdominal obesity through the consumption of diets high in energy density. Purpose To test dietary energy density ([DED]; kilocalories/gram of food and beverages consumed) for an independent relationship with abdominal obesity or as a mediator between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study included 87 mid-life, overweight adults; 73.6% women; 50.6% African-American. Variables and measures: Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depressive symptoms; 3-day weighed food records to calculate DED; waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal obesity. Hierarchical regression tested if DED explained waist circumference variance while controlling for depressive symptoms and consumed food and beverage weight. Three approaches tested DED as a mediator. Results Nearly three-quarters of participants had abdominal obesity, and the mean waist circumference was 103.2 (SD 14.3) cm. Mean values: BDI-II was 8.67 (SD 8.34) which indicates most participants experienced minimal depressive symptoms, and 21.8% reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II ? 14); DED was 0.75 (SD 0.22) kilocalories/gram. Hierarchical regression showed an independent association between DED and waist circumference with DED explaining 7.0% of variance above that accounted for by BDI-II and food and beverage weight. DED did not mediate between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and DED were associated with elevated waist circumference, thus a comprehensive intervention aimed at improving depressive symptoms and decreasing DED to reduce waist circumference is warranted. PMID:21530408

  5. Height, Ethnicity, and the Incidence of Diabetes: the San Antonio Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Williams, Ken; Stern, Michael P; Haffner, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Mexican Americans are more obese and have more diabetes than non-Hispanic whites, but are also shorter. Height is used in some diabetes prediction models. Therefore we examined the effect of height on the relationship between ethnicity and incident diabetes. Incident diabetes was ascertained in 1,730 participants in the San Antonio Heart Study (age range, 25 to 64 years) after 7.4 years of follow-up. Height predicted diabetes in neither men (odds ratio [OR] × 1 standard deviation [SD], 1.14 [0.85 – 1.51]) nor women (OR × 1 SD, 0.88 [0.70 – 1.11]) after adjusting for age and ethnicity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting diabetes of a model that included waist circumference (in men, 0.775; in women, 0.781) was similar to that of models that included waist circumference + height (in men, 0.775, p = 0.702; in women, 0.783, p = 0.680) or waist-to-height ratio (in men, 0.764, p = 0.161; in women, 0.783, p = 0.619). The OR of incident diabetes according to ethnicity was lower in the model that was adjusted for the waist-to-height ratio than in the model that accounted only for waist circumference (in women, 1.45 (0.86 – 2.46) vs. 1.84 (1.10 – 3.08), p <0.001; in men, 2.00 (1.11 – 3.58) vs. 2.74 (1.52 – 4.95), p <0.001). In conclusion, the addition of height to adjust waist circumference does not increase the ability of waist circumference to predict diabetes, but may be useful in exploring differences in diabetic risk between populations of different race/ethnicity. PMID:19586642

  6. Prenatal Phthalate Exposure and Childhood Growth and Blood Pressure: Evidence from the Spanish INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Romaguera, Dora; Monfort, Nuria; Ventura, Rosa; Martinez, David; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background Human evidence on the effects of early life phthalate exposure on obesity and cardiovascular disease risks, reported by experimental studies, is limited to a few cross-sectional studies. Objectives We evaluated the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and childhood growth and blood pressure in a Spanish birth cohort study. Methods We assessed exposure using the average of two phthalate metabolite spot-urine concentrations collected from the mothers in the first and third pregnancy trimesters (creatinine-adjusted, n = 391). Study outcomes were the difference in age- and sex-specific z-scores for weight between birth and 6 months of age; and repeated age- and sex-specific z-scores for body mass index (BMI) at 1, 4, and 7 years; waist-to-height ratio at 4 and 7 years; and age- and height-specific z-scores for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 4 and 7 years. Results The sum of five high-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (?HMWPm) was associated with lower weight z-score difference between birth and 6 months (? per doubling of exposure = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.75, –0.06) and BMI z-scores at later ages in boys (? = –0.28; 95% CI: –0.60, 0.03) and with higher weight z-score difference (? = 0.24; 95% CI: –0.16, 0.65) and BMI z-scores in girls (? = 0.30; 95% CI: –0.04, 0.64) (p for sex interaction = 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). The sum of three low-molecular-weight phthalates (?LMWPm) was not significantly associated with any of the growth outcomes. ?HMWPm and ?LMWPm were associated with lower systolic blood pressure z-scores in girls but not in boys. Conclusions This study suggests that prenatal phthalate exposure may be associated with postnatal growth and blood pressure in a sex-specific manner. Inconsistencies with previous cross-sectional findings highlight the necessity for evaluating phthalate health effects in prospective studies. Citation Valvi D, Casas M, Romaguera D, Monfort N, Ventura R, Martinez D, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposure and childhood growth and blood pressure: evidence from the Spanish INMA-Sabadell birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 123:1022–1029;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408887 PMID:25850106

  7. Relationship between zinc and the growth and development of young children.

    PubMed

    Gao, S; Tu, D N; Li, H; Cao, X; Jiang, J X; Shi, Y; Zhou, X Q; You, J B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between zinc and the growth and development of young children. The parents of 8102 young children were surveyed in person by a trained surveyor using structured questionnaires. The hair zinc concentration of the children was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The height, weight, sitting height, and head circumference of the children were measured at follow-up visits. There was a positive correlation between hair zinc concentration and adaptive developmental quotient (ADQ; r = 0.3164, P = 0.0272) while no correlation was found between hair zinc concentration and body measurement Z scores or intelligence quotient (IQ). There was a strong positive correlation between hair zinc concentration and weight-for-age Z scores (r = 0.3618, P = 0.0416) and ADQ (r = 0.2761, P = 0.0387) in boys; there was no correlation between hair zinc concentration and body measurement Z scores, IQ, and ADQ in girls. In boys with normal hair zinc levels, ADQ was 9.58 (P = 0.0392), higher than in boys who had zinc-deficient hair. In girls with normal hair zinc levels, ADQ was 2.52 (P = 0.0296), lower than in girls with zinc-deficient hair. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between hair zinc levels and IQ or Z scores for all body measurements in young children. PMID:26345905

  8. Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: a prospective study in the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn Erica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Helen-Maria; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Ehrnström, Roy; Brennan, Paul; Ferrari, Pietro; Ljungberg, Börje; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2014-12-15

    Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p?=?0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking. PMID:24771290

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease. PMID:23962490

  10. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI) and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years) and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Results We found a direct correlation (p < 0.001) between children's BMI z-score and their mothers' BMI, both in boys (Spearman rho = 0.26) and girls (rho = 0.30). A direct association was also found between children's BMI z-score with scores of the subscale "concern for child's weight" (Spearman rho = 0.26 in boys and rho = 0.37 in girls; p < 0.001) and "food restriction" (rho = 0.19 in boys and rho = 0.27 in girls; p < 0.001). A reverse significant association was found between children's BMI z-score with scores of "pressure to eat" (rho = -0.30 in boys and rho = -0.36 in girls; p < 0.001). Analyses of the combined categories of childhood obesity and/or maternal obesity showed an important influence of children's weight status on CFQ scores. Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children. PMID:20040107

  11. Energy, protein, and zinc nutriture of rural African children in relation to some anthropometric indices

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, E.L.; Gibson, R.S.; Osei-Opare, F.; Opare-Obisaw, C.; Thompson, L.U. Univ. of Ghana, Legon Univ. of Toronto, Ontario )

    1991-03-11

    Heights, weights, arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thicknesses of 66 Malawian and 148 Ghanaian preschool children were measured during 3 seasons. Their seasonal energy, protein, Ca, Zn, dietary fiber and phytate intakes were estimated from 3-day weighed records, using analyzed and literature food composition values. Seasonal hair Zn concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses, The mean annual intakes for Malawian compared to Ghanaian children were higher for energy protein, and Zn. Cereals contributed a higher proportion of the total energy intake in the Malawian compared to the Ghanaian diets. A higher percentage of the Malawian children had height-for-age Z-scores below {minus}2SD, but a lower percentage had weight-for-height Z-scores below {minus}1SD compared to their Ghanaian counterparts. These differences may, in part be related to the high cereal intakes of the Malawian children.

  12. The Effectiveness of Lifestyle Triple P in the Netherlands: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gerards, Sanne M. P. L.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; van Buuren, Stef; Hamers, Femke J. M.; Jansen, Maria W. J.; van der Goot, Odilia H. M.; de Vries, Nanne K.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle Triple P is a general parenting intervention which focuses on preventing further excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The objective of the current study was to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention in the Netherlands. Method We used a parallel randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of the intervention. In total, 86 child-parent triads (children 4–8 years old, overweight or obese) were recruited and randomly assigned (allocation ratio 1:1) to the Lifestyle Triple P intervention or the control condition. Parents in the intervention condition received a 14-week intervention consisting of ten 90-minute group sessions and four individual telephone sessions. Primary outcome measure was the children’s body composition (BMI z-scores, waist circumference and skinfolds). The research assistant who performed the measurements was blinded for group assignment. Secondary outcome measures were the children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, and parental self-efficacy. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and 4 months (short-term) and 12 months (long-term) after baseline. Multilevel multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the effect of the intervention on primary and secondary outcome measures. Results No intervention effects were found on children’s body composition. Analyses of secondary outcomes showed positive short-term intervention effects on children’s soft-drink consumption and parental responsibility regarding physical activity, encouragement to eat, psychological control, and efficacy and satisfaction with parenting. Longer-term intervention effects were found on parent’s report of children’s time spent on sedentary behavior and playing outside, parental monitoring food intake, and responsibility regarding nutrition. Conclusion Although the Lifestyle Triple P intervention showed positive effects on some parent reported child behaviors and parenting measures, no effects were visible on children’s body composition or objectively measured physical activity. Several adjustments of the intervention content are recommended, for example including a booster session. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR 2555 PMID:25849523

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Families for Health V2 for the treatment of childhood obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective programs to help children manage their weight are required. Families for Health focuses on a parenting approach, designed to help parents develop their parenting skills to support lifestyle change within the family. Families for Health V1 showed sustained reductions in overweight after 2 years in a pilot evaluation, but lacks a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence base. Methods/design This is a multi-center, investigator-blind RCT, with parallel economic evaluation, with a 12-month follow-up. The trial will recruit 120 families with at least one child aged 6 to 11 years who is overweight (?91st centile BMI) or obese (?98th centile BMI) from three localities and assigned randomly to Families for Health V2 (60 families) or the usual care control (60 families) groups. Randomization will be stratified by locality (Coventry, Warwickshire, Wolverhampton). Families for Health V2 is a family-based intervention run in a community venue. Parents/carers and children attend parallel groups for 2.5 hours weekly for 10 weeks. The usual care arm will be the usual support provided within each NHS locality. A mixed-methods evaluation will be carried out. Child and parent participants will be assessed at home visits at baseline, 3-month (post-treatment) and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the change in the children’s BMI z-scores at 12 months from the baseline. Secondary outcome measures include changes in the children’s waist circumference, percentage body fat, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and quality of life. The parents’ BMI and mental well-being, family eating/activity, parent–child relationships and parenting style will also be assessed. Economic components will encompass the measurement and valuation of service utilization, including the costs of running Families for Health and usual care, and the EuroQol EQ-5D health outcomes. Cost-effectiveness will be expressed in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. A de novo decision-analytic model will estimate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of the Families for Health program. Process evaluation will document recruitment, attendance and drop-out rates, and the fidelity of Families for Health delivery. Interviews with up to 24 parents and children from each arm will investigate perceptions and changes made. Discussion This paper describes our protocol to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a parenting approach for managing childhood obesity and presents challenges to implementation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials http://ISRCTN45032201 PMID:23514100

  14. A family-centered lifestyle intervention to improve body composition and bone mass in overweight and obese children 6 through 8 years: a randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity gives rise to health complications including impaired musculoskeletal development that associates with increased risk of fractures. Prevention and treatment programs should focus on nutrition education, increasing physical activity (PA), reducing sedentary behaviours, and should monitor bone mass as a component of body composition. To ensure lifestyle changes are sustained in the home environment, programs need to be family-centered. To date, no study has reported on a family-centered lifestyle intervention for obese children that aims to not only ameliorate adiposity, but also support increases in bone and lean muscle mass. Furthermore, it is unknown if programs of such nature can also favorably change eating and activity behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a 1 y family-centered lifestyle intervention, focused on both nutrient dense foods including increased intakes of milk and alternatives, plus total and weight-bearing PA, on body composition and bone mass in overweight or obese children. Methods/design The study design is a randomized controlled trial for overweight or obese children (6–8 y). Participants are randomized to control, standard treatment (StTx) or modified treatment (ModTx). This study is family-centred and includes individualized counselling sessions on nutrition, PA and sedentary behaviors occurring 4 weeks after baseline for 5 months, then at the end of month 8. The control group receives counselling at the end of the study. All groups are measured at baseline and every 3 months for the primary outcome of changes in body mass index Z-scores. At each visit blood is drawn and children complete a researcher-administered behavior questionnaire and muscle function testing. Changes from baseline to 12 months in body fat (% and mass), waist circumference, lean body mass, bone (mineral content, mineral density, size and volumetric density), dietary intake, self-reported PA and sedentary behaviour are examined. Discussion This family-centered theory-based study permits for biochemical and physiological assessments. This trial will assess the effectiveness of the intervention at changing lifestyle behaviours by decreasing adiposity while enhancing lean and bone mass. If successful, the intervention proposed offers new insights for the management or treatment of childhood obesity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01290016. PMID:23617621

  15. Nutritional supplementation in girls influences the growth of their children: prospective study in Guatemala1234

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Maria C; Preston, Samuel H; Hoddinott, John; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Better early childhood nutrition improves schooling, adult health, skills, and wages, but there is little evidence regarding its effect on the next generation. Objective: We assessed whether nutritional supplementation in children aged <7 to 15 y affected their children's nutritional status 29–38 y later. Design: We studied 791 children 0–12 y who were offspring of 401 Guatemalan women who had participated as children in a nutritional supplementation trial in which 2 villages were randomly assigned to receive a nutritious supplement (atole) and 2 were assigned to receive a less-nutritious supplement (fresco). We compared anthropometric indicators between the offspring of mothers exposed to atole and the offspring of mothers exposed to fresco. Results: Compared with the offspring of women exposed to fresco, the offspring of women exposed to atole had a 116-g (95% CI: 17, 215 g) higher birth weight, were 1.3-cm (0.4, 2.2 cm) taller, had a 0.6-cm (0.4, 0.9 cm) greater head circumference, had a 0.26 (0.09, 0.43) greater height-for-age z score, and had a 0.20 (0.02, 0.39) greater weight-for-age z score. The association for height differed by offspring sex. Sons of women exposed to atole were 2.0-cm (95% CI: 1.0, 3.1 cm) taller than the sons of women exposed to fresco. Supplementation was not associated with 6 other offspring anthropometric indicators that reflect measures of adiposity. Supplementation in boys did not affect their children's anthropometric measures. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation in girls is associated with substantial increases in their offsprings' (more for sons) birth weight, height, head circumference, height-for-age z score, and weight-for-age z score. PMID:19793851

  16. Improvement of nutritional status in cholestatic children with supplemental nocturnal enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Moreno, L A; Gottrand, F; Hoden, S; Turck, D; Loeuille, G A; Farriaux, J P

    1991-02-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is a common complication in cholestatic children in a hepatic transplant program, and may be detrimental to the postoperative outcome. Improvement of the nutritional status may be of obvious importance to improve the prognosis. This study compared oral nutrition with oral nutrition supplemented with nocturnal enteral feeding in children with prolonged cholestasis. In six children with prolonged cholestasis (conjugated bilirubin over 25 mg/L and/or GGT over 110 IU/L in infants aged less than 3 months or over 50 IU/L in older infants and/or alkaline phosphatase over 500 IU/L, for more than 3 months), we compared a 4 to 6 month period with oral nutrition and similar periods with 10 to 12 h nocturnal enteral feeding given at home as an energetic supplement. Energy intake during the second period was 180-200% of recommended dietary allowances. No ascites was found in the six patients during the study period. The Z scores of body weight, weight expressed as percent of ideal body weight (IBW), weight/height2, and arm circumference/head circumference were calculated at the beginning and at the end of each period. With only oral nutrition, a diminution in percentage of ideal W/H and a diminution in Z score for the body weight were observed in five of six patients. At the end of the second period, the average of all of the nutritional indexes was increased and the Z score for the body weight was also increased in four of six patients. Significant statistical differences (p less than 0.05) were found in W as percentage of IBW and the Z score for log W/H2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1904935

  17. The relationship between calcium intake, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the jackson heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. ...

