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1

Measuring Waist Circumference in Disabled Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, it is unknown whether waist circumference can be measured validly and reliably when a subject is in a supine position. This issue is relevant when international standards for healthy participants are applied to persons with severe intellectual, sensory, and motor disabilities. Thus, the aims of our study were (1) to determine the validity…

Waninge, A.; Ligthart, K. A. M.; Kramer, J.; Hoeve, S.; van der Schans, C. P.; Haisma, H. H.

2010-01-01

2

Trends in Waist Circumference among U.S. Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Waist circumference has been proposed as a measure of obesity or as an adjunct to other anthropometric measures to determine obesity. Our objective was to examine temporal trends in waist circumference among adults in the U.S.Research Methods and Procedures: We used data from 15,454 participants ?20 years old in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988 to

Earl S. Ford; Ali H. Mokdad; Wayne H. Giles

2003-01-01

3

Comparison of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist\\/Hip Ratio in Predicting Incident Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist\\/hip ratio have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. From the clinical perspective, central obesity (approximated by waist circumference or waist\\/hip ratio) is known to generate diabetogenic substances and should therefore be more informative than general obesity (body mass index). Because of their high correlation, from the statistical perspective, body mass

Gabriela Vazquez; Sue Duval; David R. Jacobs; Karri Silventoinen

2007-01-01

4

Int J Obes (Lond) . Author manuscript Waist circumference and obesity-related abnormalities in French and  

E-print Network

Int J Obes (Lond) . Author manuscript Page /1 13 Waist circumference and obesity and ethnicity on correlations between waist circumference (WC) and obesity related cardiovascular risk factors of fat accumulation, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

TOTAL AND SATURATED FAT INTAKE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the macronutrient composition of intake and waist circumference. METHODS: Regression analysis evaluated the relationship between composition and waist circumference. SAMPLE: This study used data from the third National ...

6

HYPERTENSION IS MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE THAN BODY MASS INDEX  

E-print Network

HYPERTENSION IS MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE THAN BODY MASS INDEX IN AN ADULT, a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 kg/m² for general obesity, and Waist Circumference (WC) among men of 102 cm hypertension and waist circumference was stronger and more significant than the association between

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Waist circumference values in Spanish children—Gender related differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To obtain reference values of the waist circumference in Spanish children, and to investigate their dependence on age and gender.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: General school-age population.Subjects: A representative sample of the schools in Zaragoza, Spain, was drawn from seven schools. The population selected comprised 1728 children with ages ranging from 6.0–14.9 y. Of the original sample, 368 children (21.29%) were

LA Moreno; J Fleta; L Mur; G Rodríguez; A Sarría; M Bueno

1999-01-01

8

The influences of height and age on waist circumference as an index of adiposity in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influences of height and age on the differences in waist circumference between individuals of different stature. SUBJECTS: 3319 males and 4358 females from four studies in the UK and the Netherlands. MEASUREMENTS: Waist circumference, body weight, height, and age. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis of log10 height as the independent variable on log10 waist as the dependent

TS Han; JC Seidell; JEP Currall; CE Morrison; P Deurenberg; MEJ Lean

1997-01-01

9

IDEA: A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in  

E-print Network

1/31 R2 IDEA: A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in 168 Running head: Waist circumference, diabetes and CVD HALauthormanuscriptinserm-00186711,version1 HAL author circumference (WC) in addition to body mass index (BMI) is useful in primary care practice. Methods and Results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Appropriate waist circumference cutoff points for central obesity in Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe International Diabetes Federation consensus recently proposed a new definition for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, incorporating ethnically specific waist circumference (WC) cutoff points.

Sang Yeoup Lee; Hye Soon Park; Dae Jung Kim; Jee Hye Han; Seon Mee Kim; Guem Joo Cho; Dae Young Kim; Hyuk Sang Kwon; Sung Rae Kim; Chang Beom Lee; Seung Joon Oh; Cheol Young Park; Hyung Joon Yoo

2007-01-01

11

Relations of Pulse Wave Velocity to Waist Circumference Independent of Hip Circumference  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Little is known about the effect of waist circumference (WC) on brachial artery pulse wave velocity (baPWV) independent of hip circumference (HC). Therefore, this study aimed to dissociate specific effect of WC on baPWV independent of HC. METHODS Of 1,053 rural residents (2004-2005), 777 subjects with no known history of coronary artery diseases or diabetes mellitus over 40 yr were included. To reduce collinearity, we assessed the independent effect of WC with HC on PWV by residual method (WC [RM]). RESULTS In women, most correlation coefficients were significant between measures of abdominal obesity and baPWV, with the highest (0.32) in waist to hip ratio (WHR), whereas no significance was found in men. All mean values of baPWV among the abdominally obese were higher than those of normal group in women, which were in the order of WHR, WC (RM), and WC. Adjusted OR with 95% CI for baPWV was significantly elevated by increase of WC (RM) upto 4.8 (95% CI: 2.1-11.2), and as 4.3 by WHR (95% CI: 1.6-11.4). CONCLUSION Considering the difficulty in biologically interpreting WHR, WC (RM) may be a useful indicator of abdominal obesity among females in that it reflects the risk of pulse wave velocity. PMID:21191457

Ko, Min Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Jinho

2010-01-01

12

Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference in men and women: The Scottish MONICA surveys 1989 –1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference were measured in three Scottish MONICA cross-sectional surveys of 2233 men and 2516 women aged 25–64 years in 1989–1995. Means of waist circumference, waist\\/hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) increased with level of deprivation (measured by the Carstairs index) more significantly in women than in men, and more significantly in non-smokers than in

Ruoling Chen; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe

2005-01-01

13

Waist circumference reduction and cardiovascular benefits during weight loss in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors during weight loss, and to consider possible waist reduction targets for weight management. DESIGN: Single strand six month weight loss study on food based diets in 110 women aged 18–68 y, and body mass index?25 kg\\/m2 set at an outpatient clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist circumference, weight, body

TS Han; P Richmond; A Avenell; MEJ Lean

1997-01-01

14

Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The relationship of waist circumference with HOMA-IR was assessed by use of adjusted means of HOMA-IR and odds ratios of elevated HOMA-IR defined as the highest quintile (?2.00). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using Youden index and the area under curve (AUC) was employed to determine optimal cutoffs of waist circumference in relation to HOMA-IR. Results Adjusted geometric means of HOMA-IR and prevalence odds of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference. In the ROC curve analysis, the highest value of Youden index was obtained for a cutoff point of 85 cm in waist circumference across different values of HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic regression analysis also indicated that the AUC was consistently the largest for a waist circumference of 85 cm. Conclusion Waist circumference is linearly related to insulin resistance, and 85 cm in waist circumference is an optimal cutoff in predicting insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:19138424

Tabata, Shinji; Yoshimitsu, Shinichiro; Hamachi, Tadamichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kono, Suminori

2009-01-01

15

Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims The objectives of this study were to determine the association of waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and to determine whether the strength of association of WC and WHR with CVD risk is different. Methods and results This meta-regression analysis used a search strategy of keywords and MeSH terms

Lawrence de Koning; Anwar T. Merchant; Janice Pogue; Sonia S. Anand

2007-01-01

16

Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio in 19 populations of the WHO MONICA Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) measured using a standard protocol among populations with different prevalences of overweight. In addition, to quantify the associations of these anthropometric measures with age and degree of overweight.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of random population samples.SUBJECTS: More than 32 000 men and women aged 25–64 y from 19 (18

A Molarius; JC Seidell; S Sans; J Tuomilehto; K Kuulasmaa

1999-01-01

17

Can body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects?  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) are used to predict the risk of obesity related diseases. However, it has not been examined whether these four indicators can detect the clustering of metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects. Methods There are 772 Chinese subjects in the present study. Metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were identified according to the criteria from WHO. All statistical analyses were performed separately according to sex by using the SPSS 12.0. Results BMI, waist circumference and WHtR values were all significantly associated with blood pressure, glucose, triglyceride and also with the number of metabolic risk factors in both male and female subjects (all of P < 0.05). According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under curve values of BMI, waist circumference and WHtR did not differ in male (0.682 vs. 0.661 vs. 0.651) and female (0.702 vs. 0.671 vs. 0.674) subjects, indicating that the three values could be useful in detecting the occurrence of multiple metabolic risk factors. The appropriate cut-off values of BMI, waist circumference and WHtR to predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors were 22.85 and 23.30 kg/m2 in males and females, respectively. Those of waist circumference and WHtR were 91.3cm and 87.1cm, 0.51 and 0.53 in males and females, respectively. Conclusion The BMI, waist circumference and WHtR values can similarly predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects. PMID:21226967

2011-01-01

18

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Physical Activity and Risk of Hearing Loss in Women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Acquired hearing loss is highly prevalent, but prospective data on potentially modifiable risk factors are limited. In cross-sectional studies, higher body mass index (BMI), larger waist circumference, and lower physical activity have been associated with poorer hearing, but these have not been examined prospectively. METHODS We examined the independent associations between BMI, waist circumference and physical activity and self-reported hearing loss in 68,421 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II from 1989 to 2009. Baseline and updated information on BMI, waist circumference and physical activity was obtained from biennial questionnaires. RESULTS After more than 1.1 million person-years of follow-up, 11,286 cases of hearing loss were reported to have occurred. Higher BMI and larger waist circumference were associated with increased risk of hearing loss. Compared with women with BMI <25 kg/m2, the multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) for women with BMI ? 40 was 1.25 (95% CI 1.14,1.37). Compared with women with waist circumference <71 cm, the multivariate-adjusted RR for waist circumference >88 cm was 1.27 (95% CI 1.17, 1.38). Higher physical activity was inversely related to risk; compared with women in the lowest quintile of physical activity, the multivariate-adjusted RR for women in the highest quintile was 0.83 (95% CI 0.78,0.88). Walking 2 hours per week or more was inversely associated with risk. Simultaneous adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and physical activity slightly attenuated the associations but they remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Higher BMI and larger waist circumference are associated with increased risk and higher physical activity is associated with reduced risk of hearing loss in women. These findings provide evidence that maintaining healthy weight and staying physically active, potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, may help reduce the risk of hearing loss. PMID:24125639

Curhan, Sharon G.; Eavey, Roland; Wang, Molin; Stampfer, Meir; Curhan, Gary C.

2013-01-01

19

Association of Dietary Antioxidants and Waist Circumference with Pulmonary Function and Airway Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary antioxidants, waist circumference, and pulmonary function were measured in the Fourth Scottish MONICA cross-sectional survey of 865 men and 971 women aged 25-64 years. Waist circumference was inversely related to forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), even after adjustment for age, height, weight, working status, energy intake, and smoking variables in a

Ruoling Chen; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe; Caroline Bolton-Smith; Mary K. Hannah; Caroline Morrison

20

Comparisons of waist circumferences measured at 4 sites1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as a practical measure of adipose tissue distribution. Four body sites for WC measurements are commonly used, as follows: immedi- ately below the lowest ribs (WC1), the narrowest waist (WC2), the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WC3), and immediately above the iliac crest (WC4). Objective: We sought to compare

Jack Wang; John C Thornton; Salina Bari; Bennett Williamson; Dympna Gallagher; Steven B Heymsfield; Mary Horlick; Donald Kotler; Blandine Laferrère; Laurel Mayer; F Xavier Pi-Sunyer; Richard N Pierson Jr

21

Waist circumference and obesity related abnormalities in French and Cameroonian adults: The role of urbanization and ethnicity  

E-print Network

1 Waist circumference and obesity related abnormalities in French and Cameroonian adults: The role and ethnicity on correlations between waist circumference (WC) and obesity related cardiovascular risk factors circumference; DBP and SBP, Diastolic and systolic blood pressures inserm-00457307,version1-17Feb2010 #12

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Effect of Soymilk Consumption on Waist Circumference and Cardiovascular Risks among Overweight and Obese Female Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Soy milk replacement in the diet might have beneficial effects on waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, we are going to determine the effects of soy milk replacements on the waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adults. Methods: In this crossover randomized clinical trail, 24 over weight and obese female adults were on a diet with soy milk or the diet with cow's milk for four weeks. In the diet with soy milk only one glass of soy milk (240 cc) was replaced instead of one glass of cow's milk (240 cc). Measurements were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Waist circumference reduced significantly following soy milk period (mean percent change in soy milk period for waist circumference: -3.79 ± 0.51 vs. -1.78 ± 0.55 %; P = 0.02 in the cow's milk period). Blood pressure, weight, liver enzymes and glycemic control indices did not changed significantly after soy milk period compared to the cow's milk period. Conclusion: Among over weight and obese patients, soy milk can play an important role in reducing waist circumference. However, soy milk replacement had no significant effects on weight, glycemic control indices, liver enzymes, fibrinogen and blood pressure in a short term trial. PMID:23189232

Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Nourieh, Zeinab; Attar, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh; Azadbakht, Leila

2012-01-01

23

Cut-off of body mass index and waist circumference to predict hypertension in Indian adults  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the cut-off values of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to predict hypertension in adults in north India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 801 subjects in Kanpur, aged 20 years and above, using multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to elicit the required information from the study participants and the diagnostic criteria for hypertension were taken according to the Seventh Joint National Committee Report on Hypertension (JNC-7). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the cut-off values of BMI and waist circumference to predict hypertension. RESULTS: The ROC analysis revealed that BMI is a good predictor of hypertension for both men (area under the ROC curve 0.714) and women (area under the ROC curve 0.821). The cut-off values of BMI for predicting hypertension were identified as ? 24.5 kg/m2 in men and ? 24.9 kg/m2 in women. Similarly, the ROC analysis for waist circumference showed that it is a good predictor of hypertension both for men (area under the ROC curve 0.784) and women (area under the ROC curve 0.815). The cut-offs for waist circumference for predicting hypertension were estimated as ? 83 cm for men and ? 78 cm for women. Adults with high BMI or high waist circumference had a higher prevalence of hypertension, respectively. CONCLUSION: Simple anthropometric measurements such as BMI and waist circumference can be used for screening people at increased risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful and early diagnostic evaluation. Policies and programs are required for primary and secondary prevention of hypertension. PMID:25032202

Midha, Tanu; Krishna, Vinay; Nath, Bhola; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Rao, Yashwant Kumar; Pandey, Umeshwar; Kaur, Samarjeet

2014-01-01

24

Fitness Alters the Associations of BMI and Waist Circumference with Total and Abdominal Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We tested the following hypotheses in black and white men and women: 1) for a given BMI or waist circumference (WC), individuals with moderate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have lower amounts of total fat mass and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat compared with individuals with low CRF; and 2) exercise training is associated with significant reductions in total adiposity and

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross; Arthur S. Leon; James S. Skinner; D. C. Rao; Jack H. Wilmore; Tuomo Rankinen; Claude Bouchard

2004-01-01

25

Dietary patterns and changes in body mass index and waist circumference in adults1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity has increased > 20% in the past decade in the United States, and more than one-half of US adults are over- weight or obese. Objective: Our objective was to further elucidate the nutritional etiology of changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2) and waist circumference by dietary intake pattern. We hypothesized that a healthy dietary pattern would

PK Newby; Denis Muller; Judith Hallfrisch; Ning Qiao; Reubin Andres; Katherine L Tucker

26

Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

27

Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

28

Combination of BMI and Waist Circumference for Identifying Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Whites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: BMI (kilograms per meters squared) and waist circumference (WC) (measured in centimeters) are each associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, a combination of the two may be more effective in identifying subjects at risk than either alone. The present study sought to identify the combination of BMI and WC that has the strongest association with

Shankuan Zhu; Stanley Heshka; ZiMian Wang; Wei Shen; David B. Allison; Robert Ross; Steven B. Heymsfield

2004-01-01

29

Discrimination of Health Risk by Combined Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: NIH Clinical Guidelines (1998) recommend the measurement of waist circumference (WC, centimeters) within body mass index (BMI, kilograms per square meter) categories as a screening tool for increased health risk.Research Methods and Procedures: The Canada Heart Health Surveys (1986 through 1992) were used to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Canada and to test the use of

Christopher I. Ardern; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Ian Janssen; Robert Ross

2003-01-01

30

Waist Circumference, Pedometer Placement, and Step-Counting Accuracy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether differences in waist circumference (WC) and pedometer placement (anterior vs. midaxillary vs. posterior) affect the agreement between pedometer and observed steps during treadmill and self-paced walking. Participants included 19 pairs of youth (9-15 years old) who were matched for sex, race, and height and stratified by…

Abel, Mark G.; Hannon, James C.; Eisenman, Patricia A.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Pett, Marjorie; Williams, Daniel P.

2009-01-01

31

Does Waist Circumference Add to the Predictive Power of the Body Mass Index for Coronary Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the power of the combined measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for the prediction of abnormality in coronary heart disease risk factors and to determine whether the additional measurement of WC is predictive in older men and women.Research Methods and Procedures: 1190 men and 751 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

Satoshi Iwao; Nobuko Iwao; Denis C. Muller; Dariush Elahi; Hiroshi Shimokata; Reubin Andres

2001-01-01

32

Balkau, 12/04/2007 1/7 Consequences of change in waist circumference on cardio-metabolic  

E-print Network

Balkau, 12/04/2007 1/7 Consequences of change in waist circumference on cardio-metabolic risk in cardio-metabolic risk factors according to changes in waist circumference. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS). Statistical significance was defined as Pcircumference was 3cm

Boyer, Edmond

33

Validity of self-measured waist and hip circumferences: results from a community study in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Measures of central adiposity are better predictors of adverse health events than BMI. Nonetheless, BMI is more widely used in health research. One reason for this may be the limited research supporting the self-measurement of waist and hip circumference. The lack of validity studies is particularly acute in Asia. The main objective was to establish the validity of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference in a community setting and the correlation of those measures with BMI, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels. Methods A community based, cross-sectional survey. A “healthy living expo” at a shopping mall in a rural town on peninsular Malaysia One hundred and thirty six (136) individuals volunteered to participate in the study, 125 of whom met the inclusion criteria. The ethnic distribution of the participants was 80% Chinese, 17% Malay and 3% Indian. Most participants were female (60%), with participants’ ages ranging from 18 to 78 years (mean, 47.2). Self and assisted measurements of waist and hip were taken. Blood pressure, non-fasting blood glucose, height, and weight were also measured. Bland Altman plots and Lin’s concordance coefficient were used to measure agreement between self and assisted measures. Pearson’s correlation was used to examine the association of self and assisted measures with blood pressure, blood glucose, and BMI. Results There was a downwards bias in self measured waist (-0.81 cm) and hip (-1 cm) circumferences compared with assisted measures. The concordance for the self and assisted measures of waist, hip and the ratio of the two were, respectively, .96, .93 , and .84. The correlation between measures of central adiposity and BMI, blood pressure and blood glucose were similar for self and assisted measures. Conclusion The results provide additional support for the use of self-measurement of waist and hip circumference studies of central adiposity, but is limited by the specificity of the setting. PMID:24093886

2013-01-01

34

Independent and opposite associations of waist and hip circumferences with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia: the AusDiab Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio has been shown to be an important independent predictor of glucose intolerance. Few studies, however, have considered the contributions of the waist and hip circumferences independently. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations of waist and hip circumference with diabetes in a large population-based study, and to investigate

M. B. Snijder; P. Z. Zimmet; M. Visser; J. M. Dekker; J. C. Seidell; J. E. Shaw

2004-01-01

35

Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

2000-01-01

36

Sitting Time and Waist Circumference Are Associated With Glycemia in U.K. South Asians  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the independent contributions of waist circumference, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on glycemia in South Asians living in Scotland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 1,228 (523 men and 705 women) adults of Indian or Pakistani origin screened for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial. All undertook an oral glucose tolerance test, had physical activity and sitting time assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and had waist circumference measured. RESULTS Mean ± SD age and waist circumference were 49.8 ± 10.1 years and 99.2 ± 10.2 cm, respectively. One hundred ninety-one participants had impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance, and 97 had possible type 2 diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, age (0.012 mmol ? L?1 ? year?1 [95% CI 0.006–0.017]) and waist circumference (0.018 mmol ? L?1 ? cm?1 [0.012–0.024]) were significantly independently associated with fasting glucose concentration, and age (0.032 mmol ? L?1 ? year?1 [0.016–0.049]), waist (0.057 mmol ? L?1 ? cm?1 [0.040–0.074]), and sitting time (0.097 mmol ? L?1 ? h?1 ? day?1 [0.036–0.158]) were significantly independently associated with 2-h glucose concentration. Vigorous activity time had a borderline significant association with 2-h glucose concentration (?0.819 mmol ? L?1 ? h?1 ? day?1 [?1.672 to 0.034]) in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS These data highlight an important relationship between sitting time and 2-h glucose levels in U.K. South Asians, independent of physical activity and waist circumference. Although the data are cross-sectional and thus do not permit firm conclusions about causality to be drawn, the results suggest that further study investigating the effects of sitting time on glycemia and other aspects of metabolic risk in South Asian populations is warranted. PMID:21464463

Gill, Jason M.R.; Bhopal, Raj; Douglas, Anne; Wallia, Sunita; Bhopal, Ruby; Sheikh, Aziz; Forbes, John F.; McKnight, John; Sattar, Naveed; Murray, Gordon; Lean, Michael E.J.; Wild, Sarah H.

2011-01-01

37

Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity- related health risk1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The addition of waist circumference (WC) to body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2) predicts a greater variance in health risk than does BMI alone; however, whether the reverse is true is not known. Objective: We evaluated whether BMI adds to the predictive power of WC in assessing obesity-related comorbidity. Design: Subjects were 14 924 adult participants in the third

Ian Janssen; Peter T Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

38

Increasing Trends in Waist Circumference and Abdominal Obesity among U.S. Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Some studies have shown that abdominal obesity may be a better predictor than overall obesity for disease risks and all-cause mortality. This study sought to examine the recent trends in waist circumference (WC) among adults in the United States.Research Methods and Procedures:Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1988–1994, 1999–2000, 2001–2002, and 2003–2004 were analyzed to estimate

Chaoyang Li; Earl S. Ford; Lisa C. McGuire; Ali H. Mokdad

2007-01-01

39

Waist Circumference, BMI, Smoking, and Mortality in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Measurement of waist circumference alone as a proxy of abdominal fat mass has been suggested as a simple clinical alternative to BMI for detecting adults with possible health risks due to obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: From 1993 to 1997, 27,178 men and 29,875 women, born in Denmark, 50 to 64 years of age, were recruited in the Danish prospective

Janne Bigaard; Anne Tjønneland; Birthe Lykke Thomsen; Kim Overvad; Berit Lilienthal Heitmann; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen

2003-01-01

40

The development of waist circumference percentiles in British children aged 5.0–16.9 y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop waist circumference percentile curves for British children and to compare these curves with those from other countries.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: School-aged population.Subjects: A representative sample of school children from the geographical regions of Great Britain, approximately in proportion to their age distribution. The sample population consisted of 8355 children (3585 males, 4770 females) with ages ranging between 5.0

HD McCarthy; KV Jarrett; HF Crawley

2001-01-01

41

Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.  

PubMed

We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies. PMID:24496996

Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

2014-03-01

42

Intake of brown rice lees reduces waist circumference and improves metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Intake of whole grains has been associated with lower risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Brown rice is unrefined whole grain and is produced by removing the outermost layers containing the germ and bran, which are rich in nutrients including dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other unmeasured dietary constituents. The lees of brown rice (LB) are by-products of its fermentation in the process of manufacturing takju, a Korean turbid rice wine. In this study, we hypothesized that intake of LB would reduce waist circumference, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was scheduled for 12 weeks. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to receive a supplement prepared from the LB or from a mixed-grain dietary product (MG). Body weight, waist circumference, body composition, lipid profiles, and other laboratory parameters were measured. The LB group showed greater reduction in waist circumference (LB: 87.9 ± 8.8 to 85.1 ± 9.0 cm; MG: 86.9 ± 8.8 to 86.0 ± 9.3 cm; P = .032). In addition, the consumption of LB resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the level of aspartate transaminase (LB: 25.4 ± 8.5 to 21.0 ± 5.1 IU/mL; MG: 22.5 ± 5.3 to 22.4 ± 5.7 IU/mL; P = .044) and alanine transaminase (LB: 28.6 ± 11.3 to 21.9 ± 8.2 IU/mL; MG: 24.4 ± 7.5 to 24.5 ± 9.9 IU/mL; P = .038). Consumption of the LB was associated with a decreased waist circumference in type 2 diabetic patients. Further study is required to evaluate the metabolic effect of the extract of the LB in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21419317

Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Min-Seok; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo

2011-02-01

43

A comparison of body mass index, waist–hip ratio and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly: the Rotterdam study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare body mass index (BMI), waist–hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly.DESIGN: Population-based cohort study; mean follow-up was 5.4 y.SETTING: The Rotterdam Study.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6296 men and women; baseline age 55–102 y.MEASUREMENTS: Sex-specific all-cause mortality was compared between quintiles of BMI, WHR and waist circumference and between predefined categories

TLS Visscher; JC Seidell; A Molarius; D van der Kuip; A Hofman; JCM Witteman

2001-01-01

44

Comparison of Relative Waist Circumference between Asian Indian and US Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Relative to Europeans, Asian Indians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Whether differences in body composition may underlie these population differences remains unclear. Methods. We compared directly measured anthropometric data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) survey of southern Indians (I) with those from three US ethnic groups (C: Caucasians, A: African Americans, and M: Mexican Americans) from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). A total of 15,733 subjects from CURES and 5,975 from NHANES III met inclusion criteria (age 20–39, no known diabetes). Results. Asian Indian men and women had substantially lower body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body surface area relative to US groups (P values <0.0001). In contrast, the mean (±se) waist-weight ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in I (men 1.35 ± 0.002 and women 1.45 ± 0.002) than in all the US groups (1.09, 1.21, and 1.14 in A, M, and C men; 1.23, 1.33, and 1.26 in A, M, and C women (se ranged from 0.005 to 0.006)). Conclusions. Compared to the US, the waist-weight ratio is significantly higher in men and women from Chennai, India. These results support the hypothesis that Southeast Asian Indians are particularly predisposed toward central adiposity. PMID:25328687

Bajaj, Harpreet S.; Pereira, Mark A.; Anjana, Rajit Mohan; Deepa, Raj; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mueller, Noel T.; Rao, Gundu H. R.; Gross, Myron D.

2014-01-01

45

The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study  

E-print Network

Abstract Background To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method This study included 141,230 male and 336...

Hermann, Silke; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; May, Anne M; Kunst, Anton; Besson, Herve; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noemie; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Molina, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodriguez, Laudina; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Boeckel, Petra G A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Overvad, Kim; Uhre Jakobsen, Marianne; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Vineis, Paolo; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M; Steffen, Annika; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Johansson, Ingegerd; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Braaten, Tonje; Fagherazzi, Guy; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Mouw, Traci; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Peeters, Petra H M

2011-03-17

46

Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio cannot predict male semen quality: a report of 1231 subfertile Chinese men.  

PubMed

There were controversial results between obesity-associated markers and semen quality. In this study, we investigated the correlations between age, obesity-associated markers including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC), the combination of age and obesity-associated markers, semen parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels in 1231 subfertile men. The results showed that BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR were positively related to age, and there were also positive relations between BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR and between sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), progressive motility (PR), sperm motility and per cent of normal sperm morphology (NSM). However, age, each of obesity-associated markers and the combination of obesity-associated markers and age were unrelated to any of semen parameters including total normal-progressively motile sperm count (TNPMS). Age, BMI, WHR, WC and WHtR were negatively related to serum testosterone and SHBG levels. However, only serum LH and FSH levels were negatively related to sperm concentration, NSM and sperm motility. In a conclusion, although age and obesity have significant impacts on reproductive hormones such as testosterone, SHBG and oestradiol, semen parameters related to FSH and LH could not be influenced, indicating that obesity-associated markers could not predict male semen quality. PMID:25418484

Lu, J-C; Jing, J; Dai, J-Y; Zhao, A Z; Yao, Q; Fan, K; Wang, G-H; Liang, Y-J; Chen, L; Ge, Y-F; Yao, B

2014-11-22

47

Overweight condition and waist circumference and a candidate gene within the 12q24 locus  

PubMed Central

Aims Obesity and obesity-associated phenotypes are linked to the chromosome12q24 locus, the non-insulin-dependent-diabetes 2 (NIDDM2) locus. The gene of proteasome modulator 9 (PSMD9) lies in the NIDDM2 region and is linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D), microvascular and macrovascular complications of T2D. We aimed at studying whether the PSMD9 T2D risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) IVS3+nt460, IVS3+nt437, and 197G are linked to obesity, overweight status and waist circumference in Italian T2D families. Methods and results We screened 200 Italians T2D siblings/families for PSMD9 variants. Using Merlin software, we performed non-parametric linkage analysis to test for linkage with obesity and overweight condition and variance component analysis to test for linkage with waist circumference in our T2D siblings/families dataset. Our study shows that the PSMD9 SNPs IVS3+nt460, IVS3+nt437, and 197G are in linkage with overweight condition and waist circumference in Italians. The statistical power tests performed via simulations on real data confirm that the results are not due to random chance. Conclusions In summary, the linkage strategy using a homogeneous family/subject dataset can identify a gene contributing to a complex trait. PMSD9 may be at least one of the genes responsible for the linkage to obesity and obesity-associated phenotypes at the locus 12q24 in other populations. PMID:23282078

2013-01-01

48

A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate cut-off points of waist circumference, body mass index and waist to hip ratio with respect to their ability to predict other individual and multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors.DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional surveys.SUBJECTS: A total of 9913 men and women aged 18–74, selected using health insurance registries from five Canadian provinces.MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric measures, other cardiovascular risk factors, receiver

CJ Dobbelsteyn; G Flowerdew

2001-01-01

49

Waist Circumference, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index of Thai Children: Secular Changes and Updated Reference Standards  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of obesity in pediatric age group has been increasing globally. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are commonly used to define obesity. The cut-off references for these parameters vary between racial and ethnic groups. We aimed to measure the secular changes and update the reference standards for these three parameters for Thai children in this study. Materials and Methods: We completed a cross-sectional survey of 3,885 school children 6.0-12.99 y of age in Ongkharak district of central Thailand during May to June 2013. Weight, height and WC were recorded by trained staff using sensitive and calibrated instruments. BMI and WHtR were calculated by standard formulae. The summary estimates were described by gender and whole year age groups. Age and gender specific smoothened percentile curves were created by using least mean squares method. The data was compared with that from a 2008 cohort from the same area. Results: Age and gender specific percentile data and curves of WC, WHtR and BMI have been provided for Thai children. BMI and WC increased but WHtR changed relatively little with age in both genders. In comparison to 2008, WC and WHtR have increased consistently across all age groups and both genders. The 75th percentile for WHtR corresponded closely to 0.50 in both genders which has been the suggested cut-off. Conclusion: Since 2008, there have been significant increase in WC and WHtR across all age groups and in both genders in Thai children. These indicate increasing prevalence of central obesity and upcoming cardio-metabolic health problems. This needs to be tackled urgently by creating awareness and promotion of healthy diets and physical activities in school children. WC and WHtR should be routinely measured in paediatric examination for early diagnosis of central obesity. PMID:25584277

Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana

2014-01-01

50

Optimal cut-off values of BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio for defining obesity in Chinese adults.  

PubMed

It has not been established which specific measures of obesity might be most appropriate for predicting CVD risk in Asians. The objectives of the present study were to determine the associations of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist:height ratio (WHtR) with CVD risk factors and to evaluate the optimal cut-off values to define overweight or obesity in Chinese adults. Data collected from seven nationwide health examination centres during 2008 and 2009 were analysed. The BMI, WC and WHtR of 244 266 Chinese adults aged ? 20 years included in the study were measured. Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to various anthropometric indices. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the optimal cut-off values to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and the metabolic syndrome. WHtR had the largest areas under the ROC curve for all CVD risk factors in both sexes, followed by WC and BMI. The optimal cut-off values were approximately 24·0 and 23·0 kg/m2 for BMI, 85·0 and 75·0 cm for WC, and 0·50 and 0·48 for WHtR for men and women, respectively. According to well-established cut-off values, BMI was found to be a more sensitive indicator of hypertension in both men and women, while WC and WHtR were found to be better indicators of diabetes and dyslipidaemia. A combination of BMI and central obesity measures was found to be associated with greater OR of CVD risk factors than either of them alone in both sexes. The present study demonstrated that WHtR and WC may be better indicators of CVD risk factors for Chinese people than BMI. PMID:25300318

Zeng, Qiang; He, Yuan; Dong, Shengyong; Zhao, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhiheng; Song, Zhenya; Chang, Guang; Yang, Fang; Wang, Youjuan

2014-11-28

51

Correlation between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of coexisting metabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, lipid disorders, carbohydrate disorders, and arterial hypertension. According to the 2005 IDF criteria, subsequently revised in 2009, abdominal obesity is identified as the waist circumference of ?80?cm in women and ?94?cm in men. It is responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a correlation between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation with hypertension, lipid disorders, and carbohydrate disorders. A cross-sectional two-site study was conducted in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship for 24 months. The study group consisted of 839 patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome: 345 men (41.1%) and 494 women (58.9%) aged 32–80. In the study group, WC was found to be significantly correlated with BMI (R = 0.78, P < 0.01). The presence of overweight in men (BMI 25, 84?kg/m2) and even normal body weight in women (BMI 21,62?kg/m2) corresponds to an increased volume of visceral tissue in the abdomen. Introduction of primary prophylaxis in those people to limit the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases should be considered. PMID:24729884

Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Ewertowska, Marlena; Arndt, Adam; Junik, Roman

2014-01-01

52

Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Nigerian Adults: Implication as Indicators of Health Status  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropometric measures have been widely used for body weight classification in humans. Waist circumference has been advanced as a useful parameter for measuring adiposity. This study evaluated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and examined their significance as indicators of health status in adults. Design and methods The subject included 489 healthy adults from Ota, Nigeria, aged between 20 and 75 years, grouped into early adulthood (20-39 years), middle adulthood (40-59 years) and advanced adulthood (60 years and above). Weight, height and abdominal circumference were measured. BMI was calculated as weight kg/height2 (m2) and World Health Organization cut-offs were used to categorize them into normal, underweight, overweight and obese. Results Abnormal weight categories accounted for 60 % of the subjects (underweight 11 %, overweight 31%, and obese 18%). The waist circumference of overweight and obese categories were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the normal weight category. There was no significant difference between waist circumference of underweight and normal subjects. The correlation coefficient values of BMI with waist circumference (r=0.63), body weight (r=0.76) and height (r=-0.31) were significant (P<0.01) for the total subjects. Conclusions The study indicates that waist circumference can serve as a positive indicator of overweight and obesity in the selected communities; however, it may not be used to determine underweight in adults. Regular BMI and waist circumference screening is recommended as an easy and effective means of assessing body weight and in the prevention of weight related diseases in adults. Significance for public health This manuscript describes the correlation between body mass index, waist circumference and body weight of two communities in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria and the use of these anthropometric measures for body weight classification in human populations of the selected communities. This was carried out to evaluate the health status of the indigenes of the two communities for proper health awareness and public health intervention programmes. PMID:25170487

Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Ogunlana, Olubanke O.; Azuh, Dominic E.; Iweala, Emeka E.J.; Afolabi, Israel S.; Uhuegbu, Chidi C.; Idachaba, Mercy E.; Osamor, Victor C.

2013-01-01

53

Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have shown a strong association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the near vicinity of the TMEM18 gene. The effects of the TMEM18-associated variants are more readily observed in children. TMEM18 encodes a 3TM protein, which locates to the nuclear membrane. The functional context of TMEM18 and the effects of its associated variants are as of yet undetermined. To further explore the effects of near-TMEM18 variants, we have genotyped two TMEM18-associated SNPs, rs6548238 and rs4854344, in a cohort of 2352 Greek children (Healthy Growth Study). Included in this study are data on anthropomorphic traits body weight, BMI z-score and waist circumference. Also included are dietary energy and macronutrient intake as measured via 24-h recall interviews. Major alleles of rs6548238 and rs4854344 were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity (odds ratio=1.489 (1.161–1.910) and 1.494 (1.165–1.917), respectively), and positively correlated to body weight (P=0.017, P=0.010) and waist circumference (P=0.003, P=0.003). An association to energy and macronutrient intake was not observed in this cohort. We also correlated food intake and body weight in a food choice model in rats to Tmem18 expression in central regions involved in feeding behavior. We observed a strong positive correlation between TMEM18 expression and body weight in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (r=0.5694, P=0.0003) indicating a potential role for TMEM18 in higher functions related to feeding involving the PFC. PMID:21952719

Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Moschonis, George; Chavan, Rohit A; Sikder, Md Abu Noman; Allzén, Elin; Alsiö, Johan; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2012-01-01

54

Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of macrovascular complications and morbidities associated to metabolic syndrome are increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The combination of T1DM with features of insulin resistance similar to that of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), sometimes called “double diabetes”, has been associated with central obesity. Since the most methods to accurately detect body fat and insulin resistance are not readily available, we propose that certain indirect indexes for detecting obesity as waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index, may be useful when screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM. Methods We performed a transversal evaluation (clinical and biochemical) in all the patients of the T1DM Clinic (n?=?120). We determined the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Statement Criteria by the American Heart Association/ National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation and the utility of certain anthropometric indexes for predicting double diabetes was evaluated. Results Thirty seven percent of the patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome using these criteria (n?=?30). These patients were significantly older (p?=?0.002), have a higher glycated hemoglobin (p?=?0.036), cholesterol (p?waist circumference (p?=?0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (p?waist-to-height ratio correctly classified the largest number of patients (68% of correctly classified) well as the waist circumference (66% of correctly classified) with an adequate specificity and sensibility. Meanwhile the most precise body mass index value only classified correctly to 61% of patients. Conclusion Our data show that waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio indexes are useful to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24594198

2014-01-01

55

Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy foods are nutrient dense and may be protective against long-term weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and annualized changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort who participa...

56

Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

57

Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as screening tools for cardiovascular risk factors in Guadeloupean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes, important cardiovascular risk factors, are strongly linked to obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are measures of obesity that can be useful in identifying individuals with these risk factors. We assessed which of the two measures is more informative at the population level. The study population included 5,149 consecutive women aged

Lydia Foucan; Jim Hanley; Jacqueline Deloumeaux; Samy Suissa

2002-01-01

58

Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11-16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare changes over time in waist circumference (a measure of central fatness) and body mass index (a measure of overall obesity) in British youth. Design Representative cross sectional surveys in 1977, 1987, and 1997. Setting Great Britain. Participants Young people aged 11-16 years surveyed in 1977 (boys) and 1987 (girls) for the British Standards Institute (n=3784) and in

H David McCarthy; Sandra M Ellis; Tim J Cole

2003-01-01

59

Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches.

Yoon, Yeong Sook

2014-01-01

60

Waist circumference cutoff points for central obesity in the korean elderly population.  

