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1

Waist Circumference, Waist:Hip Ratio, and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined prospectively the associations of waist circumference and waist:hip circumference ratio with risk of breast cancer. A total of 47,382 US registered nurses who reported their waist and hip circumferences in 1986 were followed up through May 1994 for identification of incident cases of breast cancer. During 333,097 person-years of follow-up, 1,037 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. In

Zhiping Huang; Walter C. Willett; Graham A. Coldfe; David J. Hunter; JoAnn E. Manson; Bernard Rosner; Frank E. Speizer; Susan E. Hankinson

2

Longitudinal associations between BMI, Waist Circumference and Cardiometabolic Risk in US Youth: Monitoring implications  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether change in Body Mass Index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between CVD specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by gender or baseline body mass status. The paper is a longitudinal analysis of pre and post data collected in the HEALTHY trial. Participants were 4603 ethnically diverse adolescents who provided complete data at 6th and 8th grade assessments. The main outcome measures were percent change in the following cardiometabolic risk factors: fasting triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C, and glucose as well as a clustered metabolic risk score. Main exposures were change in BMI or WC z-score. Models were run stratified by gender; secondary models were additionally stratified by baseline body mass index group (normal, overweight or obese). Analysis showed that when cardiometabolic risk factors were treated as continuous variables, there was strong evidence (p<0.001) that change in BMI z-score was associated with change in the majority of the cardiovascular risk factors, except fasting glucose and the combined risk factor score for both boys and girls. There was some evidence that change in WC z-score was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, but change in WC z-score was consistently associated with changes in fasting glucose. In conclusion, routine monitoring of BMI should be continued by health professionals, but additional information on disease risk may be provided by assessing waist circumference. PMID:23592681

Jago, R.; Mendoza, J. A.; Chen, T.; Baranowski, T.

2012-01-01

3

Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations.

Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

2014-01-01

4

IDEA: A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in  

E-print Network

1/31 R2 IDEA: A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in 168 Running head: Waist circumference, diabetes and CVD HALauthormanuscriptinserm-00186711,version1 HAL author (CVD) and diabetes in different regions around the world, and thus whether measuring waist

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Waist Circumference Threshold Values for Type 2 Diabetes Risk  

PubMed Central

Adult gains in body weight, excess adiposity, and intra-abdominal fat have each been associated with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), forming the basis for preventive medicine guidelines and actuarial predictions using practical indices of weight (e.g., body mass index [BMI]) and waist circumference (WC). As obesity-related disease spreads beyond affluent western countries, application of WC thresholds to other populations has highlighted issues of their generalizability. For example, U.S. national health goals based on BMI < 25 kg/m2 and WC < 89 cm (women) and <102 cm (men) differ considerably with a recent law in Japan mandating intervention for older adults with WC exceeding 90 cm (women) and 85 cm (men). The U.S. military has also faced issues of generalizability of WC-based adiposity standards that are fair and achievable. Data from many studies indicate that WC is a reliable biomarker for T2DM risk, suggesting that, for adult men and women, action thresholds should be more stringent than current U.S. guidelines, and it would not be harmful to set worldwide targets somewhere below 90 cm for men and women, regardless of weight status. Medical technology has provided many great insights into disease, including modern imaging technologies that have differentiated fat depots that have the greatest influence on T2DM, but ultimately, an inexpensive measuring tape provides the most useful and cost-effective preventive measure for T2DM today. At some point in the future, a Star Trek-like abdominal body fat “tricorder” noninvasive assessment of tissue composition may provide an advantage over abdominal girth. PMID:20144326

Friedl, Col. Karl E.

2009-01-01

6

Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), and waist height ratio (WHtR) to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.). Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.). Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5?cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91?cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5?cm in men and 91?cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar. PMID:24000310

Yousafzai, Mohammad T.; Darwish, Sarah; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O. A. A.; Abdul-Ghani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

7

Visceral Fat, Waist Circumference, and BMI: Impact of Race\\/ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:BMI and waist circumference are used to define risk from excess body fat. Limited data in women suggest that there may be racial\\/ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) at a given BMI or waist circumference. This study tested the hypothesis that racial\\/ethnic differences exist in both men and women in the relationship of anthropometric measures of body composition and

Joan F. Carroll; Ana L. Chiapa; Mayra Rodriquez; David R. Phelps; Kathryn M. Cardarelli; Jamboor K. Vishwanatha; Sejong Bae; Roberto Cardarelli

2008-01-01

8

Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for Metabolic Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria in a Korean Rural Population  

PubMed Central

The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) has defined the waist circumference cutoff value of central obesity as 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corresponding waist circumference values. A total of 3,508 persons in the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study were enrolled in this survey. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to insulin resistance determined by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body mass index (BMI), and components of metabolic syndrome. The optimal waist circumference cutoff values were 87 cm for men and 83 cm for women by ROC analysis to HOMA-IR and 86 cm for men and 83 cm for women by ROC analysis to value with more than two components of metaobolic syndrome. By using a BMI ?25 kg/m2, 86 cm for men and 82 cm for women were optimal waist circumference cutoff values. In this study, we suggest that the most reasonable waist circumference cutoff values are 86-87 cm for men and 82-83 cm for women. PMID:20436710

Koh, Jang Hyun; Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Bo Hwan; Shin, Jang Yel; Shin, Young Goo; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Ku

2010-01-01

9

Comparisons of waist circumferences measured at 4 sites1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as a practical measure of adipose tissue distribution. Four body sites for WC measurements are commonly used, as follows: immedi- ately below the lowest ribs (WC1), the narrowest waist (WC2), the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WC3), and immediately above the iliac crest (WC4). Objective: We sought to compare

Jack Wang; John C Thornton; Salina Bari; Bennett Williamson; Dympna Gallagher; Steven B Heymsfield; Mary Horlick; Donald Kotler; Blandine Laferrère; Laurel Mayer; F Xavier Pi-Sunyer; Richard N Pierson Jr

10

Coronary heart disease incidence in women by waist circumference within categories of body mass index.  

PubMed

High body mass index (BMI) and large waist circumference are separately associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk but these measures are highly correlated. Their separate associations with incident CHD, cross-classifying one variable by the other, are less investigated in large-scale studies. We examined these associations in a large UK cohort (the Million Women Study), which is a prospective population-based study. We followed 496,225 women (mean age 60 years) with both waist circumference and BMI measurements who had no vascular disease or cancer. Adjusted relative risk and 20-year cumulative CHD incidence (first coronary hospitalization or death) from age 55 to 74 years were calculated using Cox regression. Plasma apolipoproteins were assayed in 6295 randomly selected participants. There were 10,998 incident coronary events after mean follow up of 5.1 years. Within each BMI category (<25, 25-29.9, ?30 kg/m(2)), CHD risk increased with increasing waist circumference; within each waist circumference category (<70, 70-79.9, ?79 cm), CHD risk increased with increasing BMI. The cumulative CHD incidence was lowest in women with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and waist circumference <70 cm, with 1 in 14 (95% confidence interval 1 in 12 to 16) women developing CHD in the 20 years from age 55 to 74 years, and highest in women with BMI ?30 kg/m(2) and waist circumference ?80 cm, with 1 in 8 (95% confidence interval 1 in 7 to 9) women developing CHD over the same period. Similar associations for apolipoprotein B to A1 ratio across adiposity categories were observed, particularly in non-obese women. Our conclusions were that both waist circumference and BMI are independently associated with incident CHD. PMID:23723327

Canoy, Dexter; Cairns, Benjamin J; Balkwill, Angela; Wright, F Lucy; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian; Beral, Valerie

2013-10-01

11

The body adiposity index (hip circumference ÷ height1.5) is not a more accurate measure of adiposity than is BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference  

PubMed Central

Based on cross-sectional analyses, it was suggested that hip circumference divided by height1.5 minus 18 (the body adiposity index, BAI), could directly estimate percent body fat without the need for further correction for sex or age. We compared the prediction of percent body fat, as assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (PBFDXA), by BAI, BMI, and circumference (waist and hip) measurements among 1151 adults who had a total body scan by DXA and circumference measurements from 1993 through 2006. After accounting for sex, we found that PBFDXA was related similarly to BAI, BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference. In general, BAI overestimated PBFDXA among men (3.9%) and underestimated PBFDXA among women (2.5%), but the magnitudes of these biases varied with the level of body fatness. The addition of covariates and quadratic terms for the body size measures in regression models substantially improved the prediction of PBFDXA, but none of the models based on BAI could more accurately predict PBFDXA than could those based on BMI or circumferences. We conclude that the use of BAI as an indicator of adiposity is likely to produce biased estimates of percent body fat, with the errors varying by sex and level of body fatness. Although regression models that account for the non-linear association, as well as the influence of sex, age and race, can yield more accurate estimates of PBFDXA, estimates based on BAI are not more accurate than those based on BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference. PMID:22484365

Freedman, David S.; Thornton, John; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wang, Jack; Pierson, Richard N.; Blanck, Heidi M; Gallagher, Dympna

2012-01-01

12

NRXN3 is a novel locus for waist circumference: a genome-wide association study from the CHARGE Consortium.  

PubMed

Central abdominal fat is a strong risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To identify common variants influencing central abdominal fat, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association analysis for waist circumference (WC). In total, three loci reached genome-wide significance. In stage 1, 31,373 individuals of Caucasian descent from eight cohort studies confirmed the role of FTO and MC4R and identified one novel locus associated with WC in the neurexin 3 gene [NRXN3 (rs10146997, p = 6.4x10(-7))]. The association with NRXN3 was confirmed in stage 2 by combining stage 1 results with those from 38,641 participants in the GIANT consortium (p = 0.009 in GIANT only, p = 5.3x10(-8) for combined analysis, n = 70,014). Mean WC increase per copy of the G allele was 0.0498 z-score units (0.65 cm). This SNP was also associated with body mass index (BMI) [p = 7.4x10(-6), 0.024 z-score units (0.10 kg/m(2)) per copy of the G allele] and the risk of obesity (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19; p = 3.2x10(-5) per copy of the G allele). The NRXN3 gene has been previously implicated in addiction and reward behavior, lending further evidence that common forms of obesity may be a central nervous system-mediated disorder. Our findings establish that common variants in NRXN3 are associated with WC, BMI, and obesity. PMID:19557197

Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Zillikens, M Carola; Monda, Keri L; Johansson, Asa; Harris, Tamara B; Fu, Mao; Haritunians, Talin; Feitosa, Mary F; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Garcia, Melissa; Launer, Lenore J; Smith, Albert V; Mitchell, Braxton D; McArdle, Patrick F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Bielinski, Suzette J; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brancati, Fred; Demerath, Ellen W; Pankow, James S; Arnold, Alice M; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Glazer, Nicole L; McKnight, Barbara; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Amin, Najaf; Campbell, Harry; Gyllensten, Ulf; Pattaro, Cristian; Pramstaller, Peter P; Rudan, Igor; Struchalin, Maksim; Vitart, Veronique; Gao, Xiaoyi; Kraja, Aldi; Province, Michael A; Zhang, Qunyuan; Atwood, Larry D; Dupuis, Josée; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Jaquish, Cashell E; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; White, Charles C; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Oostra, Ben A; Kaplan, Robert C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Borecki, Ingrid B; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E

2009-06-01

13

NRXN3 Is a Novel Locus for Waist Circumference: A Genome-Wide Association Study from the CHARGE Consortium  

PubMed Central

Central abdominal fat is a strong risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To identify common variants influencing central abdominal fat, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association analysis for waist circumference (WC). In total, three loci reached genome-wide significance. In stage 1, 31,373 individuals of Caucasian descent from eight cohort studies confirmed the role of FTO and MC4R and identified one novel locus associated with WC in the neurexin 3 gene [NRXN3 (rs10146997, p?=?6.4×10?7)]. The association with NRXN3 was confirmed in stage 2 by combining stage 1 results with those from 38,641 participants in the GIANT consortium (p?=?0.009 in GIANT only, p?=?5.3×10?8 for combined analysis, n?=?70,014). Mean WC increase per copy of the G allele was 0.0498 z-score units (0.65 cm). This SNP was also associated with body mass index (BMI) [p?=?7.4×10?6, 0.024 z-score units (0.10 kg/m2) per copy of the G allele] and the risk of obesity (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.07–1.19; p?=?3.2×10?5 per copy of the G allele). The NRXN3 gene has been previously implicated in addiction and reward behavior, lending further evidence that common forms of obesity may be a central nervous system-mediated disorder. Our findings establish that common variants in NRXN3 are associated with WC, BMI, and obesity. PMID:19557197

Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Garcia, Melissa; Launer, Lenore J.; Smith, Albert V.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brancati, Fred; Demerath, Ellen W.; Pankow, James S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Glazer, Nicole L.; McKnight, Barbara; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Amin, Najaf; Campbell, Harry; Gyllensten, Ulf; Pattaro, Cristian; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Struchalin, Maksim; Vitart, Veronique; Gao, Xiaoyi; Kraja, Aldi; Province, Michael A.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Atwood, Larry D.; Dupuis, Josee; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Jaquish, Cashell E.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; White, Charles C.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Kari E.

2009-01-01

14

Fitness Alters the Associations of BMI and Waist Circumference with Total and Abdominal Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We tested the following hypotheses in black and white men and women: 1) for a given BMI or waist circumference (WC), individuals with moderate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have lower amounts of total fat mass and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat compared with individuals with low CRF; and 2) exercise training is associated with significant reductions in total adiposity and

Ian Janssen; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert Ross; Arthur S. Leon; James S. Skinner; D. C. Rao; Jack H. Wilmore; Tuomo Rankinen; Claude Bouchard

2004-01-01

15

Trajectories of relative weight and waist circumference among children with and without developmental coordination disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder have been found to be less likely to participate in physical activities and therefore may be at increased risk of overweight and obesity. We examined the longitudinal course of relative weight and waist circumference among school-aged children with and without possible develop- mental coordination disorder. Methods: We received permission from 75 (83%) of 92

John Cairney; John Hay; S. Veldhuizen; Cheryl Missiuna; N. Mahlberg; B. E. Faught

2010-01-01

16

Overweight, Waist Circumference, Age, Gender, and Insulin Resistance as Risk Factors for Hyperleptinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the influence of overweight, waist circumference, age, gender, and insulin resistance as risk factors for hyperleptinemia.Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population of 197 subjects: 59 men (21 aged <60 years and 38 aged ?60 years) and 138 women (37 aged <60 years and 101 aged ?60 years). The groups were

Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez; Ángel García-Sánchez; Martha Sánchez-Rodríguez; Rosa Elba Galván-Duarte; María Eugenia Fonseca-Yerena

2002-01-01

17

Combination of BMI and Waist Circumference for Identifying Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Whites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: BMI (kilograms per meters squared) and waist circumference (WC) (measured in centimeters) are each associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, a combination of the two may be more effective in identifying subjects at risk than either alone. The present study sought to identify the combination of BMI and WC that has the strongest association with

Shankuan Zhu; Stanley Heshka; ZiMian Wang; Wei Shen; David B. Allison; Robert Ross; Steven B. Heymsfield

2004-01-01

18

Regional Body Volumes, BMI, Waist Circumference, and Percentage Fat in Severely Obese Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study presents total body volume (TBV) and regional body volume, and their relationships with widely used body composition indices [BMI, waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (% fat)] in severely obese adults (BMI ?35 kg\\/m2).Research Methods and Procedures: We measured TBV, trunk volume (TV), arm volume (AV), leg volume (LV), and WC and estimated % fat in

Jack Wang; Dympna Gallagher; John C. Thornton; Wen Yu; Rich Weil; Betty Kovac; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer

2007-01-01

19

Association between Urinary Bisphenol A and Waist Circumference in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, and food and beverage containers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between urinary concentrations of BPA and waist circumference in Korean adults. A total of 1,030 Korean adults (mean age, 44.3 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled in the study on the integrated exposure to hazardous materials for safety control, conducted by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety from 2010 to 2012. Abdominal obesity was defined as having a waist circumference of at least 90 cm and 85 cm for men and women, respectively. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the urinary BPA concentration quartile. Waist circumference was significantly higher among subjects with a urinary BPA concentration in the highest quartile relative to those in the lowest quartile (p = 0.0071). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between urinary BPA concentrations and body mass index, body fat, after adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, subjects with urinary BPA concentrations in the fourth quartile were more likely to be obese compared to those with urinary BPA concentrations in the first quartile (odds ratio, 1.938; 95% CI: 1.314~2.857; p for trend = 0.0106). These findings provide evidence for a positive association between urinary BPA concentration and waist circumference in Korean adults. PMID:24795798

Ko, Ahra; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Park, Jae-Hong; Kang, Hui-Seung; Lee, Hee-Seok

2014-01-01

20

Waist circumference and obesity related abnormalities in French and Cameroonian adults: The role of urbanization and ethnicity  

E-print Network

1 Waist circumference and obesity related abnormalities in French and Cameroonian adults: The role,version1-17Feb2010 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Obesity 2010 and ethnicity on correlations between waist circumference (WC) and obesity related cardiovascular risk factors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

21

Comparison of Relative Waist Circumference between Asian Indian and US Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Relative to Europeans, Asian Indians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Whether differences in body composition may underlie these population differences remains unclear. Methods. We compared directly measured anthropometric data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) survey of southern Indians (I) with those from three US ethnic groups (C: Caucasians, A: African Americans, and M: Mexican Americans) from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). A total of 15,733 subjects from CURES and 5,975 from NHANES III met inclusion criteria (age 20–39, no known diabetes). Results. Asian Indian men and women had substantially lower body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body surface area relative to US groups (P values <0.0001). In contrast, the mean (±se) waist-weight ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in I (men 1.35 ± 0.002 and women 1.45 ± 0.002) than in all the US groups (1.09, 1.21, and 1.14 in A, M, and C men; 1.23, 1.33, and 1.26 in A, M, and C women (se ranged from 0.005 to 0.006)). Conclusions. Compared to the US, the waist-weight ratio is significantly higher in men and women from Chennai, India. These results support the hypothesis that Southeast Asian Indians are particularly predisposed toward central adiposity. PMID:25328687

Bajaj, Harpreet S.; Pereira, Mark A.; Anjana, Rajit Mohan; Deepa, Raj; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mueller, Noel T.; Rao, Gundu H. R.; Gross, Myron D.