  18. Body fatness and sex steroid hormone concentrations in US men – Results from NHANES III

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Shiels, Meredith S.; Lopez, David S.; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G.; Kanarek, Norma; Guallar, Eliseo; Menke, Andy; Joshu, Corinne E; Feinleib, Manning; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer, which may partly be explained by its influence on sex steroid hormone concentrations. Whether different measures of obesity, i.e., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat were differentially associated with circulating levels of sex steroid hormones was examined in 1,265 men, aged 20 to 90+ years, attending the morning examination session of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods and Methods Serum hormones were measured by immunoassay. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured by trained staff. Percent body fat was estimated from bioelectrical impedance. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between body fatness measures and hormone levels. Results Total and free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin concentrations decreased, whereas total and free estradiol increased with increasing BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat (all P-trend <0.05). The magnitude of change in these hormones was similar for a one quartile increase in each body fatness measure. Conclusion Measured BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat led to similar inferences about their association with hormone levels in men. PMID:21678033

  19. Obesity, Blood Pressure and Health-Related Behaviour among German Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Christine; Jouck, Stefanie; Koch, Benjamin; Platschek, Anna-Maria; Arnold, Christiane; Bohm, Michael; Dordel, Sigrid; Tokarski, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To examine the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with blood pressure, waist circumference and other health related risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and TV/PC-screen time) in German youths. Material and methods: A cohort of 831 boys and 808 girls, fifth- to tenth-graders from 3 German high schools…

  20. 77 FR 47073 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...., body mass index or BMI), waist circumference, secondhand smoke exposure, and blood pressure. Each adult... collect biometric data about the respondent such as height, weight, saliva, blood pressure, etc. The adult... strategic directions: (1) Tobacco-free living, (2) active lifestyles and healthy eating, (3) high...

  1. Steps/day ability to predict anthropometric changes is not affected by its plausibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...

  2. Weighting the Weights: Agreement among Anthropometric Indicators Identifying the Weight Status of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstraelen, C. J. F.; Maaskant, M. A.; van Knijff-Raeven, A. G. M.; Curfs, L. M. G.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were (1) to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat free mass index (FFMI) and skinfold thickness are feasible measurement options in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) to measure their weight status, and (2) to assess the level of agreement among these methods. Methods:…

  3. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

  4. Modeling growth curves to track growing obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to examine the relationship between total physical activity (PA) and PA at various intensity levels with insulin resistance at increasing waist circumference and skinfold thickness levels. Being able to describe growth appropriately and succinctly is important in many nutrition and p...

  5. The novel association between red complex of oral microbe and body mass index in healthy Japanese: a population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kanae; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Toru; Asai, Keita; Yamori, Masashi; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Toda, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota has been thought to be one of important environmental factors for obesity or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among oral microbe, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannellera forsythia are known as risk factors, so called red complex, for periodontitis. Red complex could also be a risk factor for obesity. However, recent study indicated that obesity was not improved by periodontal therapy. Thus, we performed a cross sectional study to reveal the association of oral microbe with body mass index in a healthy population. Healthy individuals were randomly recruited. The infections of oral microbe were identified by Taqman polymerase chain reaction. The relationships between number of red complex and body mass index or waist circumference were analyzed. Two hundred and twenty-two apparently healthy Japanese were enrolled. BMI and waist circumference as well as age, periodontitis, number of brushing teeth were significantly associated with the number of red complex after adjusting covariance. The effect size of body mass index or waist circumference was 0.023 (p = 0.028) or 0.024 (p = 0.024), respectively. Body mass index and waist circumference were independently associated with the number of red complex among apparently healthy Japanese. The current observation implies the possibility that oral microbe was associated with obesity in healthy population. PMID:26388671

  6. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  7. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  8. 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health DOI: 10.1177/1403494815597582

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    .01)). Conclusions: Our data indicate that anthropometric measures such as body mass index, waist circumference of Public Health, 2015; 43: 882­889 Introduction Data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in relation to various anthropometric measures of obe- sity are still inconsistent. In recent years, discussion has

  9. Nutritional Habits of Female University Students in Relation to Self-Perception of Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suliga, Edyta; Wronka, Iwona; Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To determine whether the self-assessment of body mass has an impact on the nutritional behaviour of young women. Material and methods: The material was gathered in cross-sectional research of 1129 female university students. The measurements of body height, body mass, and waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a…

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Collegiate American Football Players, by Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Emily Millard; Wagner, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in a collegiate football team. Participants: Eighty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players volunteered to participate. Methods: The authors measured height, weight, and waist circumference (WC), and estimated…

  11. The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

  12. Eating Pattern and Dietary Composition Associations with Insulin Resistance (IR) Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated dietary factors suggested to influence glucose homeostasis in relation to markers of IR, including waist circumference (WC), HOMA and QUICKI (calculated from fasting insulin and glucose). Data from two studies with similar methodologies were used (n=28 healthy adults aged 37.4+/-6.4 ...

  13. IDENTIFYING FOOD GROUPINGS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE ENERGY DENSITY OF DIETS OF WOMEN IN THE GEISINGER RURAL AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, energy density (ED) (kcal/wt of food) rather than energy intake was shown to be associated with weight status in rural older women. Specifically, diets higher in ED were associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. To understand how to guide specific dietary recommendat...

  14. A commonly carried allele of the obesity-related FTO gene is associated with reduced brain volume in the

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    A commonly carried allele of the obesity-related FTO gene is associated with reduced brain volume for review September 22, 2009) A recently identified variant within the fat mass and obesity- associated (FTO, in adults and an 1 cm greater waist circumference. With >1 billion overweight and 300 million obese persons

  15. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  16. Insulin resistance parameters in users of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate during one year of use.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Kleber; Sider, Marina; Pavin, Elizabeth João; Dos Santos, Priscilla de Nazaré Silva; Bahamondes, Luis; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht; Fernandes, Arlete

    2016-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess insulin resistance parameters using successive homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and clinical evaluations in healthy new users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Methods A prospective 12-month study was carried out to compare 31 DMPA users with 25 copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD; TCu380A) users, matched for age (± 1 year) and body mass index (BMI; ± 1 kg/m(2)). Participants met the following criteria: age 18 to 40 years, BMI < 30 kg/m(2), fasting glucose < 5.5 mmol/l, 2-h glucose after a 75 g oral glucose load < 140 mg/dl. BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were evaluated at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of contraceptive use. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value > 2.7. Results The DMPA group showed significant increases in BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR throughout the observation period in relation to baseline. Significant increases in BMI and waist circumference were observed in the DMPA group at 12 months compared with the Cu-IUD group. Five DMPA users had abnormal HOMA-IR values, three of whom had gained > 5 kg in weight at 12 months. Conclusions HOMA-IR represents a useful tool to indicate changes in carbohydrate metabolism in non-obese DMPA users, especially when accompanied by measurement of clinical parameters such as BMI and waist circumference. PMID:26140543

  17. Dietary patterns and the insulin resistance phenotype among non-diabetic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Information on the relation between dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis and insulin resistance is scarce. Objective: To compare insulin resistance phenotypes, including waist circumference, body mass index, fasting and 2-hour post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (I...

  18. Evaluating the Indirect Effect of Infant Weight Velocity on Insulin Resistance in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study From the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Slining, Meghan M.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the relation between infant weight velocity and adult insulin resistance, specifically evaluating whether adult size and body fat distribution mediated the association. Data were from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Cebu, the Philippines), in which a birth cohort was followed to age 22 years (n = 1,409; 1983–2005). Insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Weight velocity (g/month) from 0 to 4 months and from 0 to 24 months was assessed. The authors examined direct and total associations between early growth and adult HOMA-IR in linear regression models and used a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure to test indirect effects through adult body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) and waist circumference. Infant weight velocity was positively associated with adult BMI and waist circumference, which positively predicted HOMA-IR. There were no total or direct effects of immediate postnatal weight velocity (0–4 months) on adult HOMA-IR, although indirect effects through BMI and waist circumference were significant. Weight velocity from 0 to 24 months positively predicted HOMA-IR among males only, while indirect effects were significant in both sexes. In a relatively lean sample of young adults from a population with rising rates of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the authors found evidence for small indirect effects of infant weight velocity on adult insulin resistance mediated through adult BMI and waist circumference. PMID:21317221

  19. Cumulative exposure to short sleep and body mass outcomes: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Patrick M; Reither, Eric N; Peppard, Paul E; Burger, Andrew E; Hale, Lauren

    2015-12-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with excess body mass among adolescents and young adults. The mechanisms theorized to drive that association suggest that persistent exposure to short sleep should be associated with greater accumulations of body mass. We use prospective cohort data from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994-2009; n = 14 800) to examine associations between cumulative exposure to short sleep throughout adolescence and early adulthood and obesity and elevated waist circumference outcomes. We compare several clinical and distribution-based standards of short sleep to assess which measures are associated most strongly with body mass. Cumulative exposure to short sleep exhibits dose-response associations with obesity and elevated waist circumference. Relative to respondents with no instances of short sleep, those who slept -0.50 standard deviations or less than the age and sex-specific average sleep hours in all four waves had 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 2.04] times the odds of being obese and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.06) times the odds of having an elevated waist circumference. Our findings suggest that cumulative exposure to short sleep during adolescence and young adulthood may play an important role in the etiology of obesity and elevated waist circumference during this important developmental period. PMID:26211809

  20. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents

    E-print Network

    Sluijs, Esther M. F. van; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J.; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    participants (10yr at baseline, 14yr at follow-up) with valid data for objectively-measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-day food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status), and covariates. Linear...

  1. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  2. Diet and Body Composition Outcomes of an Environmental and Educational Intervention among Men in Treatment for Substance Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Jennifer A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of an educational and environmental intervention on diet, body mass index, and waist circumference of men in substance addiction treatment. Methods: One hundred three racially/ethnically diverse men in 6 urban substance addiction residential treatment facilities in Upstate New York participated in weekly…

  3. Predictors of epicardial adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), visceral fat depot of the heart, was found to be associated with coronary artery disease in cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were introduced as potential markers to determine inflammation in various disorders. Recently, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was found to be closely associated with atherosclerosis in general population. Waist circumference is commonly used to assess the risk factors in various metabolic disorders. There has been a well known relation between inflammation and peripheral adipose tissue in diabetes mellitus. However, the data regarding EAT and inflammation is scant in this population. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between PLR, NLR, AIP, waist circumference and EAT in diabetic patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 156 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (87 females, 69 males; mean age, 53.62?±?9.33 years) and 50 control subjects (35 females, 15 males; mean age, 51.06?±?8.74 years). EAT was measured by using a trans-thoracic echocardiogram. Atherogenic index of plasma was calculated as the logarithmically transformed ratio of the serum triglyceride to high density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol. NLR and PLR were calculated as the ratio of the neutrophils and platelets to lymphocytes, respectively. Results Waist circumference, PLR, NLR, AIP and EAT measurements were significantly higher in diabetic patients when compared to control subjects. When diabetic patients were separated into two groups according to their median value of EAT (Group 1, EAT?waist circumference, AIP, NLR and PLR levels. In the bivariate correlation analysis, EAT was positively correlated with PLR, NLR, AIP, BMI and waist circumference (r?=?0.197, p?=?0.014; r?=?0.229, p?=?0.004; r?=?0.161, p?=?0.044; r?=?0.248, p?=?0.002; r?=?0.306, p?Waist circumference was found to be independent variables of EAT. Conclusions Simple calculation of PLR and measurement of waist circumference were found to be associated with increased EAT in diabetic patients. PMID:24822086

  4. Growth of Indonesian Infants Compared With World Health Organization Growth Standards

    PubMed Central

    Dwipoerwantoro, Pramita G.; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Oswari, Hanifah; Makrides, Maria; Cleghorn, Geoffrey; Firmansyah, Agus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The ability of the World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards to represent the growth of South East Asian infants has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide contemporary data on the growth of Indonesian breast-fed and formula-fed infants, compared with the WHO growth standards. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 160 normal healthy infants was undertaken in a suburban area of South Jakarta, Indonesia. Infants from 2 to 6 weeks of age were recruited, and they consumed exclusively either breast milk or infant formula for at least 6 months, with follow-up until 12 months of age. Results: Overall, the infants in the present study were lighter (weight-for-age), were shorter (length-for-age), and had smaller head circumferences (head circumference-for-age) than the average WHO Growth Reference Study population but were of similar proportion (weight-for-length). Compared with the WHO Growth Reference Study, the z scores for weight-for-age, length-for-age, and head circumference-for-age in the Indonesian children fell from birth to 6 weeks of age and then increased until 3 months of age in both the breast-fed and the formula-fed infants. At 6 weeks of age, the weight-for-age z scores fell below ?2 standard deviations for 16 (20.5%) breast-fed and 40 (51.3%) formula-fed infants, and the length-for-age z scores fell below ?2 standard deviations for 31 (39.7%) breast-fed and 41 (52.6%) formula-fed infants. Conclusion: The WHO growth standards do not reflect the growth of the present cohort of Indonesian infants and may overestimate the levels of underweight and stunted children. PMID:25710823

  5. Body fat distribution and associations with metabolic and clinical characteristics in bipolar individuals.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Nina; Mangge, Harald; Reininghaus, Eva Z; McIntyre, Roger S; Bengesser, Susanne A; Birner, Armin; Reininghaus, Bernd; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J

    2015-06-01

    Overweight and obesity differentially affect bipolar disorder (BD) and are associated with a poorer prognosis. Herein, we sought to evaluate body fat distribution in a well-characterized BD sample. Anthropometric measures (i.e., body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, hip circumference, and lipometry) of 100 BD individuals were compared with data of 57 matched mentally healthy controls. Additionally, fasting serum parameters including metabolic parameters and monoamines were analyzed. Findings indicate that similar to US BD cohorts, Austrian patients exhibit an increased central body fat accumulation (i.e., higher subcutaneous adipose tissue at upper abdomen) accompanying with the harmful IDF-defined metabolic syndrome. In addition, positive associations between epinephrine as well as staging and fat parameters were detected. PMID:25381166

  6. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity: data in 10,793 youth from the International Children’s Accelerometry Database123

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H; Collings, Paul J; Wijndaele, Katrien; Kordas, Katarzyna; Cooper, Ashley R; Sherar, Lauren B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Sardinha, Luis B; Kriemler, Susi; Hallal, Pedro; van Sluijs, Esther; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. Objectives: We examined the relation between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. Design: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6–18 y from the International Children’s Accelerometry Database. Birth weight was measured in hospitals or maternally reported, sedentary time was assessed by using accelerometry (<100 counts/min), and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference) was measured according to WHO procedures. A mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to analyze data. Results: The mean (±SD) time spent sedentary was 370 ± 91 min/d. Birth weight was positively associated with sedentary time (B = 4.04, P = 0.006) and waist circumference (B = 1.59, P < 0.001), whereas waist circumference was positively associated with sedentary time (B = 0.82, P < 0.001). Results of the mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of birth weight on sedentary time through waist circumference (B: 1.30; 95% bias-corrected CI: 0.94, 1.72), and when waist circumference was controlled for, the effect of birth weight on sedentary time was attenuated by 32% (B = 2.74, P = 0.06). Conclusion: The association between birth weight and sedentary time appears partially mediated by central adiposity, suggesting that both birth weight and abdominal adiposity may be correlates of sedentary time in youth. PMID:25832337

  7. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  8. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  9. Features of the Built Environment Related to Physical Activity Friendliness and Children’s Obesity and Other Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Wendell C.; Upchurch, Sandra L.; Brosnan, Christine A.; Selwyn, Beatrice J.; Nguyen, Thong Q.; Villagomez, Evangelina Trejo; Meininger, Janet C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the relationships among environmental features of physical activity friendliness, socioeconomic indicators, and prevalence of obesity (BMI status), central adiposity (waist circumference, waist-height ratio), and hypertension. Design The design was cross-sectional; the study was correlational. Sample The sample was 911 kindergarteners through sixth graders from three schools in an urban school district residing in 13 designated neighborhoods. Measurements Data from walking environmental community audits, census data for socioeconomic indicators, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, and blood pressure were analyzed. A modified Alfonzo’s Hierarchy of Walking Needs model was the conceptual framework for environmental features (i.e., accessibility, safety, comfort, and pleasurability) related to physical activity. Results Accessibility was significantly and negatively correlated with prevalence of obesity and with prevalence of a waist-height ratio > 0.50. When neighborhood education was controlled, and when both neighborhood education and poverty were controlled with partial correlational analysis, comfort features of a walking environment were significantly and positively related to prevalence of obesity. When poverty was controlled with partial correlation, accessibility was significantly and negatively correlated with prevalence of waist-height ratio > 0.50. Conclusions The built environment merits further research to promote physical activity and stem the obesity epidemic in children. Our approach can be a useful framework for future research. PMID:25112374

  10. Dysmorphic and anthropometric outcomes in 6-year-old prenatally cocaine-exposed children

    PubMed Central

    Minnes, Sonia; Robin, Nathaniel H.; Alt, April A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Satayathum, Sudtida; Salbert, Bonnie Anne; Ellison, Laurie; Singer, Lynn T.