PubMed

The aim is to determine the appropriate cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean elderly population. We analyzed the WC cutoff values of four groups divided according to sex and age with a total of 2,224 elderly participants aged 65 years old and above from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using the receiver operating characteristic curve and multiple logistic regression. The WC cutoff values associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome were 89.6 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women for those who were 65 to 74 years old, and 89.9 cm for men and 87.9 cm for women for those who were 75 years old or older. WC cutoff points for estimating metabolic risk are similar in elderly men and women. Age-specific optimal WC cutoff points should be considered especially for elderly women in screening for metabolic syndrome. PMID:25548090

So, Eun Sun; Yoo, Kwang Soo

2015-02-01

61

Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN

N Unwin; J Harland; M White; R Bhopal; P Winocour; P Stephenson; W Watson; C Turner; K G Alberti

1997-01-01

62

The PPAR? Pro12Ala Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Body Mass Index or Waist Circumference among Hispanics from Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: First to determine if body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) differ by possession of the Ala allele of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) Pro12Ala polymorphism, and second, to determine if dietary fat intake and physical activity moderate these potential relationships among Hispanic Americans from Colorado. Methods: We studied 216 Hispanic pedigrees (1,850 nuclear families) from the

Tracy L. Nelson; Tasha E. Fingerlin; Laurie Moss; M. Michael Barmada; Robert E. Ferrell; Jill M. Norris

2007-01-01

63

Visceral fat amount is associated with carotid atherosclerosis even in type 2 diabetic men with a normal waist circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Our objective was to investigate whether determination of the quantity of visceral fat has an additional benefit in assessing atherosclerotic burden in men with type 2 diabetes compared with the traditional measurement of waist circumference (WC) alone.Methods:This was an observational study performed in 368 men with type 2 diabetes, consecutively enrolled in Diabetes Clinics. Common carotid artery far-wall intima-media thickness

S K Kim; S W Park; S H Kim; B S Cha; H C Lee; Y W Cho

2009-01-01

64

Predictive values of waist circumference for dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and hypertension in overweight White, Black, and Hispanic American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waist circumferences (WC) ?102 cm for men and ?88 cm for women have been proposed by an expert panel as cut-points for identifying increased risk for the development of obesity comorbidities for most adults. The aim of this investigation was to examine the predictive values of these WC cut-points for hypercholesterolemia, low concentration of high (HDL-C), and high concentration of

Ike S. Okosun; Youlian Liao; Charles N. Rotimi; Simon Choi; Richard S. Cooper

2000-01-01

65

Dietary Energy Density in Relation to Subsequent Changes of Weight and Waist Circumference in European Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExperimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED) is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change.Methods and Principal FindingsThis population-based prospective cohort study included 89,432 participants from five European countries with mean age 53 years (range: 20–78 years) at

Huaidong Du; Daphne L. van der A; Vanessa Ginder; Susan A. Jebb; Nita G. Forouhi; Nicholas J. Wareham; Jytte Halkjær; Anne Tjønneland; Kim Overvad; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Brian Buijsse; Annika Steffen; Domenico Palli; Giovanna Masala; Wim H. M. Saris; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Edith J. M. Feskens; Sanja Stanojevic

2009-01-01

66

Gender-related personality traits, self-efficacy, and social support: how do they relate to women's waist circumference change?  

PubMed

This study investigated whether gender-role related traits agency and communion contribute to successful health behavior change, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors, namely, agency, mediated by health-related self-efficacy, and communion, moderated by social support. Data from women (N = 282) participating in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Agency and increase in self-efficacy both independently predicted waist circumference reduction in the 1-year follow-up. Individuals high in communion succeeded in waist reduction only if they received social support. Initial self-efficacy increase predicted 3-year waist reduction. Gender-role orientation, together with social environment, influences behavior change intervention outcomes. PMID:23740266

Hankonen, Nelli; Konttinen, Hanna; Absetz, Pilvikki

2014-10-01

67

Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Investigators in several epidemiologic studies have observed an inverse association between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk, while others have not. The authors used data from the Women's Health Initiative to study the association of anthropometric factors with lung cancer risk. Over 8 years of follow-up (1998–2006), 1,365 incident lung cancer cases were ascertained among 161,809 women. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios adjusted for covariates. Baseline BMI was inversely associated with lung cancer in current smokers (highest quintile vs. lowest: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42, 0.92). When BMI and waist circumference were mutually adjusted, BMI was inversely associated with lung cancer risk in both current smokers and former smokers (HR = 0.40 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.72) and HR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.94), respectively), and waist circumference was positively associated with risk (HR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.69) and HR = 1.50 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.31), respectively). In never smokers, height showed a borderline positive association with lung cancer. These findings suggest that in smokers, BMI is inversely associated with lung cancer risk and that waist circumference is positively associated with risk. PMID:18483121

Kim, Mimi; Hunt, Julie R.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Rohan, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

68

Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children  

PubMed Central

Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. According to the physical examination data in October, 2011, 124 normal weight, 53 overweight, and 82 obese students 8–15 years of age were randomly chosen from these schools on the basis of BMI-based age- and sex-specific criterion. First morning urine was collected in January, 2012, and fourteen urine phthalate metabolites (free plus conjugated) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the associations between naturally log-transformed urine phthalate metabolites and BMI or WC. Results The urine specific gravity-corrected concentrations of nine urine phthalate metabolites and five molar sums were positively associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children after adjustment for age and sex. However, when other urine phthalate metabolites were included in the models together with age and sex as covariables, most of these significant associations disappeared except for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, some associations showed sex- or age-specific differences. Conclusions Some phthalate exposures were associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study and lack of some important obesity-related covariables, further studies are needed to confirm the associations. PMID:23437242

Wang, Hexing; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

2013-01-01

69

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

70

Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

71

Waist circumference and sagittal diameter reflect total body fat better than visceral fat in older men and women. The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.  

PubMed

The validity of waist circumference and sagittal diameter as surrogate measures of visceral fat were assessed using preliminary cross-sectional data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study, a cohort of 3,075 men and women aged 70-79. Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist/thigh ratio, and sagittal diameter were compared by correlation, graphical analysis, and regression to total body fat as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic 4500A), and to visceral fat area as measured by computerized tomography. We included 2,830 persons, 1,439 women and 1,391 men with complete data on all measurements. For both men and women, all measurements were strongly correlated with both total body fat and visceral fat except the waist/thigh ratio. However, waist circumference, sagittal diameter, weight, and body mass index were more closely related to total body fat than to visceral fat area (R2 for the linear regression of waist circumference on total body fat was 0.69 in women and men; R2 for linear regression of waist circumference on visceral fat area was 0.40 in women, and 0.49 in men). These data suggest that the contribution of visceral fat to health risks will be better assessed by directly measuring this fat depot. PMID:10865790

Harris, T B; Visser, M; Everhart, J; Cauley, J; Tylavsky, F; Fuerst, T; Zamboni, M; Taaffe, D; Resnick, H E; Scherzinger, A; Nevitt, M

2000-05-01

72

Social relationships and longitudinal changes in body mass index and waist circumference: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33-45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation. PMID:24389018

Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hankinson, Arlene L; Liu, Kiang; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Loria, Catherine M; Carnethon, Mercedes R

2014-03-01

73

Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young\\u000a and middle-aged Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health\\u000a checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and

Xin Ying; Zhen-ya Song; Chang-jun Zhao; Yan Jiang

2010-01-01

74

BMI and waist circumference as predictors of lifetime colon cancer risk in Framingham Study adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the increased risk of colon cancer associated with obesity differs for men and women, by distribution of body fat, or by location of the tumor. The primary goal of this study was to address these questions.METHODS: Eligible subjects from the Framingham Study cohort were classified according to body mass index (BMI) and waist size during

L L Moore; M L Bradlee; M R Singer; G L Splansky; M H Proctor; R C Ellison; B E Kreger

2004-01-01

75

Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Metabolic Syndrome in Hypertensive Patients With Normal Body Weight and Waist Circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors, related to visceral adiposity, which is frequently observed in overweight patients. However, it has also been reported in normal weight subjects. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a visceral fat. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether EAT is associated with MetS in hypertensive patients with normal weight and waist.MethodsWe

Sante D. Pierdomenico; Anna M. Pierdomenico; Matteo Neri; Franco Cuccurullo

2011-01-01

76

Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n = 110) Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC) of 0.651 (P = 0.008), cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P < 0.001), cut-off point of ?90?cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P = 0.008), cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ?0.62 and WHtR ?0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P = 0.006) and AUC of 0.717 (P = 0.014) for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ? 0.6) could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents. PMID:25574166

Evia-Viscarra, María Lola; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia

2014-01-01

77

Food Composition of the Diet in Relation to Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in “waist circumference for a given BMI” (WCBMI), a proxy for abdominal adiposity. Design We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WCBMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WCBMI (?WCBMI, cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ?WCBMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Results Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WCBMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ?WCBMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score – indicating a more favourable dietary pattern –showed a ?WCBMI of ?0.11 (95% CI ?0.09 to ?0.14) cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusion A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:21858094

Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Forouhi, Nita G.; Halkjær, Jytte; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van der A, Daphne L.; Masala, Giovanna; Steffen, Annika; Palli, Domenico; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio; Sørensen, Thorkild I.

2011-01-01

78

Associations Among Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Indicators in American Indian and Alaska Native Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Little is known about obesity-related health issues among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations. Approach A large cohort of AIAN people was assembled to evaluate factors associated with health. Setting The study was conducted in Alaska and on the Navajo Nation. Participants A total of 11,293 AIAN people were included. Methods We present data for body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and waist circumference (cm) to evaluate obesity-related health factors. Results Overall, 32.4% of the population were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), 47.1% were obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2), and 21.4% were very obese (BMI, ? 35 kg/m2). A waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men and greater than 88 cm for women was observed for 41.7% of men and 78.3% of women. Obese people were more likely to perceive their health as fair/poor than nonobese participants (prevalence ratio [PR]), 1.91; 95% CI, 1.71–2.14). Participants younger than 30 years were three times more likely to perceive their health as being fair or poor when their BMI results were 35 or greater compared with those whose BMI results were less than 25 kg/m2. A larger BMI was associated with having multiple medical conditions, fewer hours of vigorous activity, and more hours of television watching. Conclusions Given the high rates of obesity in AIAN populations and the association of obesity with other health conditions, it is important to reduce obesity among AIAN people. PMID:20232606

Slattery, Martha L.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Edwards, Sandra; Ma, Khe-Ni; Etzel, Ruth A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P.

2010-01-01

79

Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

2011-01-01

80

Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food. PMID:24514426

Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A.; Cohen, Daniel D.; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

2014-01-01

81

The association of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and waist circumference in northern adults in Iran: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) level and Waist Circumference (WC) in men and women among 25–65 years old people in the north of Iran. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional and analytical research gender that carried out on the 1797 subjects (941 males and 856 females) between 25–65 years old using multistage cluster sampling technique. FBG was measured in the morning after a 12-hour fast and was determined by using laboratory kits (enzymatic methods) and spectrophotometry technique. Central obesity was defined based on World Health Organization criteria: waist circumference ?102 cm and ?88 cm in men and women, respectively. The SPSS.16 software was used for statistical analysis. Results As whole, the mean of FBG in women (98.3?±?40.1 mg/dl) was higher than in men (94.6?±?32.2 mg/dl). Also, the mean of WC in men 4.5 cm was lower than in women. In men, the mean of FBG statistically differs between normal and central obese subjects both in 35–45 year-age group (P?=?0.001) and in 45–55 year-age group (P?=?0.042). As whole, in men, the FBG level increased up 2.82 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC with the highest rate in 35–45 year-age group. In totally, in women, the FBG level increased up 3.48 mg/dl in each 10 cm of WC and in 25–35 year-age group and it was higher than in other age groups. In men, the regression coefficients were constant with age increasing while in women it was decreased. Constant trend in men and decreasing trend in women with age was shown between FBG and WC. The cut-off point of WC for detecting of diabetes obtained 89 cm and 107 cm in men and women, respectively. Conclusion The positive correlation was seen between WC and FBG level and it was declined with age in women. Cut-off point for detecting of diabetes in men was less than in women. WC is useable as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among adults in the north of Iran. PMID:24393143

2014-01-01

82

The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m2 lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m2). The association between WC and education level was also of greater magnitude for women: compared with the lowest education level, average WC of women was lower by 5.2 cm for women in the highest category. For men the difference was 2.9 cm. Conclusion In this European cohort, there is an inverse association between higher BMI as well as higher WC and lower education level. Public Health Programs that aim to reduce overweight and obesity should primarily focus on the lower educated population. PMID:21414225

2011-01-01

83

BMI-specific waist circumference is better than skinfolds for health-risk determination in the general population.  

PubMed

Distribution of fat is important when considering health risk; however, the value added from skinfold measurements (SKF) when using body mass index (BMI) refined by waist circumference (WC) is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of SKF compared with WC in determination of health risk in the general population. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (cycles 1 and 2; N = 5217) were used. Health outcomes included directly measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, lung function, self-reported health, and chronic conditions. Technical errors of measurements (TEM), sensitivity, and specificity analysis and linear regressions were conducted. Data indicated that TEM for SKF was above the acceptable 5% in most age and sex categories. Sensitivity and specificity of chronic conditions was not improved with the inclusion of SKF in models containing WC (in those aged 45-69 years) and SKF did not explain any additional variance in regression models containing WC. Health outcomes for those in the normal weight and overweight BMI category were significantly worse in those classified as high risk based on WC, whereas SKF did not consistently discriminate risk. In conclusion, evidence-based WC cut-points were shown to identify health risk, particularly in normal weight and overweight individuals. Thus, BMI refined by WC appears to be more appropriate than SKF for assessment of body composition when determining health risk in the general population. PMID:25591950

Dogra, Shilpa; Clarke, Janine; Roy, Joel; Fowles, Jonathon

2015-02-01

84

Gender-dependent Association of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference with Disability in the Chinese Oldest Old  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with disability among the Chinese oldest old. Design and Methods 5495 oldest old in the sixth wave of Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study conducted in 2011 were included in this study. Disability was assessed by Activities of Daily Living (ADL); height and weight for BMI and WC were measured; information including socio-demographics, lifestyles and health status was collected. Results Generalized additive models analysis showed that the association of BMI/WC with ADL disability was non-linear. Among the males, logistic regression results supported a ‘J‘ shape association between ADL disability with BMI/WC--the highest tertile group in BMI or WC was significantly associated with an increased risk of ADL disability: odds ratio 1.78 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-2.52) for BMI and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.44-2.82) for WC. Among females, an inverse ‘J’ shape association was found, only the lowest tertile group before the cutoff point had an increased risk of ADL disability: odds ratio 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02-1.97) for BMI and 1.47 (95% CI:1.06-2.04) for WC. Conclusions Associations of BMI and WC with ADL disability are significant even in the oldest old, but differ between the genders. PMID:24777985

Yin, Zhaoxue; Kraus, Virginia B.; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Chen, Huashuai; Liu, Yuzhi; Lv, Yuebin

2014-01-01

85

Waist circumference and obesity-associated risk factors among whites in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: clinical action thresholds1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Waist circumference (WC) is strongly linked to obesity-associated risks. However, currently proposed WC risk thresholds are not based on associations with obesity-related risk factors but rather with body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Objective: The objective was to determine the relations of WC to obesity-associated risk factors in a representative sample of US whites and to derive comparable risk

ShanKuan Zhu; ZiMian Wang; Stanley Heshka; Moonseong Heo; Myles S Faith; Steven B Heymsfield

86

Combined Impact of Lifestyle Factors on Prospective Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person’s weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. Methods We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25–70) were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours) for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol) diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. Results Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI ?706, ?368) and 200 (?478, ?87) gram less weight and 0.95 (?1.27, ?0.639) and 0.99 (?1.29, ?0.69) cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. Conclusion The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain. PMID:23226361

May, Anne M.; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noémie; Ekelund, Ulf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, Monique; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Braaten, Tonje; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

2012-01-01

87

Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

2012-01-01

88

Validity of self-measured waist circumference in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

BackgroundWaist circumference (WC) is used to indirectly measure abdominal adipose tissue and the associated risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because of its easy implementation and low cost, self-measured WC is commonly used as a screening tool. However, discrepancies between self-measured and objectively measured WC may result in misclassification of individuals when using established cut-off values. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of self-measured WC in adults at risk of T2DM and/or CVD, and to determine the anthropometric, demographic and behavioural characteristics associated with bias in self-measured WC.MethodsSelf-measured and objectively measured WC was obtained from 622 participants (58.4% female; mean age 43.4¿±¿5.3 years) in the Hoorn Prevention Study. The associations of gender, age, educational level, body mass index, smoking status, dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour with the discrepancies between self-measured and objectively measured WC were analysed using independents t-test and one-way ANOVA. Bland-Altman plots were used to plot the agreement between the two measures.ResultsOn average, self-measured WC was overestimated by 5.98¿±¿4.82 cm (P¿<¿0.001). Overestimation was consistent across all subgroups, but was more pronounced in those who were younger and those with lower educational attainment.ConclusionsThe results support self-measured WC as a useful tool for large-scale populations and epidemiological studies when objective measurement is not feasible, but overestimation should be taken into account when screening adults at risk of T2DM and/or CVD. PMID:25274418

Ayala, Ana; Nijpels, Giel; Lakerveld, Jeroen

2014-10-01

89

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Spain using regional cutoff points for waist circumference: the di@bet.es study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Spain using specific cutoff points for waist circumference (WC) (>94.5 cm for men and >89.5 cm for women) and evaluating the influence of several socio-demographic and economic factors. Data on MetS were obtained from a national study of 4,727 subjects from 18 to 90 years of age, conducted in Spain between 2009 and 2010 (The di@bet.es study). MetS was defined applying the new Harmonized definition (evaluating the use of abdominal obesity (AO) as a obligatory criterion for MetS or not) as well as with other widely used criteria. Results were then compared with data from previous studies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the influence of different social factors. The age-standardized MetS prevalence was 38.37 % (CI 35.74-40.99) in men and 29.62 % (CI 27.56-31.69) in women, when AO was required as a diagnostic criterion; 42.13 % (CI 39.37-44.89) and 32.31 % (CI 30.15-34.47) in men and women, respectively, if AO was not considered mandatory. Prevalence of MetS increased with age (p < 0.001 for trend). Women with a lower educational level were more likely to have MetS (OR 4.4; 95 % CI: 2.84-6.7) as compared with those with a higher educational level. Subjects with MetS had a worse physical quality of life. The combination of AO, hypertension and carbohydrate alterations was the most common MetS' pattern. A high prevalence of MetS was detected in the Spanish population especially in men, the elderly and women with a low educational level. PMID:23512475

Marcuello, Clara; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L; Fuentes, Manuel; Runkle, Isabelle; Rubio, Miguel A; Montañez, Carmen; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Bordiu, Elena; Goday, Albert; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Carmena, Rafael; Casamitjana, Roser; Castaño, Luis; Castell, Conxa; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Franch, Josep; Gaztambide, Sonia; Girbés, Juan; Gomis, Ramon; Urrutia, Ines; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; Menéndez, Eldelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Ortega, Emilio; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Valdés, Sergio; Vázquez, Jose A; Vendrell, Joan

2013-08-01

90

An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference  

PubMed Central

Aims A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian individuals, and to use meta-analyses to attempt to clarify to what extent BMI influences the association of FTO variants with diabetes in South Asians. Methods We analysed rs9939609 in two studies of Pakistani individuals: 1666 adults aged ? 40 years from the Karachi population-based Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study and 2745 individuals of Punjabi ancestry who were part of a Type 2 diabetes case–control study (UK Asian Diabetes Study/Diabetes Genetics in Pakistan; UKADS/DGP). The main outcomes were BMI, waist circumference and diabetes. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations between FTO alleles and outcomes. Summary estimates were combined in a meta-analysis of 8091 South Asian individuals (3919 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 4172 control subjects), including those from two previous studies. Results In the 4411 Pakistani individuals from this study, the age-, sex- and diabetes-adjusted association of FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24–0.67) kg/m2 per A-allele (P = 3.0× 10?5) and with waist circumference was 0.88 (95% CI 0.36–1.41) cm per A-allele (P = 0.001). The A-allele (30% frequency) was also significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes [per A-allele odds ratio (95% CI) 1.18 (1.07–1.30); P = 0.0009]. A meta-analysis of four South Asian studies with 8091 subjects showed that the FTO A-allele predisposes to Type 2 diabetes [1.22 (95% CI 1.14–1.31); P = 1.07× 10?8] even after adjusting for BMI [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 1.02× 10?5] or waist circumference [1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27); P = 3.97× 10?5]. Conclusions The strong association between FTO genotype and BMI and waist circumference in South Asians is similar to that observed in Europeans. In contrast, the strong association of FTO genotype with diabetes is only partly accounted for by BMI. PMID:21294771

Rees, S. D.; Islam, M.; Hydrie, M. Z. I.; Chaudhary, B.; Bellary, S.; Hashmi, S.; O’Hare, J. P.; Kumar, S.; Sanghera, D. K.; Chaturvedi, N.; Barnett, A. H.; Shera, A. S.; Weedon, M. N.; Basit, A.; Frayling, T. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Jafar, T. H.

2011-01-01

91

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

92

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No evidence supports the waist circum- ference (WC) cutoff points recommended by the Na- tional Institutes of Health to identify subjects at in- creased health risk within the various body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) categories. Objective: To examine whether the prevalence of hy- pertension, type 2 diabetes

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross

2002-01-01

93

Dietary Fiber and Whole Grain Intake Lessen Gains in Weight and Waist Circumference in Normal Weight Individuals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foods rich in dietary fiber, such as whole grains, may play an important role in maintaining a healthy body weight and preventing obesity because of their lower energy density. We examined the relationship between dietary fiber and whole grain consumption and changes in body weight and waist circumf...

94

Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference: associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity - a prospective study of three independent cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight (?BW) and waist circumference (?WC). Methods A total of 7,569 participants’ from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score for each of the traits (BMI, WC and WHR) with which the SNPs associate. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ascorbic acid intake and ?BW or ?WC. SNP-score?×?ascorbic acid interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. Results We found no significant associations between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC. Regarding SNP-score?×?ascorbic acid interactions, each additional risk allele of the 14 WHR associated SNPs associated with a ?WC of 0.039?cm/year (P?=?0.02, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.073) per 100?mg/day higher ascorbic acid intake. However, the association to ?WC only remained borderline significant after adjustment for ?BW. Conclusion In general, our study does not support an association between dietary ascorbic acid and ?BW or ?WC, but a diet with a high content of ascorbic acid may be weakly associated to higher WC gain among people who are genetically predisposed to a high WHR. However, given the quite limited association any public health relevance is questionable. PMID:24886192

2014-01-01

95

Dietary ?-Tocopherol and Linoleic Acid, Serum Insulin, and Waist Circumference Predict Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Premenopausal Women1–4  

PubMed Central

Reduced levels of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are implicated in the etiology of sex steroid-related pathologies and the metabolic syndrome. Dietary correlates of serum SHBG remain unclear and were studied in a convenient cross-sectional sample of healthy 30- to 40-y-old women (n = 255). By univariate analyses, serum SHBG correlated negatively with several indices of the metabolic syndrome, such as BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference (r = ?0.36 to ?0.44; P < 0.0001), fasting serum insulin (r = ?0.41; P < 0.0001), serum triglycerides (r = ?0.27; P < 0.0001), serum glucose (r = ?0.23; P < 0.001), and plasma testosterone (r = ?0.19; P = 0.002). Serum SHBG correlated positively with serum HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.33; P < 0.0001), plasma progesterone (r = 0.17; P = 0.007), and dietary intake of ?-tocopherol (r = 0.17; P = 0.006), and negatively with that of fructose (r = ?0.13; P = 0.04). Principal component analysis (PCA) extracted 12 nutrient factors with eigenvalues > 1.0 from 54 nutrients and vitamins in food records. Multivariate regression analyses showed that the PCA-extracted nutrient factor most heavily loaded with ?-tocopherol and linoleic acid (P = 0.03) was an independent positive predictor of serum SHBG. When individual nutrients were the predictor variables, ?-tocopherol (P = 0.002), but not other tocopherols or fatty acids (including linoleic acid), was an independent positive predictor of serum SHBG. Circulating insulin (P = 0.02) and waist circumference (P = 0.002), but not serum lipids, were negative independent predictors of SHBG in all regression models. Additional studies are needed in women of other age groups and men to determine whether consumption of foods rich in ?-tocopherol and/or linoleic acid may increase serum SHBG concentrations and may thereby decrease the risk for metabolic syndrome and reproductive organ cancer. PMID:19339706

Nayeem, Fatima; Nagamani, Manubai; Anderson, Karl E.; Huang, Yafei; Grady, James J.; Lu, Lee-Jane W.

2009-01-01

96

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and determination of optimal cut-off values of waist circumference in university employees from Angola  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Africans may be inconsistent due to lack of African-specific cut-off values of waist circumference (WC). This study determined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and defined optimal values of WC in Africans. Methods This cross-sectional study collected demographic, anthropometric and clinical data of 615 Universitary employees, in Luanda, Angola. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to assess cut-off values of WC. Results The crude prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was higher with the JIS definition (27.8%, age-standardised 14.1%) than with the ATP III definition (17.6%, age-standardised 8.7%). Optimal cut-off values of WC were 87.5 and 80.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among our African subjects. Our data suggest different WC cut-off values for Africans in relation to other populations. PMID:24626517

Magalhães, Pedro; Capingana, Daniel P; Mill, José G

2014-01-01

97

Nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring: a file audit of risk factor prevalence and impact of an intervention to enhance measurement of waist circumference.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to: (i) document the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among mental health consumers (inpatients) with various diagnoses; and (ii) audit the frequency of waist circumference (WC) documentation before and after an intervention that involved a single nurse-education session, and change in assessment-form design. The study was undertaken in a private psychiatric hospital in Sydney, Australia. Twenty-five nurses participated in the educational intervention. File audits were performed prior to intervention delivery (n = 60), and 3 months' (n = 60), and 9 months' (n = 60) post-intervention. Files were randomly selected, and demographic (age, diagnosis) and risk factor (WC, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, blood pressure) data were extracted. WC was higher in this cohort compared to published general population means, and only 19% of patients had a BMI within the healthy range. In total, 37% of patients smoked, while 31% were hypertensive. At baseline, none of the audited files reported WC, which increased to 35 of the 60 (58%) files audited at the 3-month follow up. At the 9-month follow up, 25 of the 60 (42%) files audited reported a WC. In the 120 post-intervention files audited, only two patients refused measurement. These results illustrate the poor physical health of inpatients, and suggest that nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring can be enhanced with minimal training. PMID:24393271

Rosenbaum, Simon; Nijjar, Sukh; Watkins, Andrew; Garwood, Natasha; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne

2014-06-01

98

Structural vascular disease in Africans: Performance of ethnic-specific waist circumference cut points using logistic regression and neural network analyses: The SABPA study.  

PubMed

A recently proposed model for waist circumference cut points (RPWC), driven by increased blood pressure, was demonstrated in an African population. We therefore aimed to validate the RPWC by comparing the RPWC and the Joint Statement Consensus (JSC) models via Logistic Regression (LR) and Neural Networks (NN) analyses. Urban African gender groups (N=171) were stratified according to the JSC and RPWC cut point models. Ultrasound carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), blood pressure (BP) and fasting bloods (glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides) were obtained in a well-controlled setting. The RPWC male model (LR ROC AUC: 0.71, NN ROC AUC: 0.71) was practically equal to the JSC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.71, NN ROC AUC: 0.69) to predict structural vascular -disease. Similarly, the female RPWC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.84, NN ROC AUC: 0.82) and JSC model (LR ROC AUC: 0.82, NN ROC AUC: 0.81) equally predicted CIMT as surrogate marker for structural vascular disease. Odds ratios supported validity where prediction of CIMT revealed -clinical -significance, well over 1, for both the JSC and RPWC models in African males and females (OR 3.75-13.98). In conclusion, the proposed RPWC model was substantially validated utilizing linear and non-linear analyses. We therefore propose ethnic-specific WC cut points (African males, ?90 cm; -females, ?98 cm) to predict a surrogate marker for structural vascular disease. PMID:23934678

Botha, J; de Ridder, J H; Potgieter, J C; Steyn, H S; Malan, L

2013-10-01

99

Waist Circumference Is the Best Anthropometric Predictor for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine But Not Olanzapine  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (?0.50 vs. ?0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and associated cardiovascular disease. PMID:19625881

Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

2010-01-01

100

Is waist circumference a better predictor of blood pressure, insulin resistance and blood lipids than body mass index in young Chilean adults?  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that waist circumference (WC) is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index (BMI), although the findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to assess which measurement, BMI or WC, is more strongly associated with blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) and blood lipids in young Chilean adults. Methods 999 subjects aged 22 to 28?years were randomly selected from a registry of individuals born between 1974 and 1978 at the Hospital of Limache, Chile. Weight, height, WC, blood pressure, HOMA and lipoproteins were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Results In multivariable regressions BMI and WC were associated with blood pressure, HOMA and lipoproteins at similar level of explained variation (R2 between 1.6?% for Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) and 15.6?%, the highest for HOMA and triglycerides) and similarly OR in standardised logistic regressions between 1.1 (95?% CI: 0.9 and 1.4) for LDL and 2.9 (95?% CI: 2.4 and 3.4) for elevated HOMA. When both WC and BMI were included in the model collinearity was high and only for HOMA was there a small independent contribution of each index (R2?=?1?%); for other outcomes the pattern was inconsistent. Conclusion The strength of the associations of WC and BMI for any cardiovascular risk factors was similar, but highest for HOMA and triglycerides. WC and BMI are equally useful for monitoring the consequences of obesity in young adults. PMID:22882972

2012-01-01

101

Usefulness of Measuring Both Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for the Estimation of Visceral Adiposity and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Profile (from the INSPIRE ME IAA Study).  

PubMed

Despite its well-documented relation with visceral adiposity (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk (CMR), whether waist circumference (WC) should be measured in addition to body mass index (BMI) remains debated. This study tested the relevance of adding WC to BMI for the estimation of VAT and CMR. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship with Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4,504 patients (29 countries). Both BMI and WC were measured, whereas VAT and liver fat were assessed by computed tomography. A composite CMR score was calculated. From the 4,109 patients included in the present analyses (20 ? BMI < 40 kg/m(2), 47% women), about 30% displayed discordant values for WC and BMI quintiles, despite a strong correlation between the 2 anthropometric variables (r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for men and women, respectively, p <0.001). Within each single BMI unit, VAT and WC showed substantial variability between subjects (mean difference between 90th and 10th percentiles: 175 cm(2)/16 cm and 137 cm(2)/18 cm for VAT/WC in men and women, respectively). Within each BMI category, increasing gender-specific WC tertiles were associated with significantly higher VAT, liver fat, and with a more adverse CMR profile. In conclusion, this large international cardiometabolic study highlights the frequent discordance between BMI and WC, driven by the substantial variability in VAT for a given BMI. Within each BMI category, WC was cross-sectionally associated with VAT, liver fat, and CMR factors. Thus, WC allows a further refinement of the CMR related to any given BMI. PMID:25499404

Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Borel, Anne-Laure; Aschner, Pablo; Barter, Phil; Van Gaal, Luc; Tan, Chee Eng; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ross, Robert; Brulle-Wohlhueter, Claire; Alméras, Natalie; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Després, Jean-Pierre

2015-02-01

102

Changes in epidemiologic associations with different exposure metrics: a case study of phthalate exposure associations with body mass index and waist circumference.  

PubMed

The use of human biomonitoring data to characterize exposure to environmental contaminants in epidemiology studies has expanded greatly in recent years. Substantial variability in effect measures may arise when using different exposure metrics for a given contaminant, and it is often not clear which metric is the best surrogate for the 'causal' or 'true' exposure. Here we evaluated variability and potential bias in epidemiologic associations resulting from the use of different phthalate exposure metrics in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We examined associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and the outcomes of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We examined each of the following NHANES-derived exposure metrics for metabolites of individual phthalates: molar excretion rate (nmol/min), molar amount (nmol), molar concentration (nmol/mL, with and without additional model adjustment for creatinine), creatinine corrected molar concentration (nmol/g creatinine), and reconstructed daily phthalate intake (nmol/kg/day). In order to investigate potential biasing effect of each metric, we first assumed that daily intake of the parent phthalate is the causal exposure. We then constructed a simulated population based on the 2009-2010 NHANES, and randomly assigned each individual a di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) intake dose based on a published distribution, but independent of any other factor. Accordingly, all associations between these randomly assigned intake doses and individuals' BMI and WC should be null. Next, demographic data in the NHANES were incorporated into a pharmacokinetic model to predict urinary molar excretions of five DEHP metabolites based on the randomly assigned DEHP intake. The predicted molar excretions were then used to calculate the same exposure metrics listed above. Three exposure metrics (randomly generated intake, excretion rate, urine concentration) showed no significant associations with BMI, which supports the null hypothesis stated above. In contrast, metrics adjusted for creatinine showed a significant negative correlation, and reconstructed daily intake showed a significant positive correlation, indicating the introduction of bias away from the true (i.e., null) association. Interestingly, trends in the simulation analysis were similar to those seen in the observed NHANES data. Our findings show that, at least in this example case, the choice of exposure metric can introduce significant bias of varying magnitude and direction into the calculation of epidemiologic associations. PMID:25090576

Christensen, Krista; Sobus, Jon; Phillips, Martin; Blessinger, Todd; Lorber, Matthew; Tan, Yu-Mei

2014-12-01

103

Population Distribution of the Sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) from a Representative Sample of US Adults: Comparison of SAD, Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index for Identifying Dysglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD’s distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia. Methods and Findings In the 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured (“abdominal height”) between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ?20; response rate 88%) we used sample weights to estimate SAD’s population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD’s population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2–22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6–22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ?5.7%). For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1) and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1) remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted) was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001) and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001). Conclusions Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity. PMID:25272003

Kahn, Henry S.; Gu, Qiuping; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Freedman, David S.; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Ogden, Cynthia L.

2014-01-01

104

Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002  

PubMed Central

Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP), mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP), mono-n-butyl (MBP), and mono-benzyl (MBzP) phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP) phthalate (2001–2002). Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002), and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03), and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02) and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02). There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different biologic and hormonal effects. Although our study has limitations, both of these factors could explain some of the variation in the observed associations. These preliminary data support the need for prospective studies in populations at risk for obesity. PMID:18522739

Hatch, Elizabeth E; Nelson, Jessica W; Qureshi, M Mustafa; Weinberg, Janice; Moore, Lynn L; Singer, Martha; Webster, Thomas F

2008-01-01

105

Interpreting Z-scores: A Z-score tells us "how many standard deviations above/below2 mean." Every time you obtain a Z-score, interpret it. Use "above" or "below" in your phrasing.  

E-print Network

Z-Scores1 Exercises Interpreting Z-scores: A Z-score tells us "how many standard deviations above/below2 the mean." Every time you obtain a Z-score, interpret it. Use "above" or "below" in your phrasing-scores are also referred to as "standardized values." 2 Negative Z-scores go with data below the mean. #12

Preston, Scott

106

Larger Thigh and Hip Circumferences Are Associated with Better Glucose Tolerance: The Hoorn Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A higher waist-to-hip ratio, which can be due to a higher waist circumference, a lower hip circumference, or both, is associated with higher glucose levels and incident diabetes. A lower hip circumference could reflect either lower fat mass or lower muscle mass. Muscle mass might be better reflected by thigh circumference. The aim of this study was to investigate

Marieke B. Snijder; Jacqueline M. Dekker; Marjolein Visser; John S. Yudkin; Coen D. A. Stehouwer; Lex M. Bouter; Robert J. Heine; Giel Nijpels; Jacob C. Seidell

2003-01-01

107

1317 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany Poster abstracts The relationship between abdominal circumference and  

E-print Network

circumference and middle cerebral artery Doppler z-scores in severe early onset fetal growth restriction A. J index (PI) and abdominal circumference (AC) in babies with severe early onset fetal growth restriction included. Serial MCA Doppler and abdominal circumference measurements were performed to delivery

108

Head circumference  

MedlinePLUS

... a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months) -- based on values experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

109

Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

2003-01-01

110

Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16 587 US men1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although it is known that abdominal obesity increases the risk of chronic diseases, prospective data examining the relation between lifestyle factors and the accumulation of abdominal adipose tissue are sparse. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the asso- ciations of changes in diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y waist gain among US men.

Pauline Koh-Banerjee; Nain-Feng Chu; Donna Spiegelman; Bernard Rosner; Graham Colditz; Walter Willett; Eric Rimm

111

Head, Shoulders...Waist-to-Hips? A Study on Body Shape Preference in Infancy.  

E-print Network

by measuring the ratio of the circumference of the waist (the narrowest region below the ribs) to the circumference of the hips (the largest protruded region around the buttocks). Some research has suggested that male preferences for female WHRs may have...., Colditz, G. A., Hunter, D. J., Manson, J. E., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. E., & Hankinson, S. E. (1999). Waist circumference, waist: hip ratio, and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150(12), 1316...

Hawkins, Laura Bess

2014-04-24

112

Neck Circumference and Cardio- Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Only few studies about neck circumference (NC) as a measure of cardio metabolic syndrome available from India. Study was conducted to establish an association between neck circumference and cardio metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. NCEP: ATPIII 2001 guideline was used for diagnosis of Cardio-metabolic syndrome among subjects. Neck circumference was measured and it was correlated with Cardio-metabolic syndrome. Results: Mean neck circumference was found to be 36.5 cms. Cardio-metabolic syndrome was present in 272 participants, of which 100 were females and 172 males. Among females 82(82%) had neck circumference >34cms, 18(18%) had <34cms and among males 117(68%)had NC >37cms and 55(32%) had NC<37cms. All individual parameter of cardio metabolic risk factor, i.e., BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, FBS, HDL & TG except waist/hip ratio were correlating with abnormal neck circumference when compared with those with normal neck circumference. Conclusion: Neck circumference with metabolic syndrome correlated better among females than males. Men with NC >37 cm and women with NC >34 cm are more prone for cardio metabolic syndrome and require additional evaluation. Measurement of NC is a simple, time saving, and least invasive measurement tool. PMID:25177592

Kumar, Nagendran Vijaya; Ismail, Mohammed H.; M, Girish; Tripathy, Monica

2014-01-01

113

Z-score-based modularity for community detection in networks  

E-print Network

Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan [Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)] is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given division with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function.

Miyauchi, Atsushi

2015-01-01

114

Larger Hip Circumference Independently Predicts Health and Longevity in a Swedish Female Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The waist circumference is widely viewed as a simple but effective measure for assessing obesity-related health risks, whereas measurement of the hip circumference is not currently prioritized. This study examines health risks associated specifically with hip circumference in a cohort of Swedish women, to determine whether information may be lost by excluding the hip circumference from health surveys.Research Methods

Lauren Lissner; Cecilia Björkelund; Berit L. Heitmann; Jaap C. Seidell; Calle Bengtsson

2001-01-01

115

Calf circumference is inversely associated with carotid plaques Stphanie Debette MD, Nathalie Leone MD, Dominique Courbon PhD, Jrme Garipy MD, Christophe  

E-print Network

1 Calf circumference is inversely associated with carotid plaques Stéphanie Debette MD, Nathalie of carotid plaques and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) with calf circumference (CC), representing peripheral fat and lean mass, and with waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Bias Related to Body Mass Index in Pediatric Echocardiographic Z Scores.  

