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1

Predicting waist circumference from body mass index  

PubMed Central

Background Being overweight or obese increases risk for cardiometabolic disorders. Although both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measure the level of overweight and obesity, WC may be more important because of its closer relationship to total body fat. Because WC is typically not assessed in clinical practice, this study sought to develop and verify a model to predict WC from BMI and demographic data, and to use the predicted WC to assess cardiometabolic risk. Methods Data were obtained from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). We developed linear regression models for men and women using NHANES data, fitting waist circumference as a function of BMI. For validation, those regressions were applied to ARIC data, assigning a predicted WC to each individual. We used the predicted WC to assess abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Results The model correctly classified 88.4% of NHANES subjects with respect to abdominal obesity. Median differences between actual and predicted WC were ??0.07?cm for men and 0.11?cm for women. In ARIC, the model closely estimated the observed WC (median difference: ??0.34?cm for men, +3.94?cm for women), correctly classifying 86.1% of ARIC subjects with respect to abdominal obesity and 91.5% to 99.5% as to cardiometabolic risk. The model is generalizable to Caucasian and African-American adult populations because it was constructed from data on a large, population-based sample of men and women in the United States, and then validated in a population with a larger representation of African-Americans. Conclusions The model accurately estimates WC and identifies cardiometabolic risk. It should be useful for health care practitioners and public health officials who wish to identify individuals and populations at risk for cardiometabolic disease when WC data are unavailable.

2012-01-01

2

Optimal waist circumference cutoffs for abdominal obesity in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the appropriate cutoffs for visceral fat area (VFA) measured by magnetic resonance imaging linking to risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the corresponding waist circumference in Chinese.

Yuqian Bao; Junxi Lu; Chen Wang; Ming Yang; Huating Li; Xiaoyan Zhang; Jiehua Zhu; Huijuan Lu; Weiping Jia; Kunsan Xiang

2008-01-01

3

Change in waist circumference over 11 years and current waist circumference independently predict elevated CRP in Filipino women.  

PubMed

C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic, low-grade inflammation, is strongly associated with current central adiposity, and has been linked to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Less is known about the contribution of longitudinal change in waist circumference to current inflammation. We evaluated the extent to which current waist circumference and change over an 11-year interval contribute independently to low-grade systemic inflammation measured in a group of 1,294 women, 35-69 years, participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Nutrition and Health Survey in the Philippines. Waist circumference was measured at the time of blood draw for CRP analysis in 2005 and during an earlier survey in 1994. A waist circumference delta variable was constructed by subtracting current circumference from past circumference. We used logistic regression models to predict having an elevated plasma CRP concentration (3 mg L(-1) < CRP < 10 mg L(-1)). Waist circumference in 2005 was a strong predictor of elevated CRP (OR 1.10, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.12, P < 0.001). In combined models, increase in circumference over 11 years was a significant and independent predictor of elevated CRP risk (OR = 1.023, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.05, P < 0.05). Considering the average increase over time, the cumulative risk of elevated CRP due to increased central adiposity was 25.7%. However, women who reduced their waist circumference between 1994 and 2005 had greatly reduced risk (6.2%), suggesting that even long-term inflammatory burden can be reversed by weight loss. Although current waist circumference is an important contributor to risk of elevated systemic inflammation in this as in other populations, history of central adiposity may be an independent phenomenon. PMID:19856425

Rutherford, Julienne N; McDade, Thomas W; Lee, Nanette R; Adair, Linda S; Kuzawa, Christopherw

4

Body mass index, waist hip ratio, and waist circumference: which measure to classify obesity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objectives: To determine the proportion of a representative population sample of adults in South Australia who have a body mass index (a measure of overall obesity) classified as normal or underweight, but who also have a waist circumference or waist hip ratio (measures of central obesity) that indicates obesity. Methods: A representative population sample of adults aged 18 years

Tiffany Gill; Catherine Chittleborough; Anne Taylor; Richard Ruffin; David Wilson; Patrick Phillips

2003-01-01

5

TOTAL AND SATURATED FAT INTAKE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the macronutrient composition of intake and waist circumference. METHODS: Regression analysis evaluated the relationship between composition and waist circumference. SAMPLE: This study used data from the third National ...

6

Waist circumference does not predict insulin resistance in African American schizophrenia patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine whether race plays a role in the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance in an African American and white sample of subjects with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional comparison was conducted to determine the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance in 55 subjects treated with antipsychotic medication. Each subject underwent an anthropometric

Bernice B. Rumala; Xiaoduo Fan; Bikash Sharma; Dana D. Nguyen; Christina P. C. Borba; Leah B. Namey Briggs; Sharon Forstbauer; Kate Miley; David C. Henderson

2008-01-01

7

Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), and waist height ratio (WHtR) to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.). Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.). Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5?cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91?cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5?cm in men and 91?cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

Yousafzai, Mohammad T.; Darwish, Sarah; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O. A. A.; Abdul-Ghani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

8

Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference in men and women: The Scottish MONICA surveys 1989 –1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference were measured in three Scottish MONICA cross-sectional surveys of 2233 men and 2516 women aged 25–64 years in 1989–1995. Means of waist circumference, waist\\/hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) increased with level of deprivation (measured by the Carstairs index) more significantly in women than in men, and more significantly in non-smokers than in

Ruoling Chen; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe

2005-01-01

9

Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist-stature ratio (WSR) are considered to be possible proxies for adiposity. Objective: The objective was to investigate the relations between BMI, WC, WSR, and percentage body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in adults in a large nationally representative US population sample from the National Health and Nutrition Exami- nation

Katherine M Flegal; John A Shepherd; Anne C Looker; Barry I Graubard; Lori G Borrud; Cynthia L Ogden; Tamara B Harris; James E Everhart; Nathaniel Schenker

10

Waist circumference correlates better with body mass index than waist-to-hip ratio in Asian Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Waist circumference has been reported to be a better index of android (abdominal) obesity than waist-to-hip ratio. It is likely that the cut-off values that denote medical risk in the Caucasian population cannot be extrapolated to Asian Indians. Methods. This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements were taken in 285 subjects (207 men, mean age 37 years, range

SUNITA SIMON KURPAD; HIMANSHU TANDON; K. SRINIVASAN

2003-01-01

11

Change in waist circumference over 3 years in Turkish children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Abstract Aim: To observe change in waist circumference (WC) over 3 years in children and adolescents and to compare these data with local and international references. Subjects and methods: The data of the second study determining the anthropometric measurements of Turkish children and adolescents (DAMTCA-II) were used to calculate WC percentiles. A total of 4234 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years (1890 boys and 2344 girls) were enrolled. The 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles and z-scores were computed by the LMS Method. Results: The mean WC was significantly higher in boys than in girls in 12.5, 13 and 15-17 year old children (p?

Unalan, Demet; Senol, Vesile; Bayat, Meral; Mazicioglu, Mustafa Mumtaz; Ozturk, Ahmet; Kurtoglu, Selim; Hatipoglu, Nihal; Ustunbas, Hasan Basri

2013-05-21

12

Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two hour post load plasma glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. METHODS: Population based samples of Chinese and European adults were recruited. Each subject had a standard WHO oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 375 Chinese and 610 Europid subjects. The age adjusted prevalences of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3 cm v 79.2, p < 0.05). Mean waist-hip ratios were lower in Chinese men (0.90 v 0.91, p = 0.02) but higher in Chinese women (0.84 v 0.78, p < 0.001) compared with Europids. In both Chinese and Europid adults, higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were associated with glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese men and women, despite lower BMIs, is similar to or higher than that in local Europid men and women and intermediate between levels found in China and those in Mauritius. It is suggested that an increase in mean BMI to the levels in the Europid population will be associated with a substantial increase in glucose intolerance in Chinese people.

Unwin, N; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, R; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

1997-01-01

13

Amerindians normalized waist circumference and obesity diagnosis standarized by biochemical and HLA data.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity are principal causes of morbidity all over the World, particularly for their association to cardiovascular risk. Amerindians are often living in countries and remote areas with unavailable sophisticated diagnoses methodologies. However, waist-circumference is a reliable and easy to record parameter of visceral obesity and MS. Waist circumference normal values are not yet established in Amerindians: South Asian and Japanese values have been recommended for Amerindian use. The purpose of this study is to objectively define for the first time the waist circumference measure cut-off points for Amerindians. A total of 303 unrelated Amerindian adults recently immigrated to Madrid were studied; they were healthy, since they were questioned and tested as appropriate for blood donation. Waist-circumference was measured in these voluntary blood donors after written consent. Chosen subjects for study had HLA quasi-specific Amerindian genes and not gained weight since their relatively short time living in Spain. Amerindians with Type I or II diabetes or family antecedents were removed from the study. The biochemical parameter used to define normality for MS was the reliable serum HDL-cholesterol levels, whose values are diet independent. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and to find out the optimal cut-off points of waist circumference normal values. Cut-off points were ?88.5 cm in males and ?82.5 cm in females; these values were close to the median values (88 and 82.2 cm, respectively). Obtained waist circumference values recorded here in normal Amerindians are different to those previously recommended indirectly (those of South Asian/Japanese populations). These parameters may be of great value for American countries health care in order to predict and control MS and its cardiovascular complications. Other countries having a heavy Amerindian immigration (i.e.: USA, Spain) may also benefit for establishing specific Preventive Medicine programs. PMID:22081205

Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Areces, Cristina; Arribas, Ignacio; Coca, Carmen; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Abd-El-Fatah, Sedeka; Rey, Diego

2011-11-12

14

The body adiposity index (hip circumference ? height1.5) is not a more accurate measure of adiposity than is BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference  

PubMed Central

Based on cross-sectional analyses, it was suggested that hip circumference divided by height1.5 minus 18 (the body adiposity index, BAI), could directly estimate percent body fat without the need for further correction for sex or age. We compared the prediction of percent body fat, as assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (PBFDXA), by BAI, BMI, and circumference (waist and hip) measurements among 1151 adults who had a total body scan by DXA and circumference measurements from 1993 through 2006. After accounting for sex, we found that PBFDXA was related similarly to BAI, BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference. In general, BAI overestimated PBFDXA among men (3.9%) and underestimated PBFDXA among women (2.5%), but the magnitudes of these biases varied with the level of body fatness. The addition of covariates and quadratic terms for the body size measures in regression models substantially improved the prediction of PBFDXA, but none of the models based on BAI could more accurately predict PBFDXA than could those based on BMI or circumferences. We conclude that the use of BAI as an indicator of adiposity is likely to produce biased estimates of percent body fat, with the errors varying by sex and level of body fatness. Although regression models that account for the non-linear association, as well as the influence of sex, age and race, can yield more accurate estimates of PBFDXA, estimates based on BAI are not more accurate than those based on BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference.

Freedman, David S.; Thornton, John; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wang, Jack; Pierson, Richard N.; Blanck, Heidi M; Gallagher, Dympna

2012-01-01

15

The body adiposity index (hip circumference ÷ height(1.5)) is not a more accurate measure of adiposity than is BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference.  

PubMed

Based on cross-sectional analyses, it was suggested that hip circumference divided by height(1.5) -18 (the body adiposity index (BAI)), could directly estimate percent body fat without the need for further correction for sex or age. We compared the prediction of percent body fat, as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (PBF(DXA)), by BAI, BMI, and circumference (waist and hip) measurements among 1,151 adults who had a total body scan by DXA and circumference measurements from 1993 through 2005. After accounting for sex, we found that PBF(DXA) was related similarly to BAI, BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference. In general, BAI underestimated PBF(DXA) among men (2.5%) and overestimated PBF(DXA) among women (4%), but the magnitudes of these biases varied with the level of body fatness. The addition of covariates and quadratic terms for the body size measures in regression models substantially improved the prediction of PBF(DXA), but none of the models based on BAI could more accurately predict PBF(DXA) than could those based on BMI or circumferences. We conclude that the use of BAI as an indicator of adiposity is likely to produce biased estimates of percent body fat, with the errors varying by sex and level of body fatness. Although regression models that account for the nonlinear association, as well as the influence of sex, age, and race, can yield more accurate estimates of PBF(DXA), estimates based on BAI are not more accurate than those based on BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference. PMID:22484365

Freedman, David S; Thornton, John C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Heymsfield, Steven B; Wang, Jack; Pierson, Richard N; Blanck, Heidi M; Gallagher, Dympna

2012-04-09

16

Effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health benefits of physical activity (PA) have been well documented. However, there is less research investigating whether\\u000a or not these health benefits might differ among males and females or among subjects characterized by different levels of body\\u000a mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC). Baseline total PA, BMI, WHR and waist circumference\\u000a were measured in 14,585

Rino Bellocco; Chongqi Jia; Weimin Ye; Ylva Trolle Lagerros

2010-01-01

17

Lipid profile, waist circumference, and body mass index in a high altitude population.  

PubMed

Some studies have found different distribution patterns for the lipid profile of high altitude populations, having found the majority of them a more favorable one in these subjects. The objective of this study is to describe the lipid profile of a high altitude population and relate it to the waist circumference, body mass index, gender, and age. A descriptive study was done in an adult population, 30 yr old and above, of the town of San Pedro de Cajas (SPC), Peru, located at 4100 m (13,450 ft) above sea level. One hundred and two representative individuals (38 males and 64 females) were included. HDL cholesterol and triglyceride means were elevated, whereas total cholesterol means were average, and LDL cholesterol means were low. The BMI mean was 25.4 +/- 3.7. We observed a high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (34.3%) and hypertriglyceridemia (53.9%) in both genders. Higher prevalences of low HDL (45.3%), abnormal waist circumference (64%), and obesity (14.1%) were found in women (p < 0.001). A higher prevalence of low HDL in overweight/obese (74.2%) and abnormal waist circumference (77.4%) subjects was evident (p < 0.001). We found high prevalences of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia for both genders and important prevalences of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease, such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, abnormal waist circumference, and obesity, in high altitude natives, especially in women. PMID:16978137

Mohanna, Salim; Baracco, Rossana; Seclén, Segundo

2006-01-01

18

Overweight, Waist Circumference, Age, Gender, and Insulin Resistance as Risk Factors for Hyperleptinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the influence of overweight, waist circumference, age, gender, and insulin resistance as risk factors for hyperleptinemia.Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population of 197 subjects: 59 men (21 aged <60 years and 38 aged ?60 years) and 138 women (37 aged <60 years and 101 aged ?60 years). The groups were

Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez; Ángel García-Sánchez; Martha Sánchez-Rodríguez; Rosa Elba Galván-Duarte; María Eugenia Fonseca-Yerena

2002-01-01

19

Dietary patterns and changes in body mass index and waist circumference in adults1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity has increased > 20% in the past decade in the United States, and more than one-half of US adults are over- weight or obese. Objective: Our objective was to further elucidate the nutritional etiology of changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2) and waist circumference by dietary intake pattern. We hypothesized that a healthy dietary pattern would

PK Newby; Denis Muller; Judith Hallfrisch; Ning Qiao; Reubin Andres; Katherine L Tucker

20

Determining the Waist Circumference in African Americans Which Best Predicts Insulin Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total body size and central fat distribution are important determinants of insulin resistance. The BMI and waist circumference (WC) thresholds in African Americans that best predict insulin resistance are unknown. Our goal was to determine the BMI and WC values in African Americans, which optimally predict insulin resistance. The subjects were African Americans (68 men, 63 women), aged 35 ±

Anne E. Sumner; Sabyasachi Sen; Madia Ricks; Barbara A. Frempong; Nancy G. Sebring; Harvey Kushner

2008-01-01

21

Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with changes in weight and waist circumference. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study

H. Du; A van der A. D; H. C. Boshuizen; N. G. Forouchi; N. J Wareham; J. Halkjaer; A. Tjonneland; K. Overvad; M. U. Jakobsen; H. Boeing; B. Buijsse; G. Masala; D. Palli; T. I. Sorensen; W. H. Saris; E. J. M. Feskens

2010-01-01

22

The Use of BMI and Waist Circumference as Surrogates of Body Fat Differs by Ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the prediction of percentage body fat using BMI and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using waist circumference (WC) in individuals of Chinese, European, and South Asian origin.Research Methods and Procedures: Healthy men and women of Chinese, European, and South Asian origin (n = 627) between the ages of 30 and 65 years were recruited to ensure equal distribution

Scott A. Lear; Karin H. Humphries; Simi Kohli; C. Laird Birmingham

2007-01-01

23

Waist Circumference, Pedometer Placement, and Step-Counting Accuracy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether differences in waist circumference (WC) and pedometer placement (anterior vs. midaxillary vs. posterior) affect the agreement between pedometer and observed steps during treadmill and self-paced walking. Participants included 19 pairs of youth (9-15 years old) who were matched for sex, race, and height and stratified by…

Abel, Mark G.; Hannon, James C.; Eisenman, Patricia A.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Pett, Marjorie; Williams, Daniel P.

2009-01-01

24

Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index and Health Risk Factors among Middle Aged Thais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are important contributors to major causes of health risk factors such as high blood cholesterol, high fasting blood sugar and high blood pressure. This analysis was designed to assess the associations between WC, BMI and each health risk factor in suitable cut-off points for WC and BMI among middle aged men and

K. Narksawat; J. Podang; P. Punyarathabundu; A. Podhipak

2007-01-01

25

DIETARY PATTERNS AND CHANGES IN BODY MASS INDEX AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obesity has increased > 20% in the past decade in the United States, and more than one-half of US adults are overweight or obese. Our objective was to further elucidate the nutritional etiology of changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and waist circumference by dietary intake pattern. We hypoth...

26

Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

27

Independent and opposite associations of waist and hip circumferences with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia: the AusDiab Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio has been shown to be an important independent predictor of glucose intolerance. Few studies, however, have considered the contributions of the waist and hip circumferences independently. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations of waist and hip circumference with diabetes in a large population-based study, and to investigate

M. B. Snijder; P. Z. Zimmet; M. Visser; J. M. Dekker; J. C. Seidell; J. E. Shaw

2004-01-01

28

Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

2000-01-01

29

Body mass index and waist circumference are predictor biomarkers of breast cancer risk in Iranian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both obesity and breast cancer incidence increased dramatically during two recent decades in a rapidly changing society in\\u000a northern Iran. In this study, we examined the ability of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as predictor biomarkers\\u000a of breast cancer risk in Iranian women. In a case–control study of 100 new cases of histological confirmed breast cancer and

K. O. Hajian-Tilaki; A. R. Gholizadehpasha; S. Bozorgzadeh; E. Hajian-Tilaki

30

The relation between drinking pattern and body mass index and waist and hip circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:To study the association between alcohol drinking pattern and obesity.DESIGN:Cross-sectional population study with assessment of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake, waist and hip circumference, height, weight, and lifestyle factors including diet.SUBJECTS:In all, 25 325 men and 24 552 women aged 50–65 y from the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, Denmark, 1993–1997 participated in the study.MEASUREMENTS:Drinking frequency, total alcohol intake,

J S Tolstrup; B L Heitmann; A M Tjønneland; O K Overvad; T I A Sørensen; M N Grønbæk

2005-01-01

31

Hypertension, Prehypertension, and Transient Elevated Blood Pressure in Children: Association With Weight Excess and Waist Circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo assess the prevalence of hypertension (H), prehypertension (PH), and transient elevated blood pressure (TH) and their relationship with weight class and waist circumference (WC) in an unselected population of Northern Italian children.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in 5,131 children (5–11 years). Weight class was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force references, H and PH according to the

Simonetta Genovesi; Laura Antolini; Marco Giussani; Paolo Brambilla; Valerio Barbieri; Sara Galbiati; Silvana Mastriani; Valeria Sala; Maria Grazia Valsecchi; Andrea Stella

2010-01-01

32

Physical activity is inversely related to waist circumference in 12-y-old French adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Waist circumference (W) has been shown to be a good predictor of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (PA) is related to W in adolescents as previously shown in adults.DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:Cross-sectional population-based survey of 2714 12-y-old adolescents from the eastern part of France.MEASUREMENTS:Body mass index (BMI) and W were measured.

C Klein-Platat; M Oujaa; A Wagner; M C Haan; D Arveiler; J L Schlienger; C Simon

2005-01-01

33

BMI and Waist Circumference in Predicting Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Chinese Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To derive the optimal BMI and waist circumference (WC) cut-off values to predict clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.Research Methods and Procedures:A total of 2102 Hong Kong Chinese 12 to 19 years of age were recruited. Participants were considered to have clustering of risk factors if at least three of the following risk factors were present:

Vanessa W. S. Ng; Alice P. S. Kong; Kai Chow Choi; Risa Ozaki; Gary W. K. Wong; Wing Yee So; Peter C. Y. Tong; Rita Y. T. Sung; L. Y. Xu; Michael H. M. Chan; Chung Shun Ho; Christopher W. K. Lam; Juliana C. N. Chan

2007-01-01

34

Intake of brown rice lees reduces waist circumference and improves metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Intake of whole grains has been associated with lower risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Brown rice is unrefined whole grain and is produced by removing the outermost layers containing the germ and bran, which are rich in nutrients including dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other unmeasured dietary constituents. The lees of brown rice (LB) are by-products of its fermentation in the process of manufacturing takju, a Korean turbid rice wine. In this study, we hypothesized that intake of LB would reduce waist circumference, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was scheduled for 12 weeks. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to receive a supplement prepared from the LB or from a mixed-grain dietary product (MG). Body weight, waist circumference, body composition, lipid profiles, and other laboratory parameters were measured. The LB group showed greater reduction in waist circumference (LB: 87.9 ± 8.8 to 85.1 ± 9.0 cm; MG: 86.9 ± 8.8 to 86.0 ± 9.3 cm; P = .032). In addition, the consumption of LB resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the level of aspartate transaminase (LB: 25.4 ± 8.5 to 21.0 ± 5.1 IU/mL; MG: 22.5 ± 5.3 to 22.4 ± 5.7 IU/mL; P = .044) and alanine transaminase (LB: 28.6 ± 11.3 to 21.9 ± 8.2 IU/mL; MG: 24.4 ± 7.5 to 24.5 ± 9.9 IU/mL; P = .038). Consumption of the LB was associated with a decreased waist circumference in type 2 diabetic patients. Further study is required to evaluate the metabolic effect of the extract of the LB in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21419317

Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Min-Seok; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo

2011-02-01

35

Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10(-8)) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10(-6)) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10(-4)), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control. PMID:24023260

Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

2013-09-10

36

Obesity, waist circumference, weight change and the risk of psoriasis in US women.  

PubMed

Objective? To evaluate the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight change, waist circumference, hip circumference and risk of incident psoriasis. Methods? A prospective study of female nurses who were followed up over a 12-year period (1996-2008) in Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of 121?700 US women at the inception in 1976. The study included 67?300 women who responded to a question about a history of physician-diagnosed psoriasis in last 12?years in 2008 (mean age at 1996, 62?years). The primary outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed psoriasis. Results? During the 12?years of follow-up, there were a total of 809 incident psoriasis cases. There was a graded positive association between BMI (both baseline and updated) and the risk of psoriasis (both P values for trend <0.0001). Compared to women with updated BMI of <25, the multivariate relative risks (RRs) of incident psoriasis were 1.21 (95% CI, 1.03-1.43) for a BMI of 25.0-29.9, 1.63 (95% CI, 1.33-2.00) for a BMI of 30.0-34.9 and 2.03 (95% CI, 1.58-2.61) for a BMI of 35.0 or greater. Higher waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio were associated with a higher risk of incident psoriasis, but became non-significant after additionally adjusting for BMI. The BMI at age of 18?years was not associated with the risk of psoriasis. Weight gain since the age of 18?years was associated with an increased risk of psoriasis, and RR of 10?lb gain was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.06-1.11; P?

Kumar, S; Han, J; Li, T; Qureshi, A A

2012-10-12

37

Waist circumference to assess reversal of insulin resistance following weight reduction after bariatric surgery: cohort and cross-sectional studies.  

PubMed

Objective:To validate the use of waist circumference to assess reversal of insulin resistance after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery.Design:In cross-sectional studies, threshold values for insulin resistance were determined with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (algorithm based on fasting plasma glucose and insulin) in 1018 lean subjects and by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (clamp) in 26 lean women. In a cohort study on 211 patients scheduled for bariatric surgery, HOMA-IR and waist circumference were measured before and 1.5-3 years after weight reduction. In a subgroup of 53 women, insulin sensitivity was also measured using clamp.Results:The threshold for insulin resistance (90th percentile) was 2.21 (mg?dl(-1) fasting glucose × mU?l(-1) fasting insulin divided by 405) for HOMA-IR and 6.118 (mg glucose per kg body weight per minute) for clamp. Two methods to assess reversal of insulin resistance by measuring waist circumference were used. A single cutoff value to <100?cm for waist circumference was associated with reversal of insulin resistance with an odds ratio (OR) of 49; 95% confidence interval (CI)=7-373 and P=0.0002. Also, a diagram based on initial and weight loss-induced changes in waist circumference in patients turning insulin sensitive predicted reversal of insulin resistance following bariatric surgery with a very high OR (32; 95% CI=4-245; P=0.0008). Results with the clamp cohort were similar as with HOMA-IR analyses.Conclusions:Reversal of insulin resistance could either be assessed by a diagram based on initial waist circumference and reduction of waist circumference, or by using 100?cm as a single cutoff for waist circumference after weight reduction induced by bariatric surgery.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 18 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.88. PMID:23736362

Andersson, D P; Wahrenberg, H; Toft, E; Qvisth, V; Löfgren, P; Hertel, K; Leijonhufvud, B-M; Thorell, A; Näslund, E; Arner, P

2013-05-24

38

Independent Association of Waist Circumference With Hypertension and Diabetes in African American Women, South Carolina, 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Introduction Obesity is associated with hypertension and diabetes, which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD); 53% of African American women are obese. Of the approximately 44% of African American women who are hypertensive, more than 87% are overweight or obese. Additionally, more than twice as many African American women (13.1%) as white women (6.1%) have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Obesity is usually measured using body mass index (BMI). However, abdominal adiposity may be more predictive of CVD risk than BMI. This study investigates the independent association of waist circumference with hypertension and diabetes in African American women. Methods As part of the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) program, we recruited 843 African American women (mean age 53.8 y [SD, 14.1 y]) from African Methodist Episcopal churches. If a participant reported she had hypertension or had measured systolic blood pressure at or higher than 140 mm Hg or measured diastolic blood pressure at or higher than 90 mm Hg, she was classified as having hypertension. To assess increased health risks associated with waist circumference, we used the World Health Organization’s standards to categorize waist circumference as normal risk (waist circumference <80 cm), increased risk (waist circumference 80–88 cm), or substantially increased risk (waist circumference >88 cm). We used logistic regression models to test predictors of hypertension and diabetes. Results Of 843 study participants, 205 had diabetes and 545 were hypertensive. Women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more were at increased risk for hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 7.17, P < .002) and diabetes (OR = 6.99, P < .001). Associations remained after controlling for all variables (hypertension OR = 5.53, P < .001; diabetes, OR = 5.38, P < .001). Conclusion After controlling for all variables, waist circumference was independently associated with a 5-fold risk in hypertension and diabetes in African American women.

Wilcox, Sara; Dowda, Marsha; Baruth, Meghan

2012-01-01

39

Waist Circumference and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference in Evaluation of Obesity in Children Aged Between 6 and 17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the cut?off values for waist circumference (WC) and mid?upper arm circumference (MUAC) and to assess their use in screening for obesity in children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements of a total of 2621 boys and 2737 girls aged 6?17 years were analyzed. WC and MUAC values were compared with ROC analysis using body mass index (BMI) cut?off values of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and using WC? 90th percentile.for MUAC. Results: In both genders, except for boys and girls in the 6?year age group and post?pubertal boys, the differences between area under curve (AUC) values for WC and MUAC were not significant, indicating that both indices performed equally well in predicting obesity. Sensitivity was suboptimal through age groups 6?9 years in the boys and sensitivity was suboptimal at 6, 7,14 and 17 years both in boys and girls. Conclusions: We conclude that MUAC can be a useful parameter in screening obesity and body fat distribution in children and, can be applied in epidemiological studies and in clinical practice. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Maz?c?oglu, M. Mumtaz; Ozturk, Ahmet; Cicek, Betul; Ustunbas, H. Bahri; Kurtoglu, Selim

2010-01-01

40

Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ) and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

2012-01-01

41

Prevalence and incidence of asthma related to waist circumference and BMI in a Swedish community sample.  

PubMed

Both asthma and obesity have become more common in affluent societies during the recent decades and several studies have shown a correlation between the presence of asthma and obesity. In order to further study this association we have investigated a population from a community in southern Sweden, where almost all inhabitants had their body indices measured as part of a study on diabetes at a primary care centre. An asthma unit working with a structured care programme for asthma was available. This organisation enabled us to study whether body mass index and waist circumference was associated with having or developing asthma. There was a significant association between both overweight, increased waist circumference and asthma, P < 0.01. The risk for developing asthma was associated with increased body weight and abdominal circumference, P < 0.05. The increase in asthma morbidity in the overweight subjects was found almost exclusively in the non-atopic asthma patients. This study confirms earlier findings of an increased prevalence of asthma in obese and overweight patients. Increased obesity and especially abdominal obesity is thus a risk factor for asthma, which probably contributes to the high prevalence of asthma in affluent societies. PMID:15526812

Kronander, Ulla Nyström; Falkenberg, Melcher; Zetterström, Olle

2004-11-01

42

Overweight condition and waist circumference and a candidate gene within the 12q24 locus  

PubMed Central

Aims Obesity and obesity-associated phenotypes are linked to the chromosome12q24 locus, the non-insulin-dependent-diabetes 2 (NIDDM2) locus. The gene of proteasome modulator 9 (PSMD9) lies in the NIDDM2 region and is linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D), microvascular and macrovascular complications of T2D. We aimed at studying whether the PSMD9 T2D risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) IVS3+nt460, IVS3+nt437, and 197G are linked to obesity, overweight status and waist circumference in Italian T2D families. Methods and results We screened 200 Italians T2D siblings/families for PSMD9 variants. Using Merlin software, we performed non-parametric linkage analysis to test for linkage with obesity and overweight condition and variance component analysis to test for linkage with waist circumference in our T2D siblings/families dataset. Our study shows that the PSMD9 SNPs IVS3+nt460, IVS3+nt437, and 197G are in linkage with overweight condition and waist circumference in Italians. The statistical power tests performed via simulations on real data confirm that the results are not due to random chance. Conclusions In summary, the linkage strategy using a homogeneous family/subject dataset can identify a gene contributing to a complex trait. PMSD9 may be at least one of the genes responsible for the linkage to obesity and obesity-associated phenotypes at the locus 12q24 in other populations.

2013-01-01

43

The Waist Circumference of Risk in Black South African Men Is Lower Than in Men of European Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Central obesity measured by waist circumference is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor; however, the waist circumference of risk in populations of African descent has not been identified. The International Diabetes Federation currently suggests that cutoffs established in men of European descent be applied to sub-Saharan men—a waist circumference ?94?cm. Subjects and Methods Participants were 203 South African black men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They were divided into quartiles of waist circumference (>88?cm, 88–94?cm, 95–103?cm, >103?cm). Cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance (IR), measured by modified homeostasis model assessement of IR (HOMA-IR), and the triglycerides-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-to-HDL-C) ratio, were compared across quartiles. Results Age, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, and smoking were similar across waist circumference quartiles. Overall, for both lipids and measures of IR, there was variation across waist circumference quartiles, but no significant differences between quartiles 2 and 3. Therefore, data from these two quartiles were pooled. Between the first and second+third (88–103?cm) quartiles, there were significant differences in HDL-C (1.30±0.43, 1.10±0.43?mmol/L, P=0.003), TG (medians 1.10, 1.60?mmol/L P<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 2.40±0.93, 2.85±1.03?mmol/L, P=0.01), non-HDL-C (3.05±1.18, 3.70±1.16?mmol/L, P=0.002), HOMA-IR (medians 0.90, 2.10, P<0.001), and TG-to-HDL-C ratio (medians 0.89, 1.17, P<0.001). Additional comparisons were made between men with waist circumference <90?cm and 90–93?cm. Values for each lipid and for IR parameters were more favorable in the <90-cm group (all P<0.05). Conclusions For black South African diabetic men, CVD risk substantially increased with waist circumference >90?cm. The waist circumference cut point of >94?cm has the potential to misclassify many black South African diabetic men at risk for CVD.

Joffe, Barry I.; Sumner, Anne E.

2011-01-01

44

Biobehavioral and psychological differences between overweight adults with and without waist circumference risk.  

PubMed

Waist circumference (WC) has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiometabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between overweight adults with and without WC risk in four domains: demographic, clinical and biological, psychological, and behavioral. The sample (N?=?87) was primarily sedentary, middle-aged, women, and African-Americans. The majority of participants had WC risk, those with WC risk were older, were women, and had higher body mass index, higher morning salivary cortisol levels, and more depressive symptoms than those without WC risk. Caloric and macronutrient intake did not differ between those with and without WC risk. Our findings could lead to the development of targeted interventions to prevent and/or reduce abdominal obesity, thereby reducing cardiometabolic risk. PMID:21053387

Grossniklaus, Daurice A; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda K; Dunbar, Sandra B

2010-10-28

45

Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

46

Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and metabolic syndrome in a Congolese community: further research is still to be undertaken  

PubMed Central

Introduction The criteria of positivity of waist circumference to define the metabolic syndrome as currently recommended for the population of sub-Saharan Africa do not take into account specific ethnic or regional variation. Methods The predictive value of different values of waist circumference compared with visceral fat as determined by OMRON BF510 body composition in 360 indigenous patients from Bukavu city between June 1, 2010 and May 30, 2011 was studied. Results The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a threshold value of 95 cm for men (sensitivity = 72.4%, specificity = 91.1%, area under the curve (99% CI) = 0.899 (0.833 to 0.965)) and 99 cm in women (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 78.3%, AUC (99% CI) = 0.844 (0.777 to 0.911)). This test also showed an independent effect on the probability of accumulation of visceral fat (Odd adjusted OR = 5.0 (99% CI: 2.1 to 11.7), p <0.0001). Conclusion The threshold value for pathological waist circumference currently used for black African populations may overpredict abdominal fat excess in women. Further studies are needed to provide adequate cutoffs in sub-Saharan populations.

Katchunga, Philippe Bianga; Hermans, Michel; Bamuleke, Bertrand Akonkwa; Katoto, Patrick Cimusa; Kabinda, Jeff Maotela

2013-01-01

47

Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years  

PubMed Central

Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ?90th and WHtR ?0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ?0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded to 85th WHtR percentile irrespective of age and gender. Twelve percent children (95% CI 10.1-13.0) had a WC ?90th percentile and 16.5% children (95% CI 14.7-18.1) had a WHtR ?0.5 while 11% children (95% CI 8.9-11.6) had both WC ?90th percentile and WHtR ?0.5. Significant predictors of central obesity included higher grade, urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES), high-income neighborhood and higher parental education. Children studying in higher grade (aOR 5.11, 95% CI 1.76-14.85) and those living in urban area with high SES (aOR 82.34, 95% CI 15.76-430.31) showed a significant independent association. Urban area with high SES and higher parental education showed a significant independent association with higher WC and higher WHtR while higher grade showed a significant independent association with higher WC. Conclusions Comprehensive worldwide reference values are needed to define central obesity and the present study is the first one to report anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity for Pakistani school-aged children. Eleven percent children were centrally obese and strong predictors included higher grade, urban area with high SES and higher parental education. These findings support the need for developing a National strategy for childhood obesity and implementing targeted interventions, prioritizing the higher social class and involving communities.

2011-01-01

48

The Importance of Waist Circumference and BMI for Mortality Risk in Diabetic Adults.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine the associations of waist circumference (WC) and BMI with all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The sample included 847 white and 553 African American patients (18-69 years of age) with diabetes. Height, weight, and WC were measured, and the BMI (kg/m(2)) was calculated. Cox regression was used to analyze the associations of BMI and WC with mortality, adjusting for age, sex, race, examination year, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Hazard ratios (HRs) are expressed per standard deviation of each independent variable. RESULTS A total of 86 deaths occurred during 6.7 years of follow-up. After adjustment for covariates, WC (HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.14-1.72]) and BMI (1.29 [1.04-1.61]) demonstrated significant relationships with mortality. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that maintaining a healthy WC and BMI are both important for individuals living with diabetes. PMID:23757429

Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang; Cefalu, William T; Mire, Emily; Bouchard, Claude

2013-06-11

49

Non-contact assessment of waist circumference: will tape measurements become progressively obsolete?  

PubMed

Waist circumference (WC) is a key variable to assess in health management as it is a proxy of abdominal fat mass and a surrogate marker of cardiometabolic disease risk, including the metabolic syndrome. Recently, a portable non-contact device calculating WC (ViScan) has been developed, which hence allows the tracking of WC independently of the inter-investigators error. We compared WC values obtained with this device with WC measured by simple non-stretchable tape in 74 adults of varying body mass indices (range 17-39?kg/m(2)). The correlation between the two methods was very high (r=0.97, P<0.0001) and the reproducibility (precision) assessed with a rigid phantom was excellent (<1?cm, coefficient of variability<1%). The instrument constitutes a potentially valuable tool for longitudinal surveys and comparative international studies, which require simple but precise measurements of WC in order to track the effect of subtle changes on various health outcomes. PMID:22045226

Schutz, Y; Sarafian, D; Miles, J L; Montani, J-P; Dulloo, A G

2011-11-02

50

Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass  

PubMed Central

Background The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor. Methodology/Principal Findings WC, BMI and magnetic resonance imaging data from 742 men and women who participated in clinical studies in Canada and Finland were pooled. Total adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficients (R2) of ASFM and IAFM were calculated from multiple linear regression models with WC and BMI as explanatory variables. Mean BMI and WC of the participants in the pooled sample were 30 kg/m2 and 102 cm, respectively. WC explained 29% of the variance in ASFM and 51% of the variance in IAFM. Addition of BMI to WC added 28% to the variance explained in ASFM, but only 1% to the variance explained in IAFM. Results in subgroups stratified by study center, sex, age, obesity level and type 2 diabetes status were not systematically different. Conclusion/Significance The prediction of IAFM by WC is not improved by addition of BMI.

Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna; Borra, Ronald; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele; Iozzo, Patricia; Parkkola, Riitta; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ross, Robert; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Overvad, Kim; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

2012-01-01

51

Effect of adiponectin gene polymorphisms on waist circumference in patients with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Plasma levels of adiponectin which is secreted from adipose tissue are associated with various parameters of metabolic syndrome. This effect seems to be a result of interactions between genetic and environmental factors including central obesity. The present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of relation between single nucleotide polymorphisms of adiponectin gene (+45 T/G and ?11391 G/A) and waist circumferences (WC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on n = 238 diabetic patients selected as cases and n = 159 as healthy control who were recruited from Rafsanjan city in south – east of Iran. The possible association of +45 T/G and –11391 G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms with WC according to age and sex was evaluated. Results There was no significant difference in distribution of frequencies of +45 T/G and –11391 G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms in each group. We only found a significant association between –11391 G/A adiponectin gene polymorphism with WC in diabetic group (p = 0.021). This association was remained significant after adjustment in multivariate regression model (p = 0.019, OR: 0.244, 95%CI: 0.075-0.791) and also this effect was independent of sex and age. Conclusion We found higher abdominal obesity in GA or AA carriers of adiponectin – 11391 G/A genotype in type 2 diabetes patients independent of age and sex.

2012-01-01

52

Changes in Waist Circumference and Mortality in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in BMI. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 26,625 healthy men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study was analyzed. WC and BMI were assessed in 1993–97 and in 1999–02. Information on mortality was obtained by linkage to the Danish central Person Register. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated with Cox regression models. During 6.7 years of follow-up, 568 and 361 deaths occurred among men and women, respectively. Changes in WC were positively associated with mortality (HR per 5 cm for the sexes combined ?=?1.09 (1.02?1.16) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and changes in BMI), whereas changes in BMI were inversely associated with mortality (HR per kg/m2 for the sexes combined ?=?0.91 (0.86, 0.97) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and changes in WC). Associations between changes in WC and mortality were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to changes in BMI, baseline WC or when smokers or deaths occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance Changes in WC were positively associated with mortality in healthy middle-aged men and women throughout the range of concurrent changes in BMI. These findings suggest a need for development of prevention and treatment strategies targeted against redistribution of fat mass towards the abdominal region.

Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tj?nneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.

2010-01-01

53

Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Diabetes in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI). Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study were analyzed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993–97 and 1999–02. Information on diabetes was obtained from The Danish National Diabetes Register. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from Cox' proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999–02 until December 31 2006. During 5.4 years of follow-up, 1,027 and 876 new cases of diabetes occurred among men and women, respectively. WC was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes also with adjustment for covariates and BMI. DWC was positively associated with diabetes in women, but not in men (HR per 5 cm change?=?1.09 (1.04?1.15) in women, and 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) in men with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI). Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with diseases or diabetes occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance While this study confirmed that WC is positively associated with the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, it surprisingly showed that changes in WC were not associated with the subsequent risk of diabetes in men, and only weakly positively associated with the risk of diabetes in women. Accordingly, these findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be a weak or insufficient or target for prevention of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tj?nneland, Anne; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.; Overvad, Kim

2011-01-01

54

Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients’ weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. Results After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r?=?0.20), glycemia (r?=?0.20), triglycerides (r?=?0.32), LDL (r?=?0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r?=?0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r?=??0.21) (p?