    2008-01-01

    Dysmorphologic and anthropometric assessments were performed on 154 6-year-old children prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) and 131 high-risk controls (NCE) of similar race and social class. Adjusted mean height z scores demonstrated a dose-response with metahydroxybenzoylecgonine above a threshold of 100 ng/g of meconium and greater cocaine exposure predicted lower weight for height z score. Higher average alcohol exposure throughout pregnancy and 3rd trimester predicted lower head circumference and weight z scores, respectively. Severity of marijuana use also predicted lower height for age but greater weight for height. There was not an increased rate of minor anomalies among the PCE cohort, nor was a consistent phenotype identified. After controlling for covariates, higher average prenatal cigarette exposure predicted higher incidence of cranial facial abnormalities. First trimester alcohol exposure predicted greater rates of ear abnormalities and third trimester marijuana exposure predicted greater rates of chest and head shape abnormalities. These finding indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure has a negative effect on specific growth outcomes including standardized height and weight for height, but not a systematic pattern of structural abnormalities. PMID:16298510

  11. FTO Gene Associated Fatness in Relation to Body Fat Distribution and Metabolic Traits throughout a Broad Range of Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Kring, Sofia I. I.; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings Obese young Danish men (n?=?753, BMI?31.0 kg/m2) and a randomly selected group (n?=?879) from the same population were examined in three surveys (mean age 35, 46 and 49 years, respectively). The traits included anthropometrics, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, blood lipids, blood pressure, fibrinogen and aspartate aminotransferase. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the age-adjusted association between the phenotypes and the odds ratios for the FTO rs9939609 (TT and TA genotype versus the AA genotype), for anthropometrics and body composition estimated per unit z-score. BMI was strongly associated with the AA genotype in all three surveys: OR?=?1.17, p?=?1.1*10?6, OR?=?1.20, p?=?1.7*10?7, OR?=?1.17, p?=?3.4*10?3, respectively. Fat body mass index was also associated with the AA genotype (OR?=?1.21, p?=?4.6*10?7 and OR?=?1.21, p?=?1.0*10?3). Increased abdominal fatness was associated with the AA genotype when measured as waist circumference (OR?=?1.21, p?=?2.2*10?6 and OR?=?1.19, p?=?5.9*10?3), sagittal abdominal diameter (OR?=?1.17, p?=?1.3*10?4 and OR?=?1.18, p?=?0.011) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (OR?=?1.21, p?=?0.005). Increased peripheral fatness measured as hip circumference (OR?=?1.19, p?=?1.3*10?5 and OR?=?1.18, p?=?0.004) and lower body fat mass (OR?=?1.26, p?=?0.002) was associated with the AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly associated with decreased Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index (OR?=?0.93, p?=?0.02) and with decreased non-fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (OR?=?0.57, p?=?0.037), but not with any other of the metabolic traits. However, all significant results for both body fat distribution and metabolic traits were explained by a mediating effect of total fat mass. Conclusion The association of the examined FTO SNP to general fatness throughout the range of fatness was confirmed, and this association explains the relation between the SNP and body fat distribution and decreased insulin sensitivity and HDL-cholesterol. The SNP was not significantly associated with other metabolic traits suggesting that they are not derived from the general accumulation of body fat. PMID:18698412

  12. Regional Anthropometry Changes in Antiretroviral-Naïve Persons Initiating a Zidovudine-Containing Regimen in Mbarara, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Vanessa; Medard, Bitekyerezo; Taseera, Kabanda; Chakera, Ali J.; Andia, Irene; Emenyonu, Nneka; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey; Scherzer, Rebecca; Weiser, Sheri D.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lipodystrophy is commonly reported in Africa after antiretroviral therapy (ART) is initiated, but few studies have objectively measured changes in body composition. Body composition was determined in 76 HIV-infected participants from Mbarara, Uganda after starting a thymidine-analog regimen, and annual change was determined using repeated measures analysis. We measured skinfolds (tricep, thigh, subscapular, and abdomen), circumferences (arm, hip, thigh, waist), and total lean and fat mass (using bioelectric impedance analysis). A cross-sectional sample of 49 HIV-uninfected participants was studied for comparison. At baseline, most body composition measures were lower in HIV-infected than uninfected participants, but waist circumference was similar. After 12 months on ART, there was little difference in body composition measures between HIV-infected and uninfected participants; median waist circumference appeared higher in HIV-infected participants (79 vs. 75?cm; p?=?0.090). Among HIV-infected participants, increases were observed in total lean and fat mass, circumference, and skinfold measures; only the increase in tricep skinfold did not reach statistical significance (+1.05?mm; 95% confidence interval: ?0.24, 2.34; p?=?0.11). Regional anthropometry in peripheral and central body sites increased over 12 months after ART initiation in HIV-infected persons from southwestern Uganda, suggesting a restoration to health. Gains in the tricep skinfold, a reliable marker of subcutaneous fat, appeared blunted, which could indicate an inhibitory effect of zidovudine on peripheral subcutaneous fat recovery. PMID:21128866

  13. Disproportionate Fetal Growth and the Risk for Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Singleton Births

    PubMed Central

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica E.; Wu, Chunsen; Bech, Bodil H.; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Schendel, Diana E.; Uldall, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between proportionality of fetal and placental growth measured at birth and the risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). Study Design We identified all live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1995 and 2003 and followed them from 1 year of age until December 31st, 2008. Information on four indices of fetal growth: ponderal index, head circumference/ abdominal circumference ratio, cephalization index and birth weight/ placenta weight ratio was collected. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). All measurements were evaluated as gestational age and sex specific z-scores and in z-score percentile groups, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified on gestational age groups (<32, 32-36, 37-38, 39, 40, ?41 weeks). Results We identified 503,784 singleton births, of which 983 were confirmed cases of CP. Head/ abdominal circumference ratio (aHR:1.12; 95%CI:1.07-1.16) and cephalization index (aHR:1.14; 95%CI:1.11-1.16) were associated with the risk of CP irrespective of gestational age. Birth weight-placental weight ratio was also associated with CP in the entire cohort (aHR:0.90; 95%CI:0.83-0.97). Ponderal index had a u-shaped association with CP, where both children with low and high ponderal index were at higher risk of CP. Conclusions CP is associated with disproportions between birth weight, birth length, placental weight and head circumference suggesting pre and perinatal conditions contribute to fetal growth restriction in children with CP. PMID:25974407

  14. Metabolic and anthropometric changes in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Arpino, Grazia; De Angelis, Carmine; Buono, Giuseppe; Colao, Annamaria; Giuliano, Mario; Malgieri, Simona; Cicala, Stefania; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Accurso, Antonello; Crispo, Anna; Limite, Gennaro; Lauria, Rossella; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Forestieri, Valeria; Bruzzese, Dario; De Placido, Sabino

    2015-11-01

    Weight gain and metabolic changes have been related to survival of early breast cancer patients (EBC). ''However, factors influencing metabolism post-diagnosis are not fully understood. We measured anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), body weight, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio] and metabolic (levels of insulin, glucose, H1Ac, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and the homeostasis model assessment score [HOMA]) parameters in 433 pre- and post-menopausal women with EBC at diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months thereafter. At diagnosis, compared with post-menopausal women, pre-menopausal patients were more likely to be leaner and to have a lower BMI, smaller waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio. They had also lower glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels and a lower HOMA score. Furthermore, they were more likely to have an estrogen- and/or progesterone-positive tumor and a higher proliferating breast cancer. During the first two post-diagnosis years, all women showed a significant increase of weight (+0.72 kg/year, P < 0.001), waist circumference (+1.53 cm/year, P < 0.001), and plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (+5.4 mg/dl per year, P = 0.045) and triglycerides (+10.73 mg/dl per year, P = 0.017). In patients receiving chemotherapy only, there was a significant increase in hip circumference (+3.16 cm/year, P < 0.001) and plasma cholesterol levels (+21.26 mg/dl per year, P < 0.001). We showed that weight, body fat distribution, and lipid profile changed in EBC patients receiving adjuvant therapy. These changes occurred during the first 2 years after diagnosis and were not specifically related to chemotherapy, menopausal status, or initial body weight. PMID:26424165

  15. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz de

    2015-09-01

    Objective To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults.Methods The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (?2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05).Results The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed.Conclusion The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue. PMID:26466060

  16. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements in Lung Function in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947

  17. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Adults from Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Imbeault, Pascal; Haman, François; Blais, Jules M.; Pal, Shinjini; Seabert, Tim; Krümmel, Eva M.; Robidoux, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults from two First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Methods. Body weight, height, and waist circumference as well as fasting and postprandial glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 31 men and 41 women. Results. The mean age of the sample was 43 ± 13?y. The prevalence of obesity was 65.3% and was comparable between men and women. 90.3% of the individuals presented waist circumference levels greater than the thresholds associated with an increased risk of developing health problems. 26 of the 72 individuals (36.1%) were found to be type 2 diabetic. The prevalence of diabetes was not different between men and women. Conclusion. Using objective measurements, this study confirms that First Nations adults from remote communities of Canada continue to experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than nonaboriginal Canadians. PMID:21603265

  18. Grand Canyon Trekkers: school-based lunchtime walking program.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Alisa; Shaibi, Gabriel; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; McFall, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of childhood overweight is especially troubling among low income Latino youth. Grand Canyon Trekkers (GCT) was implemented as a quasi-experimental study in 10 Title 1 elementary schools with a large Latino population to examine the effects of a 16-week structured walking program on components of health-related physical fitness: Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and cardio-respiratory. Data on 1,074 research participants revealed no significance changes in BMI or waist circumference (p > .05); however, cardio-respiratory fitness increased by 37.1% over baseline. Cardiovascular fitness is an independent determinant of long-term health; therefore, the GCT program may have significantly improved the future health profile of the participants and decreased their risk of metabolic diseases. PMID:21123848

  19. University of Hawai‘i Cancer Center Connection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Unhee; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Novotny, Rachel; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2013-01-01

    Adiposity is often approximated by body mass index (BMI) in population studies based on self-reported weight and height (kg/m2). However, self-reports tend to underestimate weight and overestimate height, leading to an underestimation of BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We examined a subgroup of the Multiethnic Cohort Study participants to determine how well self-reported and measured anthropometry correlate with each other, overall and by race/ethnicity, total and abdominal adiposity level, and amount of adulthood weight gain. A cross-sectional sample of 30 Caucasian and 30 Japanese American female cohort participants, between ages 60–65, was selected in such a way the two groups had a similar BMI distribution across the range (18.5–40 kg/m2). Subjects first reported their weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences at home and within several days underwent objective measurements by trained staff and also a whole-body scan of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at a study clinic. The women under-reported their weight by 0.93 kg, waist circumference by 3.95 cm and hip circumference by 0.10 cm and over-reported their height by 0.85 cm. This led to an under-estimation of BMI by 0.67 kg/m2 and waist/hip ratio by 0.04. The effect of misreporting (self-report minus measurement) on BMI and waist/hip ratio was significantly greater in higher BMI groups (p-heterogeneity = 0.007 for BMI, 0.0005 for waist/hip ratio), among women with central obesity (waist circumference > 88 cm; p-heterogeneity = 0.006, 0.01) and among women who had gained higher amounts of weight since age 21 (p-heterogeneity = 0.03, 0.01) compared to their counterparts. A similar trend of greater self-report bias was found among women with higher levels of DXA-based total and abdominal adiposity. We did not observe any heterogeneity in these findings by ethnicity. Our results confirm that a small degree of under-reporting exists in self-reported BMI and waist/hip ratio values, and it tends to increase in women with a larger current body size or history of greater weight gain. Studies are underway to investigate this question in greater depth in men and women from five race/ethnic groups. PMID:24377081

  20. Central Adiposity & the Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Response to Cognitive Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Kaur, Sonya; Eagan, Danielle E.; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Pasha, Evan; Doan, Danh C.; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive adipose tissue, particularly with a centralized distribution, propagates hormonal and metabolic disturbance. The detrimental effects of adiposity may extend beyond the periphery and target the central nervous system, increasing vulnerability to cognitive decline. The aim of current study was to determine how central adiposity impacts the brain at midlife by examining the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to a challenging cognitive task. Methods Seventy-three adults, aged 40-60 years, completed a 2-Back verbal working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Central adiposity was assessed with waist circumference. The association between waist circumference and task-related activation in a priori regions of interest was modeled using bootstrapping regression models corrected for multiple-comparisons. Results Larger waist circumference was associated with diminished working-memory-related BOLD response in the right superior frontal gyrus (?=-0.008, p=0.001, 95% CI: -0.012 - -0.004) and left middle frontal gyrus (?=-0.009, p=0.002, 95% CI: -0.015 - -0.003), statistically adjusting for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol. Reduced task-related activation in the right superior frontal gyrus (r=-0.369, p=0.002) and left middle frontal gyrus (r=-0.266, p=0.025) were related to slower reaction time on the task, controlling for age and education. Conclusions Larger waist circumference predicted alterations in the BOLD response that coupled with decrements in task performance. While future studies are necessary, the results suggest that similar to its role in the periphery, central adiposity may be a robust predictor of metabolic and hormonal alterations that impinge upon central nervous system functioning. PMID:24418893

  1. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in the Metabolically Healthy Obese Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Sarah L.; Seaborn, Christopher J.; Visvanathan, Renuka; Hill, Catherine L.; Gill, Tiffany K.; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the correlates of the “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO) phenotype and the longitudinal risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD)/stroke associated with this phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The North West Adelaide Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 4,056 randomly selected adults aged ?18 years. Participants free of CVD/stroke and not underweight (n = 3,743) were stratified by BMI categories and metabolic risk, defined as having two or more International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome criteria, excluding waist circumference. RESULTS Correlates of the MHO (n = 454 [12.1%]) included smoking, socioeconomic disadvantage, and physical inactivity. Compared with metabolically healthy normal-weight subjects (n = 1,172 [31.3%]), the MHO were more likely to develop metabolic risk (15.5 vs. 33.1%, P < 0.001) and incident diabetes (odds ratio 2.09 [95% CI 0.87–5.03]) but not CVD/stroke (1.16 [0.58–2.29]) during 5.5–10.3 years of follow-up. These risks were not seen in MHO subjects maintaining metabolic health (n = 188 [67%]). Sustained metabolic health in obese participants was associated with age ?40 years and lower waist circumference. Compared with the metabolically at-risk obese, MHO women demonstrated a significantly higher (mean [SE]) percentage of leg fat (49.9 [0.5] vs. 53.2 [0.7]) and lower waist circumference (104 [0.6] vs. 101 cm [0.8]), despite no significant differences in overall adiposity. CONCLUSIONS “Healthy” obesity was a transient state for one-third of subjects. Persistence of a MHO phenotype, which was associated with favorable outcomes, was related to younger age and a more peripheral fat distribution. The MHO phenotype may be sustained by promoting lower waist circumferences. PMID:23491523

  2. Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Simon J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Williams, Kate M.; Prevost, A. Toby; Hardeman, Wendy; Grant, Julie; Whittle, Fiona; Boase, Sue; Hobbis, Imogen; Brage, Søren; Westgate, Kate; Fanshawe, Tom; Sutton, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; ADDITION-Plus Study team

    2011-04-04

    ), alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransference (AST), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), urine albumin/ creatinine ratio X X X X Clinical measures Waist circumference, height, weight, blood pressure, pulse, body fat impedance and ECG X X X X... Bioscience, Redditch, UK). Serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides was measured by means of enzymatic techniques (Dade Behring Dimen- sion analyser, Newark, USA). Plasma creatinine was ana- lysed with kinetic colorimetric methods, and urine...

  3. Effects of Higher Carbohydrate or Higher Protein Diets with Exercise on Individual Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Women 

    E-print Network

    Lockard, Brittanie

    2014-03-18

    Low Density Lipoprotein MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of Variance MetS Metabolic Syndrome MHR Maximum Heart Rate viii MS Metabolic Syndrome Study Group NCEP National Cholesterol Education Panel PRO Protein REE Resting Energy Expenditure... SBP Systolic Blood Pressure T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus TC Total Cholesterol TG Triglycerides TLC Therapeutic Lifestyle Change VO2 Volume of Oxygen Consumption WC Waist Circumference WHO World Health Organization ix TABLE...