PubMed

In pediatric echocardiography, cardiac dimensions are often normalized for weight, height, or body surface area (BSA). The combined influence of height and weight on cardiac size is complex and likely varies with age. We hypothesized that increasing weight for height, as represented by body mass index (BMI) adjusted for age, is poorly accounted for in Z scores normalized for weight, height, or BSA. We aimed to evaluate whether a bias related to BMI was introduced when proximal aorta diameter Z scores are derived from bivariate models (only one normalizing variable), and whether such a bias was reduced when multivariable models are used. We analyzed 1,422 echocardiograms read as normal in children ?18 years. We computed Z scores of the proximal aorta using allometric, polynomial, and multivariable models with four body size variables. We then assessed the level of residual association of Z scores and BMI adjusted for age and sex. In children ?6 years, we found a significant residual linear association with BMI-for-age and Z scores for most regression models. Only a multivariable model including weight and height as independent predictors produced a Z score free of linear association with BMI. We concluded that a bias related to BMI was present in Z scores of proximal aorta diameter when normalization was done using bivariate models, regardless of the regression model or the normalizing variable. The use of multivariable models with weight and height as independent predictors should be explored to reduce this potential pitfall when pediatric echocardiography reference values are evaluated. PMID:25388631

Dallaire, Frederic; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Prsa, Milan; Dahdah, Nagib

2014-11-12

117

Adipose Tissue Characteristics Related to Weight Z-Score in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity has grown very fast over recent decades and now it represents a serious public health problem. The number of adipocytes is set in childhood and adolescence and then, an effective understanding of the development of adipose tissue during these periods will help in the prevention of this pathology. Objectives The current study aimed to determine which adipose tissue characteristics are related to a high weight Z-score in childhood. Patients and Methods The current study included 82 children aged 5-130 months who underwent inguinal hernia surgery. Anthropometric variables were measured, and a nutritional and physical activity questionnaire was completed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples, taken during the operation, were analyzed for preadipocyte number, adipocyte volume, fatty acid composition (gas chromatography of FAME), and relative gene expression of various genes (real time PCR). Results The results showed that children with a higher weight Z-score spend more time in sedentary activities and less time running or involved in active games. SCD-1 activity index, arachidonic/linoleic index, and adipocyte volume were significantly higher in children with a weight Z-score greater than 0. The preadipocyte number and the genetic expression of the studied genes did not differ between the groups. A multiple regression analysis was done to determine which variables were related to the weight Z-score. R2 values indicated that the model which included adipocyte volume, SREBP-1c, SCD-1 expression, and activity index, predicted 59% of the variability in the weight Z-score among the children. The main variables associated with adipocyte volume were PPAR?, Adiponectin, CB1R expressions, as well as the SCD-1 activity and normalized weight. Conclusions It was concluded that in childhood, the weight Z-score is related to adipocyte volume and adipose tissue gene expression. PMID:23825978

Haro-Mora, Juan Jesus; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Porras, Nuria; Alcazar, Dolores; Gaztambide, Joaquin; Ruiz-Orpez, Antonio; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan M.; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo; Lopez-Siguero, Juan P; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma

2013-01-01

118

Waist Circumference and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Prepubertal Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Intra-abdominal fat has been identified as being the most clinically relevant type of fat in humans. Therefore, an assessment of body-fat distribution could possibly identify subjects with the highest risk of adverse lipid profile and hypertension. Few data on the relationship between body-fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors are available in children, especially before puberty.Research Methods and Procedures: This

Claudio Maffeis; Angelo Pietrobelli; Alessandra Grezzani; Silvia Provera; Luciano Tatò

2001-01-01

119

Body circumferences: clinical implications emerging from a new geometric model  

PubMed Central

Background Body volume expands with the positive energy balance associated with the development of adult human obesity and this "growth" is captured by two widely used clinical metrics, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). Empirical correlations between circumferences, BMI, and related body compartments are frequently reported but fail to provide an important common conceptual foundation that can be related to key clinical observations. A two-phase program was designed to fill this important gap: a geometric model linking body volume with circumferences and BMI was developed and validated in cross-sectional cohorts; and the model was applied to the evaluation of longitudinally monitored subjects during periods of voluntary weight loss. Concepts emerging from the developed model were then used to examine the relations between the evaluated clinical measures and body composition. Methods Two groups of healthy adults (n = 494 and 1499) were included in the cross-sectional model development/testing phase and subjects in two previous weight loss studies were included in the longitudinal model evaluation phase. Five circumferences (arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf; average of sum, C), height (H), BMI, body volume (V; underwater weighing), and the volumes of major body compartments (whole-body magnetic resonance imaging) were measured. Results The evaluation of a humanoid geometric model based a cylinder confirmed that V derived from C and H was highly correlated with measured V [R2 both males and females, 0.97; p < 0.001). Developed allometric models confirmed model predictions that C and BMI (represented as V/H) are directly linked as, C = (V/H)0.5. The scaling of individual circumferences to V/H varied, with waist the highest (V/H~0.6) and calf the lowest (V/H~0.3), indicating that the largest and smallest between-subject "growth" with greater body volume occurs in the abdominal area and lower extremities, respectively. A stepwise linear regression model including all five circumferences2 showed that each contributed independently to V/H. These cross-sectional observations were generally confirmed by analysis of the two longitudinal weight loss studies. The scaling of circumference ratios (e.g., waist/hip) to V/H conformed to models developed on the scaling of individual circumferences to V/H, indicating their relations to BMI are predictable a priori. Waist, hip, and arm/calf circumferences had the highest associations with whole-body visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle volumes, respectively. Conclusion These observations provide a simple geometric model relating circumferences with body size and composition, introduce a conceptual foundation explaining previous empirical observations, and reveal new clinical insights. PMID:18834550

Heymsfield, Steven B; Martin-Nguyen, Allison; Fong, Tung M; Gallagher, Dympna; Pietrobelli, Angelo

2008-01-01

120

Z-Score Linear Discriminant Analysis for EEG Based Brain-Computer Interfaces  

PubMed Central

Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA), which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy. PMID:24058565

Zhang, Rui; Xu, Peng; Guo, Lanjin; Zhang, Yangsong; Li, Peiyang; Yao, Dezhong

2013-01-01

121

Neurofeedback for Insomnia: A Pilot Study of Z Score SMR and Individualized Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness\\u000a for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually\\u000a designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols

Barbara U. HammerAgatha; Agatha P. Colbert; Kimberly A. Brown; Elena C. Ilioi

122

Circumference and Arc Length  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will introduce you to circumference of a circle, and how to find the measurement of the edge of a piece of pizza! (Arc length!) Ok. Let's make sure you remember circumference of a circle, you know, the distance around a circle? Click on the following link and take notes! Circle Circumference Now we can use that to find the arc length, or the length of the crust part of the edge of a pizza! Take notes: Arcs in Circles Now, let's ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-24

123

Normative bone mineral density z-scores for Canadians aged 16 to 24 years: the Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to develop bone mineral density (BMD) reference norms and BMD Z-scores at various skeletal sites, to determine whether prior fracture and/or asthma were related to BMD, and to assess possible geographic variation of BMD among Canadian youth aged 16-24 yr. Z-Scores were defined as the number of standard deviations from the mean BMD of a healthy population of the same age, race, and sex. Z-Scores were calculated using the reference sample defined as Canadian Caucasian participants without asthma or prior fracture. Reference standards were created for lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total hip, and greater trochanter, by each year of age (16-24 yr), and by sex. The Z-score norms were developed for groups noted earlier. Mean Z-scores between the asthma or fracture subgroups compared with the mean Z-scores in the reference sample were not different. There were minor differences in mean BMD across different Canadian geographic regions. This study provides age, sex, and skeletal site-specific Caucasian reference norms and formulae for the calculation of BMD Z-scores for Canadian youth aged 16-24 yr. This information will be valuable to help to identify individuals with clinically meaningful low BMD. PMID:20554232

Zhou, Wei; Langsetmo, Lisa; Berger, Claudie; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ioannidis, George; Webber, Colin; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Brown, Jacques P; Hanley, David A; Josse, Robert; Kreiger, Nancy; Prior, Jerilynn; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kirkland, Susan; Goltzman, David; Davison, Kenneth Shawn

2010-01-01

124

Where is the human waist? Definitions, manual compared toscanner measurements.  

PubMed

Where exactly is the human waist? How do definitions work for women who deviate from the conventional body shape? Does the measuring instrument matter? Waist is conventionally understood to be a measurable zone within the abdominal region of the torso, a zone of considerable importance. There needs to be a good consistent waist definition, one accurate and valid for everyone. Incorrect definition and measurement will result in technical errors, commercial wastage and customer dissatisfaction. This paper investigates the waist's location and size from the point of view of garment construction for 90 adult women scanned and manually measured in a breast reduction study at Flinders Medical Center, South Australia. There are differing definitions of the location of the human waist as well as different measuring instruments. This study compares:• Two definitions:• ISO 8559, 2.1.11 and • CAESAR, Waist Circumference Preferred.• Two different instruments:• the traditional tape measure, and • software-extracted computer-aided anthropometry (CAA). Substantial discrepancies between the results from these two locations-definitions were found. The choice of instrument used seriously affects the measurement obtained. This study demonstrates three things:• waist is not horizontal for a significant sub group of the population,• CAA extracted waist measurements are not accurate (same as real values) or valid (measures the characteristic) for a sub group, and • manually measured CAESAR Preferred Waist accurately and validly measured all individuals studied. There is a clear need to modify ISO waist definition for garment construction to include the full range of anatomical variation encountered amongst women. PMID:22317337

Veitch, Daisy

2012-01-01

125

Increased head circumference  

MedlinePLUS

Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the widest part of the skull is larger than expected for the ... increased intracranial pressure ) often occurs with increased head ... Symptoms of this condition include: Eyes moving downward ...

126

Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z-scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment  

SciTech Connect

Z-scores express, differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determined z-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males, z-scores were calculated for age, but in the females z-scores for menopausal status (years postmenopausal exclusive of years on estrogen treatment) were found to be more appropriate. With few exceptions, changes in a disease were of a similar order in both sexes. For bone minerals mass few mean z-scores were significantly increased, but diseases with significantly decreased mean z-scores were numerous. The usefulness of z-scores in diagnosis and study of metabolic bone disease is discussed.

Meema, S.; Meema, H.E.

1982-08-01

127

Characteristics of Walkable Built Environments and BMI z-Scores in Children: Evidence from a Large Electronic Health Record Database  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood obesity remains a prominent public health problem. Walkable built environments may prevent excess weight gain. Objectives: We examined the association of walkable built environment characteristics with body mass index (BMI) z-score among a large sample of children and adolescents. Methods: We used geocoded residential address data from electronic health records of 49,770 children and adolescents 4 to < 19 years of age seen at the 14 pediatric practices of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates from August 2011 through August 2012. We used eight geographic information system (GIS) variables to characterize walkable built environments. Outcomes were BMI z-score at the most recent visit and BMI z-score change from the earliest available (2008–2011) to the most recent (2011–2012) visit. Multivariable models were adjusted for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood median household income. Results: In multivariable cross-sectional models, living in closer proximity to recreational open space was associated with lower BMI z-score. For example, children who lived in closest proximity (quartile 1) to the nearest recreational open space had a lower BMI z-score (? = –0.06; 95% CI: –0.08, –0.03) compared with those living farthest away (quartile 4; reference). Living in neighborhoods with fewer recreational open spaces and less residential density, traffic density, sidewalk completeness, and intersection density were associated with higher cross-sectional BMI z-score and with an increase in BMI z-score over time. Conclusions: Overall, built environment characteristics that may increase walkability were associated with lower BMI z-scores in a large sample of children. Modifying existing built environments to make them more walkable may reduce childhood obesity. Citation: Duncan DT, Sharifi M, Melly SJ, Marshall R, Sequist TD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM. 2014. Characteristics of walkable built environments and BMI z-scores in children: evidence from a large electronic health record database. Environ Health Perspect 122:1359–1365;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307704 PMID:25248212

Sharifi, Mona; Melly, Steven J.; Marshall, Richard; Sequist, Thomas D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

2014-01-01

128

Changes in Body Mass Index Z Score Over the Course of the Academic Year Among Children Attending Head Start  

PubMed Central

Objective We tested the hypothesis that among 3- to 5-year-old children attending Head Start, body mass index z score will decline during the academic year and increase during the summer. Methods We used retrospective longitudinal growth data collected over 5 academic years from 1914 children (51% boys, 62% white) enrolled in a Michigan Head Start program. Changes in body mass index (BMI) z score, calculated as annual rate of change, during 2 academic years and the intervening summer were assessed by piecewise linear regression analysis. Potential covariates were gender, single-parent status, program year, race/ethnicity, age at initial enrollment, and family income (divided by household size). Results Mean BMI z score at the start of Head Start enrollment was 0.52 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.39 to 0.65). Mean annual rates of BMI z score change were: ?0.07 (95% CI ?0.28 to 0.14) during the first year of enrollment, 0.62 (95% CI ?0.0005 to 1.23) over the summer, and ?0.82 (95% CI ?1.50 to ?0.13) during the second year of enrollment. The effect was most robust among girls of minority race/ethnicity. Conclusions Head Start is associated with a shifting of BMI z scores toward the norm among low-income preschool-aged children, particularly among girls of minority race/ethnicity. PMID:20399173

Lumeng, Julie C.; Kaciroti, Niko; Frisvold, David E.

2014-01-01

129

Centiles for adult head circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference range for head circumference on the Tanner charts do not go beyond age 16. In this study the head circumference and heights of 354 adults in two British centres were measured. The centile charts constructed from these measurements show that adult head circumference is related to height. The mean head circumference of a male of average height is above

K M Bushby; T Cole; J N Matthews; J A Goodship

1992-01-01

130

The reliability of weight-for-length/height Z scores in children  

PubMed Central

The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends weight-for-length/height (WFL/H), represented as a Z score for diagnosing acute malnutrition among children aged 0 to 60 months. Under controlled conditions, weight, height and length measurements have high degree of reliability. However, the reliability when combined into a WFL/H Z score, in all settings is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of published studies assessing the reliability of WFL/Hz on PubMed and Google scholar. Studies were included if they presented reliability scores for the derived index of WFL/Hz, for children under 5 years. Meta-analysis was conducted for a pooled estimate of reliability overall, and for children above and below 24 months old. Twenty six studies on reliability of anthropometry were identified but only three, all community-based studies, reported reliability scores for WFL/Hz. The overall pooled intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) estimate for WFL/Hz among children aged 0 to 60 months was 0.81 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.99). Among children aged less than 24 months the pooled ICC estimate from two studies was 0.72 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.77) while the estimate reported for children above 24 months from one study was 0.97 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Although WFL/Hz is recommended for diagnosis of acute under nutrition among children below 5 years, information on its reliability in all settings is sparse. In community settings, reliability of WFL/Hz is considerably lower than for absolute measures of weight and length/height, especially in younger children. The reliability of WFL/Hz needs further evaluation. PMID:24785183

Mwangome, Martha K; Berkley, James A

2014-01-01

131

Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Unhealthy Body Change in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in unhealthy body change was examined in a sample of 143 women university students. They\\u000a completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), reported their level of concern with weight and with WHR,\\u000a and used unmarked measuring tapes to record their subjective (self-perceived), ideal, and objective (measured) waist and hip circumference.\\u000a Although body shape was reported

Alexander J. Mussap

2007-01-01

132

Head circumference charts updated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head circumference measurements from birth to 7 years, obtained from longitudinal data on children born between 1970 and 1977, are set against those from studies made in the United Kingdom earlier this century. A positive secular trend is shown. The children's heads were significantly larger than those born in the same locality 25 years earlier. Growth charts should be updated,

M Ounsted; V A Moar; A Scott

1985-01-01

133

WHAT IS THE BEST MEASURE OF ADIPOSITY CHANGE IN GROWING CHILDREN: BMI, BMI %, BMI Z-SCORE OR BMI CENTILE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background: Weight control programs for obese children monitor change in body mass index (BMI) adjusted for age. However change can be measured,in several ways: raw (kg\\/m 2 ) units, percentage, z-scores or centiles. The suitability of the different measures is not known.

Tim J. Cole; Myles S. Faith; Angelo Pietrobelli; Moonseong Heo

134

Measuring Large Circumferences More Precisely  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optoelectromechanical gauge measures circumference of large object with resolution of 10 to the negative 4th power inches. Measuring wheel held by spring against cylindrical surface to be measured. Laser reader detects code marks on side of wheel. Marks indicate distance traveled around circumference. Measures inside or outside circumference. Also measures distance between two marks on edge of plate or along beam or track.

Moore, Louis E.; Rogers, Ernest E.

1992-01-01

135

What is the best measure of adiposity change in growing children: BMI, BMI %, BMI z-score or BMI centile?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Weight control programs for obese children monitor change in body mass index (BMI) adjusted for age. However, change can be measured in several ways: raw (kg\\/m2) units, percentage, z-scores or centiles. The suitability of the different measures is not known.Aim:To identify the optimal BMI measure for change, whose short-term variability is most consistent for children across the spectrum of adiposity.Setting:An

T J Cole; M S Faith; A Pietrobelli; M Heo

2005-01-01

136

Food purchased away from home as a predictor of change in BMI z-score among girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between eating food purchased away from home (FAH) and longitudinal change in body mass index (BMI) z-score among girls, and to assess the longitudinal tracking of eating FAH from childhood through adolescence.DESIGN: Participants kept 7-day dietary records at two points in time. The records included the place and time for all foods consumed. We recorded

O M Thompson; C Ballew; K Resnicow; A Must; L G Bandini; H Cyr; W H Dietz

2004-01-01

137

Defining the relationship between fetal Doppler indices, abdominal circumference and growth rate in severe fetal growth restriction using functional linear discriminant analysis  

PubMed Central

The relationship between Doppler measurements, size and growth rate in fetal growth restriction has not been defined. We used functional linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) to investigate these parameters taking account of the difficulties inherent in exploring relationships between repeated observations from a small number of cases. In 40 fetuses with severe growth restriction, serial abdominal circumference (AC), umbilical, middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus Doppler pulsatility index measurements were recorded. In 11 singleton fetuses with normal growth, umbilical artery pulsatility index only was measured. Data were expressed as z-scores in relation to gestation and analysed longitudinally using FLDA. In severe growth restriction, the Spearman correlation coefficients between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC z-score, MCA pulsatility index and AC z-score and ductus venosus pulsatility index z-score and AC z-score were, respectively: ?0.36, p = 4.4 × 10?7; 0.70, p = 1.1 × 10?17 and ?0.50, p = 8.1 × 10?4. No relationship was seen between Doppler parameters and growth rate. There was no relationship between umbilical artery pulsatility index and AC nor growth rate in normally grown fetuses. In severe fetal growth restriction, Doppler changes are related to absolute fetal AC size, not growth rate. PMID:23966615

Talmor, Alon; Daemen, Anneleen; Murdoch, Edile; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Giussani, Dino A.; Lees, Christoph

2013-01-01

138

Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z -scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Z-scores express differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determinedz-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males,z-scores were calculated for age, but in the femalesz-scores for menopausal

Silvia Meema; H. Erik Meema

1982-01-01

139

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in a young Iranian population  

PubMed Central

Background: Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is considered the gold standard for non-invasive measurement of bone mass. T-scores and Z-scores are used to present the results of bone mass. The present study was designed to evaluate the discordance between T-scores and Z-scores calculated at a same level and its relation with age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of normal population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive survey, Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS), designed to assess bone health among healthy adults. Each individual underwent both L1–L4 antero-posterior lumbar spine and hip DXA scan. The difference between the T- and Z-scores measured at each of the four skeletal sites was then calculated. Results: A -1.21 to 1.21 point difference was noted in the Z- and T- scores measured at each site. While the difference between the T-and Z-scores was less than 0.5 SD in most of the cases, the difference was higher than 1 SD in about 5% of the subjects. Conclusion: Standardization of Z-score definition and calculation techniques as well as developing an ethnicity-matched reference population is needed to improve the reliability of DXA-generated Z-scores.

Heidari, Behnam; Khashayar, Patricia; Rezai Homami, Mohsen; Pajouhi, Atieh; Soltani, Akbar; Larijani, Bagher

2014-01-01

140

Hypertriglyceridemic Waist and Metabolic Abnormalities in Brazilian Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and its association with metabolic abnormalities in schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 241 students aged 10 to 14 years from public schools (4 schools) and private (2 schools) from Paranavai town, in Parana State, Brazil. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference) and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL and LDL-C were analyzed. In statistical tests of Pearson partial correlation and multivariate logistic regression, considering p<0,05. Results The prevalence of HTW was 20,7% among schoolchildren, 14,1% in males and 6,6% among females with higher proportions aged 10–12 years old. Multivariate analysis indicated that the students who attended private schools were nearly three times more likely (95% CI: 1,2–5,6), to be diagnosed with HTW compared with those who attended public schools (p?=?0,006), and LDL-C was the only metabolic variable positively associated with the outcome (p?=?0,001), where the students categorized with elevated serum levels had odds 4,2 times (95% CI: 1,6–10,9) having the HTW compared to students in appropriate levels. Conclusion This study showed higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in students when compared to prospective studies in Brazil and worldwide. It also showed that the only metabolic alteration associated with HTW phenotype was LDL-C (low density lipoprotein). PMID:25397885

Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Rinaldi, Wilson

2014-01-01

141

Pattern Alteration: Even Hip Circumference  

E-print Network

Even Hip Circumference Extension Family Development and Resource Management Specialists B Pattern Alteration E-386 05-06 efore attempting this alteration, review Extension publications E-372, Principles of Pattern Alteration, and E-373, Personal... Measurement Chart, for basic instruc- tions. Even Hip Circumference shows how to alter garments to fi t a fi gure with even hips. If only certain areas of the gar- ment are tight or loose, you may need different instructions. Review E-374, Back Hip Fullness...

2006-08-04

142

Laboratory assessment by combined z score values in proficiency tests: experience gained through the European Union proficiency tests for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The obligation for accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency tests under ISO 17025, performing multiresidue methods (MRMs) for pesticide residues, involves the reporting of a large number of individual z scores making the evaluation of the overall performance of the laboratories difficult. It entails, time and again, the need for ways to summarise the laboratory's overall assessment into a unique combined index. In addition, the need for ways to continually evaluate the performance of the laboratory over the years is equally acknowledged. For these reasons, following 14 years of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables (EUPT-FV), useful formulas have been designed to globally evaluate the assessment of the participating laboratories. The aim is to achieve a formula which is easy to understand, which can be applied and which fits the purposes of long-term evaluation detecting positive and negative trends. Moreover, consideration is needed for a fair compensation of bad results in MRM, taking into account the large number of compounds that are covered. It is therefore important to be aware of the difficulties in getting satisfactory values from a wide range of compounds. This work presents an evaluation of the main well-established combined z score formulas together with those new ones developed here which have been applied to the European proficiency test results (EUPTs) over the years. Previous formulas such as the rescaled sum of z score (RSZ), the sum squared of z score (SSZ) and the relative laboratory performance (RLP) are compared with the newer ones: the sum of weighted z scores (SWZ) and the sum of squared z scores (SZ2). By means of formula comparisons, conclusions on the advantages, drawbacks and the most fit-for-purpose approach are achieved. PMID:20571782

Medina-Pastor, P; Mezcua, M; Rodríguez-Torreblanca, C; Fernández-Alba, A R

2010-08-01

143

The superiority of waist-to-height ratio as an anthropometric index to evaluate clustering of coronary risk factors among non-obese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds. Overtly obesity is relatively rare among the Japanese despite the high prevalence of metabolic disorders, which suggests the need to develop simple and effective methods for assessing metabolic risks among the non-obese individuals as part of public health education.Methods. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (W\\/Ht) as indices for evaluation of clustering of coronary

Shiun Dong Hsieh; Takashi Muto

2005-01-01

144

Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

145

Diagnostic Accuracy of Waist circumference in detecting metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.  

E-print Network

??Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of clinical features that increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in individuals. Up-to-date, there is no cheap, single surrogate… (more)

Chanda, Humphrey

2011-01-01

146

Waist Circumference Is Strongly Associated with Renal Resistive Index in Normoalbuminuric Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Anthropometric parameters may play a role in modulating the risk of kidney dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether anthropometric indices and the metabolic syndrome are associated with alterations of the renal resistive index (RI) in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. Methods: A sample of 99 consecutively recruited patients with T2DM (76 male and 23

Olga Lamacchia; Vincenzo Nicastro; Donatella Camarchio; Giovanni Stallone; Loreto Gesualdo; Mauro Cignarelli

2008-01-01

147

Circumference  

E-print Network

themselves in his mind. Heard the rustiness ofhis voice, so unused to speaking of such things, to making him-self seen. ?I was the white boy.?Could feel Ray?s curiosity over that.?I was brought up in small villages. Native villages.??Got it. So you were... with sex scenes unless theyare absolutely right for the characters in thatsituation. ?Caroline K. Carbis, Editor C4 O5 Aurora(Phantom Menace: Q/O)42 Identikit(Due South: F/K)95 Padawan Talks(Phantom Menace: Q/O)101 Status Quo(X-Files: Sk/M)163 The Lie...

Glasgow, M.F.

2001-01-01

148

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. Results In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. Conclusions We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive abilities of waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference on the metabolic disease. PMID:22905246

Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, María-Isabel; Arós, Fernando; Wärnberg, Julia; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Díaz-López, Andrés; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

2012-01-01

149

Waist-to-height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 years  

PubMed Central

The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents. However, the simple waist-to-height ratio retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to over- or under-adjust for the effect of height at certain ages. We investigated the dependence of waist-to-height ratio on height in the representative US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. We stratified 11 270 subjects aged 2–18 years by age and sex. There was considerable residual correlation between height and the waist-to-height ratio, ranging from ?0.29 to 0.36. Thus, simply dividing waist circumference by height (WC/Ht1) might not be appropriate to “adjust for height” during periods of growth. We fitted a log-log regression of waist circumference on height to determine which exponent for height ensures that the log of the ratio is uncorrelated with the log of height, which we call the optimal exponent for WC/Htp. This optimal power for height in the age- and sex-specific waist-to-height ratio varies from 0.5 to 2.0, with similar patterns for males and females. The value peaks at age 8, and is close to 1 at age 18. Future research should investigate how this affects relationships between central adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk factors across these ages, and how using a power other than 1 might reduce bias and improve precision. PMID:18608638

TYBOR, DAVID J.; LICHTENSTEIN, ALICE H.; DALLAL, GERARD E.; MUST, AVIVA

2009-01-01

150

Usefulness of a Z-score of E' versus raw E' velocities to detect left ventricular dysfunction in patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation or dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Despite their potential as a sensitive measure of ventricular performance, tissue Doppler velocities vary with normal aging. This is inconvenient for nonspecialists to interpret and makes it difficult to use as an entry criterion for clinical studies. The age-adjusted tissue Doppler Z-scores might avoid these disadvantages and be more discriminant for myocardial impairment than the raw velocities. We conducted a meta-regression of studies reporting age-specific normal tissue Doppler velocities to determine a consensus formula for Z-scores (8 studies, 1,867 patients) that we then tested in an independent study at our institution. We next compared the Z-scores head-to-head with the raw velocities for their ability to distinguish a fresh set of 81 healthy subjects from groups in whom subtle ventricular dysfunction might be expected, including 50 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, 50 with aortic regurgitation, and 50 with mitral regurgitation. The discriminant capacity, assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, was higher for the Z-scores than for the raw velocities in each patient group. At the septal angle of the mitral annulus: dilated cardiomyopathy 0.95 versus 0.92 (p = 0.03), aortic regurgitation 0.83 versus 0.78 (p = 0.02), mitral regurgitation 0.85 versus 0.81 (p = 0.04). At the lateral angle: dilated cardiomyopathy 0.94 versus 0.88 (p = 0.005), aortic regurgitation 0.92 versus 0.83 (p = 0.001), mitral regurgitation 0.87 versus 0.85 (p = 0.31). In conclusion, the Z-scores of the tissue Doppler velocities were better than the raw velocities at detecting myocardial impairment in valvular or heart muscle disease. The calculation needs only the raw velocity and patient age. Tissue Doppler Z-scores could be used to create a novel, more sensitive, definition of ventricular dysfunction and might make it easier for nonspecialists to interpret the reports. PMID:20920662

Yadav, Hemang; Unsworth, Beth; Medlow, Katharine; Baruah, Resham; Wasan, Balvinder S; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P

2010-10-15

151

Osteoprotegerin in pregnant adolescents differs by race and is related to infant birth weight z-score  

PubMed Central

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the regulation of bone turnover, but little is known about this protein during pregnancy or among neonates. We undertook a prospective longitudinal study to identify relationships between OPG, markers of bone turnover and birth outcomes in 155 pregnant adolescents (13–18 years) and their newborns. Maternal blood samples were collected at mid-gestation and at delivery. Cord blood was obtained at delivery. Serum OPG, estradiol and markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (N-telopeptide) were assessed in all samples. Placental OPG expression was assessed in placental tissue obtained at delivery. Bone markers and OPG increased significantly from mid-gestation (26.0 ± 3.4 weeks) to delivery (39.3 ± 2.6 weeks). Neonatal OPG was significantly lower, but bone turnover markers were significantly higher than maternal values at mid-gestation and at parturition (P < 0.001). African-American adolescents had higher concentrations of OPG than Caucasian adolescents at mid-gestation (P = 0.01) and delivery (P = 0.04). Gestational age and estradiol were also predictors of maternal OPG at mid-gestation and delivery. OPG concentrations in cord blood were correlated with maternal OPG concentrations and were negatively associated with infant birth weight z-score (P = 0.02) and ponderal index (P = 0.02). In conclusion, maternal OPG concentrations increased across gestation and were significantly higher than neonatal OPG concentrations. Maternal and neonatal OPG concentrations were not associated with markers of bone turnover or placental OPG expression, but neonatal OPG was inversely associated with neonatal anthropometric measures. Additional research is needed to identify roles of OPG during pregnancy. PMID:25141264

Essley, B.; McNanley, T.; Cooper, B.; McIntyre, A.; Witter, F.; Harris, Z.; O’Brien, K.

2014-01-01

152

Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

Le, Suy

1995-01-01

153

Final adult height of children with inflammatory bowel disease is predicted by parental height and patient minimum height Z-score  

PubMed Central

Background This study was designed to elucidate contribution of parental height to the stature of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), who often exhibit growth impairment. Accordingly, we compared patients' final adult heights and target heights based on measured parental heights, and examined predictors of final adult height in pediatric IBD patients. Methods We prospectively analyzed growth of 295 patients diagnosed between ages 1 and 18 (211 Crohn's disease, 84 ulcerative colitis) and their family members (283 mothers, 231 fathers, 55 siblings). Results Twenty-two percent had growth impairment (height for age Z-score <-1.64, equivalent to <5th percentile on growth curve) in more than one measurement since diagnosis; most growth-impaired patients had Crohn's disease (88% Crohn's disease vs. 12% ulcerative colitis). Parents of the growth-impaired group had lower mean height Z-scores compared to parents of non-growth impaired patients (-0.67 vs. 0.02 for mothers (p<0.001); -0.31 vs. 0.22 for fathers (p=0.002)). For 108 patients who reached adult heights and had available parental heights, the growth-impaired group continued to demonstrate lower adult height Z-scores (-1.38 vs. 0.07; p<0.001). Adult heights were within 1 SD of target heights even for the growth-impaired group. Only 11.3% remained persistently growth impaired in adulthood. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated lower parental height and minimum patient height Z-score as significant predictors of lower final adult height in IBD. Conclusions Parental height is a powerful determinant of linear growth even in the presence of chronic inflammation, and should be an integral part of the evaluation of growth in IBD children. PMID:20127995

Lee, Jessica J.; Escher, Johanna C.; Shuman, Melissa J.; Forbes, Peter W.; Delemarre, Luçan C.; Harr, Brian W.; Kruijer, Marjan; Moret, Marlous; Allende-Richter, Sophie; Grand, Richard J.

2010-01-01

154

Reference values of tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity in healthy pediatric patients, calculation of z score, and comparison to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.  

PubMed

The tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (TAPSV) is an echocardiographic measurement assessing right ventricular systolic function in children and adults. We determined the growth-related changes of the TAPSV to establish the references values for the entire pediatric age group. A prospective study was conducted of a group of 860 healthy pediatric patients (age 1 day to 18 years; body surface area [BSA] 0.14 to 2.30 m(2)). We determined the effects of age, gender, and BSA on the TAPSV values. Stepwise linear multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the TAPSV from the age, BSA, and gender. A correlation of normal TAPSV with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values was performed. The TAPSV ranged from a mean of 7.2 cm/s (z score ± 2: 4.8 to 9.5 cm/s) in the newborn to 14.3 cm/s (z score ± 2: 10.6 to 18.6 cm/s) in the 18-year-old adolescent. The TAPSV values showed a positive correlation with age and BSA, with a nonlinear course. No significant difference was found in the TAPSV values according to gender. A significant correlation was found between the TAPSV and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values in our pediatric population. In conclusion, the z scores of the TAPSV values were calculated, and percentile charts were established to serve as reference data for patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:21944674

Koestenberger, Martin; Nagel, Bert; Ravekes, William; Avian, Alexander; Heinzl, Bernd; Cvirn, Gerhard; Fritsch, Peter; Fandl, Andrea; Rehak, Thomas; Gamillscheg, Andreas

2012-01-01

155

THE AREA AND CIRCUMFERENCE OF A Idea 1. The circumference of a c* *ircle is directly proportional  

E-print Network

THE AREA AND CIRCUMFERENCE OF A Idea 1. The circumference of a c* *ircle circumference. Idea 2. The area of a circle is * *directly the circle. That is, there is some con- and circumference of a circle: stant h

Rudominer, Mitch

156

Upper arm circumference is an independent predictor of left ventricular concentric hypertrophy in hypertensive women.  

PubMed

Upper arm circumference (UAC) measurement is necessary for the proper sizing of cuffs and is recommended for accurate blood pressure (BP) assessment. The aim of this report is to identify and quantify the relationships between UAC and the usual anthropometric measurements of body fat distribution and cardiac structure in hypertensive subjects. We evaluated 339 patients (202 women and 137 men) by medical history, physical examination, anthropometry, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, and echocardiography. Partial correlation analyses adjusted for age and body mass index revealed that anthropometric variables were significantly associated with echocardiographic parameters exclusively in women. In this regard, UAC correlated with interventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness, and relative wall thickness >or=0.45, while waist circumference was related to left cardiac chamber diameter. Multivariate analyses including age, body mass index, systolic BP, homeostasis model assessment index, and use of antihypertensive medications demonstrated that UAC was an independent predictor of left ventricular wall thickness and concentric hypertrophy in women. Further linear regression analyses revealed that waist circumference was an independent predictor of left ventricular end-diastolic and left atrial diameters in this gender. Overall, these findings suggest that UAC determination might serve not only as a routine approach preceding BP evaluation but also as a simple and feasible predictor of adverse LV remodeling in hypertensive women. PMID:18716366

Pio-Magalhães, José A; Cornélio, Marília; Leme, Cid A; Matos-Souza, José R; Garlipp, Célia R; Gallani, Maria C J; Rodrigues, Roberta C; Franchini, Kleber G; Nadruz, Wilson

2008-06-01

157

Evaluation of the performance of 57 Japanese participating laboratories by two types of z-scores in proficiency test for the quantification of pesticide residues in brown rice.  

PubMed

A proficiency test for the analysis of pesticide residues in brown rice was carried out to support upgrading in analytical skills of participant laboratories. Brown rice containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and isoprothiolane) was used as the test samples. The test samples were distributed to the 57 participants and analyzed by appropriate analytical methods chosen by each participant. It was shown that there was no significant difference among the reported values obtained by different types of analytical method. The analytical results obtained by National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) were 3 % to 10 % greater than those obtained by participants. The results reported by the participant were evaluated by using two types of z-scores, that is, one was the score based on the consensus values calculated from the analytical results of participants, and the other one was the score based on the reference values obtained by NMIJ with high reliability. Acceptable z-scores based on the consensus values and NMIJ reference values were achieved by 87 % to 89 % and 79 % to 94 % of the participants, respectively. PMID:25258285

Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

2014-11-01

158

Attend To Precision: Circumference and Diameter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #6âattend to precision. The video clip shows two important instances of the idea of precision; that precision is important in their measurements of the circumference and diameter and in their use of vocabulary in context as they discover the relationship between circumference, diameter, circles, and pi. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

159

Circle Problems - Radius, Diameter, Circumference and Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "fill-in-the-blank" worksheet allows students to generate radius, diameter, circumference, and area for circles given only one of those measurements. There are eight problems and students may check their problems at the end or get a hint when they are stuck. There is also linksin the instructions which review the formulae for the area and circumference of a circle that they can consult as they solve.

2006-01-01

160

Head Circumference Measurements in Children With Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess head circumference in children with autism, 148 charts were retrospectively reviewed. All of the children met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofmental Disorders (DSM-III or DSM-III-R) criteria for autism and had no known underlying condition that might affect head circumference. In addition, data were collected regarding height, weight, brain imaging, cognitive development, adaptive behavior, and language. The children

Michael Davidovitch; Bonnie Patterson; Peter Gartside

1996-01-01

161

Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.  

PubMed

Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population. PMID:17568760

Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

2007-01-01

162

Correlation of Waist-to-hip Ratio (WHR) and Oxidative Stress in Patients of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation is thought to play a crucial role in the generation of atherosclerotic lesions of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: The case-control study contained 120 subjects divided in two groups, 60 patients with AMI and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Ratio of Waist Circumference (WC) to Hip Circumference (HC) (waist-to-hip ratio) of all the subjects was recorded. Antioxidant status of the individuals was determined by measuring the serum levels of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Estimation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation was used as a surrogate marker of free radical activity. Results: WHR was found to be significantly higher in patients of AMI as compared to controls. MDA levels were significantly high and antioxidants molecules GPx and SOD were significantly decreased in AMI patients as compared with control (p<0.001). WHR correlated positively to serum level of MDA and inversely to the serum level of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: High Waist-to-hip ratio is associated with high concentrations of malondialdehyde level and low concentration of antioxidant’s enzyme. This results in increased oxidative stress, a major causative factor of AMI. PMID:24596709

Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Gulati, Rajiv; Tauheed, Nazia; Pervez, Anjum

2014-01-01

163

Hip Circumference and Incident Metabolic Risk Factors in Chinese Men and Women: The People's Republic of China Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The associations between adiposity and metabolic risk factors have been suggested to vary across ethnicities. Studies in Caucasians have shown that after adjusting for waist circumference and body mass index (BMI), a larger hip circumference may be protective for metabolic risk factors. To our knowledge, these associations have never been examined in a Chinese population. Methods Baseline (1987–1988) and follow-up (1993–1994) data were from the People's Republic of China Study (n?=?1,144 men, n?=?1,776 women). Logistic models were stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking, center, and education. Incidence differences (ID) comparing the sex specific 85th percentile to the 15th percentile of hip circumference were computed for elevated blood pressure, blood glucose and triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and multiple metabolic abnormalities (three or more of the aforementioned). Results In models adjusted for waist circumference and BMI, the ID [95% confidence interval (CI)] per 1,000 persons associated with a 12-cm larger hip were ?132 (?237, ?26) for low HDL-C; ?85 (?138, ?31) for elevated triglycerides; and ?49 (?83, ?4) for multiple metabolic abnormalities. In males, a larger hip circumference was not associated with a reduction of incident risk factors, although the ID tended to be negative. Conclusions In Chinese women, greater mass in the lower trunk region was inversely associated with incident high triglycerides, low HDL-C, and multiple metabolic abnormalities when adjusted for general and central adiposity. This association was not detected in men. Additional research is needed to better understand the mechanisms by which fat at different depots results in differential risk. PMID:21091063

Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Cai, Jianwen; Adair, Linda S.; North, Kari E.

2011-01-01

164

“Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study”  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. Objective: To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Methods: Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as < 6hour/day (short sleep duration), 6-7hour/day and > 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. Results: No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. Conclusion: No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students. PMID:25386421

Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

2014-01-01

165

Waist Hip Ratio and Body Mass Index as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The role of obesity as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly understood. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) is less influenced by muscle and bone mass than body mass index (BMI). We compared WHR and BMI as risk factors for cardiac events (myocardial infarction, fatal coronary disease) in persons with CKD. Study Design Cohort Study. Setting and Participants Persons with CKD, defined as a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 60 mL/min/1.73m2, drawn from two community studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study. Predictor Waist to Hip Ratio, Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index. Outcomes and Measurements Myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease. Results Among 1,669 participants with CKD, mean age was 70.3 years and 56% were women. Mean WHR was 0.97 ± 0.08 in men and 0.90 ± 0.07 in women; mean BMI was 27.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2. Over a mean of 9.3 years of follow-up, there were 334 cardiac events. In multivariable adjusted Cox models the highest WHR group (n=386) was associated with an increased risk of cardiac events compared with the lowest WHR group [HR (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.01–1.83]. Obesity defined by BMI >30 kg/m2 (n= 381) was not associated with cardiac events [HR (95% CI) = 0.86 (0.62–1.20)] in comparison to participants with normal BMI. The results with waist circumference were similar to those with BMI. Limitations Absence of a gold standard for measurement of visceral fat. Conclusions WHR, but not BMI, is associated with cardiac events in persons with CKD. Relying exclusively on BMI may underestimate the importance of obesity as a cardiovascular disease risk factor in persons with CKD. PMID:18514990

Elsayed, Essam F; Tighiouart, Hocine; Weiner, Daniel E; Griffith, John; Salem, Deeb; Levey, Andrew S; Sarnak, Mark J

2008-01-01

166

G-GMD Circumference of a circle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose we define $\\pi$ to be the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 1: Explain why the circumference of a circle with radius $r \\gt 0$ is $2\\...