2014-01-01

22

Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of australian children  

PubMed Central

Background It is evident from previous research that the role of dietary composition in relation to the development of childhood obesity remains inconclusive. Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and/or skin fold measurements with energy intake have suggested that the macronutrient composition of the diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat) may play an important contributing role to obesity in childhood as it does in adults. This study investigated the possible relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage energy intake from macronutrients in Australian children and adolescents. Methods Height, weight and WC measurements, along with 24 h food and drink records (FDR) intake data were collected from 2460 boys and girls aged 5-17 years living in the state of Queensland, Australia. Results Statistically significant, yet weak correlations between BMI z-score and WC with total energy intake were observed in grades 1, 5 and 10, with only 55% of subjects having a physiologically plausible 24 hr FDR. Using Pearson correlations to examine the relationship between BMI and WC with energy intake and percentage macronutrient intake, no significant correlations were observed between BMI z-score or WC and percentage energy intake from protein, carbohydrate or fat. One way ANOVAs showed that although those with a higher BMI z-score or WC consumed significantly more energy than their lean counterparts. Conclusion No evidence of an association between percentage macronutrient intake and BMI or WC was found. Evidently, more robust longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship linking obesity and dietary intake. PMID:21615883

2011-01-01

23

How well do waist circumference and body mass index reflect body composition in pre-pubertal children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the quantitative relationship between waist circumference (WC) and height (Ht), and subsequently the association between waist circumference index (WCI), body mass index (BMI) and body composition in pre-pubertal children.Design:Cross-sectional sample (n=227; boys=127) of pre-pubertal black children (age range 8.8–11.0 years) from the Bone Health sub-study of the Bt20 birth cohort study set in Soweto-Johannesburg, South Africa. Measures of

N Cameron; L L Jones; P L Griffiths; S A Norris; J M Pettifor

2009-01-01

24

Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ) and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age. PMID:22793018

2012-01-01

25

Obesity, Waist Circumference, Weight Change, and the Risk of Psoriasis in US Women  

PubMed Central

Background Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder. Higher adiposity may increase the risk of psoriasis, but prospective data on this association are scarce. One prospective study showed that increased adiposity increased the risk of incident psoriasis in younger women, but no data are available in older women. Methods We prospectively examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight change, waist and hip circumference and risk of incident psoriasis in 67,300 women over a 12-year period (1996-2008) in the Nurses’ Health Study. The primary outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed psoriasis. Results During the 12 years of follow-up, there were a total of 809 incident psoriasis cases. There was a graded positive association between BMI (both baseline and updated) and the risk of psoriasis (both P values for trend <0.0001). Compared to women with updated BMI of <25, the multivariate RRs (relative risks) of incident psoriasis were 1.21 (95% CI, 1.03-1.43) for a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9, 1.63 (95% CI, 1.33-2.00) for a BMI of 30.0 to 34.9, and 2.03 (95% CI, 1.58-2.61) for a BMI of 35.0 or greater. Higher waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio were associated with a higher risk of incident psoriasis, but became non-significant after additionally adjusting for BMI. The BMI at age of 18 years was not associated with the risk of psoriasis. Weight gain since the age of 18 years was associated with an increased risk of psoriasis and RR of 10 lb gain was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.06-1.11; p<0.0001). Conclusion This large prospective study indicates that higher BMI and weight gain are risk factors for incident psoriasis in older US women. PMID:23057623

Kumar, Sandeep; Han, Jiali; Li, Tricia; Curhan, Gary; Choi, Hyon K.; Qureshi, Abrar A.

2014-01-01

26

Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and metabolic syndrome in a Congolese community: further research is still to be undertaken  

PubMed Central

Introduction The criteria of positivity of waist circumference to define the metabolic syndrome as currently recommended for the population of sub-Saharan Africa do not take into account specific ethnic or regional variation. Methods The predictive value of different values of waist circumference compared with visceral fat as determined by OMRON BF510 body composition in 360 indigenous patients from Bukavu city between June 1, 2010 and May 30, 2011 was studied. Results The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a threshold value of 95 cm for men (sensitivity = 72.4%, specificity = 91.1%, area under the curve (99% CI) = 0.899 (0.833 to 0.965)) and 99 cm in women (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 78.3%, AUC (99% CI) = 0.844 (0.777 to 0.911)). This test also showed an independent effect on the probability of accumulation of visceral fat (Odd adjusted OR = 5.0 (99% CI: 2.1 to 11.7), p <0.0001). Conclusion The threshold value for pathological waist circumference currently used for black African populations may overpredict abdominal fat excess in women. Further studies are needed to provide adequate cutoffs in sub-Saharan populations. PMID:23503103

Katchunga, Philippe Bianga; Hermans, Michel; Bamuleke, Bertrand Akonkwa; Katoto, Patrick Cimusa; Kabinda, Jeff Maotela

2013-01-01

27

Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices. Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification. PMID:23113163

Ahranjani, SH Abbaszadeh; Kashani, H; Forouzanfar, MH; Meybodi, HR Aghaei; Larijani, B; Aalaa, M; Mohajeri-Tehrani, MR

2012-01-01

28

A CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE O NÍVEL DE CIRCUNFERÊNCIA DE CINTURA E O GRAU DE ATIVIDADE FÍSICA The correlation between waist circumference level and physical activity degree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity prevalence has increased at alarming rates in all parts of the world, being considered as a global epidemic. The physical activity is the most variable component in the daily energy cost. Due to this, the aim of the study was to correlate physical activity degree with waist circumference level, verifying if more physically active people have less waist circumference.

Marcus Vinicius; Accetta Vianna; Ignácio A. Seixas-da-Silva; André Luiz Marques Gomes

29

Independent effects of waist circumference and physical activity on all-cause mortality in Canadian women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the independent effects of waist circumference (WC) and physical inactivity on the risk of mortality in women. This prospective cohort study included 5421 female participants 20-69 years of age in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. WC was measured with an anthropometric tape and leisure-time physical activity levels over the previous 12 months were assessed with a questionnaire. Mortality surveillance was conducted by data linkage with the Canadian Mortality Database through 31 December, 1993. The hazard ratios (HR) of mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption included as covariates in all models. A total of 225 deaths occurred over an average of 12.4 years of follow up (67 500 person-years of follow up). Physical activity (HR = 0.78; 95% C.I.: 0.64-0.95) and WC (HR = 1.17; 95% C.I.: 1.05-1.31) were associated with mortality when included in separate regression models. When included in the same model, both physical activity (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.96) and WC (HR = 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04-1.30) remained independent significant predictors of mortality. In conclusion, physical inactivity and high WC have significant independent risks of premature mortality among women. PMID:16770355

Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Craig, Cora L

2006-06-01

30

PLASMA DIHYDROCERAMIDE SPECIES ASSOCIATE WITH WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN MEXICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES  

PubMed Central

Objective Waist circumference (WC), the clinical marker of central obesity, is gaining popularity as a screening tool for type 2 diabetes (T2D). While there is epidemiologic evidence favoring the WC-T2D association, its biological substantiation is generally weak. Our objective was to determine the independent association of plasma lipid repertoire with WC. Design and methods We used samples and data from the San Antonio Family Heart Study of 1208 Mexican Americans from 42 extended families. We determined association of plasma lipidomic profiles with the cross-sectionally assessed WC. Plasma lipidomic profiling entailed liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included multivariable polygenic regression models and bivariate trait analyses using the SOLAR software. Results After adjusting for age and sex interactions, body mass index, homeostasis model of assessment – insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins and use of lipid lowering drugs, dihydroceramides as a class were associated with WC. Dihydroceramide species 18:0, 20:0, 22:0 and 24:1 were significantly associated and genetically correlated with WC. Two sphingomyelin species (31:1 and 41:1) were also associated with WC. Conclusions Plasma dihydroceramide levels independently associate with WC. Thus, high resolution plasma lipidomic studies can provide further credence to the biological underpinnings of the association of WC with T2D. PMID:23929697

Mamtani, Manju; Meikle, Peter J.; Kulkarni, Hemant; Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Barlow, Christopher K.; Jowett, Jeremy B.; Bellis, Claire; Dyer, Thomas D.; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E.

2013-01-01

31

Waist circumference and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have reported an impact of central obesity on people’s health. The literature is scarce on the effects of waist circumference (WC) on pulmonary function. Our objective was to review the literature on the association between WC and pulmonary function. Methods A systematic review was carried out in the PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The search included published, in press and online documents up to December 2011. A meta-analysis was carried out to obtain the pooled effect, and a meta-regression was performed to evaluate sources of heterogeneity. Results From the 547 studies identified, 10 were included. The meta-analysis revealed an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function parameters, indicating that the effect was greater among men (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ? = ?15.9 (95% confidence interval = ?23.2, ?8.5); forced vital capacity (FVC) ? = ?16.6 (95% confidence interval = ?21.0, ?12.2)) compared with women (FEV1 ? = ?5.6 (95% confidence interval = ?9.1, ?2.1); FVC ? = ?7.0 (95% confidence interval = ?9.1, ?4.8)). The meta-regression identified sex as the characteristic that most contributed to the heterogeneity (R2 = 54.8% for FEV1 and R2 = 85.7% for FVC). Conclusions There seems to be an inverse relationship between WC and pulmonary function, mainly in men. More population-based studies should be performed, especially among children and adolescents, to confirm these findings. PMID:23153289

2012-01-01

32

Adipose tissue trans-fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). The relative content of fatty acids in adipose tissue biopsies from a random sample of 996 men and women aged 50-64 years drawn from a Danish cohort study was determined by GC. Baseline data on weight, WC and potential confounders were available together with information on weight and WC 5 years after enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18:1t), 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid (18:1 ?11t) and rumenic acid (18:2 ?9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18:1t was 1.52% (90% central range 0.98, 2.19) in men and 1.47% (1.01, 2.19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18:1t, 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue are not associated with subsequent changes in weight or WC within the exposure range observed in this population. PMID:24286469

Hansen, Camilla P; Berentzen, Tina L; Østergaard, Jane N; Dahm, Christina C; Hellgren, Lars I; Schmidt, Erik B; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

2014-04-14

33

Subclinical Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Risk: Role of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is greater in adults with elevated metabolic risk profiles. However, the influence of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) on the relationship between IMT and metabolic risk is unclear. Methods Adults from the Bogalusa Heart Study were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese and into WC categories (men, low <94?cm, moderate 94–101.9?cm, high ?102?cm; women, low <80?cm, moderate 80–87.9?cm, high ?88?cm). Elevated metabolic risk was defined by cardiovascular risk factor clustering (?2 abnormal risk factors or insulin resistance (upper quartile of homeostasis model of insulin resistance). Carotid ultrasound measurements were obtained and mean IMT was calculated. General linear models compared IMT between elevated versus normal metabolic risk groups, adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and either BMI or WC category. Results Adults were 24–43 years of age (n?=?991) and 41% had elevated metabolic risk (42% male, 28% African American, 38% obese). IMT (mm) was greater in adults with elevated metabolic risk (0.83?±?0.007) versus normal risk (0.80?±?0.006) whether adjusted by BMI or WC (both P?

Camhi, Sarah M.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Chen, Wei; Bouchard, Claude; Berenson, Gerald S.

2011-01-01

34

NRXN3 is a novel locus for waist circumference: a genome-wide association study from the CHARGE Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central abdominal fat is a strong risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To identify common variants influencing central abdominal fat, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association analysis for waist circumference (WC). In total, three loci reached genome-wide significance. In stage 1, 31,373 individuals of Caucasian descent from eight cohort studies confirmed the role of FTO and MC4R and identified

Mary F Feitosa; Aldi Kraja; Michael A Province; Qunyuan Zhang; Ingrid B Borecki; Mao Fu; Talin Haritunians; Thor Aspelund; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Melissa Garcia; Lenore J. Launer; Albert V. Smith; Braxton D. Mitchell; Patrick F. McArdle; Alan R. Shuldiner; Suzette J. Bielinski; Eric Boerwinkle; Fred Brancati; Ellen W. Demerath; James S. Pankow; Alice M. Arnold; Yii-Der Ida Chen; Nicole L. Glazer; Barbara McKnight; Bruce M. Psaty; Jerome I. Rotter; Najaf Amin; Harry Campbell; Ulf Gyllensten; Cristian Pattaro; Peter P. Pramstaller; Igor Rudan; Maksim Struchalin; Veronique Vitart; Xiaoyi Gao; Larry D. Atwood; Josée Dupuis; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Cashell E. Jaquish; Christopher J. O'Donnell; Ramachandran S. Vasan; Charles C. White; Yurii S. Aulchenko; K. Estrada Gil; Albert Hofman; F. Rivadeneira Ramirez; André G. Uitterlinden; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Ben A. Oostra; Robert C. Kaplan; Vilmundur Gudnason; Jeffrey R. O'Connell; Duijn van C. M; L. Adrienne Cupples; Caroline S. Fox; Kari E. North

2009-01-01

35

Gender-related personality traits, self-efficacy, and social support: how do they relate to women's waist circumference change?  

PubMed

This study investigated whether gender-role related traits agency and communion contribute to successful health behavior change, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors, namely, agency, mediated by health-related self-efficacy, and communion, moderated by social support. Data from women (N = 282) participating in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Agency and increase in self-efficacy both independently predicted waist circumference reduction in the 1-year follow-up. Individuals high in communion succeeded in waist reduction only if they received social support. Initial self-efficacy increase predicted 3-year waist reduction. Gender-role orientation, together with social environment, influences behavior change intervention outcomes. PMID:23740266

Hankonen, Nelli; Konttinen, Hanna; Absetz, Pilvikki

2014-10-01

36

Thermoregulatory sympathetic nervous system activity and diet-induced waist-circumference reduction in obese Japanese women.  

PubMed

The present study is designed to investigate how and to what extent sympathovagal behavior in a balanced low-calorie diet relates to favorable changes of body mass, waist circumference, and/or metabolic risk factors. The study involved 28 mildly obese women without clinical complications, who underwent an 8-week calorie restriction program using a 1,200-kcal daily diet with an adequate nutrient content; including two regular meals, and one formula meal replacement. All subjects were examined before and after the dietary intervention. We measured anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and biochemical blood profiles for lipid metabolism. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated by heart rate variability power spectral analysis. The dietary intervention induced moderate, but significant reduction of waist circumference (-5.3% +/- 0.8%), body fat percentage (-5.8% +/- 0.8%), and body mass (-6.6% +/- 0.5%). Linear regression analysis showed that Deltavery low frequency (VLF) power reflecting energy metabolic- and thermoregulatory sympathetic function significantly correlated to Deltawaist circumference (r = -0.53, P < 0.01), Deltabody fat percentage (r = -0.39, P < 0.05), Deltabody mass (r = -0.43, P < 0.05), DeltaHDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio (HDL-C/TC) (r = 0.62, P < 0.001), and Deltanonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). A stepwise multiple regression analysis additionally revealed that Deltawaist circumference (P = 0.024), DeltaHDL-C/TC (P = 0.013), and DeltaNEFA (P = 0.016) were significant and independent factors, which contributing to the variance in DeltaVLF power (r(2) = 0.61). Although causes and consequences of obesity continue to elude researchers, the present study indicates that thermoregulatory sympathetic activity relates to moderate waist-circumference reduction together with favorable changes of blood lipid profiles after short-term dietary modification in mildly obese women. PMID:19384859

Fujibayashi, Mami; Hamada, Taku; Matsumoto, Tamaki; Kiyohara, Natsuki; Tanaka, Seitaro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Egawa, Kahori; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

2009-01-01

37

Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 122:687–694;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307115 PMID:24800763

Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gosta; Pershagen, Goran; Ostenson, Claes-Goran

2014-01-01

38

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K, Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

39

Social relationships and longitudinal changes in body mass index and waist circumference: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33-45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation. PMID:24389018

Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hankinson, Arlene L; Liu, Kiang; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Loria, Catherine M; Carnethon, Mercedes R

2014-03-01

40

Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Design Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ?0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC?90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). Results IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR?0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC?90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. Conclusion The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice. PMID:24475305

Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

2014-01-01

41

Cut-off Values of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist-to-Height Ratio to Identify Excess Abdominal Fat: Population-Based Screening of Japanese Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Background School-based screening and prevention programs for adiposity generally target school children in grades 4 and 6 (age 9–11 years). The aims of this study were to evaluate the validity of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in identifying abdominal adiposity in fifth-grade Japanese school children and to determine optimal cut-off values for anthropometric measures. Methods The target population was fifth-grade school children enrolled in 2 schools in Shizuoka, Japan between 2008 and 2010; 422 of the 466 children participated in the present study. Abdominal adiposity was defined as percent trunk fat in the 95th percentile or higher, as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We analyzed the validity of BMI, WC, and WHtR using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The Youden index was used to determine cut-off values of BMI, WC, and WHtR that identify excess abdominal fat. Results Optimal cut-off values to identify abdominal adiposity were 20.8 kg/m2 (BMI), 76.5 cm (WC), and 0.519 (WHtR) for boys, and 19.6 kg/m2 (BMI), 73.0 cm (WC), and 0.499 (WHtR) for girls. Areas under the ROC curve were 0.983 (BMI), 0.987 (WC), and 0.981 (WHtR) for boys, and 0.981 (BMI), 0986 (WC), and 0.992 (WHtR) for girls. Conclusions BMI, WC, and WHtR successfully identified a high proportion of children with excess abdominal fat as measured by DXA, demonstrating that these measures are useful indices for school screening. PMID:21467729

Fujita, Yuki; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Nakamura, Harunobu; Iki, Masayuki

2011-01-01

42

Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Adiposity Index, and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Two Populations in Brazil: General and Amerindian  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design and methods A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ?126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs. Results The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor. Conclusion Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations. PMID:24937307

Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Mourao-Junior, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Krieger, Jose E.; Mill, Jose G.; Pereira, Alexandre C.