2013-01-01

55

Less frequent eating predicts greater BMI and waist circumference in female adolescents123  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the effect of eating frequency on adiposity. Objective: The study aim was to assess the prospective relation of an objective measure of eating frequency with adiposity in girls from ages 9–10 to 19–20 y. Design: By using data from 3-d diet records collected from 2372 girls in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, meal, snack, and total eating frequencies aggregated over the first 2 study years were examined in relation to 10-y change in BMI and waist circumference (WC). Results: Eating frequency was lower in black and older girls than in white and younger girls (P < 0.0001). In whites, lower initial snack and total eating frequencies were related to greater 10-y increases in BMI (P = 0.023 and 0.012, respectively) and WC (P = 0.030 and 0.015, respectively). In blacks, lower initial meal and snack frequencies were related to greater increases in BMI (P = 0.004 and 0.022, respectively) and WC (P = 0.052 and 0.005, respectively). Also, in blacks, lower initial total eating frequency was related to greater increases in WC (P = 0.010). After adjustment for baseline adiposity measure, race, parental education, physical activity, television and video viewing, total energy intake, and dieting for weight loss, lower initial total eating frequency remained related to greater 10-y increases in BMI (P = 0.013) and WC (P = 0.036). Conclusions: A lower eating frequency predicts a greater gain in adiposity in adolescent females. Intervention trials are needed to test if changing the frequency of eating can affect obesity risk.

2012-01-01

56

NRXN3 is a novel locus for waist circumference: a genome-wide association study from the CHARGE Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central abdominal fat is a strong risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To identify common variants influencing central abdominal fat, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association analysis for waist circumference (WC). In total, three loci reached genome-wide significance. In stage 1, 31,373 individuals of Caucasian descent from eight cohort studies confirmed the role of FTO and MC4R and identified

Mary F Feitosa; Aldi Kraja; Michael A Province; Qunyuan Zhang; Ingrid B Borecki; Mao Fu; Talin Haritunians; Thor Aspelund; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Melissa Garcia; Lenore J. Launer; Albert V. Smith; Braxton D. Mitchell; Patrick F. McArdle; Alan R. Shuldiner; Suzette J. Bielinski; Eric Boerwinkle; Fred Brancati; Ellen W. Demerath; James S. Pankow; Alice M. Arnold; Yii-Der Ida Chen; Nicole L. Glazer; Barbara McKnight; Bruce M. Psaty; Jerome I. Rotter; Najaf Amin; Harry Campbell; Ulf Gyllensten; Cristian Pattaro; Peter P. Pramstaller; Igor Rudan; Maksim Struchalin; Veronique Vitart; Xiaoyi Gao; Larry D. Atwood; Josée Dupuis; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Cashell E. Jaquish; Christopher J. O'Donnell; Ramachandran S. Vasan; Charles C. White; Yurii S. Aulchenko; K. Estrada Gil; Albert Hofman; F. Rivadeneira Ramirez; André G. Uitterlinden; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Ben A. Oostra; Robert C. Kaplan; Vilmundur Gudnason; Jeffrey R. O'Connell; Duijn van C. M; L. Adrienne Cupples; Caroline S. Fox; Kari E. North

2009-01-01

57

NRXN3 Is a Novel Locus for Waist Circumference: A Genome-Wide Association Study from the CHARGE Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central abdominal fat is a strong risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To identify common variants influencing central abdominal fat, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association analysis for waist circumference (WC). In total, three loci reached genome-wide significance. In stage 1, 31,373 individuals of Caucasian descent from eight cohort studies confirmed the role of FTO and MC4R and identified

Nancy L. Heard-Costa; M. Carola Zillikens; Keri L. Monda; Åsa Johansson; Tamara B. Harris; Mao Fu; Talin Haritunians; Mary F. Feitosa; Thor Aspelund; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Melissa Garcia; Lenore J. Launer; Albert V. Smith; Braxton D. Mitchell; Patrick F. McArdle; Alan R. Shuldiner; Suzette J. Bielinski; Eric Boerwinkle; Fred Brancati; Ellen W. Demerath; James S. Pankow; Alice M. Arnold; Yii-Der Ida Chen; Nicole L. Glazer; Barbara McKnight; Bruce M. Psaty; Jerome I. Rotter; Najaf Amin; Harry Campbell; Ulf Gyllensten; Cristian Pattaro; Peter P. Pramstaller; Igor Rudan; Maksim Struchalin; Veronique Vitart; Xiaoyi Gao; Aldi Kraja; Michael A. Province; Qunyuan Zhang; Larry D. Atwood; Josée Dupuis; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Cashell E. Jaquish; Christopher J. ODonnell; Ramachandran S. Vasan; Charles C. White; Yurii S. Aulchenko; Karol Estrada; Albert Hofman; Fernando Rivadeneira; André G. Uitterlinden; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Ben A. Oostra; Robert C. Kaplan; Vilmundur Gudnason; Jeffrey R. OConnell; Ingrid B. Borecki; Cornelia M. van Duijn; L. Adrienne Cupples; Caroline S. Fox; Kari E. North

2009-01-01

58

Food Composition of the Diet in Relation to Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups\\/items contribute to these associations is necessary.ObjectiveTo ascertain the association of food groups\\/items consumption on prospective annual changes in “waist circumference for a given BMI” (WCBMI), a proxy for abdominal adiposity.DesignWe analyzed data from

Dora Romaguera; Lars Ängquist; Huaidong Du; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Nita G. Forouhi; Jytte Halkjær; Edith J. M. Feskens; Daphne L. van der A; Giovanna Masala; Annika Steffen; Domenico Palli; Nicholas J. Wareham; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjønneland; Heiner Boeing; Elio Riboli; Thorkild I. Sørensen

2011-01-01

59

Waist circumference and obesity-related abnormalities in French and Cameroonian adults: the role of urbanization and ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To evaluate the effect of urbanization and ethnicity on correlations between waist circumference (WC) and obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors.Methods:1471 rural and urban Cameroonians, and 4185 French, from community-based studies, aged ?25 years, not treated for hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia participated in this study. Slopes of obesity-related abnormalities with WC were compared using an interaction term between place of residence and

L Fezeu; B Balkau; E Sobngwi; A-P Kengne; S Vol; P Ducimetiere; J-C Mbanya

2010-01-01

60

Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoffs for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent data suggest that current overweight and cen- tral adiposity guidelines based on Western populations are not ap- propriate for Asian populations. The published data among Chinese are insufficient to address this issue. Objective:Weaimedtoidentifycutoffsforbodymassindex(BMI; in kg\\/m2) and waist circumference that confer increased risk of cardiovasculardiseaseinChineseadultsaswouldbeconsistentwith overweight and central adiposity. Design: A nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 15 239 Chinese

Rachel P Wildman; Dongfeng Gu; Kristi Reynolds; Xianfeng Duan; Jiang He

61

Built Environment and 1-Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50–75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006–2007 to 2007–2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard deviation, 4.3) and mean waist circumference increased by 1.76 cm (standard deviation, 5.6). Multilevel analyses revealed that neighborhoods with a high density of fast-food outlets were associated with increases of 1.40 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 2.04 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who visited fast-food restaurants frequently. In contrast, high-walkability neighborhoods were associated with decreases of 1.2 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 1.57 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who increased their levels of vigorous physical activity during the 1-year assessment period. Findings point to the negative influences of the availability of neighborhood fast-food outlets and individual unhealthy eating behaviors that jointly affect weight gain; however, better neighborhood walkability and increased levels of physical activity are likely to be associated with maintaining a healthy weight over time.

Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M.; Acock, Alan; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

2009-01-01

62

Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective Body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50?±?8.8?years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2) was 27.8?±?3.7 and 25.5?±?4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm) 94.1?±?9.7 and 84.3?±?10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5?hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r?=??0.280 and r?=??0.377, respectively, p?>?0.05 for both) and in women (r?=??0.514 and r?=??0.491, respectively, p?>?0.05 for both). In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness.

2013-01-01

63

BMI and waist circumference as predictors of lifetime colon cancer risk in Framingham Study adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the increased risk of colon cancer associated with obesity differs for men and women, by distribution of body fat, or by location of the tumor. The primary goal of this study was to address these questions.METHODS: Eligible subjects from the Framingham Study cohort were classified according to body mass index (BMI) and waist size during

L L Moore; M L Bradlee; M R Singer; G L Splansky; M H Proctor; R C Ellison; B E Kreger

2004-01-01

64

Association of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index With All-Cause Mortality in CKD: The REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity management requires understanding of the mortality risks associated with different adiposity measures. Study Design Prospective cohort Setting and Participants 5,805 adults with BMI ? 18.5 and stage 1–4 CKD defined by a spot urine albumin-creatinine ratio ? 30 mg/g and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 enrolled in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Predictor Body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 categorized as 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9 and ? 40 kg/m2 and waist circumference categorized as < 80, 80–87.9, 88–97.9, 98–107.9, and ? 108 cm in women and < 94, 94–101.9, 102–111.9, 112–121.9, and ?122 cm in men. Outcomes All cause mortality Measurements BMI and WC were measured using a standardized protocol during the home visit. Results A total of 686 deaths (11.8%) occurred during a median follow-up of 4 years. Compared to the referent BMI category 25–29.9 kg/m2, hazard ratios for mortality were 1.27 (95% CI, 0.96–1.69) for BMI < 25 kg/m2, and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62–1.13), 0.81 (0.52–1.26) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.54–1.65) for BMI categories 30–34.9, 35–39.9 and ? 40 kg/m2, respectively, after adjustment for covariates including waist circumference. In contrast, after adjustment for covariates including BMI, higher mortality rates were noted for all waist circumference categories compared to the referent (< 80 cm in women and < 94 cm in men) with hazard ratios 1.04 (95% CI, 0.77–1.41) for waist circumference 80–87.9 in women and 94–101.9 in men, 1.29 (95% CI, 0.92–1.81) for waist circumference 88–97.9 in women and 102–111.9 in men, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.12–2.62) for waist circumference 98–107.9 in women and 112–121.9 in men, and 2.09 (95% CI, 1.26–3.46) for waist circumference ? 108 in women and ? 122 in men. Limitations BMI and waist circumference measured at baseline only. Conclusions waist circumference should be considered in conjunction with BMI when assessing mortality risk associated with obesity in adults with CKD.

Kramer, Holly; Shoham, David; McClure, Leslie A.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Howard, George; Judd, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika; Warnock, David G.; McClellan, William

2011-01-01

65

Abdominal depth and waist circumference as influential determinants of human female attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research based largely on two-dimensional (2D) line drawings and picture stimuli has established that both body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) influence the perceived attractiveness of human female bodies. Here, we extend these studies by (1) creating a more ecologically valid stimulus set consisting of 3D videos and 2D still shots from real female “models” rotating in

James K. Rilling; Torrey L. Kaufman; E. O. Smith; Rajan Patel; Carol M. Worthman

2009-01-01

66

The relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein to percent body fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference in a Taiwanese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an easily measured inflammatory biomarker. This study compared the association of percent body fat mass (%FM), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with hs-CRP in a Taiwanese population. METHODS: A total of 1669 subjects aged 40-88 years were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The relationships

Cheng-Chieh Lin; Sharon LR Kardia; Chia-Ing Li; Chiu-Shong Liu; Ming-May Lai; Wen-Yuan Lin; Pei-Chia Chang; Yih-Dar Lee; Ching-Chu Chen; Chih-Hsueh Lin; Chuan-Wei Yang; Chih-Yi Hsiao; Walter Chen; Tsai-Chung Li

2010-01-01

67

Optimal cut-points for body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio using the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score in an Arab population of the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to determine the gender-specific optimal cut-points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, using Framingham risk score and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, among Omani Arabs. Nine percent of men, compared to 3% of women, had a 10-year total coronary heart disease (CHD) risk ? 20%. In both

Jawad A Al-Lawati; Nabil M Barakat; Alya M Al-Lawati; Ali J Mohammed

2008-01-01

68

Food Composition of the Diet in Relation to Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in “waist circumference for a given BMI” (WCBMI), a proxy for abdominal adiposity. Design We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WCBMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WCBMI (?WCBMI, cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ?WCBMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Results Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WCBMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ?WCBMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score – indicating a more favourable dietary pattern –showed a ?WCBMI of ?0.11 (95% CI ?0.09 to ?0.14) cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusion A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

Romaguera, Dora; Angquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Forouhi, Nita G.; Halkjaer, Jytte; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van der A, Daphne L.; Masala, Giovanna; Steffen, Annika; Palli, Domenico; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Overvad, Kim; Tj?nneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio; S?rensen, Thorkild I.

2011-01-01

69

Measurement of waist circumference at different sites affects the detection of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients.  

PubMed

There is a lack of understanding about the impact of different waist circumference (WC) measurements on the detection of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients. This cross-sectional study included a total of 382 inpatients with schizophrenia-related disorders to assess each component of metabolic syndrome. WC was measured at the lowest rib, midpoint between the iliac crest and lowest rib, iliac crest, minimal waist, and umbilicus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the ability of WC at each site to predict the presence of metabolic risk clustering. The mean WC values for all sites were significantly different from each other. The measurement site had an influence on the prevalence of abdominal obesity (30-38.2% in men and 53.9-86.3% in women). The influence on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was greater with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria (19.3-23.9% in men and 29.4-43.1% in women) than with the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria (26.1-28.6% in men and 37.3-44.1% in women). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for metabolic risk clustering were highest at the umbilicus and midpoint. Given that the WC measurement protocol has substantial influence on the prevalence of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, a predefined measurement site is required for all psychiatric studies. PMID:22370155

Lin, Chao-Cheng; Yu, Shun-Chieh; Wu, Bo-Jian; Chang, Da-Jen

2012-02-25

70

Reduction in BMI z-score and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. The Oslo Adiposity Intervention Study - a hospital/public health nurse combined treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Weight loss and increased physical fitness are established approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. We studied the reduction in BMI z-score associated with improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese children and adolescents treated with a combined hospital/public health nurse model. We also examined how aerobic fitness influenced the results. Methods From 2004-2007, 307 overweight and obese children and adolescents aged 7-17 years were referred to an outpatient hospital pediatrics clinic and evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Together with family members, they were counseled regarding diet and physical activity at biannual clinic visits. Visits with the public health nurse at local schools or at maternal and child health centres were scheduled between the hospital consultations. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after one year, and aerobic fitness (VO2peak) was measured. In the analyses, 230 subjects completing one year of follow-up by December 2008 were divided into four groups according to changes in BMI z-score: Group 1: decrease in BMI z-score?0.23, Group 2: decrease in BMI z-score?0.1-< 0.23, Group 3: decrease in/stable BMI z-score?0.0-< 0.1, Group 4: increase in BMI z-score (>0.00-0.55). Results 230 participants were included in the analyses (75%). Mean (SD) BMI z-score was reduced from 2.18 (0.30) to 2.05 (0.39) (p < 0.001) in the group as a whole. After adjustment for BMI z-score, waist circumference and gender, the three groups with reduced BMI z-score had a significantly greater reduction in HOMA-IR, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio than the group with increased BMI z-score. Adding change in aerobic fitness to the model had little influence on the results. Even a very small reduction in BMI z-score (group 3) was associated with significantly lower insulin, total cholesterol, LDL and total/HDL cholesterol ratio. The group with the largest reduction in BMI z-score had improvements in HOMA-IR and aerobic fitness as well. An increase in BMI z-score was associated with worsening of C-peptide and total/HDL cholesterol ratio. Conclusions Even a modest reduction in BMI z-score after one year of combined hospital/and public health nurse intervention was associated with improvement in several cardiovascular risk factors.

2011-01-01

71

Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

2011-01-01

72

Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. METHODS: We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES

Elizabeth E Hatch; Jessica W Nelson; M Mustafa Qureshi; Janice Weinberg; Lynn L Moore; Martha Singer; Thomas F Webster

2008-01-01

73

Association Between Perceived Interpersonal Everyday Discrimination and Waist Circumference Over a 9-Year Period in the Midlife Development in the United States Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

The relation between perceived interpersonal experiences of discrimination and measures of obesity is of great interest to many. This study examined the relation between changes in waist circumference and changes in perceived interpersonal everyday discrimination using the 1995–2004 Midlife Development in the United States cohort study (N = 1,452). After controlling for potential confounding variables that assessed behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics, sex-stratified ordinary least squares regression analyses suggested that the waist circumference of adult males who reported consistently high levels of interpersonal everyday discrimination increased 2.39 cm more than that of adult males who consistently reported low levels of interpersonal everyday discrimination (P < 0.05). Similarly, the waist circumference of adult females who reported an increase in interpersonal everyday discrimination increased 1.88 cm more than that of adult females who reported consistently low levels of interpersonal everyday discrimination (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that perceived interpersonal everyday discrimination may be associated with an increase in waist circumference over time among adults in the United States.

Hunte, Haslyn E. R.

2011-01-01

74

Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

2011-01-01

75

Waist Circumference, Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Renal Function Decline in Korean Population: Hallym Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective investigation of obesity and renal function decline in Asia is sparse. We examined the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with renal function decline in a prospective study of Korean population. Methods A total of 454 participants who had baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels of more than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Hallym Aging Study (HAS) were included and followed for 6 years. Renal function decline was defined as follows: (1) an eGFR decline ?3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n?=?82 cases); (2) an eGFR decrease of 20% or greater (n?=?87 cases) at follow-up; (3) an eGFR decrease of 20% greater at follow-up or eGFR decline ?3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (n?=?91 cases); and (4) an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up (n?=?54 cases). eGFR was determined based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between obesity and renal function decline. Results We found that central obesity was associated with faster renal function decline. Comparing WC of >95 cm in men or >90 cm in women with ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women, ORs (95% CIs) ranged from 2.31 (1.14–4.69) to 2.78 (1.19–6.50) for the 4 definitions of renal function decline (all p-values for trend <0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) also was associated with renal function decline. There was no significant association of BMI with renal function decline. Conclusions Central obesity, but not BMI, is associated with faster renal function decline in Korean population. Our results provide important evidence that simple measurement of central fat deposition rather than BMI could predict decline in renal function in Korean population.

Oh, Hyunju; Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Soong-Nang; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

2013-01-01

76

Gender Differences in Diagnostic Values of Visceral Fat Area and Waist Circumference for Predicting Metabolic Syndrome in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Abdominal fat accumulation is known to be strongly implicated in development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined diagnostic values of obesity-related parameters in 95 men and 185 women, and we determined optimal cutoff values of visceral fat area (VFA) and waist circumference (WC) for predicting the presence of multiple non-adipose components of MetS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that VFA was the best indicator of MetS. WC and VFA exhibited similar diagnostic values for men and postmenopausal women, whereas WC was inferior to VFA for premenopausal women (area under ROC curve of VFA and WC was 0.76 and 0.52, respectively; P < 0.001). Optimal cutoff points of VFA and WC for predicting MetS were 136 cm2 and 89 cm in men and 95 cm2 and 82 cm in women, respectively. Subjects with VFA and WC above these cutoff values exhibited increased insulin resistance and increased carotid intima-media thickness. In conclusion, WC has a diagnostic value similar to VFA for predicting MetS in men and postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Further studies are necessary to develop a simple clinical parameter that reflects visceral fat in premenopausal women.

Kim, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Taek; Yu, Sung Hoon; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu

2011-01-01

77

[Association between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference in women living in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

This study focused on the association between dietary patterns and obesity. A cross-sectional population-based study was performed in 1,026 adult women from Southern Brazil. Waist circumference (WC), height, and weight were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30kg/m(2) and WC > 88cm. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate analysis used a Poisson regression model to estimate prevalence ratios and respective confidence intervals. After controlling for possible confounders, low consumption of "vegetables" protected against increased BMI (PR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.86; p = 0.004), while low consumption of "nuts/oilseeds" protected against increased WC (PR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.89-0.98; p = 0.008). Low consumption of "fruits" was a risk factor for high BMI (PR = 2.18; 95%CI: 1.35-3.53; p = 0.001). The study indicates the complexity of the association between dietary patterns and obesity. New studies are needed to further clarify the subject. PMID:18949244

Perozzo, Gabriela; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Henn, Ruth Liane; Sarriera, Jorge; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

2008-10-01

78

Age and sex influence the relationship between waist circumference and abdominal fat distribution measured by bioelectrical impedance.  

PubMed

Waist circumference (WC) is a subrogate measurement of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) with a different normal threshold for men and women. However, age plays an important role in the relationship of WC with AVF. The hypothesis of the present work was that the adjustment of the WC, not only by sex but also by age, would improve WC prediction of AVF as measured by a new bioelectrical impedance (BIA) methodology. The study was carried out in 311 subjects (178 men and 133 women) with a body mass index between 18 and 35 kg/m(2). Abdominal fat composition was measured by BIA by using a new device recently developed specifically for the measurement of abdominal fat compartments (ViScan AB140;Omron Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were also collected. There was a high correlation of WC with total abdominal fat and AVF in all age ranges and for both fat depots, which decreased with age in men but remained more stable in women. Age independently influenced the level of AVF in women and in those subjects with normal WC, increasing by 0.32 and 0.47 for each decade of age, respectively. In conclusion, age plays an important role in the association between WC and AVF with a high correlation existing in all age ranges. A specific BIA method that measures abdominal composition would be useful in women and in those subjects with normal WC as an indicator of AVF. PMID:22749183

Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Bea, Ana M; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Perez-Ruiz, Maria Rosario; Civeira, Fernando

2012-06-21

79

The Association of Dementia With Upper Arm and Waist Circumference in Seven Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The 10/66 Cross-Sectional Surveys  

PubMed Central

Background. Weight loss in dementia contributes to morbidity and mortality but the distribution of anthropometric change and its consistency between populations are less clear. Our aim was to investigate and compare the associations of dementia with waist and upper arm circumference in elders from seven low- and middle-income nations. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of 15,022 residents aged 65 years and older in Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Dominican Republic, China, and India. Dementia was assessed using a cross-culturally validated algorithm, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Associations with dementia and dementia severity (clinical dementia rating scale) were investigated in linear regression models, with fixed-effects meta-analyses used to investigate between-country heterogeneity. Results. Dementia and increased dementia severity were both associated with smaller arm and waist circumferences with little evidence of confounding by sociodemographic and health status. Associations between dementia/clinical dementia rating and arm circumference were homogeneous between countries (Higgins I2 0% and 7%, respectively), whereas those with waist circumference were more heterogeneous (Higgins I2 67% and 62%, respectively). Conclusions. Although cross-sectional, our findings are consistent with prospective observations of weight loss in dementia and suggest loss of both muscle and fat—the former being consistent across different settings and the latter being more context dependent.

Albanese, Emiliano; Stewart, Robert

2012-01-01

80

Accuracy of self-reported body weight, height and waist circumference in a Dutch overweight working population  

PubMed Central

Background In population studies, body mass index (BMI) is generally calculated from self-reported body weight and height. The self-report of these anthropometrics is known to be biased, resulting in a misclassification of BMI status. The aim of our study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported weight, height and waist circumference among a Dutch overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ? 25 kg/m2) working population, and to determine to what extent the accuracy was moderated by sex, age, BMI, socio-economic status (SES) and health-related factors. Methods Both measured and self-reported body weight and body height were collected in 1298 healthy overweight employees (66.6% male; mean age 43.9 ± 8.6 years; mean BMI 29.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2), taking part in the ALIFE@Work project. Measured and self-reported waist circumferences (WC) were available for a sub-group of 250 overweight subjects (70.4% male; mean age 44.1 ± 9.2 years; mean BMI 29.6 ± 3.0 kg/m2). Intra Class Correlation (ICC), Cohen's kappa and Bland Altman plots were used for reliability analyses, while linear regression analyses were performed to assess the factors that were (independently) associated with the reliability. Results Body weight was significantly (p < 0.001) under-reported on average by 1.4 kg and height significantly (p < 0.001) over-reported by 0.7 cm. Consequently, BMI was significantly (p < 0.001) under-reported by 0.7 kg/m2. WC was significantly (p < 0.001) over-reported by 1.1 cm. Although the self-reporting of anthropometrics was biased, ICC's showed high concordance between measured and self-reported values. Also, substantial agreement existed between the prevalences of BMI status and increased WC based on measured and self-reported data. The under-reporting of BMI and body weight was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by measured weight, height, SES and smoking status, and the over-reporting of WC by age, sex and measured WC. Conclusion Results suggest that self-reported BMI and WC are satisfactorily accurate for the assessment of the prevalence of overweight/obesity and increased WC in a middle-aged overweight working population. As the accuracy of self-reported anthropometrics is affected by measured weight, height, WC, smoking status and/or SES, results for these subgroups should be interpreted with caution. Due to the large power of our study, the clinical significance of our statistical significant findings may be limited. Trial Registration ISRCTN04265725

Dekkers, Johanna C; van Wier, Marieke F; Hendriksen, Ingrid JM; Twisk, Jos WR; van Mechelen, Willem

2008-01-01

81

Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Waist circumference (WC) measured at one point in time is positively associated with the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is not clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the risk of MI in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in BMI (DBMI). Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 38,593 participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study was analysed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993–97 and 1999–02. Information on fatal and non-fatal MI was obtained from National Registers. Cases were validated by review of the medical records. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999–02 until December 30 2009. During 8.4 years of follow-up, 1,041 incident cases of MI occurred. WC was positively associated with the risk of MI, but weakly after adjustment for BMI. DWC was not associated with the risk of MI (HR per 5 cm change ?=?1.01 (0.95, 1.09) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI). Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with MI occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance WC was positively associated with the risk of MI in middle-aged men and women, but changes in WC were not. These findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be an insufficient target for prevention of MI in middle-aged men and women.

Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Stegger, Jakob Gerhard; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tj?nneland, Anne; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.; Overvad, Kim

2011-01-01

82

Determining the waist circumference cut off which best predicts the metabolic syndrome components in urban Africans: the SABPA study.  

PubMed

Various studies have shown that the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity is age, gender as well as ethnicity-dependent. WC criteria for Sub Saharan Africans have not been defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The aim was to determine which WC cut off best predicted Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in a group of urban African teachers (80 males and 93 females). We determined sphygmomanometer blood pressure, WC, glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HdL) and triglyceride (TRIG) values. The males' MetS profile was less favourable as their glucose, TRIG and blood pressure levels were higher than the proposed cut off for MetS. The females could be classified as obese, based on their mean BMI (32.78±6.36) and WC (93.48±15.68). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) WC cut offs of 90, 91, 94 and 96?cm for the respective MetS components in males (blood pressure, HdL, glucose and TRIG) were suggested. In the females, cut offs of 92, 98, 94 and 94?cm for TRIG, blood pressure, HdL and glucose respectively, were put forward. Odds ratios revealed that increased blood pressure best predicted ROC WC in both males (OR 9.59; 95% CI 3.14-29.32) and females (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.30-7.42) irrespective of age. We suggest that the optimal cut off point for the males be set at 90?cm, as opposed to the current 94?cm; whilst the female cut off be set at 98?cm as opposed to the existing cut off of 80?cm. Larger sample groups are recommended to justify our data. PMID:22068551

Prinsloo, J; Malan, L; de Ridder, J H; Potgieter, J C; Steyn, H S

2011-11-08

83

BMI and Waist Circumference; Cross-Sectional and Prospective Associations with Blood Pressure and Cholesterol in 12-Year-Olds  

PubMed Central

Objective Childhood and adolescent overweight, defined by body mass index (BMI) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Abdominal adiposity may be more important in associations with cardiovascular diseases but waist circumference (WC) has been rarely studied in children. We studied associations between BMI and WC and blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol in 12-year-old children and prospectively changes in BMI or WC status between age 8 and 12 years and BP and cholesterol at age 12. Study Design Weight, height, WC, BP and cholesterol concentrations were measured in 1432 children at age 12 years. Linear regression was used to study the associations between high BMI and large WC (>90th percentile) and BP and cholesterol. Results Systolic BP was 4.9 mmHg higher (95% (CI 2.5, 7.2) in girls and 4.2 mmHg (95%CI 1.9, 6.5) in boys with a high BMI. Large WC was also associated with higher systolic BP in girls (3.7 mmHg (95%CI 1.3, 6.1)) and boys (3.5 mmHg (95%CI 1.2, 5.8)). Diastolic BP and cholesterol concentrations were significantly positively (HDL cholesterol negatively) associated with high BMI and large WC, too. Normal weight children with a history of overweight did not have higher blood pressure levels or adverse cholesterol concentrations than children that were normal weight at both ages. Conclusion A high BMI and large WC were associated with higher BP levels and adverse cholesterol concentrations. WC should be taken into account when examining cardiovascular risk factors in children.

Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

2012-01-01

84

The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI. PMID:20948514

Camhi, Sarah M; Bray, George A; Bouchard, Claude; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Newton, Robert L; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H; Smith, Steven R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

2010-10-14

85

Trajectories of Fat Mass Index, Fat Free-Mass Index, and Waist Circumference in Children Project HeartBeat!  

PubMed Central

Background Body composition and fat distribution change dramatically during adolescence. Data based on longitudinal studies to describe these changes are limited. The aim of this study was to describe age-related changes in fat free–mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI), which are components of BMI, and waist circumference (WC) in participants of Project HeartBeat!, a longitudinal study of children. Methods Anthropometric measurements and body composition data were obtained in a mixed longitudinal study of 678 children (49.1% female, 20.1% black), initially aged 8, 11, and 14 years, every 4 months for 4 years (1991–1995). Trajectories of change from ages 8 to 18 years were measured for FFMI, FMI, and WC. Because of the small number of observations for black participants, trajectories for this group were limited to ages 8.5–15 years. Results Body mass index, FFMI, and WC increased steadily with age for all race–gender cohorts. However, in nonblack girls, FFMI remained constant after about age 16 years. For black boys and girls, FFMI was similar at age 8.5 years but increased more steeply for black boys by age 15 years. In girls, FMI showed an upward trend until shortly after age 14 years, when it remained constant. In boys, FMI increased between age 8 years and age 10 years, and then decreased. Conclusions The extent to which each component of BMI contributes to the changes in BMI depends on the gender, race, and age of the individual. Healthcare providers need to be aware that children who show upward deviation of BMI or BMI percentiles may have increases in their lean body mass rather than in adiposity.

Eissa, Mona A.; Dai, Shifan; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.; Day, R. Sue; Harrist, Ronald B.; Labarthe, Darwin R.

2009-01-01

86

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Spain using regional cutoff points for waist circumference: the di@bet.es study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Spain using specific cutoff points for waist circumference (WC) (>94.5 cm for men and >89.5 cm for women) and evaluating the influence of several socio-demographic and economic factors. Data on MetS were obtained from a national study of 4,727 subjects from 18 to 90 years of age, conducted in Spain between 2009 and 2010 (The di@bet.es study). MetS was defined applying the new Harmonized definition (evaluating the use of abdominal obesity (AO) as a obligatory criterion for MetS or not) as well as with other widely used criteria. Results were then compared with data from previous studies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the influence of different social factors. The age-standardized MetS prevalence was 38.37 % (CI 35.74-40.99) in men and 29.62 % (CI 27.56-31.69) in women, when AO was required as a diagnostic criterion; 42.13 % (CI 39.37-44.89) and 32.31 % (CI 30.15-34.47) in men and women, respectively, if AO was not considered mandatory. Prevalence of MetS increased with age (p < 0.001 for trend). Women with a lower educational level were more likely to have MetS (OR 4.4; 95 % CI: 2.84-6.7) as compared with those with a higher educational level. Subjects with MetS had a worse physical quality of life. The combination of AO, hypertension and carbohydrate alterations was the most common MetS' pattern. A high prevalence of MetS was detected in the Spanish population especially in men, the elderly and women with a low educational level. PMID:23512475

Marcuello, Clara; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L; Fuentes, Manuel; Runkle, Isabelle; Rubio, Miguel A; Montañez, Carmen; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Bordiu, Elena; Goday, Albert; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Carmena, Rafael; Casamitjana, Roser; Castaño, Luis; Castell, Conxa; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Franch, Josep; Gaztambide, Sonia; Girbés, Juan; Gomis, Ramon; Urrutia, Ines; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; Menéndez, Eldelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Ortega, Emilio; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Valdés, Sergio; Vázquez, Jose A; Vendrell, Joan

2013-03-20

87

Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates.

Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

2012-01-01

88

Longitudinal association of body mass index and waist circumference with left ventricular mass in hypertensive predialysis chronic kidney disease patients  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to investigate the association of both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with left ventricular mass (LVM) in hypertensive predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods From 2004 to 2005, 206 consecutive incident adult patients from the outpatient CKD clinics of two hospitals in Greece were included. Inclusion criteria were the presence of CKD and hypertension. BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm) and LVM (g) were assessed annually for 3 years. Results The mean age was 68.1 years, mean BMI 29.1 kg/m2 and mean WC was 103.7 cm. The median LVM was 245.7 g (n = 179). In the cross-sectional data, linear regression models showed that WC {? = 1.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15; 2.3]}, and not BMI [? = 2.1 (95% CI: ?0.70; 4.8)], was significantly associated with LVM. After adjustment for age, sex, primary renal disease, smoking and history of cardiovascular disease, both BMI [? = 4.7 (95% CI: 2.0; 7.4] and WC [? = 1.2 (95% CI: 0.14; 2.3)] were significantly associated with LVM. These associations were pronounced in CKD stage 1–3, but not in CKD stage 4–5. In the longitudinal analysis, linear mixed models adjusting for confounders showed that both an increase in BMI [? = 2.9 (95% CI: 0.74; 5.1)] and an increase in WC [? = 1.1 (95% CI: 0.28; 1.8)] were significantly associated with an increase in LVM. Conclusions In hypertensive predialysis CKD patients, both BMI and WC were associated with LVM in CKD stage 1–3, but not in CKD stage 4–5. In the longitudinal analysis, both an increase in BMI and WC were associated with an increase in LVM. Future studies should focus on mechanisms responsible for the associations between anthropometric variables and LVM.

Stel, Vianda S.; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Bruck, Katharina; Dounousi, Evangelia; Pappas, Konstantinos; Siamopoulos, Kostas C.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.; Tsakiris, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

89

Genetic and environmental correlations between body mass index and waist circumference in China: the Qingdao adolescent twin study.  

PubMed

We aimed to analyze how genetic and environmental factors account for variations in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and their mutual correlation in Chinese children. We measured BMI and WC in 588 pairs of twins (53 % monozygotic twins) aged 8-17 years and applied structural equation modeling to the data. For the younger children (8-12 years of age), heritability estimates of BMI were 0.56 for boys and 0.69 for girls; for the older children (13-17 years of age), the corresponding figures were 0.64 and 0.71, respectively. We observed moderate heritability estimates in WC: the corresponding figures were 0.24 and 0.56 for the younger children, and 0.27 and 0.33 for the older children, respectively. The heterogeneity test for genetic variance of BMI and WC was statistically significant between the two age groups for both sexes (p < 0.001). The proportions of BMI and WC variations due to shared and non-shared environmental factors remained stable during childhood in both sexes. Bivariate genetic analyses showed that genetic correlations between BMI and WC were strong for the younger children (rg = 0.75 for boys, rg = 0.98 for girls) and the older children (rg = 1.0 for both boys and girls). Both sexes showed moderate non-shared environmental correlations in the two age groups, whereas shared environmental correlations--except among male younger children--were not statistically significant. Genetic factors play an important role in variations in BMI and WC during childhood. Common genetic and non-shared environmental factors explained most of the association between BMI and WC for both boys and girls. PMID:23756614

Ning, F; Silventoinen, K; Pang, Z C; Kaprio, J; Wang, S J; Zhang, D; Duan, H P; Wu, W F; Qiao, Q

2013-06-12

90

Combined Impact of Lifestyle Factors on Prospective Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person’s weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. Methods We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25–70) were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours) for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol) diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. Results Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI ?706, ?368) and 200 (?478, ?87) gram less weight and 0.95 (?1.27, ?0.639) and 0.99 (?1.29, ?0.69) cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. Conclusion The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain.

May, Anne M.; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noemie; Ekelund, Ulf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Quiros, J. Ramon; Agudo, Antonio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, Monique; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Braaten, Tonje; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

2012-01-01

91

Effects of an over-the-counter herbal weight management product (Zotrim®) on weight and waist circumference in a sample of overweight women: a consumer study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to carry out a consumer intervention study to evaluate the impact of an over-the-counter herbal weight management product (Zotrim®) on weight and waist circumference. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Overweight women were recruited using local media and 61 passed initial screening to begin a four-week intervention using a free sample of Zotrim at a dosage corresponding to manufacturers’ recommendations. A

C. H. S. Ruxton; F. Hinton; C. E. L. Evans

2005-01-01

92

The Activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Relation to Waist\\/Hip Circumference Ratio in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate possible differences, between generally and abdominally obese men, in activity and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system.Research Methods and Procedures: Fifty non-diabetic, middle-aged men were selected to obtain two groups with similar body mass index (BMI) but different waist\\/hip circumference ratio (WHR). Measurements were performed of the activity of the HPA axis

Thomas Ljung; Göran Holm; Peter Friberg; Björn Andersson; Bengt-Åke Bengtsson; Johan Svensson; Mary Dallman; Bruce McEwen; Per Björntorp

2000-01-01

93

Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance.Objective:The objective of this study is to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary protein, and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC).Methods:89 432 men and women from five countries participating

J. Halkjaer; A. Olsen; K. Overvad; M. U. Jakobsen; H. Boeing; B. Buijsse; D. Palli; G. Tognon; H. Du; D L van der A; N. G. Forouhi; N. J. Wareham; E. J. M. Feskens; T. I. A. Sorensen; A. Tjonneland; J Halkjær

2011-01-01

94

Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.  

PubMed

Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (?=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (?=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time. PMID:22856616

Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

2012-08-02

95

A meta-analytic investigation of linkage and association of common leptin receptor (LEPR) polymorphisms with body mass index and waist circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: We analyzed data pooled from nine studies on the human leptin receptor (LEPR) gene for the association of three alleles (K109R, Q223R and K656N) of LEPR with body mass index (BMI; kg\\/m2) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 3263 related and unrelated subjects from diverse ethnic backgrounds including African-American, Caucasian, Danish, Finnish, French Canadian and Nigerian were studied.

M Heo; RL Leibel; KR Fontaine; BB Boyer; WK Chung; M Koulu; MK Karvonen; U Pesonen; A Rissanen; M Laakso; MIJ Uusitupa; Y Chagnon; C Bouchard; PA Donohoue; TL Burns; AR Shuldiner; K Silver; RE Andersen; O Pedersen; S Echwald; TIA Sørensen; P Behn; MA Permutt; KB Jacobs; RC Elston; DJ Hoffman; E Gropp; DB Allison

2002-01-01

96

Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study.  

PubMed

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006-2007 to 2007-2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard deviation, 4.3) and mean waist circumference increased by 1.76 cm (standard deviation, 5.6). Multilevel analyses revealed that neighborhoods with a high density of fast-food outlets were associated with increases of 1.40 kg in weight (P<0.05) and 2.04 cm in waist circumference (P<0.05) among residents who visited fast-food restaurants frequently. In contrast, high-walkability neighborhoods were associated with decreases of 1.2 kg in weight (P<0.05) and 1.57 cm in waist circumference (P<0.05) among residents who increased their levels of vigorous physical activity during the 1-year assessment period. Findings point to the negative influences of the availability of neighborhood fast-food outlets and individual unhealthy eating behaviors that jointly affect weight gain; however, better neighborhood walkability and increased levels of physical activity are likely to be associated with maintaining a healthy weight over time. PMID:19153214

Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M; Acock, Alan; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

2009-01-19

97

The Current Waist Circumference Cut Point Used for the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome in Sub-Saharan African Women Is Not Appropriate  

PubMed Central

The waist circumference cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African subjects is based on that obtained from studies in European populations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders in an urban population of African females, a group at high risk for such diseases, and to determine the appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometry and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured in a cohort of 1251 African females participating in the Birth to Twenty cohort study in Soweto, Johannesburg. The waist circumference cut points for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (as defined using the new harmonised guidelines), insulin resistance, dysglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were obtained using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome were 50.1%, 14.3% and 42.1%, respectively. The appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing metabolic syndrome was found to be 91.5 cm and was similar to the cuts points obtained for detecting increased risk of insulin resistance (89.0 cm), dysglycaemia (88.4 cm), hypertension (90.1 cm), hypo-high density lipoproteinaemia (87.6 cm) and hyper-low density lipoproteinaemia (90.5 cm). The present data demonstrates that urban, African females have a high prevalence of obesity and related disorders and the waist cut point currently recommended for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (80.0 cm) in this population should be increased to 91.5 cm. This latter finding demonstrates a clear ethnic difference in the relationship between abdominal adiposity and metabolic disease risk. The similar waist cut points identified for the detection of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors demonstrates that the risk for different metabolic diseases increases at the same level of abdominal adiposity suggesting a common aetiological pathway.

Crowther, Nigel J.; Norris, Shane A.

2012-01-01

98

Body Mass Index, Waist-circumference and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Iranian Adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC alone.

Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

2013-01-01

99

Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ? 0.001). W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P < 0.0001). SSCB intake was positively associated with poor dietary choices in both males and females. Fast food meal intake, savory snacks, iced desserts and total sugar consumption correlated with SSCB intake in both boys (r = 0.39, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.52 respectively, P < 0.001) and girls (r = 0.45, 0.23, 0.16 and 0.55 respectively, P < 0.001). Older children reported eating significantly less fruit and vegetables than younger children; and less eggs, fish and cereals. Conversely, consumption of SSCB and sugar-sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also showed the lowest frequency of exercise. Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

2010-01-01

100

Association Between Waist Circumference and Serum Triacylglcerol Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM): A Study Performed on a Rural Population in Puducherry.  