  4. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci With One-Year Weight Loss in the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Kopin, Alan S.; Huggins, Gondon S.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

  5. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Rin; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by computed tomography using a single computed tomography slice at the L4-5 lumbar level. We analyzed the association between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors. Results A positive correlation was found between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and variables such as body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, visceral fat, and the visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and subcutaneous fat or blood pressure. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between a triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio ?3 and diabetes, a body mass index ?25 kg/m2, a waist circumference ?90 cm, and a visceral fat area ?100 cm2. The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion There were significant associations between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and body mass, waist circumference, diabetes, and visceral fat among a clinical sample of Korean men. In the clinical setting, the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio may be a simple and useful indicator for visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26634102

  6. Association of type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci with one-year weight loss in the look AHEAD clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Kopin, Alan S; Huggins, Gondon S

    2012-08-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

  7. Anthropometry, CT, and DXA as predictors of GH deficiency in premenopausal women: ROC curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Utz, Andrea L.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy; Schoenfeld, David A.; Miller, Karen K.

    2009-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is a strong determinant of growth hormone (GH) secretion, and states of GH deficiency are associated with increased visceral adiposity and decreased lean body mass. The purpose of our study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different methods of assessing body composition [anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and computed tomography (CT)] to predict GH deficiency in premenopausal women and threshold values for each technique to predict GH deficiency, using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We studied a group of 45 healthy lean, overweight, and obese premenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, skin fold thickness), DXA, CT, and a GH-releasing hormone-arginine stimulation test. ROC curve analysis was used to determine cutoff values for each method to identify GH deficiency. Visceral adiposity measured by CT showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying subjects with GH deficiency with a cutoff of >9,962 mm2 [area under the curve (AUC), 0.95; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 77.8%; P = 0.0001]. Largest waist circumference showed high sensitivity and specificity with a cutoff of >101.7 cm (AUC, 0.89; sensitivity, 88.9%; specificity, 75%; P = 0.0001). When the ROC curves of visceral fat measured by CT and largest waist circumference were compared, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P = 0.36). Our study showed that the largest waist circumference predicts the presence of GH deficiency in healthy premenopausal women with high sensitivity and specificity and nearly as well as CT measurement of visceral adiposity. It can be used to identify women in whom GH deficiency is likely and therefore in whom formal GH stimulation testing might be indicated. PMID:19095751

  8. 6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

  9. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD. PMID:24519179

  10. Efficacy of Olibra: A 12-Week Randomized Controlled Trial and a Review of Earlier Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J; Martin, Corby K; Johnson, William D; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention strategies that harness the body's appetite and satiety regulating signals provide a means of countering excessive energy intake. Methods Eighty-two subjects were enrolled (18–60 years, body mass index: 25–40 kg/m2) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel trial. During a 12-week period, the effects of Olibra™ fat emulsion (2.1 g twice daily) on food intake, appetite, satiety, weight, and body composition were compared with those of a twice daily administered placebo (1.95 g milk fat). On days -7, 0, and 28, Olibra or the placebo added to 200 g of yogurt was served at breakfast and lunch. Food intake, appetite, and satiety were assessed after lunch and dinner. Body weight was measured on days -7, 0, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Body fat, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were determined on days 0 and 84. The Eating Inventory was administered at screening and on day 28. Data relating to 71 subjects were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results At 12 weeks, body weight was reduced in the test group (2.17 ± 0.46 kg standard error of the mean, p < .0001) and the control group (1.68 ± 0.42 kg, p < .0001). Waist circumference decreased by 2.93 ± 0.85 cm in the test group (p = .001) and by 1.78 ± 0.74 cm in the control group (p = .02). Differential weight and waist circumference reductions were not significant. Hunger scores (Eating Inventory) decreased more in the test group (p = .0082). Differential group effects were not significant for body fat, waist-hip ratio, food intake, appetite, and satiety. Conclusions At this dose, Olibra did not exert a consistent effect on food intake, appetite regulation, body weight, or body composition. PMID:22768902

  11. Inflammatory markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer by tumor subtypes: the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Jennifer; Schock, Helena; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopolou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; de Mesquita, H.Bas Bueno; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Sánchez, Soledad; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Sànchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Merrit, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics. A total of 754 eligible EOC cases were identified; two controls (n=1,497) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to assess associations. Results CRP and IL-6 were not associated with overall EOC risk. However, consistent with prior research, CRP >10 vs. CRP ?1 mg/L was associated with higher overall EOC risk (OR=1.67 [1.03 - 2.70]). We did not observe significant associations or heterogeneity in analyses by tumor characteristics. In analyses stratified by waist circumference, inflammatory markers were associated with higher risk among women with higher waist circumference; no association was observed for women with normal waist circumference: (e.g., IL-6: waist ?80: ORlog2=0.97 [0.81 - 1.16]; waist >88: ORlog2=1.78 [1.28 - 2.48], pheterogeneity ?0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that high CRP is associated with increased risk of overall EOC, and that IL-6 and CRP may be associated with EOC risk among women with higher adiposity. Impact Our data add to global evidence that ovarian carcinogenesis may be promoted by an inflammatory milieu. PMID:25855626

  12. The Sex and Race Specific Relationship between Anthropometry and Body Fat Composition Determined from Computed Tomography: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; Golden, Sherita Hill; Allison, Matthew A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Szklo, Moyses; Woodward, Mark; Young, Jeffery Hunter; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT) body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race. Methods CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity. Results Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028), waist circumference (p<0.001), waist to hip ratio (p<0.001), and waist to height ratio (p = 0.05) differed by sex, with a steeper slope for men. That is, across the range of these anthropometric measures the rise in visceral fat is faster for men than for women. Additionally, there were differences by race/ethnicity in the relationship with height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.001), hip circumference (p = 0.006), and waist to hip ratio (p = 0.001) with the Hispanic group having shallower slopes. For subcutaneous fat, interaction by sex was found for all anthropometric indices at p<0.05, but not for race/ethnicity. Conclusion The relationship between anthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used. PMID:26448048

  13. Metabolic Syndrome in School Children in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in a school children population. Materials and Methods: Three thousand four hundred and sixty children aged between 7 and 15 in three elementary schools in the city of Mardin, located in the south-eastern region of Turkey, were included in this study in April and May 2011. Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and a variety of blood tests were done. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used for the diagnosis of MES. Results: It was found that 9.42% of those tested were overweight, and 8.0% were obese. The study found that more girls (9.1%) were obese than girls (6.9%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and the other parameters, namely waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), triglyceride (TG) (p=0.0001). It was found that total cholesterol (T-Chol), TG, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly different among obese MES’s group and non-obese children (p<0.05). The waist/hip ratio reference value in girls was significantly higher than boys (p>0.05). The prevalence of MES was 6.3%. The number of components of MES was higher in girls and obese children. The rate of MES was 30.3% in obese children. Conclusion: The frequency of obesity, hypertension and MES in childhood period have been steadily increasing. Children who are classified having central obesity and high body mass index should be more carefully evaluated to its potential to progress to MES. And the quality of the life should be improved by reducing the risks resulted from life style changes, necessary treatments and follow ups. PMID:25610318

  14. Using Forearm Circumference for Automatic Threshold Calibration for Simple EMG Control

    E-print Network

    Hu, Huosheng

    , and the performance of the developed device. Keywords: Electromyography (EMG), Auto calibration, Anthropometric. but surprisingly little has been done on trying to incorporate anthropometric variables such as forearm structure

  15. 1317 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany Poster abstracts The relationship between abdominal circumference and

    E-print Network

    , Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 2 Department of Obstetrics, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, United Kingdom Introduction: Although the association, London, United Kingdom Objective: Determine the natural history of stillbirth (SB) in fetal growth

  16. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17999284

  17. Avoiding Weight Gain in Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maruthur, Nisa M.; Fawole, Oluwakemi A.; Wilson, Renee F.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Bleich, Sara N.; Segal, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic disease are at higher risk for obesity-related adverse effects. Even without weight loss, weight maintenance may be beneficial. We performed a systematic review to identify the effect of nonweight loss-focused lifestyle interventions in adults with cardiometabolic disease. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify comparative studies of lifestyle interventions (self-management, diet, exercise, or their combination) without a weight loss focus in adults with or at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight, BMI, and waist circumference at ?12 months were the primary outcomes. Of 24,870 citations, we included 12 trials (self-management, n = 2; diet, n = 2; exercise, n = 2; combination, n = 6) studying 4,206 participants. Self-management plus physical activity ± diet versus minimal/no intervention avoided meaningful weight (?0.65 to ?1.3?kg) and BMI (?0.4 to ?0.7?kg/m2) increases. Self-management and/or physical activity prevented meaningful waist circumference increases versus control (?2 to ?4?cm). In patients with cardiometabolic disease, self-management plus exercise may prevent weight and BMI increases and self-management and/or exercise may prevent waist circumference increases versus minimal/no intervention. Future studies should confirm these findings and evaluate additional risk factors and clinical outcomes. PMID:25610639

  18. Comparison of lumbar spinal angle between normal body mass index and overweight young adults

    PubMed Central

    Taweetanalarp, Soontharee; Purepong, Nithima

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the upper and lower lumbar angles of normal body mass index and overweight young adults, and examined the relationships among body mass index, waist circumferences, and lumbar angles. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty participants aged 18–25 years were recruited and allocated to 2 groups (n=30 per group): normal body mass index (18.5–24.9?kg/m2) and overweight group (body mass index, ? 25.0?kg/m2). During lumbar angle measurement, the participants stood in a relaxed position with bare feet. The upper and lower lumbar angles of each participant were measured using a flexible ruler, and the angle calculated by the tangent method. The waist circumference was also measured. [Results] The mean lower lumbar angle in the overweight group was significantly greater than that of the normal body weight group. Moreover, only the lower lumbar angle was associated with a significant increase in the body mass index (r=0.28). Waist circumference showed no association with the lumbar angles. [Conclusion] This is the first study to suggest that increased body weight could cause lower lumbar angle deviation in young adults. Further studies should investigate individuals with symptomatic back pain or back dysfunction and the impact of body weight on lumbar spinal angles. PMID:26311979

  19. The Relationship between Multiple Health Behaviours and Brachial Artery Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jennifer L.; Lavoie, Kim L.; Arsenault, André; Meloche, Bernard; Ditto, Blaine; Campbell, Tavis S.; Bacon, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The effects of smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle on endothelial function (EF) have only been examined separately. The relative contributions of these behaviours on EF have therefore not been compared. Purpose. To compare the relative associations between these four risk factors and brachial artery reactivity in the same sample. Methods. 328 patients referred for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) exercise stress tests completed a nuclear-medicine-based forearm hyperaemic reactivity test. Self-reported exercise behaviour, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were collected and waist circumference was measured. Results. Adjusting for relevant covariates, logistic regression analyses revealed that waist circumference, abstinence from alcohol, and past smoking significantly predicted poor brachial artery reactivity while physical activity did not. Only waist circumference predicted continuous variations in EF. Conclusions. Central adiposity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits but not physical activity are each independent predictors of poor brachial artery reactivity in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:22518294

  20. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  1. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p < .001), HDL-C (p = .010) and waist circumference (p = .016). Triglyceride and waist circumference was significantly decreased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. PMID:25566424

  2. Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship with Metabolic Markers in Persons with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in the UAE: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Solafa M.; Skaria, Sijomol; Abusnana, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To report vitamin D status and its impact on metabolic parameters in people in the United Arab Emirates with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methodology. This cross-sectional study included 309 individuals with obesity and T2D who were randomly selected based on study criteria. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (s-25(OH)D), calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, glycemic profile, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed in fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results. Vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 50?nmol/L) was observed in 83.2% of the participants, with a mean s-25(OH)D of 33.8 ± 20.3?nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D correlated negatively (P < 0.01) with body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and positively (P < 0.01) with age and calcium concentration. Waist circumference was the main predictor of s-25(OH)D status. There was no significant association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic profile. Conclusion. There is an overwhelming prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our sample of the Emirati population with obesity and T2D. Association of s-25(OH)D with body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, markers of calcium homeostasis and cardiometabolic parameters suggests a role of vitamin D in the development of cardiometabolic disease-related process. PMID:25371907

  3. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  4. The effects of green tea consumption and resistance training on body composition and resting metabolic rate in overweight or obese women.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gabrielle Aparecida; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Cesar, Marcelo de Castro; Donado-Pestana, Carlos Mario

    2013-02-01

    Green tea has been shown to have thermogenic and antiobesity properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate its effect on weight loss in humans, especially in women. We investigated the effects of green tea consumption combined with resistance training on the body composition and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in women who were overweight or obese (grade I). After 4 weeks on an adaptive diet, 36 women were divided into four groups (group 1 green tea; group 2 placebo; group 3 green tea plus resistance training; group 4 placebo plus resistance training). The study was double-blinded and placebo-controlled. The RMR and body composition were ascertained for each volunteer, blood tests were performed, and subjects in groups 3 and 4 were tested for their one repetition maximum. Each subject followed the protocol and continued the diet for eight additional weeks, and periodic evaluations were administered. The mean RMR of group 1 decreased significantly and was accompanied by weight loss, maintenance of lean body mass, and decreases in both waist circumference and body mass index. Group 2 showed no variations in anthropometric or blood variables and significantly decreased their mean RMR. Group 3 showed significant increases in RMR, lean body mass, and muscle strength, and significant decreases in body fat, triglycerides, and waist circumference as compared to group 4. Green tea combined with resistance training its potential is increased with decreasing body fat, waist circumference, and triacylglyceride levels and by increasing lean body mass and muscle strength. PMID:23140132

  5. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    PubMed

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P

    2013-06-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  6. Birth weight, current anthropometric markers, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Boscaini, Camile; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5-13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  7. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10?8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  8. Anthropometry and physical fitness in individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Padaki, Samata; Vijayakrishna, K.; Dambal, Amrut; Ankad, Roopa; Manjula, R.; Surekharani, Chinagudi; Herur, Anita; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Context: The risk of becoming a diabetic for an individual with a positive family history of diabetes increases by two- to fourfold. Aim: To record the anthropometric indices and the physical fitness in individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and compare these results with those of controls. Settings and Design: This is a comparative study done in the department of physiology. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two apparently healthy medical students with family history of type-2 Diabetes Mellitus were chosen for the study and matched with equal number of controls. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, thigh circumference, upper segment and lower segment) were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), waist–hip ratio (WHR), waist–thigh ratio (WTR), and upper to lower segment ratio (US/LS ratio) were calculated. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Physical fitness was evaluated using Queen's College step test protocol. Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Physical Fitness Index (PFI) were calculated before and after exercise. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: BMI, WHR, US/LS ratio, and RPP at rest were significantly higher (P < 0.05), whereas WTR, PFI, and RPP after exercise lower (P > 0.05) in cases as compared to controls. Conclusions: It can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus have higher anthropometric values and lower physical fitness than the controls. PMID:22029005

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and carotid artery intima-media thickness in an adolescent population in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Carmelo Antonio; Pendino, Gaspare Maria; Amante, Angela; Vacalebre, Carmelo; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa; Surace, Pasquale; Messineo, Arianna; Surace, Monica; Alicante, Saverio; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Zuin, Massimo; Rosmini, Francesco; Mele, Alfonso; Marcucci, Fabrizio

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, in an adolescent population, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the association of NAFLD and cardiovascular risk factors with carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The authors conducted a population-based study among 642 randomly selected adolescents aged 11-13 years in Reggio Calabria, southern Italy, between November 2007 and October 2008. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 30.5% and 13.5%, respectively. The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 12.5%, increasing to 23.0% in overweight/obese adolescents. In univariate analysis, increased IMT was positively associated with the presence of NAFLD, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (all P's < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.006), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (P = 0.006), alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.007), and C-reactive protein (P = 0.008) and was inversely associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, NAFLD (P = 0.002), BMI (P = 0.004), waist circumference (P = 0.003), and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005) retained significant associations. The authors conclude that NAFLD, BMI, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure are independent markers of increased IMT in a random sample of adolescents. PMID:20457571

  10. Osteochondroma-Related Pressure Erosions in Bony Rings Below the Waist

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L.; Mulligan, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the clinical and radiological features of four cases of osteochondroma-related bony pressure erosion in adults. Rare imaging features of extrinsic pressure erosions on adjacent bones caused by solitary and familial forms of osteochondroma are presented. Although described to occur uncommonly in the paired bones of the lower leg, pressure erosion in the pelvic girdle is poorly understood. In this article, we discuss clinical contexts for management of osteochondroma-related bony pressure erosion in the mature skeleton. PMID:26664496

  11. 4D Emittance Measurements Using Multiple Wire and Waist Scan Methods in the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Rimbault, C.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Alabau, M.; Kuroda, S.; Scarfe, A.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Emittance measurements performed in the diagnostic section of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) extraction line since 1998 led to vertical emittances three times larger than the expected ones, with a strong dependence on intensity. An experimental program is pursued to investigate potential sources of emittance growth and find possible remedies. This requires efficient and reliable emittance measurement techniques. In the past, several phase-space reconstruction methods developed at SLAC and KEK have been used to estimate the vertical emittance, based on multiple location beam size measurements and dedicated quadrupole scans. These methods have been shown to be very sensitive to measurement errors and other fluctuations in the beam conditions. In this context new emittance measurements have been performed revisiting these methods and newly developed ones with a systematic approach to compare and characterise their performance in the ATF extraction line.