2014-01-01

43

Interaction between Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity and Dietary Protein in Relation to Subsequent Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. Objective To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (?BW) or change in WC (?WC). Design Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ?5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ?BW or ?WC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses. Results When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ?BW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: ?32.3; 114.3]) or ?WC (

Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Linneberg, Allan; Toft, Ulla; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Heitmann, Berit L.; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

2014-01-01

44

Age and sex influence the relationship between waist circumference and abdominal fat distribution measured by bioelectrical impedance.  

PubMed

Waist circumference (WC) is a subrogate measurement of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) with a different normal threshold for men and women. However, age plays an important role in the relationship of WC with AVF. The hypothesis of the present work was that the adjustment of the WC, not only by sex but also by age, would improve WC prediction of AVF as measured by a new bioelectrical impedance (BIA) methodology. The study was carried out in 311 subjects (178 men and 133 women) with a body mass index between 18 and 35 kg/m(2). Abdominal fat composition was measured by BIA by using a new device recently developed specifically for the measurement of abdominal fat compartments (ViScan AB140;Omron Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were also collected. There was a high correlation of WC with total abdominal fat and AVF in all age ranges and for both fat depots, which decreased with age in men but remained more stable in women. Age independently influenced the level of AVF in women and in those subjects with normal WC, increasing by 0.32 and 0.47 for each decade of age, respectively. In conclusion, age plays an important role in the association between WC and AVF with a high correlation existing in all age ranges. A specific BIA method that measures abdominal composition would be useful in women and in those subjects with normal WC as an indicator of AVF. PMID:22749183

Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Bea, Ana M; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Perez-Ruiz, Maria Rosario; Civeira, Fernando

2012-06-01

45

The Relationship between Waist Circumference and Work-related Injury in Reference to the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between waist circumference and work-related injury in reference to the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods By analyzing data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the rate of injury experience according to socioeconomic status, including occupational property, of 8,261 subjects. We performed logistic regression analysis with work-related injury experience rate as dependent variable and waist circumference as an independent variable, Odds ratios (OR) were calculated, which reflect the likelihood of work-related injury experience rate, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) while controlling for relevant covariates with stratifying by sex, age, nature of injury, site of injury and occupational group. Results Among 797 persons who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 293 persons (36.8%) had work-related injury experience. After adjusting the confounding variables, the work-related injury was related to abnormal waist circumference (OR?=?1.35; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.78). In subgroups, ORs were higher in men (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 1.02?~?1.98), professional, manager, and administrator (OR?=?2.41; 95% CI: 1.10?~?5.28). Higher rate of injuries were noted in back and waist (OR?=?2.92; 95% CI: 1.49?~?5.73), and transport accident had increased risk (OR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.13?~?2.28). Conclusions Work-related injury rate differed depending on the waist circumference. The abdominal obesity was associated with higher risk of work-related injury. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for work-related injury management in Korea. PMID:24472303

2013-01-01

46

Excess gains in weight and waist circumference associated with childbearing: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the association of childbearing with weight and waist circumference (WC) changes, we compared women with and without pregnancies or births during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN A multicenter, longitudinal observational study over 10 years. Comparison groups defined by the number of pregnancies and births during follow-up: P0 (0 pregnancies; nongravid), P1 (1+ miscarriages or abortions; ‘short’ pregnancies), B1 (1 birth), and B2 (2+ births). Mean changes in weight and WC for P1, B1 and B2 groups vs P0 were examined separately by race (black and white), baseline parity (nulliparous and parous) and baseline weight status (normal weight; BMI <25 kg/m2 and overweight; BMI ?25 kg/m2). SUBJECTS A population-based sample of 2070 women aged 18–30 y at baseline (1053 black subjects and 1017 white subjects) from Birmingham, Alabama, Chicago, Illinois, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Oakland, California were examined five times between 1985–1986 and 1995–1996. MEASURMENTS Weight and WC measurements were obtained using standardized protocol at baseline and examinations at years 2, 5, 7 and 10. Sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral attributes were assessed at baseline and follow-up examinations. RESULTS Gains in weight and WC associated with pregnancy and childbearing varied by race (P<0.001), baseline parity (P<0.05) and overweight status (P<0.001). Among overweight nulliparas, excess gains in weight (black subjects: 3–5 kg, white subjects: 5–6 kg) and WC (black subjects: 3–4 cm, white subjects: 5–6 cm) were associated with ‘short’ pregnancies and one or more birth(s) during follow-up compared to no pregnancies (P<0.01 and 0.001). Among normal weight nulliparas, excess gains in weight (about 1 kg) and WC (2–3 cm) were associated with follow-up birth(s) (P<0.05). Among women parous at baseline, no excess weight gains were found, but excess WC gains (2–4 cm) were associated with follow-up births. CONCLUSION Substantial excess weight gain is associated with both short pregnancies and a first birth in women overweight prior to initiation of childbearing. Excess weight gain was not associated with higher order births. Increases in waist girth were cumulative with both first and higher order births among overweight as well as normal weight women. Interventions to prevent obesity should be targeted at women who are overweight prior to initiation of childbearing. The impact of excess WC gains associated with childbearing on women’s future health risk should be evaluated further. PMID:14770188

Gunderson, EP; Murtaugh, MA; Lewis, CE; Quesenberry, CP; West, DS; Sidney, S

2010-01-01

47

The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI. PMID:20948514

Camhi, Sarah M; Bray, George A; Bouchard, Claude; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Newton, Robert L; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H; Smith, Steven R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

2011-02-01

48

Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

2012-01-01

49

The Activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Relation to Waist\\/Hip Circumference Ratio in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate possible differences, between generally and abdominally obese men, in activity and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system.Research Methods and Procedures: Fifty non-diabetic, middle-aged men were selected to obtain two groups with similar body mass index (BMI) but different waist\\/hip circumference ratio (WHR). Measurements were performed of the activity of the HPA axis

Thomas Ljung; Göran Holm; Peter Friberg; Björn Andersson; Bengt-Åke Bengtsson; Johan Svensson; Mary Dallman; Bruce McEwen; Per Björntorp

2000-01-01

50

Waist circumference and obesity-associated risk factors among whites in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: clinical action thresholds1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Waist circumference (WC) is strongly linked to obesity-associated risks. However, currently proposed WC risk thresholds are not based on associations with obesity-related risk factors but rather with body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Objective: The objective was to determine the relations of WC to obesity-associated risk factors in a representative sample of US whites and to derive comparable risk

ShanKuan Zhu; ZiMian Wang; Stanley Heshka; Moonseong Heo; Myles S Faith; Steven B Heymsfield

51

Combined Impact of Lifestyle Factors on Prospective Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person’s weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. Methods We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25–70) were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours) for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol) diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. Results Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI ?706, ?368) and 200 (?478, ?87) gram less weight and 0.95 (?1.27, ?0.639) and 0.99 (?1.29, ?0.69) cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. Conclusion The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain. PMID:23226361

May, Anne M.; Romaguera, Dora; Travier, Noemie; Ekelund, Ulf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Quiros, J. Ramon; Agudo, Antonio; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, Monique; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Braaten, Tonje; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

2012-01-01

52

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.  

PubMed

The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. PMID:20851311

Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

2010-08-01

53

Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference.  

PubMed

An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence. In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after each dietary period. The school meals did not affect the MetS score (P= 1·00). However, it was found that mean arterial pressure was reduced by 0·4 (95 % CI 0·0, 0·8) mmHg (P= 0·04), fasting total cholesterol concentrations by 0·05 (95 % CI 0·02, 0·08) mmol/l (P= 0·001), HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·04) mmol/l (both P< 0·05), and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance by 0·10 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·16) points (P= 0·001) compared with the control diet in the intention-to-treat analyses. Waist circumference increased 0·5 (95 % CI 0·3, 0·7) cm (P< 0·001), but BMI z-score remained unaffected. Complete-case analyses and analyses adjusted for household educational level, pubertal status and physical activity confirmed the results. In conclusion, the school meals did not affect the MetS score in 8-11-year-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. PMID:25323030

Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke P; Ritz, Christian; Hjorth, Mads F; Lauritzen, Lotte; Sørensen, Louise B; Petersen, Rikke A; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Mølgaard, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F

2014-12-01

54

Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women. Methods: A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and overweight/obesity groups based on BMI, and normal and abdominal obesity groups based on WC. Cardiometabolic variables included triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure (BP). Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in middle-aged women (32.4%) than in young women (12.0%). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was also higher in middle-aged women (60.3%) than in young women (36.2%). There were significant differences in the comparison of all related cardiometabolic variables between different BMI (or WC) categories in young and middle-aged women groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, partial correlation analysis indicated that both BMI and WC were correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables. After adjustment for age and WC, although the correlation coefficient r? was attenuated, BMI was still correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables in young and middle-aged women. After adjustment for age and BMI, partial correlation analysis showed that WC was correlated significantly with TG, FBG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in young women and significantly with TG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in middle-aged women. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was high in Chinese young and middle-aged women. BMI was a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than WC in young and middle-aged women, and moreover, measurement of both WC and BMI may be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus than BMI or WC alone. PMID:20803767

Ying, Xin; Song, Zhen-ya; Zhao, Chang-jun; Jiang, Yan

2010-01-01

55

Increased waist circumference is independently associated with hypothyroidism in Mexican Americans: replicative evidence from two large, population-based studies  

PubMed Central

Background Mexican Americans are at an increased risk of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus it is conceivable that some components of the MS may be associated with the risk of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals. Our objective was to investigate and replicate the potential association of MS traits with thyroid dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Methods We conducted association testing for 18 MS traits in two large studies on Mexican Americans – the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–10. A total of 907 participants from 42 families in SAFHS and 1633 unrelated participants from NHANES 2007–10 were included in this study. The outcome measures were prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid function index (TFI) – a measure of thyroid function. For the SAFHS, we used polygenic regression analyses with multiple covariates to test associations in setting of family studies. For the NHANES 2007–10, we corrected for the survey design variables as needed for association analyses in survey data. In both datasets, we corrected for age, sex and their linear and quadratic interactions. Results TFI was an accurate indicator of clinical thyroid status (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve to detect clinical hypothyroidism, 0.98) in both SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10. Of the 18 MS traits, waist circumference (WC) showed the most consistent association with TFI in both studies independently of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). In the SAFHS and NHANES 2007–10 datasets, each standard deviation increase in WC was associated with 0.13 (p?

2014-01-01

56

Visceral adipose tissue, but not waist circumference is a better measure of metabolic risk in Singaporean Chinese and Indian men  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is an independent risk factor in cardiometabolic diseases and is commonly measured by computed tomography (CT). It is measured clinically by waist circumference (WC). The L4/5 intervertebral space VAT (L4/5 VAT) is traditionally used to represent total VAT volume. We set out to determine (1) the level of intervertebral space on CT that best approximates the total VAT volume; (2) compare the association between WC and VAT in Singaporean Chinese and Indian; and (3) examine the correlation between VAT and cardiometabolic risk factors. Subjects: A total of 60 Chinese and 60 Asian Indian men older than 60 years were recruited. Their medical history was taken and anthropometry was measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, adipokines and inflammatory markers were measured. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. VAT was determined by CT. Total VAT volume was calculated in 22 patients from VAT areas at seven intervertebral levels. The optimal VAT area most representative of total VAT volume was determined and used for all patients to approximate total VAT volume. Results: The VAT area at L2/3 intervertebral space (L2/3 VAT) correlated almost perfectly with VAT volume (R2=0.974 and 0.946 for Chinese and Indians, respectively). Subjects from the two races had similar height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and L2/3 VAT but more Indian men had hypertension, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. WC was correlated with the L2/3 VAT area in both Chinese (r=0.484, P<0.001) and Indian subjects (r=0.366, P=0.004) without racial difference (P=0.2 for interaction term). L2/3 VAT also correlated better with cardiometabolic risk factors, adipokines and C-reactive protein than WC, BMI or L4/5 VAT. Conclusion: The L2-L3 intervertebral space was the best anatomic level for a single-slice CT cross-sectional area measurement of VAT to approximate total body visceral adipose volume in this population of Chinese and Asian Indian men older than 60 years. L2/3 VAT was better correlated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, adipokines and inflammatory marker than either L4/5 VAT, WC or BMI. PMID:23448802

Ng, A C; Wai, D C; Tai, E S; Ng, K M; Chan, L L

2012-01-01

57

Changes in the rates of weight and waist circumference gain in Australian adults over time: a longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess in a single cohort whether annual weight and waist circumference (WC) change has varied over time. Design Longitudinal cohort study with three surveys (1) 1999/2000; (2) 2004/2005 and (3) 2011/2012. Generalised linear mixed models with random effects were used to compare annualised weight and WC change between surveys 1 and 2 (period 1) with that between surveys 2 and 3 (period 2). Models were adjusted for age to analyse changes with time rather than age. Models were additionally adjusted for sex, education status, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage, ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes status and smoking status. Setting The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study (AusDiab)—a population-based, stratified-cluster survey of 11247 adults aged ?25?years. Participants 3351 Australian adults who attended each of three surveys and had complete measures of weight, WC and covariates. Primary outcome measures Weight and WC were measured at each survey. Change in weight and WC was annualised for comparison between the two periods. Results Mean weight and WC increased in both periods (0.34?kg/year, 0.43?cm/year period 1; 0.13?kg/year, 0.46?cm/year period 2). Annualised weight gain in period 2 was 0.11?kg/year (95% CI 0.06 to 0.15) less than period 1. Lesser annual weight gain between the two periods was not seen for those with greatest area-level socioeconomic disadvantage, or in men over the age of 55. In contrast, the annualised WC increase in period 2 was greater than period 1 (0.07?cm/year, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12). The increase was greatest in men aged 55+ years and those with a greater area-level socioeconomic disadvantage. Conclusions Between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, Australian adults in a national study continued to gain weight, but more slowly than 1999/2000–2004/2005. While weight gain may be slowing, this was not observed for older men or those in more disadvantaged groups, and the same cannot be said for WC. PMID:24440794

Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J; Backholer, Kathryn; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan E

2014-01-01

58

The Increase in Serum Visfatin After Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Women is Modulated by Weight Loss, Waist Circumference, and Presence or Absence of Diabetes Before Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Previous studies addressing the changes in serum visfatin levels after bariatric surgery yielded conflicting results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We measured serum visfatin levels in 41 morbidly obese women before bariatric surgery and after losing at least 15% of the\\u000a initial weight, and analyzed the results taking into account the type of surgery, reproductive and diabetic status, among\\u000a others. Body mass index, waist circumference,

José I. Botella-Carretero; Manuel Luque-Ramírez; Francisco Álvarez-Blasco; Roberto Peromingo; José L. San Millán; Héctor F. Escobar-Morreale

2008-01-01

59

Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio: which is the better discriminator of cardiovascular disease mortality risk? Evidence from an individual-participant meta-analysis of 82,864 participants from nine cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined both the relative magnitude of association and the discriminative capability of multiple indicators of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. We conducted an individual-participant meta-analysis of 9 cohort studies of men and women drawn from the British general population resulted in sample of 82,864 individuals. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured directly. There were 6,641 deaths (1,998 CVD) during a mean of 8.1 years of follow-up. After adjustment, a one SD higher in WHR and WC was related to a higher risk of CVD mortality (HR (95% CI)): 1.15 (1.05-1.25) and 1.15 (1.04-1.27), respectively. The risk of CVD also increased linearly across quintiles of both these abdominal obesity markers with a 66% increased risk in the highest quintile of WHR. In age- and sex-adjusted models only, BMI was related to CVD mortality but not in any other analyses. No major differences were revealed in the discrimination capabilities of models with BMI, WC or WHR for cardiovascular or total mortality outcomes. In conclusion, measures of abdominal adiposity, but not BMI, were related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. No difference was observed in discrimination capacities between adiposity markers. PMID:21521449