PubMed

Introduction: India is on the verge of being the diabetic capital of the world, owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes in India. The aim of this study was to find the association between anthropometry and dyslipidaemia, with a particular reference to the triacylglycerol levels, besides suggesting a better anthropometric variable. Method: A group of eighty diabetic patients took part in the study. The Waist Circumference (WC), the waist to hip ratio, the serum triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured and studied. Results: We found out that there was a significant association between the WC and the TAG levels (p-value = 0.030), between high TAG levels and high HbA1c values (p-value = 0.038) with greater accuracy, in favour of the waist circumference. Conclusion: This depicted the fact that a simple measuring tape which is used in measuring the WC, could prove to be a useful and a cost-effective diagnostic approach for monitoring the metabolic complications of type 2 DM. PMID:23730634

Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Joshi, Prabal; A Raghavan, Srinivasan

2013-04-01

101

Association Between Waist Circumference and Serum Triacylglcerol Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM): A Study Performed on a Rural Population in Puducherry  

PubMed Central

Introduction: India is on the verge of being the diabetic capital of the world, owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes in India. The aim of this study was to find the association between anthropometry and dyslipidaemia, with a particular reference to the triacylglycerol levels, besides suggesting a better anthropometric variable. Method: A group of eighty diabetic patients took part in the study. The Waist Circumference (WC), the waist to hip ratio, the serum triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured and studied. Results: We found out that there was a significant association between the WC and the TAG levels (p-value = 0.030), between high TAG levels and high HbA1c values (p-value = 0.038) with greater accuracy, in favour of the waist circumference. Conclusion: This depicted the fact that a simple measuring tape which is used in measuring the WC, could prove to be a useful and a cost-effective diagnostic approach for monitoring the metabolic complications of type 2 DM.

Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Joshi, Prabal; A Raghavan, Srinivasan

2013-01-01

102

The Mediterranean diet protects against waist circumference enlargement in 12Ala carriers for the PPARgamma gene: 2 years' follow-up of 774 subjects at high cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

The PPARgamma gene regulates insulin sensitivity and adipogenesis. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of this gene has been related to fat accumulation. Our aim was to analyse the effects of a 2-year nutritional intervention with Mediterranean-style diets on adiposity in high-cardiovascular risk patients depending on the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma gene. The population consisted of a substudy (774 high-risk subjects aged 55-80 years) of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) randomised trial aimed at assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet for CVD prevention. There were three nutritional intervention groups: two of them of a Mediterranean-style diet and the third was a control group advised to follow a conventional low-fat diet. All the participants were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The results showed that carriers of the 12Ala allele allocated to the control group had a statistically significant higher change in waist circumference (adjusted difference coefficient = 2.37 cm; P = 0.014) compared with wild-type subjects after 2 years of nutritional intervention. This adverse effect was not observed among 12Ala carriers allocated to both Mediterranean diet groups. In diabetic patients a statistically significant interaction between Mediterranean diet and the 12Ala allele regarding waist circumference change was observed ( - 5.85 cm; P = 0.003). In conclusion, the Mediterranean diet seems to be able to reduce waist circumference in a high-cardiovascular risk population, reversing the negative effect that the 12Ala allele carriers of the PPARgamma gene appeared to have. The beneficial effect of this dietary pattern seems to be higher among type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:19267951

Razquin, Cristina; Alfredo Martinez, J; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Santos, José Manuel; Marti, Amelia

2009-03-09

103

Dietary Fiber and Whole Grain Intake Lessen Gains in Weight and Waist Circumference in Normal Weight Individuals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foods rich in dietary fiber, such as whole grains, may play an important role in maintaining a healthy body weight and preventing obesity because of their lower energy density. We examined the relationship between dietary fiber and whole grain consumption and changes in body weight and waist circumf...

104

FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.

2010-01-01

105

The predictive ability of triglycerides and waist (hypertriglyceridemic waist) in assessing metabolic triad change in obese children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The metabolic triad [fasting insulin, apolipoprotein B, and low-density lipoporotein (LDL) peak particle density] is characteristic of increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance and can be predicted by the simple and adoptable screening tool, the hypertriglyceridemic waist. The associations between hypertriglyceridemic waist components [fasting triglycerides (TG) and waist circumference cut-points derived from a child-specific metabolic syndrome definition] with the metabolic triad were examined in obese youth before and after weight loss. Methods: A continuous metabolic triad score (MTS) was calculated as a cumulative and standardized residual score of fasting insulin, apolipoprotein B, and LDL peak particle density (z-scores of the metabolic triad variables regressed onto age and sex). The predictive ability of TG and waist in assessing metabolic triad change was undertaken in 75 clinically obese boys and girls, aged 8-18, body mass index (BMI) 34.2±6.4 kg/m(2) before and after weight loss. Results: Fasting TG concentrations (r(2)=0.216, P<0.0001) and waist circumference (r(2)=0.049, P=0.019) were both significant independent predictors of the cumulative MTS, together accounting for 26.5% of its total variance. All cardiometabolic risk factors [except a reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] were favorably modified following weight loss. Fasting TG change was the only significant predictor of the MTS change (r(2)=0.177, P<0.0001). Waist circumference was not a significant predictor of MTS change. Conclusion: The reduction in fasting TG concentration (but not waist circumference) was the only significant predictor of MTS change. Fasting TG may be the most important metabolic syndrome component to best characterize the metabolic heterogeneity in obese cohorts and the changes in metabolic risk in clinically obese youth. PMID:23758076

Hobkirk, James P; King, Roderick F; Gately, Paul; Pemberton, Philip; Smith, Alexander; Barth, Julian H; Harman, Nicola; Davies, Ian; Carroll, Sean

2013-06-12

106

Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was

Hirotaka Ochiai; Takako Shirasawa; Rimei Nishimura; Aya Morimoto; Naoki Shimada; Tadahiro Ohtsu; Emiko Kujirai; Hiromi Hoshino; Naoko Tajima; Akatsuki Kokaze

2010-01-01

107

Body mass index and waist circumference predict both 10-year nonfatal and fatal cardiovascular disease risk: study conducted in 20000 Dutch men and women aged 2-65 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are both predictors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We compared absolute risk, hazard ratio (HR), and population attributable risk of nonfatal and fatal CVD for BMI and WC in a large prospective cohort study with an average follow-up of 10 years. Methods and results: Anthropometric data were measured between 1993 and 1997

Dis van I; Daan Kromhout; Johanna M. Geleijnse; Jolanda M. A. Boer; W. M. Monique Verschuren

2009-01-01

108

Gender-assortative waist circumference in mother-daughter and father-son pairs, and its implications. An 11-year longitudinal study in children (EarlyBird 59).  

PubMed

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Body mass index (BMI) is gender assortative (mother-daughter, father-son) in contemporary families. The impact of obesity on the metabolic health of contemporary children is nevertheless a correlate of their own weight, not that of their parents. Waist circumference (WC; abdominal fat) is a better predictor of metabolic risk than BMI. Abdominal fat has two components - visceral, which increases metabolic risk, and subcutaneous, which is neutral or even protects. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: WC, like BMI, is gender assortative. Daughters derive their girth from their mother and sons from their father. Subcutaneous fat accounts for the gender-assortative link with parental WC, but not the surrogate we used for visceral fat (WC|BMI ). Insulin resistance, on the other hand, is a function of WC|BMI but not of subcutaneous fat. Given appropriate standards, WC|BMI may help refine the predictive value of WC for metabolic risk in children. BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Body mass index (BMI) is reportedly gender assortative (mother-daughter, father-son) in contemporary children. We investigated the corresponding transmission of waist circumference (WC) and its implications. METHODS: We measured parental WC at baseline and WC, height, weight and para-umbilical skin-fold (USF) annually in their offspring from 5 to 15 years (n?=?223 trios). Parents were deemed normal metabolic risk (NR) or high risk (HR) according to World Health Organization (WHO) cut-points for WC (mothers 80?cm, fathers 94?cm). The residual from WC adjusted for BMI (WC|BMI ) was used as a surrogate for excess intra-abdominal fat, and its association with insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was sought. RESULTS: WC and USF were both gender assortative, while WC|BMI was not. WC was greater by 1.62?cm (P?waist circumference, but metabolically harmful. PMID:23576408

Mostazir, M; Jeffery, A; Voss, L; Wilkin, T

2013-04-10

109

Is high body fat estimated by body mass index and waist circumference a predictor of hypertension in adults? A population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body fat percentage (%BF) estimated by equations using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) to identify hypertension and estimate measures of association between high %BF and hypertension in adults. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with 1,720 adults (20–59 years) from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of cutoffs for %BF were calculated. The association between %BF and hypertension was analyzed using Poisson regression, estimating the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI. Results The %BF equations showed good discriminatory power for hypertension (area under the ROC curve > 0.50). Considering the entire sample, the cutoffs for %BF with better properties for screening hypertension were identified in the equation with BMI for men (%BF = 20.4) and with WC for women (%BF = 34.1). Adults with high %BF had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions The use of simple anthropometric measurements allowed identifying the %BF, diagnosing obesity, and screening people at risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful diagnostic evaluation.

2012-01-01

110

Structural Vascular Disease in Africans: Performance of Ethnic-specific Waist Circumference Cut Points using Logistic Regression and Neural Network Analyses: The SABPA Study.  

PubMed

A recently proposed model for waist circumference cut points (RPWC), driven by increased blood pressure, was demonstrated in an African population. We therefore aimed to validate the RPWC by comparing the RPWC and the Joint Statement Consensus (JSC) models via Logistic Regression (LR) and Neural Networks (NN) analyses. Urban African gender groups (N=171) were stratified according to the JSC and RPWC cut point models. Ultrasound carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), blood pressure (BP) and fasting bloods (glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides) were obtained in a well-controlled setting. The RPWC male model (LR ROC AUC: 0.71, NN ROC AUC: 0.71) was practically equal to the JSC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.71, NN ROC AUC: 0.69) to predict structural vascular -disease. Similarly, the female RPWC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.84, NN ROC AUC: 0.82) and JSC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.82, NN ROC AUC: 0.81) equally predicted CIMT as surrogate marker for structural vascular disease. Odds ratios supported validity where prediction of CIMT revealed -clinical -significance, well over 1, for both the JSC and RPWC models in African males and females (OR 3.75-13.98). In conclusion, the proposed RPWC model was substantially validated utilizing linear and non-linear analyses. We therefore propose ethnic-specific WC cut points (African males, ?90 cm; -females, ?98 cm) to predict a surrogate marker for structural vascular disease. PMID:23934678

Botha, J; de Ridder, J H; Potgieter, J C; Steyn, H S; Malan, L

2013-08-09

111

Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the 'Be active, eat right' study  

PubMed Central

Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n?=?7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e.g. relatively tall or short children) to identify and monitor overweight in children. This may improve early identification and prevention of overweight and overweight-related health problems in children.

2013-01-01

112

Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference According to Glucose Tolerance Status in Korea: The 2005 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stage of glucose intolerance in which persons showed a maximum obesity in Korea. A total of 4,479 participants, who were involved in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, was examined. The participants were divided into 5 groups by fasting plasma glucose (FPG); normal fasting glucose (NFG)1, FPG < 90 mg/dL; NFG2, FPG 90-99 mg/dL; impaired fasting glucose (IFG)1, FPG 100-109 mg/dL; IFG2, FPG 110-125 mg/dL; and diabetes mellitus, FPG ? 126 mg/dL or with anti-diabetes drugs. In those with FPG < 110 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were increased with increase of FPG (BMI in men; NFG1, 23.3 ± 0.1; NFG2, 24.4 ± 0.1; IFG1, 25.0 ± 0.2 kg/m2, in women; NFG1, 23.0 ± 0.1; NFG2, 24.0 ± 0.1; IFG1, 24.8 ± 0.2 kg/m2, WC in men; NFG1, 82.1 ± 0.3; NFG2, 85.3 ± 0.3; IFG1, 86.7 ± 0.5 cm, in women; NFG1, 77.1 ± 0.2; NFG2, 79.4 ± 0.3; IFG1, 81.8 ± 0.6 cm). In IFG2 and diabetes range, there was no more increase of BMI and WC with increase of FPG in each sex. The data suggest that degree of obesity increases with an increase of FPG in range of FPG < 100 mg/dL, peaked in FPG of 100-109 mg/dL, and then plateaus in higher FPG range in general Korean population.

Kang, Hye Mi

2012-01-01

113

Stronger Associations of Sagittal Abdominal Diameter with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions than Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged U.S. White and Japanese Men  

PubMed Central

Objective Both sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and waist circumference (WC) highly correlate with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) being linked to an atherogenic lipoprotein profile. However, it is uncertain whether SAD is a better correlate of atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions than WC. We examined relative associations of SAD versus WC with lipoprotein subfractions for U.S. white and Japanese men, concurrently examining the associations of VAT versus subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with lipoprotein subfractions. Methods A population-based sample of 260 white and 282 Japanese men aged 40–49 was examined for VAT and SAT by computed tomography, SAD and WC by a portable sliding-beam caliper and a measuring tape, respectively, and lipoprotein subfractions by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Both SAD and WC were significantly and positively associated with large VLDL and total and small LDL particle concentrations, and inversely associated with large HDL particle concentration for both white and Japanese men. In BMI-adjusted regression models, the significant associations of SAD remained for both white and Japanese men, whereas those of WC became non-significant for white men. When SAD and WC were simultaneously included into the BMI-adjusted models, the associations of SAD remained significant and statistically stronger than those WC for both white and Japanese men. Furthermore, the pattern of the associations of SAD with those lipoprotein subfractions showed comparable to that of the associations of VAT. Conclusion SAD showed comparable to VAT and stronger than WC in the associations with atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions for middle aged, nondiabetic, white and Japanese men.

Nakata, Katsumi; Choo, Jina; Hopson, Michael J.S.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Curb, J. David; Shin, Chol; Evans, Rhobert W.; Kadowaki, Takashi; Otake, Teruo; Kadota, Aya; Kadowaki, Syaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; El-Saed, Aiman; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis H.; Sekikawa, Akira

2010-01-01

114

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Fat, Fasting Blood Glucose in a Sample of Moroccan Adolescents Aged 11-17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The study aimed to assess the relationship between body fat and each of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to test the effectiveness of fat mass (FM), percent of body fat (PBF), BMI, and WC in predicting high levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Methods. A total of 167 adolescents aged 11–17 years were recruited from Rabat region. BMI and WC were determined using standard equipments. FM and PBF were derived from isotope dilution technique. FBG was determined by the hexokinase method. Results. Regardless of the weight status, BMI showed a strong positive correlation with FM and PBF in both genders. WC was significantly correlated with FM in boys and girls, and with PBF in different groups of girls and boys of the study sample. However, there was no significant relationship between WC and PBF in normal weight and overweight-obese groups of boys. FBG was highly correlated with FM and PBF in girls of the study sample and in overweight-obese girls. Similar significant relationship between FBG and both BMI and WC was observed in overweight-obese girls, while there was no significant association between FBG and other variables in boys and normal-weight girls. Conclusion. BMI and WC were closely associated with FM and PBF, respectively. However, the degree of these associations depends on gender and weight status. BMI may provide a better proxy estimate of overall adiposity than WC; nevertheless, both of them would appear to be a reasonable surrogate for FM and PBF as screening tools to identify adolescents at risk of developing excess body fat and high level of FBG.

Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Barakat, Amina; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Najat; Aguenaou, Hassan

2012-01-01

115

Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population. Materials and Methods A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The cutoff value of waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance from the ROC analysis was 84.4 cm for men and 80.6 cm for women. Sensitivity and specificity were 70.0% and 54.2% in men and 71.1% and 59.3% in women, respectively. After being controlled for other covariates, the odds ratio for the risk of insulin resistance using < 70 cm of waist circumference as a reference increased significantly in the category of 85.0-89.9 cm for men and 80.0-84.9 cm for women. In addition, statistically significant associations were consistently observed over the category of 85.0-89.9 cm for men and 80.0-84.9 cm for women. Conclusion The optimal cutoff value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women, suggesting that the Asian criterion of abdominal obesity (90 cm for men and 80 cm for women) as a component of metabolic syndrome (MetS) might not be applicable for middle-aged to older men in Korea.

Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lim, Sun Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young; Yim, Hyeon Woo

2010-01-01

116

Sagittal abdominal diameter is a more independent measure compared with waist circumference to predict arterial stiffness in subjects with type 2 diabetes - a prospective observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropometric measurements are useful in clinical practice since they are non-invasive and cheap. Previous studies suggest that sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be a better measure of visceral fat depots. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore and compare how laboratory and anthropometric risk markers predicted subclinical organ damage in 255 patients, with type 2 diabetes, after four years. Methods Baseline investigations were performed in 2006 and were repeated at follow-up in 2010. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and at follow-up in a cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes aged 55–65 years old. Results There were significant correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB) (r?=?0.144, p?=?0.03), C - reactive protein (CRP) (r?=?0.172, p?=?0.009) at baseline and IMT measured at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age, treatment with statins and Hba1c, the associations remained statistically significant. HbA1c, total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol did not correlate to IMT at follow-up. Baseline body mass index (BMI) (r?=?0.130, p?=?0.049), waist circumference (WC) (r?=?0.147, p?=?0.027) and sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) (r?=?0.184, p?=?0.007) correlated to PWV at follow-up. Challenged with sex, SBP and HbA1c, the association between SAD, not WC nor BMI, and PWV remained statistically significant (p?=?0.036). In a stepwise linear regression, entering both SAD and WC, the association between SAD and PWV was stronger than the association between WC and PWV. Conclusions We conclude that apoB and CRP, but not LDL-cholesterol predicted subclinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, SAD was more independent in predicting arterial stiffness over time, compared with WC, in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes.

2013-01-01

117

Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP), mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP), mono-n-butyl (MBP), and mono-benzyl (MBzP) phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP) phthalate (2001–2002). Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002), and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03), and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02) and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02). There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different biologic and hormonal effects. Although our study has limitations, both of these factors could explain some of the variation in the observed associations. These preliminary data support the need for prospective studies in populations at risk for obesity.

Hatch, Elizabeth E; Nelson, Jessica W; Qureshi, M Mustafa; Weinberg, Janice; Moore, Lynn L; Singer, Martha; Webster, Thomas F

2008-01-01

118

Impact of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index on Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Adults: A National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey  

PubMed Central

Background We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings 46,024 participants aged ?20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007–2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96–2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67–2.12) and 1.12 (0.99–1.26); 5.70 (5.24–6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39–1.65) and 1.69 (1.57–1.82); and 3.73 (3.42–4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98–2.35) and 1.33 (1.25–1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Zhaojun; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

2013-01-01

119

Optimal cutoff values of waist circumference and the discriminatory performance of other anthropometric indices to detect the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome in Japanese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the pertinent cutoffs of waist circumference (WC) and the discriminatory performance of other anthropometric indices\\u000a to detect clustering cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Japan, where the current WC cutoffs for\\u000a MetS (85 cm for men and 90 cm for women) remain controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed the baseline data from 844 subjects (330 men and 514 women) aged 40–69 years

Kazuyo NakamuraHinako; Hinako Nanri; Megumi Hara; Yasuki Higaki; Takeshi Imaizumi; Naoto Taguchi; Tatsuhiko Sakamoto; Mikako Horita; Koichi Shinchi; Keitaro Tanaka

2011-01-01

120

Z-Score Training, Combinatorics, and Phase Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live Z-score neurofeedback training introduces neural training based on simultaneously meeting multiple quantitative EEG-based conditions related to power, dispersion (amplitude asymmetry), coherence, and phase (Thatcher, 2008). The greater strength of the approach lies in being able to train tens, hundreds, or even thousands of criteria simultaneously. In taking multithreshold training to a quantitatively new level, Z-score training provides a holistic

Lincoln Stoller

2011-01-01

121

Optimal cutoff values of waist circumference and the discriminatory performance of other anthropometric indices to detect the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome in Japanese men and women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the pertinent cutoffs of waist circumference (WC) and the discriminatory performance of other anthropometric indices to detect clustering cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Japan, where the current WC cutoffs for MetS (85 cm for men and 90 cm for women) remain controversial. Methods We analyzed the baseline data from 844 subjects (330 men and 514 women) aged 40–69 years who participated in a cohort study in Saga city, Japan, between November 2005 and December 2007. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to find an appropriate cutoff (defined as the point nearest to the upper left corner of the ROC curve) of each anthropometric index for the presence of multiple risk factors among dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia [which was defined as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at and above 5.2, 5.5, or 5.8%, values approximately corresponding to fasting plasma glucose levels of 100, 110, and 120 mg/dL, respectively]. Results The optimal WC cutoff was 88 cm (sensitivity 60%, specificity 70%) for men and 82 cm (sensitivity 78%, specificity 62%) for women; changing the HbA1c cutoff affected the results in women only (~85 cm). For the currently defined WC cutoffs in Japan, specificity was low (53–57%) in men, whereas sensitivity was very low (32–42%) in women. Body mass index, proportion of body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio showed area under the curve values similar to that of WC. Conclusion The current Japanese criteria of WC for MetS may be low for men and too high and insensitive for women in our study population. Other anthropometric indices such as waist-to-height ratio did not confer an improved discriminatory performance compared with WC.

Nanri, Hinako; Hara, Megumi; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Tanaka, Keitaro

2010-01-01

122

The Cutoff Value of Waist Circumference for Predicting Metabolic Risks in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Korean Women: Analysis of 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Background With metabolic syndrome (MS) being a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and central obesity being a major predisposing factor for MS, intensive research is currently being performed on cutoff values according to race and sex. Menopause is an especially significant factor in designating cutoff values for female central obesity, as menopause brings sudden bodily changes that induce central obesity and increased prevalence of MS. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the cutoff values for the obesity index and its validity in predicting the criteria for MS in Korean women according to menstrual status. Methods The study focused on 3,103 women 20 years of age or older participating in the 2007 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Definitions of non-adipose components of MS were defined by the International Diabetes Federation, and menstrual status was judged on the basis of survey results. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the central obesity index (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) according to menstrual status for two or more non-adipose components of MS were calculated based on the Youden index. Results Area under the curve (AUC) values predicting the presence of two or more metabolic risk factors were higher in pre-menopausal women, with AUC values for BMI, WC, and WHtR being, in pre- and post-menopausal women, 23.1 kg/m2 vs. 23.9 kg/m2, 76.1 cm vs. 82.5 cm, and 0.49 vs. 0.53, respectively. The WC cut off (76 cm) for pre-menopausal women was found to be more sensitive and more effective at screening for MS risks than the cutoff value given by the Korea Society for the Study of Obesity. Conclusion The central obesity index showed better predictability for MS risk in pre-menopausal women. Because the central obesity index cutoff values are lower in pre-menopausal women, the possibility of metabolic risk can be considered for pre-menopausal women with WC lower than 85 cm. Assessment and control of other risks are needed accordingly for preventing the development of MS.

Lee, Ok-Gyu; Kang, Jae-Heon; Park, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Kyoung-Woo; Cho, Young-Gyu; Choi, Won-Young; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Hye-Ah

2013-01-01

123

Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

2003-01-01

124

Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16 587 US men1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although it is known that abdominal obesity increases the risk of chronic diseases, prospective data examining the relation between lifestyle factors and the accumulation of abdominal adipose tissue are sparse. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the asso- ciations of changes in diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y waist gain among US men.

Pauline Koh-Banerjee; Nain-Feng Chu; Donna Spiegelman; Bernard Rosner; Graham Colditz; Walter Willett; Eric Rimm

125

Adipose Tissue Characteristics Related to Weight Z-Score in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity has grown very fast over recent decades and now it represents a serious public health problem. The number of adipocytes is set in childhood and adolescence and then, an effective understanding of the development of adipose tissue during these periods will help in the prevention of this pathology. Objectives The current study aimed to determine which adipose tissue characteristics are related to a high weight Z-score in childhood. Patients and Methods The current study included 82 children aged 5-130 months who underwent inguinal hernia surgery. Anthropometric variables were measured, and a nutritional and physical activity questionnaire was completed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples, taken during the operation, were analyzed for preadipocyte number, adipocyte volume, fatty acid composition (gas chromatography of FAME), and relative gene expression of various genes (real time PCR). Results The results showed that children with a higher weight Z-score spend more time in sedentary activities and less time running or involved in active games. SCD-1 activity index, arachidonic/linoleic index, and adipocyte volume were significantly higher in children with a weight Z-score greater than 0. The preadipocyte number and the genetic expression of the studied genes did not differ between the groups. A multiple regression analysis was done to determine which variables were related to the weight Z-score. R2 values indicated that the model which included adipocyte volume, SREBP-1c, SCD-1 expression, and activity index, predicted 59% of the variability in the weight Z-score among the children. The main variables associated with adipocyte volume were PPAR?, Adiponectin, CB1R expressions, as well as the SCD-1 activity and normalized weight. Conclusions It was concluded that in childhood, the weight Z-score is related to adipocyte volume and adipose tissue gene expression.

Haro-Mora, Juan Jesus; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Porras, Nuria; Alcazar, Dolores; Gaztambide, Joaquin; Ruiz-Orpez, Antonio; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan M.; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo; Lopez-Siguero, Juan P; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma

2013-01-01

126

Larger Hip Circumference Independently Predicts Health and Longevity in a Swedish Female Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The waist circumference is widely viewed as a simple but effective measure for assessing obesity-related health risks, whereas measurement of the hip circumference is not currently prioritized. This study examines health risks associated specifically with hip circumference in a cohort of Swedish women, to determine whether information may be lost by excluding the hip circumference from health surveys.Research Methods

Lauren Lissner; Cecilia Björkelund; Berit L. Heitmann; Jaap C. Seidell; Calle Bengtsson

2001-01-01

127

Neurofeedback for insomnia: a pilot study of Z-score SMR and individualized protocols.  

PubMed

Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols used instantaneous Z scores to determine reward condition administered when awake. Twelve adults with insomnia, free of other mental and uncontrolled physical illnesses, were randomly assigned to the SMR or IND group. Eight completed this randomized, parallel group, single-blind study. Both groups received fifteen 20-min sessions of Z-Score NFB. Pre-post assessments included sQEEG, mental health, quality of life, and insomnia status. ANOVA yielded significant post-treatment improvement for the combined group on all primary insomnia scores: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI p<.005), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI p<.0001), PSQI Sleep Efficiency (p<.007), and Quality of Life Inventory (p<.02). Binomial tests of baseline EEGs indicated a significant proportion of excessively high levels of Delta and Beta power (p<.001) which were lowered post-treatment (paired z-tests p<.001). Baseline EEGs showed excessive sleepiness and hyperarousal, which improved post-treatment. Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol. PMID:21789650

Hammer, Barbara U; Colbert, Agatha P; Brown, Kimberly A; Ilioi, Elena C

2011-12-01

128

Z-Score Linear Discriminant Analysis for EEG Based Brain-Computer Interfaces  

PubMed Central

Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA), which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy.

Zhang, Rui; Xu, Peng; Guo, Lanjin; Zhang, Yangsong; Li, Peiyang; Yao, Dezhong

2013-01-01

129

Association of Hip Circumference With Incident Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

When waist circumference is taken into account, larger hip circumference is associated with reduced risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the prospective association of hip circumference with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in a biracial cohort of men and women in 4 US communities. A total of 10,767 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study were followed from 1987 to 1998. Hip and waist circumferences and body mass index (BMI) were modeled separately and mutually in association with incident diabetes and CHD by using proportional hazards regression. After adjustment for age, race, sex, and clinical center, hip circumference was positively associated with incident diabetes. However, after further controlling for waist circumference, BMI, and confounding variables, successive quintiles of hip circumference were associated with a statistically significant reduced hazard of incident diabetes (hazard ratios = 1.00, 0.79, 0.60, 0.44, 0.41). Similarly, successive quintiles of hip circumference were associated with a statistically significant reduced hazard of CHD after controlling for waist circumference, BMI, and confounding variables (hazard ratios = 1.00, 0.92, 0.75, 0.63, 0.50). Although excess adiposity is a general risk factor for diabetes and CHD, for a given BMI and waist circumference, greater hip circumference appears to lessen the risk of diabetes and CHD.

Pereira, Mark A.; Stevens, June; Folsom, Aaron R.

2009-01-01

130

Classroom Note: Computational and Conceptual Understanding of the Connections among Standard Deviations, Z-Scores, and Normal Distributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A structure for learning the connections among standard deviations, z-scores, and normal distributions is presented. The components of this structure are classified into intuitive or previously learned conceptual knowledge, computational knowledge, and formalized conceptual knowledge. (Contains 1 figure.)|

Reyes, Melissa Lopez

2003-01-01

131

Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z-scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment  

SciTech Connect

Z-scores express, differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determined z-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males, z-scores were calculated for age, but in the females z-scores for menopausal status (years postmenopausal exclusive of years on estrogen treatment) were found to be more appropriate. With few exceptions, changes in a disease were of a similar order in both sexes. For bone minerals mass few mean z-scores were significantly increased, but diseases with significantly decreased mean z-scores were numerous. The usefulness of z-scores in diagnosis and study of metabolic bone disease is discussed.

Meema, S.; Meema, H.E.

1982-08-01

132

Body circumferences: clinical implications emerging from a new geometric model  

PubMed Central

Background Body volume expands with the positive energy balance associated with the development of adult human obesity and this "growth" is captured by two widely used clinical metrics, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). Empirical correlations between circumferences, BMI, and related body compartments are frequently reported but fail to provide an important common conceptual foundation that can be related to key clinical observations. A two-phase program was designed to fill this important gap: a geometric model linking body volume with circumferences and BMI was developed and validated in cross-sectional cohorts; and the model was applied to the evaluation of longitudinally monitored subjects during periods of voluntary weight loss. Concepts emerging from the developed model were then used to examine the relations between the evaluated clinical measures and body composition. Methods Two groups of healthy adults (n = 494 and 1499) were included in the cross-sectional model development/testing phase and subjects in two previous weight loss studies were included in the longitudinal model evaluation phase. Five circumferences (arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf; average of sum, C), height (H), BMI, body volume (V; underwater weighing), and the volumes of major body compartments (whole-body magnetic resonance imaging) were measured. Results The evaluation of a humanoid geometric model based a cylinder confirmed that V derived from C and H was highly correlated with measured V [R2 both males and females, 0.97; p < 0.001). Developed allometric models confirmed model predictions that C and BMI (represented as V/H) are directly linked as, C = (V/H)0.5. The scaling of individual circumferences to V/H varied, with waist the highest (V/H~0.6) and calf the lowest (V/H~0.3), indicating that the largest and smallest between-subject "growth" with greater body volume occurs in the abdominal area and lower extremities, respectively. A stepwise linear regression model including all five circumferences2 showed that each contributed independently to V/H. These cross-sectional observations were generally confirmed by analysis of the two longitudinal weight loss studies. The scaling of circumference ratios (e.g., waist/hip) to V/H conformed to models developed on the scaling of individual circumferences to V/H, indicating their relations to BMI are predictable a priori. Waist, hip, and arm/calf circumferences had the highest associations with whole-body visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle volumes, respectively. Conclusion These observations provide a simple geometric model relating circumferences with body size and composition, introduce a conceptual foundation explaining previous empirical observations, and reveal new clinical insights.

Heymsfield, Steven B; Martin-Nguyen, Allison; Fong, Tung M; Gallagher, Dympna; Pietrobelli, Angelo

2008-01-01

133

Comparison of the Linear Growth of Children with Bone Marrow Transplants to Normal Population Data Using Z-scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare linear growth of pediatric autologous bone marrow transplant patients and allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients to the normal population data using Z-scores. Design Study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of patients who received autologous bone marrow transplants and allogeneic bone marrow transplants, recording heights at time of bone marrow transplant and at one-year intervals post-transplantation.

Krista M. Bums; M. A. Smith; R. Roach; K. Smith

1999-01-01

134

Where is the human waist? Definitions, manual compared toscanner measurements.  

PubMed

Where exactly is the human waist? How do definitions work for women who deviate from the conventional body shape? Does the measuring instrument matter? Waist is conventionally understood to be a measurable zone within the abdominal region of the torso, a zone of considerable importance. There needs to be a good consistent waist definition, one accurate and valid for everyone. Incorrect definition and measurement will result in technical errors, commercial wastage and customer dissatisfaction. This paper investigates the waist's location and size from the point of view of garment construction for 90 adult women scanned and manually measured in a breast reduction study at Flinders Medical Center, South Australia. There are differing definitions of the location of the human waist as well as different measuring instruments. This study compares:• Two definitions:• ISO 8559, 2.1.11 and • CAESAR, Waist Circumference Preferred.• Two different instruments:• the traditional tape measure, and • software-extracted computer-aided anthropometry (CAA). Substantial discrepancies between the results from these two locations-definitions were found. The choice of instrument used seriously affects the measurement obtained. This study demonstrates three things:• waist is not horizontal for a significant sub group of the population,• CAA extracted waist measurements are not accurate (same as real values) or valid (measures the characteristic) for a sub group, and • manually measured CAESAR Preferred Waist accurately and validly measured all individuals studied. There is a clear need to modify ISO waist definition for garment construction to include the full range of anatomical variation encountered amongst women. PMID:22317337

Veitch, Daisy

2012-01-01

135

Change in waist-hip ratio with weight loss and its association with change in cardiovascular risk factors13  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether weight loss decreases the waist-hip ratio (WHR) in overweight men and women, and whether change in WHR relates to change in cardiovascular risk factors, independent ofchange in weight. Weight loss correlated significantly with decreases in the circumference of the waist and hips, and decreases in WHR in men and women. At com- parable levels of weight loss,

Rena R Wing; Robert W Jeffery; Lisa R Burton; Carolyn Thorson; Lewis H Kuller; Aaron R Folsom

136

Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Unhealthy Body Change in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in unhealthy body change was examined in a sample of 143 women university students. They\\u000a completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), reported their level of concern with weight and with WHR,\\u000a and used unmarked measuring tapes to record their subjective (self-perceived), ideal, and objective (measured) waist and hip circumference.\\u000a Although body shape was reported

Alexander J. Mussap

2007-01-01

137

Staging the Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Older Persons Based on Spirometric z-Scores  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Among older persons, the use of spirometric Z-scores as calculated by the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method has a strong scientific rationale for establishing a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its clinical validity in staging COPD severity is not known. We therefore evaluated the association between LMS-staged COPD and health outcomes, in two separate cohorts of older persons. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS, N=3,248) and the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III, N=1,354). Participants Community-living white participants aged 65–80 years. Measurements Using spirometric data, COPD was staged as mild, moderate, and severe based on LMS-derived Z-scores. Clinical validity was then evaluated according to all-cause mortality, respiratory symptoms (chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, or wheezing), and moderate-to-severe dyspnea (available in CHS only). Results In CHS, the LMS-staging of COPD as mild, moderate, and severe was associated with mortality—adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval): 1.50 (1.15, 1.94), 1.31 (1.03, 1.67), and 2.00 (1.70, 2.36), as well as respiratory symptoms—adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.69 (1.12, 2.56), 1.87 (1.28, 2.73), and 3.99 (2.91, 5.48), respectively. Also in CHS, moderate and severe, but not mild, LMS-staged COPD was associated with moderate-to-severe dyspnea—adjusted OR: 2.16 (1.24, 3.75), 3.98 (2.77, 5.74), and 0.84 (0.35, 2.01), respectively. Similar associations were found for mortality and respiratory symptoms in NHANES-III, except mild severity was not associated with mortality—adjusted HR: 0.93 (0.62, 1.40). Conclusion In white older persons, the spirometric staging of COPD severity based on LMS-derived Z-scores was associated with several clinically relevant health outcomes. These results support the use of the LMS method for staging the severity of COPD in older populations.

Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A.; Concato, John; McAvay, Gail; Yaggi, H. Klar; Van Ness, Peter H.; Gill, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

138

An SPSS implementation of the nonrecursive outlier deletion procedure with shifting z score criterion (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994).  

PubMed

Sophisticated univariate outlier screening procedures are not yet available in widely used statistical packages such as SPSS. However, SPSS can accept user-supplied programs for executing these procedures. Failing this, researchers tend to rely on simplistic alternatives that can distort data because they do not adjust to cell-specific characteristics. Despite their popularity, these simple procedures may be especially ill suited for some applications (e.g., data from reaction time experiments). A user friendly SPSS Production Facility implementation of the shifting z score criterion procedure (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994) is presented in an attempt to make it easier to use. In addition to outlier screening, optional syntax modules can be added that will perform tedious database management tasks (e.g., restructuring or computing means). PMID:16956111

Thompson, Glenn L

2006-05-01

139

Hip Circumference and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It has recently been demonstrated that, in middle-aged women, a wide hip circumference is a protective factor for a number of health endpoints in later years. The effect seems to be independent of both overweight and waist circumference. This paper aims to replicate this finding in another population-based sample consisting of women and men.Research Methods and Procedures: This was

Berit L. Heitmann; Peder Frederiksen; Lauren Lissner

2004-01-01

140

Validity of percent body fat predicted from circumferences: classification of men for weight control regulations.  

PubMed

Each of the military services classifies individuals in their weight control programs using percent body fat predicted by circumference-based equations. Although derived independently from service-specific samples, each of the male equations relies on waist circumference adjusted by a neck circumference. In this study, the authors examined the performance of the equations in 496 young (< 40 years) male soldiers, compared to percent body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The strength of the relationship to percent body fat improved from body mass index (weight/height2), to a waist circumference alone, to the difference between waist and neck circumferences. Overweight men who were misclassified by overestimation of total percent body fat using the equations (2.6% of the total sample) had normal neck circumferences and height but large waistlines, indicating that they were still classified appropriately to the goals of the weight control programs, all of which center on abdominal adiposity. The authors demonstrate that each of the service equations yield substantially similar results and discuss why a single equation could be easily agreed to and used by the Department of Defense for male body fat prediction. PMID:9121667

Friedl, K E; Vogel, J A

1997-03-01

141

The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in young adults from the Southern Region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and its associated factors among subjects that have been followed up from birth. In 1982, all maternity hospitals in the city of Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil, were visited and all births were recorded. Babies whose parents lived in the urban area of Pelotas were subsequently followed up on several occasions. A 22 to 23-year follow-up of this birth cohort was carried out in 2004 and 2005. The presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as waist circumference ? 90 cm and triglyceride levels ? 177 mg/dL for males, and waist circumference ? 85 cm and triglyceride levels ? 133 mg/dL for females. The prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 5.9% and 4.5% among men and women, respectively. Among males, a sedentary lifestyle during leisure time, smoking and obesity were associated with the presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, whereas among females the condition was positively associated with skin color, family income, obesity and dietary fat intake. PMID:23703005

Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel; Silveira, Vera M

2013-05-01

142

Cerebral blood flow in patients with diffuse axonal injury--examination of the easy Z-score imaging system utility.  

PubMed

To evaluate the utility of easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) in 27 diffuse axonal injury (DAI) cases. Twenty-seven DAI patients were examined with an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2* sequence and with eZIS (seven women, 20 men; age range, 19-35 years; median age: 26.6 years). In this investigation, we excluded patients who exhibited complications such as acute subdural hematoma, acute epidural hematoma, intracerebral hematoma, or brain contusion. We examined the neuropsychological tests and correlated with findings from MRI/eZIS. Furthermore, we evaluated the degree of ventricular enlargement in the bifrontal cerebroventricular index (CVI). Patients were divided into two groups: the enlargement group (bifrontal CVI > 35%, 12 patients) and the non-enlargement group (bifrontal CVI < 35%, 15 patients). All of the patients showed cognitive deficits as observed from the neuropsychological test results. Fifteen out of 27 patients by MRI T1/T2 weighted images and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 22 out of 27 patients by MRI T2* weighted images and 24 out of 27 patients by eZIS showed abnormal findings. In MRI T2* weighted imaging, the white matter from the frontal lobe, corpus callosum, and brainstem showed abnormal findings. With eZIS, 22 patients (81.5%) showed blood flow degradation in the frontal lobe, and 12 patients (44.4%) in cingulate gyrus. In the enlargement group, Functional Independence Measure, Mini-Mental State Examination, Verbal IQ (VIQ)/Full Scale IQ (FIQ), Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B), and Non-paired of Miyake Paired Test were significantly lower. Amongst 12 patients without ventricular enlargement who had no abnormal findings in MRI T1/T2 weighted images and FLAIR, abnormal findings were detectable in seven patients with MRI T2* weighted imaging and to 10 patients with eZIS. Results of the MRI examination alone cannot fully explain DAI frontal lobe dysfunction. However, addition of the eZIS-assisted analysis derived from the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data enabled us to understand regions where blood flow was decreased, i.e., where neuronal functions conceivably might be reduced. PMID:17437614

Okamoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Aoki, S; Ohashi, M

2007-05-01

143

Slimmer Women's Waist is Associated with Better Erectile Function in Men Independent of Age.  

PubMed

Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness. PMID:23264164

Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

2012-12-22

144

A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities  

PubMed Central

Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Marechal, Eric

2005-01-01

145

A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for

Olivier Bastien; Philippe Ortet; Sylvaine Roy; Eric Maréchal

2005-01-01

146

Intake of brown rice lees reduces waist circumference and improves metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intake of whole grains has been associated with lower risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Brown rice is unrefined whole grain and is produced by removing the outermost layers containing the germ and bran, which are rich in nutrients including dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other unmeasured dietary constituents. The lees of brown rice (LB) are by-products of

Tae Ho Kim; Eun Kyoung Kim; Min-Seok Lee; Hye-Kyoung Lee; Won Sun Hwang; Sun Jung Choe; Tae-Young Kim; Seung Jin Han; Hae Jin Kim; Dae Jung Kim; Kwan-Woo Lee

2011-01-01

147

Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters.

Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

2013-01-01

148

[Analysis of brain images in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration; using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and easy Z score imaging system (eZIS)].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the cerebral blood flow objectively, the easy Z score imaging system (eZIS), was developed, and has been applied in clinical practice. SPECT with 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) was performed, and the images were analyzed using the SPM97 and the eZIS Ver. 2 to investigate cerebral blood flow in patients with two types of spino-cerebellar degeneration. We compared the distribution of cerebral blood flow between 13 patients with cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA) and 26 patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA). In the both groups, cerebellar blood flow was decreased generally. In our evaluation using the eZIS Z score, the scores for the brain stem and cerebellar nucleus in the OPCA group were lower than those in the CCA group. This method facilitates the objective evaluation of cerebral blood flow in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration, and may be useful for analyzing the condition of these disease. PMID:16038429

Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sugihara, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Yoichi

2005-05-01

149

The superiority of waist-to-height ratio as an anthropometric index to evaluate clustering of coronary risk factors among non-obese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds. Overtly obesity is relatively rare among the Japanese despite the high prevalence of metabolic disorders, which suggests the need to develop simple and effective methods for assessing metabolic risks among the non-obese individuals as part of public health education.Methods. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (W\\/Ht) as indices for evaluation of clustering of coronary

Shiun Dong Hsieh; Takashi Muto

2005-01-01

150

Compliant Eating of Maternally Prompted Food Predicts Increased Body Mass Index z-Score Gain in Girls: Results from a Population-Based Sample.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Poorer "division of responsibility" (DoR) feeding, characterized by high parental control and reduced child food choice, may promote pediatric obesity, although population-based prospective data are lacking. We tested whether poorer DoR feeding predicts childhood overweight/obesity onset and BMI z-score gain, over 10 years in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. Methods: We studied 302 girls and 316 boys, with mean ages 52.24 and 52.35 months, respectively, in 1986, who were followed for 10 years. We excluded children who were initially overweight/obese. Mothers completed three DoR feeding questions in 1986: (1) child eating compliance of prompted foods; (2) child eating compliance of initially refused foods; and (3) mother-allotted child food choice. Child BMI (kg/m(2)) was calculated from measured weights and heights in 1986, 1988, 1992, 1994, and 1996. Results: Daughters who complied with maternal food prompts [odds ratio (OR), 2.01] and those who obeyed maternal prompts to consume initially rejected foods (OR, 2.29) "most of the time" were significantly more likely than daughters who complied less frequently to become overweight/obese after 8 years. Also, more frequent eating compliance (p<0.001) and more frequent compliance of initially rejected foods (p=0.003) predicted greater BMI z-score gain in girls. These associations were not found for boys. Maternal obesity consistently predicted overweight/obesity risk in girls (ORs, 2.48-8.63) and boys (ORs, 2.27- 4.03). Conclusions: Teaching parents to avoid coercive feeding practices, while encouraging child self-selection of healthier foods, may help their daughters to achieve better energy balance. PMID:24094145

Faith, Myles S; Heo, Moonseong; Kral, Tanja V E; Sherry, Bettylou

2013-10-01

151

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. Results In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. Conclusions We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive abilities of waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference on the metabolic disease.

Guasch-Ferre, Marta; Bullo, Monica; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Aros, Fernando; Warnberg, Julia; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, Jose; Munoz, Miguel Angel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pinto, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Diaz-Lopez, Andres; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

2012-01-01

152

Crab Waist Collision at DAFNE  

SciTech Connect

DAFNE is an accelerator complex consisting of a double ring lepton collider working at the c.m. energy of the {Phi}-resonance (1.02 GeV) and an injection system. In its original configuration the collider consisted of two independent rings, each {approx}97 m long, sharing two 10 m long interaction regions (IR1 and IR2) where the KLOE and FINUDA or DEAR detectors were respectively installed. A full energy injection system, including an S-band linac, 180 m long transfer lines and an accumulator/damping ring, provides fast and high efficiency electron positron injection also in topping-up mode during collisions. Recently the DAFNE collider has been upgraded in order to implement a new collision scheme based on large Piwinski angle and cancellation of the synchro-betatron resonances by means of electromagnetic sextupoles (Crab-Waist compensation). The novel approach has proved to be effective in improving beam-beam interaction and collider luminosity.

Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; Pellegrino, L.; /Frascati /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Rome U. /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Rome3 /SLAC

2011-11-30

153

Ethnic and gender consensus for the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on judgment of women’s attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western consensus is that obese women are considered attractive by Afro-Americans and by many societies from nonwestern\\u000a developing countries. This belief rests mainly on results of nonstandardized surveys dealing only with body weight and size,\\u000a ignoring body fat distribution. The anatomical distribution of female body fat as measured by the ratio of waist to hip circumference\\u000a (WHR) is related

Devendra Singh; Suwardi Luis

1995-01-01

154

Standard curves for mid arm circumference and mid-arm\\/head circumference ratio in newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

One Thousand singleton neonates, between 28 and 44 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) were measured within 48 hours\\u000a of their birth for upper mid-arm circumference (MAC), head circumference (HC) and birth weight (BW). Regression analysis was\\u000a used to draw standard curves for MAC versus EGA and mid-arm circumference\\/head circumference ratio (MAC\\/HC) versus EGA. Correlation\\u000a coefficients were 0.961 for MAC

Jagdish Narain Sharma; S. Saxena; U. Sharma

1990-01-01

155

Assessing the impact of the introduction of the WHO Growth Standards and weight-for-height Z score criterion on the response to treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children: secondary data analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact of adopting the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHO standards) and weight-for-height (WFH) Z score criterion on the response to treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children, compared with the use of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO growth reference (NCHS reference) and WFH percent of the median criterion. Study Design We used data from children aged 6–59 months with acute malnutrition who were admitted to the Médecins sans Frontières malnutrition treatment program in Maradi, Niger during 2006 (n=56,214). Differences in weight gain, duration of treatment, recovery from malnutrition, mortality, loss to follow up, and need for inpatient care were compared for severely malnourished children identified according to the NCHS reference and percent of the median criterion vs. the WHO standards and the Z score criterion. Results A total of eight times more children (n=25,754) were classified as severely malnourished according to the WHO standards and weight-for-height (WFH) Z score criterion had shorter durations of treatment, greater rates of recovery, fewer deaths, and less loss to follow up or need for inpatient care. Conclusions The introduction of the WHO standards with the Z score criterion to identify children for admission into severe acute malnutrition treatment programs would imply the inclusion of children who are younger but have relatively higher WFH on admission, compared with the NCHS reference. These children have fewer medical complications requiring inpatient care and are more likely to experience shorter durations of treatment and lower mortality. The WHO standards with the Z score criterion might become a useful tool for the early detection of acute malnutrition in children, although further research on the resource implications of this transition is required.

Isanaka, Sheila; Villamor, Eduardo; Shepherd, Susan; Grais, Rebecca F.

2011-01-01

156

Circle Problems - Radius, Diameter, Circumference and Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "fill-in-the-blank" worksheet allows students to generate radius, diameter, circumference, and area for circles given only one of those measurements. There are eight problems and students may check their problems at the end or get a hint when they are stuck. There is also linksin the instructions which review the formulae for the area and circumference of a circle that they can consult as they solve.

2006-01-01

157

Head Circumference Measurements in Children With Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess head circumference in children with autism, 148 charts were retrospectively reviewed. All of the children met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofmental Disorders (DSM-III or DSM-III-R) criteria for autism and had no known underlying condition that might affect head circumference. In addition, data were collected regarding height, weight, brain imaging, cognitive development, adaptive behavior, and language. The children

Michael Davidovitch; Bonnie Patterson; Peter Gartside

1996-01-01

158

Attend To Precision: Circumference and Diameter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #6âattend to precision. The video clip shows two important instances of the idea of precision; that precision is important in their measurements of the circumference and diameter and in their use of vocabulary in context as they discover the relationship between circumference, diameter, circles, and pi. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

159

Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity and markers of body fat in preschool children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sedentary behavior and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometry, with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 357 preschool children. Linear mixed models were used adjusting for race/ethnicity, parental education, and preschool. Follow-up analyses were performed using quantile regression. Among boys, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score (b = 0.080, p = .04) but not with waist circumference; quantile regression showed that MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score at the 50th percentile (b = 0.097, p < .05). Among girls, no associations were observed between sedentary behavior and MVPA in relation to mean BMI z-score and mean waist circumference. Quantile regression indicated that, among girls at the 90th waist circumference percentile, a positive association was found with sedentary behavior (b = 0.441, p < .05), and a negative association was observed with MVPA (b = -0.599, p < .05); no associations were found with BMI z-score. In conclusion, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score among boys, and MVPA was negatively associated and sedentary behavior was positively associated with waist circumference among girls at the 90th percentile. PMID:23406703

España-Romero, Vanesa; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Dowda, Marsha; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R

2013-02-01

160

Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women were selected among study participants of Multiethnic Cohort, who were of ages 60–65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 40 kg/m2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (p=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (p=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (p=0.03) and percent liver fat (p=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size may also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants may be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution.

Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loic

2012-01-01

161

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone. PMID:20708427

Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

2010-08-12

162

Dietary Patterns Throughout Adult Life Are Associated with Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Blood Pressure, and Red  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary patterns are important in the prevention of chronic disease; however, there are few studies that include repeat measures of dietary patterns. The objective of this study was to assess the relations between dietary patterns during adult life (at ages 36, 43, and 53 y) and risk factors for chronic disease at age 53 y. Participants of a longitudinal study

Sarah A. McNaughton; Gita D. Mishra; Alison M. Stephen; Mike E. J. Wadsworth

163

The Relationship of Waist Circumference and BMI to Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat: Sex and Race Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of

Sarah M. Camhi; George A. Bray; Claude Bouchard; Frank L. Greenway; William D. Johnson; Robert L. Newton; Eric Ravussin; Donna H. Ryan; Steven R. Smith; Peter T. Katzmarzyk

2011-01-01

164

Built Environment and 1Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006-2007 to 2007-2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard

M. Moore; Alan Acock; Naruepon Vongjaturapat

2009-01-01

165

Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design  

SciTech Connect

The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

2011-11-02

166

Measuring chest circumference change during respiration with an electromagnetic biosensor.  

PubMed

In this paper, an off-the-shelf DC motor is modified into a chest belt and used to successfully measure circumference change on a mechanical chest model, while simultaneously harvesting significant power. Chest circumference change can provide information on tidal volume, which is vital in assessing lung function. The chest circumference change is calculated from the motor's voltage output. Calculated values are within 0.95mm of measured circumference changes, with a standard deviation of 0.37mm. The wearable motor can also harvest at least 29.4µW during normal breathing. PMID:24110093

Padasdao, Bryson; Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

2013-07-01

167

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Adults in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) performed better than, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) in relation to hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults in Beijing. Methods A total of 5720 adults (2371 men and 3349 nonpregnant women) aged 18 to 79 years were selected from the general population in a cross-sectional study. Data from a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, and blood sample were obtained. Results The area under curve (AUC) values for WHtR (0.661–0.773) were significantly higher than those for BMI for all outcomes in both sexes, except that WHtR and BMI had similar AUCs for dyslipidemia in men. The AUCs for WHtR were significantly higher than those for WC with respect to hypertension in both sexes, and to diabetes in women. AUCs for the relationships between anthropometric indices and the three outcomes were larger in women than in men, and tended to decrease with age. Optimal cutoffs for WHtR were 0.51–0.53 and 0.48–0.50 in men and women, respectively. With regard to the current Chinese criteria for BMI (?24 kg/m2), WC (?90 cm for men, and ?85 cm for women), and the recommended cutoff of WHtR (?0.5), WHtR yielded the greatest odds ratio for hypertension and diabetes in both sexes, and dyslipidemia in women. BMI had the highest odds ratio for dyslipidemia in men. The odds ratios of anthropometric indices for hypertension and diabetes, but not for dyslipidemia, were higher in women than in men. The association between anthropometric indices and the three outcomes decreased with age. Conclusion WHtR performed better than BMI and WC for the association with hypertension and diabetes. More studies should be conducted to explore the age differences in the relationships between obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors.

Cai, Li; Liu, Aiping; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

2013-01-01

168

Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor  

PubMed Central

We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; Lopez, Antonio; Gonzalez, Rafael C.

2012-01-01

169

Fetal Abdominal Circumference as a Predictor of Menstrual Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between fetal abdominal circumference and menstrual age was deter- mined by cross-sectional analysis of 400 fetuses (1 5-41 weeks) examined with a linear- array real-time ultrasound scanner using specifically defined methodology. Mathemat- ical modeling of the data demonstrated that the linear quadratic function was an optimal model ( r2 = 97.9%). Predicted abdominal circumference values at specific points

Frank P. Hadlockt; Russell L. Deter; Ronald B. Harmist; Seung K. Park

170

Secular increases in waist–hip ratio among Swedish women  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Secular increases in obesity have been documented in numerous populations. However, little is known about trends in fat distribution. Because men and women with elevated waist–hip ratios (WHR) constitute a high cardiovascular risk group, it is relevant to document secular changes in WHR. This paper compares WHR in three cohorts of women, one cohort recruited in the late 1960s

L Lissner; C Björkelund; BL Heitmann; L Lapidus; P Björntorp; C Bengtsson

1998-01-01

171

Waist to hip ratio and facial attractiveness: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of facial attractiveness and waist to hip ratio (WHR) on five judgements of attractiveness (attractiveness, sexiness, healthiness, fertility and pregnancy). It was hypothesised that facial attractiveness would be more important than WHR for all measures except for pregnancy. Four levels of WHR were matched with two levels of facial attractiveness

Adrian Furnham; Meritxell Lavancy; Alastair McClelland

2001-01-01

172

Adiposity indices in the prediction of insulin resistance in prepubertal Colombian children  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare BMI with abdominal skinfold thickness (ASF), waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) in prepubertal Colombian children. Design We calculated age- and sex-specific Z-scores for BMI, ASF, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and three other skinfold-thickness sites. Logistic regression with stepwise selection (P = 0·80 for entry and P = 0·05 for retention) was performed to identify predictors of IR and extreme IR, which were determined by age- and sex-specific Z-scores to identify the ? 90th and ? 95th percentile of homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR), respectively. We used receiver operating characteristic curves to compare the area under the curve between models. Setting Bucaramanga, Colombia. Subjects Children (n 1261) aged 6–10 years in Tanner stage 1 from a population-based study. Results A total of 127 children (seventy girls and fifty-seven boys) were classified with IR, including sixty-three children (thirty-three girls and thirty boys) classified with extreme IR. Only ASF and BMI Z-scores were retained as predictors of IR by stepwise selection. Adding ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·794 (95% CI 0·752, 0·837) to 0·811 (95% CI 0·770, 0·851; P for contrast = 0·01). In predicting extreme IR, the addition of ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·837 (95% CI 0·790, 0·884) to 0·864 (95% CI 0·823, 0·905; P for contrast = 0·01). Conclusions ASF Z-score predicted IR independent of BMI Z-score in our population of prepubertal children. ASF and BMI Z-scores together improved IR risk stratification compared with BMI Z-score alone, opening new perspectives in the prediction of cardiometabolic risk in prepubertal children.

Mueller, Noel T; Pereira, Mark A; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Rodriguez, Diana C; Duran, Alvaro E; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Villa-Roel, Cristina

2012-01-01

173

Approximating the Circumference and Area of a Circle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry, difficulty level 2. Take a circle and circumscribe a square and inscribe a square. Constuct a square between the other two squares, and compare the area and the perimeter of the middle square with the area and circumference of the circle.

Forum, Math; Fetter, Annie

2001-01-01

174

Dose-Response Effect of Cocaine on Newborn Head Circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the relationship between head circumference, birth weight, and cocaine dose in healthy term and near-term newborns exposed to cocaine in utero. Methods. We used radioimmune assay (RIAH) of co- caine metabolite in maternal hair to quantify third tri- mester cocaine exposure in 240 healthy newborn infants (gestational age: >36 weeks). Cocaine exposure was cat- egorized into 3

David A. Bateman; Claudia A. Chiriboga

2000-01-01

175

Changes in plasma endocannabinoid levels in viscerally obese men following a 1 year lifestyle modification programme and waist circumference reduction: associations with changes in metabolic risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We previously reported that the plasma levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in a cohort of viscerally\\u000a obese men are directly correlated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and metabolic risk factors including low\\u000a HDL-cholesterol and high triacylglycerol. It is not known, however, if such correlations persist after vigorous lifestyle\\u000a interventions that reduce metabolic risk factors. We analysed the changes

V. Di Marzo; M. Côté; I. Matias; I. Lemieux; B. J. Arsenault; A. Cartier; F. Piscitelli; S. Petrosino; N. Alméras; J.-P. Després

2009-01-01

176

Rice-eating pattern and the risk of metabolic syndrome especially waist circumference in Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome poses a serious health threat in Asian countries. Rice is a staple food in Korea, and carbohydrate intake is associated with the risk of MetS. We hypothesized that various rice-eating patterns in a carbohydrate-based diet would have different effects on the risk of MetS. Methods Participants were 26,006 subjects enrolled in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2004 and 2006. They were classified into four dietary patterns - white rice, rice with beans, rice with multi-grains, and mixed based on their food frequency questionnaire responses. We compared metabolic risk traits according to the rice-eating patterns. Results Nutrients consumption and the presence of MetS risk factors differed according to rice-eating patterns. In men odds ratio(OR) for central obesity was slightly elevated in mixed group(1.18). In women, the risk for central obesity and abnormal fasting glucose were lower in the rice with beans group (adjusted OR =0.79, 0.83 respectively) and central obesity in rice with multi-grains(adjusted OR=0.91) than the white rice group. In postmenopausal women, ORs for central obesity (0.78) and abnormal fasting glucose (0.75) in the rice with beans group and ORs for central obesity (0.83), abnormal HDL-cholesterol (0.87) and MetS(0.85) in the rice with multi-grains group was lower than those in white rice group. In premenopausal women, the risk for central obesity (OR=0.77) was reduced in the rice with beans group. Conclusion The risk for MetS was lower in the rice with beans and rice with multi-grains groups compared with the white rice group, particularly in postmenopausal women.

2013-01-01

177

Non-obese (body mass index < 25 kg\\/m 2) Asian Indians with normal waist circumference have high cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAlthough the prevalence of obesity is not high in Asian Indians, increased prevalence rates of metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular risk factors have been reported. In this study, we evaluated body mass index (BMI), anthropometric measurements, and body fat profiles of obese and non-obese subjects and correlated those values with cardiovascular risk factors.

Naval K Vikram; Ravindra Mohan Pandey; Anoop Misra; Rekha Sharma; J Rama Devi; Nidhi Khanna

2003-01-01

178

The Modifying Effects of A Calcium-rich Whey Protein Supplement (OsoLean™ Powder) on Weight Loss and Waist Circumference in Overweight Subjects: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 8-week, open-label study evaluated the effects of a specialized whey protein supplement (OsoLean™ powder), rich in bioactive peptides and calcium, on weight loss in a convenience sample of healthy, overweight adults. Participants were advised to restrict their daily caloric intake and instructed to add the supplement to the beverage of their choice before breakfast and dinner. Subjects were provided

Robert A. Sinnott; Rolando L. Maddela; Erika D. Nelson; Sejong Bae; Karan P. Singh; Jane A. Anderson

2009-01-01

179

The association between low physical fitness and high body mass index or waist circumference is increasing with age in children: the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate physical fitness and body composition of children involved in the ‘Québec en Forme’ (QEF) Project and to compare data obtained to the reference values of the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS).Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 1140 children (591 boys and 549 girls) of first (7 years), second (8 years) and fourth (10 years) grade from primary schools in the

M Brunet; J-P Chaput; A Tremblay

2007-01-01

180

Body mass index, waist to hip ratio and waist\\/height in adult Polish women in relation to their education, place of residence, smoking and alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder that develops from genotype and environmental interactions. The aim of this study is to describe the variability of body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height (W\\/Ht) in adult Polish women, and to determine relationships between these variables and factors such as education, place of residence, smoking and alcohol

M. Skrzypczak; A. Szwed; R. Pawli?ska-Chmara; V. Skrzypulec

2008-01-01

181

Implementation of Double-Waist Chicane Optics in SPEAR3  

SciTech Connect

The SPEAR3 accelerator upgrade opened up two 7.6m racetrack straights in the magnet lattice. In one of these straights, we recently added a magnetic chicane to separate two insertion device (ID) beam lines by 10mrad. A quadrupole triplet in the center creates a ''double focus'' optics with {beta}y = 1.6m at the middle of each ID, hence the term ''double-waist chicane''. The new optics also reduced {beta}y in the four matching straights adjacent to the racetrack straights to 2.5m. In this paper, we outline design features of the optics and physical implementation of the lattice.

Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Dao, T.; Dell'Orco, D.; Rafael, F.; Harrington, D.; Hettel, R.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Rarback, H.; Ringwall, A.; Safranek, J.; Scott, B.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Widmeyer, M.; /SLAC, SSRL; Yoon, Moohyun; /POSTECH

2006-08-16

182

A Prospective Study of LINE-1DNA Methylation and Development of Adiposity in School-Age Children  

PubMed Central

Background Repetitive element DNA methylation is related to prominent obesity-related chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease; yet, little is known of its relation with weight status. We examined associations of LINE-1 DNA methylation with changes in adiposity and linear growth in a longitudinal study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods We quantified methylation of LINE-1 elements from peripheral leukocytes of 553 children aged 5–12 years at baseline using pyrosequencing technology. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 months. We estimated mean change in three age-and sex-standardized indicators of adiposity: body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score, waist circumference Z-score, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold thickness ratio Z-score according to quartiles of LINE-1 methylation using mixed effects regression models. We also examined associations with height-for-age Z-score. Results There were non-linear, inverse relations of LINE-1 methylation with BMI-for-age Z-score and the skinfold thickness ratio Z-score. After adjustment for baseline age and socioeconomic status, boys in the lowest quartile of LINE-1 methylation experienced annual gains in BMI-for-age Z-score and skinfold thickness ratio Z-score that were 0.06 Z/year (P?=?0.04) and 0.07 Z/year (P?=?0.03), respectively, higher than those in the upper three quartiles. The relation of LINE-1 methylation and annual change in waist circumference followed a decreasing monotonic trend across the four quartiles (P trend?=?0.02). DNA methylation was not related to any of the adiposity indicators in girls. There were no associations between LINE-1 methylation and linear growth in either sex. Conclusions Lower LINE-1 DNA methylation is related to development of adiposity in boys.

Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Rozek, Laura S.; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

2013-01-01

183

Nonlinear Dynamics in the SPEAR 3 Double-Waist Chicane  

SciTech Connect

One of the two 7.6 m long straight sections in SPEAR3 has been divided into two short straights to provide places for two new small-gap insertion devices (IDs). A chicane generates an angular separation of 10 mrad between the two straights. A quadrupole triplet has been added in the center of the 7.6 m long chicane to create a 'double-waist chicane' optics with {beta}{sub {gamma}}=1.6 m at the center of each of two future IDs. The new optics also reduces {beta}{sub {gamma}}to 2.5 m in the four 4.8 m straight sections. In this paper, the authors discuss nonlinear dynamic studies associated with design and implementation of the new optics. They present tracking results generated during the design stage and compare them to nonlinear dynamics measurements made with the quadrupole triplet installed in SPEAR3.

Safranek, J.A.; Huang, X.; Terebilo, A.; /SLAC

2007-08-08

184

The Short Circumference Damping Ring Design for the ILC  

SciTech Connect

The ILC damping ring tentative design is driven by the operational scenario of the main linac, the beam-dynamics demand of producing a stable and high-quality beam, the injection/extraction scheme and the kicker performance. In this paper, a short circumference damping ring design based on TME cells is described. The ring accommodates injection kickers which provide a flat top of 280 nsec and a 60 nsec rise and fall time and very fast strip-line kickers for beam extraction with a 2 nsec rise and fall time for 3-MHz operation.

Korostelev, M.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Kubo, K.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Naito, T.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

2006-03-14

185

Least Restrictive or Least Understood? Waist Restraints, Provider Practices, and Risk of Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since implementation of The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, restraint use in American nursing homes has reduced dramatically. The reduction in vest restraints has resulted in an increase in “least restrictive” devices such as waist restraints. Although this analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting Data Files found that waist devices pose the same potential risk

Elizabeth Capezuti; Barbara L. Brush; Regina M. Won; Laura M. Wagner; William T. Lawson

2008-01-01

186

Occipitofrontal circumference in newborns of betamethasone treated mothers.  

PubMed

Celestona (betamethasone-disodiumphosphate) and Celeston (betamethasone-acetat + betamethasone-disodiumphosphate) given intramuscularly to pregnant women in order to reduce the frequency of respiratory distress syndrome does not reduce the occipitofrontal circumference of the newborn infants. Before the results from the actual work were available an impeding effect of the evolution of the brain was found in the light of animal experiments. The material is comprised of 52 newborn infants whose mothers were treated with Celestona 8 mg daily for 3 days and 46 infants treated with Celeston 12 mg daily for 3 days. The untreated population comprises 1012 newborn infants. Excluded were non-caucasian infants, twins, stillborns and cases of uncertain gestational age. The occipitofrontal circumference in normal infants and those infants treated with betamethasone were compared in Figs. 2 and 3. Focusing only upon cases in which corticoids were given more than 7 days before delivery and in which no placental dysfunction was diagnosed, no differences from the normal were found (Tabs. II and III, and Figs. 3 A and B). PMID:6668528

Verder, H; Kjer, J J; Hess, J; Gildsig, K

1983-01-01

187

Android fat distribution by age and sex. The waist hip ratio.  

PubMed

The waist hip ratio, an indicator of upper body fat distribution, is an early sign of atherogenic disease and diabetes risk. The distribution of the waist hip ratio in 18,393 members of the French population aged 17 to 60 years is described according to sex and five year age groups. Men had a higher mean waist hip ratio (0.913 vs 0.791, p < 0.001) and women a higher standard deviation (0.074 vs 0.067, p < 0.001). The distributions overlapped by only 33%. Sex-specific figures show the waist hip dispersion according to age. If this parameter is a reliable clinical indicator in cardiovascular and metabolic epidemiology these descriptive data are essential. They precede the study of possible associations between the waist hip ratio and the risk factors for insulin resistance, atherogenic diseases and diabetes. PMID:8339860

Tichet, J; Vol, S; Balkau, B; Le Clesiau, H; D'Hour, A

188

Measurement of beam waist for an optical cavity based on Gouy phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical cavities have a variety of applications. However, a highly accurate and efficient method for measuring cavity beam waist size is urgently needed. In this article, we propose a simple approach to deduce the optical cavity beam waist size in terms of Gouy phase using a round-trip matrix for n-mirror cavities. Since Gouy phase can be easily and accurately obtained, this approach provides an alternative way of measuring the beam waist size. Experimentally, the effectiveness of this new method has been demonstrated in a 2-mirror cavity and a 4-mirror planar cavity. The results of beam waist size measurement show fairly good agreement with theoretically predicted values. This method is much simpler, and more convenient than other beam waist size measurement methods, e.g. methods based on pinhole photodiode or CCD.

You, Yan; Urakawa, Junji; Rawankar, Arpit; Aryshev, Alexander; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Honda, Yosuke; Yan, Lixin; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang

2012-12-01

189

Determinants and impact of sleep duration in children and adolescents: data of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: This study investigates determinants of sleep duration and its impact on nutritional status, resting energy expenditure (REE), cardiometabolic risk factors and hormones in children\\/adolescents.Subjects\\/Methods: In 207 girls and 207 boys (13.0±3.4 (6.1–19.9) years) body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), waist circumference (WC) z-score, body composition (air-displacement plethysmography), REE (ventilated hood system; n=312) and cardiometabolic risk factors\\/hormones (n=250)

B Hitze; A Bosy-Westphal; F Bielfeldt; U Settler; S Plachta-Danielzik; M Pfeuffer; J Schrezenmeir; H Mönig; M J Müller

2009-01-01

190

Ethnic differences in the association between waist-to-height ratio and albumin-creatinine ratio: the observational SUNSET study  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic differences in the association between central obesity and raised albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) have not been investigated. Our aim was to determine whether the association between central obesity, defined by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and ACR differed between subjects of Hindustani-Surinamese, African-Surinamese and Dutch origin. Methods In total, 334 Hindustani-Surinamese (~South Asian), 589 African-Surinamese (~African), and 493 Dutch (~European) men and women, aged 35–60?years, randomly selected from the municipal register of Amsterdam, participated in an interview and physical examination. We calculated the WHtR by dividing the waist circumference by height and the log ACR (logACR, log mg/mmol) by log-transforming the albumin concentration by the creatinine concentration in urine. The association between WHtR and logACR was studied in the total population and stratified by ethnicity. We also tested for interaction. Results In the total population, a higher WHtR was associated with a higher logACR, after adjustment for sex, age, and smoking, body mass index and the presence of type 2 diabetes or hypertension. Among the Hindustani-Surinamese, the adjusted association between WHtR and logACR appeared somewhat stronger than among the other ethnic groups: for every 0.1 increase in the WHtR, the log-ACR increased by 0.522 (0.096-0.949) log mg/mmol among the Hindustani-Surinamese, by 0.334 (0.047-0.622) among the African-Surinamese and by 0.356 (?0.010-0.721) among the Dutch. However, the interaction was not statistically significant. Conclusions WHtR was associated with a higher ACR among populations of Hindustani-Surinamese, African-Surinamese and Dutch origin. Our study seems to support global use of WHtR in relation to ACR across ethnic groups. However, although not significant, the association appeared slightly stronger among the Hindustani-Surinamese than among the other ethnic groups. If confirmed, this could have implications for use of the WHtR across ethnic groups.

2012-01-01

191

Behavioral covariates of waist-to-hip ratio in Rancho Bernardo.  

PubMed Central

We examined lifestyle and dietary habits in 685 men and 943 women (mean age 67 years) who completed an interview, examination, and food frequency questionnaire in 1984-87. Waist-to-hip ratio increased with age and body mass index in both men and women. In multiple regression, waist-to-hip ratio was independently associated with smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise in men, and with smoking and alcohol consumption in women. The data suggest that waist-to-hip ratio is affected, at least in part, by behavioral, and potentially modifiable, factors.

Laws, A; Terry, R B; Barrett-Connor, E

1990-01-01

192

Waist location and Rayleigh range for higher-order mode laser beams  

SciTech Connect

Self has presented simple equations for Gaussian-mode laser beams for calculating focused waist location and beam waist magnification in terms of the Rayleigh range. Since the Rayleigh range is a purely geometrical quantity. Self's equations can also be applied to higher-order mode beams. A convenient form of the Rayleigh range for Hermite-Gaussian modes is presented along with representative results for Co/sub 2/ laser industrial processing facilities.

Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.; Karkheck, J.

1984-07-01

193

Apparatus for precision focussing and positioning of a beam waist on a target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention relates to optical focussing apparatus and, more particularly, to optical apparatus for focussing a highly collimated Gaussian beam which provides independent and fine control over the focus waist diameter, the focus position both along the beam axis and transverse to the beam, and the focus angle. A beam focussing and positioning apparatus provides focussing and positioning for the waist of a waisted beam at a desired location on a target such as an optical fiber. The apparatus includes a first lens, having a focal plane f sub 1, disposed in the path of an incoming beam and a second lens, having a focal plane f sub 2 and being spaced downstream from the first lens by a distance at least equal to f sub 1 + 10 f sub 2, which cooperates with the first lens to focus the waist of the beam on the target. A rotatable optical device, disposed upstream of the first lens, adjusts the angular orientation of the beam waist. The transverse position of the first lens relative to the axis of the beam is varied to control the transverse position of the beam waist relative to the target (a fiber optic as shown) while the relative axial positions of the lenses are varied to control the diameter of the beam waist and to control the axial position of the beam waist. Mechanical controllers C sub 1, C sub 2, C sub 3, C sub 4, and C sub 5 control the elements of the optical system. How seven adjustments can be made to correctly couple a laser beam into an optical fiber is illustrated. Prior art systems employing optical techniques to couple a laser beam into an optical fiber or other target simply do not provide the seven necessary adjustments. The closest known prior art, a Newport coupler, provides only two of the seven required adjustments.

Lynch, Dana H.; Gunter, William D.; McAlister, Kenneth W.

1991-12-01

194

Klippel-Feil syndrome: patterns of bony fusion and wasp-waist sign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine radiographs of 33 patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome were studied for patterns of bony fusion and presence of wasp-waist sign. Five patients were found to have the classic features of massive cervical fusion. Two patients with two adjacent levels of bony fusion showed a wasp-waist sign. Fusion at one level of the cervical spine accounted for 26 remaining cases.

V. D. Nguyen; R. Tyrrel

1993-01-01

195

Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

2010-07-01

196

Neck circumference and other clinical features in the diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neck circumference has been suggested to be more predictive of obstructive sleep apnoea than general obesity, but the statistical validity of this conclusion has been questioned. Combining neck circumference with other signs and symptoms may allow the clinical diagnosis or exclusion of sleep apnoea to be made with reasonable confidence. This study examines these issues. METHODS: One hundred and

R J Davies; N J Ali; J R Stradling

1992-01-01

197

Additive Genetic Relationships Between Heifer Pregnancy and Scrotal Circumference in Hereford Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to deter- mine an appropriate method for using yearling scrotal circumference observations and heifer pregnancy ob- servations to produce EPD for heifer pregnancy. We determined the additive genetic effects of and relation- ship between scrotal circumference and heifer preg- nancy for a herd of Hereford cattle in Solano, New Mex- ico. The binary trait

J. L. Evans; B. L. Golden; R. M. Bourdon; K. L. Long; J. B. S. Ferraz; F. Dias

2009-01-01

198

Intraobserver and Interobserver Agreements of Leg Circumference Measurements by Tape Measure Based on 3 Reference Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver agreements in tape measurements of the ankle and calf circumference with due emphasis on the 3 main reference points, the patella, the tibial tuberosity, and the medial malleolus. The leg circumference at 2 locations was measured in 66 patients in the mornings of 2 consecutive days by 6

Recep Tunc; Aygul Caglayan-Tunc; Gurcan Kisakol; Gulhan Kanat Unler; Taha Hidayetoglu; Hasan Yazici

2007-01-01

199

Supine length, weight and head circumference at birth in central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean ± standard deviation of boys’ and girls’ (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 ± 30 and 497 ± 31 (p <

S. M. T. Ayatollahi; Mohammad Rafiei

2007-01-01

200

Head circumference growth reference charts for Turkish children aged 0-84 months.  

PubMed

This study sought to produce updated head circumference references in a representative population of Turkish children aged 0 to <84 months. Head circumference measurements are very important in monitoring child growth, to evaluate macrocephaly and microcephaly. Primary sampling units involved family health centers in the city center and suburbs of Kayseri. In total, 2989 children (1479 boys and 1510 girls) were included. Head circumference was measured with a nonelastic tape on a line passing over the glabella and posterior occipital protrusion in children aged 0-2 years lying on a bed, and children aged more than 2 years standing up. We compared the 50th percentile of our cross-sectional data with longitudinal Belgian and American data. The comparison indicated that Turkish head circumference percentiles were similar to, or not much lower than, Belgian and American percentiles. Head circumference percentiles can be used to evaluate children with microcephaly and macrocephaly (±2 standard deviations), and to monitor growth. PMID:22520352

Elmali, Ferhan; Altunay, Canan; Mazicioglu, Mümtaz M; Kondolot, Meda; Ozturk, Ahmet; Kurtoglu, Selim

2012-05-01

201

Analysis of factors affecting birthweight, birth length and head circumference: study of Japanese triplets.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to identify factors associated with birthweight, birth length and head circumference for triplets, and analyze these body size parameters at birth, especially head circumference, according to gestational age. The subjects of this study were 370 mothers and their 1109 triplet children (excluding one stillborn infant) who were born between 1978 and 2002. The gestational age proved to be the strongest contributing factor to birthweight, birth length and head circumference of the triplets. Moreover, sex was a significant factor affecting birthweight, birth length and head circumference. Male neonates had a higher birthweight, longer birth length and greater head circumference than female neonates. Birth order in triplets also had a significant effect on birthweight and head circumference. Lower birth-order neonates had a higher birthweight and greater head circumference. An effect of maternal pregravid body mass index (BMI) on both birthweight and birth length was observed. The birthweights of triplets born to women whose pregravid BMIs were more than 26.0 kg/m2 weighed an average of 150 g more than those of triplets born to women whose pregravid BMIs were less than 19.8 kg/m2, and the birth length of triplets born to women whose pregravid BMIs were more than 26.0 kg/m2 averaged 1.5 cm longer than those of triplets born to women whose pregravid BMIs were less than 19.8 kg/m2. Concerning head circumference, the median head circumference of male neonates was approximately 0.5 cm longer than female neonates. Compared to singleton neonates, the median head circumference of triplets was almost the same. PMID:16354507

Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sugimoto, Masako; Ooki, Syuichi

2005-12-01

202

Optimal Waist-to-Height Ratio Values for Cardiometabolic Risk Screening in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of South African Urban and Rural School Boys and Girls  

PubMed Central

Background The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. Methods Metabolic syndrome (MetS) components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10–16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden’s index and the closest-top-left (CTL) point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. Results The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5), but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4) and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7) based on the Youden’s index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden’s index0.505 (31.6, 87.1) and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9). Conclusion The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

Matsha, Tandi E.; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Yako, Yandiswa Y.; Hon, Gloudina M.; Hassan, Mogamat S.; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

2013-01-01

203

Waist to hip ratio and trunk to extremity fat (DXA) are better surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively than for subcutaneous fat in adolescent girls  

PubMed Central

Background Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are associated with increased metabolic risk. Clinical and DXA body composition measures that are associated with VAT are generally even more strongly associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) reflecting general adiposity, and thus are not specific for VAT. Measures more strongly associated with VAT than SAT (thus more specific for VAT), and predictors of IMCL have not been reported. Subjects/Methods We studied 30 girls 12-18 years; 15 obese, 15 normal-weight. The following were assessed: (1) anthropometric measures: waist circumference at the umbilicus and iliac crest (WC-UC and WC-IC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), (2) DXA measures: total fat, percent body fat (PBF), percent trunk fat (PTF), trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR), (3) MRI and 1H-MRS: VAT and SAT (L4-L5), soleus-IMCL. Results Group as a whole: WC, trunk fat and PBF were more strongly associated with SAT than VAT; none were specific for VAT. In contrast, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.83 and 0.81 respectively, p <0.0001 for both) than SAT (r = 0.77 and 0.75, p < 0.0001 for both). Strongest associations of S-IMCL were with WHR (r = 0.66, p = 0.0004). Subgroup analysis: In obese girls, WHR and WHtR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.62 and 0.82, p = 0.04 and 0.001) than SAT (r = 0.41 and 0.73, p not significant and 0.007), and for DXA measures, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.70 and 0.72, p = 0.007 and 0.006) than SAT (r = 0.52 and 0.53, p = 0.07 and 0.06). In controls, PTF and TEFR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.79, p = 0.0004 for both) than SAT (r = 0.71 and 0.72, p = 0.003 for both). WHR was associated with IMCL in obese girls (r = 0.78, p = 0.008), but not controls. Conclusion Overall, WHR (anthropometry), and PTF and TEFR (DXA) are good surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively in adolescent girls.

2010-01-01

204

Stable Isotope Analysis Challenges Wasp-Waist Food Web Assumptions in an Upwelling Pelagic Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Eastern boundary currents are often described as ‘wasp-waist’ ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for ?13C and ?15N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007–2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations.

Madigan, Daniel J.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

205

Anthropometric Measures and Fasting Insulin Levels in Children Before and after Cure of Cushing syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Children with Cushing syndrome present with growth delay and excess adiposity that tends to be generalized rather than centripetal. There are no prospective studies of this phenotype as it evolves before and after treatment in children. The aims of this study were to evaluate children prior to and one-year after surgical cure compared to controls and to determine fasting insulin levels and their possible association with waist circumference and waist-height ratio, pre- and post-cure of Cushing syndrome. Methods 30 children with Cushing syndrome were evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment and compared to 14 age and body mass index-matched controls. Results Only triceps skin fold z- score showed a significant difference between patients with active Cushing syndrome and controls. A positive correlation between fasting insulin levels and waist circumference z- score was found for children with Cushing syndrome; this association persisted one-year following cure. Conclusions Unlike adults affected with Cushing syndrome, upper arm muscle area of children with Cushing syndrome did not differ from obese children without Cushing syndrome. The persistence of a positive correlation between waist circumference and fasting insulin despite remission of Cushing syndrome suggests that children with a history of Cushing syndrome may have an increased risk for adverse long-term effects of increased abdominal fat mass. Clinical Trial numbers: NCT00001595, NCT00001452, NCT00005927

Keil, Margaret F; Graf, Jennifer; Gokarn, Nirmal; Stratakis, Constantine A

2011-01-01

206

Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Based Nutrition Programming: Evidence for a New Approach in Regions with High Burden of Acute Malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Background In therapeutic feeding programs (TFP), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) shows advantages over weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an independent criterion for screening children 6–59 months old. Here we report outcomes and treatment response from a TFP using MUAC ?118 mm or oedema as sole admission criteria for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Methods Patient data from September 2007 to March 2009 for children admitted by MUAC ?118 mm or oedema to a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) TFP in Burkina Faso were retrospectively analyzed. Analysis included anthropometric measurements at admission and discharge, program outcomes and treatment response. Results Of 24,792 patient outcomes analyzed, nearly half (48.8%; n?=?12,090) were admitted with MUAC 116–118 mm. Most patients (88.7%; n?=?21,983) were 6–24 months old. At admission, 52.7% (n?=?5,041) of those with MUAC 116–118 mm had a WHZ

Goossens, Sylvie; Bekele, Yodit; Yun, Oliver; Harczi, Geza; Ouannes, Marie; Shepherd, Susan

2012-01-01

207

Gait Control for Redundant Legged Biped Robot at Constant Velocity and Constant Height of the Waist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a gait control method for redundant legged biped robot based on leg center of mass (COM) position control at constant velocity and constant height of the waist. The developed biped robot has redundant legs, which have 4 degree-of-freedoms (DOFs) on each in the saggital plane. The redundant DOF enables to move its leg tip position and its leg COM position independently. Therefore proposed robot has structural capability to control the leg COM position for keeping the projection of the total COM inside the support polygon without upper body motion. Such capability enables the stable static walk in the arbitrarily desired velocity and height of the waist motion. The validity of the proposed method for the static walk at constant velocity and constant height of the waist in the leg COM position control for redundant legged biped robot is confirmed by several results of simulation and experiment.

Shima, Ryoichi; Haishi, Masahiko; Shibata, Masaaki

208

Circumference reduction and cellulite treatment with a TriPollar radiofrequency device: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A wide variety of treatments for circumference reduction and cellulite are available, but most procedures offer suboptimal clinical effect and\\/or delayed therapeutic outcome. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of the TriPollar radiofrequency device for cellulite treatment and circumference reduction. Methods Thirty-nine females with cellulite received eight weekly TriPollar treatments. Treatment areas included the abdomen, thighs, buttocks and

W Manuskiatti; C Wachirakaphan; N Lektrakul; S Varothai

2009-01-01

209

Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity.  