167

Effect of Breastfeeding on Head Circumference of Children from Impoverished Communities  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This study investigated the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on head circumference (HC) among children living in impoverished communities. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among children 12–60 months old from the 39 quilombos located in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. HC deficit was defined by a z-score of less than ?2 from the median (based on the 2006 World Health Organization growth standards). Prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance, and estimates were adjusted for possible confounders (anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related variables). Results We evaluated 725 children (365 boys and 360 girls). The prevalence of HC deficit was 13.3% among those children who were exclusively breastfed for less than 30 days, 10.6% among those exclusively breastfed for 30–119 days, and 5.8% among those who were exclusively breastfed for 120 days or more. Even after controlling for possible confounding variables, exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months decreased the risk of HC deficit (prevalence ratio, 0.48; 95% CI 0.24, 0.99). Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding for ?4 months was associated with a larger HC in children exposed to great social vulnerability in impoverished communities. PMID:23414229

Xavier Júnior, Antonio Fernando Silva; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

2013-01-01

168

Birth month associations with height, head circumference, and limb lengths among Peruvian children.  

PubMed

Associations between season of birth and body size, morbidity, and mortality have been widely documented, but it is unclear whether different parts of the body are differentially sensitive, and if such effects persist through childhood. This may be relevant to understanding the relationship between early life environment and body size and proportions. We investigated associations between birth month and anthropometry among rural highland (n?=?162) and urban lowland (n?=?184) Peruvian children aged 6 months to 8 years. Stature; head-trunk height; total limb, ulna, tibia, hand, and foot lengths; head circumference; and limb measurements relative to head-trunk height were converted to internal age-sex-specific z scores. Lowland and highland datasets were then analyzed separately for birth month trends using cosinor analysis, as urban conditions likely provide a more consistent environment compared with anticipated seasonal variation in the rural highlands. Among highland children birth month associations were significant most strongly for tibia length, followed by total lower limb length and stature, with a peak among November births. Results were not significant for other measurements or among lowland children. The results suggest a prenatal or early postnatal environmental effect on growth that is more marked in limb lengths than trunk length or head size, and persists across the age range studied. We suggest that the results may reflect seasonal variation in maternal nutrition in the rural highlands, but other hypotheses such as variation in maternal vitamin D levels cannot be excluded. PMID:24482290

Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

2014-05-01

169

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone. PMID:20708427

Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

2010-12-01

170

Association between Head Circumference and Body Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Studies on the association between head circumference (HC) and height or weight have shown variable results. Methods: Using data from the Dutch nationwide survey performed in 1997 (n = 14,500), we calculated correlations for different ages, and fitted a regression model for the estimation of HC. HC versus height charts were created for different age groups. Data from children

Erica J. Geraedts; Paula van Dommelen; Janina Caliebe; Remco Visser; Michael B. Ranke; Stef van Buuren; Jan M. Wit; Wilma Oostdijk

2011-01-01

171

Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are

Kate S Collison; Marya Z Zaidi; Shazia N Subhani; Khalid Al-Rubeaan; Mohammed Shoukri; Futwan A Al-Mohanna

2010-01-01

172

Modest weight loss and reduction in waist circumference after medical treatment are associated with favorable changes in serum adipocytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modest weight loss if maintained is associated with significant metabolic benefits and reduction in cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue secretes cytokines believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. We therefore observed the effect of modest weight loss on serum adipocytokines and their relationship with changes in anthropometric and metabolic parameters within a period of 6 months

G Valsamakis; P. G McTernan; R Chetty; N Al Daghri; A Field; W Hanif; A. H Barnett; S Kumar

2004-01-01

173

Waist Circumference Adds to the Variance in Plasma C-Reactive Protein Levels in Elderly Patients with Metabolic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP), a nonspecific marker of the inflammatory status, is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and may be an important feature of the metabolic syndrome (MSX) in middle-aged subjects. Objectives: We assessed the relationship of CRP levels to specific components of MSX and other potential determinants in apparently healthy elderly subjects living in the South of France.

A. M. Dupuy; I. Jaussent; A. Lacroux; R. Durant; J. P. Cristol; C. Delcourt

2007-01-01

174

Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,Magnetic,resonance,imaging,was used to study the,effect,of weight,loss on,three,fat depots:,the,visceral,and subcutaneous,abdominal,depots,and,the subcutaneous,depot,at trochanter,level. Changes,in,fat depots,were,compared,with changes,in,circumference,measures,and,the,waist-hip,ratio (WHR) in,obese,men,(it =,38) and,women,(n =,40). Mean weight,loss was,(.? ± SD) 12.9 ± 3.5 kg (P < 0.00 1). The,pro- portional,reduction,of fat was,largest,in the visceral,depot,(men 40%, women 33%). Less fat was lost subcutaneously, especially at trochanter level (men 29%, women 26%). WHR decreased significantly,in both,sexes,(P < 0.001).

Kooy van der K; R. Leenen; J. C. Seidell; P. Deurenberg; A. Droop; C. J. G. Bakker

1993-01-01

175

Volar Percutaneous Screw Fixation for Scaphoid Waist Delayed Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volar percutaneous cannulated screw fixation of acute scaphoid waist fractures reportedly produces high rates of healing and\\u000a early return to work, but the method has not been reported for treating scaphoid waist delayed unions. We therefore report\\u000a the surgical results of percutaneous screw fixation in scaphoid waist delayed union in 12 patients. All patients were male\\u000a with an average age

Jae Kwang Kim; Jong Oh Kim; Seung Yup Lee

2010-01-01

176

Circumference Correction Chicanes for Damping Rings  

SciTech Connect

Several low-emittance damping rings are presently being designed to meet the requirements of future linear colliders. These rings tend to have relatively large circumferences {approx}300 m so that they can damp many trains of bunches at the same time. With the large circumference, the ring path length may become quite sensitive to thermal and ground motion effects. In addition, most of the rings include damping wigglers whose path length varies with their strength. In e{sup -}/e{sup +} storage rings, the beam revolution time is determined by the rf frequency. Thus, to restore the proper revolution time, a change in the nominal path length will cause a change in both the beam energy and the closed orbit. The change in energy is given by: dE/E{sub 0} = - 1/{alpha}{sub p} {Delta}C/C{sub 0}, where {alpha}{sub p} is the momentum compaction and C{sub 0} is the nominal ring circumference. The change in the closed orbit is simply given by the energy change and the dispersion function. This change in orbit and energy can decrease the dynamic acceptance of the ring and make it difficult to preserve the ultra-small damped emittances. Because damping rings need strong focusing to attain the small beam emittances and thus tend to have very small values of momentum compaction, they can be very sensitive to changes in their circumference. For example, to limit the energy fluctuations in the NLC damping rings to 10% of the beam equilibrium energy spread, the path length must be controlled to about 20 {micro}m. Circumference variations have been seen at most storage rings including LEP, the APS at Argonne, the SLAC damping rings, and the ATF damping ring test facility [1] at KEK. At the APS, typical path length variations are {approx}0.2 mm [2] and are correlated with seasonal, tidal, and diurnal fluctuations. The SLAC damping rings change by millimeters during approach to thermal equilibrium when the rings are started, but little variation is seen after equilibrium is reached. At the ATF, variations of up to {+-}3 mm over months have been observed [3]. The precise mechanisms responsible for these changes are not, at present, well understood. Another path length variation arises when the strength of the damping wigglers is changed. Assuming a sinusoidal wiggler field, the circumference change is {Delta}C {approx} 1/4 L{sub w}/{rho}{sub w}{sup 2}{kappa}{sub w}{sup 2}, where L{sub w} is the wiggler length, {rho}{sub w} is the peak wiggler bend radius, and {kappa}{sub w} is its wavenumber ({triple_bond} 2{pi}/{lambda}). At the ATF (and similarly for the NLC ring), the wigglers increase the circumference by {approx}2 mm at full strength. Although some of the variation in path length can probably be reduced by design, the inclusion of a circumference correction method in the design of future damping rings seems prudent. There are a few possible approaches: (1) physical displacement of the arc magnetic elements; (2) control of the orbit using steering correctors or, equivalently, variation of the arc bending magnets and quadrupoles (the later is necessary to keep tunes constant); and (3) additional elements dedicated to path length control. In this note, we describe the correction available by adding a simple 4-dipole chicane to a straight-section in a damping ring. A chicane has the advantage of being varied without significantly affecting ring optics or trajectory outside of the chicane. Thus, the path length can be varied during operation and the chicane can be used in a feedback system to stabilize the circumference. In the following, we describe the effects of the chicane on critical ring parameters, including the equilibrium emittance and momentum compaction.

Emma, P

2004-04-22

177

Programming DNA Tube Circumferences Peng Yin,1,2,3  

E-print Network

Programming DNA Tube Circumferences Peng Yin,1,2,3 Rizal F. Hariadi,4 Sudheer Sahu,6 Harry M. T with monodisperse, programmable circumferences is an important goal shared by nanotechnology, materials science, and supermolecular chemistry. We program molecular tube circumferences by specifying the complementarity

Reif, John H.

178

Introduction The seasonal circumference growth of trees has  

E-print Network

Introduction The seasonal circumference growth of trees has been widely used investigating circumference growth (Mäkinen et al. 2008), such as dendrometers (Deslauriers et al. 2007, Kahle 2005, Pook et. Abstract We present the 1976-2010 results of a study on seasonal circumference growth carried out in NE

179

THE AREA AND CIRCUMFERENCE OF A MITCH RUDOMINER  

E-print Network

THE AREA AND CIRCUMFERENCE OF A CIRCLE MITCH RUDOMINER In grade school we were all given the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle: A = r2 and C = 2r where 3.14159. Most likely that is useful for calculating the area and circumference of a circle. This of course would be misleading

Rudominer, Mitch

180

Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design  

SciTech Connect

The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

2011-11-02

181

A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6-23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was -1·25 (1·14) (n ?=? 801). Mean (range) CFI was 6·7 (1-10) (n ?=? 797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9-11-months age group (7·93) and lowest for those aged 12-23 months (5·96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0·01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

2014-09-16

182

Cerebral blood flow in patients with peritoneal dialysis by an easy Z-score imaging system for brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment has long been recognized as a complication of chronic kidney disease. However, there is little information available regarding regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD). Therefore, we evaluated rCBF using brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We conducted a cross-sectional study in our hospital. Eighteen consecutive PD patients who could visit the hospital by themselves without any history of stroke were examined by Technetium-99?m-labeled ethylcrysteinate dimer brain SPECT. An easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) was used to compare rCBF in PD patients with those in age-matched healthy controls. We also evaluated cognitive dysfunction with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) questionnaire. Only one patient showed an MMSE score of 18 points, and the remaining 14 patients were considered as normal (MMSE???27), and three patients were considered to have mild cognitive impairment (24???MMSE???26). In all patients, rCBF in the posterior cingulated gyri, precunei, and parietal cortices was significantly decreased. The ratio of the reduction of rCBF in each region relative to that of rCBF across the whole brain correlated positively with the PD duration (r?=?0.559; P?

Isshiki, Rei; Kobayashi, Shuzo; Iwagami, Masao; Tsutumi, Daimu; Mochida, Yasuhiro; Ishioka, Kunihiro; Oka, Machiko; Maesato, Kyoko; Moriya, Hidekazu; Ohtake, Takayasu; Hidaka, Sumi

2014-06-01

183

Different Atrophic Patterns in Early and Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease and Evaluation of Clinical Utility of a Method of Regional z-Score Analysis Using Voxel-Based Morphometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: We evaluated the differential patterns of brain atrophy in early- and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by measuring regional z-scores of voxel-based morphometry and assessed the availability of the method for clinical use. Methods: The first 50 patients with probable AD were compared to 83 age-matched control subjects to identify the brain atrophy. Regions of interest were set in the

Akihiko Shiino; Toshiyuki Watanabe; Tadashi Kitagawa; Emi Kotani; June Takahashi; Shigehiro Morikawa; Ichiro Akiguchi

2008-01-01

184

[Cranial and thoracic circumference as criteria of body development].  

PubMed

The growth of thoracic and neurocranial circumference was studied in 47,099 Czech and Slovak children and adolescents of both sexes, ranging in age from 1 1/2 to 18 years. The data were obtained during our nation-wide studies on the territory of the CSFR in 1987-1988. At the end of the second year of life the values of thoracic circumference were already markedly higher than the values of neurocranial circumference. The characteristics studied show different growth dynamics: The neurocranial circumference increased markedly up to the age of four years, while thoracic circumference showed an onset on intense growth dynamics only at the beginning of the prepubertal period. Throughout the investigated period girls had lower values of neurocranial circumference than boys, yet during the period of puberty their values of thoracic circumference temporarily exceeded the values recorded in boys. After the age of 14 years boys generally had permanently a larger thoracic circumference. Similar to body height and weight both investigated circumferences show an increase in connection with the secular trend. The values of both circumferences are very similar in Czech and Slovak children of the same sex. PMID:8128762

Hajnis, K; Petrásek, R

1993-12-01

185

Association of neck circumference as an indicator of upper body obesity with cardio-metabolic risk factors among first degree relatives of diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the relation between neck circumferences (NC), as an indicator of upper body obesity, with anthropometric and cardio-metabolic factors among the first degree relatives of diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on first degree relatives of diabetes patients (n = 213). Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and NC were measured. Laboratory data included oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol. Results: There was no difference in NC among different results of OGTT in men or women. Factors including weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and HC were strongly associated with NC in both genders (r = 0.420-0.711). NC was weakly associated with SBP in women (r = 0.195) and moderately with DBP in men (r = 0.314). Regarding lipid profile, HDL and TG were associated with NC only in women (r = ?0.268-0.325). Conclusions: NC has a significant correlation with gender and anthropometric variables including BMI, weight and waist and HCs in both men and women but it does not differ significantly in patients with different status in OGTT.

Abdolahi, Hadi; Iraj, Bijan; Mirpourian, Maryam; Shariatifar, Behzad

2014-01-01

186

Measuring chest circumference change during respiration with an electromagnetic biosensor.  

PubMed

In this paper, an off-the-shelf DC motor is modified into a chest belt and used to successfully measure circumference change on a mechanical chest model, while simultaneously harvesting significant power. Chest circumference change can provide information on tidal volume, which is vital in assessing lung function. The chest circumference change is calculated from the motor's voltage output. Calculated values are within 0.95mm of measured circumference changes, with a standard deviation of 0.37mm. The wearable motor can also harvest at least 29.4µW during normal breathing. PMID:24110093

Padasdao, Bryson; Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

2013-01-01

187

Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between the HW phenotype and risk for CKD in a community population aged 40 years and older. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1, Waist circumference >90 cm in men or >85 cm in women and triglycerides ?2 mmol/l; Group 3, Waist circumference ?90 cm in men or ?85 cm in women and triglycerides <2 mmol/l; Group 2, The remaining participants. The prevalence of the three subgroups and CKD were determined. The association between HW phenotype and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 13.0). Results After adjusting for age and sex, Group 1 was associated with CKD (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.01, 4.73, P<0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders and unlikely to be in the causal pathway between the HW phenotype and CKD, Group 1 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 2.65 (95% CI 1.65, 4.26, P<0.001). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association of Group 1 and CKD was still significant (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26, 3.45, P?=?0.004). Group 2 was associated with CKD (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29, 2.53, P?=?0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders, Group 2 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 1.75 (95% CI 1.22, 2.51, P?=?0.002). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association between Group 2 and CKD still existed. The OR for CKD was 1.48 (95% CI 1.01, 2.16, P?=?0.046). Conclusion Our results showed that HW phenotype was associated with CKD in the population aged 40 years and older. PMID:24663403

Shao, Xiaofei; Liu, Xinyu; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

2014-01-01

188

Waist-Hip-Ratio as a Predictor of All-Cause Mortality in High-Functioning Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose The relationship between obesity and mortality in older adults is debated, with concern that body mass index (BMI) may be an imperfect measure of obesity in this age group. We assessed the relationship between three measures of obesity and all-cause mortality in a group of healthy older adults. Methods We analyzed data from the MacArthur Successful Aging Study, a longitudinal study of highfunctioning men and women, aged 70–79 years at baseline. We examined 12-year, all-cause mortality risk by BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR). Proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for gender, race, baseline age, and smoking status. We tested for obesity interactions with gender, race, and smoking status, and conducted stratified analyses based on the results of interaction testing. Results There was no association between all-cause mortality and BMI or WC in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. In contrast, all-cause mortality increased with WHR. There was an interaction with sex, so that there was a graded relationship between WHR and mortality in women (relative hazard, 1.28 per 0.1 increase in WHR, 95% confidence interval 1.05, 1.55) and a threshold relationship in men (relative hazard 1.75 for WHR>1.0 compared to WHR<=1.0, 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.91). Conclusion WHR rather than BMI, appears to be the more appropriate yardstick for risk stratification of high-functioning older adults. PMID:19596204

Srikanthan, Preethi; Seeman, Teresa E; Karlamangla, Arun S

2011-01-01

189

Evaluation of a rural community pharmacy-based Waist Management Project: bringing the program to the people.  

PubMed

Time constraints and lack of awareness of risk factors for future chronic disease development prevent many young adults from accessing lifestyle programs offered by local health services. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a rural pharmacy-based multidisciplinary healthy lifestyle pilot program on reducing risk factors for chronic disease development among young adults. Individuals under the age of 50 with chronic disease risk factors were referred to the program. All subjects were provided with free after-hours nutritional counselling from a dietitian at the local community pharmacy, a comprehensive medication review conducted by the pharmacist, gym membership and access to cooking classes and supermarket tours. Selected participants also received bulk-billed GP appointments and assistance with establishing a home vegetable garden. Body weight, waist circumference, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were assessed at baseline and after program conclusion. Forty participants regularly attended the program between March 2009 and March 2010. At program conclusion, mean body weight was reduced by 3.8±6.7kg (P<0.001) and waist circumference reduced by 3.9±6.5cm (P<0.001). Fruit consumption increased by 1.2±0.2 serves/day (P<0.001) and vegetable intake increased by 1.6±1.0 serves/day (P<0.001). Participants also spent an average of 88.0±47.7 more min/week (P<0.001) engaged in physical activity on completion of the program. The community pharmacy provided an accessible location for the delivery of a successful chronic disease risk reduction program targeting young adults in a rural area. PMID:21616019

Kellow, Nicole

2011-01-01

190

Waist-to-Height Ratio Is More Predictive of Years of Life Lost than Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim was to compare the effect of central obesity (measured by waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) and total obesity (measured by body mass index, BMI) on life expectancy expressed as years of life lost (YLL), using data on British adults. Methods A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to data from the prospective Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) and the cross sectional Health Survey for England (HSE). The number of years of life lost (YLL) at three ages (30, 50, 70 years) was found by comparing the life expectancies of obese lives with those of lives at optimum levels of BMI and WHtR. Results Mortality risk associated with BMI in the British HALS survey was similar to that found in US studies. However, WHtR was a better predictor of mortality risk. For the first time, YLL have been quantified for different values of WHtR. This has been done for both sexes separately and for three representative ages. Conclusion This study supports the simple message “Keep your waist circumference to less than half your height”. The use of WHtR in public health screening, with appropriate action, could help add years to life. PMID:25198730

Ashwell, Margaret; Mayhew, Les; Richardson, Jon; Rickayzen, Ben

2014-01-01

191

Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor  

PubMed Central

We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C.

2012-01-01

192

Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.  

PubMed

We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

2012-01-01

193

Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary  

E-print Network

Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary Contraction circumference measurement for estimating MVC thereby reducing the need for training and calibration. A prelimi- nary implementation of a circumference measuring armband is presented to demonstrate the feasibility

Hu, Huosheng

194

Circumference Correction Chicanes for Damping Rings(LCC-0008)  

SciTech Connect

Several large low-emittance damping rings are presently being designed to meet the requirements of future linear colliders. These rings tend to have relatively large circumferences {approx}300 m so that they can damp many trains of bunches at the same time. With the large circumference, the path length around the ring may become quite sensitive to thermal and ground motion effects. In addition, most of the rings include damping wigglers whose path length varies with their strength.

Emma, P

2004-04-22

195

Pre-screening tools for diabetes and obesity-associated dyslipidaemia: comparing BMI, waist and waist hip  

E-print Network

1 Pre-screening tools for diabetes and obesity-associated dyslipidaemia: comparing BMI, waist: 3849 words 2 figures15 4 tables running head: Screening for undiagnosed diabetes and dyslipidaemia 20 who should be screened for diabetes and/or for obesity-associated dyslipidaemia. Design: Cross

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Waist Compression in the Aegean Late Bronze Age  

E-print Network

to be car- ried out over a long period of time, and practioners can start being corseted before puberty. Sir Arthur Evans thus characterized Minoan waist compres- sion: while children of both sexes were still of very tender years, metal belts were riveted... and cannibalism; 63 even more disturbing is the contrast between the many, overwhelmingly sensuous images and the fact that there is virtually no sexual or erotic art, no depic- tions of sexual intercourse, no representations of intimacy, no hand holding...

Younger, John G.

2000-01-01

197

Using Forearm Circumference for Automatic Threshold Calibration for Simple EMG Control  

E-print Network

Using Forearm Circumference for Automatic Threshold Calibration for Simple EMG Control James Cannan circumference measuring device to determine forearm circumference, in order to estimate maximum voluntary circumference device is demonstrated, and an experiment is performed which confirms the potential of using

Hu, Huosheng

198

Increased Risk of Diabetes Development in Subjects with the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype is a simple and inexpensive screening parameter to identify people at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether the HTGW phenotype predicts diabetes in urban Korean adults. Methods A total of 2,900 nondiabetic subjects (mean age 44.3 years), comprising 2,078 males (71.7%) and 822 females (28.3%) who underwent annual medical check-ups at our center between January 2005 and December 2009, were recruited. The subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline serum triglyceride (TG) level and waist circumference (WC): normal WC-normal TG (NWNT) level, normal WC-high TG level, enlarged WC-normal TG level, and enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT) level. High serum TG level was defined as ?150 mg/dL and enlarged WC was defined as ?90 cm for men and ?85 cm for women. New cases of diabetes were determined according to questionnaires filled in by participants and the diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was used to assess the association of HTGW phenotype with the incidence of diabetes. Results A total of 101 (3.5%) new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the study period. The EWHT group had a higher incidence of diabetes (8.3%) compared with the NWNT group (2.2%). The adjusted hazard ratio for diabetes for subjects with the EWHT phenotype at baseline was 4.113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.397 to 7.059) after adjustment for age, and 2.429 (95% CI, 1.370 to 4.307) after adjustment for age, sex, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and alcohol drinking history. It was attenuated by inclusion of baseline fasting glucose level in the model. Conclusion Subjects with the HTGW phenotype showed the highest risk of incident diabetes. This tool could be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of diabetes.

Han, Ki Joong; Lee, Shin Yeoung; Kim, Nam Hee; Chae, Hyun Beom; Lee, Tae Hoon; Jang, Choel Min; Yoo, Kyung Mo; Park, Hae Jung; Lee, Min Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

2014-01-01

199

Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ?97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25395904

Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

2014-01-01

200

Approximating the Circumference and Area of a Circle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry, difficulty level 2. Take a circle and circumscribe a square and inscribe a square. Constuct a square between the other two squares, and compare the area and the perimeter of the middle square with the area and circumference of the circle.

Forum, Math; Fetter, Annie

2001-01-01

201

Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

2013-01-01

202

Head circumference is an independent clinical finding associated with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) is one of the few physical findings in autism that varies significantly from the norm and is distinct and measurable. As part of a study of genetic heterogeneity of autism, we scru- tinized data from a large sample of patients with idiopathic autism (N = 137), using OFC as the categorizing variable. The OFC stan- dard deviation

J. H. Miles; L. L. Hadden; T. N. Takahashi; R. E. Hillman

2000-01-01

203

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

204

Non-obese (body mass index < 25 kg\\/m 2) Asian Indians with normal waist circumference have high cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAlthough the prevalence of obesity is not high in Asian Indians, increased prevalence rates of metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular risk factors have been reported. In this study, we evaluated body mass index (BMI), anthropometric measurements, and body fat profiles of obese and non-obese subjects and correlated those values with cardiovascular risk factors.

Naval K Vikram; Ravindra Mohan Pandey; Anoop Misra; Rekha Sharma; J Rama Devi; Nidhi Khanna

2003-01-01

205

Body fat determination by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and its relation to body mass index and waist circumference in Hong Kong Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in the Chinese population of Hong Kong and to investigate whether the newly proposed lower BMI cut-offs for obesity in the Asia-Pacific Region recommended jointly by the International Association for the Study of Obesity, the International Obesity Task Force and the WHO are appropriate for Hong

M He; KCB Tan; ETS Li; AWC Kung

2001-01-01

206

Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

207

Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter as surrogates of body fat distribution in the elderly: their relation with cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and other indicators of body fat distribution with cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in the elderly.SUBJECTS: One-hundred and forty-six women aged from 67 to 78 y with a body mass index (BMI) ranging from 18.7 to 50.6 kg\\/m2 and 83 men aged between 67 and 78 y with BMI ranging

E Turcato; O Bosello; V Di Francesco; TB Harris; E Zoico; L Bissoli; E Fracassi; M Zamboni

2000-01-01

208

G-MG Eratosthenes and the circumference of the earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The ancient Greek scientist Eratosthenes devised the following experiment for estimating the circumference of the earth, which he assumed to be spheric...

209

The Cross-Sectional Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio and Cognitive Performance in Postmenopausal Women Enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine if body weight (BMI) is independently associated with cognitive function in postmenopausal women and the relationship between body fat distribution as estimated by waist-hip-ratio (WHR) and cognitive function. DESIGN Cross-sectional data analysis SETTING Baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. PARTICIPANTS 8745 postmenopausal women aged 65–79 years, free of clinical evidence of dementia and completed baseline evaluation in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. MEASUREMENTS Participants completed a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), health and lifestyle questionnaires, and standardized measurements of height, weight, body circumferences and blood pressure. Statistical analysis of associations between 3MSE scores, BMI and WHR after controlling for known confounders. RESULTS With the exception of smoking and exercise, vascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, waist measurement, heart disease and diabetes, were significantly associated with 3MSE score and were included as co-variables in subsequent analyses. BMI was inversely related to 3MSE scores, for every 1 unit increase in BMI, 3MSE decrease 0.988 (p=.0001) after adjusting for age, education and vascular disease risk factors. BMI had the most pronounced association with poorer cognitive functioning scores among women with smaller waist measurements. Among women with the highest WHR, cognitive scores increased with BMI. CONCLUSION Increasing BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in women with smaller WHR. Higher WHR, estimating central fat mass, is associated with higher cognitive function in this cross-sectional study. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism for this association. PMID:20646100

Kerwin, Diana R.; Zhang, Yinghua; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Espeland, Mark A.; Van Horn, Linda; McTigue, Kathleen M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Powell, Lynda; Kooperberg, Charles; Coker, Laura H.; Hoffmann, Raymond

2010-01-01

210

Complete version of the Turan lemma for trigonometric polynomials on the unit circumference.  

E-print Network

Complete version of the Turan lemma for trigonometric polynomials on the unit circumference. x0 ) be a trigonometric polynomial in n characters considered as a function on the unit circumference T = fz 2 C : jzj = 1 circumference T one could expect some inequality of the kind jjpjj L q (T) 6 B(¯(E)) n\\Gamma1 jjpjj L q (E

Nazarov, Fedja

211

Complete version of the Turan lemma for trigonometric polynomials on the unit circumference.  

E-print Network

on the unit circumference. P x0. Introduction and preliminaries. Let p(z) = nk=1ckzmk on the unit circumference T* * = {z 2 C : |z| = 1}. Well-known Turan's lemma claims that for every arc E. But for sets E close to the whole circumference T one could expect some inequality of the kind ||p||Lq(T) 6 B

Nazarov, Fedja

212

Comparison of Waist to Hip Ratio Sites and Heart Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify the recommended waist to hip ratio measurement method for determination of upper body fat distribution.Upper body fat distribution (UBFD) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Women with UBFD often have low HDL-cholesterol levels, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. The waist to hip ratio (WHR) is a useful screening tool to determine UBFD and potential

R. Hopewell; C. Bey

1997-01-01

213

A 233 km Circumference Tunnel for $e^+$$e^-$, $p$$\\bar {p}$, and $\\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ Colliders  

E-print Network

In 2001 a cost analysis survey was conducted to build a 233km circumference tunnel in northern Illinois in which to build a Very Large Hadron Collider. Ten years later I have reexamined the proposal, taking into consideration the technological advancements in all the aspects of construction cost analysis. I outline the implementations of $e^+ e^-$, $p{\\bar{p}}$, and $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ collider rings in the tunnel using 21${\\rm{st}}$ century technology. The $e^+e^-$ collider employs a Crab Waist Crossing, ultra low emittance damped bunches, 12 GV of superconducting RF, and 0.026 Tesla low coercivity grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. The $p{\\bar{p}}$ collider uses the high intensity Fermilab $\\bar{p}$ source, exploits high cross sections for $p\\bar{p}$ production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconductor magnets run with liquid neon. The $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ ring ramps the $p{\\bar{p}}$ magnets at 8 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of SRF, and mitigates neutrino radiation w...

Lyons, George T

2011-01-01

214

Estimate the Circumference of the Earth using Eratosthenes' Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, from the Real World Learning Objects Resource Library, helps students estimate the circumference of the earth by recreating "Eratosthenes' amazing experiment utilizing data generated from the Stevens-sponsored telecollaborative project the Noon Day Project." This site explains the 60-minute activity, complete with learning goals, step-by-step classroom procedures, materials, assessment activities, and resources for further information. The "Content Materials" section contains instructions for students, background information, and graphics to help students understand Eratosthenes' experiment. Combining math and science principles, this is an excellent ready-to-use and easy-to-adapt resource for educators to use in the trigonometry classroom.

Koen, Joshua

2009-11-16

215

The Short Circumference Damping Ring Design for the ILC  

SciTech Connect

The ILC damping ring tentative design is driven by the operational scenario of the main linac, the beam-dynamics demand of producing a stable and high-quality beam, the injection/extraction scheme and the kicker performance. In this paper, a short circumference damping ring design based on TME cells is described. The ring accommodates injection kickers which provide a flat top of 280 nsec and a 60 nsec rise and fall time and very fast strip-line kickers for beam extraction with a 2 nsec rise and fall time for 3-MHz operation.

Korostelev, M.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Kubo, K.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Naito, T.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

2006-03-14

216

Behavioral covariates of waist-to-hip ratio in Rancho Bernardo.  

PubMed Central

We examined lifestyle and dietary habits in 685 men and 943 women (mean age 67 years) who completed an interview, examination, and food frequency questionnaire in 1984-87. Waist-to-hip ratio increased with age and body mass index in both men and women. In multiple regression, waist-to-hip ratio was independently associated with smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise in men, and with smoking and alcohol consumption in women. The data suggest that waist-to-hip ratio is affected, at least in part, by behavioral, and potentially modifiable, factors. PMID:2240305

Laws, A; Terry, R B; Barrett-Connor, E

1990-01-01

217

Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.  

PubMed

'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate. PMID:24755099

Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

2014-06-01

218

Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist  

SciTech Connect

We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A. [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Wien—Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

2014-04-21

219

Fetal thoracic circumference: a prospective cross-sectional study with real-time ultrasound.  

PubMed

We report a prospective cross-sectional study of ultrasound fetal chest growth during normal pregnancy. The fetal chest circumference was measured in 100 normal pregnancies from 13 to 41 weeks' gestation. Nomograms of chest circumference versus gestational age and femur length were constructed. Data from 18 cases at risk for pulmonary hypoplasia indicated that the fetal chest circumference measurement may be useful in the antenatal prediction of lethal or clinically severe pulmonary hypoplasia. PMID:3285688

Fong, K; Ohlsson, A; Zalev, A

1988-05-01

220

Apparatus for precision focussing and positioning of a beam waist on a target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to optical focussing apparatus and, more particularly, to optical apparatus for focussing a highly collimated Gaussian beam which provides independent and fine control over the focus waist diameter, the focus position both along the beam axis and transverse to the beam, and the focus angle. A beam focussing and positioning apparatus provides focussing and positioning for the waist of a waisted beam at a desired location on a target such as an optical fiber. The apparatus includes a first lens, having a focal plane f sub 1, disposed in the path of an incoming beam and a second lens, having a focal plane f sub 2 and being spaced downstream from the first lens by a distance at least equal to f sub 1 + 10 f sub 2, which cooperates with the first lens to focus the waist of the beam on the target. A rotatable optical device, disposed upstream of the first lens, adjusts the angular orientation of the beam waist. The transverse position of the first lens relative to the axis of the beam is varied to control the transverse position of the beam waist relative to the target (a fiber optic as shown) while the relative axial positions of the lenses are varied to control the diameter of the beam waist and to control the axial position of the beam waist. Mechanical controllers C sub 1, C sub 2, C sub 3, C sub 4, and C sub 5 control the elements of the optical system. How seven adjustments can be made to correctly couple a laser beam into an optical fiber is illustrated. Prior art systems employing optical techniques to couple a laser beam into an optical fiber or other target simply do not provide the seven necessary adjustments. The closest known prior art, a Newport coupler, provides only two of the seven required adjustments.

Lynch, Dana H. (inventor); Gunter, William D. (inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (inventor)

1991-01-01

221

Waist location and Rayleigh range for higher-order mode laser beams  

SciTech Connect

Self has presented simple equations for Gaussian-mode laser beams for calculating focused waist location and beam waist magnification in terms of the Rayleigh range. Since the Rayleigh range is a purely geometrical quantity. Self's equations can also be applied to higher-order mode beams. A convenient form of the Rayleigh range for Hermite-Gaussian modes is presented along with representative results for Co/sub 2/ laser industrial processing facilities.

Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.; Karkheck, J.

1984-07-01

222

Optimal Waist-to-Height Ratio Values for Cardiometabolic Risk Screening in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of South African Urban and Rural School Boys and Girls  

PubMed Central

Background The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. Methods Metabolic syndrome (MetS) components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10–16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden’s index and the closest-top-left (CTL) point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. Results The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5), but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4) and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7) based on the Youden’s index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden’s index0.505 (31.6, 87.1) and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9). Conclusion The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization. PMID:23967160

Matsha, Tandi E.; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Yako, Yandiswa Y.; Hon, Gloudina M.; Hassan, Mogamat S.; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

2013-01-01

223

Association of the Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents: The Three Cities Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1) of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4) presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio) of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated systolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) above the upper tertile (Q3). WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00) presented the largest area under the curve (AUC) [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647)] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578)] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651)] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699)] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circumference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787)]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening programs. PMID:21677765

Ribeiro, Robespierre C.; Coutinho, Mário; Bramorski, Marco A; Giuliano, Isabela C.; Pavan, Júlia

2010-01-01

224

Shield design about circumference of choke structure used for microwave oven by parallel FDTD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model about circumference of choke structure used for improving shielding effectiveness (SE) of mass-produced microwave oven, which is composed by parallel FDTD method and thereby SE at four sides of the door is rigorously calculated. As a result, it has confirmed quantitatively that SE of 30 dB or more has been obtained in circumference of the choke structure.

Kouta Matsumoto; Osamu Hashimoto

2005-01-01

225

Supine Length, Weight and Head Circumference at Birth in Central Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean plus or minus standard deviation of boys' and girls' (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 plus or minus 30 and…

Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Rafiei, Mohammad

2007-01-01

226

Sensory Impairment and Head Circumference in Fragile X Syndrome, Down Syndrome and Idiopathic Intellectual Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen boys with fragile X syndrome were compared with 42 with idiopathic intellectual disability, and 45 with Down syndrome. Boys with Down syndrome had more sensory problems and smaller head circumferences than normal. Head circumferences of boys with fragile X syndrome and with idiopathic intellectual disability were larger than normal.…

Turk, Jeremy; Patton, Michael

2000-01-01

227

Additive Genetic Relationships Between Heifer Pregnancy and Scrotal Circumference in Hereford Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to deter- mine an appropriate method for using yearling scrotal circumference observations and heifer pregnancy ob- servations to produce EPD for heifer pregnancy. We determined the additive genetic effects of and relation- ship between scrotal circumference and heifer preg- nancy for a herd of Hereford cattle in Solano, New Mex- ico. The binary trait

J. L. Evans; B. L. Golden; R. M. Bourdon; K. L. Long; J. B. S. Ferraz; F. Dias

2009-01-01

228

Neck circumference and other clinical features in the diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neck circumference has been suggested to be more predictive of obstructive sleep apnoea than general obesity, but the statistical validity of this conclusion has been questioned. Combining neck circumference with other signs and symptoms may allow the clinical diagnosis or exclusion of sleep apnoea to be made with reasonable confidence. This study examines these issues. METHODS: One hundred and

R J Davies; N J Ali; J R Stradling

1992-01-01

229

Brief Report: Cognitive Correlates of Enlarged Head Circumference in Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the frequency and cognitive correlates of enlarged head circumference in 63 children with autism (ages 4-14). Macrocephaly occurred at a significantly higher frequency. Children with discrepantly high nonverbal abilities had a mean standardized head circumference that was more than 1 standard deviation greater than the reference…

Deutsch, Curtis K.; Joseph, Robert M.

2003-01-01

230

Chronic opiate use in pregnancy and newborn head circumference.  

PubMed

Objective?The aim of the study is to evaluate whether chronic opiate use in pregnancy affects newborn head circumference (HC). Study Design?All newborns from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome were prospectively collected. The demographic, obstetrical, neonatal, and perinatal ultrasound data were retrospectively obtained. A gestational age-matched control was used for comparison purposes. Results?Of 332 neonates admitted for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome, 98 (29.5%) had a HC???10th percentile for gestational age that was significantly increased when compared with controls (p?

Visconti, Kevin C; Hennessy, Kerry C; Towers, Craig V; Howard, Bobby C

2015-01-01

231

Decreasing "circumference" for increasing "radius" in axially symmetric gravitating systems  

E-print Network

Apart from the flat space with an angular deficit, Einstein general relativity possesses another cylindrically symmetric solution. Because this configuration displays circles whose "circumferences" tend to zero when their "radius" go to infinity, it has not received much attention in the past. We propose a geometric interpretation of this feature and find that it implies field boundary conditions different from the ones found in the literature if one considers a source consisting of the scalar and the vector fields of a U(1) system . To obtain a non increasing energy density the gauge symmetry must be unbroken . For the Higgs potential this is achieved only with a vanishing vacuum expectation value but then the solution has a null scalar field. A non trivial scalar behaviour is exhibited for a potential of sixth order. The trajectories of test particles in this geometry are studied, its causal structure discussed. We find that this bosonic background can support a normalizable fermionic condensate but not such a current.