Czernichow, Sebastien; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David

2014-01-01

60

Waist circumference and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of overall and central obesity are similarly associated with systemic oxidative stress in women.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that overall and abdominal obesity might lead to oxidative stress (OxS), which, in turn, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of diseases. In this study, for the first time, we compared the correlations of indirect, i.e. anthropometric, and direct, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measures of body fat with circulatory OxS markers in women. To address this issue, we assessed central and total body fat mass (FM) by DXA, and serum levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), thiols and hydroperoxides in 275 healthy women (age 21-65 years; body mass index [BMI] 21.1-32.0 kg/m(2); waist circumference [WC] 60.1-109.9 cm). Among the markers considered in the study, only hydroperoxides levels, i.e. by-products of lipid peroxidation, were significantly (p < 0.05 for all) and positively correlated to body fat accumulation after controlling for confounding factors. In particular, this marker was found to be similarly associated with DXA-derived total FM, total FM % and trunk FM as well as with WC. Of note, hydroperoxides appeared to be correlated with abdominal but not with general obesity, as classified according to standard WC and BMI cut-offs, respectively. In conclusion, taken together our data demonstrated that, at least in women, the measurement of body FM by DXA has no advantage over the simpler and cheaper WC with regard to their associations with systemic OxS markers. Moreover, WC emerged as a superior potential predictor of OxS compared to the other most commonly used anthropometric measures (including BMI and waist to hip ratio). PMID:24304466

Cervellati, Carlo; Bonaccorsi, Gloria; Cremonini, Eleonora; Romani, Arianna; Castaldini, Cristina; Ferrazzini, Stefania; Giganti, Melchiorre; Fila, Enrica; Massari, Leo; Bergamini, Carlo M

2014-03-01

61

Reference intervals of complete blood count constituents are highly correlated to waist circumference: should obese patients have their own "normal values?".  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI), the prevalent indicator of obesity, is not easily grasped by patients nor physicians. Waist circumference (WC) is correlated to obesity, is better understood and has a stronger relationship to the metabolic syndrome. We compiled WC, complete blood count (CBC) parameters as well as other pertinent data of 6766 25-55-year-old US volunteers sampled in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in the years 2005-2010. To determine reference intervals of typical US patients visiting their clinician, we used minimal exclusion criteria. We compiled hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count, mean platelet volume, and counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, we also compiled serum C reactive protein and serum iron. The three major US races were studied and reference interval diagrams were constructed for each CBC parameter plotted against WC. WBC count, RDW, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and red blood cell count increase with WC. Conversely, serum iron and MCH and MCV decrease. These relationships may be related to insulin resistance and chronic activation of the immune system and the resulting low-grade inflammatory state. WC is a strong predictor for many CBC parameters, suggesting that WC should be taken into account when evaluating blood count results. Clinicians who take care of obese patients should be aware of altered hematology and investigate and treat accordingly. PMID:24644218

Vuong, Jennifer; Qiu, Yuelin; La, Myanh; Clarke, Gwen; Swinkels, Dorine W; Cembrowski, George

2014-07-01

62

Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference) and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans  

PubMed Central

Background It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Methods Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ?43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB) (n = 1182) and Portugal (n = 540) and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ), life events (LES), Resilience (RS11), Mood (MS), Hopelessness (BDI) and Perceived Stress (PSS4). BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were dependent variables in separate multiple linear regression models for which predictors were entered in 4 blocks: 1. demographic factors; 2. stressful life events; 3. diet/activity; and, 4. psychological measures. Results In the GB sample, BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by less education, illness in a close friend or relative, frequent alcohol consumption and sedentary behaviour. Among the Portuguese, higher BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by lower resilience. Being male and less education were independent predictors of having a larger WC (cm) in both countries. Within GB, not working, illness in a close friend or relative, sedentary lifestyle and lower resilience were also independent predictors of a larger WC (cm). Conclusions These data suggest that intervention to treat and/or prevent obesity should target males, particularly those who have left education early and seek to promote resilience. In GB, targeting those with high alcohol consumption and encouraging physical activity, particularly among those who have experienced illness in a close friend or relative may also be effective in reducing obesity. PMID:22686278

2012-01-01

63

Population Distribution of the Sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) from a Representative Sample of US Adults: Comparison of SAD, Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index for Identifying Dysglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD’s distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia. Methods and Findings In the 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured (“abdominal height”) between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ?20; response rate 88%) we used sample weights to estimate SAD’s population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD’s population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2–22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6–22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ?5.7%). For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1) and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1) remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted) was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001) and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001). Conclusions Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity. PMID:25272003

Kahn, Henry S.; Gu, Qiuping; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Freedman, David S.; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Ogden, Cynthia L.

2014-01-01

64

Changes in epidemiologic associations with different exposure metrics: A case study of phthalate exposure associations with body mass index and waist circumference.  

PubMed

The use of human biomonitoring data to characterize exposure to environmental contaminants in epidemiology studies has expanded greatly in recent years. Substantial variability in effect measures may arise when using different exposure metrics for a given contaminant, and it is often not clear which metric is the best surrogate for the 'causal' or 'true' exposure. Here we evaluated variability and potential bias in epidemiologic associations resulting from the use of different phthalate exposure metrics in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We examined associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and the outcomes of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We examined each of the following NHANES-derived exposure metrics for metabolites of individual phthalates: molar excretion rate (nmol/min), molar amount (nmol), molar concentration (nmol/mL, with and without additional model adjustment for creatinine), creatinine corrected molar concentration (nmol/g creatinine), and reconstructed daily phthalate intake (nmol/kg/day). In order to investigate potential biasing effect of each metric, we first assumed that daily intake of the parent phthalate is the causal exposure. We then constructed a simulated population based on the 2009-2010 NHANES, and randomly assigned each individual a di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) intake dose based on a published distribution, but independent of any other factor. Accordingly, all associations between these randomly assigned intake doses and individuals' BMI and WC should be null. Next, demographic data in the NHANES were incorporated into a pharmacokinetic model to predict urinary molar excretions of five DEHP metabolites based on the randomly assigned DEHP intake. The predicted molar excretions were then used to calculate the same exposure metrics listed above. Three exposure metrics (randomly generated intake, excretion rate, urine concentration) showed no significant associations with BMI, which supports the null hypothesis stated above. In contrast, metrics adjusted for creatinine showed a significant negative correlation, and reconstructed daily intake showed a significant positive correlation, indicating the introduction of bias away from the true (i.e., null) association. Interestingly, trends in the simulation analysis were similar to those seen in the observed NHANES data. Our findings show that, at least in this example case, the choice of exposure metric can introduce significant bias of varying magnitude and direction into the calculation of epidemiologic associations. PMID:25090576

Christensen, Krista; Sobus, Jon; Phillips, Martin; Blessinger, Todd; Lorber, Matthew; Tan, Yu-Mei

2014-12-01

65

Association of body mass index and waist circumference with hypertension among school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group and middle income group in National Capital Territory of Delhi  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Materials and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using standard methodology. Results: The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.8% and 4.1% respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Statistical positive correlation was observed between BMI and WC with SBP and DBP. Thus, it can be inferred that children with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24251210

Kapil, Umesh; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Sareen, Neha; Kaur, Supreet

2013-01-01

66

Screening for recombinant human erythropoietin using [Hb], reticulocytes, the OFF(hr score), OFF(z score) and Hb(z score): status of the Blood Passport.  

PubMed

Haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (retic%) and OFF(hr score) are well-implemented screening tools to determine potential recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) abuse in athletes. Recently, the International Cycling Union implemented the OFF(z score) and the Hb(z score) in their anti-doping testing programme. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of these indirect screening methods. Twenty-four human subjects divided into three groups with eight subjects each (G1; G2 and G3) were injected with rHuEpo. G1 and G2 received rHuEpo for a 4-week period with 2 weeks of "boosting" followed by 2 weeks of "maintenance" and a wash-out period of 3 weeks. G3 received rHuEpo for a 10-week period (boost = 3 weeks; maintenance = 7 weeks; wash out = 1 week). Three, seven and eight of the 24 volunteers exceeded the cut-off limits for OFF(hr score), [Hb] and retic%, respectively. One subject from G1, nobody from G2, and seven subjects from G3 exceeded the cut-off limit for Hb(z score.) In total, ten subjects exceeded the cut-off limit for the OFF(z score); two subjects from G1, two subjects from G2 and six subjects from G3. In total, indirect screening methods were able to indicate rHuEpo injections in 58% of subjects. However, 42% of our rHuEpo-injected subjects were not detected. It should be emphasised that the test frequency in real world anti-doping is far less than the present study, and hence the detection rate will be lower. PMID:20127125

Bornø, Andreas; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels J; Munch-Andersen, Thor; Hulston, Carl J; Lundby, Carsten

2010-06-01

67

Neurofeedback for insomnia: a pilot study of Z-score SMR and individualized protocols.  

PubMed

Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols used instantaneous Z scores to determine reward condition administered when awake. Twelve adults with insomnia, free of other mental and uncontrolled physical illnesses, were randomly assigned to the SMR or IND group. Eight completed this randomized, parallel group, single-blind study. Both groups received fifteen 20-min sessions of Z-Score NFB. Pre-post assessments included sQEEG, mental health, quality of life, and insomnia status. ANOVA yielded significant post-treatment improvement for the combined group on all primary insomnia scores: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI p<.005), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI p<.0001), PSQI Sleep Efficiency (p<.007), and Quality of Life Inventory (p<.02). Binomial tests of baseline EEGs indicated a significant proportion of excessively high levels of Delta and Beta power (p<.001) which were lowered post-treatment (paired z-tests p<.001). Baseline EEGs showed excessive sleepiness and hyperarousal, which improved post-treatment. Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol. PMID:21789650

Hammer, Barbara U; Colbert, Agatha P; Brown, Kimberly A; Ilioi, Elena C

2011-12-01

68

Does waist circumference predict fat gain in children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify in a group of 8-y-old prepubertal children the anthropometric parameter with the highest prediction power of overweight, measured 4 y later.SUBJECTS: One-hundred and twelve Caucasian children (54 males, 58 females), aged 8.7±0.9 y, were studied.RESULTS: An analysis of the association between relative body mass index (BMI) at follow-up (%) and some

C Maffeis; A Grezzani; A Pietrobelli; S Provera; L Tatò

2001-01-01

69

Body circumferences: clinical implications emerging from a new geometric model  

PubMed Central

Background Body volume expands with the positive energy balance associated with the development of adult human obesity and this "growth" is captured by two widely used clinical metrics, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). Empirical correlations between circumferences, BMI, and related body compartments are frequently reported but fail to provide an important common conceptual foundation that can be related to key clinical observations. A two-phase program was designed to fill this important gap: a geometric model linking body volume with circumferences and BMI was developed and validated in cross-sectional cohorts; and the model was applied to the evaluation of longitudinally monitored subjects during periods of voluntary weight loss. Concepts emerging from the developed model were then used to examine the relations between the evaluated clinical measures and body composition. Methods Two groups of healthy adults (n = 494 and 1499) were included in the cross-sectional model development/testing phase and subjects in two previous weight loss studies were included in the longitudinal model evaluation phase. Five circumferences (arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf; average of sum, C), height (H), BMI, body volume (V; underwater weighing), and the volumes of major body compartments (whole-body magnetic resonance imaging) were measured. Results The evaluation of a humanoid geometric model based a cylinder confirmed that V derived from C and H was highly correlated with measured V [R2 both males and females, 0.97; p < 0.001). Developed allometric models confirmed model predictions that C and BMI (represented as V/H) are directly linked as, C = (V/H)0.5. The scaling of individual circumferences to V/H varied, with waist the highest (V/H~0.6) and calf the lowest (V/H~0.3), indicating that the largest and smallest between-subject "growth" with greater body volume occurs in the abdominal area and lower extremities, respectively. A stepwise linear regression model including all five circumferences2 showed that each contributed independently to V/H. These cross-sectional observations were generally confirmed by analysis of the two longitudinal weight loss studies. The scaling of circumference ratios (e.g., waist/hip) to V/H conformed to models developed on the scaling of individual circumferences to V/H, indicating their relations to BMI are predictable a priori. Waist, hip, and arm/calf circumferences had the highest associations with whole-body visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle volumes, respectively. Conclusion These observations provide a simple geometric model relating circumferences with body size and composition, introduce a conceptual foundation explaining previous empirical observations, and reveal new clinical insights. PMID:18834550

Heymsfield, Steven B; Martin-Nguyen, Allison; Fong, Tung M; Gallagher, Dympna; Pietrobelli, Angelo

2008-01-01

70

Comparison of Body Mass Index and Waist\\/Height Ratio in Predicting Definite Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist\\/hip ratio, waist\\/height ratio (WHtR) and skin fold thickness are clinical tools enabling the evaluation of obesity. WHtR is a recently introduced index to assess central fat distribution. This study was performed to compare the prognostic value of WHtR and BMI for definite coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A cross-sectional study was

M. Siavash; M. Sadeghi; F. Salarifar; M. Amini; F. Shojaee-Moradie

2008-01-01

71

Changes in Body Mass Index Z Score Over the Course of the Academic Year Among Children Attending Head Start  

PubMed Central

Objective We tested the hypothesis that among 3- to 5-year-old children attending Head Start, body mass index z score will decline during the academic year and increase during the summer. Methods We used retrospective longitudinal growth data collected over 5 academic years from 1914 children (51% boys, 62% white) enrolled in a Michigan Head Start program. Changes in body mass index (BMI) z score, calculated as annual rate of change, during 2 academic years and the intervening summer were assessed by piecewise linear regression analysis. Potential covariates were gender, single-parent status, program year, race/ethnicity, age at initial enrollment, and family income (divided by household size). Results Mean BMI z score at the start of Head Start enrollment was 0.52 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.39 to 0.65). Mean annual rates of BMI z score change were: ?0.07 (95% CI ?0.28 to 0.14) during the first year of enrollment, 0.62 (95% CI ?0.0005 to 1.23) over the summer, and ?0.82 (95% CI ?1.50 to ?0.13) during the second year of enrollment. The effect was most robust among girls of minority race/ethnicity. Conclusions Head Start is associated with a shifting of BMI z scores toward the norm among low-income preschool-aged children, particularly among girls of minority race/ethnicity. PMID:20399173

Lumeng, Julie C.; Kaciroti, Niko; Frisvold, David E.

2014-01-01

72

The reliability of weight-for-length/height Z scores in children.  

PubMed

The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends weight-for-length/height (WFL/H), represented as a Z score for diagnosing acute malnutrition among children aged 0 to 60 months. Under controlled conditions, weight, height and length measurements have high degree of reliability. However, the reliability when combined into a WFL/H Z score, in all settings is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of published studies assessing the reliability of WFL/Hz on PubMed and Google scholar. Studies were included if they presented reliability scores for the derived index of WFL/Hz, for children under 5 years. Meta-analysis was conducted for a pooled estimate of reliability overall, and for children above and below 24 months old. Twenty six studies on reliability of anthropometry were identified but only three, all community-based studies, reported reliability scores for WFL/Hz. The overall pooled intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) estimate for WFL/Hz among children aged 0 to 60 months was 0.81 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.99). Among children aged less than 24 months the pooled ICC estimate from two studies was 0.72 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.77) while the estimate reported for children above 24 months from one study was 0.97 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Although WFL/Hz is recommended for diagnosis of acute under nutrition among children below 5 years, information on its reliability in all settings is sparse. In community settings, reliability of WFL/Hz is considerably lower than for absolute measures of weight and length/height, especially in younger children. The reliability of WFL/Hz needs further evaluation. PMID:24785183

Mwangome, Martha K; Berkley, James A

2014-10-01

73

Use of Z-scores to rank applicants to professional degree programs.  

PubMed

Criteria for assessing suitability of applicants for professional degree programs such as veterinary medicine are usually treated as distinct components of a composite scoring procedure that determines applicant ranking. Some components are valued more than others, which is reflected in the relative weights assigned to each component. However, the patterns of dispersal of individual components have the potential to alter the assigned relative weights. Components with larger variances can have greater influences on composite scores than intended. Such unintended altered weighting can be avoided through standardization. Yet non-standardized approaches continue to be used for admissions ranking in several programs. In this study, we documented the potential for differential selection of applicants when non-standardized scoring approaches are applied to admissions assessment components. At our medical school, applicants' component scores with differing variances are standardized by determining Z-scores with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1 before mathematically combining to calculate composite scores and admissions ranking. We retrospectively and hypothetically ranked one applicant cohort using non-standardized methods and identified differences in ranking between the standardized and non-standardized approaches. Most differences were observed for applicants in the second, third, and fourth quintiles of the admissions rank list, that is, those for whom admissions cut-off decisions make a marked difference. Observations were supported by lower Spearman's rank correlation coefficients in these quintiles. Although standardization of component scores is not a novel topic, we document the implications of using non-standardized scoring approaches for applicant ranking and underscore the importance of standardization of component scores. PMID:23475414

Raghavan, Malathi; Martin, Bruce D; Aoki, Fred; Mackalski, Barbara; Christensen, Heather

2013-01-01

74

Computer-assisted lateralization of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using Z-score parametric F-18 FDG PET images  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the use of unbiased computer-assisted lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by z-score parametric PET imaging (ZPET). METHODS: 38 patients with histologically proven unilateral TLE due to pure hippocampal sclerosis, referred for pre-surgical PET evaluation of intractable seizure over a 5-year period, were included. The F-18 FDG images were oriented along temporal long axis and then transformed

Ching-yee OLIVER Wong; James Gannon; Jeffrey Bong; Christiana O Wong; Gopal B Saha

2007-01-01

75

Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, Müller MJ, Plachta-Danielzik S, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, von Kries R. 2014. Differences in BMI z-scores between offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers: a longitudinal study of German children from birth through 14 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:761–767;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307139 PMID:24695368

Fenske, Nora; Muller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rudiger

2014-01-01

76

Correlation between psoriasis' severity and waist-to-height ratio*  

PubMed Central

In the absence of ideal biomarkers, the research for clinical markers correlated to the severity of psoriasis and/or its comorbidities becomes crucial. Recently, studies have shown positive correlation between body mass index and prevalence and severity of psoriasis. Abdominal circumference showed stronger correlation with disease severity than body mass index. We evaluated the waist-to-height ratio in a sample of 297 adult patients with psoriasis and observed that it has a significant correlation with body mass index and PASI, and together with body mass index allows the identification of central obesity, reducing its subdiagnosis. PMID:25184937

Duarte, Gleison Vieira; da Silva, Larissa Porto

2014-01-01

77

Laboratory assessment by combined z score values in proficiency tests: experience gained through the European Union proficiency tests for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.  