PubMed

We suggest that a simple, rapid screening tool-the waist-to-height ratio (WHTR)-could help to overcome debates about the use of different body mass index (BMI) boundary values for assessing health risks in different populations. There are six reasons for our proposal: WHTR is more sensitive than BMI as an early warning of health risks. WHTR is cheaper and easier to measure and calculate than BMI. A boundary value of WHTR = 0.5 indicates increased risk for men and women. A boundary value of WHTR = 0.5 indicates increased risk for people in different ethnic groups. WHTR boundary values can be converted into a consumer-friendly chart. WHTR may allow the same boundary values for children and adults. Communicating messages about health risk could be much simpler if the same anthropometric index and the same public health message can be used throughout childhood, into adult life, and throughout the world. This simple message is: Keep your waist circumference to less than half your height. PMID:16236591

Ashwell, Margaret; Hsieh, Shiun Dong

2005-08-01

210

SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF INCREMENTAL CHANGES IN WAIST-TO-HIP RATIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) differentially affects males and females in their preference for female images. A WHR of approximately .70 is considered an indicator of health and fertility for females, and previous research indicates that participants perceive images with WHRs closer to .70 as more attractive (Singh, 1993a; Singh & Young, 1994; Streeter & McBurney, 2003). A

Dan Rempala; Kilian Garvey

2007-01-01

211

Hypertriglyceridemic waist may explain ethnic differences in hypertension among patients with type 2 diabetes in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is common among persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between ethnicity and hypertension prevalence after adjusting for age, sex, Hba1c, total cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist. The study population consisted of 354 primary health care patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (173 Assyrians/Syrians and 181 Swedes) residing in Södertälje, Sweden. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Hypertension prevalence was higher among Swedes than Assyrians/Syrians, (77% versus 58%; p?=?0.001). In the unadjusted logistic regression model, the odds ratio for hypertension in Swedes was twice as high than that in Assyrians/Syrians (OR?=?2.44; 95% CI =1.54-3.86). In the age- and sex-adjusted model, odds ratio of hypertension was 2.25 (95% CI 1.41-3.60). After adjustments for total cholesterol was made, the odds ratio of hypertension decreased slightly to 1.73. When elevated triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist were separately introduced, the odds ratio of hypertension was no longer significant between the ethnic groups (1.60 and 1.43 for triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist respectively). In addition, advanced age – 60–69 years old (OR?=?1.80, CI 95% 1.00-3.20) and???70 years old (OR?=?2.88, CI 95% 1.40-5.93), elevated total cholesterol (OR?=?1.48, CI 95% 1.12-1.95) and presents of hypertriglyceridemic waist (those with high WC and high TG) were significant confounding factors for the increased risk of hypertension independent of ethnicity. Conclusions The crude differences in prevalence of hypertension between the Swedes and Assyrians/Syrians in our study population with type 2 diabetes were no longer significant when adjusting for high triglycerides levels or the presence of hypertriglyceridemic waist.

2012-01-01

212

Automated measurement of skull circumference, cranial index, and braincase volume from pediatric computed tomography.  

PubMed

Normative values of pediatric skull circumference, cranial index, and braincase volume would inform multiple disciplines including neurosurgery, plastic surgery and anthropology. Semi-automated methods exist for obtaining these data but are time consuming and require expertise. We report on a new method for automated extraction of in vivo measures of pediatric crania based on x-ray computed tomography scans (CT). Data were obtained from a clinical image repository for pediatric populations in whom no pathology was noted. The automated process showed good agreement with semi-automated measures, although there was a small bias for both braincase volume and circumference. We developed an open source program to automatically extract measures of skull circumference, cranial index, and braincase volume that are likely to prove useful in multiple disciplines. PMID:24110603

Smith, Kirk; Politte, David; Reiker, Gregory; Nolan, Tracy S; Hildebolt, Charles; Mattson, Chelsea; Tucker, Don; Prior, Fred; Turovets, Sergei; Larson-Prior, Linda J

2013-07-01

213

Anthropometric Analysis of Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Asian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The universally accepted attractive female figure has a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 0.7 or 0.68 (WHR of the Venus de Milo).\\u000a Using WHR and other parameters, the authors attempted to investigate chronologic changes in perceptions of the attractive\\u000a female figure in Korean society, differences between Asian and Western societies in this respect, and changes in attractiveness\\u000a with respect to body

Young Jun Hong; Heung Sik Park; Eun Sang Lee; Young Ju Suh

2009-01-01

214

Afro-venezuelan hypertensive patients: obesity and cardiovascular risk according to waist-to-hip ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is associated with Arterial Hypertension and several metabolic complications, and is considered a predictor of risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Body mass index (BMI) and Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in Afro-Venezuelan communities and determinate the frequency of Obesity and evaluate the cardiovascular risk according to WHR. The Subjects came from black communities

A. Delgado; R. Farias; S. Celis; R. Alvarez; F. Fragachán

2000-01-01

215

Waist-to-hip ratio and preferences for body shape: A replication and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from Singh (1993a, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 293–307; 1993b, Human Nature, 4, 297–321; 1994, Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 123–132; 1995, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1089–1101) clearly demonstrates the relation of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and apparent overall body weight to attractiveness judgements of male and female figures. The present study is a cross-cultural

Adrian Furnham; Tina Tan; Chris McManus

1997-01-01

216

Abdominal circumference vs. estimated weight to predict large for gestational age birth weight in diabetic pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early third trimester fetal abdominal circumference and sonographic fetal weight estimates were compared to predict large for gestational age birth weight in diabetic pregnancy. Both parameters have similar sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. However, the optimal percentile cutoff values differ. Choice of birth weight standard significantly influences test characteristics. Negative prediction of large birth weight is more accurate than positive

William L Holcomb; Dorothea J Mostello; Diana L Gray

2000-01-01

217

Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference  

PubMed Central

To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association (GWA) studies (N=10,768 from European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N=19,089). Rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P=8.1×10?9), and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P=2.8×10?10) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height1, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P=3.8×10?7 for rs7980687, P=1.3×10?7 for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P=3.9×10?6). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal show genome-wide association with adult intra cranial volume2, Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases3-5, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life.

Warrington, Nicole M; Kaakinen, Marika; Kreiner-M?ller, Eskil; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Freathy, Rachel M; Geller, Frank; Guxens, Monica; Cousminer, Diana L; Kerkhof, Marjan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ikram, M Arfan; Beilin, Lawrence J; B?nnelykke, Klaus; Buxton, Jessica L; Charoen, Pimphen; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Eriksson, Johan; Evans, David M; Hofman, Albert; Kemp, John P; Kim, Cecilia E; Klopp, Norman; Lahti, Jari; Lye, Stephen J; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Muller, Martina; O'Reilly, Paul F; Prokopenko, Inga; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Steegers, Eric A P; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiesler, Carla; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Breteler, Monique M B; Debette, Stephanie; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Vernooij, Meike W; Blakemore, Alexandra IF; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fernandez-Benet, Julio; Grant, Struan F A; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; van der Heijden, Albert J; Iniguez, Carmen; Lathrop, Mark; McArdle, Wendy L; M?lgaard, Anne; Newnham, John P; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pouta, Annneli; Ring, Susan M; Sovio, Ulla; Standl, Marie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wichmann, H-Erich; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; DeCarli, Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia M; McCarthy, Mark I; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Estivill, Xavier; Hattersley, Andrew T; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Pennell, Craig E; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

2013-01-01

218

A Comparison of Volume and Circumference Phallometry: Response Magnitude and Method Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penile circumference and penile volumephallometry are laboratory methods of assessing sexualarousal. Volume phallometry is reportedly more sensitiveto responses, but comparative studies have beeninconclusive and beset with methodological problems. In thisstudy, 42 self-professed heterosexual volunteers wereassessed with both methods simultaneously, employing astandard test for erotic partner preference. Pearson correlations between test outcomeprofiles were very high (r > .80) for subjects whosecircumferential

Michael Kuban; Howard E. Barbaree; Ray Blanchard

1999-01-01

219

Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All U.S. Navy service members are required to meet percent body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF can be separated from active duty. Currently, %BF predictions are determined by circumfere...

C. L. Shake C. Schlichting L. W. Mooney

1993-01-01

220

Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference.  

PubMed

To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (N = 10,768 individuals of European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy and/or birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N = 19,089). rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P = 8.1 × 10(-9)) and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P = 2.8 × 10(-10)) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P = 3.8 × 10(-7) for rs7980687 and P = 1.3 × 10(-7) for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P = 3.9 × 10(-6)). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal have shown genome-wide association with adult intracranial volume, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life. PMID:22504419

Taal, H Rob; St Pourcain, Beate; Thiering, Elisabeth; Das, Shikta; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Warrington, Nicole M; Kaakinen, Marika; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Freathy, Rachel M; Geller, Frank; Guxens, Mònica; Cousminer, Diana L; Kerkhof, Marjan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ikram, M Arfan; Beilin, Lawrence J; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Buxton, Jessica L; Charoen, Pimphen; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Eriksson, Johan; Evans, David M; Hofman, Albert; Kemp, John P; Kim, Cecilia E; Klopp, Norman; Lahti, Jari; Lye, Stephen J; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; O'Reilly, Paul F; Prokopenko, Inga; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Steegers, Eric A P; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiesler, Carla; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Breteler, Monique M B; Decarli, Charles; Breteler, Monique M B; Debette, Stéphanie; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Vernooij, Meike W; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Grant, Struan F A; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; van der Heijden, Albert J; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lathrop, Mark; McArdle, Wendy L; Mølgaard, Anne; Newnham, John P; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pouta, Annneli; Ring, Susan M; Sovio, Ulla; Standl, Marie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wichmann, H-Erich; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; DeCarli, Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia M; McCarthy, Mark I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Estivill, Xavier; Hattersley, Andrew T; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Pennell, Craig E; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

2012-04-15

221

Intraobserver and interobserver agreements of leg circumference measurements by tape measure based on 3 reference points.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver agreements in tape measurements of the ankle and calf circumference with due emphasis on the 3 main reference points, the patella, the tibial tuberosity, and the medial malleolus. The leg circumference at 2 locations was measured in 66 patients in the mornings of 2 consecutive days by 6 observers. Finally, a blinded couple measured leg circumferences at a line created on calves with a ballpoint pen of 68 outpatients to calculate interobserver agreement for lined regions. Leg circumference measurement was accepted as correct when the difference was less than 0.6 cm in 2 occasions. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were calculated as the percentage of correct measurements. Chi-square test was used to compare intraobserver and interobserver agreements for each reference point. At the calf region, intraobserver and interobserver agreements based on the tibial tuberosity (88% and 81%) were better than those of the patella (65% and 57%) and the medial malleolus (73% and 65%). On the other hand, at above the ankle region, the agreements (79% and 62%) were also better than those of the patella (60% and 43%) and nearly the same as those of the medial malleolus (86% and 65%). Finally, interobserver agreement of the measurements at the created line with ballpoint pen (96%) was better when compared to those of the tibial tuberosity (81%), the patella (57%), and medial malleolus (65%) (p = 0.005, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). The results of this study suggest that the tibial tuberosity as a reference point for leg circumference measurement has better intraobserver and interobserver agreements than those of the patella and the medial malleoli. PMID:18024943

Tunc, Recep; Caglayan-Tunc, Aygul; Kisakol, Gurcan; Unler, Gulhan Kanat; Hidayetoglu, Taha; Yazici, Hasan

222

Influence of Neck Circumference on Respiratory Endurance and Muscle Strength in the Morbidly Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Respiratory function decline has been reported mainly in the morbidly obese. Little is known about the influence of adiposity\\u000a pattern on the ability to generate strength in respiratory muscles. This study evaluated strength and respiratory endurance\\u000a in the morbidly obese in preoperative bariatric surgery to determine if such variables were affected by different anthropometric\\u000a markers (body mass index (BMI), waist–hip

Marize Jácome Gonçalves; Sheyla Thatiane Santos do Lago; Eudes de Paiva Godoy; Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi; Selma Sousa Bruno

2011-01-01

223

Lattice design for an ILC damping ring with 3 km circumference  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple lattice that meets the specifications for the damping times and horizontal and longitudinal emittances for the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings. The circumference of a little over 3 km leads to a bunch spacing of around 3 ns, which will require advances in kicker technology for injection and extraction. We present the lattice design, and initial results of studies of the acceptance and collective effects. With the high bunch charge and close spacing, the ion and electron cloud effects are expected to be severe; however, the simple structure of the lattice allows for easy variation of the circumference and bunch spacing, which may make it useful for future investigations.

Wolski, Andrzej

2004-10-11

224

Anatomical study of the lateral collateral ligament and its circumference structures in the human knee joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six cadavers (55 sides) were used to observe the innervation of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and its circumference\\u000a structures with gross anatomical and histological methods to clarify the cause of indistinct pain in the lateral part of the\\u000a knee joint. The innervating branches of the LCL could be divided into three types: (1) from the muscular branch of the

Jun Yan; Wataru Sasaki; Jiro Hitomi

2010-01-01

225

Growth of Head Circumference in Autistic Infants During the First Year of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the increase in head circumference (HC) of 85 autistic infants (64 boys and 21 girls) during their first\\u000a year of life. The data were collected from their “mother-and-baby” notebooks. This notebook is a medical record of the baby’s\\u000a growth and development delivered to the parents of all babies born in Japan. This is a retrospective study which

Aya Fukumoto; Toshiaki Hashimoto; Hiromichi Ito; Mio Nishimura; Yoshimi Tsuda; Masahito Miyazaki; Kenji Mori; Kokichi Arisawa; Shoji Kagami

2008-01-01

226

Patient-Circumference-Adapted Dose Regulation in Body Computed Tomography. A Practical and Flexible Formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To illustrate that the attenuation formula based on monochromatic radiation in homogeneous objects may be used for dose regulation in body computed tomography (CT) based on patient circumference and using a simple cloth measuring tape. Material and Methods: Based on the attenuation formula for monochromatic radiation, the following Microsoft Excel equation was derived: mAsx5mAsn*EXP((0.693\\/ HVT)*(Øx2Øn)\\/PI()), where mAsx (milliampere second)

U. NYMAN; T. L. A HL; M. K RISTIANSSON; L. N ILSSON; S. W ETTEMARK

227

A narrow waist versus broad shoulders: Sex and age differences in the jealousy-evoking characteristics of a rival’s body build  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and shoulder-to-hip ratio (SHR) of the rival in evoking jealousy in an adult sample of 70 men and 69 women. Women paid more attention to the rivals’ waist, hips, and hair, and men paid more attention to the rivals’ shoulders. Potential rivals with a low as opposed to a high waist-to-hip

Bram P. Buunk; Pieternel Dijkstra

2005-01-01

228

Inflammatory status in older women with and without metabolic syndrome: is there a correlation with risk factors?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the inflammatory status in older women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to correlate inflammatory parameters, anthropometric measures, metabolic profile, and blood pressure with MetS Z-score. Methods This cohort transversal study included 129 older women assigned into two groups: with MetS (n = 48; 66.4 ± 4.4 years; 68.1 ± 8.3 kg; 1.51 ± 0.06 m; 29.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2) and without MetS (n = 81; 68.0 ± 5.8 years; 61.0 ± 9.4 kg; 1.53 ± 0.06 m; 26.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2). Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (General Electric-GE model 8548 BX1L, year 2005, Lunar DPX type, software Encore 2005; Rommelsdorf, Germany) and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results There was no difference between the groups regarding age, height, fat mass, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, older women with MetS presented higher body mass, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip and waist-height ratio, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, MetS Z-score, tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, and lower lean body mass values compared to women without MetS. Moreover, there were correlations between MetS Z-score and body mass (r = 0.20), waist circumference (r = 0.26), waist-hip (r = 0.32) and waist-height ratio (r = 0.24), blood glucose (r = 0.24), insulin (r = 0.24), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = 0.32), triglycerides (r = 0.39), tumor necrosis factor-? (r = 0.28), interferon-? (r = 0.22), and inverse correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = ?0.32). MetS Z-score was positively associated with systolic (r = 0.92), diastolic (r = 0.94), and mean blood pressure (r = 0.98). Conclusion Older women with MetS have higher cytokine levels, anthropometric measures, metabolic profile, and blood pressure. Inflammatory cytokines may help to improve the understanding of the progression status of MetS in older persons.

de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Karnikowski, Margo Gomes Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Prestes, Jonato

2013-01-01

229

Test of ''Crab-Waist'' Collisions at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi} Factory  

SciTech Connect

The electron-positron collider DA{Phi}NE, the Italian {Phi} factory, has been recently upgraded in order to implement an innovative collision scheme based on large crossing angle, small beam sizes at the crossing point, and compensation of beam-beam interaction by means of sextupole pairs creating a ''crab-waist'' configuration in the interaction region. Experimental tests of the novel scheme exhibited an increase by a factor of 3 in the peak luminosity of the collider with respect to the performances reached before the upgrade. In this Letter we present the new collision scheme, discuss its advantages, describe the hardware modifications realized for the upgrade, and report the results of the experimental tests carried out during commissioning of the machine in the new configuration and standard operation for the users.

Zobov, M.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M. E.; Biscari, C.; Bocci, A.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati, RM (Italy)

2010-04-30

230

Test of "crab-waist" collisions at the DAPhiNE Phi factory.  

PubMed

The electron-positron collider DAPhiNE, the Italian Phi factory, has been recently upgraded in order to implement an innovative collision scheme based on large crossing angle, small beam sizes at the crossing point, and compensation of beam-beam interaction by means of sextupole pairs creating a "crab-waist" configuration in the interaction region. Experimental tests of the novel scheme exhibited an increase by a factor of 3 in the peak luminosity of the collider with respect to the performances reached before the upgrade. In this Letter we present the new collision scheme, discuss its advantages, describe the hardware modifications realized for the upgrade, and report the results of the experimental tests carried out during commissioning of the machine in the new configuration and standard operation for the users. PMID:20482112

Zobov, M; Alesini, D; Biagini, M E; Biscari, C; Bocci, A; Boni, R; Boscolo, M; Bossi, F; Buonomo, B; Clozza, A; Delle Monache, G O; Demma, T; Di Pasquale, E; Di Pirro, G; Drago, A; Gallo, A; Ghigo, A; Guiducci, S; Ligi, C; Marcellini, F; Mazzitelli, G; Milardi, C; Murtas, F; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Quintieri, L; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Sgamma, F; Spataro, B; Stecchi, A; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Vaccarezza, C; Schioppa, M; Esposito, M; Branchini, P; Iacoangeli, F; Valente, P; Levichev, E; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Smaluk, V; Arnaud, N; Breton, D; Burmistrov, L; Stocchi, A; Variola, A; Viaud, B F; Bettoni, S; Ohmi, K; Teytelman, D

2010-04-28

231

Observer variation in measurements of waist-hip ratio and the abdominal sagittal diameter.  

PubMed

In an out-patient weight loss study of 63 patients (54 female, 9 male), 53 completed a 16 week treatment with a low calorie diet and a 9 g/day fibre supplement. In these 53 patients, the average weight loss was 8.3 kg (s.e.m. 0.8). Waist-hip ratio (WHR) and abdominal sagittal diameter (SagD) were measured as indicators of fat distribution and visceral adipose tissue (visceral AT) was estimated by anthropometric computerized tomography calibrated equations. Four observers measured WHR and SagD ten times in eight patients. Two dietitians examined the patients throughout the clinical trial at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 16. Furthermore, two physicians examined the patients at week 12 in the trial. Two- and three-way analyses of variance were performed to estimate the contribution of single factors to the total variance. The contribution of observers, 3.2% and 3.8%, respectively, was of the same magnitude as the error variance (2.9% and 4.8% respectively) which is a measure of the intra-observer variation. The two dietitians had very similar recordings and contributed only 0.3% and 0.9% to the total variance for WHR and SagD, respectively. The contributions of the two physicians to the total variance were 0.0% for WHR and 0.4% for SagD. It is concluded that there is no need to use several observers or repeated measurements of waist, hip and SagD in clinical anti-obesity trials. PMID:8392497

Rasmussen, M H; Andersen, T; Breum, L; Hilsted, J; Gøtzsche, P C

1993-06-01

232

Arm circumference and other factors in children at high risk of death in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) was measured monthly for 6 months in about 500 children aged 6-36 months from rural Bangladesh. Children who would die within 1 month of screening could be identified with 94% specificity and 56% sensitivity--almost twice the sensitivity achieved by other anthropometric screening schemes for this level of specificity. Specificity was slightly improved when the absence of breast-feeding, concurrent diarrhoea, oedema, and acute respiratory infection were taken into account. Children at high risk of death can be detected by monthly measurement of MUAC, which may be used in poor communities where interventions have to be selective. PMID:2888951

Briend, A; Wojtyniak, B; Rowland, M G

1987-09-26

233

Left ventricular mass, abdominal circumference and age: The Fels longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the relationship of abdominal circumference with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) from young adulthood into\\u000a old age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional echocardiographic images were taken from 182 men and 220 women in the Fels Longitudinal Study 20 to 75 years\\u000a of age to determine left ventricular mass. Left ventricular mass was divided by stature raised to the power of 2.7 (LVM\\/ht2.7)

W. C. Chumlea; C. M. Schubert; B. Towne; R. M. Siervogel; S. S. Sun

234

Left ventricular mass, abdominal circumference and age: The Fels Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the relationship of abdominal circumference with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) from young adulthood into\\u000a old age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional echocardiographic images were taken from 182 men and 220 women in the Fels Longitudinal Study 20 to 75 years\\u000a of age to determine left ventricular mass. Left ventricular mass was divided by stature raised to the power of 2.7 (LVM\\/ht2.7)

Wm. Cameron Chumlea; C. M. Schubert; B. Towne; R. M. Siervogel; S. S. Sun

2009-01-01

235

A novel 2-D coordination polymer constructed from high-nuclearity waist drum-like pure Ho48 clusters.  

PubMed

A novel 2-D coordination polymer constructed from high nuclearity nanosized Ho48 clusters was synthesised and structurally characterized using single-crystal X-ray analysis. The Ho48 cluster core with a charming waist drum-like structure was templated by CO3(2-) ions, and bridged by Ho-N bonds to get a 2-D coordination polymer. PMID:23784519

Chen, Lei; Guo, Jiu-Yu; Xu, Xiao; Ju, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Deng; Zhu, Dun-Ru; Xu, Yan

2013-09-26

236

Enlarged Waist Combined With Elevated Triglycerides Is a Strong Predictor of Accelerated Atherogenesis and Related Cardiovascular Mortality in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Upward trends of obesity urge more effective identification of those at cardiovascular risk. A simple dichotomous indicator, enlarged waist (88 cm) combined with elevated triglycerides (1.45 mmol\\/L) (EWET), was shown to offer advantages in identifying individuals with atherogenic \\

László B. Tankó; Yu Z. Bagger; Gerong Qin; Peter Alexandersen; Philip J. Larsen; Claus Christiansen

2010-01-01

237

Judging female figures: A new methodological approach to male attractiveness judgments of female waist-to-hip ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure in previous research on attractiveness judgments of female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) presumably supported an elaborate, effortful and deliberate decision process. In contrast, motivated by evolutionary psychological considerations about the psychological mechanism underlying attractiveness judgments of female WHR, the present study differed from previous research inasmuch as: (a) the participants were uninformed in advance about the various female figures;

Achim Schützwohl

2006-01-01

238

Assessment of waist-worn tri-axial accelerometer based fall-detection algorithms using continuous unsupervised activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate a variety of existing and novel fall detection algorithms, for a waist mounted accelerometer based system. Algorithms were tested against a comprehensive data-set recorded from 10 young healthy subjects performing 240 falls and 120 activities of daily living and 10 elderly healthy subjects performing 240 scripted and 52.4 hours of continuous unscripted normal activities. Results

Alan K. Bourke; Pepijn van de Ven; Mary Gamble; R. O'Connor; K. Murphy; E. Bogan; E. McQuade; P. Finucane; G. O?Laighin; J. Nelson

2010-01-01

239

Patterns of eye movements when male and female observers judge female attractiveness, body fat and waist-to-hip ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural studies of the perceptual cues for female physical attractiveness have suggested two potentially important features: body fat distribution [the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)] and overall body fat [often estimated by the body mass index (BMI)]. However, none of these studies tell us directly which regions of the stimulus images inform observers' judgments. Therefore, we recorded the eye movements of three

Piers L. Cornelissen; Peter J. B. Hancock; Vesa Kiviniemi; Hannah R. George; Martin J. Tovée

2009-01-01

240

Circumference imaging for optical based identification of cylindrical and conical objects  

SciTech Connect

Inspection and identification of cylindrical or conical shaped objects presents a unique challenge for a machine vision system. Due to the circular nature of the objects it is difficult to image the whole object using traditional area cameras and image capture methods. This work describes a unique technique to acquire a two dimensional image of the entire surface circumference of a cylindrical/conical shaped object. The specific application of this method is the identification of large caliber (155 mm) ammunition rounds in the field as they are transported between or within vehicles. The proposed method utilizes a line scan camera in combination with high speed image acquisition and processing hardware to acquire images from multiple cameras and generate a single, geometrically accurate, surface image. The primary steps involved are the capture of multiple images as the ammunition moves by on the conveyor followed by warping to correct for the distortion induced by the curved projectile surface. The individual images are then tiled together to form one two-dimensional image of the complete circumference. Once this image has been formed an automatic identification algorithm begins the feature extraction and classification process.

Hunt, M.A.; Sitter, D.N.; Ferrell, R.K.; Breeding, J.E.

1997-02-01

241

Increased periosteal circumference remains present 12 months after an exercise intervention in preschool children.  

PubMed

We previously reported that calcium intake enhanced the leg bone response to physical activity of preschool children in a 12-month randomized trial of calcium supplementation and physical activity. To determine whether the intervention-induced changes in leg bone mineral content and size were maintained through the subsequent 12-month follow-up period, total body bone measurements by DXA and 20% distal tibia pQCT bone measurements were obtained at 24 months (12 months post-intervention). Children also were measured for height and weight, and accelerometer readings were obtained in a subset of children at 18 and 24 months (6 and 12 months post-intervention). Regression analyses were performed controlling for covariates and indicated that increases from 12 to 24 months were greater in the gross motor (GM) activity group (bone loading, large muscle exercises) vs. fine motor (FM) activity group (arts and crafts program) for arm bone area (BA) (P <0.01), total body (P=0.04) and arm (P <0.01) bone mineral content (BMC). There were no differences in BA or BMC changes from 12 to 24 months by calcium supplementation. Differences in tibia periosteal circumference by pQCT persisted at 24 months (GM 51.4 +/- 0.4 mm vs. FM 50.2 +/- 0.4 mm, P=0.03) with a trend for greater endosteal circumferences in the children in the GM vs. FM groups at both 12 and 24 months (both, P=0.08). There were no significant differences in cortical area or thickness by activity or supplement group at 24 months. Children in the GM group had greater accelerometer counts/day (P=0.04) and more time in vigorous activity (P=0.05) at 18 months compared to FM group. No differences in accelerometer readings were noted at 24 months. In conclusion, we found higher activity levels in children randomized to gross motor vs. fine motor activities 6 months after the intervention program ceased. Whether the greater periosteal circumference that was observed 12 months post-intervention was a persistent biological bone effect or due to persistently higher activity levels is not known. PMID:15589220

Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

2004-12-01

242

Optimal Waist-to-Hip Ratios in Women Activate Neural Reward Centers in Men  

PubMed Central

Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of “good genes” in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (?0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing.

Platek, Steven M.; Singh, Devendra

2010-01-01

243

A clinical study to assess fall risk using a single waist accelerometer.  

PubMed

Falls have various causes and are often associated with mobility impairments. Preventive steps to avoid falls may be initiated, if an increasing fall risk could be detected in time. The objective of this article is to identify an automated sensor-based method to determine fall risk of patients based on objectively measured gait parameters. One hundred fifty-one healthy subjects and 90 subjects at risk of falling were measured during a Timed 'Up & Go' test with a single triaxial acceleration sensor worn on a waist belt. The fall risk was assessed using the STRATIFY score. A decision tree induction algorithm was used to distinguish between subjects with high and low risk using the determined gait parameters. The results of the risk classification produce an overall accuracy of 90.4% in relation to STRATIFY score. The sensitivity amount to 89.4%, the specificity to 91.0% and the reliability parameter kappa equals 0.79. The method presented is able to distinguish between subjects with high and low fall risk. It is unobtrusive and therefore may be applied over extended time periods. A subsequent study is needed to confirm the model's suitability for data recorded in patients' everyday lives. PMID:19919296

Gietzelt, Matthias; Nemitz, Gerhard; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Hubertus; Haux, Reinhold; Marschollek, Michael

2009-12-01

244

DAFNE Setup And Operation With the Crab-Waist Collision Scheme  

SciTech Connect

In the second half of 2007 a major upgrade has been implemented on the Frascati DA{Phi}NE collider in order to test the novel idea of Crab-Waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, built and installed to realize the new configuration. At the same time the performances of relevant hardware components, such as fast injection kickers and shielded bellows have been improved relying on new design concepts. The collider has been successfully commissioned in this new configuration. The paper describes several experimental results about linear and non-linear optics setup and optimization, damping of beam-beam instabilities and discusses the obtained luminosity performances. DA{Phi}NE [1] is the Frascati lepton collider working at the c m. energy of the {Phi} meson resonance (1020). It came in operation in 2001 and till summer 2007 provided luminosity, in sequence, to three different experiments which logged a total integrated luminosity of {approx} 4.4 fb{sup -1}. During these years the collider reached its best performances in terms of luminosity and background (L{sub peak} = 1.6 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} L{sub day} {approx} 10 pb{sup -1}) by means of several successive upgrades, relying on the experience gathered during the collider operations and implemented exploiting the shutdowns required for the experiment change over [2, 3, 4].

Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /SLAC

2011-10-21

245

Genetic parameters for scrotal circumference, breeding soundness examination and sperm defects in young Nellore bulls.  

PubMed

A total of 51,161 records of scrotal circumference measurements at 18 mo of age (SC18) and 17,648 records of sperm defects and breeding soundness of Nellore bulls (mean age of 22.5 mo), raised under extensive conditions, were analyzed to estimate coefficients of heritability and genetic correlations of morphological semen traits by Bayesian inference. The observed semen traits were classified as minor (MID), major (MAD), and total sperm defects (TD). The animals were classified according to breeding soundness as satisfactory and unsatisfactory potential breeders. The (co)variance components and breeding values were estimated by Gibbs sampling using the GIBBS2F90 program under an animal model that included contemporary group as fixed effect, age of animal as linear covariate, and direct additive genetic effects as random effects. Heritabilities of 0.40 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.02, 0.04 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.01, and 0.10 ± 0.01 were obtained for SC18, MID, MAD, TD, and breeding soundness, respectively. The SC18 showed a positive and moderate correlation with breeding soundness (0.56 ± 0.04) and a negative and low correlation with MID (-0.23 ± 0.03), MAD (-0.16 ± 0.02), and TD (-0.24 ± 0.02). In conclusion, scrotal circumference showed the best response to selection among the traits studied and was favorably correlated with breeding soundness and sperm morphology in young Nellore bulls. PMID:23893991

Silva, M R; Pedrosa, V B; Borges-Silva, J C; Eler, J P; Guimarães, J D; Albuquerque, L G

2013-07-26

246

Head circumference and height abnormalities in autism revisited: the role of pre- and perinatal risk factors.  

PubMed

Pre/perinatal risk factors and body growth abnormalities have been studied frequently as early risk markers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their interrelatedness in ASD has received very little research attention. This is surprising, given that pre/perinatal risk factors can have a substantial impact on growth trajectories in the first years of life. We aimed to determine which pre/perinatal factors were more prevalent in ASD children and if these factors differentially influenced body growth in ASD and control children. A total of 96 ASD and 163 control children matched for gender participated. Data of growth of head size and body length during the first 13 months of life were collected. Data on pre/perinatal risk factors were retrospectively collected through standardized questionnaires. Results indicated that after matching for SES, prematurity/low birth weight and being first born were more prevalent in the ASD versus the control group. In addition, with increasing age children with ASD tended to have a proportionally smaller head circumference compared to their height. However, the effect of prematurity/low birth weight on head growth corrected for height was significantly different in ASD and control children: premature/low birth weight control children showed a disproportionate larger head circumference in relation to height during their first year of life, whereas this effect was absent in premature/low birth weight ASD children. This may suggest that the etiology of abnormal growth is potentially different in ASD and control children: where abnormal growth in control children is related to suboptimal conditions in the uterus, abnormal growth in ASD may be more strongly related to the causal factors that also increase the risk for ASD. However, prospective studies measuring growth and ASD characteristics in both premature/low birth weight and a terme children are necessary to support this conclusion. PMID:22923066

Schrieken, Margo; Visser, Janne; Oosterling, Iris; van Steijn, Daphne; Bons, Daniëlle; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Donders, Rogier; Rommelse, Nanda

2012-08-26

247

Body Weight, Length and Head Circumference at Birth in a Cohort of Turkish Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objective: Intrauterine growth references are primarily useful indicators in the assessment of the general health status of newborn infants. Although Lubchenco’s references are still used in many neonatal care units, we believe that there is a need for up-to-date intrauterine growth references specific for different populations. To develop gestational age-and gender-specific national references for birth weight, birth length and head circumference. Methods: Data were collected from neonatal records of perinatology services of eleven hospitals from January to December 2009. The anthropometry of a total of 4750 singleton live births born between 28 and 41 weeks of gestation were recorded. Means and standard deviations were calculated, and percentiles for each gender and gestational week were produced using the LMS program. The results were compared with US infants and also with local data. Results: Gestational age- and gender-specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentile values were produced. Comparison of the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile values showed that the boys were heavier and longer than the girls. Head circumference values were also higher in the boys. Proportions of small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants in the sample were 10.1%, 79.1% and 10.8%, respectively. Conclusion: These gender- and gestational age-specific references will be of use in clinical practice and also for research purposes until more comprehensive, reliable and accessible national data pertaining to the intrauterine growth of Turkish infants are produced. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Kurtoglu, Selim; Hatipoglu, Nihal; Maz?c?oglu, Mustafa Mumtaz; Ak?n, Mustafa Ali; Coban, Dilek; Gokoglu, Sonay; Bastug, Osman

2012-01-01

248

A Critical Test of the Waist-to-Hip Ratio Hypothesis of Women's Physical Attractiveness in Britain and Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body mass index (BMI) and body shape as measured by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) have been reported to be the major cues to\\u000a women's bodily attractiveness. The relative importance of each of these cues was examined cross-culturally in two distinct\\u000a countries, Greece and Britain. Fifty Britons, 25 British-Greeks, and 25 participants in Greece were asked to rate a set of

Viren Swami; Nicholas Antonakopoulos; Martin J. Tovée; Adrian Furnham

2006-01-01

249

Impact of waist-hip-ratio and body-mass-index on hormonal and metabolic parameters in young, obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of predominantly upper body fat localisation on the hormonal and metabolic profile in obese, infertile women. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of premenopausal women with obesity, infertility and menstrual dysfunction. SETTING: Department of Endocrinology and Reproduction of the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Heidelberg. SUBJECTS: Eighteen women with android type obesity (waist-hip-ratio=WHR>0.85, group 1)

M Hollmann; B Runnebaum; I Gerhard

1997-01-01

250

The relative influence of facial neoteny and waist-to-hip ratio on judgements of female attractiveness and fecundity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have demonstrated that waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) affects perceptions of female physical attractiveness and fecundity. This study tested the assumption that facial attractiveness explained more variance in overall ratings and fecundity than WHR, when the latter is manipulated within the normal range (0.67 – 0.85). One hundred and sixty-one participants (mean age = 21.5) rated the attractiveness, youthfulness, fertility, healthiness and likelihood of

Adrian Furnham; Emma Reeves

2006-01-01

251

Eye-Tracking of Men’s Preferences for Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Breast Size of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of human physical traits and mate preferences often use questionnaires asking participants to rate the attractiveness\\u000a of images. Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), breast size, and facial appearance have all been implicated in assessments by\\u000a men of female attractiveness. However, very little is known about how men make fine-grained visual assessments of such images.\\u000a We used eye-tracking techniques to measure

Barnaby J. Dixson; Gina M. Grimshaw; Wayne L. Linklater; Alan F. Dixson

2011-01-01

252

PERFECTLY FORMED? THE EFFECT OF MANIPULATING THE WAIST-TO-HIP RATIOS OF FAMOUS PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three women and 45 men rated a series of images of selected paintings and sculptures for aesthetic appeal and originality. For each painting or sculpture, there were three versions: the original image and two manipulated images, one displaying a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and the other displaying a higher WHR than in the original. The results showed that, in general,

VIREN SWAMI; NINA GRANT; ADRIAN FURNHAM; I. CHRISTOPHER MCMANUS

2008-01-01

253

Predicting percentage body fat through waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in Spanish schoolchildren.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) and body fat and to develop predictive adiposity equations that will simplify the diagnosis of obesity in the paediatric age group. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted in Spain during 2007 and 2008. Anthropometric dimensions were taken according to the International Biology Program. The children were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese according to national standards of percentage body fat (%BF). WtHR differences among nutritional status categories were evaluated using ANOVA. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were carried out using WtHR as a predictor variable for %BF. A t test was applied to the results obtained by the regression model and by the Siri equation. The degree of agreement between both methods was evaluated by estimating the intra-class correlation coefficient. SETTING: Elementary and secondary schools in Madrid (Spain). SUBJECTS: Girls (n 1158) and boys (n 1161) from 6 to 14 years old. RESULTS: WtHR differed significantly (P < 0·001) depending on nutritional status category. This index was correlated (P < 0·001) with all adiposity indicators. The mean %BF values estimated by the regression model (boys: %BF = 106·50 × WtHR - 28·36; girls: %BF = 89·73 × WtHR - 15·40) did not differ from those obtained by the Siri equation. The intra-class correlation coefficient (0·85 in boys, 0·79 in girls) showed a high degree of concordance between both methods. CONCLUSIONS: WtHR proved to be an effective method for predicting relative adiposity in 6-14-year-olds. The developed equations can help to simplify the diagnosis of obesity in schoolchildren. PMID:23537776

Marrodán, Md; Alvarez, Jr Martínez; de Espinosa, M González-Montero; Carmenate, Mm; López-Ejeda, N; Cabañas, Md; Pacheco, Jl; Mesa, Ms; Romero-Collazos, Jf; Prado, C; Villarino, A

2013-03-28

254

Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Might Be an Alternative to Metabolic Syndrome for Predicting Future Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background In some cross-sectional studies, hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) has been recommended as an alternative to metabolic syndrome (MetS) for screening individuals at high risk for diabetes mellitus (DM). However, little information is about the predictive power of HTGW for future DM. The aims of the study were to assess the DM predictive power of HTGW compared with MetS based on the follow-up data over 15 years collected from a general Chinese population. Methods And Findings: The data were collected in 1992 and then again in 2007 from the same group of 687 individuals without DM in 1992. For the whole population (n =687), multivariate analysis showed presence of HTGW was associated with a 4.1-fold (95%CI: 2.4-7.0, p < 0.001) increased risk and presence of MetS was associated with a 3.7-fold (95%CI: 2.2-6.2, p < 0.001) increased risk for future DM. For the population without elevated fasting plasma glucose (n = 650), multivariate analysis showed presence of HTGW was associated with a 3.9-fold (95%CI: 2.2-7.0, p < 0.001) increased risk and presence of MetS was associated with a 3.7-fold (95%CI: 2.1-6.6, p < 0.001) increased risk for future DM. Conclusions HTGW could predict future DM independently, and the predictive power was similar to MetS. HTGW might be an alternative to MetS for predicting future DM. For simpler and fewer components, HTGW might be more practical than MetS, and it might be recommended in most clinical practices. This finding might be more useful for the individuals who only have elevated WC and TG. Although these individuals are without MetS, they are still at high risk for future DM, similarly to the individuals with MetS.

He, Jiyun; Wang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

255

Eye-tracking of men's preferences for waist-to-hip ratio and breast size of women.  