M. Lubo

2001-06-22

232

Reliability of self, parental, and researcher measurements of head circumference  

PubMed Central

Background The measurement of head circumference (HC) is widely used in clinical and research settings as a proxy of neural growth. Although it could aid data collection, no studies have explored either the reliability of adult self-measurements or parental measurements of young children. This study therefore aimed to examine whether adult self and parental measurement of HC constitute reliable data. Findings A total of 57 adults (32 male) were asked to measure their HC twice following written instructions (adult self-measurement). These measures were compared to those of a researcher independently measuring the same participant’s HC twice. Additionally, mothers of 25 children (17 male) were also asked to measure their child’s HC (parental measure), and again this was compared to researcher measurements of the child’s HC. The intraclass correlation coefficient between adult self- and researcher measurement was 0.84 and between parent and researcher measurement was 0.99. The technical error of measurement was also acceptable, within the range of a skilled anthropometrist. Conclusions The high degree of agreement between researcher and adult self-measurement/parental measurement of HC demonstrates that these different assessors produce similarly reliable and reproducible data. This suggests adult self- and parental measurements can reliably be used for data collection to enable valid large-scale developmental and clinical studies of HC. PMID:24410855

2014-01-01

233

Anthropometric Measures and Fasting Insulin Levels in Children Before and after Cure of Cushing syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Children with Cushing syndrome present with growth delay and excess adiposity that tends to be generalized rather than centripetal. There are no prospective studies of this phenotype as it evolves before and after treatment in children. The aims of this study were to evaluate children prior to and one-year after surgical cure compared to controls and to determine fasting insulin levels and their possible association with waist circumference and waist-height ratio, pre- and post-cure of Cushing syndrome. Methods 30 children with Cushing syndrome were evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment and compared to 14 age and body mass index-matched controls. Results Only triceps skin fold z- score showed a significant difference between patients with active Cushing syndrome and controls. A positive correlation between fasting insulin levels and waist circumference z- score was found for children with Cushing syndrome; this association persisted one-year following cure. Conclusions Unlike adults affected with Cushing syndrome, upper arm muscle area of children with Cushing syndrome did not differ from obese children without Cushing syndrome. The persistence of a positive correlation between waist circumference and fasting insulin despite remission of Cushing syndrome suggests that children with a history of Cushing syndrome may have an increased risk for adverse long-term effects of increased abdominal fat mass. Clinical Trial numbers: NCT00001595, NCT00001452, NCT00005927 PMID:22154461

Keil, Margaret F; Graf, Jennifer; Gokarn, Nirmal; Stratakis, Constantine A

2011-01-01

234

Growth of "waist" ZnO twin rods through hydrothermal synthesis.  

PubMed

The factors that govern the deposition and structure of "waist" ZnO twin rods from aqueous solution through hydrothermal synthesis were discussed in details. Pencil-like ZnO hexagonal twin rods were obtained in Zn(2+) + HMTA system on ITO glass substrates with ZnO buffer layer deposited in advance. As a contrast, a series of experiments were preceded with TBAB or on bare Cu sheet, Zn sheet, and Al sheet to research lattice-match influences on ZnO nucleation. A series of "waist" ZnO hexagonal twin rods were synthesized and the morphology of each "waist" was shown. The forming of different waists results from the different lattice-match effects between substrates and ZnO crystal. We demonstrated ZnO hexagonal twin rods synthesis on Cu, Al, Zn sheet by normal hydrothermal synthesis and revealed different forming schemes of these varying "waists" of the twin structures. On the basis of our research, not only some new ways of synthesizing ZnO twin rods were proposed but a new idea of applying metal to nano-devices used in piezoelectric area. PMID:24734760

Tan, Lixia; Yu, Xianjin; Zhang, Lipeng; Yang, Ping

2014-04-01

235

Body mass index and waist: hip ratio are not enough to characterise female attractiveness.  

PubMed

The assessment of characteristic body features of Miss Poland beauty contest finalists compared with the control group, can contribute to recognising the contemporary ideal of beauty promoted by the mass media. The studies of Playboy models and fashion models conducted so far have been limited to the following determinants of attractiveness: body mass index, waist:hip ratio, and waist:chest ratio, which only partially describe the body shape. We compared 20 body features of the finalists of Miss Poland 2004 beauty contest with those of the students of Medical Academy in Bydgoszcz. Discriminant analysis showed that the thigh girth-height index, waist: chest ratio, height, and body mass index had the greatest discrimination power distinguishing the two groups. A model of Miss Poland finalists figure assessment is presented which allows one to distinguish super-attractive women from the control group. PMID:17283934

Pokrywka, Leszek; Cabri?, Milan; Krakowiak, Helena

2006-01-01

236

Live weight estimation of donkeys in central Mexico from measurement of thoracic circumference.  

PubMed

Body measurements (length from nape of neck to the withers; height to withers; length from withers to tail root; length from shoulder to tuber ischii; thoracic circumference; umbilical circumference) were taken and correlated with live weight from 160 donkeys (mean +/- standard deviation = 6 +/- 2.6 years old) in Central Mexico. The age was assessed from dentition. Sex of the donkeys was also recorded. Sex was an important factor of variation (p = 0.011). Live weight was estimated using two allometric models. Model 1: Live weight = beta x (thoracic circumference)beta1. Model 2: Live weight = betao x (height to the withers) beta1 x (thoracic circumference) beta2. Separate prediction equations were produced for males and females, plus one for the total sampled. The 'best fit' models, were those using thoracic circumference to predict the live weight. Males: live weight = 0.018576 x (thoracic circumference)1.84107 (R2 = 0.9839). Females: live weight = 0.031255 x (thoracic circumference)1.72888 (R2 = 0.9839). The equations derived to estimate the live weight of donkeys in Britain, Morocco and Zimbabwe were less satisfactory for use with donkeys from Central Mexico because they overestimated the live weight. PMID:16335077

de Aluja, A S; Tapia Pérez, G; López, F; Pearson, R A

2005-11-01

237

Body mass index and waist/height ratio for prediction of severity of coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Background To determine whether waist-to-height ratio correlates with coronary artery disease (CAD) severity better, than the body mass index (BMI) as assessed by coronary angiography in Bangladeshi population. Methods This cross sectional study was done on patients in Department of Cardiology in DMCH and those referred in the cath-lab of the Department of Cardiology for CAG during November 2009 to October 2010 involving 120 patients. They were divided into group-A (with coronary score ?7) and group-B (coronary score <7) depending on Gensisni score. Result There were no statistically significant difference regarding the distribution of age, sex and clinical diagnosis and parameters between the two groups. The mean age of patients was 51.7?±?8.2 years and 48.8?±?9.1 years in Group A and Group B respectively with a male predominance in both the groups. Patients in group A had higher BMI ?25 and waist to height ratio (?0.55) than Group B which showed a statistically significant association (p?Waist-to-height ratio and Waist-to-height ratio with BMI. Multivariate analysis also yeilded that a patient with BMI ?25 kg/m2 and waist-to height ratio of ?0.55 are 3.06 times and 6.77 times, more likely to develop significant coronary artery disease respectively. Conclusion The waist-to-height ratio showed better correlation with the severity of coronary artery disease than the BMI. PMID:24742250

2014-01-01

238

Circumference of 3-connected claw-free graphs and large Eulerian subgraphs of 3-edge-connected graphs  

E-print Network

Circumference of 3-connected claw-free graphs and large Eulerian subgraphs of 3-edge-connected graphs Mark Bilinski Bill Jackson Jie Ma Xingxing Yu § Abstract The circumference of a graph is the length of its longest cycles. Results of Jackson, and Jackson and Wormald, imply that the circumference

Jackson, Bill

239

POSSIBLE LAYOUT FOR A 1.048 ka CIRCUMFERENCE, THREE-KAGRET-PER-SECTOR, 7-GeV STORAGE RING  

E-print Network

POSSIBLE LAYOUT FOR A 1.048 ka CIRCUMFERENCE, THREE-KAGRET-PER-SECTOR, 7-GeV STORAGE RING (For cost;LS-85 Possible Layout for a 1.048 km Circumference, Three-Magnet per-Sector, 7 GeV ~torage Ring (For different circumference with different focusing element spacings and lengths. The magnet lengths ( 2 m

Kemner, Ken

240

SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE IN YEARLING HEREFORD BULLS: ADJUSTMENT FACTORS, HERITABILITIES AND GENETIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHENOTYPIC RELATIONSHIPS WITH GROWTH TRAITS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field data on 4,233 yearling Hereford bulls were analyzed using fixed and mixed model least- squares procedures to examine factors affecting scrotal circumference; determine appropriate adjustmaent factors; and study genetic, environmental and phenotypic relationships among scrota) circumference and growth traits. Scrotal circumference was affected by postweaning feed level; contemporary group\\/feed level; age of dam; and covariates age, weight and height.

R. M. Bourdon; J. S. Brinks

2010-01-01

241

Ultrasonic ratio of fetal thoracic to abdominal circumference: an association with fetal pulmonary hypoplasia.  

PubMed

Real time ultrasound was used in pregnant women who were considered to be at risk for development of pulmonary hypoplasia (n = 26). The population consisted of women who had either premature rupture of membranes (n = 16) or oligohydramnios (n = 10). The ratio calculated by comparing the fetal thoracic circumference to abdominal circumference was obtained in all cases within 10 days of delivery. This ratio correlated strongly with neonatal outcome. Multivariate regression models of neonatal outcome were developed to analyze the relationship of gestational age at which premature membrane rupture occurred, the duration of premature rupture, date of birth, and prenatal diagnosis. The addition of the thoracic circumference to the abdominal circumference ratio increased significantly the proportion of explained variability. Application of this ratio should be considered in evaluating fetal status in oligohydramnios and in the expectant management of premature rupture of membranes. PMID:3307430

Johnson, A; Callan, N A; Bhutani, V K; Colmorgen, G H; Weiner, S; Bolognese, R J

1987-09-01

242

Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

243

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

2013-01-01

244

Nature GeNetics VOLUME 42 | NUMBER 11 | NOVEMBER 2010 949 Waist-hipratio(WHR)isameasureofbodyfatdistributionandapredictorofmetabolicconsequencesindependentofoverall  

E-print Network

Map European CEU population) with the previously reported WHR-associated variant near LYPLAL1 (rs2605100Nature GeNetics VOLUME 42 | NUMBER 11 | NOVEMBER 2010 949 Waist),following up16lociinanadditional29studies(comprisingupto113,636subjects).Weidentified13newlociinornearRSPO3

Abecasis, Goncalo

245

Endothelial inflammation correlates with subject triglycerides and waist size1 following a high fat meal2  

E-print Network

1 Endothelial inflammation correlates with subject triglycerides and waist size1 following a high © 2010 by the American Physiological Society. #12;2 Abstract17 A rise in postprandial serum triglycerides triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (PP-TGRLs) in subjects ranging from normal to21 hypertriglyceridemic

Passerini, Tony

246

[Fetal growth and repeated measurement of the thoracic circumference. 1. Are measurements of the thoracic circumference made in the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy useful?].  

PubMed

When repeated measurements of the circumference of the thorax of the fetus were carried out systematically the author could show from the beginning of the third trimester of the pregnancy that there was a close correlation between this measurement and the birth weight so that slow-for-dates growth could be detected very early. PMID:6655210

Chef, R

1983-01-01

247

Active Commuting to School and Association With Physical Activity and Adiposity Among US Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Walking or bicycling to school (ie, active commuting) has shown promise for improving physical activity and preventing obesity in youth. Our objectives were to examine, among US youth, whether active commuting was inversely associated with adiposity and positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We also examined whether MVPA mediated the relationships between active commuting and adiposity. Methods Using data of participants aged 12 to 19 years from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2004 (n = 789 unweighted), we constructed multiple linear regression models that controlled for dietary energy intake and sociodemographics. The main exposure variable was active commuting. The outcomes were BMI z-score, waist circumference, skinfolds and objectively measured MVPA. The product-of-coefficients method was used to test for mediation. Results Active commuting was inversely associated with BMI z-score (? = ?0.07, P = .046) and skinfolds (? = ?0.06, P = .029), and positively associated with overall daily (? = 0.12, P = .024) and before- and after-school (? = 0.20, P < .001) MVPA. Greater before- and after-school MVPA explained part of the relationship between active commuting and waist circumference (Sobel z = ?1.98, P = .048). Conclusions Active commuting was associated with greater MVPA and lower measures of adiposity among US youth. Before- and after-school MVPA mediated the relationships between active commuting and waist circumference. PMID:21597121

Mendoza, Jason A.; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Cerin, Ester; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

248

Separating Bedtime Rest from Activity Using Waist or Wrist-Worn Accelerometers in Youth  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA) over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week) in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10–18 years old, 47 females) during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n?=?41) were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer, respectively. The selected optimal activity cut points were 500 and 3,000 counts/min for waist and wrist-worn accelerometers, respectively. Bedtime rest and activity were correctly classified by the algorithm in the validation group (n?=?40) by both waist- (sensitivity: 0.983, specificity: 0.946, area under ROC curve: 0. 872) and wrist-worn (0.999, 0.980 and 0.943) accelerometers. The decision tree classified bedtime rest correctly with higher accuracy than commonly used automated algorithm for both waist- and wrist-warn accelerometer (all p<0.001). We concluded that cut points developed and validated for waist- and wrist-worn uniaxial accelerometer have a good power for accurate separation of time spent in bedtime rest from activity in youth. PMID:24727999

Tracy, Dustin J.; Xu, Zhiyi; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari; Chen, Kong Y.; Buchowski, Maciej S.

2014-01-01

249

Neural Substrate of Body Size: Illusory Feeling of Shrinking of the Waist  

PubMed Central

The perception of the size and shape of one's body (body image) is a fundamental aspect of how we experience ourselves. We studied the neural correlates underlying perceived changes in the relative size of body parts by using a perceptual illusion in which participants felt that their waist was shrinking. We scanned the brains of the participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that activity in the cortices lining the left postcentral sulcus and the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus reflected the illusion of waist shrinking, and that this activity was correlated with the reported degree of shrinking. These results suggest that the perceived changes in the size and shape of body parts are mediated by hierarchically higher-order somatosensory areas in the parietal cortex. Based on this finding we suggest that relative size of body parts is computed by the integration of more elementary somatic signals from different body segments. PMID:16336049

2005-01-01

250

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSeveral anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia,

Marta Guasch-Ferré; Mònica Bulló; Miguel Ángel Martínez-González; Dolores Corella; Ramon Estruch; María-Isabel Covas; Fernando Arós; Julia Wärnberg; Miquel Fiol; José Lapetra; Miguel Ángel Muñoz; Lluís Serra-Majem; Xavier Pintó; Nancy Babio; Andrés Díaz-López; Jordi Salas-Salvadó

2012-01-01

251

Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... 29.9 Obesity 30.0 and Above Waist Circumference Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks that come ... of Obesity-Associated Diseases by BMI and Waist Circumference provides you with an idea of whether your ...

252

Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)  

MedlinePLUS

... three key measures: body mass index (BMI) waist circumference, and risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity. Waist Circumference Determine your waist circumference by placing a measuring ...

253

Genome-wide mapping of loci explaining variance in scrotal circumference in Nellore cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC...

254

Brief Report: A Preliminary Study of Fetal Head Circumference Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fetal head circumference (HC) growth was examined prospectively in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD participants (N = 14) were each matched with four control participants (N = 56) on a range of parameters known to influence fetal growth. HC was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation and again at birth…

Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Hickey, Martha; Stanley, Fiona J.; Newnham, John P.; Pennell, Craig E.

2011-01-01

255

GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATES FOR SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF YEARLING LINE 1 HEREFORD BULLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives of this research were to estimate heritability for scrotal circumference (SC) and semen traits, and genetic correlations among these traits and birth weight (BW). Phenotypes were recorded for Line 1 Hereford bulls (n = 841), born in 1963 or from 1967 to 2000 that had been either selected...

256

Growth of Head Circumference in Autistic Infants during the First Year of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the increase in head circumference (HC) of 85 autistic infants (64 boys and 21 girls) during their first year of life. The data were collected from their "mother-and-baby" notebooks. This notebook is a medical record of the baby's growth and development delivered to the parents of all babies born in Japan. This is a…

Fukumoto, Aya; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiromichi; Nishimura, Mio; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Miyazaki, Masahito; Mori, Kenji; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kagami, Shoji

2008-01-01

257

TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth  

E-print Network

TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth On two dates during the year, the geometric relationship of Earth to the Sun produces "equinox", a word literally meaning and sunset is approximately 12 hours everywhere on Earth. b) The Sun is directly overhead at noon

Pickett, Galen T.

258

Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference  

PubMed Central

To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association (GWA) studies (N=10,768 from European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N=19,089). Rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P=8.1×10?9), and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P=2.8×10?10) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height1, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P=3.8×10?7 for rs7980687, P=1.3×10?7 for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P=3.9×10?6). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal show genome-wide association with adult intra cranial volume2, Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases3-5, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life. PMID:22504419

Warrington, Nicole M; Kaakinen, Marika; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Freathy, Rachel M; Geller, Frank; Guxens, Mònica; Cousminer, Diana L; Kerkhof, Marjan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ikram, M Arfan; Beilin, Lawrence J; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Buxton, Jessica L; Charoen, Pimphen; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Eriksson, Johan; Evans, David M; Hofman, Albert; Kemp, John P; Kim, Cecilia E; Klopp, Norman; Lahti, Jari; Lye, Stephen J; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Müller, Martina; O’Reilly, Paul F; Prokopenko, Inga; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Steegers, Eric A P; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiesler, Carla; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Breteler, Monique M B; Debette, Stephanie; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Vernooij, Meike W; Blakemore, Alexandra IF; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fernandez-Benet, Julio; Grant, Struan F A; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; van der Heijden, Albert J; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lathrop, Mark; McArdle, Wendy L; Mølgaard, Anne; Newnham, John P; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pouta, Annneli; Ring, Susan M; Sovio, Ulla; Standl, Marie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wichmann, H-Erich; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; DeCarli, Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia M; McCarthy, Mark I; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Estivill, Xavier; Hattersley, Andrew T; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Pennell, Craig E; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

2013-01-01

259

Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

260

Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon.

261

Assessment of waist-to-hip ratio attractiveness in women: an anthropometric analysis of digital silhouettes.  

PubMed

The low proportion of waist to hip size in females is a unique and adaptive human feature. In contemporary human populations, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is negatively associated with women's health, fecundity, and cognitive ability. It is, therefore, hypothesized that men will prefer women with low WHR. Although this prediction is supported by many studies, considerable disagreement persists about which WHR values are the most attractive and the importance of WHR for attractiveness of the female body. Unfortunately, the methods applied thus far are flawed in several ways. In the present study, we investigated male preferences for female WHR using a high precision assessment procedure and digitally manufactured, high quality, anthropometrically informed stimuli which were disentangled from body mass covariation. Forty men were requested to choose the most attractive silhouette consecutively from six series (2 levels of realism × 3 levels of body mass), each consisting of 26 female images that varied in WHR (from .60 to .85 by .01). Substantial inter-individual variation in the choices made was observed. Nevertheless, low and average WHR values were chosen more frequently than above-average values or values below the normal variation of the trait. This preference pattern mirrors the relationship between WHR and mate value, suggesting that the preferences are adaptive. PMID:23975738

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2014-07-01

262

Lattice design for an ILC damping ring with 3 km circumference  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple lattice that meets the specifications for the damping times and horizontal and longitudinal emittances for the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings. The circumference of a little over 3 km leads to a bunch spacing of around 3 ns, which will require advances in kicker technology for injection and extraction. We present the lattice design, and initial results of studies of the acceptance and collective effects. With the high bunch charge and close spacing, the ion and electron cloud effects are expected to be severe; however, the simple structure of the lattice allows for easy variation of the circumference and bunch spacing, which may make it useful for future investigations.

Wolski, Andrzej

2004-10-11

263

p-Cycle Network Design with Hop Limits and Circumference Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

p-cycles offer an approach to protection of optical transport networks which is as fast as a ring-based network but with mesh-like capacity efficiency. One misconception about p-cycle designs seems to be that they involve long protection paths, even though it is trivial to limit the circumference of cycles admitted to the design problem. In addition, through straddling span considerations the

Adil Kodian; Anthony Sack; Wayne D. Grover

2004-01-01

264

How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

Beckmann, M.; Ziemann, V.

2015-01-01

265

Growth references for height, weight, and head circumference for Argentine children with achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prepare growth references for height, weight, and head circumference for Argentine children with Achondroplasia,\\u000a 228 children (114 boys) aged 0–18 years attending the Growth Clinic at Hospital Garrahan were measured between 1992 and 2009.\\u000a Centiles were calculated by LMS, a method for summarizing growth data which adjusts for skewness. Curves for centiles are\\u000a obtained using the formula: $$

Mariana del Pino; Virginia Fano; Horacio Lejarraga

2011-01-01

266

US demographic trends in mid-arm circumference and recommended blood pressure cuffs: 1988–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-arm circumference (AC) measurement is a prerequisite for the selection of properly sized blood pressure (BP) cuffs and accurate BP readings. This study examined trends in the frequency distribution of mid-AC and corresponding recommended BP cuff sizes using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994) and NHANES 1999–2002 data. Both surveys used a complex sample design to obtain

Y Ostchega; C Dillon; M Carroll; R J Prineas; M McDowell

2005-01-01

267

Infantile Onset Alexander Disease with Normal Head Circumference: A Genetically Proven Case Report  

PubMed Central

Alexander disease (AD) is an autosomal dominant leukodystrophy which predominantly affects infants and children. The infantile form comprises the most common form of AD. It presents before two years of age and characterized by macrocephaly, psychomotor regression, spasticity, pyramidal sign, ataxia and seizures. The diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and confirmed by Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene molecular testing. We report an Indian case with normal head circumference. PMID:25584279

Mehndiratta, Sumit; Faruq, Mohammed; Dwivedi, Manish Kumar; Kapoor, Seema

2014-01-01

268

[Longitudinal data of physical growth of healthy children. III. Circumferences of thorax, upper arm, thigh and calf of children aged 2 to 15 years (author's transl)].  

PubMed

From 1968--1978 a longitudinal study was performed concerning development of thorax, upper arm, thigh and calf circumferences in 709 boys and 711 girls 2--15 years old. In boys the mean increase in thoracic circumference amounted to 32.9 cm, in upper are circumference to 8.3 cm, in thigh circumference to 20.6 cm and in calf circumference to 13.0 cm. The corresponding circumferences in girls amounted to 30 cm, 7.9 cm, 22.4 cm and 12.7 cm. In boys the circumferences developed almost linearly until year 15. Girls had the same linear development until year 13. Between years 14 and 15 girls had in increased development of all circumferences studied. PMID:7188990

Reinken, L; Stolley, H; Droese, W; van Oost, G

1980-01-01

269

Three-dimensional whole circumference shape measurement system using optical patterns projection technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic three-dimensional whole circumference shapes measurement system using an optical patterns projection technique has been developed. The system is composed of an optical spatial modulator from which grating patterns are projected on the surface of the object set on a turntable stage, a CCD camera controlled by a robot arm, and a computer. The patterns on the surface of the object are taken into the computer by the CCD camera, and the three-dimensional coordinates of the patterns on the surface of the object are calculated according to a principle of a trigonometry measurement. The patterns faced to the CCD camera are taken into the computer by the CCD camera, four photographs at each turntable angle of 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees are processed and the image processing data are composed as whole circumference shapes. This improved system using mechanical and optical method and data analysis has the following advantages. (1) It is possible to capture the surface topography without any contact. (2) The time required for the measurements is shorter than the light-section method. (3) The optical spatial modulator using a liquid crystal projector enables to control the striped patterns accurately by the computer. (4) It is possible to measure precisely and to expand the measurement area using a zoom camera. (5) The improved system has whole circumference shapes measurement area as well as high resolution.

Tsujioka, Katsumi; Uchida, Yoshihisa; Liu, Jing-Nan; Furuhashi, Hideo; Uchida, Yoshiyuki

2008-12-01

270

Observer variation in measurements of waist-hip ratio and the abdominal sagittal diameter.  

PubMed

In an out-patient weight loss study of 63 patients (54 female, 9 male), 53 completed a 16 week treatment with a low calorie diet and a 9 g/day fibre supplement. In these 53 patients, the average weight loss was 8.3 kg (s.e.m. 0.8). Waist-hip ratio (WHR) and abdominal sagittal diameter (SagD) were measured as indicators of fat distribution and visceral adipose tissue (visceral AT) was estimated by anthropometric computerized tomography calibrated equations. Four observers measured WHR and SagD ten times in eight patients. Two dietitians examined the patients throughout the clinical trial at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 16. Furthermore, two physicians examined the patients at week 12 in the trial. Two- and three-way analyses of variance were performed to estimate the contribution of single factors to the total variance. The contribution of observers, 3.2% and 3.8%, respectively, was of the same magnitude as the error variance (2.9% and 4.8% respectively) which is a measure of the intra-observer variation. The two dietitians had very similar recordings and contributed only 0.3% and 0.9% to the total variance for WHR and SagD, respectively. The contributions of the two physicians to the total variance were 0.0% for WHR and 0.4% for SagD. It is concluded that there is no need to use several observers or repeated measurements of waist, hip and SagD in clinical anti-obesity trials. PMID:8392497

Rasmussen, M H; Andersen, T; Breum, L; Hilsted, J; Gøtzsche, P C

1993-06-01

271

Circumference imaging for optical based identification of cylindrical and conical objects  

SciTech Connect

Inspection and identification of cylindrical or conical shaped objects presents a unique challenge for a machine vision system. Due to the circular nature of the objects it is difficult to image the whole object using traditional area cameras and image capture methods. This work describes a unique technique to acquire a two dimensional image of the entire surface circumference of a cylindrical/conical shaped object. The specific application of this method is the identification of large caliber (155 mm) ammunition rounds in the field as they are transported between or within vehicles. The proposed method utilizes a line scan camera in combination with high speed image acquisition and processing hardware to acquire images from multiple cameras and generate a single, geometrically accurate, surface image. The primary steps involved are the capture of multiple images as the ammunition moves by on the conveyor followed by warping to correct for the distortion induced by the curved projectile surface. The individual images are then tiled together to form one two-dimensional image of the complete circumference. Once this image has been formed an automatic identification algorithm begins the feature extraction and classification process.

Hunt, M.A.; Sitter, D.N.; Ferrell, R.K.; Breeding, J.E.

1997-02-01

272

Waist to Hip Ratio, Body Mass Index and Subsequent Kidney Disease and Death  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity are important public health concerns. We examined the association between anthropomorphic measures and incident CKD and mortality. Design Cohort Setting and Participants Individual patient data pooled from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study Exposures Waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) Outcomes Incident CKD defined as serum creatinine rise of >0.4 mg/dL with baseline creatinine ?1.4 mg/dL in men and 1.2 mg/dL in women and final creatinine above these levels, and, in separate analyses, as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline ?15 mL/min/1.73m2 with baseline eGFR ?60 and final eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Analysis Multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and outcomes. Cox models to evaluate a secondary composite outcome of all-cause mortality and incident CKD. Results Among 13,324 individuals, mean WHR was 0.96 in men and 0.89 in women and mean BMI was 27.2 kg/m2 in both men and women. Over 9.3 years, 300 (2.3%) in creatinine-based models and 710 (5.5%) in eGFR-based models developed CKD. In creatinine-based models, each standard deviation increase in WHR was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD [Odds ratio=1.22 (1.05, 1.43)] and the composite outcome [Hazard ratio=1.12 (1.06, 1.18)], while each standard deviation increase in BMI was not associated with CKD [Odds ratio=1.05 (0.93, 1.20)] and appeared protective for the composite outcome [Hazard ratio=0.94 (0.90, 0.99)]. Results of eGFR-based models were similar. Limitations Single measures of creatinine, no albuminuria data. Conclusions WHR but not BMI is associated with incident CKD and mortality. Assessment of CKD risk should utilize WHR rather than BMI as an anthropomorphic measure of obesity. PMID:18511168

Elsayed, Essam F; Sarnak, Mark J; Tighiouart, Hocine; Griffith, John L; Kurth, Tobias; Salem, Deeb N; Levey, Andrew S; Weiner, Daniel E

2014-01-01

273

The Association of Calf Circumference with Resting Pulse Rate in Community-dwelling Healthy Elderly Women -Pilot Study-.  

PubMed

[Purpose] High resting blood pressure and heart rate are associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. In patients with decreasing amounts of slow twitch muscle fiber, hypertension may develop and resting heart rate may increase. Measurement of the amount of slow twitch muscle fiber and capillary density using muscle biopsy is inconvenient and expensive. Therefore, a better screening test is required to determine these parameters for prevention of cardiovascular events. In this study, relationships among calf circumference, resting blood pressure, and pulse rate in the soleus muscle were investigated. [Subjects] Healthy elderly women (n= 19, 61-84?years of age) living in the community were the subjects of this study. [Methods] Blood pressure was measured using an automatic hemodynamometer on the left arm. The calf circumference was measured, and pulse rate was measured on the left radial artery for 1?min by palpation. [Results] No correlations were observed between calf circumference, resting systolic or diastolic pressure, pulse pressure, or mean blood pressure. However, an inverse correlation was observed between calf circumference and resting pulse rate. [Conclusion] Calf circumference measurement may be used as a screening test for resting pulse rate. This test may be useful for the prevention of cardiovascular events. PMID:24259834

Takagi, Daisuke; Morikami, Akihiro; Kamo, Tomohiko; Fujita, Daisuke; Goto, Miku; Kubo, Yuusuke; Saito, Makoto; Suzuki, Ryo; Kageyama, Masatoshi; Matsuura, Kojiro; Nishida, Yuusuke

2013-06-01

274

Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: role of waist-to-hip ratio.  

PubMed

Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60 years. Study 2 shows that college-age men find female figures with low WHR more attractive, healthier, and of greater reproductive value than figures with a higher WHR. In Study 3, 25- to 85-year-old men were found to prefer female figures with lower WHR and assign them higher ratings of attractiveness and reproductive potential. It is suggested that WHR represents an important bodily feature associated with physical attractiveness as well as with health and reproductive potential. A hypothesis is proposed to explain how WHR influences female attractiveness and its role in mate selection. PMID:8366421

Singh, D

1993-08-01

275

Dynamic Association of Mortality Hazard with Body Shape  

PubMed Central

Background A Body Shape Index (ABSI) had been derived from a study of the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 mortality data to quantify the risk associated with abdominal obesity (as indicated by a wide waist relative to height and body mass index). A national survey with longer follow-up, the British Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS), provides another opportunity to assess the predictive power for mortality of ABSI. HALS also includes repeat observations, allowing estimation of the implications of changes in ABSI. Methods and Findings We evaluate ABSI z score relative to population normals as a predictor of all-cause mortality over 24 years of follow-up to HALS. We found that ABSI is a strong indicator of mortality hazard in this population, with death rates increasing by a factor of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.09–1.16) per standard deviation increase in ABSI and a hazard ratio of 1.61 (1.40–1.86) for those with ABSI in the top 20% of the population compared to those with ABSI in the bottom 20%. Using the NHANES normals to compute ABSI z scores gave similar results to using z scores derived specifically from the HALS sample. ABSI outperformed as a predictor of mortality hazard other measures of abdominal obesity such as waist circumference, waist to height ratio, and waist to hip ratio. Moreover, it was a consistent predictor of mortality hazard over at least 20 years of follow-up. Change in ABSI between two HALS examinations 7 years apart also predicted mortality hazard: individuals with a given initial ABSI who had rising ABSI were at greater risk than those with falling ABSI. Conclusions ABSI is a readily computed dynamic indicator of health whose correlation with lifestyle and with other risk factors and health outcomes warrants further investigation. PMID:24586394

Krakauer, Nir Y.; Krakauer, Jesse C.

2014-01-01

276

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Males with Normal Body Weight and High Waist-to-Hip Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Overweight and the distribution of body fat are both associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relation of abdominal body fat distribution to CVD may depend on the degree of obesity.Objective The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular disease risk factor levels in males with high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in the absence of

Eve Pihl; Toivo Jürimäe

2001-01-01

277

A New Way to Measure Mid-Upper-Arm Circumference in African Villages  

PubMed Central

In 2011 we published a study on how to detect the threshold for malnutrition in children, simply using their own hands and without any technical tool. The fight against malnutrition can only be reached when its measurements involve every single child, almost continuously, in the affected villages. In this paper we try to show that, thanks to our method, it is possible to use mid-upper-arm-circumference as a measurement for malnutrition in children, discriminating between severe and moderate malnutrition and providing the basis for the decision on whether to admit a child to a nutritional rehabilitation unit or not. We trained 63 participants in four groups (Group 1: doctors and clinical officers; Group 2: nurses and students; as Group 3 we defined the 20 best participants and Group 4 consisted of 10 more intensely trained participants) to measure the circumference of 9 different artificial arms (between 9 and 13 cm) using their own fingers and hands. The training was short and consisted of an introduction of 5 min, a first training phase of 10-15 min, a test, the critical discussion of the results, a second training phase of 5 min and a final test. We found that 95.3% of participants in the general group and 97.9% in the intensely trained group have identified the severely malnourished child; 87.3% in the general group and 91.9% in the intensely trained group have additionally identified the moderately malnourished child. Both groups haven’t admitted the well nourished child to a therapeutic feeding program retaining their resources. The third group reached without any additional training the results in the above categories. A subsequent discussion with the participants on the influence of procurement, maintenance and pricing of our tool, found our method much less vulnerable than others. We conclude that this method should be considered as a future training in the villages to detect the trend towards malnutrition early enough. PMID:24987512

Pollach, Gregor; Bradley, Eleanore; Cole, Abigail; Jung, Kai

2014-01-01

278

Early pregnancy waist-to-hip ratio and risk of preeclampsia: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal death and morbidity. Body mass index (BMI) predicts an increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders and preeclampsia. However, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), as a central obesity index, has not been assessed in predicting this disorder in pregnancy. We assumed that WHR might be more sensitive in predicting the risk of preeclampsia, compared with BMI. The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the relationships of BMI and WHR with preeclampsia. This was a prospective cohort study of 1200 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. Anthropometric indices included WHR and BMI, which were measured at the first antenatal visit (?12 weeks of gestational age). The incidence of preeclampsia was assessed after 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal demographic data and obstetric outcomes were also recorded for each subject. All of the statistical tests were performed using SPSS software, version 16. The overall incidence of preeclampsia in the study population was 4.2%. The maternal WHR and BMI at the beginning of pregnancy were significantly associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively). WHR?0.85 and BMI?25?kg?m(-2) in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy had relative risks of 2.317 (confidence interval (CI): 1.26-4.27) and 3.317 (CI: 1.6-6.86) for preeclampsia. BMI and WHR were anthropometric indicators that presented correlations with preeclampsia. Of these anthropometric indices, BMI had greater predictive value in preeclampsia. PMID:25185830

Taebi, Mahboubeh; Sadat, Zohreh; Saberi, Farzaneh; Kalahroudi, Masoumeh Abedzadeh

2015-01-01

279

Observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio in the prediction of survival in fetuses with isolated diaphragmatic hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the value of antenatally determined observed to expected fetal lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) in the prediction of postnatal survival in isolated, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Methods Two groups of fetuses were examined. The first group included 650 normal fetuses at 12-32 weeks' gestation, and the data collected were used to establish a normal range

J. Jani; K. H. Nicolaides; R. L. Keller; A. Benachi; C. F. A. Peralta; R. Favre; O. Moreno; D. Tibboel; S. Lipitz; A. Eggink; P. Vaast; K. Allegaert; M. Harrison; J. Deprest

2007-01-01

280

Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

2012-01-01

281

Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of…

Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff

2008-01-01

282

Penile circumference, skin conductance, and ranking responses of child molesters and “Normals” to sexual and nonsexual visual stimuli+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty male child molesters confined in a maximum sercurity psychiatric insti- tution were compared with eleven non-sex offender patients from the same insti- tution and ten persons from the community. Each subject was shown a total of 20 slides which were of persons varying in age and sex as well as neutral or non- person slides. Penile circumference and skin

VERNON L. QUINSEY; CARY M. STEINMAN; S BERGERSEN; T HOLMES

1975-01-01

283

Genetic contribution to variation in body configuration in Belgian nuclear families: a closer look at body lengths and circumferences.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the contribution of genetic factors on body configuration related phenotypes. The sample consisted of 119 Belgian nuclear families including 231 males and 229 females. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to analyse 13 length and circumference measures and the resulting two synthetic traits (LF and CF; linear and circumference factors, respectively) were used as summary variables. Univariate quantitative genetic analysis indicated that variation in anthropometric as well as in synthetic traits was significantly dependent on additive genetic effects, with heritabilities ranging from 0.55 to 0.88. Narrow sense heritability estimates were higher for measurements principally characterizing skeletal mass than in variables that also involve soft-tissues. Sex, age and their interactions explained 11-67% of the total phenotypic variance. This report also examined the covariations between pairs of anthropometric and synthetic traits (length measurements and LF vs. height; circumference measures and CF vs. weight and BMI; LF vs. CF). Significant genetic correlations among all the studied traits (except for middle finger length vs. height) confirmed the influence of pleiotropy on genetic determination of these phenotypes. Bivariate analysis showed that pleiotropic effects had a great influence in determining body traits variation within body length measurements, as well as between body circumferences and weight or BMI. In relation to the two synthetic traits, even the variation of body lengths and circumferences was highly determined by genetic factors, shared genetic influences were unlikely to explain much of the observed variation between LF and CF. The results of the present study allow us to conclude that in this population body configuration related traits are subject to a strong genetic control and that shared genes also contribute to this genetic structure. PMID:20698125

Poveda, Alaitz; Jelenkovic, Aline; Susanne, Charles; Rebato, Esther

2010-06-01

284

Waist to Height Ratio Is an Independent Predictor for the Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Obesity is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. The association between waist to height ratio (WheiR) and CKD is unclear. This study evaluated the association between WheiR and CKD. Design and Methods In this longitudinal cohort study, 4841 Japanese workers (3686 males, 1155 females) 18 to 67 years of age in 2008 were followed up until 2011. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese) or dipstick proteinuria (?1+). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship between WheiR and development of CKD. Results A total of 384 (7.9%) participants (300 men and 84 women) were found to have new CKD. The incidence of CKD was 13.7, 24.2, 37.9 and 43.7 per 1000 person-years of follow-up in the lowest, second, third and highest quartiles of WheiR, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for CKD were 1.00 (reference), 1.23 (0.85, 1.78), 1.59 (1.11, 2.26) and 1.62 (1.13, 2.32) through the quartiles of WheiR, respectively. WheiR had a significant predictive value for the incidence of both proteinuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After subdivision according to gender, the relationship between WheiR and the incidence of CKD was statistically significant in the unadjusted model. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, WheiR was significantly associated with the incidence of CKD in females, whereas it was not significant in males. Conclusions WheiR, which is commonly used as an index of central obesity, is associated with CKD. There was a significant gender difference in the relationship between CKD and WheiR. PMID:24533159

Odagiri, Keiichi; Mizuta, Isagi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Uehara, Akihiko

2014-01-01

285

Predicting cardiometabolic risk: waist-to-height ratio or BMI. A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives The identification of increased cardiometabolic risk among asymptomatic individuals remains a huge challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the association of body mass index (BMI), which is an index of general obesity, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), an index of abdominal obesity, with cardiometabolic risk in cross-sectional and prospective studies. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched for cross-sectional or prospective studies that evaluated the association of both BMI and WHtR with several cardiometabolic outcomes. The strength of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the optimal cutoffs of BMI and WHtR in cross-sectional studies, while any available cutoff was used in prospective studies. The pooled estimate of the ratio of RRs (rRR [=RRBMI/RRWHtR]) with 95% CIs was used to compare the association of WHtR and BMI with cardiometabolic risk. Meta-regression was used to identify possible sources of heterogeneity between the studies. Results Twenty-four cross-sectional studies and ten prospective studies with a total number of 512,809 participants were identified as suitable for the purpose of this meta-analysis. WHtR was found to have a stronger association than BMI with diabetes mellitus (rRR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59–0.84) and metabolic syndrome (rRR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89–0.96) in cross-sectional studies. Also in prospective studies, WHtR appears to be superior to BMI in detecting several outcomes, including incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality. The usefulness of WHtR appears to be better in Asian than in non-Asian populations. BMI was not superior to WHtR in any of the outcomes that were evaluated. However, the results of the utilized approach should be interpreted cautiously because of a substantial heterogeneity between the results of the studies. Meta-regression analysis was performed to explain this heterogeneity, but none of the evaluated factors, ie, sex, origin (Asians, non-Asians), and optimal BMI or WHtR cutoffs were significantly related with rRR. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis support the use of WHtR in identifying adults at increased cardiometabolic risk. However, further evidence is warranted because of a substantial heterogeneity between the studies. PMID:24179379

Savva, Savvas C; Lamnisos, Demetris; Kafatos, Anthony G

2013-01-01

286

Membrane Thickness Varies Around the Circumference of the Transmembrane Protein BtuB  

PubMed Central

BtuB is a large outer-membrane ?-barrel protein that belongs to a class of active transport proteins that are TonB-dependent. These TonB-dependent transporters are based upon a 22-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel, which is notably asymmetric in its length. Here, site-directed spin labeling and simulated annealing were used to locate the membrane lipid interface surrounding BtuB when reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Positions on the outer facing surface of the ?-barrel and the periplasmic turns were spin-labeled and distances from the label to the membrane interface estimated by progressive power saturation of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. These distances were then used as atom-to-plane distance restraints in a simulated annealing routine, to dock the protein to two independent planes and produce a model representing the average position of the lipid phosphorus atoms at each interface. The model is in good agreement with the experimental data; however, BtuB is mismatched to the bilayer thickness and the resulting planes representing the bilayer interface are not parallel. In the model, the membrane thickness varies by 11 Å around the circumference of the protein, indicating that BtuB distorts the bilayer interface so that it is thinnest on the short side of the protein ?-barrel. PMID:21354401

Ellena, Jeffrey F.; Lackowicz, Pawel; Mongomery, Hillary; Cafiso, David S.