PubMed

The obligation for accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency tests under ISO 17025, performing multiresidue methods (MRMs) for pesticide residues, involves the reporting of a large number of individual z scores making the evaluation of the overall performance of the laboratories difficult. It entails, time and again, the need for ways to summarise the laboratory's overall assessment into a unique combined index. In addition, the need for ways to continually evaluate the performance of the laboratory over the years is equally acknowledged. For these reasons, following 14 years of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables (EUPT-FV), useful formulas have been designed to globally evaluate the assessment of the participating laboratories. The aim is to achieve a formula which is easy to understand, which can be applied and which fits the purposes of long-term evaluation detecting positive and negative trends. Moreover, consideration is needed for a fair compensation of bad results in MRM, taking into account the large number of compounds that are covered. It is therefore important to be aware of the difficulties in getting satisfactory values from a wide range of compounds. This work presents an evaluation of the main well-established combined z score formulas together with those new ones developed here which have been applied to the European proficiency test results (EUPTs) over the years. Previous formulas such as the rescaled sum of z score (RSZ), the sum squared of z score (SSZ) and the relative laboratory performance (RLP) are compared with the newer ones: the sum of weighted z scores (SWZ) and the sum of squared z scores (SZ2). By means of formula comparisons, conclusions on the advantages, drawbacks and the most fit-for-purpose approach are achieved. PMID:20571782

Medina-Pastor, P; Mezcua, M; Rodríguez-Torreblanca, C; Fernández-Alba, A R

2010-08-01

78

Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.  

PubMed

Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness. PMID:23264164

Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

2013-10-01

79

Pattern Alteration: Even Hip Circumference  

E-print Network

). To increase hip circumference: 4. With tissue paper under the pattern, spread the verti- cal slash one-fourth the total increase you need at the hip. Keep the edges of the slash parallel below the horizontal slash, which will lap (Fig. 3). To decrease hip... circumference: 4. Lap the pattern one-fourth the total decrease you need at the vertical slash. Keep the lap uniform in width from the horizontal line to the hem. The lap will taper to nothing at the waistline seam, and the horizontal slash will spread (Fig...

2006-08-04

80

Hypertriglyceridemic Waist and Metabolic Abnormalities in Brazilian Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and its association with metabolic abnormalities in schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 241 students aged 10 to 14 years from public schools (4 schools) and private (2 schools) from Paranavai town, in Parana State, Brazil. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference) and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL and LDL-C were analyzed. In statistical tests of Pearson partial correlation and multivariate logistic regression, considering p<0,05. Results The prevalence of HTW was 20,7% among schoolchildren, 14,1% in males and 6,6% among females with higher proportions aged 10–12 years old. Multivariate analysis indicated that the students who attended private schools were nearly three times more likely (95% CI: 1,2–5,6), to be diagnosed with HTW compared with those who attended public schools (p?=?0,006), and LDL-C was the only metabolic variable positively associated with the outcome (p?=?0,001), where the students categorized with elevated serum levels had odds 4,2 times (95% CI: 1,6–10,9) having the HTW compared to students in appropriate levels. Conclusion This study showed higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in students when compared to prospective studies in Brazil and worldwide. It also showed that the only metabolic alteration associated with HTW phenotype was LDL-C (low density lipoprotein). PMID:25397885

Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Rinaldi, Wilson

2014-01-01

81

Circumference  

E-print Network

burning into his master?s eyes,and we watch as he leans forward, just far enough, to brush thetip of his tongue along Qui-Gon?s lips.Another moment, and their mouths are pressed together, open,wide, and through Jitar?s eyes, we see a flicker... burning into his master?s eyes,and we watch as he leans forward, just far enough, to brush thetip of his tongue along Qui-Gon?s lips.Another moment, and their mouths are pressed together, open,wide, and through Jitar?s eyes, we see a flicker...

Glasgow, M.F.

2001-01-01

82

Colliders with crab-waist collision scheme  

E-print Network

Colliders with crab-waist collision scheme E.Levichev BINP, Novosibirsk #12;Outline Introduction to collider luminosity Crab-waist collision approach CW collider projects Conclusion #12;Collider Main purpose challenge for traditional collision scheme New ideas are required #12;Crab Waist collision A new idea

83

Waist circumference adds to the variance in plasma CRP levels in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome  

E-print Network

steroid therapy as well as subjects with CRP >10mg/l were excluded from the analysis, leaving 1709 into three categories based on the 75th and 25th percentiles corresponding to 3.05 and 0.82 respectively. We to gender. MSX, which had a prevalence of 31%, was significantly associated with elevated CRP. Among MSX

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

Direct relationship of body mass index and waist circumference with body tissue distribution in elderly persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To explore the relationship of BMI and WC with muscle\\/adipose tissue mass ratios and with trunk adipose tissue distribution,\\u000a based on an anatomical 5-compartment model, by dissection of cadavers of elderly persons.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Cross-sectional explorative study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Brussels Cadaver Analysis Study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Cadavers of twenty-nine white Caucasian elderly persons (17 females and 12 males, aged 78,1±6,9 years).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements  Whole body and trunk composition were

Aldo Scafoglieri; S. Provyn; Ivan Bautmans; P. Van Roy; J. P. Clarys

85

Distribution curve of waist-to-height ratio and its association with blood pressure among children and adolescents: study in a large population in an eastern coastal province, China.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested that waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an accurate and easier index for evaluating abdominal obesity in both children and adults. The present study examined the distribution of WHtR and its association with blood pressure (BP) levels among children and adolescents in a large population in Shandong, China. A total of 38,810 students (19,453 boys and 19,357 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, waist circumference (WC), and BP of all subjects were measured, and WHtR was calculated. Abdominal obesity was defined as WHtR ?0.5; high BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ?95th percentile for age and gender. Overall, 16.45% (95%CI: 15.93-16.97) and 7.80% (95%CI: 7.42-8.17) of boys and girls had a WHtR ?0.5. WHtR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP in both boys and girls. The mean values of SBP and DBP for both boys and girls were all significantly higher in the WHtR ?0.5 group than in the WHtR<0.5 group. Z-scores of BP and the prevalence of high BP increased with WHtR. The prevalence of high BP increased from 10.61 (boys) and 9.64% (girls) in the WHtR <0.34 group to 55.11 (boys) and 51.97% (girls) in the WHtR ?0.58 group, an increase of 4.2- and 4.4-times. We conclude that children and adolescents with high WHtR might have an increased risk of elevated BP. These findings highlight the importance of the prevention of abdominal obesity in order to prevent future-related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents. PMID:24452862

Zhang, Ying-xiu; Zhang, Zhi-chuan; Xie, Li

2014-07-01

86

RESEARCH LETTERS waist/hip ratio accounted for only 18%. Waist/hip ratio  

E-print Network

with attractiveness, whereas even small changes in body-mass index radically altered the attractiveness rating (see body-mass index with narrower or wide waists. With images of real women, body-mass index and waist figure). Further analyses included other body- shape dimensions, including waist/bust ratio (upper-body

Cornelissen, Piers

87

Crab Waist Collision at DAFNE  

SciTech Connect

DAFNE is an accelerator complex consisting of a double ring lepton collider working at the c.m. energy of the {Phi}-resonance (1.02 GeV) and an injection system. In its original configuration the collider consisted of two independent rings, each {approx}97 m long, sharing two 10 m long interaction regions (IR1 and IR2) where the KLOE and FINUDA or DEAR detectors were respectively installed. A full energy injection system, including an S-band linac, 180 m long transfer lines and an accumulator/damping ring, provides fast and high efficiency electron positron injection also in topping-up mode during collisions. Recently the DAFNE collider has been upgraded in order to implement a new collision scheme based on large Piwinski angle and cancellation of the synchro-betatron resonances by means of electromagnetic sextupoles (Crab-Waist compensation). The novel approach has proved to be effective in improving beam-beam interaction and collider luminosity.

Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; Pellegrino, L.; /Frascati /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Rome U. /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Rome3 /SLAC

2011-11-30

88

Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve. RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services. PMID:25119754

da Silva, Cleliani de Cassia; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Camilo, Daniella Fernandes; Antonio, Maria Angela R. de G. M.; Cassani, Roberta Soares L.; Geloneze, Bruno

2014-01-01

89

Evaluation of the performance of 57 Japanese participating laboratories by two types of z-scores in proficiency test for the quantification of pesticide residues in brown rice.  

PubMed

A proficiency test for the analysis of pesticide residues in brown rice was carried out to support upgrading in analytical skills of participant laboratories. Brown rice containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and isoprothiolane) was used as the test samples. The test samples were distributed to the 57 participants and analyzed by appropriate analytical methods chosen by each participant. It was shown that there was no significant difference among the reported values obtained by different types of analytical method. The analytical results obtained by National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) were 3 % to 10 % greater than those obtained by participants. The results reported by the participant were evaluated by using two types of z-scores, that is, one was the score based on the consensus values calculated from the analytical results of participants, and the other one was the score based on the reference values obtained by NMIJ with high reliability. Acceptable z-scores based on the consensus values and NMIJ reference values were achieved by 87 % to 89 % and 79 % to 94 % of the participants, respectively. PMID:25258285

Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

2014-11-01

90

Attend To Precision: Circumference and Diameter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #6âattend to precision. The video clip shows two important instances of the idea of precision; that precision is important in their measurements of the circumference and diameter and in their use of vocabulary in context as they discover the relationship between circumference, diameter, circles, and pi. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

91

Hypertriglyceridemic waist: A useful screening phenotype in preventive cardiology?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide increase in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes represents a tremendous challenge for the Canadian health care system, especially if we consider that this phenomenon may largely be explained by the epidemic of obesity. However, despite the well-recognized increased morbidity and mortality associated with an elevated body weight, there is now more and more evidence highlighting the importance of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (visceral adipose tissue) as the fat depot conveying the greatest risk of metabolic complications. In this regard, body fat distribution, especially visceral adipose tissue accumulation, has been found to be a key correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic and inflammatory metabolic abnormalities now often referred to as the metabolic syndrome. This dysmetabolic profile is predictive of a substantially increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) even in the absence of hyperglycemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or hypertension. For instance, some features of the metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, elevated apolipoprotein B and small low-density lipoprotein particles – the so-called atherogenic metabolic triad) have been associated with a more than 20-fold increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease in middle-aged men enrolled in the Quebec Cardiovascular Study. This cluster of metabolic complications has also been found to be predictive of a substantially increased risk of CAD beyond the presence of traditional risk factors. These results emphasize the importance of taking into account in daily clinical practice the presence of metabolic complications associated with abdominal obesity together with traditional risk factors to properly evaluate the cardiovascular risk profile of patients. From a risk assessment standpoint, on the basis of additional work conducted by several groups, there is now evidence that the simultaneous presence of an elevated waist circumference and fasting triglyceride levels (a condition that has been described as hypertriglyceridemic waist) may represent a relevant first-step approach to identify a subgroup of individuals at higher risk of being carriers of the features of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, a moderate weight loss in initially abdominally obese patients is associated with a selective mobilization of visceral adipose tissue, leading to improvements in the metabolic risk profile predictive of a reduced risk of CAD and type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, hypertriglyceridemic waist as a marker of visceral obesity and related metabolic abnormalities is a useful and practical clinical phenotype to screen persons at risk for CAD and type 2 diabetes. PMID:17932584

Lemieux, Isabelle; Poirier, Paul; Bergeron, Jean; Almeras, Natalie; Lamarche, Benoit; Cantin, Bernard; Dagenais, Gilles R; Despres, Jean-Pierre

2007-01-01

92

Analysis of wasp-waist hysteresis loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wasp-waist and pot-belly hysteresis loops have been observed in many materials. When only the major loop is reported, the results are insufficient to establish which processes are involved. We present two models for wasp-waist materials that produce virtually indistinguishable major loops, but show that first-order reversal curves can be used to separate the effects. In the simplest model, we take a soft magnetic material and a hard material and exchange couple them. When the exchange is positive, the loop is conventional. However, for negative (antiferromagnetic) exchange, the wasp-waist loop is obtained. Negative coupling of two materials with different switching field distributions leads to pot-bellied loops.

Bennett, Lawrence H.; Della Torre, Edward

2005-05-01

93

Non-waisted fuselage design for supersonic aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for designing a non-waisted fuselage for supersonic wing/fuselage configurations that increases the fuselage volume and improves the supersonic aerodynamic performance compared to a conventional waisted-fuselage configuration. The method entails removing the waisted region of an existing waisted-fuselage configuration by linearly reconstructing cross-sections between the endpoints representing the waisted cross-sectional area portion to create a modified fuselage configuration without waisting. This configuration will have increased fuselage volume and improved supersonic aerodynamic performance. The fuselage camber can then be optimized using non-linear aerodynamic methods to further increase the supersonic aerodynamic performance.

Hager, James O. (Inventor); Agrawal, Shreekant (Inventor); Antani, Dhamanshu L. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

94

The Relationship of Waist Circumference and BMI to Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat: Sex and Race Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of

Sarah M. Camhi; George A. Bray; Claude Bouchard; Frank L. Greenway; William D. Johnson; Robert L. Newton; Eric Ravussin; Donna H. Ryan; Steven R. Smith; Peter T. Katzmarzyk

2011-01-01

95

Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are

Kate S Collison; Marya Z Zaidi; Shazia N Subhani; Khalid Al-Rubeaan; Mohammed Shoukri; Futwan A Al-Mohanna

2010-01-01

96

Prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: waist circumference predicts hypertension, exercise decreases risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine the prevalence, risk factors for and patterns of hypertension in Chinese adolescents based on a territory-wide school based screening programme in Hong Kong.MethodsCross-sectional anthropometric and oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurements and lifestyle information were obtained as part of a growth survey of students from randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Those with blood pressure ?95th centile were

Lettie C K Leung; Rita Y T Sung; Hung-Kwan So; Sik Nin Wong; Kwok Wai Lee; Kwok Piu Lee; Man Ching Yam; Samantha P S Li; So Fun Yuen; Stella Chim; Keung Kit Chan; David Luk

2011-01-01

97

Built Environment and 1Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006-2007 to 2007-2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard

M. Moore; Alan Acock; Naruepon Vongjaturapat

2009-01-01

98

"Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study"  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. Objective: To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Methods: Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as < 6hour/day (short sleep duration), 6-7hour/day and > 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. Results: No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. Conclusion: No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students. PMID:25386421

Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

2014-01-01

99

Predicting percent body fat from circumference measurements.  

PubMed

All U.S. Navy service members are required to meet percent body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF can be separated from active duty. Currently, %BF predictions are determined by circumference measurements and a prediction equation (circumference equation = CEQ). In view of the importance these prediction results have for personnel retention, a validation study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of %BF prediction for a population determined to be overfat by the CEQ. The population for the validation study comprised men with 22%BF or greater and women with 30%BF or greater. Values for %BF were determined for 49 men and 50 women by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and circumference measurements at the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL) using a regression equation developed at the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC), San Diego, California. The HW and CEQ values were compared to a superset of the original NHRC population. The correlation coefficients for the NSMRL validation group were lower than those reported in the original NHRC group. The results are attributed to the restricted range of NSMRL data and greater error of prediction at extreme ranges of values. A medical diagnostic model was used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of CEQ. It shows that the Navy's current procedures produce a 6.8 to 18% false positive rate for individuals declared as having excess body fat. The data suggest that caution should be utilized when using the CEQ method for individual career decisions. PMID:8437737

Shake, C L; Schlichting, C; Mooney, L W; Callahan, A B; Cohen, M E

1993-01-01

100

Usage of neck circumference as novel indicator of erectile dysfunction: a pilot study in Turkish population.  

PubMed

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual problem worldwide. The association between ED and components of metabolic syndrome (MtS) is well established. This study examined neck circumference (NC) as a possible indicator of MtS and also of ED. Ninety-two patients were included and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 47 patients with ED and Group 2 consisted of 45 healthy volunteers. Questionnaires, differences in anthropometric and laboratory measurements between patients with ED and the control group, and a cut-off value for NC were investigated. The mean NC in ED patients was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P = 0.001), and Group 1 also demonstrated more MtS criteria than Group 2 (P < 0.001). The cut-off point of NC was defined as 34.75 cm for ED and MtS. The cut-off values of waist circumference for ED and MtS were 105.5 and 102.5 cm respectively. In the light of these findings, NC may be a new component of MtS in ED patients. Additionally, NC may be a novel indicator of central obesity and ED. We suggest that NC values of 35 cm and over may predict ED in patients with MtS. PMID:24147908

Akin, Y; Gulmez, H; Bozkurt, A; Nuhoglu, B; Usta, M F

2014-11-01

101

CRAB WAIST SCHEME LUMINOSITY AND BACKGROUND DIAGNOSTIC AT DAFNE  

E-print Network

CRAB WAIST SCHEME LUMINOSITY AND BACKGROUND DIAGNOSTIC AT DAFNE M. Boscolo, F. Bossi, B. Buonomo, G, Roma, Italy) Abstract Test of the crab waist scheme, undergoing at the Frascati DAFNE accelerator the luminosity with the introduction of a large Piwinski angle and low vertical beta function compensated by crab

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design  

SciTech Connect

The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

2011-11-02

103

Measuring chest circumference change during respiration with an electromagnetic biosensor.  