  12. Endothelial inflammation correlates with subject triglycerides and waist size1 following a high fat meal2

    E-print Network

    Passerini, Tony

    fat meal2 3 Ying I. Wang; John Schulze; Nadine Raymond; Tyler Tomita; Kayan Tam; Scott I. Simon4 with PP-TGRLs, isolated from23 human serum at the peak following a moderately high-fat meal. Very low).46 The triglyceride spike following a high-fat meal is associated with transient endothelial47 dysfunction, notably

  13. Head, Shoulders...Waist-to-Hips? A Study on Body Shape Preference in Infancy. 

    E-print Network

    Hawkins, Laura Bess

    2014-04-24

    was to explore the existence of an early preference for adult body shapes. Infants aged 4 to 6 months and 10 to 13 months viewed 8 different computer displays, each containing 2 human figures. In one set (Set A), infants viewed 4 types of displays: 2 male...

  14. Waist-hip ratio and cognitive ability: is gluteofemoral fat a privileged store of neurodevelopmental resources?

    E-print Network

    Cosmides, Leda

    and their children are protected from cognitive decrements associated with teen births. These findings support; the effect size (d) for the human sex difference is 2.6 at the end of puberty (Boot, Bouquet, de Ridder

  15. Statewide Physical Fitness Testing: A BIG Waist or a BIG Waste?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Ede, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Statewide physical fitness testing is gaining popularity in the United States because of increased childhood obesity levels, the relations between physical fitness and academic performance, and the hypothesized relations between adult characteristics and childhood physical activity, physical fitness, and health behaviors. Large-scale physical…

  16. Selected anthropometric variables and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in children.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R; Szmuchrowski, L A; Prado, L S; Couto, B P; Machado, Jcq; Damasceno, V O; Lamounier, J A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 290 school boys and girls from 6 to 10 years old, randomly selected. Blood was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), height and weight were evaluated according to international standards. Aerobic fitness (AF) was assessed by the 20-metre shuttle-run test. Clustering was considered when three of these factors were present: high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, high plasma glucose, high insulin concentrations and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A ROC curve identified the cut-off points of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and AF as predictors of risk factor clustering. BMI, WC and WHR resulted in significant areas under the ROC curves, which was not observed for AF. The anthropometric variables were good predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in both sexes, whereas aerobic fitness should not be used to identify cardiovascular risk factor clustering in these children. PMID:26424930

  17. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stan?áková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  18. A six-week trial of hula hooping using a weighted hoop: effects on skinfold, girths, weight, and torso muscle endurance.

    PubMed

    McGill, Stuart M; Cambridge, Edward D J; Andersen, Jordan T

    2015-05-01

    Novel ideas for core endurance training are continually being created. However, studies of their mechanism of action assist in evaluation of their potential as a training tool, for a variety of people and purposes. The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate a weighted hula hooping training program for its efficacy on improving core muscular endurance and influence on measures of body composition. Eighteen women participated in a weighted hula hooping trial lasting 6 weeks, although only 13 returned for posttrial re-assessment. Hip and waist circumferences, 5 torso muscle endurance tests, and 5 skinfold measurements ("sum of 5") were measured before and after the exercise program. Paired samples t-tests were performed to examine pre/post changes. On average, participants experienced a significant decrease in waist and hip circumference -3.4 cm (p < 0.01) and -1.4 cm (p ? 0.05), respectively and waist-to-hip ratio from 89.3 cm down to 87.3 cm (t = 3.312, p < 0.01). There were no significant changes in torso muscular endurance after the 6 weeks of hooping; however, the average "sum of 5" skinfold measurements increased by 10.5 cm (p ? 0.05). This study of weighted hula hooping suggested that regular hooping was associated with reduced waist and hip girth together with a redistribution of body mass; however, there were no improvements in torso muscular endurance as measured by isometric testing. PMID:25268284

  19. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. Methods In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)—a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. Findings We obtained data for 22?188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19?403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (?19 years) and older (?35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02–1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03–1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25–1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18–1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20–24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained associated with increased risk of preterm birth (OR 1·33 [95% CI 1·05–1·67]), but children of older mothers had less 2-year stunting (0·64 [0·54–0·77]) and failure to complete secondary schooling (0·59 [0·48–0·71]) than did those with mothers aged 20–24 years. Offspring of both younger and older mothers had higher adult fasting glucose concentrations (roughly 0·05 mmol/L). Interpretation Children of young mothers in LMICs are disadvantaged at birth and in childhood nutrition and schooling. Efforts to prevent early childbearing should be strengthened. After adjustment for confounders, children of older mothers have advantages in nutritional status and schooling. Extremes of maternal age could be associated with disturbed offspring glucose metabolism. Funding Wellcome Trust and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. PMID:26087974

  20. A Novel Use of Structural Equation Models to Examine Factors Associated With Prediabetes Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Bardenheier, Barbara H.; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Caspersen, Carl J.; Cheng, Yiling J.; Gregg, Edward W.; Geiss, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To use structural modeling to test a hypothesized model of causal pathways related with prediabetes among older adults in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional study of 2,230 older adults (?50 years) without diabetes included in the morning fasting sample of the 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Demographic data included age, income, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education. Behavioral data included physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours per week for vigorous or moderate muscle strengthening, walking/biking, and house/yard work), and poor diet (refined grains, red meat, added sugars, solid fats, and high-fat dairy). Structural-equation modeling was performed to examine the interrelationships among these variables with family history of diabetes, high blood pressure, BMI, large waist (waist circumference: women, ?35 inches; men, ?40 inches), triglycerides ?200 mg/dL, and total and HDL (?60 mg/dL) cholesterol. RESULTS After dropping BMI and total cholesterol, our best-fit model included three single factors: socioeconomic position (SEP), physical activity, and poor diet. Large waist had the strongest direct effect on prediabetes (0.279), followed by male sex (0.270), SEP (?0.157), high blood pressure (0.122), family history of diabetes (0.070), and age (0.033). Physical activity had direct effects on HDL (0.137), triglycerides (?0.136), high blood pressure (?0.132), and large waist (?0.067); poor diet had direct effects on large waist (0.146) and triglycerides (0.148). CONCLUSIONS Our results confirmed that, while including factors known to be associated with high risk of developing prediabetes, large waist circumference had the strongest direct effect. The direct effect of SEP on prediabetes suggests mediation by some unmeasured factor(s). PMID:23649617

  1. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist circumference.

  2. Elevated C-reactive protein levels and metabolic syndrome in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Galvani, Matteo; Blè, Alessandro; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and “low grade” systemic inflammation (LGSI) are very common findings in the older population. Although MS and LGSI have been associated in adults, it is not known what is the real contribution of MS, and its single components, to LGSI in older persons, due to the potential confounding effect of comorbidity and aging. We investigated the relationship between increased C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, a marker of LGSI, and MS in 1044 older (?65 years) community dwelling Italian individuals enrolled the InChianti study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the NCEP-ATP III-AHA/NHLBI criteria. High sensitivity CRP (hs.CRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and defined as high when >3 mg/L. The overall prevalence of MS was 31%. The prevalence of high hs.CRP was 54.5% in subjects with, and 41.3% in those without MS (p < 0.001). MS was associated with high hs.CRP levels after adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.46-2.55). Compared to subjects with MS and no LGSI, individuals with MS and LGSI were characterized by higher waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels in subjects with MS (waist circumference III vs. I tertile OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79-3.77) independent of age, gender, and important confounding variables including comorbidity. Additional analyses, conducted with and without dichotomization of hs.CRP levels, confirmed the central role of waist circumference in the LGSI phenomenon, independent of gender and diagnosis of MS. We conclude that in older individuals, MS is associated with LGSI, but the association is mainly supported by a strong independent correlation between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels. In the absence of this specific MS component, it seems that the contribution of MS to LGSI would be modest at best. PMID:18845301

  3. Survey of abdominal obesities in an adult urban population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kasiam Lasi On’kin, JB; Longo-Mbenza, B; Okwe, A Nge; Kabangu, N Kangola

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor, is rapidly increasing worldwide. Abdominal obesity, a fundamental component of the metabolic syndrome, is not defined by appropriate cutoff points for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To provide baseline and reference data on the anthropometry/body composition and the prevalence rates of obesity types and levels in the adult urban population of Kinshasa, DRC, Central Africa. Methods During this cross-sectional study carried out within a random sample of adults in Kinshasa town, body mass index, waist circumference and fatty mass were measured using standard methods. Their reference and local thresholds (cut-off points) were compared with those of WHO, NCEP and IFD to define the types and levels of obesity in the population. Results From this sample of 11 511 subjects (5 676 men and 5 835 women), the men presented with similar body mass index and fatty mass values to those of the women, but higher waist measurements. The international thresholds overestimated the prevalence of denutrition, but underscored that of general and abdominal obesity. The two types of obesity were more prevalent among women than men when using both international and local thresholds. Body mass index was negatively associated with age; but abdominal obesity was more frequent before 20 years of age and between 40 and 60 years old. Local thresholds of body mass index (? 23, ? 27 and ? 30 kg/m2) and waist measurement (? 80, ? 90 and ? 94 cm) defined epidemic rates of overweight/general obesity (52%) and abdominal obesity (40.9%). The threshold of waist circumference ? 94 cm (90th percentile) corresponding to the threshold of the body mass index ? 30 kg/m2 (90th percentile) was proposed as the specific threshold of definition of the metabolic syndrome, without reference to gender, for the cities of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further studies are required to define the optimal threshold of waist circumference in rural settings. The present local cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference could be appropriate for the identification of Africans at risk of obesity-related disorders, and indicate the need to implement interventions to reverse increasing levels of obesity. PMID:17985031

  4. The Shape of Things to Come? Household Dependency Ratio and Adolescent Nutritional Status in Rural and Urban Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Craig; Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Tessema, Fasil

    2013-01-01

    Several related demographic trends are occurring in developing countries: youth comprise a large portion of populations, fertility rates are declining, and urban dwellers are increasing. As fertility rates decline and populations age, the decline in the ratio of young dependents to working age adults is expected to free up household resources, which can be invested in human capital, including youth nutritional wellbeing. We test this hypothesis in a sample of youth (n = 1,934) in Southwestern Ethiopia. Multiple measures of achieved growth and nutritional status are explored (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body mass index (BMI) and body mass index for age z-score (BMIZ), weight for age z-score (WAZ), and height for age z-score (HAZ)). In multivariable models controlling for the effects of income, age, gender, and youth is workloads, youth living in rural settings had significantly lower weight (1.24 kg lighter), MUAC (0.67 cm lower), BMI (0.45 BMI lower), BMIZ (0.27 lower), HAZ (0.14 HAZ lower), and WAZ (0.3 WAZ lower) than urban youth (all P < 0.01). Compared with youth in the lowest dependency ratio households, results show that youth in households with the highest dependency ratios were estimated to be 1.3 kg lighter, have 0.67 cm smaller MUAC, and BMI that was 0.59 lower (all P<0.01). Similar results were found for WAZ (0.21 lower) and BMIZ (0.36 lower). Youth height and HAZ were not associated with household dependency. These results may point toward increasing levels of human capital investments in Ethiopian youth as fertility levels decline and populations urbanize. Am J Phys Anthropol 144:643–652, 2011. PMID:21404240

  5. Severe malnutrition in children presenting to health facilities in an urban slum in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, R.; Enarson, D. A.; Satyanarayana, S.; Van den Bergh, R.; Ali, E.; Alders, P.; Manzi, M.; Allaouna, M.; Draguez, B.; Delchevalerie, P.; Vernaeve, L.; Harries, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Setting: An urban slum in Kamrangirchar, Bangladesh. Objectives: Among children aged 6–59 months seeking medical care from the two Médecins Sans Frontières-supported primary health centres, to determine 1) the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and severe chronic malnutrition (SCM), and 2) the extent of overlap between SAM and SCM. Design: In a retrospective record review, data were analysed from out-patient registers on age, sex, height, weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children attending for medical care from April to September 2011. SAM was defined as weight for height < ?3 Z scores of the median and/or MUAC <115 mm. SCM was defined as height for age < ?3 Z scores of the median. World Health Organization growth standards were used as reference. Results: Data were complete in the records of 7318 (98%) children, of whom 322 (4%) had SAM and 1698 (23%) had SCM. Among the 322 children with SAM, 162 (50%) also had SCM. Conclusion: In an urban Bangladesh slum, SAM and SCM co-exist, with a predominance of SCM. The current national guidelines for severe malnutrition, which focus on identification and management only for SAM, urgently need to be expanded to include SCM if substantial childhood morbidity and mortality are to be reduced. PMID:26392966

  6. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, M; Zazpe, I; Shivappa, N; Hébert, J R; Sánchez-Tainta, A; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fitó, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Rekondo, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J; Fiol, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Martínez, J A; Ros, E; Estruch, R; Martínez-González, M A

    2015-03-28

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms. PMID:25720588

  7. Optimal body weight for the prevention of coronary heart disease in normal-weight physically active men.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T; Hoffman, Kathryn M

    2009-07-01

    Although 36% of US men are normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), the health benefits of greater leanness in normal-weight individuals are seldom acknowledged. To assess the optimal body weight with respect to minimizing coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, we applied Cox proportional hazard analyses of 20,525 nonsmoking, nondiabetic, normal-weight men followed prospectively for 7.7 years, including 20,301 who provided follow-up questionnaires. Two-hundred and forty two men reported coronary artery bypass graph (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and 82 reported physician-diagnosed incident myocardial infarction (267 total). The National Death Index identified 40 additional ischemic heart disease deaths. In these normal-weight men, each kg/m(2) decrement in baseline BMI was associated with 11.2% lower risk for total CHD (P = 0.005), 13.2% lower risk for nonfatal CHD (P = 0.002), 19.0% lower risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction (P = 0.01), and 12.2% lower risk for PTCA or CABG (P = 0.007). Compared to men with BMI between 22.5 and 25 kg/m(2), those <22.5 kg/m(2) had 24.1% lower total CHD risk (P = 0.01), 27.9% lower nonfatal CHD risk (P = 0.01), 37.8% lower nonfatal myocardial infarction risk (P = 0.05), and 27.8% lower PTCA or CABG risk (P = 0.02). In nonabdominally obese men (waist circumference <102 cm), CHD risk declined linearly with declining waist circumference. CHD risk was unrelated to change in waist circumference between 18 years old and baseline except as it contributed to baseline circumference. These results suggest that the optimal BMI for minimizing CHD risk lies somewhere <22.5 kg/m(2), as suggested from our previous analyses of incident diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia in these men. PMID:19553927

  8. An epidemiological study of risk factors of thyroid nodule and goiter in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lei; Yan, Wenhua; Kong, Yue; Liang, Ping; Mu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodule (TN) and goiter are two common disorders of the thyroid. Despite their benign nature, both conditions are associated with multiple pathologic conditions including thyroiditis, endocrine dysregulation, and autoimmune disease. In this study we conducted a large-scale epidemiological study in Chinese women to identify risk factors implicated in the pathogenesis of TN and goiter. We analyzed demographic data, medical history, menstrual status, smoking, alcohol consumption, body height, weight, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI). Thyroid ultrasonography was performed for all subjects. Our results showed that age, menstrual status, BMI, waist circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia had a significant relationship with the prevalence of TN and goiter. There was also a significant association between parity, educational level, smoking, seafood consumption, salt consumption and TN. Waist-hip ratio, BMI, and triglyceride had a significant association with both TN and goiter, and total cholesterol only correlated with TN. Medical management of hypertension significantly affected TN prevalence. Our study also demonstrated age to be a strong predictor of TN and goiter, and obesity a predictor of the likelihood of developing goiter. Thus, our study suggests that the female Chinese population with advance age, menopause, obesity and metabolic syndrome be examined for TN and goiter, and those patients with confirmed TN and goiter be screened for age and obesity related disorders such as metabolic syndrome. PMID:26379953

  9. Evaluation of Relation between Anthropometric Indices and Vitamin D Concentrations in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722

  10. Various adiposity measures show similar positive associations with type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, native Hawaiians, and Japanese Americans: the multiethnic cohort.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, Astrid; Heak, Sreang; Morimoto, Yukiko; Grandinetti, Andrew; Kolonel, Larry N; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2015-03-01

    The authors evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with diabetes in Caucasians, Native Hawaiians, and Japanese Americans aged 45 to 75 years in the Multiethnic Cohort. Diabetes cases were obtained from self-reports and by linkages with health insurance plans. The authors estimated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). All measures were positively associated with diabetes prevalence; the PORs were 1.25 to 1.64 in men and 1.52 to 1.83 in women. In all 3 ethnic groups, the AUCs in men were greater for BMI than for the other measures, whereas in women, the AUCs were greater for combined models than for BMI alone, but the differences were small and not clinically significant. It does not appear that one anthropometric measure best reflects diabetes prevalence or performs better in one ethnic group than in another. PMID:22500038

  11. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  12. Comparison of adiposity measures in the identification of children with elevated blood pressure in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liang, J-J; Chen, Y-J; Jin, Y; Yang, W-H; Mai, J-C; Ma, J; Jing, J

    2015-12-01

    To differentiate the screening potential of waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI) for the presence of elevated blood pressure (BP) in Chinese children. A total of 2799 boys and 2672 girls aged 6-10 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Weight, height, WC and hip circumference were measured, and WHR, WHtR and BMI were calculated. Elevated BP was defined as systolic BP and/or diastolic BP ?95th percentile for age and gender. Both linear and logistic regression showed that WC had the strongest associations with BP values or risk of elevated BP, and the association was more substantial in boys than in girls. The area under receiver operating curves for the presence of elevated BP were highest for WC (0.770, 95% confidence interval: 0.754-0.785) in boys. In girls, WC, BMI and WHtR showed similar discriminatory capacity for elevated BP and were slightly higher than that of WHR. The optimal cutoff values of WC were 71.1th percentile for boys and 83.5th percentile for girls. WC was a simple and sensitive measure in the identification of elevated BP regardless of sex in children in Guangzhou, China. PMID:25787781

  13. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stan?áková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10?8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  14. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Hayley L.; Astell, Katie J.; Mathai, Michael L.; Su, Xiao Q.