2011-01-01

287

Use of mid upper arm circumference for evaluation of nutritional status of OSMF patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is always associated with juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibroblastic changes in lamina propria, with epithelial atrophy leading to stiffness of oral mucosa and causing trismus and inability to eat. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a useful tool for a fast assessment of the nutritional status. Aims: The study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation of MUAC as a nutritional status indicator in OSMF patients. Patients and Methods: The study group comprised 50 clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of OSMF. MUAC was recorded using a plastic measuring tape. The right upper arm was measured at the midpoint between the tip of the shoulder and the tip of the elbow (olecranon process and the acromium). Results: Out of 50 subjects, 76% (38) were having MUAC value <23 cm, which shows an inverse relation between MUAC and clinical staging. The relation of MUAC with clinical staging was significant. Conclusion: The patient with OSMF becomes unable to eat due to burning, ulcers, and inability to open mouth, which affects the health of the individual. Thus, it is crucial to access the nutritional status to improve the survival rate of patients.

Yallamraju, Suryanarayana R.; Mehrotra, Rachit; Sinha, Abhishek; Gattumeedhi, Shashank Reddy; Gupta, Abhishek; Khadse, Smita V.

2014-01-01

288

Heat Transfer Over the Circumference of a Heated Cylinder in Transverse Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for recording the local heat-transfer coefficients on bodies in flow was developed. The cylinder surface was kept at constant temperature by the condensation of vapor except for a narrow strip which is heated separately to the same temperature by electricity. The heat-transfer coefficient at each point was determined from the electric heat output and the temperature increase. The distribution of the heat transfer along the circumference of cylinders was recorded over a range of Reynolds numbers of from 5000 to 426,000. The pressure distribution was measured at the same time. At Reynolds numbers up to around 100,000 high maximums of the heat transfer occurred in the forward stagnation point at and on the rear side at 180C, while at around 80 the heat-transfer coefficient on both sides of the cylinder behind the forward stagnation point manifested distinct minimums. Two other maximums occurred at around 115 C behind the forward stagnation point between 170,000 and 426,000. At 426,000 the heat transfer at the location of those maximums was almost twice as great as in the forward stagnation point, and the rear half of the cylinder diffused about 60 percent of the entire heat, The tests are compared with the results of other experimental and theoretical investigations.

Schmidt, Ernst; Wenner, Karl

1943-01-01

289

Stunting, adiposity, and the individual-level “dual burden” among urban lowland and rural highland peruvian children  

PubMed Central

Background The causes of the “dual burden” of stunting and obesity remain unclear, and its existence at the individual level varies between populations. We investigate whether the individual dual burden differentially affects low socioeconomic status Peruvian children from contrasting environments (urban lowlands and rural highlands), and whether tibia length can discount the possible autocorrelation between adiposity proxies and height due to height measurement error. Methods Stature, tibia length, weight, and waist circumference were measured in children aged 3–8.5 years (n?=?201). Height and body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated using international reference data. Age-sex-specific centile curves were also calculated for height, BMI, and tibia length. Adiposity proxies (BMI z score, waist circumference-height ratio (WCHtR)) were regressed on height and also on tibia length z scores. Results Regression model interaction terms between site (highland vs. lowland) and height indicate that relationships between adiposity and linear growth measures differed significantly between samples (P?

Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Wells, Jonathan CK

2014-01-01

290

Seven tenths incorrect: heterogeneity and change in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners.  

PubMed

Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation in waist-to-hip ratios among these women is greater than reported. Second, the center of the distribution of waist-to-hip ratios is not 0.70, but less than this. Third, the average waist-to-hip ratio within both samples has changed over time in a manner that is statistically significant and can be regarded as mutually consistent. Taken together, the findings undermine some of the evidence given for the repeated suggestion that there is something special--evolutionarily hard-wired or otherwise--about a specific female waist-to-hip ratio of 0.70 as a preference of American heterosexual males. PMID:12476245

Freese, Jeremy; Meland, Sheri

2002-05-01

291

Treatment of Nonunion of Scaphoid Waist with Ni-Ti Shape-Memory Alloy Connector and Iliac Bone Graft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After fracture, the unique anatomy and blood supply of the scaphoid itself predisposes to nonunion. Scaphoid nonunion presents a formidable challenge to surgeons because of the difficulties for fixation, and the high failure rate after treatment. The Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy can provide compressive stress at the nonunion site, which is the key point for bone healing. Hence, we designed a shape-memory bone connector named arched shape-memory connector (ASC). We conducted a retrospective study looking at the union rate and complications and correlating the outcome of treatment with this device. The study reviewed a cohort of six consecutive patients presenting with scaphoid waist nonunion, who were treated with ASC and iliac cancellous bone grafting at our center from August 2002 to December 2007. The patients with nonunion achieved a 100% union rate. All the patients who achieved union had good pain relief and improved function. Our study demonstrates that scaphoid waist nonunions can be successfully treated by ASC and iliac bone grafting.

Cao, Lie-Hu; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Wu, Ya-Le; Zhang, Chun-Cai

2011-07-01

292

Adjusting head circumference for covariates in autism: clinical correlates of a highly heritable continuous trait  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Brain development follows a different trajectory in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) than in typically developing children. A proxy for neurodevelopment could be head circumference (HC), but studies assessing HC and its clinical correlates in ASD have been inconsistent. This study investigates HC and clinical correlates in the Simons Simplex Collection cohort. METHODS We used a mixed linear model to estimate effects of covariates and the deviation from the expected HC given parental HC (genetic deviation). After excluding individuals with incomplete data, 7225 individuals in 1891 families remained for analysis. We examined the relationship between HC/genetic deviation of HC and clinical parameters. RESULTS Gender, age, height, weight, genetic ancestry and ASD status were significant predictors of HC (estimate of the ASD effect=0.2cm). HC was approximately normally distributed in probands and unaffected relatives, with only a few outliers. Genetic deviation of HC was also normally distributed, consistent with a random sampling of parental genes. Whereas larger HC than expected was associated with ASD symptom severity and regression, IQ decreased with the absolute value of the genetic deviation of HC. CONCLUSIONS Measured against expected values derived from covariates of ASD subjects, statistical outliers for HC were uncommon. HC is a strongly heritable trait and population norms for HC would be far more accurate if covariates including genetic ancestry, height and age were taken into account. The association of diminishing IQ with absolute deviation from predicted HC values suggests HC could reflect subtle underlying brain development and warrants further investigation. PMID:23746936

Chaste, Pauline; Klei, Lambertus; Sanders, Stephan J.; Murtha, Michael T.; Hus, Vanessa; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Yu, Timothy W.; Fombonne, Eric; Geschwind, Daniel; Grice, Dorothy E.; Ledbetter, David H.; Lord, Catherine; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa Lese; Martin, Donna M.; Morrow, Eric M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Sutcliffe, James S.; State, Matthew W.; Devlin, Bernie; Cook, Edwin H.; Kim, Soo-Jeong

2013-01-01

293

Genetic correlation between heifer pregnancy and scrotal circumference measured at 15 and 18 months of age in Nellore cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Data of pregnancy diagnosis from 24,945 Nellore heif- ers, raised under tropical conditions in Brazil and exposed to breeding at about 14 months of age, were analyzed simultaneously with 13,742 (anal- ysis 1), 36,091 (analysis 2), 8,405 (analysis 3), and 8,405 (analysis 4) scrotal circumference (SC) records of contemporary young bulls in or- der to estimate heritability (h,) for

J. P. Eler; J. B. S. Ferraz; J. C. C. Balieiro; E. C. Mattos; G. B. Mourão

2006-01-01

294

Growth of infants’ length, weight, head and arm circumferences in relation to low levels of blood lead measured serially  

PubMed Central

To determine whether levels of blood lead during gestation and infancy that are below the CDC action of level of 10 ?g/dL affect infant growth, we studied 211 disadvantaged mother-infant pairs from Albany, NY. Mothers’ lead levels were low (2nd trimester x=2.8 ?g/dL) as were infants’ (x= 3.3 ?g/dL at 6 months; 6.4 ?g/dL at 12 months). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that 2nd trimester lead levels were related to reduced head circumference at 6 and 12 months. Infants of mothers with 2nd trimester lead at or above the median (? 3 ug/dL) exhibited negative associations between blood lead and head circumference at 6 and 12 months, and with weight-for-age, weight-for-length and upper arm circumference at 6 months, but those below the median did not. Infants’ 6 month lead level was related to head circumference at 12 months in the total sample, and in the sub-sample of infants whose blood lead was above the infants’ 6 month blood lead median. Infants also were grouped by changes in their relative blood lead status, i.e., above vs. below the median, from 2nd trimester to 12 months of age. Infants whose lead levels changed from above to below the median were larger than infants whose lead levels went from below to above the median. The results suggest that lead may affect some dimensions of infant growth at levels below 10 ug/dL, but effects of lead levels less than 3 ug/dL are not evident in this sample. PMID:18991336

Schell, Lawrence M.; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D.; Parsons, Patrick; Schulte, Elaine

2011-01-01

295

The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine how fetal growth is related to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. DESIGN--A follow up study of men born during 1907-24 whose birth weights, head circumferences, and other body measurements were recorded at birth. SETTING--Sheffield, England. SUBJECTS--1586 Men born in the Jessop Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Standardised mortality ratios for cardiovascular disease fell from

D J Barker; C Osmond; S J Simmonds; G A Wield

1993-01-01

296

Developmental Correlates of Head Circumference at Birth and Two Years in a Cohort of Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the developmental correlates of microcephaly evident at birth and at 2 years in a cohort born at extremely low gestational age. Methods We assessed development and motor function at 2 years of 958 children born before the 28th week of gestation, comparing those who had microcephaly at birth or 2 years with children with normal head circumference while considering the contribution of neonatal cranial ultrasound lesions. Results A total of 11% of infants in our sample had microcephaly at 2 years. Microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, predicts severe motor and cognitive impairments at 2 years. A total of 71% of children with congenital microcephaly had a normal head circumference at 2 years and had neurodevelopmental outcomes comparable with those with normal head circumference at birth and 2 years. Among children with microcephaly at 2 years, more than half had a Mental Developmental Index <70, and nearly a third had cerebral palsy. The risks were increased if the child also had cerebral white matter damage on a cranial ultrasound scan obtained 2 years previously. Conclusion Among extremely low gestational age newborns, microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, is associated with motor and cognitive impairment at age 2. PMID:19555967

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Westra, Sjirk; Miller, Cindy; Rosman, N. Paul; Leviton, Alan

2009-01-01

297

Brief Communication: Menarche is Related to Fat Distribution  

E-print Network

-3210 KEY WORDS body fat; hip circumference; waist-hip ratio; leptin ABSTRACT The energy demands odds of menarche while increases in waist circumference and triceps skinfold lower the odds by 7 and 9 circumference and positively related to waist circumference, stature, and biiliac breadth; and blood leptin

Cosmides, Leda

298

Why Is a Healthy Weight Being overweight or obese increases  

E-print Network

Circumference Measurement Your waist circumference is also an important measurement to help you figure out your for health problems. Your doctor will check your BMI, waist circumference, and other risk factors for heart (BMI 25­29.9) or have a high waist circumference and have two or more risk factors

Bandettini, Peter A.

299

[Research on high sensitivity temperature sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer with waist-enlarged fiber bitapers].  

PubMed

Optical fiber sensing technology is one of the very promising techniques in sensing fields. A high sensitivity high temperature sensor based on inline optical fiber Mach-Zehnder(M-Z) interferometer by using standard single mode fiber with two waist-enlarged bitapers is proposed in the present paper. The waist-enlarged bitapers are considered as couplers, the distance between the two bitapers is the sensing arm. The light in the lead-in fiber core couples into the sensing arms' fiber core and cladding by the first bitaper, and then propagate in them. The phase difference between core mode and cladding mode is produced when the light reaches the second bitaper. Then the second bitaper couples the light into the lead-out single-mode fiber to get the interference spectrum. The sensors with different length were fabricated. The relationship between the sensor length and interference period, and the temperature response of the.sensor were studied by experiments. The results show that the 35 mm long sensor has a high sensitivity of 0.115 nm x degrees C(-1) in the range of 30-400 degrees C. The transmission spectrum of the sensor was also analyzed by the fast Fourier transform. It shows that only LP01 mode and LP08 mode propagate in the sensor. Thesensor has advantages of small size, high precision, and immunity to electromagnetic inteference. In addition, it is of easy fabrication, high signal-to-noise ratio, light weight, and high sensitivity, and could be operated under high temperature. This kind of sensor is a good candidate for high temperature measurement of hot gas, oil and gas well logging and other areas. PMID:25358196

Zhano, Na; Fu, Hai-wei; Shao, Min; Li, Hui-dong; Liu, Ying-gang; Qiao, Xue-guang

2014-06-01

300

Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients.  

PubMed

Abnormal fatty acid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH). We compared fasting serum free fatty acid (FFA) composition between EH patients and nonhypertensive (NH) subjects, and examined the relationships between fasting serum FFA composition and waist/hip ratio, insulin activity, blood pressure, serum zinc, age, and sex in both groups. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 232 community-dwelling subjects aged between 35 and 60 years: 109 EH patients and 123 NH subjects. Serum FFA was determined by HPLC analysis. The data were analyzed by multivariate linear stepwise regression, stratified analysis, and correlation analysis. In men, EH patients had lower C22:6/C20:5 ratios (n-3 Delta6-desaturase activity index, 7.96+/-8.81 vs. 14.5+/-13.1, p<0.01), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA and polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratios compared with male subjects without hypertension. There were no differences in women. Fasting serum FFA composition was significantly related to many variables, including waist/hip ratio, insulin sensitivity index, and serum zinc (all p<0.05 or <0.01) for all the subjects, and included both age- and sex-related differences (both p<0.05). Compared with NH, EH patients had lower levels of serum zinc (14.9+/-5.00 micromol L(-1) vs. 16.8+/-6.38 micromol L(-1), p<0.05). We concluded that EH patients had marked alteration in fasting serum FFA composition, which was affected by upper body obesity, insulin resistance, zinc deficiency, and high dietary fat, and that the differences were age- and sex-related. PMID:18633173

Wang, Shun; Ma, Aiqun; Song, Shaowu; Quan, Qinghai; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zheng, Xiaohui

2008-04-01

301

Evaluation of performance, sheath score and scrotal circumference of Brangus bulls based on the species of origin of their Y chromosome  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE, SHEATH SCORE AND SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE OF BRANGUS BULLS BASED ON THE SPECIES OF ORIGIN OF THEIR Y CHROMOSOME A Thesis ANDY DALE HERRING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Animal Breeding EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE, SHEATH SCORE AND SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE OF BRANGUS BULLS BASED ON THE SPECIES OF ORIGIN OF THEIR Y CHROMOSOME A Thesis...

Herring, Andy Dale

2012-06-07

302

Dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Lebanese children and adolescents.  

PubMed

The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6-19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

2014-01-01

303

Accelerations of the Waist and Lower Extremities over a Range of Gait Velocities to Aid in Activity Monitor Selection for Field-Based Studies  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to define accelerations measured at the waist and lower extremities over a range of gait velocities to provide reference data for choosing the appropriate accelerometer for field-based human activity monitoring studies. Accelerations were measured with a custom activity monitor (±16g) at the waist, thighs, and ankles in 11 participants over a range of gait velocities from slow walking to running speeds. The cumulative frequencies and peak accelerations were determined. Cumulative acceleration amplitudes for the waist, thighs, and ankles during gait velocities up to 4.8 m/s were within the standard commercial g-range (±6g) in 99.8%, 99.0%, and 96.5% of the data, respectively. Conversely, peak acceleration amplitudes exceeding the limits of many commercially available activity monitors were observed at the waist, thighs, and ankles, with the highest peaks at the ankles as expected. At the thighs, and more so at the ankles, nearly 50% of the peak accelerations would not be detected when the gait velocity exceeds a walking velocity. Activity monitor choice is application specific, and investigators should be aware that when measuring high intensity gait velocity activities with commercial units that impose a ceiling at ±6g, peak accelerations may not be measured. PMID:24610379

Morrow, Melissa M. B.; Hurd, Wendy J.; Fortune, Emma; Lugade, Vipul; Kaufman, Kenton R.

2014-01-01

304

Accelerations of the waist and lower extremities over a range of gait velocities to aid in activity monitor selection for field-based studies.  

PubMed

This study aimed to define accelerations measured at the waist and lower extremities over a range of gait velocities to provide reference data for choosing the appropriate accelerometer for field-based human activity monitoring studies. Accelerations were measured with a custom activity monitor (± 16g) at the waist, thighs, and ankles in 11 participants over a range of gait velocities from slow walking to running speeds. The cumulative frequencies and peak accelerations were determined. Cumulative acceleration amplitudes for the waist, thighs, and ankles during gait velocities up to 4.8 m/s were within the standard commercial g-range (± 6g) in 99.8%, 99.0%, and 96.5% of the data, respectively. Conversely, peak acceleration amplitudes exceeding the limits of many commercially available activity monitors were observed at the waist, thighs, and ankles, with the highest peaks at the ankles, as expected. At the thighs, and more so at the ankles, nearly 50% of the peak accelerations would not be detected when the gait velocity exceeds a walking velocity. Activity monitor choice is application specific, and investigators should be aware that when measuring high-intensity gait velocity activities with commercial units that impose a ceiling at ± 6g, peak accelerations may not be measured. PMID:24610379

Morrow, Melissa M B; Hurd, Wendy J; Fortune, Emma; Lugade, Vipul; Kaufman, Kenton R

2014-08-01

305

Seven tenths incorrect: Heterogeneity and change in the waist?to?hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist?to?hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation

Jeremy Freese; Sheri Meland

2002-01-01

306

Sonographic measurement of the fetal rib cage perimeter to thoracic circumference ratio: application to prenatal diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to establish new normative data for the fetal rib cage perimeter to thoracic circumference ratio, and to evaluate the potential application of this measurement in the diagnosis of short rib and other skeletal dysplasias. Rib cage perimeter (RCP) and thoracic circumference (TC) were measured in a prospective, cross-sectional sample of 88 patients with normal pregnancies between 14 and 39 weeks of gestation. The RCP and TC were both measured in cross-section, at a level of the four-chamber view of the fetal heart. RCP and TC measurements were also obtained from eight cases known to have skeletal dysplasias. The mean (+/- SE) RCP:TC ratio in normal pregnancies, regardless of gestational age, was 0.670 +/- 0.004. In five of eight cases with skeletal dysplasias the RCP:TC ratio was significantly decreased, and in one case it was increased. The RCP:TC ratio in normal fetuses is independent of gestational age. In this small series the ratio was abnormal in fetuses with certain skeletal dysplasias, and particularly decreased in the fetus with a short rib-polydactyly syndrome. After further evaluation, this technique may prove to be of clinical significance in helping to diagnose skeletal dysplasias, particularly in cases where the gestational age is uncertain. PMID:9383879

Dugoff, L; Coffin, C T; Hobbins, J C

1997-10-01

307

Ultrasound assessment of fetal head circumference at the onset of labor as a predictor of operative delivery.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study sought to determine whether ultrasound assessment of fetal head circumference (FHC) at the onset of labor can predict the likelihood of operative delivery. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of 200 nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, term pregnancies in an Irish Maternity Hospital. Transabdominal ultrasound assessment of FHC was performed when spontaneous labor was diagnosed or immediately prior to induction. Odds ratios for operative delivery (instrumental delivery or cesarean section) and maternal and neonatal morbidity were calculated using logistic regression with FHC categorized at a ?350-mm cut-off (90th percentile). Results: Ultrasound assessment of FHC at the onset of labor was highly correlated with post-delivery neonatal head circumference (NHC) (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.74), suggesting that it can be measured reliably. FHC ?350?mm was associated with more than twice the risk of any operative delivery (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.2) and a two-fold increased risk of cesarean section for dystocia (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-4.3). Differences in maternal and neonatal morbidity were not statistically significant. Conclusion: These preliminary data suggest that ultrasound assessment of FHC at the onset of labor may be useful in identifying women at greater risk of intrapartum intervention and warrant further research. PMID:25363014

Ooi, Poh Vei; Ramphul, Meenakshi; Said, Soha; Burke, Gerard; Kennelly, Mairead M; Murphy, Deirdre J

2014-11-14

308

The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

Wiseman, Jennifer

2010-01-01

309

42 CFR 410.15 - Annual wellness visits providing Personalized Prevention Plan Services: Conditions for and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...individual's height, weight, body-mass index (or waist circumference, if appropriate), blood pressure, and other routine...iii) Measurement of an individual's weight (or waist circumference), blood pressure and other routine measurements as...

2011-10-01

310

Obesity and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... abdominal obesity, which can be measured by waist circumference, showing the strongest association with colon cancer risk. An association between BMI and waist circumference with colon cancer risk is also seen in ...

311

Weight Training Key to Battling Belly Fat as You Age  

MedlinePLUS

... said in a university news release. "Measuring waist circumference is a better indicator of healthy body composition ... analyzed the men's physical activity, weight and waist circumference to determine which exercises had the most significant ...

312

Young at Heart: Tips for Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... you if you carry extra fat. A waist circumference of more than 35 inches for women or ... BMI and learn more about measuring your waist circumference. ? Back to Top Healthy Eating What kinds of ...

313

Sex Differences in Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... 35+ Abdominal obesity is determined by measuring waist circumference (WC). Although WC is related to BMI, it ... thickness and WC, calculation of waist-to-hip circumference ratios, and techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography ( ...

314

42 CFR 410.15 - Annual wellness visits providing Personalized Prevention Plan Services: Conditions for and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...individual's height, weight, body-mass index (or waist circumference, if appropriate), blood pressure, and other routine...iv) Measurement of an individual's weight (or waist circumference), blood pressure and other routine measurements as...

2012-10-01

315

FastStats: Body Measurements  

MedlinePLUS

... the U.S. Measured average height, weight, and waist circumference for adults ages 20 years and over Men: ... inches): 69.3 Weight (pounds): 195.5 Waist circumference (inches): 39.7 Women: Height (inches): 63.8 ...

316

Assessing Your Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... see About Adult BMI About Adult BMI . Waist Circumference Another way to assess your weight is to ... conditions if you are: A man whose waist circumference is more than 40 inches A non-pregnant ...

317

42 CFR 410.15 - Annual wellness visits providing Personalized Prevention Plan Services: Conditions for and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...individual's height, weight, body-mass index (or waist circumference, if appropriate), blood pressure, and other routine...iv) Measurement of an individual's weight (or waist circumference), blood pressure and other routine measurements as...

2013-10-01

318

Heart Attack Risk Assessment  

MedlinePLUS

... need to know your height, weight, and waist circumference. If you don't know some of these ... on the following risk factors: a large waist circumference (abdominal obesity) raised blood pressure high fasting blood ...

319

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... provider. However, if you have a large waist circumference and have been told by your healthcare provider ... components: Central or abdominal obesity (measured by waist circumference): Men - 40 inches or above Women - 35 inches ...

320

42 CFR 410.15 - Annual wellness visits providing Personalized Prevention Plan Services: Conditions for and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...individual's height, weight, body-mass index (or waist circumference, if appropriate), blood pressure, and other routine...iv) Measurement of an individual's weight (or waist circumference), blood pressure and other routine measurements as...

2014-10-01

321

Body mass index and weight change from adolescence into adulthood, waist-to-hip ratio and perceived work ability among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:To study how body mass index (BMI, kg\\/m2) at 14 and 31 years (y) changes in BMI between 14 and 31 y, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 31 y are associated with poor perceived working ability at 31 y.DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:A population-based cohort, originally 11637 people, born in Northern Finland in 1966 was resurveyed at 14 and 31 y.MEASUREMENTS:Perceived work

J Laitinen; S Näyhä; V Kujala

2005-01-01

322

Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an

Iris M Heid; Anne U Jackson; Joshua C Randall; Thomas W Winkler; Lu Qi; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Gudmar Thorleifsson; M Carola Zillikens; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Reedik Magi; Tsegaselassie Workalemahu; Charles C White; Nabila Bouatia-Naji; Tamara B Harris; Sonja I Berndt; Erik Ingelsson; Cristen J Willer; Michael N Weedon; Jian'an Luan; Sailaja Vedantam; Tonu Esko; Tuomas O Kilpelainen; Zoltan Kutalik; Shengxu Li; Keri L Monda; Anna L Dixon; Christopher C Holmes; Lee M Kaplan; Liming Liang; Josine L Min; Miriam F Moffatt; Cliona Molony; George Nicholson; Eric E Schadt; Krina T Zondervan; Mary F Feitosa; Teresa Ferreira; Hana Lango Allen; Robert J Weyant; Eleanor Wheeler; Andrew R Wood; Karol Estrada; Michael E Goddard; Guillaume Lettre; Massimo Mangino; Dale R Nyholt; Shaun Purcell; Albert Vernon Smith; Peter M Visscher; Jian Yang; Steven A McCarroll; James Nemesh; Benjamin F Voight; Devin Absher; Najaf Amin; Thor Aspelund; Lachlan Coin; Nicole L Glazer; Caroline Hayward; Nancy L Heard-Costa; Jouke-Jan Hottenga; Asa Johansson; Toby Johnson; Marika Kaakinen; Karen Kapur; Shamika Ketkar; Joshua W Knowles; Peter Kraft; Aldi T Kraja; Claudia Lamina; Michael F Leitzmann; Barbara McKnight; Andrew P Morris; Ken K Ong; John R B Perry; Marjolein J Peters; Ozren Polasek; Inga Prokopenko; Nigel W Rayner; Samuli Ripatti; Fernando Rivadeneira; Neil R Robertson; Serena Sanna; Ulla Sovio; Ida Surakka; Alexander Teumer; Sophie van Wingerden; Veronique Vitart; Jing Hua Zhao; Christine Cavalcanti-Proenca; Peter S Chines; Eva Fisher; Jennifer R Kulzer; Cecile Lecoeur; Narisu Narisu; Camilla Sandholt; Laura J Scott; Kaisa Silander; Klaus Stark; Mari-Liis Tammesoo; Tanya M Teslovich; Nicholas John Timpson; Richard M Watanabe; Ryan Welch; Daniel I Chasman; Matthew N Cooper; John-Olov Jansson; Johannes Kettunen; Robert W Lawrence; Niina Pellikka; Markus Perola; Liesbeth Vandenput; Helene Alavere; Peter Almgren; Larry D Atwood; Amanda J Bennett; Reiner Biffar; Lori L Bonnycastle; Stefan R Bornstein; Thomas A Buchanan; Harry Campbell; Ian N M Day; Mariano Dei; Marcus Dorr; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Johan G Eriksson; Nelson B Freimer; Mao Fu; Stefan Gaget; Eco J C Geus; Anette P Gjesing; Harald Grallert; Jurgen Graszler; Christopher J Groves; Candace Guiducci; Anna-Liisa Hartikainen; Neelam Hassanali; Aki S Havulinna; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Andrew A Hicks; Jennie Hui; Wilmar Igl; Pekka Jousilahti; Antti Jula; Eero Kajantie; Leena Kinnunen; Ivana Kolcic; Seppo Koskinen; Peter Kovacs; Heyo K Kroemer; Vjekoslav Krzelj; Johanna Kuusisto; Kirsti Kvaloy; Jaana Laitinen; Olivier Lantieri; G Mark Lathrop; Marja-Liisa Lokki; Robert N Luben; Barbara Ludwig; Wendy L McArdle; Anne McCarthy; Mario A Morken; Mari Nelis; Matt J Neville; Guillaume Pare; Alex N Parker; John F Peden; Irene Pichler; Kirsi H Pietilainen; Carl G P Platou; Anneli Pouta; Martin Ridderstrale; Nilesh J Samani; Jouko Saramies; Juha Sinisalo; Jan H Smit; Rona J Strawbridge; Heather M Stringham; Amy J Swift; Maris Teder-Laving; Brian Thomson; Gianluca Usala; Joyce B J van Meurs; Gert-Jan van Ommen; Vincent Vatin; Claudia B Volpato; Henri Wallaschofski; G Bragi Walters; Elisabeth Widen; Sarah H Wild; Gonneke Willemsen; Daniel R Witte; Lina Zgaga; Paavo Zitting; John P Beilby; Alan L James; Mika Kahonen; Terho Lehtimaki; Markku S Nieminen; Claes Ohlsson; Lyle J Palmer; Olli Raitakari; Paul M Ridker; Michael Stumvoll; Anke Tonjes; Jorma Viikari; Beverley Balkau; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Richard N Bergman; Heiner Boeing; George Davey Smith; Shah Ebrahim; Philippe Froguel; Torben Hansen; Christian Hengstenberg; Kristian Hveem; Bo Isomaa; Torben Jorgensen; Fredrik Karpe; Kay-Tee Khaw; Markku Laakso; Debbie A Lawlor; Michel Marre; Thomas Meitinger; Andres Metspalu; Kristian Midthjell; Oluf Pedersen; Veikko Salomaa; Peter E H Schwarz; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Timo T Valle; Nicholas J Wareham; Alice M Arnold; Jacques S Beckmann; Sven Bergmann; Eric Boerwinkle; Dorret I Boomsma; Mark J Caulfield; Francis S Collins; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason; Ulf Gyllensten; Anders Hamsten; Andrew T Hattersley; Albert Hofman; Frank B Hu; Thomas Illig; Carlos Iribarren; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; W H Linda Kao; Jaakko Kaprio; Lenore J Launer; Patricia B Munroe; Ben Oostra; Brenda W Penninx; Peter P Pramstaller; Bruce M Psaty; Thomas Quertermous; Aila Rissanen; Igor Rudan; Alan R Shuldiner; Nicole Soranzo; Timothy D Spector; Ann-Christine Syvanen; Manuela Uda; Andre Uitterlinden; Henry Volzke; Peter Vollenweider; James F Wilson; Jacqueline C Witteman; Alan F Wright; Goncalo R Abecasis; Michael Boehnke; Ingrid B Borecki; Panos Deloukas

2010-01-01

323

Pilot intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary urban middle school girls: a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of the study was to determine if girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school Physical Activity Club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions controlling for baseline measures showed no statistically significant group differences, but directionality of differences was consistent with greater intervention group improvement for minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity/hour (t = 0.95, p = .35), cardiovascular fitness (t = 1.26, p = .22), body mass index (BMI; t = ?1.47, p = .15), BMI z-score (t = ?1.19, p = .24), BMI percentile (t = ?0.59, p = .56), percent body fat (t = ?0.86, p = .39), and waist circumference (t = ?0.19, p = .85). Findings support testing with a larger sample. PMID:22472632

Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek, Stacey M.

2012-01-01

324

Optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio for detecting cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among Han adults in Xinjiang, which is located in the center of Asia, is unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between different WHRs and cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang, and determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Survey was conducted from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14618 representative participants were selected using a four-stage stratified sampling method. A total of 5757 Han participants were included in the study. The present statistical analysis was restricted to the 5595 Han subjects who had complete anthropometric data. The sensitivity, specificity, and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in each WHR level were calculated. The shortest distance in the ROC curves was used to determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR for detecting cardiovascular risk factors. Results In women, the WHR was positively associated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum concentrations of serum total cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia increased as the WHR increased. The same results were not observed among men. The optimal WHR cutoffs for predicting hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and???two of these risk factors for Han adults in Xinjiang were 0.92, 0.92, 0.91, 0.92 in men and 0.88, 0.89, 0.88, 0.89 in women, respectively. Conclusions Higher cutoffs for the WHR are required in the identification of Han adults aged???35 years with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases in Xinjiang. PMID:25074400

2014-01-01

325

Monitoring the adequacy of catch-up growth among moderately malnourished children receiving home-based therapy using mid-upper arm circumference in Southern Malawi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ...

326

Growth in weight, recumbent length, and head circumference for preterm low-birthweight infants during the first three years of life using gestation-adjusted ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 867 preterm low-birthweight participants in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) were used to develop reference data for growth status at an age and for increments from term to 36 month gestation-adjusted age (GAA). Weight, length and head circumference were recorded at 4 month intervals in the first year and at 6 month intervals in the second

Shumei S Guo; Alex F Roche; Wm. Cameron Chumlea; Patrick H Casey; William M Moore

1997-01-01

327

Genetic and Environmental Relationships between Head Circumference Growth in the First Year of Life and Sociocognitive Development in the Second Year: A Longitudinal Twin Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although growth in head circumference (HC) during infancy is known to predict later childhood outcomes, the mechanisms underlying this association with later sociocognitive abilities remain undetermined. Thus, using a sample of 241 pairs of normally developing Japanese twins, this study investigated the underpinnings of the association between HC…

Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Ozaki, Koken; Suzuki, Kunitake; Yamagata, Shinji; Kawahashi, Ikko; Ando, Juko

2012-01-01

328

Body Mass and Circumference of Upper Arm Are Associated with Race Performance in Ultraendurance Runners in a Multistage Race--The Isarrun 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated the association of anthropometric parameters with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage ultraendurance run, in which athletes had to run 338 km within 5 consecutive days. In 17 male successful finishers, calculations of body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, extremity circumference,…

Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Welzel, Ulrich; Kohler, Gotz

2009-01-01

329

Head Circumference and Body Proportions Before and During Growth Hormone Treatment in Short Children Who Were Born Small for Gestational Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Although short children who were born small for gestational age (SGA) seem to have normal body proportions, objective data both before and during growth hormone (GH) treatment are very limited. Therefore, we investigated in a large group of short chil- dren who were born SGA the effects of GH treatment versus no treatment on head circumference (HC) and body

Nicolette J. T. Arends; Venje H. Boonstra; Anita C. S. Hokken-Koelega

2010-01-01

330

Evaluation of a Chest Circumference-Adapted Protocol for Low-Dose 128-Slice Coronary CT Angiography with Prospective Electrocardiogram Triggering  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effect of chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol on radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Materials and Methods One hundred-eighty-five consecutive patients, who had undergone prospective ECG triggering CCTA with a 128-slice CT, were included in the present study. Nipple-level chest circumference, body weight and height were measured before CT examinations. Patients were divided into four groups based on kV/ref·mAs = 100/200, 100/250, 120/200, and 120/250, when patient's chest circumference was ? 85.0 (n = 56), 85.0-90.0 (n = 53), 90.0-95.0 (n = 44), and > 95.0 (n = 32), respectively. Image quality per-segment was independently assessed by two experienced observers. Image noise and attenuation were also measured. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The effective radiation dose was calculated using CT dose volume index and the dose-length product. Results A significant correlation was observed between patients' chest circumference and body mass index (r = 0.762, p < 0.001). Chest circumference ranged from 74 to 105 cm, and the mean effective radiation dose was 1.9-3.8 mSv. Diagnostic image quality was obtained in 98.5% (2440/2478) of all evaluated coronary segments without any significant differences among the four groups (p = 0.650). No significant difference in image noise was observed among the four groups (p = 0.439), thus supporting the validity of the chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol. However, vessel attenuation, SNR and CNR were significantly higher in the 100 kV groups than in the 120 kV groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion A measure of chest circumference can be used to adapt tube voltage and current for individualized radiation dose control, with resultant similar image noise and sustained diagnostic image quality. PMID:25598671

Lu, Chenying; Wang, Zufei; Wang, Hailin; Hu, Xianghua; Chen, Chunmiao

2015-01-01

331

Effects of a Culturally Grounded Community-Based Diabetes Prevention Program for Obese Latino Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and preliminary effects of a culturally grounded, community-based diabetes prevention program among obese Latino adolescents. Methods Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (body mass index [BMI] percentile = 96.3 ± 1.1, age = 15.0 ± 0.9 years) completed a 12-week intervention that included weekly lifestyle education classes delivered by bilingual/bicultural promotoras and three, 60-minute physical activity sessions per week. Participants were assessed for anthropometrics (height, weight, BMI, and waist circumference), cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity/inactivity, nutrition behaviors, and insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results The intervention resulted in significant decreases in BMI z score, BMI percentile, and waist circumference; increases in cardiorespiratory fitness; and decreases in physical inactivity and dietary fat consumption. In addition to these changes, the intervention led to significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in 2-hour glucose levels. Conclusions These results support the feasibility and efficacy of a community-based diabetes prevention program for high-risk Latino youth. Translational approaches that are both culturally grounded and biologically meaningful represent a novel and innovative strategy for closing the obesity-related health disparities gap. PMID:22585870

Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Konopken, Yolanda; Hoppin, Erica; Keller, Colleen S.; Ortega, Rocio; Castro, Felipe González

2012-01-01

332

Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

2015-01-01

333

Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

2014-01-01

334

Circumference and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…

Blackburn, Katie; White, David

335

Relation of total and beverage-specific alcohol intake to body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: a study of self-defense officials in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated the independent associations of total and beverage-specific ethanol consumption with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in middle-aged Japanese males, because of the scarcity of epidemiologic data in Japan. The subjects were 2227 male self-defense officials who received a pre-retirement health examination at the Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka, Kumamoto, and Sapporo Hospitals. Data on alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, and past medical history were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Height, weight, and waist and hip girth measurements were obtained at the examination. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed. Alcohol intake was positively and strongly associated with WHR (p = 0.0001), but not associated with BMI after adjustment for lifestyle variables, including either BMI or WHR. Subjects who consumed 15 ml per day or more of shochu ethanol showed a larger WHR than never drinkers, and a dose-response relationship was found. Dose-response relationships to other beverages were not found. Dose-response relationships to other beverages were not found. These findings suggest that alcohol intake is strongly and independently associated with WHR, but not with BMI. Abdominal obesity was positively associated with shochu ethanol, but not with other types of alcohol. PMID:9476818

Sakurai, Y; Umeda, T; Shinchi, K; Honjo, S; Wakabayashi, K; Todoroki, I; Nishikawa, H; Ogawa, S; Katsurada, M

1997-12-01

336

Quantitative trait loci for periosteal circumference (PC): identification of single loci and epistatic effects in F 2 MRL\\/SJL mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that periosteal circumference (PC), which is associated with bone size through cross-sectional moment of inertia (CMI), has heritable components, we performed a linkage analysis using 633 MRL\\/SJL F2 mice that have 14% difference in mean PC. PC was determined in femurs by use of peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). The genome-wide scan identified nine QTL for

G. L Masinde; J Wergedal; H Davidson; S Mohan; R Li; X Li; D. J Baylink

2003-01-01

337

Head circumference in the clinical detection of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome in a clinic population at high-risk of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS) is often recognized by the presence of macrocephaly and associated mucocutaneous features,\\u000a and is notable for a profound predisposition to breast and thyroid cancers. Head circumference (HC) is rarely measured when\\u000a evaluating women at high risk for breast cancer, but may offer insight into characterizing cancer risk. Patients enrolled\\u000a in the University of Michigan Cancer

Stacey Shiovitz; Jessica Everett; Shu-chen Huang; Mohammed S. Orloff; Charis Eng; Stephen B. Gruber

2010-01-01

338

A Community Intervention Reduces BMI z-score in Children: Shape Up Somerville First Year Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that a community-based environmental change intervention could prevent weight gain in young children (7.6 ± 1.0 years).Research Methods and Procedures: A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three culturally diverse urban cities in Massachusetts. Somerville was the intervention community; two socio-demographically-matched cities were control communities. Children (n = 1178) in grades 1

Christina D. Economos; Raymond R. Hyatt; Jeanne P. Goldberg; Aviva Must; Elena N. Naumova; Jessica J. Collins; Miriam E. Nelson

2007-01-01

339

Hallmarks of Posttraumatic Stress: Symptom Z-Scores in a Tsunami-Affected Tourist Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To date, little research has been published on the prominence of the various psychiatric symptoms that result from exposure to a natural disaster. In our study of stress-related symptoms among Norwegian tourists who were repatriated after the 2004 southeast Asian tsunami, we evaluated to what extent symptom scores differed between individuals who were exposed to the disaster and those

Trond Heir; Leiv Sandvik; Lars Weisæth

2009-01-01

340

Register flooding attacks detection in IP multimedia subsystems by using adaptive z-score CUSUM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

IP Multimedia Subsystems (IMS) is the core of Next Generation Network (NGN) which provides high quality combination of different multimedia services. Although IMS open core architecture has made it an easy access network for clients, it has result in some security weaknesses and vulnerabilities, by which attacks and threats try to enter network. Denial of service attacks (DoS), prevent legitimate

Elham Nosrati; Aazar Saadaat Kashi; Yashar Darabian; S. Navid Hashemi Tonekaboni

2011-01-01

341

No evidence that polymorphisms of brain regulator genes Microcephalin and ASPM are associated with general mental ability, head circumference or altruism.  