PubMed

In this paper, an off-the-shelf DC motor is modified into a chest belt and used to successfully measure circumference change on a mechanical chest model, while simultaneously harvesting significant power. Chest circumference change can provide information on tidal volume, which is vital in assessing lung function. The chest circumference change is calculated from the motor's voltage output. Calculated values are within 0.95mm of measured circumference changes, with a standard deviation of 0.37mm. The wearable motor can also harvest at least 29.4µW during normal breathing. PMID:24110093

Padasdao, Bryson; Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

2013-01-01

104

Antenatal antecedents of a small head circumference at age 24-months post-term equivalent in a sample of infants born before the 28th post-menstrual week  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the antecedents of microcephaly in early childhood among children born at extremely low gestational age. Aim To identify some of the antecedents of microcephaly at age two years among children born before the 28th week of gestation. Study design Observational cohort study. Subjects 1004 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Outcome measures Head circumference Z-scores of circumference decreased monotonically with increasing gestational age. After adjusting for gestational age and other potential confounders, the risk of microcephaly at age 2 years was increased if microcephaly was present at birth [odds ratio: 8.8 ((95% confidence interval: 3.7, 21)], alpha hemolytic Streptococci were recovered from the placenta parenchyma [2.9 (1.2, 6.9)], the child was a boy [2.8 (1.6, 4.9)], and the child's mother was not married [2.5 (1.5, 4.3)]. Antecedents associated not with microcephaly, but with a less extreme reduction in head circumference were recovery of Propionibacterium sp from the placenta parenchyma [2.9 (1.5, 5.5)], tobacco exposure [2.0 (1.4, 3.0)], and increased syncytial knots in the placenta [2.0 (1.2, 3.2)]. Conclusions Although microcephaly at birth predicts a small head circumference at 2 years among children born much before term, pregnancy and maternal characteristics provide supplemental information about the risk of a small head circumference years later. Two findings appear to be novel. Tobacco exposure during pregnancy, and organisms recovered from the placenta predict reduced head circumference at age two years. PMID:20674197

Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Onderdonk, Andrew; O'Shea, T. Michael; McElrath, Thomas; Paneth, Nigel

2010-01-01

105

Discrimination of waist motions based on surface EMG for waist power assist suit using support vector machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a signal processing for discrimination of waist motions including forward and backward bendings and right and left twists. The system is planed to implement to a waist power assist suit that physically helps a caregiver in personal care tasks. The motion discrimination is based on surface electromyogram (SEMG) of right and left erector spinae muscles that dominate

Kouta Kashiwagi; Takashi Nakakuki; Chiharu Ishii

2011-01-01

106

Reduction in BMI z-score and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. The Oslo Adiposity Intervention Study - a hospital\\/public health nurse combined treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Weight loss and increased physical fitness are established approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. We studied the\\u000a reduction in BMI z-score associated with improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese children and\\u000a adolescents treated with a combined hospital\\/public health nurse model. We also examined how aerobic fitness influenced the\\u000a results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 2004-2007, 307 overweight and obese children and

Magnhild L Pollestad Kolsgaard; Geir Joner; Cathrine Brunborg; Sigmund A Anderssen; Serena Tonstad; Lene Frost Andersen

2011-01-01

107

Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.  

PubMed

We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

2012-01-01

108

Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ?97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities.

Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

2014-01-01

109

Alternative class ranks using z-scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in departments with low grades. Using a unique data set, we show

Philip H. Brown; Nicholas Van Niel

2011-01-01

110

Alternative Class Ranks Using Z-Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in…

Brown, Philip H.; Van Niel, Nicholas

2012-01-01

111

Association between waist circumference (WC) values and hypertension, heart disease (HD) and diabetes, reported by the elderly--SABE Survey: Health, Wellness and Aging, 2000 and 2006.  

PubMed

The positive association between WC and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus (DM) and HD calls for investigation in the elderly. The objective of the present study was to identify WC values, so as better to determine the risk of these diseases. This was a longitudinal study using the data of 405 elderly participants of the SABE Survey: Health, Well-being and Aging, undertaken in São Paulo, in 2000 and 2006. The study variables were WC, sex, age group, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) (2000) and SAH, DM and HD (2006). The area under the Receiver Operating Caracteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) and confidence intervals of 95% was used to estimate the performance of WC values in correctly discriminating among the elderly, according to the reference or not to diseases associated with WC. WC critical values were identified by the highest positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) equal to zero. The AUC showed the satisfactory performance of WC critical values in discriminating between reports of DM in individuals of 60-74 years of age. The WC critical values identified were ?87 cm for women and ?99 cm for men, which presented a better performance in relation to the AUC value than to the WC values commonly used. The WC critical values identified in this study showed better discriminatory power of foretelling reference to DM than did the WC values commonly used. PMID:24708903

Gouveia, Luiza A G; Marucci, Maria de Fátima N; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira

2014-01-01

112

No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

113

Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

114

Adiposity indices in the prediction of insulin resistance in prepubertal Colombian children  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare BMI with abdominal skinfold thickness (ASF), waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) in prepubertal Colombian children. Design We calculated age- and sex-specific Z-scores for BMI, ASF, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and three other skinfold-thickness sites. Logistic regression with stepwise selection (P = 0·80 for entry and P = 0·05 for retention) was performed to identify predictors of IR and extreme IR, which were determined by age- and sex-specific Z-scores to identify the ? 90th and ? 95th percentile of homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR), respectively. We used receiver operating characteristic curves to compare the area under the curve between models. Setting Bucaramanga, Colombia. Subjects Children (n 1261) aged 6–10 years in Tanner stage 1 from a population-based study. Results A total of 127 children (seventy girls and fifty-seven boys) were classified with IR, including sixty-three children (thirty-three girls and thirty boys) classified with extreme IR. Only ASF and BMI Z-scores were retained as predictors of IR by stepwise selection. Adding ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·794 (95% CI 0·752, 0·837) to 0·811 (95% CI 0·770, 0·851; P for contrast = 0·01). In predicting extreme IR, the addition of ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·837 (95% CI 0·790, 0·884) to 0·864 (95% CI 0·823, 0·905; P for contrast = 0·01). Conclusions ASF Z-score predicted IR independent of BMI Z-score in our population of prepubertal children. ASF and BMI Z-scores together improved IR risk stratification compared with BMI Z-score alone, opening new perspectives in the prediction of cardiometabolic risk in prepubertal children. PMID:22916737

Mueller, Noel T; Pereira, Mark A; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Rodríguez, Diana C; Duran, Alvaro E; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Villa-Roel, Cristina

2012-01-01

115

Effect of Age on the Association Between Waist-to-Height Ratio and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Suita Study  

PubMed Central

Background Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) has been shown to be a useful screening tool for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the association of WHtR with CVD incidence by age group. Methods We conducted a 13.0-year cohort study of Japanese adults (2600 men and 2888 women) with no history of CVD. WHtR was calculated as waist circumference (cm) (WC) divided by height (cm). We stratified participants by sex and age group (30–49, 50–69, ?70 years). Using the Cox proportional hazards model, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for CVD in relation to WHtR quartile for participants aged 50 to 69 years and 70 years or older. Results Men aged 50 to 69 years in the highest quartile had significantly increased risks of CVD and coronary heart disease as compared with the lowest quartile; the HRs (95% CI) were 1.82 (1.13–2.92) and 2.42 (1.15–5.12), respectively. Women aged 50 to 69 years in the highest quartile had a significantly increased risk of stroke (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.01–5.85). No significant results were observed in men or women aged 70 years or older. The likelihood ratio test showed that the predictive value of WHtR was greater than that of WC among men aged 50 to 69 years. Conclusions The association between WHtR and CVD risk differed among age groups. WHtR was useful in identifying middle-aged Japanese at higher risk of CVD and was a better predictor than WC of CVD, especially in men. PMID:23812103

Tatsumi, Yukako; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Higashiyama, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; Okayama, Akira; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

116

Implementation of Double-Waist Chicane Optics in SPEAR3  

SciTech Connect

The SPEAR3 accelerator upgrade opened up two 7.6m racetrack straights in the magnet lattice. In one of these straights, we recently added a magnetic chicane to separate two insertion device (ID) beam lines by 10mrad. A quadrupole triplet in the center creates a ''double focus'' optics with {beta}y = 1.6m at the middle of each ID, hence the term ''double-waist chicane''. The new optics also reduced {beta}y in the four matching straights adjacent to the racetrack straights to 2.5m. In this paper, we outline design features of the optics and physical implementation of the lattice.

Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Dao, T.; Dell'Orco, D.; Rafael, F.; Harrington, D.; Hettel, R.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Rarback, H.; Ringwall, A.; Safranek,; Scott, B.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Widmeyer, M.; /SLAC, SSRL; Yoon, Moohyun; /POSTECH

2006-08-16

117

Mid-upper arm circumference at age of routine infant vaccination to identify infants at elevated risk of death: a retrospective cohort study in the Gambia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the predictive value for death before 12 months of age of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and weight-for-length Z score (WFLz). Methods A retrospective cohort analysis of infants living in Keneba, in rural Gambia, was conducted. Anthropometric measures were obtained from demographic surveillance system records for infants registered between February 1974 and July 2008 who had had MUAC and WFLz recorded at 6–14 weeks of age and vital status recorded at least once more. Hazard ratios (HRs), population attributable fractions and areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated to assess the predictive value for death in infancy of MUAC and WFLz. Findings Of 2876 infants included in the analysis, 40 died before the age of 12 months. The HR for death in this group versus in well-nourished infants was 5.8 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.6–21) for a WFLz

Fegan, Greg; Fulford, Tony; Prentice, Andrew M; Berkley, James A

2012-01-01

118

Wasp-Waist Interactions in the North Sea Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background In a “wasp-waist” ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus), suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that “wasp-waist” interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades. PMID:21829494

Fauchald, Per; Skov, Henrik; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Johns, David; Tveraa, Torkild

2011-01-01

119

CRAB WAIST APPROACH: FROM DANE TO SUPERB M. Zobov, INFN LNF, Frascati, Italy  

E-print Network

CRAB WAIST APPROACH: FROM DANE TO SUPERB M. Zobov, INFN LNF, Frascati, Italy on behalf of the DANE Collaboration Team* and the SuperB Accelerator Team# Abstract The crab waist collision scheme (CW) was proposed collision preserving an additional integral of motion [2]; crab crossing [3, 4]; collision with large

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)

120

Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Sedentary Bouts and Breaks in Sedentary Time with Cardiometabolic Risk in Children with a Family History of Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. Purpose To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8–11 years with a family history of obesity. Methods Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort) were collected from 2005–2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score. Results After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1–4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all p<0.05). The number of sedentary bouts lasting 5–9 minutes was negatively associated with waist circumference in girls only, while the number of bouts lasting 10–14 minutes was positively associated with fasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all p<0.05). Leisure time computer/video game use was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk score and waist circumference in boys, while TV viewing was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, waist circumference, and BMI Z-score in girls (all p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that frequent interruptions in sedentary time are associated with a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile and highlight the deleterious relationship between screen time and cardiometabolic risk among children with a family history of obesity. PMID:24278117

Saunders, Travis John; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Henderson, Melanie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

2013-01-01

121

Android fat distribution by age and sex. The waist hip ratio.  

PubMed

The waist hip ratio, an indicator of upper body fat distribution, is an early sign of atherogenic disease and diabetes risk. The distribution of the waist hip ratio in 18,393 members of the French population aged 17 to 60 years is described according to sex and five year age groups. Men had a higher mean waist hip ratio (0.913 vs 0.791, p < 0.001) and women a higher standard deviation (0.074 vs 0.067, p < 0.001). The distributions overlapped by only 33%. Sex-specific figures show the waist hip dispersion according to age. If this parameter is a reliable clinical indicator in cardiovascular and metabolic epidemiology these descriptive data are essential. They precede the study of possible associations between the waist hip ratio and the risk factors for insulin resistance, atherogenic diseases and diabetes. PMID:8339860

Tichet, J; Vol, S; Balkau, B; Le Clesiau, H; D'Hour, A

1993-01-01

122

Reliability of self, parental, and researcher measurements of head circumference  

PubMed Central

Background The measurement of head circumference (HC) is widely used in clinical and research settings as a proxy of neural growth. Although it could aid data collection, no studies have explored either the reliability of adult self-measurements or parental measurements of young children. This study therefore aimed to examine whether adult self and parental measurement of HC constitute reliable data. Findings A total of 57 adults (32 male) were asked to measure their HC twice following written instructions (adult self-measurement). These measures were compared to those of a researcher independently measuring the same participant’s HC twice. Additionally, mothers of 25 children (17 male) were also asked to measure their child’s HC (parental measure), and again this was compared to researcher measurements of the child’s HC. The intraclass correlation coefficient between adult self- and researcher measurement was 0.84 and between parent and researcher measurement was 0.99. The technical error of measurement was also acceptable, within the range of a skilled anthropometrist. Conclusions The high degree of agreement between researcher and adult self-measurement/parental measurement of HC demonstrates that these different assessors produce similarly reliable and reproducible data. This suggests adult self- and parental measurements can reliably be used for data collection to enable valid large-scale developmental and clinical studies of HC. PMID:24410855

2014-01-01

123

Using Forearm Circumference for Automatic Threshold Calibration for Simple EMG Control  

E-print Network

contraction (MVC) via linear regression. MVC is commonly used for threshold adjustment, hence automatic forearm circumference for estimating MVC. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the concept , Circumference, Maximum Voluntary Con- traction (MVC) I. INTRODUCTION Electromyography (EMG) is the study of our

Hu, Huosheng

124

Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.  

PubMed

'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate. PMID:24755099

Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

2014-06-01

125

Apparatus for precision focussing and positioning of a beam waist on a target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to optical focussing apparatus and, more particularly, to optical apparatus for focussing a highly collimated Gaussian beam which provides independent and fine control over the focus waist diameter, the focus position both along the beam axis and transverse to the beam, and the focus angle. A beam focussing and positioning apparatus provides focussing and positioning for the waist of a waisted beam at a desired location on a target such as an optical fiber. The apparatus includes a first lens, having a focal plane f sub 1, disposed in the path of an incoming beam and a second lens, having a focal plane f sub 2 and being spaced downstream from the first lens by a distance at least equal to f sub 1 + 10 f sub 2, which cooperates with the first lens to focus the waist of the beam on the target. A rotatable optical device, disposed upstream of the first lens, adjusts the angular orientation of the beam waist. The transverse position of the first lens relative to the axis of the beam is varied to control the transverse position of the beam waist relative to the target (a fiber optic as shown) while the relative axial positions of the lenses are varied to control the diameter of the beam waist and to control the axial position of the beam waist. Mechanical controllers C sub 1, C sub 2, C sub 3, C sub 4, and C sub 5 control the elements of the optical system. How seven adjustments can be made to correctly couple a laser beam into an optical fiber is illustrated. Prior art systems employing optical techniques to couple a laser beam into an optical fiber or other target simply do not provide the seven necessary adjustments. The closest known prior art, a Newport coupler, provides only two of the seven required adjustments.

Lynch, Dana H. (inventor); Gunter, William D. (inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (inventor)

1991-01-01

126

Waist location and Rayleigh range for higher-order mode laser beams  

SciTech Connect

Self has presented simple equations for Gaussian-mode laser beams for calculating focused waist location and beam waist magnification in terms of the Rayleigh range. Since the Rayleigh range is a purely geometrical quantity. Self's equations can also be applied to higher-order mode beams. A convenient form of the Rayleigh range for Hermite-Gaussian modes is presented along with representative results for Co/sub 2/ laser industrial processing facilities.

Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.; Karkheck, J.