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15) or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were advised to follow a hypocaloric diet throughout the study. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, were monitored fortnightly. Dietary intake was assessed at the baseline and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales and blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin at the baseline and end of the intervention. Significant reductions to waist and hip circumference (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively) were recorded in both experimental and placebo groups after the 12 week intervention. Furthermore, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly increased (p = 0.01) in both groups. The experimental group showed a favorable improvement in insulin concentration and insulin resistance (p = 0.001; 0.01 respectively) compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that C. forskohlii extract in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet may be useful in the management of metabolic risk factors. PMID:26593941

  15. Evaluation of body adiposity index as a predictor of aortic stiffness in multi-ethnic Asian population with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moh, Mei Chung; Sum, Chee Fang; Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Ng, Xiao Wei; Su, Chang; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Yeoh, Lee Ying; Wong, Melvin Ding Sheng; Lee, Simon Biing Ming; Tang, Wern Ee; Lim, Su Chi

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the predictive ability of the recently developed body adiposity index for aortic stiffness, an intermediate endpoint of cardiovascular disease, in a cross-sectional multi-ethnic Asian type 2 diabetes mellitus cohort (N = 1408). AS was estimated using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measured by applanation tonometry. Body adiposity index was computed as hip circumference/(height)(1.5)?- 18. Compared to body mass index, waist circumference and visceral fat area, body adiposity index displayed the weakest association with pulse wave velocity (r = 0.077, 0.096, 0.134 and 0.058, respectively; all p < 0.05). Interestingly, the relationship between measurements of obesity and pulse wave velocity was ethnic dependent - body mass index, body adiposity index, waist circumference and visceral fat area consistently predicted pulse wave velocity only in Indians but not others. In multi-variable analysis, body mass index was a significant determinant of pulse wave velocity in all ethnicities. In conclusion, body adiposity index is a weak predictor of aortic stiffness (when compared with body mass index) in Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25491287

  16. Evaluation of the Community-Based Chronic Disease Prevention Program Meta Salud in Northern Mexico, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Cecilia; Cornejo, Elsa; Bell, Melanie L.; Munguía, Diana; Zepeda, Tanyha; Carvajal, Scott; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Meta Salud is a community health worker–facilitated intervention in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, and was adapted from Pasos Adelante, a similar evidence-based intervention developed for a Latino population in the United States–Mexico border region. The objective of this study was to examine outcomes for Meta Salud and compare them with outcomes for Pasos Adelante. Methods This pretest–posttest study took place during 13 weeks among low-income residents of an urban area. The program provided information on topics such as heart health, physical activity, nutrition, diabetes, healthy weight, community health, and emotional well-being; included individual and group activities aimed at motivating behavior change; and encouraged participants to engage in brisk physical activity. Results We found significant decreases from baseline to conclusion in body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. From baseline to 3-month follow-up, we found significant decreases in body mass index, waist circumference, weight, LDL cholesterol, and glucose, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Outcomes for Meta Salud were similar to those found for Pasos Adelante. Conclusion The physiological improvements found among participants in Meta Salud and comparable changes among participants in Pasos Adelante suggest a scalable and effective behavioral intervention for regions of the United States and Mexico that share a common boundary or have similar cultural and linguistic characteristics. PMID:25211502

  17. Evaluation of Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ya?ar; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Güven, Mehmet; K?l?nç, Faruk; Kara, Ali Veysel; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; K?rba?, Gökhan; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal; Y?lmaz Ayd?n, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods. A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ?30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were recorded and blood samples were drawn for laboratory analysis. A 24-hour urine sample was also collected from each subject for measurement of 24-hour cortisol excretion. Patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to polysomnography results: control group with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 (n = 25) and OSA group with an AHI ?5 (n = 25). Results. Neck and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, late-night serum cortisol, morning serum cortisol after 1?mg dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Newly diagnosed DM was more frequent in patients with OSA than control subjects (32% versus 8%, p = 0.034). There was a significant positive correlation between AHI and neck circumference, glucose, and late-night serum cortisol. Conclusions. Our study indicates that increased waist and neck circumferences constitute a risk for OSA regardless of obesity status. In addition, OSA has adverse effects on endocrine function and glucose metabolism. PMID:26257957

  18. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  19. Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Anne-Thea; Stewart, Joanna M; Lithander, Fiona E; Strik, Caroline M; Poppitt, Sally D

    2008-01-01

    Low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3) is known to perturb cellular function in many tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, which are involved in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM). Vitamin D3 insufficiency has been linked to obesity, whether obesity is assessed by body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (waist). Central obesity, using waist as the surrogate, is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), insulin resistance, TIIDM and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We tested how vitamin D3 was related to measures of fat mass, MetSyn markers, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and MetSyn in a cross-sectional sample of 250 overweight and obese adults of different ethnicities. There were modest inverse associations of vitamin D3 with body weight (weight) (r = -0.21, p = 0.0009), BMI (r = -0.18, p = 0.005), waist (r = -0.14, p = 0.03), [but not body fat % (r = -0.08, p = 0.24)], and HbA1c (r = -0.16, p = 0.01). Multivariable regression carried out separately for BMI and waist showed a decrease of 0.74 nmol/L (p = 0.002) in vitamin D3 per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI and a decrease of 0.29 nmol/L (p = 0.01) per 1 cm increase in waist, with each explaining approximately 3% of the variation in vitamin D3 over and above gender, age, ethnicity and season. The similar relationships of BMI and waist with vitamin D3 may have been due to associations between BMI and waist, or coincidental, where different mechanisms relating hypovitaminosis D3 to obesity occur concurrently. Previously reviewed mechanisms include that 1) low vitamin D3, may impair insulin action, glucose metabolism and various other metabolic processes in adipose and lean tissue 2) fat soluble-vitamin D3 is sequestered in the large adipose compartment, and low in serum, 3) obese people may be sensitive about their body shape, minimising their skin exposure to view and sunlight (not tested). We showed evidence for the first theory but no evidence to support the second. In the current study, serum vitamin D3 was inversely related to weight, BMI and markers of TIIDM (large waist, raised HbA1c) but not to adipose mass nor to MetSyn per se. PMID:18226257

  20. Obesity and the obesity paradox in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pritha P; Fonarow, Gregg C; Horwich, Tamara B

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population and is associated with an increased risk for the development of new-onset heart failure (HF). However, in acute and chronic HF, overweight and mild to moderate obesity is associated with substantially improved survival compared with normal weight. This phenomenon has been termed the "obesity paradox" in HF. The majority of data pertaining to the obesity paradox identifies obesity with body mass index; however, the reliability of this method has been questioned. Newer studies have explored the use of other measures of body fat and body composition, including waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, skinfold thickness, and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The relationship between the obesity paradox and cardiorespiratory fitness in HF is also discussed in this review, and we explore the various potential explanations for the obesity paradox and summarize the current evidence and guidelines for intentional weight loss treatments for HF in the obese population. PMID:25661554

  1. Heart Rate Variability in Shift Workers: Responses to Orthostatism and Relationships with Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Monteze, Nayara Mussi; Souza, Breno Bernardes; Alves, Henrique José de Paula; de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Pereira; de Oliveira, José Magalhães; de Freitas, Silvia Nascimento; do Nascimento Neto, Raimundo Marques; Sales, Maria Lilian; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the response of heart rate variability (HRV) components to postural change and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in shift workers, a cross-sectional study with 438 Brazilian males rotating shift workers was done. Anthropometric, body composition, and clinical measures were collected. Electrocardiogram was recorded for 3 minutes, in the supine and orthostatic position, and HRV components were extracted. Descriptive analyses showed that mean values of body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), and blood pressure (BP) were higher than the reference values. In the regression model, age, WC, VFA, and systolic BP showed negative association with HRV components. These findings suggest the need for determining effective strategies for the evaluation and promotion of health among shift workers focused on the altered variables. PMID:26495293

  2. Heart Rate Variability in Shift Workers: Responses to Orthostatism and Relationships with Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Monteze, Nayara Mussi; Souza, Breno Bernardes; Alves, Henrique José de Paula; de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Pereira; de Oliveira, José Magalhães; de Freitas, Silvia Nascimento; do Nascimento Neto, Raimundo Marques; Sales, Maria Lilian; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the response of heart rate variability (HRV) components to postural change and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in shift workers, a cross-sectional study with 438 Brazilian males rotating shift workers was done. Anthropometric, body composition, and clinical measures were collected. Electrocardiogram was recorded for 3 minutes, in the supine and orthostatic position, and HRV components were extracted. Descriptive analyses showed that mean values of body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), and blood pressure (BP) were higher than the reference values. In the regression model, age, WC, VFA, and systolic BP showed negative association with HRV components. These findings suggest the need for determining effective strategies for the evaluation and promotion of health among shift workers focused on the altered variables. PMID:26495293

  3. Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system. PMID:24109700

  4. A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ? 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

  5. Validation of the Fatty Liver Index for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaolin; Xu, Min; Chen, Ying; Peng, Kui; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Ding, Lin; Lin, Lin; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yuhong; Lu, Jieli; Wang, Weiqing; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2015-10-01

    The fatty liver index (FLI), which is an algorithm based on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, and gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), was initially developed to detect fatty liver in Western countries. Our study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and optimal cut-off point of the FLI for predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.This cross-sectional study included 8626 Chinese adults aged 40 years or above recruited from Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Anthropometric and biochemical features were collected by a standard protocol. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasonography. The accuracy and cut-off point of the FLI to detect NAFLD were evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) and the maximum Youden index analysis, respectively.The AUROC of the FLI for NAFLD was 0.834 (95% confidence interval: 0.825-0.842), and larger than that of its each individual component [0.786 (0.776-0.796), 0.783 (0.773-0.793), 0.727 (0.716-0.739), and 0.707 (0.695-0.719) for waist circumference, BMI, triglyceride, and GGT, respectively] (all P?waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, serum lipids, and aminotransferases) than ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD patients (all P?

  6. Additive contributions of childhood adversity and recent stressors to inflammation at midlife: Findings from the MIDUS study.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Lachman, Margie E; Mroczek, Daniel K; Seeman, Teresa E; Miller, Gregory E

    2015-11-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation. Participants were 1,180 middle-aged and older adults from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Biomarker Project (M age = 57.3 years, SD = 11.5; 56% female). A composite measure of inflammation was derived from 5 biomarkers: serum levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, E-selectin, and ICAM-1. Participants provided self-report data regarding ACEs, RLEs, current lifestyle indices (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, waist circumference), current depressive symptoms, and demographic/biomedical characteristics. We also used indices of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical outflow (12-hr urinary cortisol) and sympathetic nervous system output (12-hr urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine). Analyses indicated that ACEs and RLEs were independently associated with higher levels of inflammation, controlling for each other's effects. Their interaction was not significant. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that associations between ACEs and inflammation were mediated through higher urinary norepinephrine output, greater waist circumference, smoking, and lower levels of exercise, whereas higher waist circumference and more smoking partially mediated the association between RLEs and inflammation. In support of the stress accumulation model, ACEs and RLEs had unique and additive contributions to inflammation at midlife, with no evidence of synergistic effects. Results also suggested that norepinephrine output and lifestyle indices may help explain how prior stressors foster inflammation at midlife. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389605

  7. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Yoga in Overweight and Obese Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Quality of Life and Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Littman, Alyson J; Bertram, Lisa Cadmus; Ceballos, Rachel; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Ramaprasad, Jaya; McGregor, Bonnie; McTiernan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To obtain estimates of time to recruit the study sample, retention, facility-based class attendance and home practice for a study of yoga in breast cancer survivors, and its efficacy on fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and weight change. METHODS Sixty-three post-treatment stage 0–III borderline overweight and obese (body mass index ? 24 kg/m2) breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to a 6-month, facility- and home-based viniyoga intervention (n = 32) or a waitlist control group (n = 31). The yoga goal was 5 practices per week. Primary outcome measures were changes in self-reported QOL, fatigue, and weight from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in waist and hip circumference. RESULTS It took 12 months to complete recruitment. Participants attended a mean of 19.6 classes and practiced at home a mean of 55.8 times during the 6-month period. At follow-up, 90% of participants completed questionnaires and 87% completed anthropometric measurements. QOL and fatigue improved to a greater extent among women in the yoga group relative to women in the control group, although no differences were statistically significant. Waist circumference decreased 3.1 cm (95% CI: ?5.7, ?0.4) more among women in the yoga compared with the control group, with no differences in weight change. CONCLUSIONS This study provides important information regarding recruitment, retention, and practice levels achieved during a 6-month, intensive yoga intervention in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors. Yoga may help decrease waist circumference and improve quality of life; future studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:21207071

  8. Relation of epicardial fat thickness with carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mustafa; Cakici, Musa; Polat, Mustafa; Suner, Arif; Zencir, Cemil; Ardic, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods and Results. A total of 139 patients with T2DM (mean age 54.3 ± 9.2 and 49.6% male) and 40 age and sex-matched control subjects were evaluated. Echocardiographic EFT and ultrasonographic CIMT were measured in all subjects. Patients with T2DM had significantly increased EFT and CIMT than those of the controls (6.0 ± 1.5?mm versus 4.42 ± 1.0?mm, P < 0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.17?mm versus 0.57 ± 0.14?mm, P < 0.001, resp.). EFT was correlated with CIMT, waist circumference, BMI, age, duration of T2DM, HbA1c in the type 2 diabetic patients. Linear regression analysis showed that CIMT (? = 3.52, t = 3.72, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (? = 0.36, t = 2.26, P = 0.03) were found to be independent predictors of EFT. A cutoff high risk EFT value of 6.3?mm showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.5% and 71.7%, respectively, for the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusion. We found that echocardiographic EFT was significantly higher in patients with T2DM. Our study also showed that EFT was strongly correlated with waist circumference and CIMT as being independent of sex. PMID:23762053

  9. Relation of Epicardial Fat Thickness with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Mustafa; Cakici, Musa; Polat, Mustafa; Suner, Arif; Zencir, Cemil; Ardic, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods and Results. A total of 139 patients with T2DM (mean age 54.3 ± 9.2 and 49.6% male) and 40 age and sex-matched control subjects were evaluated. Echocardiographic EFT and ultrasonographic CIMT were measured in all subjects. Patients with T2DM had significantly increased EFT and CIMT than those of the controls (6.0 ± 1.5?mm versus 4.42 ± 1.0?mm, P < 0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.17?mm versus 0.57 ± 0.14?mm, P < 0.001, resp.). EFT was correlated with CIMT, waist circumference, BMI, age, duration of T2DM, HbA1c in the type 2 diabetic patients. Linear regression analysis showed that CIMT (? = 3.52, t = 3.72, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (? = 0.36, t = 2.26, P = 0.03) were found to be independent predictors of EFT. A cutoff high risk EFT value of 6.3?mm showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.5% and 71.7%, respectively, for the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusion. We found that echocardiographic EFT was significantly higher in patients with T2DM. Our study also showed that EFT was strongly correlated with waist circumference and CIMT as being independent of sex. PMID:23762053

  10. Validation of the Fatty Liver Index for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaolin; Xu, Min; Chen, Ying; Peng, Kui; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Ding, Lin; Lin, Lin; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yuhong; Lu, Jieli; Wang, Weiqing; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fatty liver index (FLI), which is an algorithm based on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, and gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), was initially developed to detect fatty liver in Western countries. Our study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and optimal cut-off point of the FLI for predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. This cross-sectional study included 8626 Chinese adults aged 40 years or above recruited from Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Anthropometric and biochemical features were collected by a standard protocol. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasonography. The accuracy and cut-off point of the FLI to detect NAFLD were evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) and the maximum Youden index analysis, respectively. The AUROC of the FLI for NAFLD was 0.834 (95% confidence interval: 0.825–0.842), and larger than that of its each individual component [0.786 (0.776–0.796), 0.783 (0.773–0.793), 0.727 (0.716–0.739), and 0.707 (0.695–0.719) for waist circumference, BMI, triglyceride, and GGT, respectively] (all P?waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, serum lipids, and aminotransferases) than ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD patients (all P?