PubMed

We test the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the brain regulator genes MCPH1 and ASPM contribute to variations in human brain size and its correlates. We measured general mental ability, head circumference and social intelligence in 644 Canadian adults (496 Caucasians, 36 Orientals, 84 Mixed Race/Other and 28 Blacks; 257 men and 387 women). The gene polymorphisms were assessed from buccal DNA; mental ability by Wonderlic Personnel Test and Multidimensional Aptitude Battery; head circumference by stretchless tape; and social intelligence by prosocial attitude questionnaires. Although all measures were construct valid and the allele frequencies showed expected population differences, no relationship was found between the genes and any of the criteria. Among Caucasian 18-25 year olds, for example, the two mental ability tests correlated with each other (r=0.78, N=476, p<0.001), with head circumference (r=0.17, N=182, p<0.05) and with prosocial attitudes (r=0.23, N=182, p<0.001). PMID:17251122

Rushton, J Philippe; Vernon, Philip A; Bons, Trudy Ann

2007-04-22

342

Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background This pragmatic evaluation investigated the effectiveness of the Children’s Health, Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE!) Project, a cluster randomised intervention to promote healthy weight using an educational focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Methods Participants (n = 318, aged 10–11 years) from 6 Intervention and 6 Comparison schools took part in the 20 weeks intervention between November 2010 and March/April 2011. This consisted of a teacher-led curriculum, learning resources, and homework tasks. Primary outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-scores. Secondary outcomes were objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time, and food intake. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at post-intervention (20 weeks), and at follow-up (30 weeks). Data were analysed using 2-level multi-level modelling (levels: school, student) and adjusted for baseline values of the outcomes and potential confounders. Differences in intervention effect by subgroup (sex, weight status, socio-economic status) were explored using statistical interaction. Results Significant between-group effects were observed for waist circumference at post-intervention (? for intervention effect =?1.63 (95% CI = ?2.20, -1.07) cm, p<0.001) and for BMI z-score at follow-up (?=?0.24 (95% CI = ?0.48, -0.003), p=0.04). At follow-up there was also a significant intervention effect for light intensity physical activity (?=25.97 (95% CI = 8.04, 43.89) min, p=0.01). Interaction analyses revealed that the intervention was most effective for overweight/obese participants (waist circumference: ?=?2.82 (95% CI = ?4.06, -1.58) cm, p<0.001), girls (BMI: ?=?0.39 (95% CI = ?0.81, 0.03) kg/m2, p=0.07), and participants with higher family socioeconomic status (breakfast consumption: ?=8.82 (95% CI = 6.47, 11.16), p=0.07). Conclusions The CHANGE! intervention positively influenced body size outcomes and light physical activity, and most effectively influenced body size outcomes among overweight and obese children and girls. The findings add support for the effectiveness of combined school-based physical activity and nutrition interventions. Additional work is required to test intervention fidelity and the sustained effectiveness of this intervention in the medium and long term. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03863885. PMID:23819701

2013-01-01

343

Population-Referenced Percentiles for Waist-Worn Accelerometer-Derived Total Activity Counts in U.S. Youth: 2003 – 2006 NHANES  

PubMed Central

Background The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA) and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC) per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual's total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6 – 19 y. Methods Data from the 2003 – 2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6 – 19 years with at least 4 d of ? 10 hours of accelerometer wear time (N?=?3698). MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ?4 metabolic equivalents (METs) for youth 6 – 17 y or minutes with ?2020 counts for youth 18 – 19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days. Results For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA. Conclusion Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents. PMID:25531290

Wolff-Hughes, Dana L.; Bassett, David R.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

2014-01-01

344

The Effect of Two Different Hand Exercises on Grip Strength, Forearm Circumference, and Vascular Maturation in Patients Who Underwent Arteriovenous Fistula Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effect of two different hand exercises on hand strength and vascular maturation in patients who underwent arteriovenous fistula surgery. Methods We recruited 18 patients who had chronic kidney disease and had undergone arteriovenous fistula surgery for hemodialysis. After the surgery, 10 subjects performed hand-squeezing exercise with GD Grip, and other 8 subjects used Soft Ball. The subjects continued the exercises for 4 weeks. The hand grip strength, pinch strength (tip, palmar and lateral pinch), and forearm circumference of the subjects were assessed before and after the hand-squeezing exercise. The cephalic vein size, blood flow velocity and volume were also measured by ultrasonography in the operated limb. Results All of the 3 types of pinch strengths, grip strength, and forearm circumference were significantly increased in the group using GD Grip. Cephalic vein size and blood flow volume were also significantly increased. However, blood flow velocity showed no difference after the exercise. The group using Soft Ball showed a significant increase in the tip and lateral pinch strength and forearm circumference. The cephalic vein size and blood flow volume were also significantly increased. On comparing the effect of the two different hand exercises, hand-squeezing exercise with GD Grip had a significantly better effect on the tip and palmar pinch strength than hand-squeezing exercise with Soft Ball. The effect on cephalic vein size was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion The results showed that hand squeezing exercise with GD Grip was more effective in increasing the tip and palmar pinch strength compared to hand squeezing exercise with soft ball. PMID:25379494

Kong, Sangwon; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Junho

2014-01-01

345

Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in Peripubertal Girls with First-Degree Family History of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess metabolic and endocrine defects in girls genetically predisposed to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Controlled cross-sectional study. Setting University hospital. Patients Nine girls aged 8–14 years having a first-degree relative diagnosed with PCOS (PCOSr) and 10 age-matched girls unrelated to PCOS. Intervention None. Main outcome measure Insulin sensitivity determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing (ISFSivGTT) and insulin-induced non-esterified fatty acid suppression (NEFAsupp), estimated by the log-linear slope of NEFA levels during the first 20 min of FSivGTT. Results In comparison to controls, PCOSr had higher body mass index Z-score (BMI-z), waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Levels of the androgen 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHPg) were significantly increased in PCOSr, independently of adiposity, and inversely correlated with ISFSivGTT. ISFSivGTT was decreased and NEFAsupp was less steep in PCOSr as compared to controls, independently of BMI-z and 17OHPg. NEFAsupp was more pronounced with increasing ISFSivGTT, independently of adiposity. Conclusions Girls at high risk of developing PCOS display increased adiposity and 17OHPg levels, but are mainly characterized by global insulin resistance and resistance to insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis that were independent of adiposity and 17OHPg levels. Therefore, genetic predisposition to PCOS may be related to early insulin resistance and adipocyte dysfunction. PMID:22985947

Trottier, Andréanne; Battista, Marie-Claude; Geller, David H; Moreau, Brigitte; Carpentier, André C; Simoneau-Roy, Judith; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

2014-01-01

346

A Genome-Wide Screen for Interactions Reveals a New Locus on 4p15 Modifying the Effect of Waist-to-Hip Ratio on Total Cholesterol  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ?25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene–environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for variants that modify the relationship between known epidemiological risk factors and circulating lipid levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data from 18 population-based cohorts with European ancestry (maximum N?=?32,225). We collected 8 further cohorts (N?=?17,102) for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) on total cholesterol (TC) with a combined P-value of 4.79×10?9. There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. The effect of WHR on TC was strongest for individuals carrying two copies of G allele, for whom a one standard deviation (sd) difference in WHR corresponds to 0.19 sd difference in TC concentration, while for A allele homozygous the difference was 0.12 sd. Our findings may open up possibilities for targeted intervention strategies for people characterized by specific genomic profiles. However, more refined measures of both body-fat distribution and metabolic measures are needed to understand how their joint dynamics are modified by the newly found locus. PMID:22028671

Karssen, Lennart C.; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka P.; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ried, Janina S.; Lamina, Claudia; Mangino, Massimo; Igl, Wilmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Lagou, Vasiliki; van der Harst, Pim; Mateo Leach, Irene; Esko, Tõnu; Kutalik, Zoltán; Wainwright, Nicholas W.; Struchalin, Maksim V.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kangas, Antti J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Perola, Markus; Rantanen, Taina; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Soininen, Pasi; Johansson, Åsa; Soranzo, Nicole; Heath, Andrew C.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Prokopenko, Inga; Tönjes, Anke; Kronenberg, Florian; Döring, Angela; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Freimer, Nelson B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Palotie, Aarno; Sandhu, Manj S.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Metspalu, Andres; Stumvoll, Michael; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jula, Antti; Navis, Gerjan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Spector, Tim D.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Oostra, Ben A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Gieger, Christian; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hofman, Albert; McCarthy, Mark I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Ripatti, Samuli

2011-01-01

347

Preference for Women's Body Mass and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Tsimane' Men of the Bolivian Amazon: Biological and Cultural Determinants  

PubMed Central

The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N?=?66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation. PMID:25148034

Sorokowski, Piotr; Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

2014-01-01

348

Aplasia cutis congenita in a setting of fetus papyraceus associated with small fetal abdominal circumference and high alpha-fetoprotein and amniotic acetylcholinesterase.  

PubMed

Fetus papyraceus is the fetal death of one or more fetuses in a multiparous pregnancy. The surviving infants can experience extensive aplasia cutis in an H-shaped distribution over the flanks and abdomen as a consequence of the loss of their fetal sibling. We report the case of a monochorionic, diamniotic pregnancy complicated by a single fetal death at 13 weeks of gestational age. Aplasia cutis of the surviving twin was suggested in utero by three criteria: high amniotic and maternal alpha-fetoprotein, detectable acetylcholinesterase, and small abdominal circumference on prenatal ultrasound. This constellation of findings in the setting of fetus papyraceus can be an indicator of aplasia cutis in the surviving fetus. PMID:24118049

Mazza, Joni M; Klein, Janice F; Christopher, Kurt; Silverberg, Nanette B

2015-01-01

349

The predictive value of the ratio of neck circumference to thyromental distance in comparison with four predictive tests for difficult laryngoscopy in obstetric patients scheduled for caesarean delivery  

PubMed Central

Background: Preoperative assessment of anatomical landmarks andclinical factors help detect potentially difficult laryngoscopies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from thefollowing preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Neck circumference to thyromental distance (NC/TMD), neck circumference (NC), modified Mallampatitest (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT). Materials and Methods: We collected data on657 consecutive patients scheduled for elective caesarean delivery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all five factors before caesarean. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined. Results: Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 53 (8.06%) patients. There were significant differences in thyromental distance (TMD), RHTMD, NC, and NC/TMD between difficult visualization of larynx and easy visualization of larynx patients (P < 0.05). The main end-point area under curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) was lower for MMT (AUC = 0.497; 95% Confidence Interval = CI,0.045-0.536) and ULBT (AUC = 0.500, 95% CI, 0.461-0.539) compared to RHTMD, NC, TMD, and NC/TMD score ([AUC = 0.627, 95% CI, 0.589-0.664], [AUC = 0.691; 95% CI, 0.654-0.726], [AUC = 0.606; 95% CI, 0.567-0.643], [AUC = 0.689;95% CI, 0.625-0.724], respectively), and the differences of six ROC curves were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The NC/TM Discomparable with NC, RHTMD, and ULBT for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in caes are an delivery. PMID:25337530

Hirmanpour, Anahita; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Honarmand, Azim; Jabalameli, Mitra; Banisadr, Golnaz

2014-01-01

350

Association between waist-to-height ratio, isolated and combined morbidities and C-reactive protein in the elderly: a clinical-epidemiological study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

da Silva, Jousianny Patrício; Lima, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceiço Rodrigues; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Rosália Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

2014-09-01

351

Association Between Waist-to-Height Ratio, Isolated and Combined Morbidities and C-Reactive Protein in the Elderly: A Clinical-Epidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

da Silva, Jousianny Patrício; Lima, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Rosália Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

2014-01-01

352

Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution  

E-print Network

To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ...

Hunter, David J.

353

Dose effect of cardiorespiratory exercise on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

As an ancillary report to a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded trial, we examined the effects of 6 months of exercise training at 50%, 100%, and 150% of the NIH Consensus Recommendations for physical activity (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure/wk [KKW]) versus a nonexercise control group on the metabolic syndrome (MS) in sedentary, overweight, moderately hypertensive, postmenopausal women. We examined the clinically defined National Cholesterol Education Program MS, individual components scores, and summed z-scores, expressed as a continuous variable (zMS), using chi-square and general linear models to assess the clinical and progressive nature of MS, respectively. Our results showed significant improvements in zMS for all exercise groups and MS for the 8- and 12 KKW groups only (all, p for trend = 0.02). Post hoc analyses showed that 12 KKW for zMS and 8 and 12 KKW for MS was significant versus the control group (all, p <0.05). When examining the composite scores, we observed significant trends for improvement in waist circumference (p for trend = 0.001), fasting glucose (p for trend = 0.01), and systolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.02), which appeared to be dose dependent, given the additive nature for incorporating the within-group improvements in waist circumference (4, 8, and 12 KKW), fasting glucose (8 and 12 KKW), and systolic blood pressure (12 KKW). Our results suggest that low-to-moderate intensity cardiorespiratory exercise appears to improve components of the MS in postmenopausal women at levels at or greater than NIH recommendations and that zMS improves at half the NIH recommendations. Greater levels of energy expenditure appear to enhance this effect by incorporating a greater number of requisite MS composite scores. PMID:23578351

Earnest, Conrad P; Johannsen, Neil M; Swift, Damon L; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Church, Timothy S

2013-06-15

354

Cut-Off Values of Visceral Fat Area and Waist-to-Height Ratio: Diagnostic Criteria for Obesity-Related Disorders in Korean Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to study the appropriate cut-off value of visceral fat area (VFA) and waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) which increase the risk of obesity-related disorders and to validate the diagnostic criteria of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents. Materials and Methods A total 314 subjects (131 boys and 183 girls) were included in this study. The subjects were selected from Korean children and adolescents who visited three University hospitals in Seoul and Uijeongbu from January 1999 to December 2009. All patients underwent computed tomography to measure VFA. Results The cut-off value of VFA associated with an increase risk of obesity-related disorder, according to the receiver operating characteristics curve, was 68.57 cm2 (sensitivity 59.8%, specificity 76.6%, p=0.01) for age between 10 to 15 years, and 71.10 cm2 (sensitivity 72.3%, specificity 76.5%, p<0.001) for age between 16 to 18 years. By simple regression analysis, the WTHR corresponding to a VFA of 68.57 cm2 was 0.54 for boys and 0.61 for girls, and the WTHR corresponding to a VFA of 71.10 cm2 was 0.51 for boys and 0.56 for girls (p=0.004 for boys, p<0.001 for girls). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, VFA which increases the risk of obesity-related disorders was 68.57 cm2 and the WTHR corresponding to this VFA was 0.54 for boys and 0.61 for girls age between 10-15 years, 71.70 cm2 and the WTHR 0.51 for boys and 0.56 for girls age between 16-18 years. For appropriate diagnostic criteria of abdominal obesity and obesity-related disorders in Korean children and adolescents, further studies are required. PMID:22187238

Lee, Kang-Kon; Park, Hye-Soon

2012-01-01

355

Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. PMID:24838901

Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Ti?li; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

2014-01-01

356

Initial screening of children treated with second-generation antipsychotics points to an association between physical activity and insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications, used to treat youth for a wide-range of mental health conditions, are associated with excessive weight gain and other comorbidities, placing these individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the effect of physical activity (PA) on cardiovascular risk in these children. Anthropometrics, fasting blood sample and self-report PA were obtained in 386 children diagnosed with mental health conditions (6-18 y). PA was classified as below (<60 min/day) or meets (?60 min/day) current recommended guidelines for daily PA in children. SGA-treated (n = 166) and SGA-naïve (n = 220) were compared in the analysis. The SGA-treated children had higher (p < .05) BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, fasting glucose, and LDL-cholesterol than SGA-naïve children. Waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, HDL cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly different by PA status. After adjusting for SGA-treatment duration, sex, age, and ethnicity, higher PA was associated with lower insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in SGA-treated (mean, 95% CI; below vs. meets: 2.10 [1.84, 2.37] vs. 1.59 [1.37, 1.81], p = .046) but not in SGA-naïve (1.70 [1.47, 1.94] vs. 1.55 [1.35, 1.75], p = .707) children. Upon initial screening, SGA-treated children that reported meeting the minimal recommendations for daily PA displayed lower measures of adiposity and improved insulin resistance. PMID:25372380

Cote, Anita T; Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

2014-11-01

357

Circumference of Taxicab Geometry Circles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students apply familiar concepts of geometry to novel settings. Using square dot paper and isometric dot paper, students trace routes and determine the geometry of each circle. (KR)

Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

1991-01-01

358

High levels of childhood obesity observed among 3- to 7-year-old New Zealand Pacific children is a public health concern.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional, community-based survey was designed to assess attained growth and body composition of 3- to 7-y-old Pacific children (n = 21 boys and 20 girls) living in Dunedin, New Zealand, and to examine nondietary factors associated with the percentage of body fat. Fat mass, lean tissue mass and the percentage of body fat were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. One trained anthropometrist also measured height, weight, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular) and circumferences (mid-upper arm, chest, waist, calf). Compared with the National Center for Health Statistics and National Health and Examination Surveys I and II reference data, these Pacific children were tall and heavy for their age with high arm-muscle-area-for-height. Median (quartiles) Z-scores for height and BMI-for-age and arm-muscle-area-for-height were 1.33 (0.60, 2.15), 1.20 (0.74, 4.43) and 1.09 (0.63, 1.85), respectively. Their median (quartile) percentage of body fat was 21.8% (15.0, 35.5) of which 38.5% was located in the trunk. The estimated percentage of children classified as obese ranged from 34 to 49% depending on the criterion used. Over 60% of the children had levels of trunk fat above 1 SD of reported age- and sex-specific Z-scores for New Zealand children. The nondietary factors examined (hours of television viewing and hours playing organized sports, as reported by parents) were not associated with variations in the percentage of body fat, after adjusting for age, sex and birth weight. These extremely high levels of obesity and truncal fat among very young New Zealand children will have major public health implications as these children age. PMID:14608058

Gordon, Fiona K; Ferguson, Elaine L; Toafa, Viliami; Henry, Teavekura-Emma; Goulding, Ailsa; Grant, Andrea M; Guthrie, Barbara E

2003-11-01

359

Choice of Activity-Intensity Classification Thresholds Impacts upon Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity-Health Relationships in Children  

PubMed Central

Background It is unknown whether using different published thresholds (PTs) for classifying physical activity (PA) impacts upon activity-health relationships. This study explored whether relationships between PA (sedentary [SED], light PA [LPA], moderate PA [MPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA, vigorous PA [VPA]) and health markers differed in children when classified using three different PTs. Methods 104 children (63 girls) aged 10–14 years wore an RT3 triaxial accelerometer for seven days and measures of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers were taken. Results Significant associations (p< .05) in boys were found between LPA and body mass index z-score and waist circumference z-score for the Rowlands et al PT only (??=? .459 and.401, respectively) and body fat% (BF%) for the Chu et al PT only (??=?.322) and in girls with BF% for the Rowlands et al PT only (??=? .303) and systolic BP and blood glucose for the Vanhelst et al PT only (??=??.298 and ?.283, respectively). MPA was significantly (p<.05) associated with BF%, diastolic BP, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) for the Chu et al PT only in girls (??=??.436, ?.529, and .446, respectively). SED was significantly (p<.05) associated with triglycerides (??=?.492) for the Rowlands et al PT only in boys and VPA with CRF (p<.05) for the Rowlands et al and Vanhelst et al PTs only in girls (??=?.416 and .352, respectively). Conclusions The choice of PT impacted upon activity-health relationships. A consensus on appropriate accelerometer thresholds for quantifying PA intensity and sedentary behaviour is needed in order to make accurate evidence-based recommendations for health promotion. PMID:23441234

Bailey, Daniel P.; Boddy, Lynne M.; Savory, Louise A.; Denton, Sarah J.; Kerr, Catherine J.

2013-01-01

360

Height and height Z-score are related to calcium absorption in five- to fifteen-year-old girls  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CONTEXT: Understanding the relationship between calcium absorption and growth has been limited. We have developed a database of calcium absorption measurements in 315 girls aged 5.0-15.0 yr. DESIGN: We have used this database to assess the relationship between height, its age- and gender-normalized...

361

Obesity: new insight into the anthropometric classification of fat distribution shown by computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty eight women presenting for routine computed tomography had their waist, hip, and thigh circumferences measured. The ratio of the area of intra-abdominal fat to the area of subcutaneous fat shown in the computed tomogram taken at the umbilical level was calculated and found to correlate highly significantly with the ratio of waist to hip circumference. The correlation between these

M Ashwell; T J Cole; A K Dixon

1985-01-01

362

Consumption of total fiber and types of fiber are associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and abdominal adiposity in US adults. NHANES 1999-2006.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this cross-sectional study, an inverse association was found between intakes of total dietary fiber and five types of fiber with Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent obese, and with increased waist circumference. Intake of vegetable fiber was not associated with any of the weight mea...

363

Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

2007-01-01

364

Associations of PON1 and Genetic Ancestry with Obesity in Early Childhood  

PubMed Central

Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genotype and arylesterase levels (ARYase, measure of PON1 enzyme quantity), to characterize the relationship between PON1 and obesity in young Mexican-American children (n?=?373) living in an agricultural community in California. Since PON1 polymorphisms and obesity both vary between ethnic groups, we estimated proportional genetic ancestry using 106 ancestral informative markers (AIMs). Among children, PON1192 allele frequencies were 0.5 for both alleles, and the prevalence of obesity was high (15% and 33% at ages two and five, respectively). The average proportion of European, African, and Native American ancestry was 0.40, 0.09, and 0.51, yet there was wide inter-individual variation. We found a significantly higher odds of obesity (9.3 and 2.5- fold) in PON1192QQ children compared to PON1192RR children at ages two and five, respectively. Similar relationships were seen with BMI Z-scores at age two and waist circumference at age five. After adjusting for genetic ancestry in models of PON1 and BMI Z-score, effect estimates for PON1192 genotype changed 15% and 9% among two and five year old children, respectively, providing evidence of genetic confounding by population stratification. However even after adjustment for genetic ancestry, the trend of increased BMI Z-scores with increased number of PON1192 Q alleles remained. Our findings suggest that PON1 may play a role in obesity independent of genetic ancestry and that studies of PON1 and health outcomes, especially in admixed populations, should account for differences due to population stratification. PMID:23658746

Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Beckman, Kenneth; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

2013-01-01

365

Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2). Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room) for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL), lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides), oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes) and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62%) and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57%) subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10%) and 36/61 (59%), respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [?=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001)]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents. PMID:24676190

Teske, Márcia; Melges, Ana Paula B.; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel S.; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz A.; Sarni, Roseli Oselka S.

2014-01-01

366

The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC) over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs). Methods We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC), aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run), physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry), healthy eating (dietary recall) and cardiovascular risk (CV risk). Results zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05). No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01). There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05) but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.1 PMID:22456048

Tomlin, Dona; Naylor, PJ; McKay, Heather; Zorzi, Alexandra; Mitchell, Marc; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

2012-01-01

367

Sleep Duration Predicts Cardiometabolic Risk in Obese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the independent contributions of objectively measured sleep duration and fragmentation on cardiometabolic risk accumulation in free-living obese adolescents. Study design Characteristics of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose) were measured in obese adolescents and standardized residuals(z-scores) were summed (inverse high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) to create a continuous cardiometabolic risk score (cMetScore), adjusted for age, sex, and race. Sleep and physical activity were objectively measured in habitual, free-living conditions for 7 days (SenseWear Pro3, BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; n = 37; 54% female, ages 11–17 years). Associations between sleep duration and cMetScore were assessed via multiple linear regression. Results Body mass index, total sleep time, and sleep session length were each correlated with cMetScore (P < .05 all). Total sleep time was inversely and independently associated with cMetScore (r = ?0.535, P = .001) and was the best independent predictor of metabolic risk. Conclusions Sleep duration inversely predicts cardiometabolic risk in obese adolescents, even when we controlled for various measures of physical activity, anthropometry, and adiposity. Further research should investigate the biological mechanism of this relationship and the potential treatment effect of sleep intervention in decreasing cardiometabolic risk in this population. PMID:24612904

IglayReger, Heidi B.; Peterson, Mark D.; Liu, Dongmei; Parker, Christine A.; Woolford, Susan J.; (Sallinen) Gafka, Bethany J.; Hassan, Fauziya; Gordon, Paul M.

2014-01-01

368

Slimness is Associated with Greater Intercourse and Lesser Masturbation Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19–38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with

STUART BRODY

2004-01-01

369

The Health Initiative Program for Kids (HIP Kids): effects of a 1-year multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on adiposity and quality of life in obese children and adolescents - a longitudinal pilot intervention study.  

PubMed

BackgroundThough recent data suggest that multidisciplinary outpatient interventions can have a positive effect on childhood obesity, it is still unclear which program components are most beneficial and how they affect quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to determine if a 1-year multidisciplinary, family-centered outpatient intervention based on social cognitive theory would be effective in (i) preventing further increases in BMI and BMI z-score, and (ii) improving QoL in obese children and adolescents.MethodsObese children and adolescents 8¿17 years of age and their families participated in this 1-year longitudinal pilot intervention study. The intervention consisted of fifteen 90-minute educational sessions led by a dietitian, exercise specialist, and social worker. Anthropometric measures, body composition, and QoL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0), were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. Laboratory values were measured at baseline and 12 months. The primary outcome measures were change in BMI and BMI z-score, secondary outcome measures included change in QoL and body composition. A paired sample t-test was used to assess within-group differences and 95% confidence intervals were reported for the mean differences.Results42 obese children and adolescents (21 girls) completed the 1-year intervention (mean age 12.8¿±¿3.14 years). Mean baseline BMI was 31.96¿±¿5.94 kg/m2 and BMI z-score was +2.19¿±¿0.34. Baseline QoL (self-assessments and parental assessments) was impaired: mean baseline scores were 74.5¿±¿16.5 and 63.7¿±¿19.4 for physical functioning and 69.0¿±¿14.9 and 64.0¿±¿18.3 for emotional functioning, respectively. At 12 months, BMI z-score had decreased (¿0.07¿±¿0.11, 95% CI: ¿0.11 to ¿0.04). BMI (0.80¿±¿1.57 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.29) and fat-free mass (4.02¿±¿6.27 kg, 95% CI 1.90 to 6.14) increased, but %body fat and waist circumference did not. Both the parent-reported physical (11.3¿±¿19.2, 95% CI 4.7 to 17.9) and emotional (7.7¿±¿15.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 13.0) functioning QoL scores and the children's self-reported physical (5.3¿±¿17.1, 95% CI 0.5 to 11.1) and emotional (7.9¿±¿14.3, 95% CI 3.2 to 12.7) functioning scores significantly improved.ConclusionsFollowing a 1-year intervention, the participants¿ BMI z-scores and QoL improved, while other adiposity-related measures of body composition remained unchanged.Trial registrationUMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000015622. PMID:25475951

Bock, Dirk E; Robinson, Tracy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Rombeek, Meghan; Norozi, Kambiz; Filler, Guido; Rauch, Ralf; Clarson, Cheril L

2014-12-01

370

Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease body weight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8?weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-?, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P?waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P?waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted. PMID:23601452

2013-01-01

371

Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

372

Do Changes in Sex Steroid Hormones Precede or Follow Increases in Body Weight during the Menopause Transition? Results from The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation  

PubMed Central

Context: Whether menopause-related changes in sex steroids account for midlife weight gain in women or whether weight drives changes in sex steroids remains unanswered. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize the potential reciprocal nature of the associations between sex hormones and their binding protein with waist circumference in midlife women. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study included 1528 women (mean age 46 yr) with 9 yr of follow-up across the menopause transition from the observational Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Main Outcome Measures: Waist circumference, SHBG, testosterone, FSH, and estradiol were measured. Results: Current waist circumference predicted future SHBG, testosterone, and FSH but not vice versa. For each sd higher current waist circumference, at the subsequent visit SHBG was lower by 0.04–0.15 sd, testosterone was higher by 0.08–0.13 sd, and log2 FSH was lower by 0.15–0.26 sd. Estradiol results were distinct from those above, changing direction across the menopause transition. Estradiol and waist circumference were negatively associated in early menopausal transition stages and positively associated in later transition stages (for each sd higher current waist circumference, future estradiol was lower by 0.15 sd in pre- and early perimenopause and higher by 0.38 sd in late peri- and postmenopause; P for interaction <0.001). In addition, they appeared to be reciprocal, with current waist circumference associated with future estradiol and current estradiol associated with future waist circumference. However, associations in the direction of current waist circumference predicting future estradiol levels were of considerably larger magnitude than the reverse. Conclusions: These Study of Women's Health Across the Nation data suggest that the predominant temporal sequence is that weight gain leads to changes in sex steroids rather than vice versa. PMID:22723312

Tepper, Ping G.; Crawford, Sybil; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Santoro, Nanette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Greendale, Gail A.

2012-01-01

373

Colliders with crab-waist collision scheme  

E-print Network

) the only way for luminosity increase is reduction of y * together with y From experience, still not absolutely clear, why? #12;Luminosity (hourglass effect) Due to the focusing, the bunch height y varies along crossing angle) collisions #12;Operational luminosity increase Two-fold luminosity increase is a big

374

Waist Size and Breast Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... and ovarian cancer, use of hormone replacement therapy, height and weight. They were also asked about their ... these factors into account, the researchers say an increase in skirt size was the strongest predictor of ...

375

Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

2015-01-01

376

Genome-Wide Association for Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Reveals a Novel Locus for Visceral Fat in Women  

PubMed Central

Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ?2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p?=?3.1×10E-09), previously identified in association with waist–hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p?=?5.9×10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p?=?1.6×10-08), but not men (p?=?0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p?=?0.006) but not men (p?=?0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p?=?0.04 [women], p?=?0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist–hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for VAT in women. More refined phenotypes for body composition and fat distribution can detect new loci not previously uncovered in large-scale GWAS of anthropometric traits. PMID:22589738

White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V.; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D.; Foster, Meredith C.; Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B.; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B.

2012-01-01

377

Inspecting The Full Circumferences Of Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed tool for inspection of external welds on tube gives view of full circumferential strip of outer surface. Similar to borescopes used to inspect interiors of tubes. Instead of fitting inside tube, new tool encircles it. Inspection more reliable and less time consuming.

Geddes, John P.

1990-01-01

378

Measuring the Circumference of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student. In the course of the project, students learn about Eratosthenes and his experiment, do a similar experiment by collaborating with other schools, and analyze and reflect on the collected data to determine the accuracy of their measurements and what they learned. The project provides instructions, activities, reference materials, on-line help, and a teacher area.

2007-12-12

379

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict “normal” MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for

Ke Li; David J. Hewson; Jacques Duchêne; Jean-Yves Hogrel

2010-01-01

380

Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:Cesarean section (CS) and antibiotic use during pregnancy may alter normal maternal-offspring microbiota exchange, thereby contributing to aberrant microbial colonization of the infant gut and increased susceptibility to obesity later in life. We hypothesized that (i) maternal use of antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) CS are independently associated with higher risk of childhood obesity in the offspring.Subjects/Methods:Of the 727 mothers enrolled in the Northern Manhattan Mothers and Children Study, we analyzed the 436 mother-child dyads followed until 7 years of age with complete data. We ascertained prenatal antibiotic use by a questionnaire administered late in the third trimester, and delivery mode by medical record. We derived age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores using the CDC SAS Macro, and defined obesity as BMI z?95th percentile. We used binary regression with robust variance and linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-gravid BMI, maternal receipt of public assistance, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding in the first year and gestational antibiotics or delivery mode.Results:Compared with children not exposed to antibiotics during the second or third trimester, those exposed had 84% (33-154%) higher risk of obesity, after multivariable adjustment. Second or third trimester antibiotic exposure was also positively associated with BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat (all P<0.05). Independent of prenatal antibiotic usage, CS was associated with 46% (8-98%) higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Associations were similar for elective and non-elective CS.Conclusions:In our cohort, CS and exposure to antibiotics in the second or third trimester were associated with higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Future studies that address the limitations of our study are warranted to determine if prenatal antibiotic use is associated with offspring obesity. Research is also needed to determine if alterations in neonatal gut microbiota underlie the observed associations.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.180. PMID:25298276

Mueller, N T; Whyatt, R; Hoepner, L; Oberfield, S; Dominguez-Bello, M G; Widen, E M; Hassoun, A; Perera, F; Rundle, A

2014-11-11

381

Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

2011-01-01

382

shRNA Clone Name Gene Symbol Z score NM_016653.x-331s1c1 ZAK -4.35  

E-print Network

-212s1c1 NME6 -3.69 NM_004274.3-5180s1c1 AKAP6 -3.66 NM_003328.x-411s1c1 TXK -3.60 NM_007064.x-1297s1c1 TRPV5 -2.56 NM_005036.x-1708s1c1 PPARA -2.56 NM_004274.3-2554s1c1 AKAP6 -2.55 NM_000267.1-1373s1c1 NF1

Cai, Long

383

Energy Balance and Obesity  

Cancer.gov

Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

384

49 CFR 572.11 - Test conditions and instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the rear surface of the chest accelerometer mounting cavity is inclined 3° forward of vertical. (3) Chest and waist circumference and chest depth measurements are taken with the dummy positioned in accordance with paragraphs (j) (1) and (2)...

2014-10-01

385

49 CFR 572.11 - Test conditions and instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the rear surface of the chest accelerometer mounting cavity is inclined 3° forward of vertical. (3) Chest and waist circumference and chest depth measurements are taken with the dummy positioned in accordance with paragraphs (j) (1) and (2)...

2012-10-01

386

77 FR 47073 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...strategies on biometric markers of health status including weight, height (i.e., body mass index or BMI), waist circumference, secondhand smoke exposure, and blood pressure. Each adult respondent in the YABS will be asked to participate in...

2012-08-07

387

77 FR 23263 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...strategies on biometric markers of health status including weight, height (i.e., body mass index or BMI), waist circumference, secondhand smoke exposure, and blood pressure. Participants in the YABS will be drawn from two samples of...

2012-04-18

388

76 FR 11251 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Followup Study...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...child's sleep patterns; extent of the child's cognitive stimulation at home; the child's height, weight, and waist circumference; the child's visits to a dentist and number of cavities; number of the child's recent physician visits; number...

2011-03-01

389

49 CFR 572.11 - Test conditions and instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the rear surface of the chest accelerometer mounting cavity is inclined 3° forward of vertical. (3) Chest and waist circumference and chest depth measurements are taken with the dummy positioned in accordance with paragraphs (j) (1) and (2)...

2013-10-01

390

IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H{sub 2} EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 {mu}m PAH ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a {approx}1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H{sub 2} lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 {mu}m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of {approx}1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H{sub 2} transitions is found to be 1.94 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T {approx} 1000 K) H{sub 2} gas is 7.95 {+-} 0.19 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10{sup -3}, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H{sub 2} ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H{sub 2} data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3{<=}} n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub s} {<=} 10 km s{sup -1} for the redshifted gas and v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 {mu}G, and just 3 {mu}G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

Barsony, Mary [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Drive, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace A. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); O'Linger, JoAnn, E-mail: mbarsony@stars.sfsu.ed, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.or, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: joanno@ipac.caltech.ed [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2010-09-01

391

Prevalence and Control of Hypertension and Albuminuria in South Korea: Focus on Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between albuminuria and hypertension is well established in many studies. So the control of hypertension is critical for decreasing cardiovascular events and albuminuria. Obesity and abdominal obesity are also associated with hypertension and albuminuria. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between albuminuria and the prevalence and control of hypertension in the general Korean population according to obesity status. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 9,519 subjects were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-obese/normal waist circumference, non-obese/high waist circumference, obese/normal waist circumference, and obese/high waist circumference. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with albumin–creatinine ratio in all groups (all p values <0.005). Non-obese/normal waist circumference group were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratios [95% confidential intervals (CIs)] were 3.20 [2.21–4.63] in microalbuminuria level and 3.09 [1.05–9.14] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension (odds ratios <1 for both albuminuria levels) after adjusting for all covariates. Obese/normal waist circumference group were also more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [95% CI] were 3.10 [1.56–6.15] in microalbuminuria level and 21.75 [3.66–129.04] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension in macroalbuminuria level (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.04 [0.01–0.15]). Conclusions Non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects have an increased prevalence and decreased control of hypertension in microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels. Screening for albuminuria may provide helpful information about hypertension and blood pressure control, particularly in the non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects. PMID:25360593

Yoon, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hoon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Han, Kyung-Do; Jung, Dong-Wook; Park, Sang-Woon; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Su; Kim, Yang-Hyun

2014-01-01

392

Involvement of visceral fat in the pathogenesis of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes with early stage of nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Visceral obesity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Waist circumference has been used as a surrogate\\u000a measure of visceral fat mass; however, subcutaneous fat mass is also correlated with waist circumference. We therefore conducted\\u000a this cross-sectional study to clarify the relationship between directly measured sizes of visceral and subcutaneous fat and\\u000a microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes

Ko Hanai; Tetsuya Babazono; Izumi Nyumura; Kiwako Toya; Mari Ohta; Ryotaro Bouchi; Kumi Suzuki; Aiko Inoue; Yasuhiko Iwamoto

2010-01-01

393

J Clin Endocrinol Metab . Author manuscript Association between change in body composition and change in  

E-print Network

circumference, than people who were normal weight. Author Keywords Weight ; Body Mass Index ; waist the association of change in weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference with change in C.08 (95 CI: 0.07 0.09) mg/L and 0.04 (95 CI: 0.03 0.05) pg/L per 1-kg increase in body% ­ % ­ weight

Boyer, Edmond

394

Serum carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes as potential biomarkers of dietary intake and their relation with incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Norfolk study  

E-print Network

, AND DIABETES INCIDENCE 3 of 11 (continuous) and waist circumference (continuous). In model 4 we also adjusted for terrestrial animal protein intake to examine the possibility that intake may mediate the association between d13C and d15N and diabetes... and waist circumference, were more physically inactive, were less likely to smoke, and were less likely to be educated to a degree level (see Supple- mentary Table 2 under “Supplemental data” in the online issue). The case participants reported higher...