1984-07-01

127

1317 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany Poster abstracts The relationship between abdominal circumference and  

E-print Network

index (PI) and abdominal circumference (AC) in babies with severe early onset fetal growth restriction restriction (FGR) Study Design: rospective multi-center study of FGR monitored with umbilical (UA), middle

128

Stable Isotope Analysis Challenges Wasp-Waist Food Web Assumptions in an Upwelling Pelagic Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Eastern boundary currents are often described as ‘wasp-waist’ ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for ?13C and ?15N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007–2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729

Madigan, Daniel J.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

129

Factors associated with small head circumference at birth among infants born before the 28th week  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We sought to identify risk factors for congenital microcephaly in extremely low gestational age newborns. STUDY DESIGN Demographic, clinical, and placental characteristics of 1445 infants born before the 28th week were gathered and evaluated for their relationship with congenital microcephaly. RESULTS Almost 10% of newborns (n = 138), rather than the expected 2.2%, had microcephaly defined as a head circumference >2 SD below the median. In multivariable models, microcephaly was associated with nonwhite race, severe intrauterine growth restriction, delivery for preeclampsia, placental infarction, and being female. The risk factors for a head circumference between <1 and >2 SD below the median were similar to those of microcephaly. CONCLUSION Characteristics associated with fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia are among the strongest correlates of microcephaly among children born at extremely low gestational ages. The elevated risk of a small head among nonwhites and females might reflect the lack of appropriate head circumference standards. PMID:20541727

McElrath, Thomas F.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Kuban, Karl; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Onderdonk, Andrew; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

2010-01-01

130

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

2013-01-01

131

SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF INCREMENTAL CHANGES IN WAIST-TO-HIP RATIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) differentially affects males and females in their preference for female images. A WHR of approximately .70 is considered an indicator of health and fertility for females, and previous research indicates that participants perceive images with WHRs closer to .70 as more attractive (Singh, 1993a; Singh & Young, 1994; Streeter & McBurney, 2003). A

Dan Rempala; Kilian Garvey

2007-01-01

132

4D EMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE WIRE AND WAIST SCAN METHODS IN THE ATF EXTRACTION LINE  

E-print Network

4D EMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE WIRE AND WAIST SCAN METHODS IN THE ATF EXTRACTION LINE C, SLAC, Stanford, USA Abstract Emittance measurements performed in the diagnostic section of the ATF extraction line since 1998 lead to ver- tical emittances three times larger than the expected ones

Boyer, Edmond

133

Beam divergence and waist measurements of laser diodes by near-field scanning optical microscopy  

E-print Network

and the beam waists in vertical and lateral dimensions are directly measured and the astigmatism of the mode is determined. In the near field, we observe a nearly ideal Gaussian shape in the vertical dimension which. In the vertical dimension along the crystal growth , the graded index of refraction provides guid- ing

134

Hypertriglyceridemic waist may explain ethnic differences in hypertension among patients with type 2 diabetes in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is common among persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between ethnicity and hypertension prevalence after adjusting for age, sex, Hba1c, total cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist. The study population consisted of 354 primary health care patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (173 Assyrians/Syrians and 181 Swedes) residing in Södertälje, Sweden. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Hypertension prevalence was higher among Swedes than Assyrians/Syrians, (77% versus 58%; p?=?0.001). In the unadjusted logistic regression model, the odds ratio for hypertension in Swedes was twice as high than that in Assyrians/Syrians (OR?=?2.44; 95% CI =1.54-3.86). In the age- and sex-adjusted model, odds ratio of hypertension was 2.25 (95% CI 1.41-3.60). After adjustments for total cholesterol was made, the odds ratio of hypertension decreased slightly to 1.73. When elevated triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist were separately introduced, the odds ratio of hypertension was no longer significant between the ethnic groups (1.60 and 1.43 for triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemic waist respectively). In addition, advanced age – 60–69 years old (OR?=?1.80, CI 95% 1.00-3.20) and???70 years old (OR?=?2.88, CI 95% 1.40-5.93), elevated total cholesterol (OR?=?1.48, CI 95% 1.12-1.95) and presents of hypertriglyceridemic waist (those with high WC and high TG) were significant confounding factors for the increased risk of hypertension independent of ethnicity. Conclusions The crude differences in prevalence of hypertension between the Swedes and Assyrians/Syrians in our study population with type 2 diabetes were no longer significant when adjusting for high triglycerides levels or the presence of hypertriglyceridemic waist. PMID:22937746

2012-01-01

135

TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth  

E-print Network

TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth On two dates during the year, the geometric relationship of Earth to the Sun produces "equinox", a word literally meaning and sunset is approximately 12 hours everywhere on Earth. b) The Sun is directly overhead at noon

Pickett, Galen T.

136

THE USE OF ARM CIRCUMFERENCE FOR SIMPLIFIED SCREENING FOR MALNUTRITION BY MINIMALLY TRAINED HEALTH WORKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its simplicity and low cost, arm circumference (AC) is being used increasingly in screening for protein energy malnutrition among pre-school children in many parts of the developing world, especially where minimally trained health workers are employed. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To determine the relationship of the AC measure with weight for age and

MARIJKE INGRID VELZEBOER

1980-01-01

137

Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference  

PubMed Central

To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association (GWA) studies (N=10,768 from European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N=19,089). Rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P=8.1×10?9), and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P=2.8×10?10) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height1, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P=3.8×10?7 for rs7980687, P=1.3×10?7 for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P=3.9×10?6). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal show genome-wide association with adult intra cranial volume2, Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases3-5, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life. PMID:22504419

Warrington, Nicole M; Kaakinen, Marika; Kreiner-M?ller, Eskil; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Freathy, Rachel M; Geller, Frank; Guxens, Monica; Cousminer, Diana L; Kerkhof, Marjan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ikram, M Arfan; Beilin, Lawrence J; B?nnelykke, Klaus; Buxton, Jessica L; Charoen, Pimphen; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Eriksson, Johan; Evans, David M; Hofman, Albert; Kemp, John P; Kim, Cecilia E; Klopp, Norman; Lahti, Jari; Lye, Stephen J; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Muller, Martina; O'Reilly, Paul F; Prokopenko, Inga; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Steegers, Eric A P; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiesler, Carla; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Breteler, Monique M B; Debette, Stephanie; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Vernooij, Meike W; Blakemore, Alexandra IF; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fernandez-Benet, Julio; Grant, Struan F A; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; van der Heijden, Albert J; Iniguez, Carmen; Lathrop, Mark; McArdle, Wendy L; M?lgaard, Anne; Newnham, John P; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pouta, Annneli; Ring, Susan M; Sovio, Ulla; Standl, Marie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wichmann, H-Erich; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; DeCarli, Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia M; McCarthy, Mark I; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Estivill, Xavier; Hattersley, Andrew T; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Pennell, Craig E; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

2013-01-01

138

Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference.  

PubMed

To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (N = 10,768 individuals of European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy and/or birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N = 19,089). rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P = 8.1 × 10(-9)) and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P = 2.8 × 10(-10)) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P = 3.8 × 10(-7) for rs7980687 and P = 1.3 × 10(-7) for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P = 3.9 × 10(-6)). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal have shown genome-wide association with adult intracranial volume, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life. PMID:22504419

Taal, H Rob; St Pourcain, Beate; Thiering, Elisabeth; Das, Shikta; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Warrington, Nicole M; Kaakinen, Marika; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Freathy, Rachel M; Geller, Frank; Guxens, Mònica; Cousminer, Diana L; Kerkhof, Marjan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ikram, M Arfan; Beilin, Lawrence J; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Buxton, Jessica L; Charoen, Pimphen; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Eriksson, Johan; Evans, David M; Hofman, Albert; Kemp, John P; Kim, Cecilia E; Klopp, Norman; Lahti, Jari; Lye, Stephen J; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; O'Reilly, Paul F; Prokopenko, Inga; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Steegers, Eric A P; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiesler, Carla; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Breteler, Monique M B; Decarli, Charles; Breteler, Monique M B; Debette, Stéphanie; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Vernooij, Meike W; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Grant, Struan F A; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; van der Heijden, Albert J; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lathrop, Mark; McArdle, Wendy L; Mølgaard, Anne; Newnham, John P; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pouta, Annneli; Ring, Susan M; Sovio, Ulla; Standl, Marie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wichmann, H-Erich; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; DeCarli, Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia M; McCarthy, Mark I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Estivill, Xavier; Hattersley, Andrew T; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Pennell, Craig E; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

2012-05-01

139

In the Spirit of Eratosthenes: Measuring the Circumference of the Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the mathematics and science underlying Eratosthenes' measurement of the circumference of Earth in about 200 B.C. and provides a lesson plan so that small groups of high school students can duplicate the measurements. Equipment needed and related Web sites are listed, and a model chart to record measurements is provided. (PEN)

Charischak, Ihor

1998-01-01

140

A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND WEIGHT IN TREES AND ITS BEARING ON BRANCHING ANGLES  

PubMed Central

Observation reveals a linear relationship between the logarithm of the circumference of a tree, branch, or leaf stem, and the logarithm of the weight of the tree, branch, or leaf. The bearing of this on the angles of branching in trees is discussed. PMID:19872356

Murray, Cecil D.

1927-01-01

141

Separating Bedtime Rest from Activity Using Waist or Wrist-Worn Accelerometers in Youth  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA) over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week) in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10–18 years old, 47 females) during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n?=?41) were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer, respectively. The selected optimal activity cut points were 500 and 3,000 counts/min for waist and wrist-worn accelerometers, respectively. Bedtime rest and activity were correctly classified by the algorithm in the validation group (n?=?40) by both waist- (sensitivity: 0.983, specificity: 0.946, area under ROC curve: 0. 872) and wrist-worn (0.999, 0.980 and 0.943) accelerometers. The decision tree classified bedtime rest correctly with higher accuracy than commonly used automated algorithm for both waist- and wrist-warn accelerometer (all p<0.001). We concluded that cut points developed and validated for waist- and wrist-worn uniaxial accelerometer have a good power for accurate separation of time spent in bedtime rest from activity in youth. PMID:24727999

Tracy, Dustin J.; Xu, Zhiyi; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari; Chen, Kong Y.; Buchowski, Maciej S.

2014-01-01

142

Separating bedtime rest from activity using waist or wrist-worn accelerometers in youth.  

PubMed

Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA) over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week) in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10-18 years old, 47 females) during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n?=?41) were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer, respectively. The selected optimal activity cut points were 500 and 3,000 counts/min for waist and wrist-worn accelerometers, respectively. Bedtime rest and activity were correctly classified by the algorithm in the validation group (n?=?40) by both waist- (sensitivity: 0.983, specificity: 0.946, area under ROC curve: 0. 872) and wrist-worn (0.999, 0.980 and 0.943) accelerometers. The decision tree classified bedtime rest correctly with higher accuracy than commonly used automated algorithm for both waist- and wrist-warn accelerometer (all p<0.001). We concluded that cut points developed and validated for waist- and wrist-worn uniaxial accelerometer have a good power for accurate separation of time spent in bedtime rest from activity in youth. PMID:24727999

Tracy, Dustin J; Xu, Zhiyi; Choi, Leena; Acra, Sari; Chen, Kong Y; Buchowski, Maciej S

2014-01-01

143

The Predictive Value of Waist-To-Height Ratio for Ischemic Stroke in a Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study among Mongolian Men in China  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the associations between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and risk of ischemic stroke among Mongolian men in China. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2003 to July 2012 in Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region in north China. A total of 1034 men aged 20 years and older free of cardiovascular disease were included in the cohort and followed up for an average of 9.2 years. The subjects were divided into four groups by WHtR levels (WHtR<0.40, 0.40?WHtR?0.50, 0.500.60). The cumulative survival rates of ischemic stroke among the four groups were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to evaluate the associations between obesity indices and ischemic stroke. Results A total of 47 ischemic stroke patients were observed during the follow-up period. The cumulative incidence and incidence density of ischemic stroke were 4.55% and 507.61/100 000 person-years, respectively. After the major risk factors were adjusted, individuals with WHtR>0.60 had a 3.56-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with those with 0.40?WHtR?0.50. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ischemic stroke for a 1-SD increase in WHtR was 1.34(95% CI: 1.00–1.81). After adding BMI or WC to models, higher WHtR remained significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the cumulative survival rate in the group with WHtR>0.60 was significantly lower than in the group with 0.40?WHtR?0.50 (log-rank test, P?=?0.025). The areas under the curve for each index were as follows: 0.586 for WHtR, 0.543 for WC; 0.566 for BMI. Conclusions Higher WHtR is associated with risk of ischemic stroke in Mongolian males. WHtR may be useful in predicting ischemic stroke incidence in males. PMID:25353632

Xu, Juan; Xu, Tian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Peng, Hao; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yonghong

2014-01-01

144

Influence of Neck Circumference on Respiratory Endurance and Muscle Strength in the Morbidly Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Respiratory function decline has been reported mainly in the morbidly obese. Little is known about the influence of adiposity\\u000a pattern on the ability to generate strength in respiratory muscles. This study evaluated strength and respiratory endurance\\u000a in the morbidly obese in preoperative bariatric surgery to determine if such variables were affected by different anthropometric\\u000a markers (body mass index (BMI), waist–hip

Marize Jácome Gonçalves; Sheyla Thatiane Santos do Lago; Eudes de Paiva Godoy; Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi; Selma Sousa Bruno

2011-01-01

145

Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on uniform-waist tapered fibers in a reflective configuration.  

PubMed

We present a configuration for surface plasmon resonance sensors based on uniform-waist tapered optical fibers and reflective elements. Once the fiber is tapered fulfilling the adiabatic criterion, a multilayer including a metallic medium is asymmetrically deposited on the uniform waist of the fiber. This feature provides the resonant excitation of multiple surface plasma waves. In addition, a mirror is produced at the fiber tip by a chemical Tollens reaction. In this way, the sensor operates in a reflective mode, more convenient for dip probes. When these sensors are spectrally interrogated, a high sensitivity of 10-4 refractive index units per nanometer is attained. These devices can be advantageously used for any kind of chemical sensing and biosensing. PMID:16983417

Esteban, Oscar; Díaz-Herrera, Natalia; Navarrete, María-Cruz; González-Cano, Agustín

2006-10-01

146

Neural Substrate of Body Size: Illusory Feeling of Shrinking of the Waist  

PubMed Central

The perception of the size and shape of one's body (body image) is a fundamental aspect of how we experience ourselves. We studied the neural correlates underlying perceived changes in the relative size of body parts by using a perceptual illusion in which participants felt that their waist was shrinking. We scanned the brains of the participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that activity in the cortices lining the left postcentral sulcus and the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus reflected the illusion of waist shrinking, and that this activity was correlated with the reported degree of shrinking. These results suggest that the perceived changes in the size and shape of body parts are mediated by hierarchically higher-order somatosensory areas in the parietal cortex. Based on this finding we suggest that relative size of body parts is computed by the integration of more elementary somatic signals from different body segments. PMID:16336049

2005-01-01

147

Predicting female physical attractiveness: Waist-to-hip ratio versus thinness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductory psychology students (120 females and 120 males) rated attractiveness and fecundity of one of six computer-altered female figures representing three body-weight categories (underweight, normal weight and overweight) and two levels of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), one in the ideal range (0.72) and one in the non-ideal range (0.86). Both females and males judged underweight figures to be more attractive than

Rebecca M. Puhl; Fred J. Boland

2001-01-01

148

Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon.

149

An improved beam waist formula for ultrashort, tightly focused linearly, radially, and azimuthally polarized laser pulses in free space  

E-print Network

We derive an asymptotically accurate formula for the beam waist of ultrashort, tightly focused fundamental linearly polarized, radially polarized, and azimuthally polarized modes in free space. We compute the exact beam ...

Wong, Liang Jie

150

Measurements of valve circumferences and ventricular wall of fetal hearts in Chile.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of cardiac pathology, valvular stenosis, cardiac dilation, and/or cardiac hypertrophy is underestimated if measures of weight, wall thickness, and valve circumference are not obtained. Routine study methodology protocols allow us to obtain values of these measurements for a correct diagnosis of these cardiopathies. The aim of the study is to establish reference values for cardiac measurements in fetuses and to compare them with an international curve of reference. One hundred seventy-one autopsies from week 17 through 41 of gestation were performed on fetuses from the Pathology Unit at the Hospital Barros Luco in Santiago de Chile. Cases with malformations were not considered. Anthropometric and cardiac measurements for each gestational week were taken. A tabulation of data with values (in percentiles) of cardiac weight, valve circumference, and ventricular wall thickness was obtained. Values were similar to an international reference. The curves of values obtained allow for identification of normal parameters of heart weight, valve circumference, and ventricular wall thickness, thereby providing easily accessible data for each gestational week. Abnormal values that fall outside of the curve must be attributed to cardiac fetal pathology. PMID:19678719

Velozo, Luis F; Segovia, Laura A; Zapata, Luis A; Peralta, Susan; Rodriguez, Natalie A

2010-01-01

151

Antenatal macrosomia prediction using sonographic fetal abdominal circumference in South Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Identifying newborns who weight 4000 g or more is important because birth of macrosomic fetuses is associated with adverse peripartum outcomes. Ultrasound is widely used for this purpose Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic value of sonographic measurement of fetal abdominal circumference (AC) over 350 mm for the prediction of fetal macrosomia and shoulder dystocia, to specify factors that could generate errors in its measure. Methods A retrospective clinical trial was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hédi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia. The study consisted of comparing two groups of singleton newborns: the first group (n=465) includes macrosomic babies and the second group (n=465) includes the non macrosomic ones. All women underwent sonographic measurements of the fetal abdominal circumference (AC) within 72 hours before delivery. The AC values were correlated to actual fetal birth weight. The cut-off value of AC for predicting of fetal macrosomia was analyzed. Results A cut-off value of abdominal circumference ?350 mm, in predicting of fetal macrosomia., had a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value: 78.7%, 76.8%, 77%, 92.6%, and 49.2%, respectively. In macrosomic group obesity was significantly more frequent when AC?350mm. Conclusion The fetal AC measurement was useful in predicting of fetal macrosomia. An AC measurement AC?350mm could help to suspect shoulder dystocia. PMID:23717725

Chaabane, Kais; Trigui, Khaled; Louati, Doulira; Kebaili, Sahbi; Gassara, Hichem; Dammak, Abdallah; Amouri, Habib; Guermazi, Mohamed

2013-01-01

152

Optimization of gain in traveling-wave optical parametric amplifiers by tuning the pump-signal waist offset  

E-print Network

We present experimental demonstration and modeling of the optimization of phase-sensitive optical parametric amplifier by tuning the relative position between the pump and signal beam waists along the propagation direction. At the optimum, the pump beam focuses after the signal beam, and this departure from co-located waists increases with increasing pump power. Such optimization leads to greater than 3dB improvement in measured de-amplification.