PubMed

Studies of human physical traits and mate preferences often use questionnaires asking participants to rate the attractiveness of images. Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), breast size, and facial appearance have all been implicated in assessments by men of female attractiveness. However, very little is known about how men make fine-grained visual assessments of such images. We used eye-tracking techniques to measure the numbers of visual fixations, dwell times, and initial fixations made by men who viewed front-posed photographs of the same woman, computer-morphed so as to differ in her WHR (0.7 or 0.9) and breast size (small, medium, or large). Men also rated these images for attractiveness. Results showed that the initial visual fixation (occurring within 200 ms from the start of each 5 s test) involved either the breasts or the waist. Both these body areas received more first fixations than the face or the lower body (pubic area and legs). Men looked more often and for longer at the breasts, irrespective of the WHR of the images. However, men rated images with an hourglass shape and a slim waist (0.7 WHR) as most attractive, irrespective of breast size. These results provide quantitative data on eye movements that occur during male judgments of the attractiveness of female images, and indicate that assessments of the female hourglass figure probably occur very rapidly. PMID:19688590

Dixson, Barnaby J; Grimshaw, Gina M; Linklater, Wayne L; Dixson, Alan F

2009-08-18

256

Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

2012-01-01

257

Corpus Callosum Segment Circumference Is Associated With Response Control in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response control is impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the corpus callosum’s role in response control, we compared callosal morphology in 64 children with ADHD and 64 typically developing children, aged 7 to 13 years, and investigated the relationships between callosal morphology and response control. Area and circumference of 5 callosal segments (genu, rostral body, midbody, isthmus, and splenium)

Melanie A. McNally; Deana Crocetti; E. Mark Mahone; Martha B. Denckla; Stacy J. Suskauer; Stewart H. Mostofsky

2010-01-01

258

Assessing the short-term outcomes of a community-based intervention for overweight and obese children: The MEND 5-7 programme  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to report outcomes of the UK service level delivery of MEND (Mind,Exercise,Nutrition...Do it!) 5-7, a multicomponent, community-based, healthy lifestyle intervention designed for overweight and obese children aged 5–7?years and their families. Design Repeated measures. Setting Community venues at 37 locations across the UK. Participants 440 overweight or obese children (42% boys; mean age 6.1?years; body mass index (BMI) z-score 2.86) and their parents/carers participated in the intervention. Intervention MEND 5-7 is a 10-week, family-based, child weight-management intervention consisting of weekly group sessions. It includes positive parenting, active play, nutrition education and behaviour change strategies. The intervention is designed to be scalable and delivered by a range of health and social care professionals. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was BMI z-score. Secondary outcome measures included BMI, waist circumference, waist circumference z-score, children's psychological symptoms, parenting self-efficacy, physical activity and sedentary behaviours and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables. Results 274 (62%) children were measured preintervention and post-intervention (baseline; 10-weeks). Post-intervention, mean BMI and waist circumference decreased by 0.5?kg/m2 and 0.9?cm, while z-scores decreased by 0.20 and 0.20, respectively (p<0.0001). Improvements were found in children's psychological symptoms (?1.6 units, p<0.0001), parent self-efficacy (p<0.0001), physical activity (+2.9?h/week, p<0.01), sedentary activities (?4.1?h/week, p<0.0001) and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables per day (both p<0.0001). Attendance at the 10 sessions was 73% with a 70% retention rate. Conclusions Participation in the MEND 5-7 programme was associated with beneficial changes in physical, behavioural and psychological outcomes for children with complete sets of measurement data, when implemented in UK community settings under service level conditions. Further investigation is warranted to establish if these findings are replicable under controlled conditions.

Smith, L R; Chadwick, P; Radley, D; Kolotourou, M; Gammon, C S; Rosborough, J; Sacher, P M

2013-01-01

259

Anatomical study of the lateral collateral ligament and its circumference structures in the human knee joint.  

PubMed

Thirty-six cadavers (55 sides) were used to observe the innervation of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and its circumference structures with gross anatomical and histological methods to clarify the cause of indistinct pain in the lateral part of the knee joint. The innervating branches of the LCL could be divided into three types: (1) from the muscular branch of the biceps femoris muscle at lower 1/3 level of the thigh; (2) from the common fibular nerve (CFN) at the higher level of the fossa poplitea; (3) from the CFN at the level of the caput fibular. Furthermore, the three branches could singly or plurally distribute to the LCL (six types). Two of the connecting tissue membranes surrounding the surface of LCL formed an incomplete sheath structure, and a shutting "gap" was observed between the two membranes. Fine peripheral nervous branches were also observed in the two of the membranes. On the other hand, three types of nerve endings in the LCL (Type I/Ruffini mechanoreceptor; Type III/Golgi mechanoreceptor; Type IV/free nerve ending) were observed, and their presence was consistent with the ankle joint of humans. Therefore, the innervation of the two membranes (to form the shutting gap) in the surface of LCL may be associated with an indistinct pain when the knee joint is damaged. PMID:19693427

Yan, Jun; Sasaki, Wataru; Hitomi, Jiro

2009-08-20

260

Membrane Thickness Varies Around the Circumference of the Transmembrane Protein BtuB  

PubMed Central

BtuB is a large outer-membrane ?-barrel protein that belongs to a class of active transport proteins that are TonB-dependent. These TonB-dependent transporters are based upon a 22-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel, which is notably asymmetric in its length. Here, site-directed spin labeling and simulated annealing were used to locate the membrane lipid interface surrounding BtuB when reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Positions on the outer facing surface of the ?-barrel and the periplasmic turns were spin-labeled and distances from the label to the membrane interface estimated by progressive power saturation of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. These distances were then used as atom-to-plane distance restraints in a simulated annealing routine, to dock the protein to two independent planes and produce a model representing the average position of the lipid phosphorus atoms at each interface. The model is in good agreement with the experimental data; however, BtuB is mismatched to the bilayer thickness and the resulting planes representing the bilayer interface are not parallel. In the model, the membrane thickness varies by 11 Å around the circumference of the protein, indicating that BtuB distorts the bilayer interface so that it is thinnest on the short side of the protein ?-barrel.

Ellena, Jeffrey F.; Lackowicz, Pawel; Mongomery, Hillary; Cafiso, David S.

2011-01-01

261

Men’s ratings of female attractiveness are influenced more by changes in female waist size compared with changes in hip size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s attractiveness has been found to be negatively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in many studies. Two components of this ratio can, however, carry different signals for a potential mate. Hip size indicates pelvic size and the amount of additional fat storage that can be used as a source of energy. Waist size conveys information such as current reproductive status

Malgorzata Rozmus-Wrzesinska; Boguslaw Pawlowski

2005-01-01

262

Predicting cardiometabolic risk: waist-to-height ratio or BMI. A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives The identification of increased cardiometabolic risk among asymptomatic individuals remains a huge challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the association of body mass index (BMI), which is an index of general obesity, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), an index of abdominal obesity, with cardiometabolic risk in cross-sectional and prospective studies. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched for cross-sectional or prospective studies that evaluated the association of both BMI and WHtR with several cardiometabolic outcomes. The strength of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the optimal cutoffs of BMI and WHtR in cross-sectional studies, while any available cutoff was used in prospective studies. The pooled estimate of the ratio of RRs (rRR [=RRBMI/RRWHtR]) with 95% CIs was used to compare the association of WHtR and BMI with cardiometabolic risk. Meta-regression was used to identify possible sources of heterogeneity between the studies. Results Twenty-four cross-sectional studies and ten prospective studies with a total number of 512,809 participants were identified as suitable for the purpose of this meta-analysis. WHtR was found to have a stronger association than BMI with diabetes mellitus (rRR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59–0.84) and metabolic syndrome (rRR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89–0.96) in cross-sectional studies. Also in prospective studies, WHtR appears to be superior to BMI in detecting several outcomes, including incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality. The usefulness of WHtR appears to be better in Asian than in non-Asian populations. BMI was not superior to WHtR in any of the outcomes that were evaluated. However, the results of the utilized approach should be interpreted cautiously because of a substantial heterogeneity between the results of the studies. Meta-regression analysis was performed to explain this heterogeneity, but none of the evaluated factors, ie, sex, origin (Asians, non-Asians), and optimal BMI or WHtR cutoffs were significantly related with rRR. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis support the use of WHtR in identifying adults at increased cardiometabolic risk. However, further evidence is warranted because of a substantial heterogeneity between the studies.

Savva, Savvas C; Lamnisos, Demetris; Kafatos, Anthony G

2013-01-01

263

Onchocerciasis in the Upper Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Prevalence and Comparative Study of Waist and Shoulder Snips from Mesoendemic Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and another from the shoulder) were taken from 1024 individuals examined. The survey coverage was high (91.8% of the study population). An individual was considered mf positive if either of the waist or shoulder snips or both were mf positive. The SPSS for Windows package was used for entering and analysis of data. Results Thirty-seven percentage of those examined was positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (39.2% of males and 34.9% of females). The mf prevalence increased steadily with increasing age to reach 70.4% in the oldest age group. The overall mf Geometric Mean Intensity among mf positive individuals was 16 mf/skin snip and was significantly higher among males (18 mf/skin snip) than females (14 mf/skin snip) (p<0.01). A scatter plot of microfilariae numbers in snips from the waist against numbers in snips from the shoulder of the same individuals, showed close correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient=+0.90; p<0.01), and those with mf intensities below 10 mf/snip had a more scattering tendency away from the regression line than those with higher mf intensities. Conclusion Onchocerciasis is a public health concern in the area. Perhaps, 10 mf/snip is critical intensity threshold for reliable sampling using corneo-scleral punch.

Uttah, EC

2010-01-01

264

Evaluation of the optimal washing conditions for dioxin-contaminated soils from the circumference of an incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal soil-washing conditions for dioxins were estimated on a soil sample from the circumference of an incinerator\\u000a in Nose City, Osaka, Japan. The solvents ethanol, methanol, and acetone, together with a surfactant (100% of each) could extract\\u000a 40% of the dioxins from contaminated soil at room temperature. From among these solvents, ethanol was chosen for a study on\\u000a how

Kunichika Nakamiya; Tohru Furuichi; Kazuei Ishii

2003-01-01

265

The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine how fetal growth is related to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. DESIGN--A follow up study of men born during 1907-24 whose birth weights, head circumferences, and other body measurements were recorded at birth. SETTING--Sheffield, England. SUBJECTS--1586 Men born in the Jessop Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Standardised mortality ratios for cardiovascular disease fell from

D J Barker; C Osmond; S J Simmonds; G A Wield

1993-01-01

266

The influence of feeding patterns on head circumference among Turkish infants during the first 6 months of life.  

PubMed

The influence of various feeding patterns on physical growth and mental development of the infant, particularly during the first 6 months of life, is an important subject. Head circumference values of 172 healthy new-born infants were included in the study; 62 were exclusively breast-fed (BF), 58 were mixed-fed (MF) and 52 were formula-fed (FF). No significant differences were found in head circumference values between the groups at birth (BF 35.2+/-0.1, MF 35.1+/-0.1, FF 35.0+/-0.1 cm for boys and BF 35.0+/-0.1, MF 34.9+/-0.1, FF 34.8+/-0.1 cm for girls). At the end of the first month, the infants in the BF group (38.3+/-0.1 cm and 37.9+/-0.1 cm for boys and girls, respectively) had strikingly greater head circumference measurements than the others (MF 36.7+/-0.1, FF 36.6+/-0.1 cm for boys and MF 36.5+/-0.1, FF 36.4+/-0.1 cm for girls) (P < 0.05). However, in the subsequent 4-month period, the values detected in each group were almost the same. At the sixth month, head circumference-for-age values of infants in MF (42.6+/-0.1 cm for boys, 41.4+/-0.1 cm for girls) and FF (42.5+/-0.1 cm for boys, 41.5+/-0.1 cm for girls) were well below those of BF group (43.7+/-0.1 cm and 42.9+/-0.1 cm for boys and girls, respectively) and the standard curve (P < 0.05). These results suggest that exclusive breast feeding is sufficient during the first 6 months, the most important period of life. PMID:9339866

Donma, M M; Donma, O

1997-09-01

267

Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often\\u000a exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This\\u000a study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of HC growth were more likely than those

Lauren M. Elder; Geraldine Dawson; Karen Toth; Deborah Fein; Jeff Munson

2008-01-01

268

Developmental Correlates of Head Circumference at Birth and Two Years in a Cohort of Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the developmental correlates of microcephaly evident at birth and at 2 years in a cohort born at extremely low gestational age. Methods We assessed development and motor function at 2 years of 958 children born before the 28th week of gestation, comparing those who had microcephaly at birth or 2 years with children with normal head circumference while considering the contribution of neonatal cranial ultrasound lesions. Results A total of 11% of infants in our sample had microcephaly at 2 years. Microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, predicts severe motor and cognitive impairments at 2 years. A total of 71% of children with congenital microcephaly had a normal head circumference at 2 years and had neurodevelopmental outcomes comparable with those with normal head circumference at birth and 2 years. Among children with microcephaly at 2 years, more than half had a Mental Developmental Index <70, and nearly a third had cerebral palsy. The risks were increased if the child also had cerebral white matter damage on a cranial ultrasound scan obtained 2 years previously. Conclusion Among extremely low gestational age newborns, microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, is associated with motor and cognitive impairment at age 2.

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Westra, Sjirk; Miller, Cindy; Rosman, N. Paul; Leviton, Alan

2009-01-01

269

Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score). Methods Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. Results LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p < 0.05). LoGIx and HiGIx decreased the Z-score similarly, as each intervention decreased blood pressure, TG, FPG, and WC (p < 0.05). HiGIx tended to suppress NEFA during insulin stimulation compared to LoGIx (p = 0.06). Conclusions Our findings highlight that exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet.

Malin, Steven K.; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Kelly, Karen R.; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

2012-01-01

270

Pulsed-laser crossed-beam thermal lens spectrometry for detection in a microchannel: influence of the size of the excitation beam waist.  

PubMed

Crossed-beam thermal lens spectrometry is especially designed for the detection of very small samples in capillary tubes and more generally in microfluidic devices. In this work, the effect of the size of the excitation beam with respect to the size of the sample microchannel has been investigated. Although the signal is inversely proportional to the size of the excitation waist into the sample, the use of large waists may provide greater sensitivities when short-pulse excitation lasers are used and allows easier optimization of the optical design. On the contrary, the use of small beam waists reduces the edge effects that can arise depending on the nature and thickness of the walls of the sample holder. Moreover, small beams provide better spatial resolution and have allowed the measurement of flow velocities as low as 1 mm s(-1). PMID:15479529

Ghaleb, Khalil Abbas; Georges, Joseph

2004-09-01

271

Does a waist-worn accelerometer capture intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior among persons with multiple sclerosis?  

PubMed Central

The valid application of accelerometry and interpretation of its output (i.e., counts per unit time) for the measurement of walking behavior in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) rests upon multiple untested assumptions. This study tested the assumption that a waist-worn accelerometer should capture the intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior. Twenty-four participants with a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of MS and who were ambulatory with minimal assistance undertook three 6-min periods of over-ground walking that involved comfortable (CWS) and then slower (SWS) and faster (FWS) walking speeds while wearing ActiGraph, model 7164, accelerometers around the waist and ankle. The experimental manipulation of walking was successful such that the CWS was 76.7 ± 13.0 m/min (range = 55.6–105.14), whereas the SWS and FWS were 64.3 ± 12.3 m/min (range = 44.5–90.1) and 89.1 ± 13.8 m/min (range = 60.9–116.4), respectively. Movement counts from the waist and ankle-worn accelerometer were strongly associated with the manipulation of speed, but the association was stronger for the waist than ankle based on both eta-squared estimates (?2 values = .78 and .46) and the average squared multiple correlations from individual regression analyses (R2 values = .97 ± .04 and .88 ± .21). The bivariate correlation between movement counts from the waist-worn accelerometer and speed of walking (r = .823, p = .001) was large in magnitude and significantly different (z = 3.22, p = .001) from that between movement counts from the ankle-worn unit and walking speed (r = .549, p = .001). This study provides novel evidence that an accelerometer worn around the waist captures intra- and inter-person variation in over-ground walking behavior in those with MS.

Motl, Robert W.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Suh, Yoojin; Goldman, Myla

2011-01-01

272

Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77 consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome with a median age of 41.1 (interquartile range 31.1 to 52.2) years

A. W. A. Eerden; M. den Heijer; W. J. G. Oyen; A. R. M. M. Hermus

2007-01-01

273

The use of calf circumference measurement as an anthropometric tool to monitor nutritional status in elderly inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study was to identify the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly and verify if calf circumference\\u000a can be a tool to monitor nutritional status in this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 170 inpatients (79 men and 91 women) aged more than 60 years were assessed. Anthropometric and dietary assessments\\u000a were done according to standard procedures. The software STATISTICA

Kátia Cristina Portero-McLellan; C. Staudt; F. R. F. Silva; J. L. Delbue Bernardi; P. Baston Frenhani; V. A. Leandro Mehri

2010-01-01

274

The use of calf circumference measurement as an anthropometric tool to monitor nutritional status in elderly inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study was to identify the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly and verify if calf circumference\\u000a can be a tool to monitor nutritional status in this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 170 inpatients (79 men and 91 women) aged more than 60 years were assessed. Anthropometric and dietary assessments\\u000a were done according to standard procedures. The software STATISTICA

Kátia Cristina Portero-Mclellan; C. Staudt; F. R. F. Silva; J. L. Delbue Bernardi; P. Baston Frenhani; V. A. Leandro Mehri

275

Antenatal supplementation with folic acid + iron + zinc improves linear growth and reduces peripheral adiposity in school-age children in rural Nepal123  

PubMed Central

Background: We previously reported that a randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplements in rural Nepal decreased the risk of low birth weight by ?15%. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and body composition in children of supplemented mothers through school age. Design: Mothers received 1 of 5 micronutrient supplements daily: folic acid, folic acid + iron, folic acid + iron + zinc, multiple micronutrients, or a control. All of the supplements contained vitamin A. Children born during this trial were revisited at age 6–8 y to measure height, weight, midupper arm circumference, waist circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Arm fat and muscle area were estimated by using standard formulas, and height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index–for-age z scores were calculated by using the World Health Organization growth standard. Results: Of the 3771 surviving children, 3324 were revisited and consented to anthropometric measurements. Maternal supplementation with folic acid + iron + zinc resulted in an increase in mean height (0.64 cm; 95% CI: 0.04, 1.25) and a reduction in mean triceps skinfold thickness (?0.25 mm; 95% CI: ?0.44, ?0.06), subscapular skinfold thickness (?0.20 mm; 95% CI: ?0.33, ?0.06), and arm fat area (?0.18 cm2; ?0.34, ?0.01). No significant differences were found between groups in mean weight or body mass index–for-age z scores, waist circumference, or arm muscle area. Other micronutrient combinations including a multiple micronutrient formulation failed to show a growth benefit. Conclusion: Antenatal supplementation with zinc may benefit child growth, particularly in areas where a deficiency of this nutrient is common.

Stewart, Christine P; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Khatry, Subarna K

2009-01-01

276

Genome-wide association study to identify common variants associated with brachial circumference: a meta-analysis of 14 cohorts.  

PubMed

Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S; Elliott, Katherine S; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lawlor, Debbie A; Musk, Arthur W; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E; Perry, John R B; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan M; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J; Pramstaller, Peter P; Rudan, Igor; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wright, Alan F; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2012-03-29

277

Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC.

Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Volzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2012-01-01

278

Waist to height ratio and the Ashwell® shape chart could predict the health risks of obesity in adults and children in all ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To outline the benefits of the ratio of the waist to height ratio (WHTR) and its graphical representation in the Ashwell® shape chart for the assessment of the health risks of obesity. To show that it has potential to be used in all ethnic groups and in adults and children. Design\\/methodology…\\/approach – A review of the benefits and

Margaret Ashwell OBE

2005-01-01

279

A Preliminary Investigation into the Potential Role of Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Preference within the Assortative Mating Hypothesis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Of particular interest to studying the etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is the potential for multiple risk factors to combine through non-random mechanisms--assortative mating. Both genetic influences and a high-testosterone prenatal environment have been implicated in the etiology of ASDs, and given that waist-hip ratio (WHR) is…

Brosnan, Mark; Walker, Ian

2009-01-01

280

Effects of Sibutramine Use on Weight, Body Mass Index, Waist \\/ Hip Ratio, and Blood Lipid Parameters, Compared to Placebo, in Obese Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide obesity is a chronic condition that is characterized by accumulation of extra fat in the body and that results in increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of sibutramine, an anorectic medication, on body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist\\/hip ratio and blood lipid parameters in obese individuals. The study enrolled

Yusuf Özkan; Taner Akdere; Emir Dönder

281

Mode of Genetic Inheritance Modifies the Association of Head Circumference and Autism-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Frequently individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been noted with a larger head circumference (HC) than their typical developing peers. Biologic hypotheses suggest that an overly rapid brain growth leads to the core symptoms of ASD by impairing connectivity. Literature is divided however where deleterious, protective and null associations of HC with ASD symptoms in individuals with ASD have been found. Method Individuals (n?=?1,416) from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange with ASD were examined for associations of HC with ASD like symptoms. Mixed models controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, simplex/multiplex status and accounting for correlations between siblings were used. Interactions by simplex/multiplex were explored. Adjustments for height in a sub-population with available data were explored as well. Results A Significant interaction term (p?=?0.03) suggested that the effect of HC was dependent on whether the individual was simplex or multiplex. In simplex individuals at mean age (8.9 years) 1 cm increase in head circumference was associated with a 24% increase in the odds of a high social diagnostic score from the Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised (odds ratio ?=?1.24, p?=?0.01). There was no association in multiplex individuals. Additionally, individuals classified with a non-verbal IQ <70 were 90% simplex and had a significantly increased head circumference (0.7 cm p?=?0.03) relative to a mid-range non-verbal IQ group. Interestingly, children classified with a >110 non-verbal IQ also had an increased HC (0.4 cm p?=?0.04), relative to a mid-range non-verbal IQ group, and were 90% multiplex. HC effects do not appear to be confounded by height, however, larger samples with height information are needed. Conclusion The potential link between brain growth and autism like symptoms is complex and could depend on specific etiologies. Further investigations accounting for a likely mode of inheritance will help identify an ASD subtype related to HC.

Davis, Jonathan M.; Keeney, Jonathon G.; Sikela, James M.; Hepburn, Susan

2013-01-01

282

Fat distribution in Venezuelan children and adolescents estimated by the conicity index and waist/hip ratio.  

PubMed

This study compares the conicity index (C) with the waist/hip ratio (WHR) in a cross-sectional sample of Venezuelan children (n = 784 boys and n = 735 girls), 3 to 16 years of age. Distributions of C and WHR were compared in Box-plot diagrams. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between indices by age and sex. Conicity captured more outliers in the distribution than WHR and explained 33% to 62% of the variability in WHR in three age groups. The influence was stronger in females during adolescence (R2 = 0.60, P < 0.05). According to the principle of C. most children presented a bi-conical shape, which was more pronounced in boys than girls and which was indicative of a more central distribution of adiposity. These results are related, in part, to age and sex differences in body composition and to the earlier onset of the adolescent growth spurt in Venezuelan children. PMID:11911450

Pérez, Betty; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Vásquez, Maura

283

Waist-to-hip ratio and judgment of attractiveness and healthiness of female figures by male and female physicians.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is unique to humans. The WHR has been shown to be an accurate predictor of risk for various diseases, premature mortality, degree of androgenicity/estrogenicity and fecundity of women, independent of overall body weight. This study investigated whether physicians would be influenced by body size or WHR in assessing health, youthfulness, and reproductive capability of a woman. Line drawings of 12 female figures representing three categories of body weight (normal, underweight and overweight) and four sizes of WHR (0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0) were ranked by male and female physicians for these qualities as well as for attractiveness and intelligence. Both males and females assigned higher ranking for many of these qualities to normal weight figures with low WHRs (0.7 and 0.8). Overweight figures were assigned low rankings for all these qualities except reproductive capability. Underweight figures, regardless of WHR size, were assigned low ranking for reproductive capability and those underweight figures that had high WHRs (0.9 and 1.0) were assigned low ranking for healthiness. While there were minor sex differences in ranking of some attributes for some figures, generally both male and female physicians utilized the WHR in a similar manner to infer healthiness, reproductive capability and attractiveness. PMID:7866472

Singh, D

1994-11-01

284

Comparative analysis of the isovolume calibration method for non-invasive respiratory monitoring techniques based on area transduction versus circumference transduction using the connected cylinders model.  

PubMed

An analytical formalism developed previously to examine the robustness of the isovolume calibration technique for non-invasive respiratory monitoring devices based on measurements of torso circumference (e.g. fibre-optic respiratory plethysmography) is extended here to techniques based on area measurement (e.g. respiratory inductive plethysmography), and the results are compared. The earlier perturbation approach is adopted, and an exact method is also presented. It is demonstrated that the area-based techniques have less dependence on the cylindrical compartmental parameters of radius and height, and are independent of compartmental volume if height variations are negligible, in contrast to circumference-based techniques. It is also demonstrated that both the area- and the circumference-based techniques provide similar inferences of volume when calibrated using the isovolume method under reasonable assumptions for the dimensions of the compartments that constitute a model of the torso. PMID:21743122

Augousti, A T; Radosz, A

2011-07-08

285

A kinematic human-walking model for the normal-gait-speed estimation using tri-axial acceleration signals at waist location.  

PubMed

This study aims at estimating the human walking speed using wearable accelerometers by proposing a novel virtual inverted pendulum model. This model not only keeps the important characteristics of both the biped rolling-foot and the inverted pendulum model, but also makes the speed estimation feasible using human body acceleration. Rather than using statistical methods, the proposed kinematic walking model enables calibration of the parameters during walking using only one tri-axial accelerometer on the waist that collects the user's body acceleration. In addition, this model also includes the effect of rotation of the waist within a walking cycle, which improves the estimation accuracy. Experimental results for a group of humans show a 0.58% absolute error mean and 0.72% error deviation, which is far better than the results of other known studies with accelerometers mounted on the upper body. PMID:23529073

Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Sun, Kuan-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Yuan

2013-03-15

286

Relation of total and beverage-specific alcohol intake to body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: A study of self-defense officials in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the independent associations of total and beverage-specific ethanol consumption with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in middle-aged Japanese males, because of the scarcity of epidemiologic data in Japan. The subjects were 2227 male self-defense officials who received a pre-retirement health examination at the Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka, Kumamoto, and Sapporo Hospitals. Data on alcohol intake, smoking,

Yutaka Sakurai; Takashi Umeda; Koichi Shinchi; Satoshi Honjo; Kazuo Wakabayashi; Isao Todoroki; Hiroshi Nishikawa; Shinsaku Ogawa; Mitsuhiko Katsurada

1997-01-01

287

Does a waist-worn accelerometer capture intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior among persons with multiple sclerosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valid application of accelerometry and interpretation of its output (i.e., counts per unit time) for the measurement of walking behavior in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) rests upon multiple untested assumptions. This study tested the assumption that a waist-worn accelerometer should capture the intra- and inter-person variation in walking behavior. Twenty-four participants with a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of MS and

Robert W. Motl; Jacob J. Sosnoff; Deirdre Dlugonski; Yoojin Suh; Myla Goldman

2010-01-01

288

A cross-cultural comparison of ratings of perceived fecundity and sexual attractiveness as a function of body weight and waist-to-hip ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted a cross-cultural test of Singh's (1993a,b; 1994) theory of the relationship of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) on judgements of female attractiveness using the stimulus figures designed by Tassinary and Hansen (1998). One hundred British (half male, half female) and 100 Kenyan (half male, half female) young people rated 18 two-dimensional line drawings of a female figure varying in

A. Furnham; A. McClelland; L. Omer

2003-01-01

289

Body mass index and weight change from adolescence into adulthood, waist-to-hip ratio and perceived work ability among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:To study how body mass index (BMI, kg\\/m2) at 14 and 31 years (y) changes in BMI between 14 and 31 y, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 31 y are associated with poor perceived working ability at 31 y.DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:A population-based cohort, originally 11637 people, born in Northern Finland in 1966 was resurveyed at 14 and 31 y.MEASUREMENTS:Perceived work

J Laitinen; S Näyhä; V Kujala

2005-01-01

290

Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an

Iris M Heid; Anne U Jackson; Joshua C Randall; Thomas W Winkler; Lu Qi; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Gudmar Thorleifsson; M Carola Zillikens; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Reedik Magi; Tsegaselassie Workalemahu; Charles C White; Nabila Bouatia-Naji; Tamara B Harris; Sonja I Berndt; Erik Ingelsson; Cristen J Willer; Michael N Weedon; Jian'an Luan; Sailaja Vedantam; Tonu Esko; Tuomas O Kilpelainen; Zoltan Kutalik; Shengxu Li; Keri L Monda; Anna L Dixon; Christopher C Holmes; Lee M Kaplan; Liming Liang; Josine L Min; Miriam F Moffatt; Cliona Molony; George Nicholson; Eric E Schadt; Krina T Zondervan; Mary F Feitosa; Teresa Ferreira; Hana Lango Allen; Robert J Weyant; Eleanor Wheeler; Andrew R Wood; Karol Estrada; Michael E Goddard; Guillaume Lettre; Massimo Mangino; Dale R Nyholt; Shaun Purcell; Albert Vernon Smith; Peter M Visscher; Jian Yang; Steven A McCarroll; James Nemesh; Benjamin F Voight; Devin Absher; Najaf Amin; Thor Aspelund; Lachlan Coin; Nicole L Glazer; Caroline Hayward; Nancy L Heard-Costa; Jouke-Jan Hottenga; Asa Johansson; Toby Johnson; Marika Kaakinen; Karen Kapur; Shamika Ketkar; Joshua W Knowles; Peter Kraft; Aldi T Kraja; Claudia Lamina; Michael F Leitzmann; Barbara McKnight; Andrew P Morris; Ken K Ong; John R B Perry; Marjolein J Peters; Ozren Polasek; Inga Prokopenko; Nigel W Rayner; Samuli Ripatti; Fernando Rivadeneira; Neil R Robertson; Serena Sanna; Ulla Sovio; Ida Surakka; Alexander Teumer; Sophie van Wingerden; Veronique Vitart; Jing Hua Zhao; Christine Cavalcanti-Proenca; Peter S Chines; Eva Fisher; Jennifer R Kulzer; Cecile Lecoeur; Narisu Narisu; Camilla Sandholt; Laura J Scott; Kaisa Silander; Klaus Stark; Mari-Liis Tammesoo; Tanya M Teslovich; Nicholas John Timpson; Richard M Watanabe; Ryan Welch; Daniel I Chasman; Matthew N Cooper; John-Olov Jansson; Johannes Kettunen; Robert W Lawrence; Niina Pellikka; Markus Perola; Liesbeth Vandenput; Helene Alavere; Peter Almgren; Larry D Atwood; Amanda J Bennett; Reiner Biffar; Lori L Bonnycastle; Stefan R Bornstein; Thomas A Buchanan; Harry Campbell; Ian N M Day; Mariano Dei; Marcus Dorr; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Johan G Eriksson; Nelson B Freimer; Mao Fu; Stefan Gaget; Eco J C Geus; Anette P Gjesing; Harald Grallert; Jurgen Graszler; Christopher J Groves; Candace Guiducci; Anna-Liisa Hartikainen; Neelam Hassanali; Aki S Havulinna; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Andrew A Hicks; Jennie Hui; Wilmar Igl; Pekka Jousilahti; Antti Jula; Eero Kajantie; Leena Kinnunen; Ivana Kolcic; Seppo Koskinen; Peter Kovacs; Heyo K Kroemer; Vjekoslav Krzelj; Johanna Kuusisto; Kirsti Kvaloy; Jaana Laitinen; Olivier Lantieri; G Mark Lathrop; Marja-Liisa Lokki; Robert N Luben; Barbara Ludwig; Wendy L McArdle; Anne McCarthy; Mario A Morken; Mari Nelis; Matt J Neville; Guillaume Pare; Alex N Parker; John F Peden; Irene Pichler; Kirsi H Pietilainen; Carl G P Platou; Anneli Pouta; Martin Ridderstrale; Nilesh J Samani; Jouko Saramies; Juha Sinisalo; Jan H Smit; Rona J Strawbridge; Heather M Stringham; Amy J Swift; Maris Teder-Laving; Brian Thomson; Gianluca Usala; Joyce B J van Meurs; Gert-Jan van Ommen; Vincent Vatin; Claudia B Volpato; Henri Wallaschofski; G Bragi Walters; Elisabeth Widen; Sarah H Wild; Gonneke Willemsen; Daniel R Witte; Lina Zgaga; Paavo Zitting; John P Beilby; Alan L James; Mika Kahonen; Terho Lehtimaki; Markku S Nieminen; Claes Ohlsson; Lyle J Palmer; Olli Raitakari; Paul M Ridker; Michael Stumvoll; Anke Tonjes; Jorma Viikari; Beverley Balkau; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Richard N Bergman; Heiner Boeing; George Davey Smith; Shah Ebrahim; Philippe Froguel; Torben Hansen; Christian Hengstenberg; Kristian Hveem; Bo Isomaa; Torben Jorgensen; Fredrik Karpe; Kay-Tee Khaw; Markku Laakso; Debbie A Lawlor; Michel Marre; Thomas Meitinger; Andres Metspalu; Kristian Midthjell; Oluf Pedersen; Veikko Salomaa; Peter E H Schwarz; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Timo T Valle; Nicholas J Wareham; Alice M Arnold; Jacques S Beckmann; Sven Bergmann; Eric Boerwinkle; Dorret I Boomsma; Mark J Caulfield; Francis S Collins; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason; Ulf Gyllensten; Anders Hamsten; Andrew T Hattersley; Albert Hofman; Frank B Hu; Thomas Illig; Carlos Iribarren; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; W H Linda Kao; Jaakko Kaprio; Lenore J Launer; Patricia B Munroe; Ben Oostra; Brenda W Penninx; Peter P Pramstaller; Bruce M Psaty; Thomas Quertermous; Aila Rissanen; Igor Rudan; Alan R Shuldiner; Nicole Soranzo; Timothy D Spector; Ann-Christine Syvanen; Manuela Uda; Andre Uitterlinden; Henry Volzke; Peter Vollenweider; James F Wilson; Jacqueline C Witteman; Alan F Wright; Goncalo R Abecasis; Michael Boehnke; Ingrid B Borecki; Panos Deloukas

2010-01-01

291

Pilot intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary urban middle school girls: a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school physical activity club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions controlling for baseline measures showed no statistically significant group differences, but the directionality of differences was consistent with greater intervention group improvement for minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity/hour (t = 0.95, p = .35), cardiovascular fitness (t = 1.26, p = .22), body mass index (BMI; t = -1.47, p = .15), BMI z score (t = -1.19, p = .24), BMI percentile (t = -0.59, p = .56), percentage body fat (t = -0.86, p = .39), and waist circumference (t = -0.19, p = .85). Findings support testing with a larger sample. PMID:22472632

Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Maier, Kimberly S; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek Ladrig, Stacey M

2012-04-03

292

Pilot intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary urban middle school girls: a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of the study was to determine if girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school Physical Activity Club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions controlling for baseline measures showed no statistically significant group differences, but directionality of differences was consistent with greater intervention group improvement for minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity/hour (t = 0.95, p = .35), cardiovascular fitness (t = 1.26, p = .22), body mass index (BMI; t = ?1.47, p = .15), BMI z-score (t = ?1.19, p = .24), BMI percentile (t = ?0.59, p = .56), percent body fat (t = ?0.86, p = .39), and waist circumference (t = ?0.19, p = .85). Findings support testing with a larger sample.

Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek, Stacey M.

2012-01-01

293

Catch-up growth of head circumference of very low birth weight, small for gestational age preterm infants and mental development to adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the influence of postnatal energy quotient (EQ, energy intake\\/kg body weight per day) on head circumference (HC) growth and mental development of very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age (SGA, <10th percentile) preterm infants. Study design SGA VLBW preterm infants (n = 46) with primarily symmetric intrauterine growth restriction were compared with 62 appropriate for

Ingeborg Brandt; Elisabeth J. Sticker; Michael J. Lentze

2003-01-01

294

Growth in weight, recumbent length, and head circumference for preterm low-birthweight infants during the first three years of life using gestation-adjusted ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 867 preterm low-birthweight participants in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) were used to develop reference data for growth status at an age and for increments from term to 36 month gestation-adjusted age (GAA). Weight, length and head circumference were recorded at 4 month intervals in the first year and at 6 month intervals in the second

Shumei S Guo; Alex F Roche; Wm. Cameron Chumlea; Patrick H Casey; William M Moore

1997-01-01

295

Monitoring the adequacy of catch-up growth among moderately malnourished children receiving home-based therapy using mid-upper arm circumference in Southern Malawi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ...

296

Physical activity, fitness, and metabolic syndrome in young adults.  

PubMed

Purpose: Our objective was to analyze the association between different intensities of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 275 university students, 18-30 years old, from Cuenca, Spain. We evaluated (a) physical activity using accelerometry, (b) aerobic capacity (VO2max), and (c) muscle strength, by a muscle strength index calculated as the sum of the standardized z score of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing broad jump. An MS index was estimated by summing standardized z scores of waist circumference, ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein, mean arterial blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. Results: The mean scores of MS index and HOMA-IR were significantly higher and the VO2max significantly lower for individuals who did not perform 20 min or more per week of vigorous physical activity. However, those who performed 250 min/week of moderate physical activity showed no significant differences in either VO2max or the MS index when compared with individuals who did not perform this level of activity. The MS index was lower in those with medium-high levels of aerobic capacity. In addition, individuals with medium-high levels of muscular fitness showed lower waist circumference and a lower MS index. Conclusions: VO2max and muscle strength are negatively associated with metabolic risk. 20-min/week of vigorous physical activity was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in young adults; moderate physical activity did not show association with lower cardiometabolic risk. PMID:23994896

López-Martínez, Sara; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Solera-Martinez, Montserrat; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fuentes-Chacón, Rosa M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

2013-08-01

297

And in the Darkness Bind Them: Equatorial Rings, B[e] Supergiants, and the Waists of Bipolar Nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of two new circumstellar ring nebulae in the western Carina Nebula, and we discuss their significance in stellar evolution. The brighter of the two new objects, SBW 1, resembles a lidless staring eye and encircles a B1.5 Iab supergiant. Although seen in Carina, its luminosity class and radial velocity imply a larger distance of ~7 kpc in the far Carina arm. At that distance its size and shape are nearly identical to the equatorial ring around SN 1987A, but SBW 1's low N abundance indicates that the ring was excreted without its star passing through a red supergiant phase. The fainter object, SBW 2, is a more distorted ring, is N-rich, and is peculiar in that its central star seems to be invisible. We discuss the implications of these two new nebulae in context with other circumstellar rings such as those around SN 1987A, Sher 25, HD 168625, RY Scuti, WeBo 1, SuWt 2, and others. The ring bearers fall into two groups: Five rings surround hot supergiants, and it is striking that all except for the one known binary are carbon copies of the ring around SN 1987A. We propose a link between these B supergiant rings and B[e] supergiants, where the large spatially resolved rings derive from the same material that would have given rise to emission lines during the earlier B[e] phase, when it was much closer to the star. The remaining four rings surround evolved intermediate-mass stars; all members of this ring fellowship are close binaries, hinting that binary interactions govern the forging of such rings. Two-thirds of our sample are found in or near giant H II regions. We estimate that there may be several thousand more dark rings in the Galaxy, but we are scarcely aware of their existence-either because they are only illuminated in precious few circumstances or because of selection effects. For intermediate-mass stars, these rings might be the preexisting equatorial density enhancements invoked to bind the waists of bipolar nebulae. Based in part on observations made at the Clay Telescope of the Magellan Observatory, a joint facility of the Carnegie Observatories, Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Arizona, and the University of Michigan.

Smith, Nathan; Bally, John; Walawender, Josh

2007-08-01

298

Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Cardiometabolic Parameters in HIV-Infected and non-HIV-Infected Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Upper body fat is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. More recently, neck circumference (NC) and/or neck fat have been associated with hyperlipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, and hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine whether this relationship is evident in HIV-infected individuals, who often exhibit changes in relative fat distribution, and to determine whether NC is independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in HIV and non–HIV-infected patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Body composition, including anthropometrics, visceral adipose tissue assessment by CT, and metabolic parameters, including lipids, cIMT, and oral glucose tolerance test, were measured in 174 men and women with HIV infection and 154 non–HIV-infected subjects. NC was measured in triplicate inferior to the laryngeal prominence. RESULTS In univariate analysis, NC was significantly and positively related to blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, glucose, and insulin and significantly and negatively related to HDL cholesterol in HIV-infected individuals and HIV-negative control subjects. NC was significantly associated with cIMT in univariate regression analysis among HIV-infected (r = 0.21, P = 0.006) and non–HIV-infected (r = 0.31, P = 0.0001) patients. This relationship remained significant among non–HIV-infected patients (R2 = 0.45, P < 0.001) but not HIV-infected patients in multivariate modeling controlling for age, sex, race, smoking hypertension, glucose, and lipids. CONCLUSIONS Among both HIV and non–HIV-infected patients, increased NC is strongly associated with decreased HDL and impaired glucose homeostasis. Among non–HIV-infected subjects, NC also predicts increased cIMT when controlling for traditional risk factors.

Fitch, Kathleen V.; Stanley, Takara L.; Looby, Sara E.; Rope, Alison M.; Grinspoon, Steven K.

2011-01-01

299

Long-term outcomes of thigh circumference, stifle range-of-motion, and lameness after unilateral tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.  

PubMed

Our study evaluated thigh circumference (TC), stifle range of motion (ROM), and lameness in dogs one to five years after unilateral tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). We hypothesised that TC, stifle ROM, and lameness would not be different to the unoperated limb (control), one to five years after surgery. Patients that were one to five years post-TPLO were reviewed and were included if they had a unilateral TPLO, and no additional clinical evidence of orthopaedic disease. Standing mid-thigh TC measurements and stifle extension and flexion angles were made in triplicate. Clinical lameness was graded blindly. Data were evaluated statistically using paired t-tests for TC and stifle flexion and extension. Significance was set at p <0.05. Twenty-nine dogs met the inclusion criteria. Mean results for the surgery limbs and control limbs were 39.5 +/- 5.5 cm and 40.1 +/- 5.6 cm for TC, 36.6 +/- 6.8 degrees and 28.6 +/- 4.3 degrees for stifle flexion, and 155.2 +/- 6.6 degrees and 159.8 +/- 4.9 degrees for stifle extension, respectively. The mean TC for the operated limb was 98.5% of the control limb. A significant difference was found between the operated and the control limbs for all measurements. Time after surgery had no apparent affect on outcome. Four of 29 dogs (14%) exhibited some lameness in the TLPO limb during evaluation (one dog was 1 to 2 years postoperative and three dogs were 2 to 3 years postoperative). These results indicate that TC and stifle ROM in the TLPO limb do not return to control-limb measurements one to five years after a TPLO surgery. The clinical significance is unknown as TC returned to 98.5% of control, and the source of lameness in the lame dogs was not identified. PMID:19997674

Moeller, E M; Allen, D A; Wilson, E R; Lineberger, J A; Lehenbauer, T

2009-12-08

300

The post-partum mid upper arm circumference of adolescents is reduced by pregnancy in rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine whether changes in mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) in pregnancy and early postpartum varied by maternal age. Methods The MUAC of 3359 nulliparous pregnant women ? 25 years of age in rural Nepal, was measured in early pregnancy and 3 months post delivery of a live born infant. Regression was used to model the change in MUAC and prevalence of MUAC < 20 cm by maternal age, adjusted for confounders. Results 5.2% of pregnant women were under 16 years of age. The prevalence of MUAC < 20 cm was 11.3% in early pregnancy and did not differ by maternal age. The prevalence of low MUAC was 17.7% postpartum, but those < 16 years of age had a significantly higher prevalence of low postpartum MUAC (Odds Ratio: 2.47, 95% confidence interval 1.49, 4.10) compared with women 20-25 years of age, adjusted for maternal literacy, caste, meat consumption in early pregnancy, and timing of measurements. All women lost MUAC from early pregnancy through postpartum. The adjusted loss of MUAC among those under 16 years of age was 0.97 cm (95% CI: -1.33, -0.60), compared with 0.40 cm (95% CI: -0.70, -0.10) among women 20-25 years of age. Conclusions In an energy restricted environment, girls under 16 years contributed to a half centimeter more loss of MUAC than older women of the same parity. Such a loss of fat, muscle or both, may put younger women and their breastfed offspring at greater risk of other adverse health and nutritional outcomes.

Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

2009-01-01

301

Retrospective Analysis of the Relationship between Decline in FEV1 and Abdominal Circumference in Male Smokers: the Takahata Study  

PubMed Central

Background:Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is reportedly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between abdominal circumference (AC) and decline in FEV1 has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate this relationship among male current smokers. Methods:Spirometry was performed on subjects (n = 3,257) ? 40 years of age, who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 through 2006 (visit 1). Spirometry was re-evaluated, and AC was assessed in 147 of the male current smokers in 2009 (visit 2). The diagnosis of Mets was based on the criteria used in the Hisayama Study. Results:No significant relationships were observed between AC and spirometric parameters such as % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC. However, decline in FEV1 was significantly correlated with AC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that AC was a significant discriminating factor for decline in FEV1, independently of age, Brinkman index and change in body mass index from visit 1 to visit 2. At visit 2, there was a greater prevalence of decline in FEV1 among subjects with Mets (n=17) than among those without Mets. Although there were no differences in % predicted FVC, % predicted FEV1 or FEV1/FVC between subjects with or without Mets, the rate of decline in FEV1 was significantly greater in subjects with Mets than in those without. Conclusions:This retrospective analysis suggested that measuring AC may be useful for discriminating male smokers who show a decline in FEV1.

Sato, Masamichi; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Aida, Yasuko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

2013-01-01

302

Estimation of genetic parameters and effects of cytoplasmic line on scrotal circumference and semen quality traits in Angus bulls.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the heritability of scrotal circumference (SC) and semen traits, genetic correlations between SC and semen quality traits, and the effect of cytoplasmic line on SC and semen traits. Breeding soundness exam (BSE) data were collected on registered Angus bulls at 4 ranches over 7 yr. The American Angus Association provided historical pedigree information to estimate the effect of cytoplasmic line on SC and semen quality traits. After editing, the evaluated data set contained 1,281 bulls with breeding soundness exam data that traced back to 100 founder dams. Data were analyzed using a 2-trait animal model to obtain heritability, genetic correlation between SC and semen quality traits, as well as the effect of cytoplasmic line as a random effect for SC, percent motility (MOT), percent primary abnormalities (PRIM), percent secondary abnormalities (SEC), and percent total abnormalities (TOT) using multiple-trait derivative-free REML. Fixed effects included source ranch and collection year, and test age was used as a covariate. Estimates of heritability for SC, MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were 0.46, 0.05, 0.27, 0.23, and 0.25, respectively. Genetic correlations between SC and MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were 0.36, -0.19, -0.11, and -0.23, respectively. The proportions of phenotypic variance accounted for by cytoplasmic line for SC, MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were <0.001, 0.013, 0.023, 0.002, and <0.001, respectively. Genetic correlations between SC and semen quality traits were low to moderate and favorable. Cytoplasmic line may have a marginal effect on MOT and PRIM, but is likely not a significant source of variation for SC, SEC, or TOT. PMID:21036934

Garmyn, A J; Moser, D W; Christmas, R A; Minick Bormann, J

2010-10-29

303

Obesity Is Underestimated Using Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Long-Term Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI), is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. Methods Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11–21) and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9–3.6). BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors). Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS). BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. Results BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (?SDS?=?0.19, P<0.001). Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT) (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001). Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (?SDS?=?0.22, P<0.001). Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. Conclusions Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke M.; Delhanty, Patric J. D.; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J. C. M. M.

2012-01-01

304

Effect of continuing or stopping smoking during pregnancy on infant birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference, ponderal index, and brain:body weight ratio.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether stopping smoking between the first prenatal care visit and the 32nd week of pregnancy affects the smoking-associated changes in five infant anthropometric indices. The study population consisted of 15,185 births in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1991 and 1992. The associations between birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference, ponderal index, brain:body weight ratio, maternal smoking status at the first prenatal care visit and at 32 weeks' gestation, and other maternal and infant characteristics were assessed using multivariate linear regression. The infants of 946 women who stopped smoking before week 32 of pregnancy were statistically indistinguishable from the 9,802 infants of nondaily smokers in terms of birth weight, head circumference, and brain:body weight ratio, but they retained a significant deficit in crown-heel length of 0.23 cm (standard error, 0.08) and a significant elevation in ponderal index of 0.027 (standard error, 0.009). In this study, stopping smoking between the first prenatal care visit and week 32 of pregnancy prevented smoking-associated deficits in infant birth weight, head circumference, and brain:body weight ratio, but did not completely prevent deficits in crown-heel length in comparison with nonsmokers' infants of the same age, and did not prevent elevation of ponderal index in comparison with nonsmokers' infants of the same weight and age. PMID:10933268

Lindley, A A; Becker, S; Gray, R H; Herman, A A

2000-08-01

305

Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance*body mass index interactions at ages 9 to 10 years predict metabolic syndrome risk factor aggregate score at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.  

PubMed

If homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) interactions with obesity (body mass index [BMI]) at ages 9 to 10 years predict aggregate metabolic syndrome risk factors at ages 18 to 19 years, this would identify novel avenues for primary prevention of metabolic syndrome. Our hypothesis was that HOMA-IR*BMI interactions at ages 9 to 10 years would predict aggregate metabolic syndrome risk factor z scores at ages 18 to 19 years in prospective studies of a biracial population of girls. Two centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study measured serum insulin and glucose at ages 9 to 10 years and 5 metabolic syndrome risk factors at ages 18 to 19 years (triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and glucose). Studies in Cincinnati, OH, included girls from public and parochial schools in the inner city, within-city residential neighborhoods, and suburban areas; and those in Washington, DC, included girls from a health maintenance organization. Girls (194 white, 281 black) were studied first at ages 9 to 10 years, then at ages 18 to 19 years. We assessed HOMA-IR*BMI interactions at ages 9 to 10 years with race-specific z scores for 5 metabolic syndrome risk factors at ages 18 to 19 years. The lowest summed z score (mean +/- SD) was observed for subjects in the lowest tertiles for both HOMA-IR and BMI (-1.15 +/- 2.05), and the highest z score (2.58 +/- 3.11) was for subjects in the highest tertiles for both HOMA-IR and BMI (P < .0001). For the top BMI tertile, there was a progressive increase in z score (increasing risk of metabolic syndrome) as HOMA-IR increased. Interaction of BMI with HOMA-IR at ages 9 to 10 years predicts aggregate metabolic risk score at ages 18 to 19 years, with progressive risk increments within the top BMI tertile as HOMA-IR increases, opening avenues for intervention to reduce both BMI and HOMA-IR at ages 9 to 10 years as a primary approach to prevention of metabolic syndrome at ages 18 to 19 years. PMID:19217441

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Horn, Paul S; Schreiber, George B; Wang, Ping

2009-03-01

306

Body mass index, waist/hip ratio, and coronary heart disease incidence in African Americans and whites. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Investigators.  

PubMed

To study the relation of the amount and distribution of body fat with incident coronary heart disease in two ethnic groups, the authors analyzed prospective data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Among 14,040 participants aged 45-64 years and free of coronary disease at baseline in 1987-1989, we identified 398 events through 1994, an average of 6.2 years of follow-up. Among African-American women, the multivariable-adjusted relative risks of coronary heart disease across quartiles of body mass index were 1.0, 1.91. 1.54, and 2.15 (p for trend=0.27), and those for waist/hip ratio were 1.0, 2.07, 2.33, and 4.22 (p for trend=0.02). Among African-American men, these respective relative risks were 1.0, 1.03, 0.83, and 1.20 (p for trend=0.76) for body mass index and 1.0, 1.08, 1.87, and 1.68 (p for trend=0.06) for waist/hip ratio. Relative risks for whites were generally similar to those for African Americans. Relative risks were stronger for never smokers than for the overall cohort. Unlike some previous studies, our results suggest that Africa Americans, like whites, are not spared from the coronary heart disease risks accompanying obesity. PMID:9867265

Folsom, A R; Stevens, J; Schreiner, P J; McGovern, P G

1998-12-15

307

The test characteristics of head circumference measurements for pathology associated with head enlargement: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The test characteristics of head circumference (HC) measurement percentile criteria for the identification of previously undetected pathology associated with head enlargement in primary care are unknown. Methods Electronic patient records were reviewed to identify children age 3 days to 3 years with new diagnoses of intracranial expansive conditions (IEC) and metabolic and genetic conditions associated with macrocephaly (MGCM). We tested the following HC percentile threshold criteria: ever above the 95th, 97th, or 99.6th percentile and ever crossing 2, 4, or 6 increasing major percentile lines. The Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization growth curves were used, as well as the primary care network (PCN) curves previously derived from this cohort. Results Among 74,428 subjects, 85 (0.11%) had a new diagnosis of IEC (n = 56) or MGCM (n = 29), and between these 2 groups, 24 received intervention. The 99.6th percentile of the PCN curve was the only threshold with a PPV over 1% (PPV 1.8%); the sensitivity of this threshold was only 15%. Test characteristics for the 95th percentiles were: sensitivity (CDC: 46%; WHO: 55%; PCN: 40%), positive predictive value (PPV: CDC: 0.3%; WHO: 0.3%; PCN: 0.4%), and likelihood ratios positive (LR+: CDC: 2.8; WHO: 2.2; PCN: 3.9). Test characteristics for the 97th percentiles were: sensitivity (CDC: 40%; WHO: 48%; PCN: 34%), PPV (CDC: 0.4%; WHO: 0.3%; PCN: 0.6%), and LR+ (CDC: 3.6; WHO: 2.7; PCN: 5.6). Test characteristics for crossing 2 increasing major percentile lines were: sensitivity (CDC: 60%; WHO: 40%; PCN: 31%), PPV (CDC: 0.2%; WHO: 0.1%; PCN: 0.2%), and LR+ (CDC: 1.3; WHO: 1.1; PCN: 1.5). Conclusions Commonly used HC percentile thresholds had low sensitivity and low positive predictive value for diagnosing new pathology associated with head enlargement in children in a primary care network.

2012-01-01

308

Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background This pragmatic evaluation investigated the effectiveness of the Children’s Health, Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE!) Project, a cluster randomised intervention to promote healthy weight using an educational focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Methods Participants (n = 318, aged 10–11 years) from 6 Intervention and 6 Comparison schools took part in the 20 weeks intervention between November 2010 and March/April 2011. This consisted of a teacher-led curriculum, learning resources, and homework tasks. Primary outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-scores. Secondary outcomes were objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and food intake. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at post-intervention (20 weeks), and at follow-up (30 weeks). Data were analysed using 2-level multi-level modelling (levels: school, student) and adjusted for baseline values of the outcomes and potential confounders. Differences in intervention effect by subgroup (sex, weight status, socio-economic status) were explored using statistical interaction. Results Significant between-group effects were observed for waist circumference at post-intervention (? for intervention effect =?1.63 (95% CI = ?2.20, -1.07) cm, p<0.001) and for BMI z-score at follow-up (?=?0.24 (95% CI = ?0.48, -0.003), p=0.04). At follow-up there was also a significant intervention effect for light intensity physical activity (?=25.97 (95% CI = 8.04, 43.89) min, p=0.01). Interaction analyses revealed that the intervention was most effective for overweight/obese participants (waist circumference: ?=?2.82 (95% CI = ?4.06, -1.58) cm, p<0.001), girls (BMI: ?=?0.39 (95% CI = ?0.81, 0.03) kg/m2, p=0.07), and participants with higher family socioeconomic status (breakfast consumption: ?=8.82 (95% CI = 6.47, 11.16), p=0.07). Conclusions The CHANGE! intervention positively influenced body size outcomes and light physical activity, and most effectively influenced body size outcomes among overweight and obese children and girls. The findings add support for the effectiveness of combined school-based physical activity and nutrition interventions. Additional work is required to test intervention fidelity and the sustained effectiveness of this intervention in the medium and long term. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03863885.

2013-01-01

309

Weight Gain and Metabolic Abnormalities During Extended Risperidone Treatment in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of clinical and laboratory metabolic abnormalities during long-term risperidone treatment in children and adolescents. Methods Medically healthy 7- to 17-year-old children chronically treated, in a naturalistic setting, with risperidone were recruited through child psychiatry clinics. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory testing were conducted. Developmental and medication histories were obtained from medical records. Results In 99 patients treated with risperidone for an average of 2.9 years, a significant increase in age- and gender-adjusted weight and body mass index (BMI) (i.e., z-scores) was observed. Concomitant treatment with psychostimulants did not attenuate this weight gain. Risperidone-associated weight gain was negatively correlated with the BMI z-score obtained at the onset of risperidone treatment. Compared to lean children, overweight and obese children had higher odds of metabolic abnormalities, including increased waist circumference, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). They also tended to have a higher insulin level and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. As a result, upon recruitment in the study, children with excessive weight were 12 times more likely to have at least one laboratory metabolic abnormality and seven times more likely to have at least one criterion of the metabolic syndrome compared to lean subjects. In contrast to excessive weight status, gaining ?0.5 BMI z-score point during risperidone treatment was not associated with a significantly higher occurrence of metabolic disturbances. Conclusions The long-term use of risperidone, especially when weight is above normal, is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities but a low prevalence of the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Future studies should evaluate the stability of these abnormalities over time.

Acion, Laura; Kuperman, Samuel; Tansey, Michael; Schlechte, Janet A.

2009-01-01

310

Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg) or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg). In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8?10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162). Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001), and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%), reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, ?6.75%) and noticeable increases in muscle strength after resistance training to leg press (P = 0.004, 41.29%) and bench press (P = 0.0001, 27.23%). Conclusion It was concluded that resistance training performed three times a week may reduce the metabolic syndrome Z-score with concomitant decreases in fasting blood glucose, improvements in body composition, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

Conceicao, Miguel Soares; Bonganha, Valeria; Vechin, Felipe Cassaro; de Barros Berton, Ricardo Paes; Lixandrao, Manoel Emilio; Nogueira, Felipe Romano Damas; de Souza, Giovana Verginia; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto

2013-01-01

311

Weight gain and sudden infant death syndrome: changes in weight z scores may identify infants at increased risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo investigate patterns of infant growth that may influence the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).DESIGNThree year population based case control study with parental interviews for each death and four age matched controls. Growth was measured from prospective weight observations using the British 1990 Growth Reference.SETTINGFive regions in England (population greater than 17 million, more than 470 000 live

Peter S Blair; Pam Nadin; Tim J Cole; Peter J Fleming; Iain J Smith; Martin Ward Platt; P J Berry; Jean Golding

2000-01-01

312

Postanesthesia patients with large upper arm circumference: is use of an "extra-long" adult cuff or forearm cuff placement accurate?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if blood pressure (BP) measured in the forearm or with an extra-long BP cuff in the upper arm accurately reflects BP measured in the upper arm with an appropriately sized BP cuff in patients with large upper arm circumference. A method-comparison design was used with a convenience sample of 49 PACU patients. Noninvasive blood pressures were obtained in two different locations (forearm; upper arm) and in the upper arm with an extra-long adult and recommended large adult cuff sizes. Data were analyzed by calculating bias and precision for the BP cuff size and location and Student's t-tests, with P < .0125 considered significant. Significantly higher forearm systolic (P < .0001) and diastolic (P < .0002) BP measurements were found compared to BP obtained in the upper arm with the reference standard BP cuff. Significantly higher systolic (t(48df) = 5.38, P < .0001), but not diastolic (t(48df) = 4.11, P < .019), BP differences were found for BP measured with the extra-long cuff at the upper arm site compared to the upper arm, reference standard BP. Findings suggest that the clinical practice of using the forearm or an extra-long cuff in the upper arm for BP measurement in post anesthesia patients with large upper arm circumferences may result in inaccurate BP values. PMID:21641528

Watson, Sheri; Aguas, Marita; Bienapfl, Tracy; Colegrove, Pat; Foisy, Nancy; Jondahl, Bonnie; Yosses, Mary Beth; Yu, Larissa; Anastas, Zoe

2011-06-01

313

The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype versus the National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation clinical criteria to identify high-risk men with an altered cardiometabolic risk profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, the National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria, and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria have been proposed as screening tools to identify subjects with features of the metabolic syndrome and therefore at increased cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of these 3 clinical approaches to

Patricia Blackburn; Isabelle Lemieux; Natalie Alméras; Jean Bergeron; Mélanie Côté; Angelo Tremblay; Benoît Lamarche; Jean-Pierre Després

2009-01-01

314

Males prefer a larger bust size in women than females themselves: an experimental study on female bodily attractiveness with varying weight, bust size, waist width, hip width, and leg length independently.  

PubMed

What determines a female figure as attractive and is there a consensus of both sexes in judging female bodily attractiveness? To answer these questions, an extensive experiment was conducted using high-quality photographic stimulus material, several systematically varied figure parameters (weight, hip width, waist width, bust size, and leg length), and a large sample of 34,000 participants. The results showed that women prefer slightly wider hips, a narrower waist, and longer legs than men (highly significant but small effects). A clear difference was found with regard to the ideal bust size: 40% of men but only 25% of women preferred a large bust. The findings are discussed with respect to the changed role of women in Western industrialized countries who tend to concentrate on their career rather than on reproduction, and the effect of a curvaceous body with a large-sized bust on social perception. PMID:21359983

Prantl, Lukas; Gründl, Martin

2011-02-27

315

Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight\\/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility

Jasmeet S Mokha; Sathanur R Srinivasan; Pronabesh DasMahapatra; Camilo Fernandez; Wei Chen; Jihua Xu; Gerald S Berenson

2010-01-01

316

The waist-to-hip ratio corrected for body mass index is related to serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not to parameters of glucose metabolism in healthy premenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Android obesity is associated with metabolic disorders, but the causality of this relationship remains unclear. We investigated the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with hormones, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, serum lipoproteins, and the serum activity of hepatic enzymes in 40 healthy premenopausal women (BMI 19.2–46.1, mean 32.6±1.3 kg\\/M2; WHR 0.68-1.01, mean 0.82±0.02). BMI correlated with

A. C. Sönnichsen; M. M. Ritter; W. Möhrle; W. O. Richter; P. Schwandt

1993-01-01

317

Males Prefer a Larger Bust Size in Women Than Females Themselves: An Experimental Study on Female Bodily Attractiveness with Varying Weight, Bust Size, Waist Width, Hip Width, and Leg Length Independently  

Microsoft Academic Search

What determines a female figure as attractive and is there a consensus of both sexes in judging female bodily attractiveness?\\u000a To answer these questions, an extensive experiment was conducted using high-quality photographic stimulus material, several\\u000a systematically varied figure parameters (weight, hip width, waist width, bust size, and leg length), and a large sample of\\u000a 34,000 participants. The results showed that

Lukas Prantl; Martin Gründl

318

Association of Baseline Sex Hormone Levels with Baseline and Longitudinal Changes in Waist-to-Hip Ratio : Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is strongly associated with prevalent atherosclerosis. We analyzed the associations of baseline serum levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with WHR in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Subjects Baseline data was available for 3144 men and 2038 postmenopausal women, who were non-users of hormone therapy, who were 45–84 years of age, and of White, Chinese, Black or Hispanic racial/ethnic groups. Of these, 2708 men and 1678 women also had longitudinal measurements of WHR measured at the second and/or the third study visits (median follow-up 578 days, and 1135 days, respectively). Results In cross-sectional analyses adjusted for age, race, and cardiovascular disease risk factors, T was negatively associated with baseline WHR in men, while in both sexes, E2 was positively associated and SHBG was negatively associated with WHR (all p<0.001). In longitudinal analyses, further adjusted for follow-up time and baseline WHR, baseline T was negatively associated with WHR at follow-up (p=0.001) in men, while in both sexes, E2 was positively associated (p=0.004), and SHBG was negatively associated with WHR (p<0.001). The longitudinal association of E2, but not T, was independent of SHBG. In both cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses, there were no associations between DHEA and WHR in either men or women. Conclusion Sex hormones are associated with WHR at baseline and also during follow-up above and beyond their baseline association. Future research is needed to determine if manipulation of hormones is associated with changes in central obesity.

Vaidya, Dhananjay; Dobs, Adrian; Gapstur, Susan M.; Golden, Sherita Hill; Cushman, Mary; Liu, Kiang; Ouyang, Pamela

2012-01-01

319

Genetic and environmental relationships between head circumference growth in the first year of life and sociocognitive development in the second year: a longitudinal twin study.  

PubMed

Although growth in head circumference (HC) during infancy is known to predict later childhood outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this association with later sociocognitive abilities remain undetermined. Thus, using a sample of 241 pairs of normally developing Japanese twins, this study investigated the underpinnings of the association between HC growth (difference between HC at birth and at 10 months) and sociocognitive abilities at 19 months as measured by 10 items from the M-CHAT. Phenotypic correlations between HC at birth and sociocognitive abilities and between HC growth and sociocognitive abilities were marginal and not significant. However, multivariate genetic analyses using Cholesky decomposition revealed that genetic influences on HC growth and those on sociocognitive abilities were negatively associated. On the other hand, shared and nonshared environmental influences on HC growth were positively associated with influences on sociocognitive abilities. Genetic and environmental influences on HC at birth were not significantly associated with influences on sociocognitive abilities. These results help to clarify the role of brain growth during infancy in the subsequent development of sociocognitive abilities and highlight the importance of examining the different roles of genetic and environmental influences in studies of these areas. PMID:22251296

Fujisawa, Keiko K; Ozaki, Koken; Suzuki, Kunitake; Yamagata, Shinji; Kawahashi, Ikko; Ando, Juko

2011-11-03

320

Circumference of Taxicab Geometry Circles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students apply familiar concepts of geometry to novel settings. Using square dot paper and isometric dot paper, students trace routes and determine the geometry of each circle. (KR)

Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

1991-01-01

321

Dose effect of cardiorespiratory exercise on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

As an ancillary report to a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded trial, we examined the effects of 6 months of exercise training at 50%, 100%, and 150% of the NIH Consensus Recommendations for physical activity (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure/wk [KKW]) versus a nonexercise control group on the metabolic syndrome (MS) in sedentary, overweight, moderately hypertensive, postmenopausal women. We examined the clinically defined National Cholesterol Education Program MS, individual components scores, and summed z-scores, expressed as a continuous variable (zMS), using chi-square and general linear models to assess the clinical and progressive nature of MS, respectively. Our results showed significant improvements in zMS for all exercise groups and MS for the 8- and 12 KKW groups only (all, p for trend = 0.02). Post hoc analyses showed that 12 KKW for zMS and 8 and 12 KKW for MS was significant versus the control group (all, p <0.05). When examining the composite scores, we observed significant trends for improvement in waist circumference (p for trend = 0.001), fasting glucose (p for trend = 0.01), and systolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.02), which appeared to be dose dependent, given the additive nature for incorporating the within-group improvements in waist circumference (4, 8, and 12 KKW), fasting glucose (8 and 12 KKW), and systolic blood pressure (12 KKW). Our results suggest that low-to-moderate intensity cardiorespiratory exercise appears to improve components of the MS in postmenopausal women at levels at or greater than NIH recommendations and that zMS improves at half the NIH recommendations. Greater levels of energy expenditure appear to enhance this effect by incorporating a greater number of requisite MS composite scores. PMID:23578351

Earnest, Conrad P; Johannsen, Neil M; Swift, Damon L; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Church, Timothy S

2013-04-08

322

Availability of local food outlets is associated with weight status and dietary intake in 9-10 year olds  

PubMed Central

Background The rising rate of childhood obesity is a key public health issue worldwide. Limited evidence suggests that there may be interactions between environmental factors at a neighbourhood level and the development of obesity, with the availability and accessibility of foods outlets being potentially important. Purpose To examine how the weight status and dietary intake of 1669 9-10 year-olds was associated with neighbourhood food-outlets in a cross-sectional study. Methods Availability of food outlets was computed from GIS data for each child’s unique neighbourhood. Outlets were grouped into BMI-healthy, BMI-unhealthy or BMI-intermediate categories according to food-type sold. Weight status measurements were objectively collected and food intake was recorded using four-day food-diaries. Data was collected in 2007 and analysed in 2009. Results Availability of BMI-healthy outlets in neighbourhoods was associated with lower body weight (1.3kg; p=0.03), BMI (0.5kg/m2; p=0.02), BMI z-score (0.20; p=0.02), waist circumference (1.3cm; p=0.02), and percentage body fat (1.1%; p=0.03) compared to no availability. In contrast, neighbourhood availability of BMI-unhealthy outlets was inversely associated with body weight (1.3kg; p=0.02), BMI (0.4kg/m2; p=0.05), BMI z-score (0.15; p=0.05), waist circumference (1.1cm; p=0.04), and percentage body fat (1.0%; p=0.03). Unhealthy food intake (fizzy drinks 15.3%; p=0.04, and non-carbonated ‘fruit’ drinks 11.8%; p=0.03) was also associated with availability of BMI-unhealthy food outlets. Conclusions This study suggests that features of the built environment relating to food purchasing opportunities are independent significant correlates of weight status in children.

Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; Jones, Andy P; Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedin

2013-01-01

323

The effect of decibel level of music stimuli and gender on head circumference and physiological responses of premature infants in the NICU.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine different protocols with regard to the presentation of music stimuli and compare gender differential reactions to those stimuli. Subjects for this study (N = 63) were premature infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between the gestational ages of 28 and 33 weeks. Half of the experimental infants listened to 20 mins of lullaby music (female voice with orchestral background) on 2 days followed by 20 mins of classical music (Mozart string music) on 2 days. The other half listened to the same music in the reverse order. One quarter of the males and one quarter of the females listened to music presented at an average of 65 dB, one quarter at an average of 70 dB, one quarter at an average of 75 dB, and one quarter did not listen to any music and served as control subjects. Head circumference data were collected four times by the researcher: (a) upon receipt of parental consent, (b) on the first day of music presentation (1 week after consent), (c) on the last day of music presentation, and (d) 1 week after music presentation. Physiological data (heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation) were recorded by the researcher at 2-minute intervals starting 4 minutes prior to and ending 4 minutes after music presentation. There was a significant difference (p < .0001) in average daily head growth across time, but this seems unrelated to the music condition as the same curvilinear trend (larger gain during days of treatment, smaller gain during baseline before and after treatment) was noted for control infants who did not listen to music. Results indicate a significant (p = .002), but biologically unimportant, decrease in heart rate over the course of data collection. No differences due to gender were noted. PMID:19757874

Cassidy, Jane W

2009-01-01

324

Monitoring the adequacy of catch-up growth among moderately malnourished children receiving home-based therapy using mid-upper arm circumference in southern Malawi.  

PubMed

Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) measurements collected by community-based health aides have the potential to monitor changes in nutritional status among moderately malnourished Malawian children while undergoing HBT using RUTF. Retrospective analysis was performed using the anthropometric data of 1,904 moderately malnourished children during treatment using RUTF. Changes in MUAC and changes in overall weight at 1 and 2 months of treatment were compared. Various geometric relationships were explored between the measures to find the most direct relationship. Models were developed to investigate anthropometric changes in children undergoing treatment. These data reveal that the correlation between the changes in MUAC and changes in weight over the course of treatment is statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The relationship between a child's change in MUAC and their change in weight is influenced by several cofactors related to their initial presentation. The power of change in weight to predict change in MUAC increases at the second month of treatment. Statistical modelling improves if children under the age of 12 months are omitted. Changes in MUAC reflect changes in overall body mass among moderately malnourished children undergoing HBT using RUTF suggesting that performance could possibly be monitored by village health aides in order to monitor a child's performance on feeding programmes in low resource settings. PMID:20082126

Connor, Nicholas E; Manary, Mark J

2011-10-01

325

Changes in adiposity indicators of Ho Chi Minh City adolescents in a 5-year prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Objective:The aim of this study was to examine changes over 5 years in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of adolescents from Ho Chi Minh City by age, gender and household economic status.Methods:Anthropometry including height, weight and WC measurements of 759 secondary high school students were collected 1-year apart in a prospective cohort study, between 2004 and 2009. BMI was calculated and overweight/obesity was defined using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) BMI cutoffs. Abdominal 'overweight' and 'obesity' were defined as WC >91st-97th and ?98th centile, respectively. BMI z-scores were also created.Results:Over the 5-year period, the absolute changes in mean BMI and WC were statistically significant (P<0.001). Boys had higher BMI and WC values than girls (P<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity defined by IOTF BMI cutoff values increased gradually from 12.5% and 1.7% in the first year to 16.7% and 5.1% in the last year. Using WC cutoff values, the prevalence of abdominal overweight and obesity increased from 12.9% and 1.8% to 18.5% and 6.6%, respectively. BMI z-score curves shifted towards the right-hand side of the distribution (that is, towards overweight and obesity).Conclusion:Overweight and obesity, as measured by BMI or WC, continued to increase among adolescents of Ho Chi Minh City over the 5-year period. PMID:23318719

Hong, T K; Trang, N H H D; Dibley, M J

2013-01-15

326

Polymorphisms in NRXN3, TFAP2B, MSRA, LYPLAL1, FTO and MC4R and their effect on visceral fat area in the Japanese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant risk factor of metabolic syndrome is intra-abdominal fat accumulation, which is determined by waist circumference and waist–hip ratio measurements and visceral fat area (VFA) that is measured by computed tomography (CT). There is evidence that waist circumference and waist–hip ratio in the Caucasian population are associated with variations in several genes, including neurexin 3 (NRXN3), transcription factor AP-2?

Kikuko Hotta; Michihiro Nakamura; Takahiro Nakamura; Tomoaki Matsuo; Yoshio Nakata; Seika Kamohara; Nobuyuki Miyatake; Kazuaki Kotani; Ryoya Komatsu; Naoto Itoh; Ikuo Mineo; Jun Wada; Masato Yoneda; Atsushi Nakajima; Tohru Funahashi; Shigeru Miyazaki; Katsuto Tokunaga; Manabu Kawamoto; Hiroaki Masuzaki; Takato Ueno; Kazuyuki Hamaguchi; Kiyoji Tanaka; Kentaro Yamada; Toshiaki Hanafusa; Shinichi Oikawa; Hironobu Yoshimatsu; Kazuwa Nakao; Toshiie Sakata; Yuji Matsuzawa; Yusuke Nakamura; Naoyuki Kamatani

2010-01-01

327

Associations of PON1 and genetic ancestry with obesity in early childhood.  

PubMed

Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genotype and arylesterase levels (ARYase, measure of PON1 enzyme quantity), to characterize the relationship between PON1 and obesity in young Mexican-American children (n = 373) living in an agricultural community in California. Since PON1 polymorphisms and obesity both vary between ethnic groups, we estimated proportional genetic ancestry using 106 ancestral informative markers (AIMs). Among children, PON1192 allele frequencies were 0.5 for both alleles, and the prevalence of obesity was high (15% and 33% at ages two and five, respectively). The average proportion of European, African, and Native American ancestry was 0.40, 0.09, and 0.51, yet there was wide inter-individual variation. We found a significantly higher odds of obesity (9.3 and 2.5- fold) in PON1192QQ children compared to PON1192RR children at ages two and five, respectively. Similar relationships were seen with BMI Z-scores at age two and waist circumference at age five. After adjusting for genetic ancestry in models of PON1 and BMI Z-score, effect estimates for PON1192 genotype changed 15% and 9% among two and five year old children, respectively, providing evidence of genetic confounding by population stratification. However even after adjustment for genetic ancestry, the trend of increased BMI Z-scores with increased number of PON1192 Q alleles remained. Our findings suggest that PON1 may play a role in obesity independent of genetic ancestry and that studies of PON1 and health outcomes, especially in admixed populations, should account for differences due to population stratification. PMID:23658746

Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Beckman, Kenneth; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

2013-05-03

328

Shared care obesity management in 3-10 year old children: 12 month outcomes of HopSCOTCH randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether general practice surveillance for childhood obesity, followed by obesity management across primary and tertiary care settings using a shared care model, improves body mass index and related outcomes in obese children aged 3-10 years. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 22 family practices (35 participating general practitioners) and a tertiary weight management service (three paediatricians, two dietitians) in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Children aged 3-10 years with body mass index above the 95th centile recruited through their general practice between July 2009 and April 2010. Intervention Children were randomly allocated to one tertiary appointment followed by up to 11 general practice consultations over one year, supported by shared care, web based software (intervention) or “usual care” (control). Researchers collecting outcome measurements, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Main outcome measures Children’s body mass index z score (primary outcome), body fat percentage, waist circumference, physical activity, quality of diet, health related quality of life, self esteem, and body dissatisfaction and parents’ body mass index (all 15 months post-enrolment). Results 118 (60 intervention, 56 control) children were recruited and 107 (91%) were retained and analysed (56 intervention, 51 control). All retained intervention children attended the tertiary appointment and their general practitioner for at least one (mean 3.5 (SD 2.5, range 1-11)) weight management consultation. At outcome, children in the two trial arms had similar body mass index (adjusted mean difference ?0.1 (95% confidence interval ?0.7 to 0.5; P=0.7)) and body mass index z score (?0.05 (?0.14 to 0.03); P=0.2). Similarly, no evidence was found of benefit or harm on any secondary outcome. Outcomes varied widely in the combined cohort (mean change in body mass index z score ?0.20 (SD 0.25, range ?0.97-0.47); 26% of children resolved from obese to overweight and 2% to normal weight. Conclusions Although feasible, not harmful, and highly rated by both families and general practitioners, the shared care model of primary and tertiary care management did not lead to better body mass index or other outcomes for the intervention group compared with the control group. Improvements in body mass index in both groups highlight the value of untreated controls when determining efficacy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000055303.

2013-01-01

329

Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.  

PubMed

Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children. PMID:22836643

Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

2013-01-01

330

Perceived Stress and Weight Gain in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although perceived stress has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for obesity, epidemiological studies relating stress to weight gain have shown mixed results. We examined prospective associations between perceived stress and changes in waist circumference and BMI in a large study of adolescents. As part of the Health and Behaviour in Teenagers Study (HABITS), height, weight, and waist circumference

Cornelia H. M. van Jaarsveld; Jennifer A. Fidler; Andrew Steptoe; David Boniface; Jane Wardle

2009-01-01

331

Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

2007-01-01

332

Obesity and labour market success in Finland: The difference between having a high BMI and being fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between obesity and labour market success in Finland, using various indicators of individual body composition along with body mass index (BMI). Weight, height, fat mass and waist circumference are measured by health professionals. We find that only waist circumference has a negative association with wages for women, whereas no obesity measure is significant in the

Edvard Johansson; Petri Böckerman; Urpo Kiiskinen; Markku Heliövaara

2009-01-01

333

Obesity: new insight into the anthropometric classification of fat distribution shown by computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty eight women presenting for routine computed tomography had their waist, hip, and thigh circumferences measured. The ratio of the area of intra-abdominal fat to the area of subcutaneous fat shown in the computed tomogram taken at the umbilical level was calculated and found to correlate highly significantly with the ratio of waist to hip circumference. The correlation between these

M Ashwell; T J Cole; A K Dixon

1985-01-01

334

The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children  

PubMed Central

Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those <18 years were determined using International Obesity Task Force BMI cut-offs, while adult cut-offs of BMI ? 25 and ? 30 kg/m2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ? 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ? 94 cm for males and ? 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile relates to changes in nutrition and diet, but variation in factors such as infectious disease burden and physical activity patterns, as well as social influences, need to be investigated. As obesity and adult short stature are risk factors for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes, this combination of early stunting and adolescent obesity may be an explosive combination.

2010-01-01

335

Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease body weight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8?weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-?, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P?waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P?waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted.

2013-01-01

336

Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

337

Monitoring head size and growth using the new UK-WHO growth standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the extent to which children in the UK will follow the UK-WHO head circumference standard, the authors used head circumference data from the Southampton Women's Survey (n=3159) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n=15 208) in children aged 0–36 months, converted into z-scores using both the UK-WHO and UK1990 references. Rapid head growth

Charlotte M Wright; Hazel M Inskip; Keith Godfrey; Anthony F Williams; Ken K Ong

2011-01-01

338

Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3) is known to perturb cellular function in many tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, which are involved in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM). Vitamin D3 insufficiency has been linked to obesity, whether obesity is assessed by body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (waist). Central obesity, using waist as the surrogate, is

Anne-Thea McGill; Joanna M Stewart; Fiona E Lithander; Caroline M Strik; Sally D Poppitt

2008-01-01

339

Slimness is Associated with Greater Intercourse and Lesser Masturbation Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19–38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with

STUART BRODY

2004-01-01

340

Genetic predisposition to obesity and lifestyle factors - the combined analyses of twenty-six known BMI- and fourteen known waist:hip ratio (WHR)-associated variants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with BMI or the waist:hip ratio (WHR). However, evidence on gene-lifestyle interactions is still scarce, and investigation of the effects of well-documented dietary and other lifestyle data is warranted to assess whether genetic risk can be modified by lifestyle. We assessed whether previously established BMI and WHR genetic variants associate with obesity and weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, and whether the associations are modified by dietary factors or physical activity. Individuals (n 459) completed a 3 d food record and were genotyped for twenty-six BMI- and fourteen WHR-related variants. The effects of the variants individually and in combination were investigated in relation to obesity and to 1- and 3-year weight change by calculating genetic risk scores (GRS). The GRS were separately calculated for BMI and the WHR by summing the increasing alleles weighted by their published effect sizes. At baseline, the GRS were not associated with total intakes of energy, macronutrients or fibre. The mean 1- and 3-year weight changes were not affected by the BMI or WHR GRS. During the 3-year follow-up, a trend for higher BMI by the GRS was detected especially in those who reported a diet low in fibre (P for interaction = 0·065). Based on the present findings, it appears unlikely that obesity-predisposing variants substantially modify the effect of lifestyle modification on the success of weight reduction in the long term. In addition, these findings suggest that the association between the BMI-related genetic variants and obesity could be modulated by the diet. PMID:23668671

Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

2013-05-14

341

Waypoint navigation with a vibrotactile waist belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presenting waypoint navigation on a visual display is not suited for all situations. The present experiments investigate if it is feasible to present the navigation information on a tactile display. Important design issue of the display is how direction and distance information must be coded. Important usability issues are the resolution of the display and its usefulness in vibrating environments.

Jan B. F. Van Erp; Hendrik A. H. C. Van Veen; Chris Jansen; Trevor Dobbins

2005-01-01

342

Anthropometric and psychosocial determinants of visceral obesity in healthy postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify the best predictor among waist circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), weight and body mass index (BMI) of visceral obesity across 8.5–10.8 y. We also examined whether changes in waist across the study period co-occur with changes in psychosocial distress or quality of life, and tested whether action levels of waist (level 1<80 cm, level 1–2: 80–87.9

K Räikkönen; KA Matthews; LH Kuller

1999-01-01

343

IRS Scan-mapping of the Wasp-waist Nebula (IRAS 16253-2429). I. Derivation of Shock Conditions from H2 Emission and Discovery of 11.3 ?m PAH Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a ~1' × 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H2 lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 ?m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 ?m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 ?m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of ~1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H2 transitions is found to be 1.94 ± 0.05 × 10-5 L sun in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 ± 0.04 × 10-5 L sun in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T ~ 1000 K) H2 gas is 7.95 ± 0.19 × 10-7 M sun in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 ± 0.17 × 10-7 M sun in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10-3, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H2 ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H2 data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 104 cm-3<= n H <= 105 cm-3 are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n H <= 103 cm-3 for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s-1 <= vs <= 10 km s-1 for the redshifted gas and vs = 10 km s-1 for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 ?G, and just 3 ?G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.; O'Linger, JoAnn

2010-09-01

344

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict “normal” MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for

Ke Li; David J. Hewson; Jacques Duchêne; Jean-Yves Hogrel

2010-01-01

345

Parámetros genéticos para circunferencia escrotal, edad a la pubertad en vaquillas y tasa de destete en varias razas de bovinos productores de carne Genetic parameters for scrotal circumference, age at puberty in heifers and weaning rate in several breeds of beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records for yearling scrotal circumference (SC, n=7,580), age at puberty in heifers (AP n=5,292), and weaning rate for cows at first calving (WR1, n=7,003) from 12 Bos taurus breeds collected in Clay Center, Nebraska, U.S.A., between 1978 and 1991, were used to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations. Five data subsets were generated from the main data set. Three subsets corresponded

Guillermo Martínez Velázquez; Keith Edward Gregory; Gary Lee Bennett; Lloyd Dale Van Vleck

346

Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

2010-01-22

347

Quality of life in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia relates to glucocorticoid treatment, adiposity and insulin resistance: United Kingdom Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive (CaHASE)  

PubMed Central

Context Quality of life (QoL) has been variously reported as normal or impaired in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). To explore the reasons for this discrepancy we investigated the relationship between QoL, glucocorticoid treatment and other health outcomes in CAH adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 151 adults with 21-hydroxylase deficiency aged 18–69 years in whom QoL (assessed using the Short Form Health Survey), glucocorticoid regimen, anthropometric and metabolic measures were recorded. Relationships were examined between QoL, type of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone) and dose of glucocorticoid expressed as prednisolone dose equivalent (PreDEq). QoL was expressed as z-scores calculated from matched controls (14?430 subjects from UK population). Principal components analysis (PCA) was undertaken to identify clusters of associated clinical and biochemical features and the principal component (PC) scores used in regression analysis as predictor of QoL. Results QoL scores were associated with type of glucocorticoid treatment for vitality (P=0.002) and mental health (P=0.011), with higher z-scores indicating better QoL in patients on hydrocortisone monotherapy (P<0.05). QoL did not relate to PreDEq or mutation severity. PCA identified three PCs (PC1, disease control; PC2, adiposity and insulin resistance and PC3, blood pressure and mutations) that explained 61% of the variance in observed variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that PC2, reflecting adiposity and insulin resistance (waist circumference, serum triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and HDL-cholesterol), related to QoL scores, specifically impaired physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, Physical Component Summary Score (P<0.001) and vitality (P=0.002). Conclusions Increased adiposity, insulin resistance and use of prednisolone or dexamethasone are associated with impaired QoL in adults with CAH. Intervention trials are required to establish whether choice of glucocorticoid treatment and/or weight loss can improve QoL in CAH adults.