  11. Do Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness Moderate the Association Between Birth Weight and Metabolic Risk in Youth?

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Brage, Soren; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ekelund, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Lower birth weight has been associated with a greater risk of metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was examine whether physical activity and aerobic fitness may modify associations between birth weigh and metabolic risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The European Youth Heart Study is a population-based study of 9 and 15 year olds (n = 1,254). Birth weight was maternally reported. Skin fold measures were used to calculate body fat and fat mass index (FMI = fat mass [kilograms]/height2). Insulin was measured using fasting blood samples. Physical activity was measured using a hip-worn accelerometer (MTI Actigraph) for >600 min/day for ?3 days and is expressed as “average activity” (counts per minute) and time spent in above moderate intensity activity (>2000 cpm). Aerobic fitness was assessed using a maximal cycle ergometry test (watts per kilogram fat-free mass). RESULTS Higher birth weight was associated with higher FMI (? = 0.49 [95% CI 0.21–0.80]; P = 0.001) and greater waist circumference (0.90 [0.32–1.47]; P < 0.001), adjusted for sex, age-group, sexual maturity, height, and socioeconomic status. Lower birth weight was associated with higher fasting insulin only after further adjustment for adolescent waist circumference and height (?0.059 [?0.107 to ?0.011]; P = 0.016). There was no evidence for any modification of the associations after adjustment for physical activity or aerobic fitness. CONCLUSIONS The present study did not find any evidence that physical activity or aerobic fitness can moderate the associations among higher birth weight and increased fat mass and greater waist circumference or between lower birth weight and insulin resistance in healthy children and adolescents. PMID:20921217

  12. Association of HIV Infection, Hepatitis C Virus Infection, and Metabolic Factors With Liver Stiffness Measured by Transient Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Bailony, M. Rami; Scherzer, Rebecca; Huhn, Gregory; Plankey, Michael W.; Peters, Marion G.; Tien, Phyllis C.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Few studies have examined the relationship of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection and its associated perturbations with liver fibrosis. Methods.?Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the demographic, behavioral, metabolic and viral factors associated with transient elastography–measured liver stiffness in 314 participants (165 HIV positive/hepatitis C virus [HCV] negative, 78 HIV positive/HCV positive, 14 HIV negative/HCV positive, 57 HIV negative/HCV negative) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Results.?Compared with HIV negative/HCV negative women, HIV positive/HCV positive women had higher median liver stiffness values (7.1 vs 4.4 kPa; P < .001); HIV positive/HCV negative and HIV negative/HCV negative women had similar liver stiffness values (both 4.4 kPa; P = .94). HIV/HCV coinfection remained associated with higher liver stiffness values (74% higher; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49–104) even after multivariable adjustment. Among HCV positive women, waist circumference (per 10-cm increase) was associated with 18% (95% CI, 7.5%–30%) higher liver stiffness values after multivariable adjustment; waist circumference showed little association among HIV positive/HCV negative or HIV negative/HCV negative women. Among HIV positive/HCV negative women, history of AIDS (13%; 95% CI, 4% –27%) and HIV RNA (7.3%; 95% CI, 1.59%–13.3%, per 10-fold increase) were associated with greater liver stiffness. Conclusions.?HCV infection but not HIV infection is associated with greater liver stiffness when infected women are compared with those with neither infection. Our finding that waist circumference, a marker of central obesity, is associated with greater liver stiffness in HIV/HCV-coinfected but not HIV-monoinfected or women with neither infection suggests that in the absence of HCV-associated liver injury the adverse effects of obesity are lessened. PMID:23901097

  13. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context. PMID:25993894

  14. Relationship of physical activity to cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population of Nigerian adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing rapidly in Nigeria, but fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in the development of CVD in this country. We examined the relationship between health enhancing physical activity and risk factors of CVD in a working population of adults in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we assessed health enhancing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among 292 government employees (age: 20–65 years, 40% female, 24% obese and 79.8% response) using the self-administered version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF). Time spent in walking and sitting during occupational activity was assessed as well. Anthropometric measurement of height, weight and waist circumference, and blood pressure were also measured. Independent t-test and One- Way ANOVA were conducted, and the relationships between MVPA and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure and heart rate were explored using Pearson correlations coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results The mean time spent in health enhancing MVPA (116.4?±?101.3 min/wk) was lower than the recommended guideline of 150 min/wk sufficient for health benefits. Compared with men, more women were less physically active, obese and reported more diagnoses of component of metabolic syndrome (p?waist circumference, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p?

  15. Diet Quality and Survival After Ovarian Cancer: Results From the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Tracy E.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Li, Wenjun; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Basen-Engquist, Karen M.; Zhou, Yang; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival after an ovarian cancer diagnosis is poor. Given the high mortality in these patients, efforts to identify modifiable lifestyle behaviors that could influence survival are needed. Earlier evidence suggests a protective role for vegetables, but no prior studies have evaluated overall dietary quality and ovarian cancer survival. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the role of prediagnosis diet quality in ovarian cancer survival. Methods We identified 636 centrally adjudicated cases of ovarian cancer within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study or Clinical Trials of 161808 postmenopausal women followed from 1995 to 2012. Dietary quality was assessed for the Healthy Eating Index (2005) using a food frequency questionnaire, covariables were obtained from standardized questionnaires, and adiposity was measured by clinic-based measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference. The association between diet quality and mortality was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified by waist circumference, physical activity level, and diabetes status. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results Overall, higher diet quality was associated with lower all-cause mortality after ovarian cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for highest vs lowest tertile = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.97, P trend = .03). The effect was strongest among women with waist circumference of 88cm or less and with no history of diabetes (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98). Physical activity level did not modify the association between diet quality and survival. Conclusion Our results suggest that overall higher prediagnosis diet quality may protect against mortality after ovarian cancer. PMID:25335480

  16. Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Sixth-Grade Youth

    PubMed Central

    JAGO, RUSSELL; DREWS, KIMBERLY L.; MCMURRAY, ROBERT G.; THOMPSON, DEBBE; VOLPE, STELLA L.; MOE, ESTHER L.; JAKICIC, JOHN M.; PHAM, TRANG H.; BRUECKER, STEVE; BLACKSHEAR, TARA B.; YIN, ZENONG

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Examine whether cardiometabolic risk factors are predicted by fitness or fatness among adolescents. Methods Participants are 4955 (2614 female) sixth-grade students with complete data from 42 US middle schools. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin concentrations. Waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight, overweight, or obese as a measure of fatness. Fitness was assessed using the multistage shuttle test and was converted into gender-specific quintiles. Gender-specific regression models, adjusted for race, pubertal status, and household education, were run to identify whether BMI group predicted risk factors. Models were repeated with fitness group and both fitness and fatness groups as predictors. Results Means for each risk factor (except HDL, which was the reverse) were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) with increased fatness and differed across all BMI groups (P < 0.001). Waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin were inversely associated with fitness (P < 0.001). When both fatness and fitness were included in the model, BMI was associated (P < 0.001) with almost all cardiometabolic risk factors; fitness was only associated with waist circumference (both genders), LDL-cholesterol (males), and insulin (both genders). Other associations between fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors were attenuated after adjustment for BMI group. Conclusions Both fatness and fitness are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among sixth-grade youth, but stronger associations were observed for fatness. Although maintaining high levels of fitness and preventing obesity may positively affect cardiometabolic risk factors, greater benefit may be obtained from obesity prevention. PMID:20139783

  17. Combined Effects of Time Spent in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Sleep on Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Health Markers: A Novel Compositional Data Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Dontje, Manon L.; Skelton, Dawn A.

    2015-01-01

    The associations between time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviors (SB) and physical activity with health are usually studied without taking into account that time is finite during the day, so time spent in each of these behaviors are codependent. Therefore, little is known about the combined effect of time spent in sleep, SB and physical activity, that together constitute a composite whole, on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers. Cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2005–6 cycle on N = 1937 adults, was undertaken using a compositional analysis paradigm, which accounts for this intrinsic codependence. Time spent in SB, light intensity (LIPA) and moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) was determined from accelerometry and combined with self-reported sleep time to obtain the 24 hour time budget composition. The distribution of time spent in sleep, SB, LIPA and MVPA is significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, plasma insulin (all p<0.001), and systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.003), but not HDL or LDL. Within the composition, the strongest positive effect is found for the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Strikingly, the effects of MVPA replacing another behavior and of MVPA being displaced by another behavior are asymmetric. For example, re-allocating 10 minutes of SB to MVPA was associated with a lower waist circumference by 0.001% but if 10 minutes of MVPA is displaced by SB this was associated with a 0.84% higher waist circumference. The proportion of time spent in LIPA and SB were detrimentally associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease markers, but the association with SB was stronger. For diabetes risk markers, replacing SB with LIPA was associated with more favorable outcomes. Time spent in MVPA is an important target for intervention and preventing transfer of time from LIPA to SB might lessen the negative effects of physical inactivity. PMID:26461112

  18. Linking Pre-Diabetes with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. IGFBP-3: A Conductor of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Development Orchestra?

    PubMed Central

    Protopsaltis, Ioannis; Ploumidis, Achilles; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Constantoulakis, Padelis; Tzirogiannis, Kostantinos; Kyprianidou, Chrysoula; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia K.; Melidonis, Andreas; Delakas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a pattern of non-malignant growth of prostatic fibromuscular stroma. Metabolic disturbances such us pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome may have a role in BPH pathophysiology. A potential explanation for the above relationship involves the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis as well as IGF binding proteins, (IGFBPs) of which the most abundant form is IGFBP-3. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between intra-prostatic levels of IGF-1, IGF-2 as well as to evaluate the role of locally expressed IGFBP-3 in BPH development in pre-diabetes. A total of 49 patients admitted to the Urology department of a tertiary urban Greek hospital, for transurethral prostate resection, or prostatectomy and with pre-diabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both] were finally included. The majority of the sample consisted of subjects with IGT (51.0%), followed by IFG and IGT (32.7%) and isolated IFG (16.3%). For all participants a clinical examination was performed and blood samples were collected. In addition, total prostate (TP) volume or transitional zone (TZ) volume were estimated by transrectal ultrasonography. The results of the multivariate analysis regarding TP volume showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p=0.007) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p<0.001) independently predicted higher TP volume. The results regarding the volume of the TZ showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p<0.001) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p=0.024) were independently associated with higher TZ volume. Our findings show that intra-prostatic levels of IGFBP-3, PSA and waist circumference, but not overall obesity, are positively associated with prostate volume. IGFBP-3 seems to be a multifunctional protein, which can potentiate or inhibit IGF activity. PMID:24367483

  19. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. Methods This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. Results There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (? T90 – T0 = ?12.87 ± 4.26 ?U/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (? = ?2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (? = ?3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (? = ?1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (? T90 – T0 = ?4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Conclusion Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure. PMID:23271912

  20. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    MIRMIRAN, Parvin; EJTAHED, Hanieh-Sadat; BAHADORAN, Zahra; BASTAN, Sara; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: General and abdominal obesity are major global health problems. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index and waist circumference status in 5852 Iranian adults within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: Intakes of SSBs including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The association between body mass index, waist circumference and body adiposity index in each quartile category of SSB consumption were determined using the multivariable linear regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of general and abdominal obesity in each quartile of SSB consumption was also determined using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Mean dietary intake of SSBs was 48.9 g/d or 0.25 servings/d. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, significant associations were observed between SSB consumption and BMI (?: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.13–0.86), and waist circumference (?: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.40–2.16) in the fourth quartile. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and body adiposity index. Participants who consumed > 57.1 g/d of SSBs had 22% higher risk of general obesity (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00–1.48) and 35% higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12–1.61), compared with those in the lowest quartile of SSB consumption. Conclusion: Higher intakes of SSBs were associated with the higher risk of general and abdominal obesity in adults suggesting that limiting the consumption of SSBs may be a practical approach to prevent and manage obesity.

  1. Serial anthropometry predicts peripheral nerve dysfunction in a community cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Kelly R.; Herman, William H.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a risk factor for glucose intolerance, but the independent role of obesity in the development of peripheral neuropathy is unclear. This study assessed the impact of body size trajectories on prevalent nerve dysfunction in community-dwelling women with and without glucose intolerance. Methods Annual (1996–2008) anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI, weight[kg]/height[m2]) were assessed in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation – Michigan site. Glucose intolerance was defined annually based on current use of diabetes medications, self-reported diabetes diagnosis, and, when available, fasting glucose. Peripheral nerve dysfunction in 2008 was defined as abnormal monofilament testing or ?4 symptoms or signs. Linear mixed models were used to determine trajectories of anthropometry by subsequently-identified nerve dysfunction status. Results Mean BMI was 32.4 kg/m2 at baseline and 27.8% of women had nerve dysfunction in 2008. BMI, weight, and waist circumference increased over time. Women who would have nerve dysfunction were significantly larger than women without dysfunction, independent of glucose intolerance. At mean baseline age of 46, BMI, weight, and waist circumference differed significantly (p-value<0.01) by subsequent nerve dysfunction status, independent of glucose intolerance and hypertension. These body size differences were maintained but not exacerbated over time. Conclusions Peripheral nerve dysfunction is prevalent among community-dwelling women. Twelve years before the nerve assessment, anthropometry differed between women who would and would not have nerve dysfunction, differences that were maintained over time. Obesity deserves attention as an important and potentially modifiable risk factor for peripheral nerve dysfunction. PMID:23161607

  2. Assessing Body Fat Changes during Moderate Weight Loss with Anthropometry and Bioelectrical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Eckhauser, Aaron W.; Dorminy, Cindy A.; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Choi, Leena; Buchowski, Maciej S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives Monitoring changes in total fat mass and abdominal adiposity are important in understanding the impact of different types of weight loss interventions on health risks. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in predicting fat mass changes during moderate weight loss. Subjects/Methods Fat mass changes were assessed in 34 overweight adults (24 females, 10 males) after a 12-week supervised weight loss induced by caloric restriction (?30% of requirement) using BIA and DXA. Agreement between BIA and DXA measurements were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Linear regression modeling was used to predict body and truncal fat mass from anthropometric measures. Results Diet intervention resulted in a significant decrease in body weight (? 7.86 ± 2.87 kg), body mass index (BMI ? 2.69 ± 0.98 kg/m2), total body fat (? 5.22 ± 2.32 kg), truncal fat (? 2.80 ± 1.94 kg) and waist circumference (? 5.52 ± 3.57 cm). BMI and body weight were highly correlated with body fat (0.83 and 0.92 in females and 0.94 and 0.92 in males respectively) and truncal fat (0.75 and 0.87 in females; 0.90 and 0.84 in males respectively) during weight loss. Waist circumference was more correlated with truncal fat in males than females (0.94 vs. 0.85 in females). Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated total body fat changes in males (? 8.8 kg, p<0.001) and overestimated total body fat changes in females (+ 2.1 kg, p< 0.001). Conclusions Body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference provide simple and more accurate than BIA estimates of relative changes in total and truncal fat during moderate weight loss in adults. PMID:20161645

  3. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Anoop, Shajith; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2) Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India. Methods Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93) and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40) were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior), total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal)], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared. Results Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA) were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA) lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%), total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%), intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%), retroperitoneal fat (70.7%), pancreatic volume (26.6%), pancreatic volume index (21.3%) and liver span (10.8%). In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver. Conclusions In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat. PMID:26474415

  4. Adiposity and insulin sensitivity derived from intravenous glucose tolerance tests in antipsychotic-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Dan W; Fahnestock, Peter A; Flavin, Karen A; Schweiger, Julie A; Stevens, Angela; Hessler, Martha J; Maeda, Justin; Yingling, Michael; Newcomer, John W