Patel, Pinal S.; Cooper, Andrew J.M.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.; Kneale, Catherine K.; Mulligan, Angela M.; Luben, Robert N.; Brage, Soren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Forouhi, Nita G.

2014-07-02

395

Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.  

PubMed

Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

2013-01-01

396

The Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids): Design and Methods  

PubMed Central

The Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids) is a three-arm, randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of two behavioral weight management interventions in an important and at-risk population, overweight and obese children and their parents in rural counties. Participants will include 240 parent-child dyads from nine rural counties in north central Florida. Dyads will be randomized to one of three conditions: (a) a Family-Based Behavioral Group Intervention, (b) a Parent-Only Behavioral Group Intervention, and (c) an Education Control Condition. Child and parent participants will be assessed at baseline (month 0), post-treatment (month 12) and follow-up (month 24). Assessment and intervention sessions will be held at Cooperative Extension Service offices within each participating county. The primary outcome measure is change in child BMI z-score. Additional key outcome measures include child body fat, waist circumference, dietary intake, physical activity, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, physical fitness, quality of life, and program and participants costs. Parent BMI, dietary intake, and physical activity also will be assessed. Randomized controlled trials testing the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions in real-world community-based settings are extremely valuable, but much too rare. The E-FLIP for Kids trial will evaluate the impact of a community based intervention delivered to families in rural settings utilizing the existing Cooperative Extension Service network on long-term child behavior, weight status and biological markers of diabetes and early cardiovascular disease. If successful, a Parent-Only intervention program may provide a cost-effective and practical intervention for families in underserved rural communities. PMID:20708715

Janicke, David M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Perri, Michael G.; Bobroff, Linda B.; Mathews, Anne E.; Brumback, Babette A.; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Silverstein, Janet H.

2010-01-01

397

Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

de Assunção, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilário da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira

2014-01-01

398

Morphometric Variables Related to Metabolic Profile in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of waist circumference and body weight with circulating markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and hepatic function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). After a 12-h fast, blood was collected from 39 adult captive chimpanzees for measurement of serum glucose, BUN, creatinine, albumin, cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total and direct bilirubin, triglyceride, and insulin, and waist circumference and body weight were measured. Waist circumference was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostatic model assessment method, and albumin in female chimpanzees and with triglyceride in female and male chimpanzees. Body weight was correlated significantly with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in female chimpanzees and triglyceride in male chimpanzees. Male chimpanzees were heavier and had lower diastolic blood pressure, greater creatinine, albumin, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin values than did female chimpanzees. The relationships between waist circumference and blood pressure and triglyceride are consistent with those reported in humans and other primate species. In conclusion, our study is the first work to demonstrate a relationship between waist circumference and metabolic risk factors in chimpanzees. Results demonstrated that waist circumference was associated with more metabolic risk factors than was body weight, particularly in female chimpanzees. PMID:22330355

Andrade, Marcia CR; Higgins, Paul B; Mattern, Vicki L; Garza, Melissa A De La; Brasky, Kathleen M; Voruganti, V Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G

2011-01-01

399

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods  

PubMed Central

Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

2013-01-01

400

RESEARCH LETTERS waist/hip ratio accounted for only 18%. Waist/hip ratio  

E-print Network

/hip ratio are known and their effects can be estimated separately. In these conditions, body-mass index attractiveness M J Tovée, S Reinhardt, J L Emery, P L Cornelissen Evolutionary psychology suggests that a woman (15­19 kg/m2 ), normal (20­24 kg/m2 ), overweight (25­30 kg/m2 ), and obese ( 30 kg/m2 ). Within each

Cornelissen, Piers

401

A Prospective Study of the Association Between Obesity and Burnout Among Apparently Healthy Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors prospectively tested the hypothesis that obesity predicts burnout and the reverse-causation hypothesis that burnout predicts obesity. Respondents were 724 men and 340 women, apparently healthy employees, who underwent routine periodic health examinations at 2 points of time about 18 months apart. Obesity was assessed by body mass index, waist–hip ratio, and waist circumference. In regression analyses, done separately

Galit Armon; Arie Shirom; Shlomo Berliner; Itzhak Shapira; Samuel Melamed

2008-01-01

402

Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

2011-01-01

403

Anthropometric measures in relation to Basal Cell Carcinoma: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist\\/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. METHODS: Study

Catherine M Olsen; Maria Celia Hughes; Nirmala Pandeya; Adèle C Green

2006-01-01

404

Impact of sex-specific body composition on cardiovascular risk factors: the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of sex-specific distribution of adiposity, particularly emphasizing the independent contribution of waist and hip circumferences relative to body mass index (BMI), on cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese population. Blood pressure and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured in 2510 population-based Chinese subjects. The relative contributions of waist and hip

G. Neil Thomas; Sarah M. McGhee; Mary Schooling; Sai Yin Ho; Karen S. L. Lam; Edward D. Janus; Tai Hing Lam

2006-01-01

405

Racial Differences in Measures of Obesity and Risk of Colon Adenoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is an established risk factor for several malignancies. However, the specific measurement of obesity most relevant to colon neoplasia is still debated, and evidence has suggested gender and racial differences in this measurement. In this study, we sought to compare which measurement—BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)—is most strongly associated with development of colon

Cheryl L. Thompson; Nathan A. Berger; Amitabh Chak; Li Li

2012-01-01

406

Adherence to an overweight and obesity treatment: how to motivate a patient?  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore anthropometric changes in normal-weight, overweight and obese subjects who did not dropout or fail a weight loss program over the 16 treatment weeks to improve patient motivation and treatment adherence. Methods. A clinical intervention study was conducted among 271 (including 100 dropouts and/or failures) obese and overweight patients who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for the purpose of nutritional assessment. They were subject to a personalized weekly follow-up consultation over the course of 16 weeks in which initial and the final Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2), photographs, food consumption patterns, percentage weight loss, waist and hip circumference were registered and grouped according to BMI, measuring treatment response. Data’s nonparametric statistical comparison was made. Results. In 62 patients from the BMI < 25 group, there is weight loss of 2.6% (3.1 SD), 5.5% (3.3 SD) in waist circumference and 3.0% (2.5 SD) in hip circumference. In 67 patients from the 25 ? BMI < 30 group, there is weight loss of 3.8% (4.1 SD), 5.7% (4.5 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.7% (3.0 SD) in hip circumference loss. In 42 patients from the BMI > 30 group, there is weight loss of 4.8% (3.7 SD), 7.0% (3.6 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.9% (2.4 SD) in hip circumference loss. Monitoring is done every 4 weeks by the Friedman test, with significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.001). Patients do not drop out of treatment because they start to see physical results in waist decrease. When comparing final values of initial waist/hip circumference ratios and waist/height ratios, a clear decrease in the three BMI groups was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion. After three weeks of continuous treatment patients improved in all overweight and obesity parameter indicators; there were not statistically significant differences in hip circumference (HC) and waist loss (WC) (%) among the three BMI groups (normal-weight, overweight, and obesity). In contrast, there were statistically significant differences in weight loss (%) and waist-to-hip ratios. Based on anthropometric outcomes and patient perception of their body image it can be concluded that the waist circumference loss is the parameter that retains obese patients in the weight loss program. PMID:25101227

Rizo, Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

2014-01-01

407

The Associations between Anthropometric Indices and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that OSA and obesity are strongly associated, few Asian studies have examined the associations between anthropometric obesity indices and OSA, especially in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric obesity indices on OSA in a Korean population. Methods Anthropometric indices, including neck circumference, waist circumference, and body mass index, were assessed in 383 consecutive subjects with suspected OSA. Results Of the 383 subjects assessed, 316 (82.5%) were diagnosed with OSA. Neck circumference (r?=?0.518), waist circumference (r?=?0.570), and body mass index (r?=?0.512) were correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (p<0.001, for all). After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking, a logistic regression model showed that neck circumference [odds ratio (OR), 1.414; p<0.001)], waist circumference (OR, 1.114; p<0.001), and body mass index (OR, 1.364; p<0.001) were associated with OSA. The linear regression model showed that neck circumference (??=?3.748, p<0.001), waist circumference (??=?1.272, p<0.001), and body mass index (??=?3.082, p<0.001) were associated with apnea-hypopnea index. The cut-off values for predicting OSA were determined as 34.5 cm for neck circumference, 76.5 cm for waist circumference, and 23.05 kg/m2 for body mass index for females, and 38.75 cm for neck circumference, 88.5 cm for waist circumference, and 24.95 kg/m2 for body mass index for males. Conclusion Increased anthropometric indices were significantly associated with the presence and severity of OSA in a Korean population. In addition, this study demonstrated the cut-off values for body mass index, waist circumference, and neck circumference for increased OSA risk. PMID:25474257

Kang, Hyeon Hui; Kang, Ji Young; Ha, Jick Hwan; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Moon, Hwa Sik; Lee, Sang Haak

2014-01-01

408

Relation between abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram and magnetic resonance imaging in hypertensive patients.  

PubMed

Obesity is related to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Whether LVH on electrocardiography (ECG-LVH) is a result of increased cardiac electrical activity or due to increased left ventricular mass (LVM) remains to be determined. The aims of the present study were to investigate the relation between obesity and ECG-LVH and LVM by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-LVM) in patients with hypertension and to investigate the relation of insulin resistance (IR) and LVH. Patients with hypertension (n = 421) were evaluated using Sokolow-Lyon voltage, Cornell voltage, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Waist circumference was used as a measure of abdominal obesity. Linear regression analysis revealed an inverse relation (adjusted ? = -0.02, 95% confidence interval -0.02 to -0.01) between waist circumference and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, indicating a decrease of 0.02 mV per 1-cm increase in waist circumference. There was a positive relation between waist circumference and MRI-LVM (? = 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.67). Patients in the highest quartile of LVM had a worse metabolic profile than patients with the Sokolow-Lyon voltage criterion. The relations of IR with ECG-LVH and MRI-LVM were similar to those of waist circumference in relation to ECG-LVH and MRI-LVM. In conclusion, there is an inverse relation between waist circumference and ECG-LVH and a positive relation between waist circumference and MRI-LVM. This study indicates that obesity has a different relation to voltage criteria for LVH compared to anatomic criteria for LVH, supporting the hypothesis that IR decreases electrocardiographic voltages, despite an increase in MRI-LVM. The clinical implication is that especially in patients with IR, Sokolow-Lyon voltage is low in contrast to high MRI-LVM. PMID:22483385

Vernooij, Joris W P; Cramer, Maarten J M; Visseren, Frank L J; Korndewal, Marjolein J; Bots, Michiel L; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Doevendans, Pieter A F M; Spiering, Wilko

2012-07-15

409

Phenotype presentation of hypophosphatemic rickets in adults.  

PubMed

Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a group of rare disorders caused by excessive renal phosphate wasting. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 38 HR patients was to characterize the phenotype of adult HR patients. Moreover, skeletal and endodontic severity scores were defined to assess possible gender differences in disease severity in patients with genetically verified X-linked HR. Compared to normal reference data, i.e., z = 0, HR patients had significantly lower final height, with a mean difference in z-score of -1.9 (95% CI -2.4 to -1.4, P < 0.001). Compared to paired z-scores of final height, z-scores of leg length were significantly lower and those of sitting height were significantly higher (P < 0.001), resulting in disproportion as indicated by the significantly elevated sitting height ratio, mean difference in z-score of 2.6 (95% CI 2.1-3.1, P < 0.001). Z-scores of head circumference (median 1.4, range -0.4 to 5.5, P < 0.001) and z-scores of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (median 1.9, range -1.5 to 8.6, P < 0.001) were significantly elevated compared to normal reference data. The relative risk (RR) of fracture was reduced (RR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.57, P < 0.001). The skeletal severity score tended to be higher in males compared to females (P = 0.07), and no gender difference in endodontic severity was found. In conclusion, adult HR patients were characterized by short stature and were disproportioned. They had elevated BMD of the lumbar spine and a reduced risk of fractures. We found a tendency for males to be more severely affected than females. PMID:20524110

Beck-Nielsen, Signe S; Brusgaard, Klaus; Rasmussen, Lars M; Brixen, Kim; Brock-Jacobsen, Bendt; Poulsen, Mette R; Vestergaard, Peter; Ralston, Stuart H; Albagha, Omar M E; Poulsen, Sven; Haubek, Dorte; Gjørup, Hans; Hintze, Hanne; Andersen, Mette G; Heickendorff, Lene; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Gram, Jeppe

2010-08-01

410

Effectiveness of telenutrition in a women’s weight loss program  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of telenutrition versus traditional nutritional consultations for female obese patients in need of nutritional treatment. Methods. A comparative clinical study was conducted among 233 obese or overweight women (including 20 who dropped out and 60 who failed) who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for nutritional assessment and chose either telenutrition or a traditional consultation that included a weekly follow-up consultation over 16 weeks, food consumption patterns, Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2) registeration and waist and hip circumference registeration. Treatment responses and differences between telenutrition and the traditional consultations were made according to BMI, waist, hip and initial-waist/height ratio (iWaist), calculating for the relative risk. Results. In 68 (29.2%) women who chose traditional attention, 9 (37.5%) dropped out, 24 (40%) failed and 35 (23.5%) were successful, showing 1.4% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.8% (3.4 SD) in waist circumference, 4.5% (2.8 SD) in hip circumference and 0.04% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. In 165 (70.8%) women who chose telenutrition, 15 (62.5%) dropped out, 36 (60%) failed and 114 (76.5%) were successful, showing 1.1% (1.0 SD) BMI loss, 5.0% (3.2 SD) in waist circumference, 3.5% (3.1 SD) in hip circumference and 0.03% (0.02 SD) in iWaist/height ratio. A significance level of p < 0.05 is considered. Conclusion. Telenutrition has a failure or dropout risk factor of about half of the value of traditional consultation, and showed slight, statistically significant differences. This study concludes that telenutrition can support or sometimes replace traditional consultations when developing weight loss programs for obese women. PMID:25674363

Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Rizo, Mercedes

2015-01-01

411

Changes in bone structure and the muscle-bone unit in children with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

The impact of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) on acquisition of volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical dimensions is lacking. To address this issue we obtained tibia quantitative computed tomography scans from 103 patients age 5-21 years with CKD (26 on dialysis) at baseline and 12 months later. Gender, ethnicity, tibia length and/or age-specific Z-scores were generated for trabecular and cortical BMD, cortical area, periosteal and endosteal circumference, and muscle area based on over 700 reference subjects. Muscle area, cortical area, and periosteal and endosteal Z-scores were significantly lower at baseline compared to the reference cohort. Cortical BMD, cortical area and periosteal Z-scores all exhibited a significant further decrease over 12 months. Higher parathyroid hormone levels were associated with significantly greater increases in trabecular BMD and decreases in cortical BMD in younger patients (significant interaction terms for trabecular BMD and cortical BMD). The estimated GFR was not associated with changes in BMD Z-scores independent of parathyroid hormone. Changes in muscle and cortical area were significantly and positively associated in control subjects but not in CKD patients. Thus, children and adolescents with CKD have progressive cortical bone deficits related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and potential impairment of the functional muscle-bone unit. Interventions are needed to enhance bone accrual in childhood-onset CKD. PMID:23032560

Tsampalieros, Anne; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Wetzsteon, Rachel J; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S; Foster, Bethany J.; Foerster, Debbie L; Leonard, Mary B.

2014-01-01

412

Topological constraints on the dynamics of wasp-waist ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small pelagic fish species like anchovy or sardines are of high ecological and economical importance. As marine food webs are fished down, these small pelagics tend to be more exploited and overfished. It is not yet very well known what the possible effects of their collapse can be, therefore there is an urgent need to outline a theoretical framework for

Ferenc Jordán; Wei-Chung Liu; Timothy Wyatt

2005-01-01

413

Potbellies, wasp-waists, and superparamagnetism in magnetic hysteresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the response of a magnetic substance to an applied field depends strongly on the physical properties of the material, much can be learned by monitoring that response through what is known as a ``magnetic hysteresis loop.'' The measurements are rapid and quickly becoming part of the standard set of tools supporting paleomagnetic research. Yet the interpretation of hysteresis loops

L. Tauxe; T. A. T. Mullender; T. Pick

1996-01-01

414

Relationship Between Body Composition Parameters and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Thai Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition parameters, i.e. waist circumference, android fat mass (AFM), gynoid fat mass (GFM), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (AG ratio) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk components in young Thai adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 391 adolescents (174 male, 217 female). The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and glucose levels were determined. AFM, GFM and AG ratio were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analysis was done to assess the relationship of waist circumference, AFM, GFM and AG ratio with MS risk components’ score, separately. Results: Among 391 young adults aged 18.5-21.8 years, MS was found in 5.9%. Participants with MS (n=23) had a significantly higher weight, height and BMI than those without MS. There was no statistically significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. At univariable linear regression analysis, waist circumferences, AFM, GFM and AG ratio showed significant relationship with MS risk components’ score. However, after adjusting for gender, birth weight and BMI, AG ratio demonstrated greater relationship with MS risk components’ score (? 1.89, 95%CI 1.096-2.978) than waist circumference (? 0.046, 95%CI 0.033-0.058) and AFM (? 0.979, 95%CI 0.667-1.290). No significant association was observed between GFM and MS risk components’ score (? 0.077, 95%CI -0.089-0.243). Conclusion: The results from this study indicated that AG ratio is a stronger predictor of MS than waist circumference and AFM in young Thai adults. The role of AG ratio for the diagnosis of MS needs to be further investigated. PMID:25541893

Namwongprom, Sirianong; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Wongthanee, Antika; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Mangklabruks, Ampica

2014-01-01

415

Age-Related Different Relationships between Ectopic Adipose Tissues and Measures of Central Obesity in Sedentary Subjects  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of fat at ectopic sites has been gaining attention as pivotal contributor of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular complications. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), located between skeletal muscle bundles and beneath muscle fascia, has been linked to physical inactivity, ageing and body mass index, but little is known about its relationship with the other AT compartments, in particular with increasing age. To address this issue, erector spinae IMAT, epicardial (EAT), intraabdominal (IAAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were simultaneously measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and related to waist circumference measurements and age in 32 sedentary subjects without cardiovascular disease (18 men; 14 women; mean age 48.5±14 years). Fasting glucose, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were also assessed. We observed that, after dividing individuals according to age (? or >50 years), IMAT and EAT depots were significantly more expanded in older subjects (63.2±8.3 years) than in the younger ones (38.4±5.2 years) (p<0.001). Overall, both IMAT and EAT showed stronger positive associations with increasing age (??=?0.63 and 0.67, respectively, p<0.001 for both) than with waist circumference (??=?0.55 and 0.49, respectively, p<0.01 for both) after adjusting for gender. In addition, the gender-adjusted associations of IMAT and EAT with waist circumference and IAAT were significant in individuals ?50 years only (p<0.05 for all) and not in the older ones. In contrast, no age-related differences were seen in the relationships of IAAT and SAT with waist circumference. Finally, serum triglycerides levels turned out not to be independently related with ectopic IMAT and EAT. In conclusion, the expansion of IMAT and EAT in sedentary subjects is more strongly related to age than waist circumference, and a positive association of these ectopic depots with waist circumference and IAAT amount can be postulated in younger individuals only. PMID:25051047

Guglielmi, Valeria; Maresca, Luciano; D'Adamo, Monica; Di Roma, Mauro; Lanzillo, Chiara; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Davide; Preziosi, Paolo; Bellia, Alfonso; Sbraccia, Paolo

2014-01-01

416

Arterial stiffness in obese children: Role of adiposity and physical activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore association of adiposity and physical activity with arterial stiffness and to propose optimal waist circumference cutoffs, corresponding to 90th percentile of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for Indian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Data on weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity and right Carotid artery Intima-Media-Thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), elasticity modulus (Ep), stiffness index(?), arterial compliance (AC) were assessed in 250 children (72 normal-weight and 178 overweight/obese) aged 6-17 years from Pune city, India. Body composition was measured using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Total, 37.1% normal-weight and 98.2% overweight/obese children had high adiposity (>95th body fat percentile). Positive association of PWV and Ep (r = 0.5) also ?(r = 0.25) with BMI (Body Mass Index), waist circumference and body fat (P < 0.05) was observed. Physical activity was inversely associated with PWV (r =-0.2), ?(r =-0.13), Ep (r =-0.12) and positively with AC (r = 0.12) (P < 0.05). PWV significantly increased with increasing body fat for each tertile of physical activity (P < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed waist circumference, BMI, body fat and physical activity as independent associates for PWV after adjusting for age (P < 0.05). The cutoff of waist circumference yielding sensitivity and specificity for predicting the risk of high PWV was (?0.43, ?0.44) for boys and girls with sensitivity in boys (girls) of 78% (87%) and specificity in boys (girls) 51% (70%). The observed cutoffs are less than the NHANES-III cutoff values of waist circumference for 90th percentiles according to age and sex. Conclusion: High adiposity and low physical activity are adversely related to arterial stiffness in Indian children. PMID:24701433

Pandit, Deepa S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Kinare, Arun S.

2014-01-01

417

Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Lu Qi; Elizabeth K. Speliotes; Gudmar Thorleifsson; Cristen J. Willer; Blanca M. Herrera; Anne U. Jackson; Noha Lim; Paul Scheet; Nicole Soranzo; Najaf Amin; Yurii S. Aulchenko; John C. Chambers; Alexander Drong; Jianan Luan; Helen N. Lyon; Fernando Rivadeneira; Serena Sanna; Nicholas J. Timpson; M. Carola Zillikens; Jing Hua Zhao; Peter Almgren; Stefania Bandinelli; Amanda J. Bennett; Richard N. Bergman; Lori L. Bonnycastle; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Cyrus Cooper; Gabriel Crawford; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Shah Ebrahim; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; Candace Guiducci; David Hadley; Anders Hamsten; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Fredrik Karpe; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Anna Nordström; Peter Nordström; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; Felicity Payne; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renström; Aimo Ruokonen; Veikko Salomaa; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Kijoung Song; Xin Yuan; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield; Francis S. Collins; George Davey Smith; Ian N. M. Day; Paul W. Franks; Andrew T. Hattersley; Frank B. Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Augustine Kong; Jaspal S. Kooner; Markku Laakso; Edward Lakatta; Vincent Mooser; Andrew D. Morris; Leena Peltonen; Nilesh J. Samani; Timothy D. Spector; David P. Strachan; Toshiko Tanaka; Jaakko Tuomilehto; André G. Uitterlinden; Cornelia M. van Duijn; Nicholas J. Wareham; Hugh Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia; Dawn M. Waterworth; Michael Boehnke; Panos Deloukas; Leif Groop; David J. Hunter; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; David Schlessinger; H.-Erich Wichmann; Timothy M. Frayling; Gonçalo R. Abecasis; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Ruth J. F. Loos; Kari Stefansson; Karen L. Mohlke; Inês Barroso

2009-01-01

418

Sensitivity and Specificity of Anthropometrics for the Prediction of Diabetes in a Biracial Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the ability of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and combinations of these variables to discriminate individuals who will develop diabetes in adulthood.Research Methods and Procedures: Data were from 45- to 64-year-old men and women who were members of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. The analysis sample consisted of 12,814 African American and white participants

June Stevens; David Couper; James Pankow; Aaron R. Folsom; Bruce B. Duncan; F. Javier Nieto; Daniel Jones; Herman A. Tyroler

2001-01-01

419

Correlations of C-reactive protein levels with anthropometric profile, percentage of body fat and lipids in healthy adolescents and young adults in urban North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationships of sub-clinical inflammation and regional and generalized obesity and lipids in adolescent and young adult Asian Indians in north India. Methods: We determined serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker for sub-clinical inflammation, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (W-HR), four skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac), percentage of body fat

Naval K. Vikram; Anoop Misra; Manjari Dwivedi; Rekha Sharma; R. M. Pandey; Kalpana Luthra; Ananya Chatterjee; Vibha Dhingra; B. L. Jailkhani; K. K. Talwar; Randeep Guleria

2003-01-01

420

Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

2001-01-01

421

Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Cyrus Cooper; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; David Hadley; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Johanna Kuusisto; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Anna Nordstrom; Peter Nordstrom; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renstrom; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield

2009-01-01

422

Methods of Estimation of Visceral Fat: Advantages of Ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare methods for the assessment of visceral fat with computed tomography (CT) and establish cutoffs to define visceral obesity based on such alternative methods.Research Methods and Procedures: One hundred women (50.4 ± 7.7 years; BMI 39.2 ± 5.4 kg\\/m2) underwent anthropometric evaluation, bioelectrical impedance, DXA, abdominal ultrasonography (US), and CT scan.Results: Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and US-determined

Fernando F. Ribeiro-Filho; Alessandra N. Faria; Sergio Azjen; Maria-Teresa Zanella; Sandra R. G. Ferreira

2003-01-01

423

The prediction of abdominal visceral fat level from body composition and anthropometry: ROC analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the merit of body mass index (BMI), % body fat, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level.DESIGN: Cross-sectional measurements obtained from 458 female and 331 male subjects of French Canadian descent with an age range from 18–72 y.MEASUREMENTS: AVF level was assessed by computed tomography. BMI was calculated as weight (in

T Rankinen; S-Y Kim; L Pérusse; J-P Després; C Bouchard; C Bouchard

1999-01-01

424

The prediction of visceral fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the elderly: a comparison with computed tomography and anthropometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Effective methods for assessing visceral fat are important to investigate the role of visceral fat for the increased health risks in obesity. Techniques for direct measurement of soft tissue composition such as CT or MRI are expensive, time-consuming or require a relatively high radiation dose. Simple anthropometric methods, such as waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference or sagittal diameter are widely

MB Snijder; M Visser; JM Dekker; JC Seidell; T Fuerst; F Tylavsky; J Cauley; T Lang; M Nevitt; TB Harris

2002-01-01

425

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and aging in a population-based older cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The aims of this cross-sectional study were (1) to examine the effect of age on body composition in older adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and (2) to evaluate the agreement of DXA with standard indirect anthropometric measures (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)).Research methods and procedures:A population-based sample of 731 adults aged between 50 and

K A Shaw; V K Srikanth; J L Fryer; L Blizzard; T Dwyer; A J Venn

2007-01-01

426

Obesity and associated factors in a Palestinian West Bank village population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in a Palestinian West Bank village population, and to assess the associations of these variables to blood pressure and serum lipids.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Community-based study in a prototypic semi-rural Palestinian village in the central West Bank.Subjects: All individuals aged 30–65 y in the study village were invited for

LCM Stene; R Giacaman; H Abdul-Rahim; A Husseini; KR Norum; G Holmboe-Ottesen

2001-01-01

427

Association of a Reduction in Central Obesity and Phosphorus Intake With Changes in Urinary Albumin Excretion: The PREMIER Study  

PubMed Central

Background Excess adiposity and dietary factors may be important determinants of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Study Design Observational analysis of PREMIER, a randomized trial designed to lower blood pressure using behavioral interventions (counseling on weight loss, healthy diet, and exercise). Setting & Participants 481 participants with normal kidney function who provided adequate 24-hour urine collections at baseline and 6 months. Predictors Change in waist circumference, 24-hour urine sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and protein intake estimated from urea nitrogen. Outcomes & Measurements The primary outcome was change in log-transformed 24-hour UAE over 6 months. Results After 6 months, the proportion of individuals with UAE ?10 mg/d decreased from 18.7% to 12.7% (p<0.001). Changes in mean waist circumference (?4.2±6.6 [SD] cm), 24-hour excretion of sodium (?28.2±71.7 mmol/d), potassium (+8.4±27.8 mmol/d), phosphorus (?27.7±314.1 mg/d), and protein intake(?1.7±19.4 g/d) were observed. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the following variables were significantly associated with reduction in ln(UAE) in separate models: decrease in waist circumference (p=0.001), decrease in 24-hour urine phosphorus (p<0.001), and decrease in protein intake (p=0.01). In a multivariable model including these three predictors, decreases in waist circumference (p=0.002) and 24-hour urine phosphorus (p=0.03), but not change in protein intake (p=0.5), remained significantly associated with reduction in ln(UAE). These associations remained significant even after adjustment for changes in blood pressure and insulin resistance. Baseline UAE and metabolic syndrome modified the relationship of waist circumference with ln(UAE); specifically, individuals with higher UAE and baseline metabolic syndrome experienced greater reductions in ln(UAE) from decreases in waist circumference. Limitations Observational study with potential for confounding. Conclusions In adults with normal kidney function, decreases in waist circumference and 24-hour urine phosphorus are associated with reductions in UAE. These findings support the rationale for clinical trials to determine whether reducing dietary phosphorus or waist circumference could prevent CKD or slow its progression. PMID:23810691

Chang, Alex; Batch, Bryan C.; McGuire, Heather L.; Vollmer, William M.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Tyson, Crystal C.; Sanguankeo, Anawin; Anderson, Cheryl; Houston, Jessica; Appel, Lawrence J.

2013-01-01

428

Energy, protein, and zinc nutriture of rural African children in relation to some anthropometric indices  

SciTech Connect

Heights, weights, arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thicknesses of 66 Malawian and 148 Ghanaian preschool children were measured during 3 seasons. Their seasonal energy, protein, Ca, Zn, dietary fiber and phytate intakes were estimated from 3-day weighed records, using analyzed and literature food composition values. Seasonal hair Zn concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses, The mean annual intakes for Malawian compared to Ghanaian children were higher for energy protein, and Zn. Cereals contributed a higher proportion of the total energy intake in the Malawian compared to the Ghanaian diets. A higher percentage of the Malawian children had height-for-age Z-scores below {minus}2SD, but a lower percentage had weight-for-height Z-scores below {minus}1SD compared to their Ghanaian counterparts. These differences may, in part be related to the high cereal intakes of the Malawian children.

Ferguson, E.L.; Gibson, R.S.; Osei-Opare, F.; Opare-Obisaw, C.; Thompson, L.U. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Ghana, Legon (Ghana) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1991-03-11

429

In Utero Pesticide Exposure, Maternal Paraoxonase Activity, and Head Circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neuro- development in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1)

Gertrud S. Berkowitz; James G. Wetmur; Elena Birman-Deych; Josephine Obel; Robert H. Lapinski; James H. Godbold; Ian R. Holzman; Mary S. Wolff

2003-01-01

430

A family-centered lifestyle intervention to improve body composition and bone mass in overweight and obese children 6 through 8 years: a randomized controlled trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity gives rise to health complications including impaired musculoskeletal development that associates with increased risk of fractures. Prevention and treatment programs should focus on nutrition education, increasing physical activity (PA), reducing sedentary behaviours, and should monitor bone mass as a component of body composition. To ensure lifestyle changes are sustained in the home environment, programs need to be family-centered. To date, no study has reported on a family-centered lifestyle intervention for obese children that aims to not only ameliorate adiposity, but also support increases in bone and lean muscle mass. Furthermore, it is unknown if programs of such nature can also favorably change eating and activity behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a 1 y family-centered lifestyle intervention, focused on both nutrient dense foods including increased intakes of milk and alternatives, plus total and weight-bearing PA, on body composition and bone mass in overweight or obese children. Methods/design The study design is a randomized controlled trial for overweight or obese children (6–8 y). Participants are randomized to control, standard treatment (StTx) or modified treatment (ModTx). This study is family-centred and includes individualized counselling sessions on nutrition, PA and sedentary behaviors occurring 4 weeks after baseline for 5 months, then at the end of month 8. The control group receives counselling at the end of the study. All groups are measured at baseline and every 3 months for the primary outcome of changes in body mass index Z-scores. At each visit blood is drawn and children complete a researcher-administered behavior questionnaire and muscle function testing. Changes from baseline to 12 months in body fat (% and mass), waist circumference, lean body mass, bone (mineral content, mineral density, size and volumetric density), dietary intake, self-reported PA and sedentary behaviour are examined. Discussion This family-centered theory-based study permits for biochemical and physiological assessments. This trial will assess the effectiveness of the intervention at changing lifestyle behaviours by decreasing adiposity while enhancing lean and bone mass. If successful, the intervention proposed offers new insights for the management or treatment of childhood obesity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01290016. PMID:23617621

2013-01-01

431

BMI as a Mediator of the Relationship between Muscular Fitness and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: A Mediation Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Muscular fitness levels have been associated with cardiometabolic risk in children, although whether body weight acts as a confounder or as an intermediate variable in this relationship remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors is mediated by body mass index (BMI). Design and Methods Cross-sectional study using a sample of 1158 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the province of Cuenca, Spain. We measured anthropometrics and biochemical variables and we calculated a muscular fitness index as the sum of z-scores of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing long jump, and we estimated a previously validated cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI). Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analysis to assess whether the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk was mediated by BMI. Results Children with normal weight (NW) had a better cardiometabolic risk profile than their overweight (OW) or obese (OB) peers after controlling for muscular fitness. Marginal estimated mean±SE values for NW, OW and OB categories of CMRI were -0.75±0.06<0.84±0.10<2.18±0.16 in boys and -0.73±0.06<0.96±0.10<2.71±0.17 in girls, both p<0.001. Children with higher levels of muscular fitness had a better cardiometabolic risk profile (CMRI marginal estimated mean±SE 1.04±0.13>0.05±0.09>-1.16±0.13 for lower, middle and upper quartiles of muscular fitness in boys and 1.01±0.16>0.10±0.09>-1.02±0.15 in girls, both p<0.001), but differences disappeared when controlling for BMI. BMI acted as a full mediator between muscular fitness and most cardiometabolic risk factors (Sobel test z=-11.44 for boys; z=-11.83 for girls; p<0.001 in CMRI mediation model) and as a partial mediator in the case of waist circumference (Sobel test z=-14.86 for boys; z=-14.51 for girls; p<0.001). Conclusions BMI mediates the association between muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren. Overall, good muscular fitness is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but particularly when accompanied by normal weight. PMID:25590619

Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Gulías-González, Roberto; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Cañete García-Prieto, Jorge; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

2015-01-01

432

Cardiometabolic risk and the MTHFR C677T variant in children treated with second-generation antipsychotics.  

PubMed

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children with a variety of psychiatric illnesses. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is a side-effect of SGA-treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study and assessed the association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant with features of MetS in SGA-treated (n=105) and SGA-naïve (n=112) children. We targeted the MTHFR C677T variant, because it is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, and features of MetS in adults without psychiatric illness. MetS in children is based on the presence of any three of the following: waist circumference ? 90th percentile for age and sex; plasma triglyceride ? 1.24?mmol?l(-1); plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ? 1.03?mmol?l(-1); systolic or diastolic blood pressure ? 90th percentile for age, sex, and height; and fasting glucose ? 5.6?mmol?l(-1). We found that 15% of SGA-treated children had MetS compared with 2% of SGA-naïve children (OR 8.113, P<0.05). No effect of the MTHFR C677T variant on psychiatric diagnosis was observed. The MTHFR 677T allele was associated (P<0.05) with MetS (OR 5.75, 95% CI= 1.18-28.12) in SGA-treated children. Models adjusted for duration of SGA treatment, ethnicity, sex, age and use of other medications revealed a positive relationship between the MTHFR 677T allele and diastolic blood pressure Z-scores (P=0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (P<0.05) in SGA-treated children. These findings illustrate the high prevalence of MetS in SGA-treated children and suggest metabolic alterations associated with the MTHFR C677T variant may have a role in the development of MetS features in SGA-treated children. PMID:22832733

Devlin, A M; Ngai, Y F; Ronsley, R; Panagiotopoulos, C

2012-01-01

433

Cardiometabolic risk and the MTHFR C677T variant in children treated with second-generation antipsychotics  

PubMed Central

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children with a variety of psychiatric illnesses. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is a side-effect of SGA-treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study and assessed the association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant with features of MetS in SGA-treated (n=105) and SGA–naïve (n=112) children. We targeted the MTHFR C677T variant, because it is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, and features of MetS in adults without psychiatric illness. MetS in children is based on the presence of any three of the following: waist circumference ?90th percentile for age and sex; plasma triglyceride ?1.24?mmol?l?1; plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ?1.03?mmol?l?1; systolic or diastolic blood pressure ?90th percentile for age, sex, and height; and fasting glucose ?5.6?mmol?l?1. We found that 15% of SGA-treated children had MetS compared with 2% of SGA-naïve children (OR 8.113, P<0.05). No effect of the MTHFR C677T variant on psychiatric diagnosis was observed. The MTHFR 677T allele was associated (P<0.05) with MetS (OR 5.75, 95% CI= 1.18–28.12) in SGA-treated children. Models adjusted for duration of SGA treatment, ethnicity, sex, age and use of other medications revealed a positive relationship between the MTHFR 677T allele and diastolic blood pressure Z-scores (P=0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (P<0.05) in SGA-treated children. These findings illustrate the high prevalence of MetS in SGA-treated children and suggest metabolic alterations associated with the MTHFR C677T variant may have a role in the development of MetS features in SGA-treated children. PMID:22832733

Devlin, A M; Ngai, Y F; Ronsley, R; Panagiotopoulos, C

2012-01-01

434

Nutritional supplementation in girls influences the growth of their children: prospective study in Guatemala1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Better early childhood nutrition improves schooling, adult health, skills, and wages, but there is little evidence regarding its effect on the next generation. Objective: We assessed whether nutritional supplementation in children aged <7 to 15 y affected their children's nutritional status 29–38 y later. Design: We studied 791 children 0–12 y who were offspring of 401 Guatemalan women who had participated as children in a nutritional supplementation trial in which 2 villages were randomly assigned to receive a nutritious supplement (atole) and 2 were assigned to receive a less-nutritious supplement (fresco). We compared anthropometric indicators between the offspring of mothers exposed to atole and the offspring of mothers exposed to fresco. Results: Compared with the offspring of women exposed to fresco, the offspring of women exposed to atole had a 116-g (95% CI: 17, 215 g) higher birth weight, were 1.3-cm (0.4, 2.2 cm) taller, had a 0.6-cm (0.4, 0.9 cm) greater head circumference, had a 0.26 (0.09, 0.43) greater height-for-age z score, and had a 0.20 (0.02, 0.39) greater weight-for-age z score. The association for height differed by offspring sex. Sons of women exposed to atole were 2.0-cm (95% CI: 1.0, 3.1 cm) taller than the sons of women exposed to fresco. Supplementation was not associated with 6 other offspring anthropometric indicators that reflect measures of adiposity. Supplementation in boys did not affect their children's anthropometric measures. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation in girls is associated with substantial increases in their offsprings' (more for sons) birth weight, height, head circumference, height-for-age z score, and weight-for-age z score. PMID:19793851

Calderon, Maria C; Preston, Samuel H; Hoddinott, John; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

2009-01-01

435

Obesity in South Africa: The South African Demographic and Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To ascertain the anthropometric profile and determinants of obesity in South Africans who participated in the Demographic and Health Survey in 1998.Research Methods and Procedures: A sample of 13,089 men and women (age, ?15 years) were randomly selected and then stratified by province and urban and nonurban areas. Height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumference were

Thandi Puoane; Krisela Steyn; Debbie Bradshaw; Ria Laubscher; Jean Fourie; Vicki Lambert; Nolwazi Mbananga

2002-01-01