Han, Thang S; Krone, Nils; Willis, Debbie S; Conway, Gerard S; Hahner, Stefanie; Rees, D Aled; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J

2013-01-01

348

IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H{sub 2} EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 {mu}m PAH ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a {approx}1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H{sub 2} lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 {mu}m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of {approx}1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H{sub 2} transitions is found to be 1.94 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T {approx} 1000 K) H{sub 2} gas is 7.95 {+-} 0.19 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10{sup -3}, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H{sub 2} ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H{sub 2} data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3{<=}} n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub s} {<=} 10 km s{sup -1} for the redshifted gas and v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 {mu}G, and just 3 {mu}G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

Barsony, Mary [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Drive, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace A. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); O'Linger, JoAnn, E-mail: mbarsony@stars.sfsu.ed, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.or, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: joanno@ipac.caltech.ed [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2010-09-01

349

A shared-care model of obesity treatment for 3-10 year old children: Protocol for the HopSCOTCH randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite record rates of childhood obesity, effective evidence-based treatments remain elusive. While prolonged tertiary specialist clinical input has some individual impact, these services are only available to very few children. Effective treatments that are easily accessible for all overweight and obese children in the community are urgently required. General practitioners are logical care providers for obese children but high-quality trials indicate that, even with substantial training and support, general practitioner care alone will not suffice to improve body mass index (BMI) trajectories. HopSCOTCH (the Shared Care Obesity Trial in Children) will determine whether a shared-care model, in which paediatric obesity specialists co-manage obesity with general practitioners, can improve adiposity in obese children. Design Randomised controlled trial nested within a cross-sectional BMI survey conducted across 22 general practices in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Children aged 3–10?years identified as obese by Centers for Disease Control criteria at their family practice, and randomised to either a shared-care intervention or usual care. Intervention A single multidisciplinary obesity clinic appointment at Melbourne’s Royal Children’s Hospital, followed by regular appointments with the child’s general practitioner over a 12?month period. To support both specialist and general practice consultations, web-based shared-care software was developed to record assessment, set goals and actions, provide information to caregivers, facilitate communication between the two professional groups, and jointly track progress. Outcomes Primary - change in BMI z-score. Secondary - change in percentage fat and waist circumference; health status, body satisfaction and global self-worth. Discussion This will be the first efficacy trial of a general-practitioner based, shared-care model of childhood obesity management. If effective, it could greatly improve access to care for obese children. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000055303

2012-01-01

350

Strong influence of variants near MC4R on adiposity in children and adults: a cross-sectional study in Indian population.  

PubMed

Common variants near melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene are shown to be associated with adiposity but have varied effects in different age groups. Among Indians, studies have shown association of these variants with obesity in adults, but their association in children is yet to be confirmed. We evaluated association of rs17782313 and rs12970134 near MC4R with adiposity and related traits in Indians including 1362 children and 4077 adults (consisting of 2049 diabetic and 2028 nondiabetic adult subjects). Both variants rs17782313 and rs12970134 showed strong association with adiposity measures (weight, body mass index and waist circumference) in children (P-range 7.6 × 10(-5)-3.8 × 10(-12)) and nominal association in nondiabetic adults (P-range 0.05-0.003). Effect sizes on adiposity measures in children (? range 0.22-0.26 Z-score) were ~3-fold higher compared with adults (? range 0.06-0.08). The minor alleles of both variants showed borderline association (P-range 0.08-0.04) with risk of type 2 diabetes in adults. Meta-analysis of rs12970134 in >12?000 Indian adults corroborated its association with adiposity (P?2.2 × 10(-9)), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (P=4.0 × 10(-5)) and type 2 diabetes (P=0.003) with only moderate heterogeneity, suggesting similar effect on adult Indians residing in different geographical regions. In conclusion, the study demonstrates association of variants near MC4R with obesity and related traits in Indian children and adults, with higher impact during childhood. PMID:23151679

Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Tabassum, Rubina; Chauhan, Ganesh; Kaur, Ismeet; Ghosh, Saurabh; Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

2012-11-15

351

Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

2013-01-01

352

Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8?years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds). Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings). Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured outcomes. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials NTR 2555 MEC AzM/UM NL 31988.068.10 / MEC 10-3-052

2012-01-01

353

16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designed to be used only as a nursing aide for breastfeeding mothers. For example, are tubular in form, C- or crescent-shaped to fit around a nursing mother's waist, round in circumference and filled...

2013-01-01

354

Defining Health-Related Obesity in Prepubertal Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop percentage of fat and waist circumference cut-points in prepubertal children with the intention of defining obesity associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional analysis of 87 prepubertal children aged 4 to 11 years was used. Percentage of body fat was determined by DXA. Waist circumference was measured

Paul B. Higgins; Barbara A. Gower; Gary R. Hunter; Michael I. Goran

2001-01-01

355

Dose-dependent positive association between cigarette smoking, abdominal obesity and body fat: cross-sectional data from a population-based survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although smokers tend to have a lower body-mass index than non-smokers, smoking may favour abdominal body fat accumulation. To our knowledge, no population-based studies have assessed the relationship between smoking and body fat composition. We assessed the association between cigarette smoking and waist circumference, body fat, and body-mass index. METHODS: Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured among 6,123

Carole Clair; Arnaud Chiolero; David Faeh; Jacques Cornuz; Pedro Marques-Vidal; Fred Paccaud; Vincent Mooser; Gérard Waeber; Peter Vollenweider

2011-01-01

356

Prevalence of Obesity and the Relationship between the Body Mass Index and Body Fat: Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference are widely used as convenient indices of adiposity, yet there are limitations in their estimates of body fat. We aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity using criteria based on the BMI and waist circumference, and to examine the relationship between the BMI and body fat.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis population-based,

Julie A. Pasco; Geoffrey C. Nicholson; Sharon L. Brennan; Mark A. Kotowicz

2012-01-01

357

Growth from birth to adulthood and abdominal obesity in a Brazilian birth cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Rapid weight gain in childhood may increase the risk of chronic adult diseases. Few studies have examined the effects of lifecourse weight gain on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).Objective:To evaluate the effects of birthweight and weight gain from birth to age 23 years on WC, HC, and WHR in young adults.Design:Population-based birth cohort study started

D A González; A Nazmi; C G Victora

2010-01-01

358

Improved weight attainment of extremely low-gestational-age infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine whether changes in neonatal practice and morbidity since 2000 have improved the growth attainment of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).Study Design:We compared the respective z-scores of the weight, length and head circumference of extremely low-gestational-age infants (aged <28 weeks) with BPD at birth, 40 weeks and 20 months corrected age (CA) during two time periods, namely period I,

J Madden; K Kobaly; N M Minich; M Schluchter; D Wilson-Costello; M Hack

2010-01-01

359

Neither a zinc supplement nor phytate-reduced maize nor their combination enhance growth of 6- to 12-month-old Guatemalan infants.  

PubMed

After age 6 mo, the combination of breast-feeding and unfortified plant-based complementary feeding provides inadequate zinc (Zn). Additionally, high phytate intakes compromise the bioavailability of zinc. Our principal objective in this randomized controlled, doubly masked trial was to determine the effect of substituting low-phytate maize, a daily 5-mg zinc supplement, or both, in infants between ages 6-12 mo on impaired linear growth velocity, a common feature of zinc deficiency. In the Western Highlands of Guatemala, 412 infants were randomized to receive low-phytate or control maize. Within each maize group, infants were further randomized to receive a zinc supplement or placebo. Length, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. There were no significant differences between the 2 maize groups or between the Zn supplement and placebo groups and no treatment interaction was observed for length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) or head circumference Z-scores. Overall mean (+/- SD) Z-scores at 6 mo for combined treatment groups were: LAZ, -2.1 +/- 1.1; WLZ, 0.7 +/- 1.0; and head circumference Z-score, -0.7.0 +/- 1.0. At 12 mo, these had declined further to: LAZ, -2.5 +/- 1.1; WLZ, -0.0 +/- 0.9; and head circumference Z-score, -0.9 +/- 1.1; 83.3% were stunted and 2% were wasted. Low linear growth in older Guatemalan infants was not improved with either low-phytate maize or a daily 5-mg zinc supplement. Low contribution of maize to the complementary food of the infants negated any potential advantage of feeding low-phytate maize. PMID:20335626

Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K Michael; Westcott, Jamie E; Solomons, Noel W; Raboy, Victor; Das, Abhik; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L; Krebs, Nancy F

2010-03-24

360

A Prospective Study of the Association Between Obesity and Burnout Among Apparently Healthy Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors prospectively tested the hypothesis that obesity predicts burnout and the reverse-causation hypothesis that burnout predicts obesity. Respondents were 724 men and 340 women, apparently healthy employees, who underwent routine periodic health examinations at 2 points of time about 18 months apart. Obesity was assessed by body mass index, waist–hip ratio, and waist circumference. In regression analyses, done separately

Galit Armon; Arie Shirom; Shlomo Berliner; Itzhak Shapira; Samuel Melamed

2008-01-01

361

Anthropometric measures in relation to Basal Cell Carcinoma: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist\\/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. METHODS: Study

Catherine M Olsen; Maria Celia Hughes; Nirmala Pandeya; Adèle C Green

2006-01-01

362

Associations between Overall and Abdominal Obesity and Suicidal Ideation among US Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with increased risks for mental disorders. This study examined associations of obesity indicators including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation among U.S. women. We analyzed data from 3,732 nonpregnant women aged ?20 years who participated in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference to calculate BMI and waist-height ratio. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Odds ratios with 95% conference intervals were estimated using logistic regression analyses after controlling for potential confounders. The age-adjusted prevalence of suicidal ideation was 3.0%; the prevalence increased linearly across quartiles of BMI, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio (P for linear trend <0.01 for all). The positive associations of waist circumference and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation remained significant (P < 0.05) after adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle-related behavioral factors, and having either chronic conditions or current depression. However, these associations were attenuated after both chronic conditions and depression were entered into the models. Thus, the previously reported association between obesity and suicidal ideation appears to be confounded by coexistence of chronic conditions and current depression among women of the United States.

Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S.; Tsai, James; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Croft, Janet B.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Balluz, Lina S.

2012-01-01

363

Relation of generalized and central obesity to cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent coronary heart disease in a sample of American Indians: the Strong Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis linking measures of obesity including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (waist) and percentage body fat to coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and its risk factors in American Indians.DESIGN: The Strong Heart Study assesses the prevalence of CHD and its risk factors in American Indians in Arizona, Oklahoma and South\\/North Dakota. Participants underwent a physical

RS Gray; RR Fabsitz; LD Cowan; ET Lee; TK Welty; KA Jablonski; BV Howard

2000-01-01

364

Diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid\\/femoral intima-media thickness independently of markers of insulin resistance and adiposity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) is associated with detrimental cardiovascular outcomes such as cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD risk factors) or intima-media thickness (IMT). Our aim was to examine whether these associations are mediated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (waist) or fasting serum insulin (insulin) in a population in the African region. METHODS: Major CVD risk factors (systolic

David Faeh; Julita William; Patrick Yerly; Fred Paccaud; Pascal Bovet

2007-01-01

365

Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

2011-01-01

366

Association of apo E polymorphism with variations in lipid and small dense LDL in koreans with alow fat intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether apo E polymorphism contributes to the variations in blood lipid profile, apolipoprotein B and small dense LDL in 92 clinically healthy Korean subjects who traditionally consume a low fat and low cholesterol diet (40 males, 52 females, aged 24-60). Body weight, height, waist and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio

Min-Jeong Shin; Hyun-Young Park; Hong Keun Cho; Jong Ho Lee; Yangsoo Jang

2003-01-01

367

Association of central obesity with early Carotid intima-media thickening is independent of that from other risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:We investigated whether anthropometric measurements or metabolic risk factors correlated more with vascular changes associated with obesity.Methods:One hundred never smoking subjects (71 women, 29 men) without vascular events, with blood pressure (BP) <140\\/90 mm Hg, LDL cholesterol <4 mmol\\/l, glucose <6.2 mmol\\/l participated. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI), waist\\/hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC) and Waist\\/height ratio WHTR) and

V Maher; M O'Dowd; M Carey; C Markham; A Byrne; E Hand; D Mc Inerney

2009-01-01

368

Predicting Incident Diabetes in Jamaica: The Role of Anthropometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the performance of the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) in predicting incident diabetes in Jamaica.Research Methods and Procedures: A cohort of 728 nondiabetic adults (290 men and 438 women), ages 25 to 74 years and residents of Spanish Town, Jamaica, were followed for a mean of 4 years. Participants

Lincoln A. Sargeant; Franklyn I. Bennett; Terrence E. Forrester; Richard S. Cooper; Rainford J. Wilks

2002-01-01

369

Obesity is positively associated with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations at 7 y in Chilean children of normal birth weight123  

PubMed Central

Background: In low-birth-weight girls, obesity increases the risk of premature adrenarche and metabolic complications. However, the consistency of this association in normal-birth-weight children and its potential mediators remain unknown. Objectives: The objectives were to assess the associations between obesity indicators and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) at 7 y of age and to evaluate the role of hormonal markers on these associations. Design: We assessed in 969 participants (6.9 y; 48% girls; all Tanner I) in the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study the associations between DHEAS and weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, skinfold thickness, and percentage total fat (bioimpedance) and determined whether these associations were related to insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and leptin. We also compared BMI and height growth from 0 to 7 y of age in nonobese and obese children with normal and high DHEAS (?75th percentile) at 7 y. Results: DHEAS concentrations were similar between girls (30.3 ±1.86 ?g/dL) and boys (29.4 ±1.73 ?g/dL) (P > 0.05); 17.3% of children were obese (BMI-for-age z score ?2 SD). Adiposity indicators were positively and similarly associated with DHEAS [ie, BMI, ? standardized regression coefficient: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.29); WC, ? standardized regression coefficient: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.30)]; these associations were only partially related to IGF-I and leptin. Obese children had twice the risk of high DHEAS (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51, 3.09); at 7 y, obese children with high DHEAS were fatter and more centrally obese than their counterparts (P < 0.05), although their previous growth was similar (P > 0.05). None of the results differed by sex (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In children of normal birth weight, obesity is positively associated with DHEAS at 7 y of age.

Uauy, Ricardo; Mericq, Veronica

2013-01-01

370

Phenotype presentation of hypophosphatemic rickets in adults.  

PubMed

Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a group of rare disorders caused by excessive renal phosphate wasting. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 38 HR patients was to characterize the phenotype of adult HR patients. Moreover, skeletal and endodontic severity scores were defined to assess possible gender differences in disease severity in patients with genetically verified X-linked HR. Compared to normal reference data, i.e., z = 0, HR patients had significantly lower final height, with a mean difference in z-score of -1.9 (95% CI -2.4 to -1.4, P < 0.001). Compared to paired z-scores of final height, z-scores of leg length were significantly lower and those of sitting height were significantly higher (P < 0.001), resulting in disproportion as indicated by the significantly elevated sitting height ratio, mean difference in z-score of 2.6 (95% CI 2.1-3.1, P < 0.001). Z-scores of head circumference (median 1.4, range -0.4 to 5.5, P < 0.001) and z-scores of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (median 1.9, range -1.5 to 8.6, P < 0.001) were significantly elevated compared to normal reference data. The relative risk (RR) of fracture was reduced (RR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.57, P < 0.001). The skeletal severity score tended to be higher in males compared to females (P = 0.07), and no gender difference in endodontic severity was found. In conclusion, adult HR patients were characterized by short stature and were disproportioned. They had elevated BMD of the lumbar spine and a reduced risk of fractures. We found a tendency for males to be more severely affected than females. PMID:20524110

Beck-Nielsen, Signe S; Brusgaard, Klaus; Rasmussen, Lars M; Brixen, Kim; Brock-Jacobsen, Bendt; Poulsen, Mette R; Vestergaard, Peter; Ralston, Stuart H; Albagha, Omar M E; Poulsen, Sven; Haubek, Dorte; Gjørup, Hans; Hintze, Hanne; Andersen, Mette G; Heickendorff, Lene; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Gram, Jeppe

2010-06-04

371

Still hungry in hospital: identifying malnutrition in acute hospital admissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

(65% of admissions). As an alternative for bed- bound patients, mid-upper arm circumference was admissions goes apparently unrecognized and unmanaged in 70% of cases. Since there are serious not very reliable in predicting BMI (sensitivity 98%; specificity 65%), and waist circumference even less consequences, and effective simple treatment is readily available, increased awareness is required, so. Of these, 13% were

I. E. K ELLY; S. TESSIER; A. C AHILL; S. E. M ORRIS; A. CRUMLEY

372

A Micronutrient Powder with Low Doses of Highly Absorbable Iron and Zinc Reduces Iron and Zinc Deficiency and Improves Weight-For-Age Z-Scores in South African Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in a single serving. The aim was to test the efficacy of

B. Troesch; Stuijvenberg van M. E; C. M. Smuts; H. Salome Kruger; R. Biebinger; R. F. Hurrell; J. Baumgartner; M. B. Zimmermann

2011-01-01

373

Markers of insulin resistance are associated with fatness and fitness in school-aged children: the European Youth Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Our aim was to examine the association between markers of insulin resistance and: (1) body fat and waist circumference, taking\\u000a into account cardiorespiratory fitness in school-aged children; and (2) cardiorespiratory fitness at differing levels of body\\u000a fat and waist circumference.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  This was a cross-sectional study of 873 children aged 9.6?±?0.4 years from Estonia and Sweden. Weight, height and waist

J. R. Ruiz; N. S. Rizzo; F. B. Ortega; H. M. Loit; T. Veidebaum; M. Sjöström

2007-01-01

374

Relation between abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram and magnetic resonance imaging in hypertensive patients.  

PubMed

Obesity is related to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Whether LVH on electrocardiography (ECG-LVH) is a result of increased cardiac electrical activity or due to increased left ventricular mass (LVM) remains to be determined. The aims of the present study were to investigate the relation between obesity and ECG-LVH and LVM by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-LVM) in patients with hypertension and to investigate the relation of insulin resistance (IR) and LVH. Patients with hypertension (n = 421) were evaluated using Sokolow-Lyon voltage, Cornell voltage, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Waist circumference was used as a measure of abdominal obesity. Linear regression analysis revealed an inverse relation (adjusted ? = -0.02, 95% confidence interval -0.02 to -0.01) between waist circumference and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, indicating a decrease of 0.02 mV per 1-cm increase in waist circumference. There was a positive relation between waist circumference and MRI-LVM (? = 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.67). Patients in the highest quartile of LVM had a worse metabolic profile than patients with the Sokolow-Lyon voltage criterion. The relations of IR with ECG-LVH and MRI-LVM were similar to those of waist circumference in relation to ECG-LVH and MRI-LVM. In conclusion, there is an inverse relation between waist circumference and ECG-LVH and a positive relation between waist circumference and MRI-LVM. This study indicates that obesity has a different relation to voltage criteria for LVH compared to anatomic criteria for LVH, supporting the hypothesis that IR decreases electrocardiographic voltages, despite an increase in MRI-LVM. The clinical implication is that especially in patients with IR, Sokolow-Lyon voltage is low in contrast to high MRI-LVM. PMID:22483385

Vernooij, Joris W P; Cramer, Maarten J M; Visseren, Frank L J; Korndewal, Marjolein J; Bots, Michiel L; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Doevendans, Pieter A F M; Spiering, Wilko

2012-04-05

375

Analysis of wasp-waisted hysteresis loops in magnetic rocks.  

PubMed

The random-field Ising model of hysteresis is generalized to dilute magnets and is solved on a Bethe lattice. Exact expressions for the major and minor hysteresis loops are obtained. In the strongly dilute limit the model provides a simple and useful understanding of the shapes of hysteresis loops in magnetic rock samples. PMID:22400529

Kharwanlang, R S; Shukla, Prabodh

2012-01-17

376

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Turkmen Ethnic Groups in Gorgan  

PubMed Central

Introduction: It has been estimated that the metabolic syndrome may predict cardiovascular disease and the occurrence of sudden death, independent of the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic syndrome among Turkmen women in this area. Material and Methods: The present study consisted of 160 Turkmen women. Baseline data and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the components of metabolic syndrome in Turkmen women were determined. Observations and Results: The prevalence of high levels of fasting glucose, low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, high waist circumference and high blood pressure were shown to be 29.37%, 70.62%, 35.62%, 75% and 26.25%, respectively. It was shown that high waist circumference (75%) and Low HDL-cholesterol levels (70.62%) were the most frequent characteristics in comparison to other metabolic components. The prevalence of high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, high levels of fasting glucose, high blood pressure and BMIs which were ?25 were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome (92.85%, 73.21%, 73.21%, 57.14% and 83.92%, respectively). Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent among Turkmen women. Our data has shown that the prevalence of abnormal waist circumference in this ethnic group was highest. The waist circumference can be used as a predictor for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease.

Shahini, Najmeh; Shahini, Iman; Marjani, Abdoljalal

2013-01-01

377

Dose-response relationship between walking and the attenuation of inherited weight  

PubMed Central

Objective Genetic factors account for 40%–70% of the variation in body mass index (BMI). We sought to test whether moderate intensity physical activity affected parent–offspring relationships for body mass index and regional adiposity in 26,587 female and 6428 male walkers surveyed in the United States in 2000. Methods Survey questionnaires provided self-reported usual walking distance, height, weight, and waist circumference, and mother’s and father’s adiposity (1=lean, 2=normal, 3=overweight, and 4=very overweight). Regression analyses were used to test whether the contribution of parental adiposities to the walkers’ body mass indexes and waist circumferences diminished with walking. Results In the most sedentary group (walking <1.5 km/d), average parental adiposity was a significant determinant of the walkers’ body mass indexes and waist circumferences (female: P<10?15; male: P<10?13). Greater walking distance significantly diminished the effect of average parents’ adiposity on the walkers’ body mass indexes (female: P<10?10; male P=0.003) and waist circumferences (female: P<10?6; male P=0.01). Compared to the most sedentary female walkers, the effect of parental adiposity was reduced 36% for body mass indexes and 41% for waist circumferences (corresponding reductions in men were 36% and 46%, respectively). Conclusion These results suggest that moderate intensity physical activity attenuates inheritance of both total and regional adiposity in a dose-dependent manner.

Williams, Paul T.

2013-01-01

378

Energy, protein, and zinc nutriture of rural African children in relation to some anthropometric indices  

SciTech Connect

Heights, weights, arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thicknesses of 66 Malawian and 148 Ghanaian preschool children were measured during 3 seasons. Their seasonal energy, protein, Ca, Zn, dietary fiber and phytate intakes were estimated from 3-day weighed records, using analyzed and literature food composition values. Seasonal hair Zn concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses, The mean annual intakes for Malawian compared to Ghanaian children were higher for energy protein, and Zn. Cereals contributed a higher proportion of the total energy intake in the Malawian compared to the Ghanaian diets. A higher percentage of the Malawian children had height-for-age Z-scores below {minus}2SD, but a lower percentage had weight-for-height Z-scores below {minus}1SD compared to their Ghanaian counterparts. These differences may, in part be related to the high cereal intakes of the Malawian children.

Ferguson, E.L.; Gibson, R.S.; Osei-Opare, F.; Opare-Obisaw, C.; Thompson, L.U. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Ghana, Legon (Ghana) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1991-03-11

379

Measures of abdominal obesity within body mass index categories, 1981 and 2007-2009.  

PubMed

This article describes measures of abdominal obesity--waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio--within body mass index (BMI) categories, using data from two population-based health surveys. Among normal-weight men, the percentages at increased/high health risk based on these three measures were not statistically different in 2007-2009 than in 1981. By contrast, among normal-weight women, increases were observed in the percentage at increased/high health risk based on each of the three measures. The percentage of overweight men at increased/high risk based on waist circumference rose from 49% in 1981 to 62% in 2007-2009, and among overweight women, the percentage at increased/high risk rose for each of the three measures (64% to 93% for waist circumference, 22% to 51% for waist-to-hip ratio, and 68% to 87% for waist-to-height ratio). Although substantial percentages of men and women in obese class I were at increased/high health risk based on abdominal obesity measures in 1981, by 2007-2009, almost everyone in this BMI category was at increased/high risk. PMID:22866538

Shields, Margot; Tremblay, Mark S; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Janssen, Ian

2012-06-01

380

Prospective investigation of metabolic characteristics in relation to weight gain in older adults: the Hoorn Study.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to determine the relation between baseline glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels and subsequent 6-year weight and waist change in older men and women without diabetes in a prospective cohort study. Participants were 1,198 Dutch men and women without diabetes who were aged 50-77 years when baseline metabolic and anthropometric measurements were evaluated (1989-1991). Approximately 6 years later, body weight and waist circumference were re-measured at a follow-up examination (1996-1998). Metabolic variables (fasting plasma glucose, 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, and leptin) were evaluated as predictors of changes in weight and waist circumference. Postchallenge plasma glucose (mmol/l) significantly predicted less gain in both weight and waist circumference (beta = -0.28 kg, s.e. = 0.11; beta = -0.31 cm, s.e. = 0.14, respectively) during follow-up. Leptin (microg/l) significantly predicted greater increases in weight (beta = 0.29 kg, s.e. = 0.07) and waist (beta = 0.16 cm, s.e. = 0.08) among men and in waist among women (beta = 0.06 cm, s.e. = 0.02). Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) predicted an increase in waist among women (beta = 1.59 cm, s.e. = 0.63), but not in men (beta = -0.74 cm, s.e. = 0.55). Adiponectin and insulin did not predict weight or waist change. The authors conclude that lower postchallenge plasma glucose and higher fasting leptin levels significantly predicted long-term increases in weight and waist circumference. In contrast, measures of insulin resistance and adiponectin were not associated with weight change in this cohort of older persons without diabetes. PMID:19197256

Wedick, Nicole M; Snijder, Marieke B; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Heine, Robert J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Nijpels, Giel; van Dam, Rob M

2009-02-05

381

Nutritional supplementation in girls influences the growth of their children: prospective study in Guatemala1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Better early childhood nutrition improves schooling, adult health, skills, and wages, but there is little evidence regarding its effect on the next generation. Objective: We assessed whether nutritional supplementation in children aged <7 to 15 y affected their children's nutritional status 29–38 y later. Design: We studied 791 children 0–12 y who were offspring of 401 Guatemalan women who had participated as children in a nutritional supplementation trial in which 2 villages were randomly assigned to receive a nutritious supplement (atole) and 2 were assigned to receive a less-nutritious supplement (fresco). We compared anthropometric indicators between the offspring of mothers exposed to atole and the offspring of mothers exposed to fresco. Results: Compared with the offspring of women exposed to fresco, the offspring of women exposed to atole had a 116-g (95% CI: 17, 215 g) higher birth weight, were 1.3-cm (0.4, 2.2 cm) taller, had a 0.6-cm (0.4, 0.9 cm) greater head circumference, had a 0.26 (0.09, 0.43) greater height-for-age z score, and had a 0.20 (0.02, 0.39) greater weight-for-age z score. The association for height differed by offspring sex. Sons of women exposed to atole were 2.0-cm (95% CI: 1.0, 3.1 cm) taller than the sons of women exposed to fresco. Supplementation was not associated with 6 other offspring anthropometric indicators that reflect measures of adiposity. Supplementation in boys did not affect their children's anthropometric measures. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation in girls is associated with substantial increases in their offsprings' (more for sons) birth weight, height, head circumference, height-for-age z score, and weight-for-age z score.

Calderon, Maria C; Preston, Samuel H; Hoddinott, John; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

2009-01-01

382

The Effect of Cigarette Circumference on Ignition Propensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1984 Cigarette Safety Act created a Technical Study Group (TSG) to determine the feasibility of developing cigarettes with a minimum propensity to ignite upholstered furniture. The TSG found that combinations of certain cigarette characteristics were important in reducing the ignition pro pensity. Through a statistically designed study, those characteristics were ranked as follows: tobacco packing density, paper permeability, and

Leslie S. Lewis; Timothy B. Nestor; Julia W. Gee; Michael J. Morton; David E. Townsend

1993-01-01

383

Short Circumference Damping Ring Design for the ILC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ILC damping ring tentative design is driven by the operational scenario of the main linac, the beam-dynamics demand of producing a stable and high-quality beam, the injection/extraction scheme and the kicker performance. In this paper, a short circumf...

M. Korostelev F. Zimmermann K. Kubo M. Kuriki S. Kuroda

2005-01-01

384

The Relationship between Multiple Health Behaviours and Brachial Artery Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background. The effects of smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle on endothelial function (EF) have only been examined separately. The relative contributions of these behaviours on EF have therefore not been compared. Purpose. To compare the relative associations between these four risk factors and brachial artery reactivity in the same sample. Methods. 328 patients referred for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) exercise stress tests completed a nuclear-medicine-based forearm hyperaemic reactivity test. Self-reported exercise behaviour, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were collected and waist circumference was measured. Results. Adjusting for relevant covariates, logistic regression analyses revealed that waist circumference, abstinence from alcohol, and past smoking significantly predicted poor brachial artery reactivity while physical activity did not. Only waist circumference predicted continuous variations in EF. Conclusions. Central adiposity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits but not physical activity are each independent predictors of poor brachial artery reactivity in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

Gordon, Jennifer L.; Lavoie, Kim L.; Arsenault, Andre; Meloche, Bernard; Ditto, Blaine; Campbell, Tavis S.; Bacon, Simon L.

2012-01-01

385

A family-centered lifestyle intervention to improve body composition and bone mass in overweight and obese children 6 through 8 years: a randomized controlled trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity gives rise to health complications including impaired musculoskeletal development that associates with increased risk of fractures. Prevention and treatment programs should focus on nutrition education, increasing physical activity (PA), reducing sedentary behaviours, and should monitor bone mass as a component of body composition. To ensure lifestyle changes are sustained in the home environment, programs need to be family-centered. To date, no study has reported on a family-centered lifestyle intervention for obese children that aims to not only ameliorate adiposity, but also support increases in bone and lean muscle mass. Furthermore, it is unknown if programs of such nature can also favorably change eating and activity behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a 1 y family-centered lifestyle intervention, focused on both nutrient dense foods including increased intakes of milk and alternatives, plus total and weight-bearing PA, on body composition and bone mass in overweight or obese children. Methods/design The study design is a randomized controlled trial for overweight or obese children (6–8 y). Participants are randomized to control, standard treatment (StTx) or modified treatment (ModTx). This study is family-centred and includes individualized counselling sessions on nutrition, PA and sedentary behaviors occurring 4 weeks after baseline for 5 months, then at the end of month 8. The control group receives counselling at the end of the study. All groups are measured at baseline and every 3 months for the primary outcome of changes in body mass index Z-scores. At each visit blood is drawn and children complete a researcher-administered behavior questionnaire and muscle function testing. Changes from baseline to 12 months in body fat (% and mass), waist circumference, lean body mass, bone (mineral content, mineral density, size and volumetric density), dietary intake, self-reported PA and sedentary behaviour are examined. Discussion This family-centered theory-based study permits for biochemical and physiological assessments. This trial will assess the effectiveness of the intervention at changing lifestyle behaviours by decreasing adiposity while enhancing lean and bone mass. If successful, the intervention proposed offers new insights for the management or treatment of childhood obesity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01290016.

2013-01-01

386

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001) and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001) than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p=0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). Conclusion This study suggests that candy consumption did not adversely affect health risk markers in children and adolescents.

O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

387

Impact of a nurse-directed, coordinated school health program to enhance physical activity behaviors and reduce body mass index among minority children: A parallel-group, randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Underserved children, particularly girls and those in urban communities, do not meet the recommended physical activity guidelines (>60 min of daily physical activity), and this behavior can lead to obesity. The school years are known to be a critical period in the life course for shaping attitudes and behaviors. Children look to schools for much of their access to physical activity. Thus, through the provision of appropriate physical activity programs, schools have the power to influence apt physical activity choices, especially for underserved children where disparities in obesity-related outcomes exist. Objectives To evaluate the impact of a nurse directed, coordinated, culturally sensitive, school-based, family-centered lifestyle program on activity behaviors and body mass index. Design, settings and participants: This was a parallel group, randomized controlled trial utilizing a community-based participatory research approach, through a partnership with a University and 5 community schools. Participants included 251 children ages 8–12 from elementary schools in urban, low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles, USA. Methods The intervention included Kids N Fitness©, a 6-week program which met weekly to provide 45 min of structured physical activity and a 45 min nutrition education class for parents and children. Intervention sites also participated in school-wide wellness activities, including health and counseling services, staff professional development in health promotion, parental education newsletters, and wellness policies for the provision of healthy foods at the school. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health School Physical Activity and Nutrition Student Questionnaire measured physical activity behavior, including: daily physical activity, participation in team sports, attending physical education class, and TV viewing/computer game playing. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, body mass index, resting blood pressure, and waist circumference. Measures were collected at baseline, completion of the intervention phase (4 months), and 12 months post-intervention. Results Significant results for students in the intervention, included for boys decreases in TV viewing; and girls increases in daily physical activity, physical education class attendance, and decreases in body mass index z-scores from baseline to the 12 month follow-up. Conclusions Our study shows the value of utilizing nurses to implement a culturally sensitive, coordinated, intervention to decrease disparities in activity and TV viewing among underserved girls and boys.

Wright, Kynna; Giger, Joyce Newman; Norris, Keth; Suro, Zulma

2013-01-01

388

Cardiometabolic risk and the MTHFR C677T variant in children treated with second-generation antipsychotics  

PubMed Central

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children with a variety of psychiatric illnesses. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is a side-effect of SGA-treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study and assessed the association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant with features of MetS in SGA-treated (n=105) and SGA–naïve (n=112) children. We targeted the MTHFR C677T variant, because it is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, and features of MetS in adults without psychiatric illness. MetS in children is based on the presence of any three of the following: waist circumference ?90th percentile for age and sex; plasma triglyceride ?1.24?mmol?l?1; plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ?1.03?mmol?l?1; systolic or diastolic blood pressure ?90th percentile for age, sex, and height; and fasting glucose ?5.6?mmol?l?1. We found that 15% of SGA-treated children had MetS compared with 2% of SGA-naïve children (OR 8.113, P<0.05). No effect of the MTHFR C677T variant on psychiatric diagnosis was observed. The MTHFR 677T allele was associated (P<0.05) with MetS (OR 5.75, 95% CI= 1.18–28.12) in SGA-treated children. Models adjusted for duration of SGA treatment, ethnicity, sex, age and use of other medications revealed a positive relationship between the MTHFR 677T allele and diastolic blood pressure Z-scores (P=0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (P<0.05) in SGA-treated children. These findings illustrate the high prevalence of MetS in SGA-treated children and suggest metabolic alterations associated with the MTHFR C677T variant may have a role in the development of MetS features in SGA-treated children.

Devlin, A M; Ngai, Y F; Ronsley, R; Panagiotopoulos, C

2012-01-01

389

Evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Families for Health V2 for the treatment of childhood obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Effective programs to help children manage their weight are required. Families for Health focuses on a parenting approach, designed to help parents develop their parenting skills to support lifestyle change within the family. Families for Health V1 showed sustained reductions in overweight after 2 years in a pilot evaluation, but lacks a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence base. Methods/design This is a multi-center, investigator-blind RCT, with parallel economic evaluation, with a 12-month follow-up. The trial will recruit 120 families with at least one child aged 6 to 11 years who is overweight (?91st centile BMI) or obese (?98th centile BMI) from three localities and assigned randomly to Families for Health V2 (60 families) or the usual care control (60 families) groups. Randomization will be stratified by locality (Coventry, Warwickshire, Wolverhampton). Families for Health V2 is a family-based intervention run in a community venue. Parents/carers and children attend parallel groups for 2.5 hours weekly for 10 weeks. The usual care arm will be the usual support provided within each NHS locality. A mixed-methods evaluation will be carried out. Child and parent participants will be assessed at home visits at baseline, 3-month (post-treatment) and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the change in the children’s BMI z-scores at 12 months from the baseline. Secondary outcome measures include changes in the children’s waist circumference, percentage body fat, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and quality of life. The parents’ BMI and mental well-being, family eating/activity, parent–child relationships and parenting style will also be assessed. Economic components will encompass the measurement and valuation of service utilization, including the costs of running Families for Health and usual care, and the EuroQol EQ-5D health outcomes. Cost-effectiveness will be expressed in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. A de novo decision-analytic model will estimate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of the Families for Health program. Process evaluation will document recruitment, attendance and drop-out rates, and the fidelity of Families for Health delivery. Interviews with up to 24 parents and children from each arm will investigate perceptions and changes made. Discussion This paper describes our protocol to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a parenting approach for managing childhood obesity and presents challenges to implementation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials http://ISRCTN45032201

2013-01-01

390

The prediction of visceral fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the elderly: a comparison with computed tomography and anthropometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Effective methods for assessing visceral fat are important to investigate the role of visceral fat for the increased health risks in obesity. Techniques for direct measurement of soft tissue composition such as CT or MRI are expensive, time-consuming or require a relatively high radiation dose. Simple anthropometric methods, such as waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference or sagittal diameter are widely

MB Snijder; M Visser; JM Dekker; JC Seidell; T Fuerst; F Tylavsky; J Cauley; T Lang; M Nevitt; TB Harris

2002-01-01

391

Women who Breast-Fed Have Lower Weight and Body Fat Compared to Women Who did not Breast-Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast-feeding is encouraged to optimize the health and nutrition of newborn infants. In addition, breast-feeding may impact maternal postpartum weight loss and subsequent body composition. In our study height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured in 141 white women between the ages of 25 and 50, from which body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) were calculated. Percent

M. Robinson; A. Blake; M. Kantor; L. Douglass

1998-01-01

392

Abdominal fat distribution and functional limitations and disability in a biracial cohort: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations of abdominal fat and obesity with functional limitations and disability in late adulthood.DESIGN:Longitudinal, cohort study.PARTICIPANTS:African American and white men and women aged 45–64 y at baseline with measured waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (n=9416).OUTCOME MEASURES:Self-reported functional limitations, activities of daily living

D K Houston; J Stevens; J Cai

2005-01-01

393

Body Fat Measured by a Near-Infrared Interactance Device as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Events: The FINRISK'92 Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated how body fat percentage, measured by a portable near-infrared interactance (NIR) device predicts cardiovascular (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events in a prospective population-based survey. The study population consisted of 2,842 men and 3,196 women, who participated in the FINRISK'92 survey. Obesity was assessed with BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat

Pia Pajunen; Pekka Jousilahti; Katja Borodulin; Kennet Harald; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Veikko Salomaa

2011-01-01

394

Evaluating race\\/ethnicity in moderating baseline cardiometabolic risk and body composition changes in North Carolina first-year college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of race\\/ethnicity and geographical region in the context of first-year college weight gain remain largely under-examined. The present study evaluated whether race\\/ethnicity: 1) at baseline was associated with greater representation in cardiometabolic health risk categories for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio in the full sample of 54 Black\\/African American and 80

Jennifer B. Webb

2012-01-01

395

Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Lu Qi; Elizabeth K. Speliotes; Gudmar Thorleifsson; Cristen J. Willer; Blanca M. Herrera; Anne U. Jackson; Noha Lim; Paul Scheet; Nicole Soranzo; Najaf Amin; Yurii S. Aulchenko; John C. Chambers; Alexander Drong; Jianan Luan; Helen N. Lyon; Fernando Rivadeneira; Serena Sanna; Nicholas J. Timpson; M. Carola Zillikens; Jing Hua Zhao; Peter Almgren; Stefania Bandinelli; Amanda J. Bennett; Richard N. Bergman; Lori L. Bonnycastle; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Cyrus Cooper; Gabriel Crawford; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Shah Ebrahim; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; Candace Guiducci; David Hadley; Anders Hamsten; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Fredrik Karpe; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Anna Nordström; Peter Nordström; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; Felicity Payne; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renström; Aimo Ruokonen; Veikko Salomaa; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Kijoung Song; Xin Yuan; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield; Francis S. Collins; George Davey Smith; Ian N. M. Day; Paul W. Franks; Andrew T. Hattersley; Frank B. Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Augustine Kong; Jaspal S. Kooner; Markku Laakso; Edward Lakatta; Vincent Mooser; Andrew D. Morris; Leena Peltonen; Nilesh J. Samani; Timothy D. Spector; David P. Strachan; Toshiko Tanaka; Jaakko Tuomilehto; André G. Uitterlinden; Cornelia M. van Duijn; Nicholas J. Wareham; Hugh Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia; Dawn M. Waterworth; Michael Boehnke; Panos Deloukas; Leif Groop; David J. Hunter; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; David Schlessinger; H.-Erich Wichmann; Timothy M. Frayling; Gonçalo R. Abecasis; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Ruth J. F. Loos; Kari Stefansson; Karen L. Mohlke; Inês Barroso

2009-01-01