    2007-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is more common in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, with a hypothesized contribution from increases in adiposity produced by antipsychotic medications. We sought to test the relationship between adiposity and insulin resistance using frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIVGTTs) to quantify whole-body insulin sensitivity in chronically treated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and untreated healthy controls. FSIVGTTs, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were obtained in nondiabetic patients (n=63) receiving olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, or first generation antipsychotics, as well as in healthy controls (n=14). Subject groups (including untreated healthy controls) were matched for BMI and all treated patient groups were additionally matched for age. Bergman's minimal model (MinMod) was used to calculate insulin sensitivity (S(I)), as well as secondary measures of interest. BMI and waist circumference significantly predicted insulin sensitivity measured as MinMod S(I) (F(1,62)=35.11, p<0.0001 and F(1,46)=24.48, p<0.0001, respectively). In addition, BMI and waist circumference significantly predicted the acute plasma insulin response to the glucose challenge (AIR(G)), consistent with a beta cell compensatory response to insulin resistance (MinMod AIR(G) F(1,65)=22.42, p<0.0001 and F(1,49)=11.72, p=0.0013, respectively). Adiposity levels occurring during antipsychotic treatment are strongly related to insulin resistance, confirming that antipsychotic-induced weight gain can contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk in this population. PMID:17375138

  5. Medication-induced diabetes during induction treatment for ALL, an early marker for future metabolic risk?

    PubMed

    Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Koltin, Dror; Hamilton, Jill; Nathan, Paul C; Urbach, Stacey

    2015-03-01

    Medication-induced diabetes (MID) is seen in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) mostly during induction, due to the use of l-asparaginase and glucocorticoids. Our objective was to assess whether MID during induction, is a risk factor for future impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Ninety survivors of pediatric ALL, ages 10 yr and older were recruited, 30 with history of MID and 60 controls. Waist/height ratio >0.5 was considered as an increased risk for central adiposity and insulin resistance. Lipid profile and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed. Study patients were older than controls (17.2 vs. 14.9, p < 0.05). The groups had similar sex distribution, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and Tanner staging. A waist/height ratio of >0.5 was seen in 60 and 31.7% of the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.01). Increased frequency of IGT in the study group compared with the control group was seen (13.3 and 1%, respectively) (p = 0.07). We observed a trend toward higher proportion of patients with multiple features of metabolic syndrome in the study compared with control group (16.7 vs. 5%, p = 0.09). In conclusion, MID during induction may be an early marker for metabolic disturbances later in life. The higher rates of increased waist/height ratio, and subjects with multiple metabolic syndrome features, may predict a metabolic risk in children with history of MID. Rates of IGT were four fold higher in the study group although not statistically significant. MID may be a 'red flag' indicating the need for ongoing metabolic screening and lifestyle modifications to prevent future metabolic disease. PMID:24673941

  6. Patterns of eye movements when male and female observers judge female attractiveness, body fat and waist-to-hip ratio

    E-print Network

    Cornelissen, Piers

    , observers are asked to rate a set of images for attractiveness that vary on a number of anthropometric combination of the anthropometric features. Evolution and Human Behavior 30 (2009) 417­428 Corresponding

  7. Up to the waist in mud! : the assessment and application of earth-derivative architecture in rural Bangladesh

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, K. Iftekhar

    1991-01-01

    This thesis is about architecture that uses earth as the prime· building material in the context of rural Bangladesh. In extreme environmental conditions of annual floods, rain and atmospheric humidity, the use of earth, ...

  8. Body height, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, fluctuating asymmetry and second to fourth digit ratio in subjects

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Subjects with clinically asymptomatic life-long latent toxoplasmosis differ­60% of the population worldwide are infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Life-long latent

  9. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport lecture. Statewide physical fitness testing: a big waist or a big waste?

    PubMed

    Morrow, James R; Ede, Alison

    2009-12-01

    Statewide physical fitness testing is gaining popularity in the United States because of increased childhood obesity levels, the relations between physical fitness and academic performance, and the hypothesized relations between adult characteristics and childhood physical activity, physical fitness, and health behaviors. Large-scale physical fitness testing can be fraught with problems unless properly planned and conducted. Legislators, administrators, teachers, and parents should consider the following 10 essential issues when conducting large-scale physical fitness testing purpose of testing, proper planning, training, quality of the data, reporting support, costs, interpretation, programmatic matters, and policies and politics. PMID:20025110

  10. In-Fiber Mach—Zehnder Interferometer Based on Waist-Enlarged Taper and Core-Mismatching for Strain Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Shan; Qiao, Xue-Guang; Shao, Min; Liu, Qin-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61077006, 60727004, and 61077060, the China National Petroleum Corporation Science and Technology Development Projects under Grant No 2014B-4012, and the Science Research Plan Projects of Shaanxi Education Department under Grant No 14JK1580.

  11. Measures of Body Shape and Adiposity as Related to Incidence of Age-Related Eye Diseases: Observations From the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Kerri P.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effect of obesity on the incidence of age-related eye disease. Methods. Participants of the Beaver Dam Eye Study were examined every 5 years over a 20-year period (1988–1990 through 2008–2010). Lens and fundus photographs were used to evaluate presence and severity of cataract and macular degeneration. Height and weight were measured at all examinations. Waist and hip circumference were measured at all examinations beginning at the first follow-up (1993–1995). Models of ocular outcomes over 15 years were stratified by sex and smoking status. Results. Overall, 2641 participants contributed 5567 person-visits to 15-year incidence analysis. Female nonsmokers had increased risk of late AMD associated with higher body mass index (BMI; hazard ratio [HR] per 2.5 kg/m2 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.50, P < 0.001), waist to hip ratio (HR per 0.1 cm/cm 1.95, 95% CI 1.33–2.86, P < 0.001), waist circumference (HR per 5 cm 1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, P < 0.001), and waist to height ratio (HR per 0.1 cm/cm 1.74, 95% CI 1.31–2.31, P < 0.001). Increased BMI was also associated with early AMD in female nonsmokers (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19, P = 0.02). Conclusions. Female nonsmokers had risk of late AMD associated with increasing measures of greater obesity and increased risk of early AMD associated with greater BMI. PMID:24667857

  12. Comparison of growth and nutritional status in infants receiving goat milk–based formula and cow milk–based formula: a randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meihong; Wang, Yibin; Dai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Yong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed goat milk–based formula (GMF) and cow milk–based formula (CMF). Methods The study was conducted in Beijing, China. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 79 infants aged 0–3 months old were recruited and randomized in GMF or CMF group. The infants were fed the allocated formula to 6 months. The weight, length, and head circumference were measured at the enrolment, 3 and 6 months. The start time and types of solid food were recorded. Blood elements, urinal, and fecal parameters were also tested. Results The average weight of infants in the GMF group (mean±SD) was 4.67±0.99 kg and in the CMF group 4.73±1.10 kg at enrolment, and 8.75±0.98 kg (GMF) and 8.92±0.88 kg (CMF) at 6 months. There were no differences in the adjusted intention-to-treat analyses of weight, length, head circumference, and BMI z-scores between the two formula-fed groups over the 6-month study. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences in the timing and types of solid food, blood elements, urinal, and feces parameters, between the GMF and CMF group. No group differences have been shown in bowel motion consistency, duration of crying, ease of settling, or frequency of adverse events. Conclusions GMF-provided growth and nutritional outcomes did not differ from those provided by CMF. PMID:26652603

  13. Reliability and accuracy of anthropometry performed by community health workers among infants under 6?months in rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mwangome, Martha K; Fegan, Greg; Mbunya, Ronald; Prentice, Andrew M; Berkley, James A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the inter-observer variability and accuracy of Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) and weight-for-length Z score (WFLz) among infants aged <6?months performed by community health workers (CHWs) in Kilifi District, Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional repeatability study estimated inter-observer variation and accuracy of measurements initially undertaken by an expert anthropometrist, nurses and public health technicians. Then, after training, 18 CHWs (three at each of six sites) repeatedly measured MUAC, weight and length of infants aged <6?months. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) and the Pitman’s statistic were calculated. Results Among CHWs, ICCs pooled across the six sites (924 infants) were 0.96 (95% CI 0.95–0.96) for MUAC and 0.71 (95% CI 0.68–0.74) for WFLz. MUAC measures by CHWs differed little from their trainers: the mean difference in MUAC was 0.65?mm (95% CI 0.023–1.07), with no significant difference in variance (P?=?0.075). Conclusion Mid Upper Arm Circumference is more reliably measured by CHWs than WFLz among infants aged <6?months. Further work is needed to define cut-off values based on MUAC’s ability to predict mortality among younger infants. PMID:22364555

  14. A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in many countries including India. Yoga may be an effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategy in India, particularly given its cultural familiarity. Methods This was a parallel, randomized controlled pilot study to collect feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on yoga for diabetes risk factors among people at high risk of diabetes. Primary outcomes included: changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and cholesterol. We also looked at measures of psychological well-being including changes in depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect and perceived stress. Forty-one participants with elevated fasting blood glucose in Bangalore, India were randomized to either yoga (n?=?21) or a walking control (n?=?20). Participants were asked to either attend yoga classes or complete monitored walking 3–6 days per week for eight weeks. Randomization and allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers and group assignments delivered in sealed, opaque envelopes generated by off-site study staff. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Results This study was feasible in terms of recruitment, retention and adherence. In addition, yoga participants had significantly greater reductions in weight, waist circumference and BMI versus control (weight ?0.8?±?2.1 vs. 1.4?±?3.6, p?=?0.02; waist circumference ?4.2?±?4.8 vs. 0.7?±?4.2, p?waist circumference when compared to a walking control. Yoga offers a promising lifestyle intervention for decreasing weight-related type 2 diabetes risk factors and potentially increasing psychological well-being. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identified NCT00090506. PMID:24980650

  15. Comparisons of Measured and Self-Reported Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Hong Kong Female Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yao Jie; Ho, Suzanne C.; Liu, Zhao Min; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the validity of self-reported weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure compared with standardized clinical measurements and to determine the classification accuracy in overweight/obesity and central adiposity. Methods This pilot study was integrated into a life-course study entitled “Hong Kong Women's Health Study” among 1,253 female nurses in Hong Kong who were aged 35 years to 65 years. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires that were mailed to the respondents. Of these participants, we obtained the standard body measurements of 144 (11.5%) at our research center. We then compared the self-reported anthropometric variables and blood pressure with the measured data to assess validity based on the level of misreporting, percentage of agreement, consistency, sensitivity and specificity. Results The self-reported and measured values were highly correlated in terms of anthropometry and blood pressure (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.96). Height was overestimated at an average of 0.42 cm, and waist circumference was underestimated at 2.33 cm (both P<0.05), while no significant differences were observed from weight, blood pressure and BMI (all P>0.05). The proportions of overweight, obesity, and central adiposity by self-reported data did not vary greatly from the measured data (all P>0.05). The self-reporting resulted in correct classifications of BMI, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure in 85%, 78%, and 87% of women, with corresponding Kappa index values of 0.79, 0.55, and 0.82, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 95.7%, respectively, with respect to overweight/obesity detection, whereas those for central adiposity detection were 70.6% and 83.8%, respectively. Conclusion In a sample of female Hong Kong nurses, the self-reported measures of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were generally valid. Furthermore, the classification accuracies of overweight/obesity and central adiposity were acceptable. PMID:25222707

  16. Accelerometer-Derived Sedentary and Physical Activity Time in Overweight/Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-Sectional Associations with Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Genevieve N.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Brakenridge, Charlotte L.; Reeves, Marina M.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of sedentary time and physical activity with biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, including the potential collective impact of shifting mean time use from less- to more-active behaviours (cross-sectionally, using isotemporal substitution), in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants with overweight/obese body mass index (BMI; ?25 kg/m2) (n = 279; 158 men, mean [SD] age = 58.2 [8.6] years) wore Actigraph GT1M accelerometers (waking hours; seven days) to assess moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity activity, and sedentary time (segregated into non-prolonged [accumulated in bouts <30min] and prolonged [accumulated in bouts ?30 min]). Cross-sectional associations with waist circumference, BMI, fasting blood (HbA1c, glucose, triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and blood pressure of these activity variables (30 min/day increments) were examined adjusted for confounders and wear then, if significant, examined using isotemporal substitution modelling. Results Waist circumference and BMI were significantly (p<0.05) associated with more prolonged sedentary time and less light-intensity activity. Light intensity activity was also significantly associated with lower fasting plasma glucose (relative rate: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.00; p<0.05). No biomarker was significantly associated with non-prolonged sedentary time or MVPA. Lower mean prolonged sedentary time (?30 min/day) with higher mean light intensity time (+30 min/day) was significantly associated with lower waist circumference (? = ?0.77, 95% CI: ?1.33, ?0.22 cm). Lower mean prolonged sedentary time (?30 min/day) with either 30 min/day higher mean non-prolonged sedentary time (? = ?0.35, 95%CI: ?0.70, ?0.01 kg/m2) or light-intensity time (? = ?0.36, ?0.61, ?0.11 kg/m2) was associated with significantly lower average BMI. Conclusions Significantly improved mean levels of waist circumference and BMI were observed when shifting time from prolonged sedentary to non-prolonged sedentary or light-intensity activity (cross-sectionally). Lifestyle interventions in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes might consider targeting shifts in these non-MVPA activities to more rigorously evaluate their potential cardiometabolic benefit in this population. PMID:25775249

  17. Patterns of Impact Resulting from a ‘Sit Less, Move More’ Web-Based Program in Sedentary Office Employees

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Ribera, Anna; Bort-Roig, Judit; González-Suárez, Angel M.; Martínez-Lemos, Iván; Giné-Garriga, Maria; Fortuño, Josep; Martori, Joan C.; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Milà, Raimon; McKenna, Jim; Gilson, Nicholas D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Encouraging office workers to ‘sit less and move more’ encompasses two public health priorities. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of workplace interventions for reducing sitting, even less about the longer term effects of such interventions and still less on dual-focused interventions. This study assessed the short and mid-term impacts of a workplace web-based intervention (Walk@WorkSpain, W@WS; 2010-11) on self-reported sitting time, step counts and physical risk factors (waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure) for chronic disease. Methods Employees at six Spanish university campuses (n=264; 42±10 years; 171 female) were randomly assigned by worksite and campus to an Intervention (used W@WS; n=129; 87 female) or a Comparison group (maintained normal behavior; n=135; 84 female). This phased, 19-week program aimed to decrease occupational sitting time through increased incidental movement and short walks. A linear mixed model assessed changes in outcome measures between the baseline, ramping (8 weeks), maintenance (11 weeks) and follow-up (two months) phases for Intervention versus Comparison groups. Results A significant 2 (group) × 2 (program phases) interaction was found for self-reported occupational sitting (F[3]=7.97, p=0.046), daily step counts (F[3]=15.68, p=0.0013) and waist circumference (F[3]=11.67, p=0.0086). The Intervention group decreased minutes of daily occupational sitting while also increasing step counts from baseline (446±126; 8,862±2,475) through ramping (+425±120; 9,345±2,435), maintenance (+422±123; 9,638±3,131) and follow-up (+414±129; 9,786±3,205). In the Comparison group, compared to baseline (404±106), sitting time remained unchanged through ramping and maintenance, but decreased at follow-up (-388±120), while step counts diminished across all phases. The Intervention group significantly reduced waist circumference by 2.1cms from baseline to follow-up while the Comparison group reduced waist circumference by 1.3cms over the same period. Conclusions W@WS is a feasible and effective evidence-based intervention that can be successfully deployed with sedentary employees to elicit sustained changes on “sitting less and moving more”. PMID:25830782

  18. Anthropometric differences among natives of Abuja living in urban and rural communities: correlations with other cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increase of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors worldwide, but especially in developing countries where multifaceted transitions are occurring. There is need for more evidence for the cardio-metabolic effect of changing lifestyles and urbanization in Nigeria. This study aimed at defining rural–urban differences in anthropometric parameters in two Nigerian communities of the same ancestral origin and to determine the cardiovascular risk correlates of these anthropometric measurements. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study using stratified cluster sampling method. We studied 335 and 332 urban and rural dwellers respectively. A complete cardiovascular profile as well as anthropometric measurements was compared between the two populations. Results All anthropometric indices considered in this study (weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist circumference/height ratio, abdominal height; biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, abdominal, superior iliac skinfold thicknesses) were significantly higher in urban than in the rural population (p?=?<0.001). Overweight, obesity and hypertension were significantly prevalent among the urban population (p?=?<0.001) while there was no significant difference in the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (p?=?0.096) and diabetes (p?=?0.083) between the two cohorts. Females tend to have a higher chance of obesity than males although there was no gender difference in waist circumference and central skin fold thickness in the rural population. Age was the significant predictor of systolic blood pressure among the rural (R2?=?0.157, ??=?0.258, p?=?0.016) and urban female population (R2?=?0.201, ??=?0.351, p?=?<0.001) while Abdominal height (R2?=?0.16, ??=?0.281, p?=?0.001) and waist circumference (R2?=?0.064 ??=?0.064, p?=?.003) were predictors of systolic blood pressure in urban and rural men respectively. Conclusion Anthropometric indices were significantly higher among the urban than the rural populations. Cardiovascular risks were equall