Alon, Gideon; Bhagwat, Amar; Chen, Chao-Hsiang; Annamalai, Muthiah; Vasilyev, Michael; Kumar, Prem

2012-01-01

153

Measurement of the luminosity at the DAFNE collider upgraded with the crab waist scheme  

E-print Network

The test of the crab waist collision scheme, undergoing at the e+e- Frascati DAFNE accelerator complex since February 2008, requires a fast and accurate measurement of the absolute luminosity, as well as a full characterization of the background conditions. Three different monitors, a Bhabha calorimeter, a Bhabha GEM tracker and a gamma bremsstrahlung proportional counter have been designed, tested and installed around the interaction point end of 2007-beginning of 2008. In this paper, we describe these detectors and present their performances in various operation conditions during the 2008 and 2009 DAFNE runs.

M. Boscolo; F. Bossi; B. Buonomo; G. Mazzitelli; F. Murtas; P. Raimondi; G. Sensolini; M. Schioppa; F. Iacoangeli; P. Valente; N. Arnaud; D. Breton; L. Burmistrov; A. Stocchi; A. Variola; B. Viaud; P. Branchini

2009-09-10

154

Role of fetal abdominal circumference as a prognostic parameter of perinatal complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the potential of fetal abdominal circumference (AC) measurement as predictor of perinatal complications in term\\u000a newborns.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This prospective study included 324 consecutive term pregnancies within a 6-month period between February and August 2009.\\u000a Inclusion criteria were a singleton pregnancy with at least 37 weeks of gestation, vertex presentation, absence of structural\\u000a or chromosomal disorders and complete ultrasound

Sven Kehl; Joachim Brade; Ulrike Schmidt; Sebastian Berlit; Michael K. Bohlmann; Marc Sütterlin; Jörn Siemer; Amadeus Hornemann

155

Investigation on pressure-tapping methods of long waist cone flow meter using CFD simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential pressure (DP) flow meters are playing an increasingly important role in multiphase flow in petroleum industry. The long waist cone flow meter, as a new type of DP flow meter, is introduced in this paper. And its flow field in a horizontal pipe of 50mm diameter is numerically simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), in search of the optimum pressure-tapping method. The results of numerical simulations indicate that the long waist cone flow meter has the merits of the annular channel flow meters by forming an annular flow in annular channel region, which makes it possible to improve the repeatability and accuracy of measurement. The high pressure port at the 1D upstream of the cone's entrance section and the low pressure port at the middle of annular channel region and 3D downstream of the cone's exit section are the optimum pressure-tapping methods. The relative error of discharge coefficient is within ±0.5%. This investigation will provide a theoretical and design basis for the development of new DP flow meters.

Wei, Can; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng; Yu, Xuelian

2012-03-01

156

Assessment of waist-to-hip ratio attractiveness in women: an anthropometric analysis of digital silhouettes.  

PubMed

The low proportion of waist to hip size in females is a unique and adaptive human feature. In contemporary human populations, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is negatively associated with women's health, fecundity, and cognitive ability. It is, therefore, hypothesized that men will prefer women with low WHR. Although this prediction is supported by many studies, considerable disagreement persists about which WHR values are the most attractive and the importance of WHR for attractiveness of the female body. Unfortunately, the methods applied thus far are flawed in several ways. In the present study, we investigated male preferences for female WHR using a high precision assessment procedure and digitally manufactured, high quality, anthropometrically informed stimuli which were disentangled from body mass covariation. Forty men were requested to choose the most attractive silhouette consecutively from six series (2 levels of realism × 3 levels of body mass), each consisting of 26 female images that varied in WHR (from .60 to .85 by .01). Substantial inter-individual variation in the choices made was observed. Nevertheless, low and average WHR values were chosen more frequently than above-average values or values below the normal variation of the trait. This preference pattern mirrors the relationship between WHR and mate value, suggesting that the preferences are adaptive. PMID:23975738

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2014-07-01

157

Reference values for valve circumferences and ventricular wall thicknesses of fetal and neonatal hearts.  

PubMed

To evaluate valvular stenosis, cardiac dilation, and/or cardiac hypertrophy, measurements of valve circumference and ventricular wall thickness are of importance. To establish reference values in fetuses and neonates, we reviewed pathology reports at Women and Infants Hospital from 1978 through 2002 and found measurements in 776 cases that were suitable for analysis. Gestational ages (GA) ranged from 15 to 42 wk. The tabulated data include the mean, standard deviation, and 10th and 90th percentile values for foot length, body weight, body length, heart weight, valve measurements, and ventricular wall thicknesses for each week of GA. In cases in which clinical dating is not reliable, we estimated the GA by the mean value nearest that of the observed foot length. All linear measurements increased in a linear fashion throughout the second and third trimesters of development. The circumferences of cardiac valves at all ages, in descending order of magnitude, are: tricuspid, mitral, pulmonary, and aortic. Mean left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is greater than mean right ventricular (RV) wall thickness throughout gestation. The tables offer a means of determining valvular stenosis, or cardiac dilation and/or hypertrophy, based on various gestational ages. PMID:15547774

Oyer, Calvin E; Sung, C James; Friedman, Rebecca; Hansen, Katrine; Paepe, Monique De; Pinar, Halit; Singer, Don B

2004-01-01

158

Persistently High Hip Circumference after Bariatric Surgery Is a Major Hurdle to Successful Hip Replacement  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of class III obesity (BMI ? 40?kg/m2) in black women is 18%. As class III obesity leads to hip joint deterioration, black women frequently present for orthopedic care. Weight loss associated with bariatric surgery should lead to enhanced success of hip replacements. However, we present a case of a black woman who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with the expectation that weight loss would make her a better surgical candidate for hip replacement. Her gastric bypass was successful as her BMI declined from 52.0?kg/m2 to 33.7?kg/m2. However, her hip circumference after weight loss remained persistently high. Therefore, at surgery the soft tissue tunnel geometry presented major challenges. Tunnel depth and immobility of the soft tissue interfered with retractor placement, tissue reflection, and surgical access to the acetabulum. Therefore a traditional cup placement could not be achieved. Instead, a hemiarthroplasty was performed. After surgery her pain and reliance on external support decreased. But her functional independence never improved. This case demonstrates that a lower BMI after bariatric surgery may improve the metabolic profile and decrease anesthesia risk, but the success of total hip arthroplasties remains problematic if fat mass in the operative field (i.e., high hip circumference) remains high. PMID:24711820

Meller, Menachem M.; Courville, Amber B.; Sumner, Anne E.

2014-01-01

159

Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Hepatic Fat Deposition on Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Middle School Girls  

PubMed Central

Objective In non-obese youth, to investigate whether hepatic fat deposition and its metabolic consequences vary between ethnic groups. Design Methods Thirty-two non-obese girls (12 Hispanic White [H] and 20 non-Hispanic White [NHW] girls), aged 11–14 years old were recruited. Outcome measures were MRI measured hepatic proton density fat fraction (hepatic PDFF), BMI Z-score, waist circumference, fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], ALT, AST, and triglycerides, and HOMA-IR. Results There were no significant differences in mean BMI Z-scores (p=0.546) or hepatic PDFF (p=0.275) between H and NHW girls; however, H girls showed significant correlations between hepatic PDFF and markers of IR (fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, adiponectin, SHBG, triglycerides; all p<0.05), while NHW girls showed no significant correlations. Matched by hepatic PDFF or BMI-Z score, H girls had more evidence of IR for a given hepatic PDFF (mean insulin, HOMA-IR, and SHBG; all p<0.05) or BMI-Z score (mean insulin and HOMA-IR; all p<0.01) than NHW girls. Conclusions In non-obese female youth, ethnicity-related differences in effects of hepatic fat on IR are evident, so that in H girls, a given amount of hepatic fat appears to result in a more predictable and greater degree of IR than in NHW girls. PMID:23804504

Wolfgram, Peter M; Connor, Ellen L; Rehm, Jennifer L; Eickhoff, Jens C; Reeder, Scott B; Allen, David B

2013-01-01

160

Associations of Youth and Adulthood Body-Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio with Attachment Styles and Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current cross-sectional study examined whether body-mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio are associated with adult attachment.\\u000a Participants were 1,570 men and women participating in Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. BMI was measured in youth\\u000a and in adulthood and waist-hip ratio in adulthood. A single measure of attachment style was conducted when participants were\\u000a aged 24–39 years. In age and

Mirka Hintsanen; Markus Jokela; Laura Pulkki-Råback; Jorma S. A. Viikari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2010-01-01

161

Effect of head circumference on parameters of pattern reversal visual evoked potential in healthy adults of central India.  

PubMed

Visual evoked response testing has been one of the most exciting clinical tools to be developed from neurophysiologic research in recent years and has provided us with an objective method of identifying abnormalities of the afferent visual pathways. Investigation were carried out to see whether the head circumference influence the pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) parameters. The study comprised of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) recordings in 400 eyes of 200 normal subjects. Two hundred fourty eight eyes were males and 152 eyes were from 76 female subjects recruited from the Central Indian population in the age range of 40-79 years. Visual evoked potential (VEP) recordings were performed in accordance to the standardized methodology of International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) Committee Recommendations and International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) Guidelines and montages were kept as per 10-20 International System of EEG Electrode placements. The stimulus configuration in this study consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board was generated (full field) and displayed on a VEP Monitor by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an Evoked Potential Recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II). VEP latencies, duration and amplitude were measured in all subjects and the data were analyzed. The correlation of all the electrophysiological parameters with head circumference was evaluated by Pearson's correlation co-efficient (r) and its statistical significance was evaluated. The prediction equations for all the VEP parameters with respect to head circumference were derived. We found a positive correlation of P 100 latency and N 155 latency with mean head circumference, while a highly significant negative correlation were noted of P 100 amplitude with head circumference. N 70 latency was significantly correlated with head circumference. P 100 duration showed in negative correlation with head circumference. These findings suggest that VEP latencies, duration and amplitude are influenced by the head circumference of the individual in a sample of healthy subjects and head circumference can be a useful predictor of VEP peak latencies, amplitude and duration. PMID:23671950

Kothari, R; Singh, R; Singh, S; Bokariya, P

2012-06-01

162

Should we have more definitions of metabolic syndrome or simply take waist measurement?  

PubMed

The disorder now known as metabolic syndrome has been recognized for 50 years, but its multiple definitions have led to some confusion and even doubt about its very nature. Metabolic syndrome is directly linked to the presence of android obesity, which indicates insulin resistance and lies at the root of all risk factors and early indications of type 2 diabetes. It is diagnosed by systematic measurements of waist size and its direct interpretation taking ethnic origin into account. This pragmatic approach avoids the uncertainties generated by differing definitions and is subtler than the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in a given patient. Drug-free treatment of an android obese patient is inexpensive and effective, but this apparently simple approach masks difficulties of application. However, these are sociological problems. PMID:17611137

Bauduceau, B; Vachey, E; Mayaudon, H; Burnat, P; Dupuy, O; Garcia, C; Ceppa, F; Bordier, L

2007-11-01

163

Wasp-waist populations and marine ecosystem dynamics: Navigating the “ predator pit” topographies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many marine ecosystems exhibit a characteristic “wasp-waist” structure, where a single species, or at most several species, of small planktivorous fishes entirely dominate their trophic level. These species have complex life histories that result in radical variability that may propagate to both higher and lower trophic levels of the ecosystem. In addition, these populations have two key attributes: (1) they represent the lowest trophic level that is mobile, so they are capable of relocating their area of operation according to their own internal dynamics; (2) they may prey upon the early life stages of their predators, forming an unstable feedback loop in the trophic system that may, for example, precipitate abrupt regime shifts. Experience with the typical “boom-bust” dynamics of this type of population, and with populations that interact trophically with them, suggests a “predator pit” type of dynamics. This features a refuge from predation when abundance is very low, very destructive predation between an abundance level sufficient to attract interest from predators and an abundance level sufficient to satiate available predators, and, as abundance increases beyond this satiation point, decreasing specific predation mortality and population breakout. A simple formalism is developed to describe these dynamics. Examples of its application include (a) a hypothetical mechanism for progressive geographical habitat expansion at high biomass, (b) an explanation for the out-of-phase alternations of abundances of anchovies and sardines in many regional systems that appear to occur without substantial adverse interactions between the two species groups, and (c) an account of an interaction of environmental processes and fishery exploitation that caused a regime shift. The last is the example of the Baltic Sea, where the cod resource collapsed in concert with establishment of dominance of that ecosystem by the cod’s ‘wasp-waist” prey, herring and sprat.

Bakun, Andrew

2006-02-01

164

Observer variation in measurements of waist-hip ratio and the abdominal sagittal diameter.  

PubMed

In an out-patient weight loss study of 63 patients (54 female, 9 male), 53 completed a 16 week treatment with a low calorie diet and a 9 g/day fibre supplement. In these 53 patients, the average weight loss was 8.3 kg (s.e.m. 0.8). Waist-hip ratio (WHR) and abdominal sagittal diameter (SagD) were measured as indicators of fat distribution and visceral adipose tissue (visceral AT) was estimated by anthropometric computerized tomography calibrated equations. Four observers measured WHR and SagD ten times in eight patients. Two dietitians examined the patients throughout the clinical trial at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 16. Furthermore, two physicians examined the patients at week 12 in the trial. Two- and three-way analyses of variance were performed to estimate the contribution of single factors to the total variance. The contribution of observers, 3.2% and 3.8%, respectively, was of the same magnitude as the error variance (2.9% and 4.8% respectively) which is a measure of the intra-observer variation. The two dietitians had very similar recordings and contributed only 0.3% and 0.9% to the total variance for WHR and SagD, respectively. The contributions of the two physicians to the total variance were 0.0% for WHR and 0.4% for SagD. It is concluded that there is no need to use several observers or repeated measurements of waist, hip and SagD in clinical anti-obesity trials. PMID:8392497

Rasmussen, M H; Andersen, T; Breum, L; Hilsted, J; Gøtzsche, P C

1993-06-01

165

Always bend from the knees, never from the waist (Figure 5). Follow these suggestions when lifting a  

E-print Network

Always bend from the knees, never from the waist (Figure 5). Follow these suggestions when lifting to the object, · squat or bend at the knees, · tighten stomach muscles, · roll the object onto bent knees of the work, and · slowly lift by straightening knees. · lower loads by reversing this process. Be careful

Liskiewicz, Maciej

166

Hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype predicts diabetes: a cohort study in Chinese urban adults  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertriglycedemic-waist (HTGW) phenotype is a simple and inexpensive screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether the HTGW phenotype predicts prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese urban adults. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and eight (2908) subjects including 1957 men and 951 women, aged 20 years and older, free of prediabetes and diabetes at baseline were enrolled in 2008 and followed for 3 years. Meanwhile, new cases of prediabetes and diabetes were identified via annual physical examination. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of HTGW phenotype with the incidence of prediabetes and diabetes. Results One thousand five hundred and thirty-three (1533) new prediabetes and 90 new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow-up period. The accumulated incidence of prediabetes and diabetes was 52.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Compared with the normal waist normal triglyceride (NWNT) group, those in the HTGW group had higher incidence of prediabetes and diabetes for both men and women. The hazard ratio (HR) for developing prediabetes in the presence of HTGW phenotype at baseline was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.04-2.19) in women, not in men (HR=1.01; 95% CI = 0.82-1.24), after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The HR for developing diabetes were 4.46 (95% CI = 1.88-10.60) in men and 4.64 (95% CI = 1.20-17.97) in women for people who were HTGW phenotype at baseline, after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Conclusions The HTGW phenotype can be used as a simple screening approach to predict diabetes. By using this approach, it is possible to identify individuals at high-risk for diabetes, which is of great significance in reducing the incidence of diabetes among Chinese urban adults. PMID:23241342

2012-01-01

167

Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: A response to McAnulty and Adams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In replying to my review of the validity and ethics of penile circumference responses (PCRs) as measures of sexual arousal McAnulty and Adams misinterpreted the review as claiming penile volume responses (PVRs) were superior to PCRs in assessing rapists and child molesters. No such claim was made. The lack of validity of PCR assessment of individual rapists and child molesters

Nathaniel McConaghy

1992-01-01

168

Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

2012-01-01

169

Orthogonality of final waist corrections at the IP of the SLC  

SciTech Connect

Because the SLC final IP spot is produced by an aberration-dominated optical system, all components and couplings between dimensions of transverse phase-space must be controlled in the experimental tuning algorithm. For equal emittances epsilon/sub x/ = epsilon/sub y/, this amounts to ten linear optics adjustments. These adjustments are coupled and depend non-linearly on phase-space parameters. A ten-dimensional non-linear fitting program is therefore used to match the lattice in the Final Focus to the input beam. Local orthogonal ''knobs'' are also defined for fine-tweaking around the initial solution, although this is not always practical because of steering from the lenses. The three final waist corrections are however fully orthogonal to the other seven optical adjustments. This means that they do not cause any of the other seven optical distortions. We refer to this as external orthogonality. They can also be made internally orthogonal. This means that each one of the three orthogonalized controls can be applied independently of the two others. It also allows one to simultaneously correct and determine the phase-space at the IP.

Bambade, P.

1988-10-27

170

Maternal waist-to-hip ratio does not predict child gender.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that a high pre-conceptual waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is a good predictor of male offspring and, thus, in cultures that value male children, an androgenous body shape may be judged as most attractive. The predictive value of WHRs is based on studies measuring women who already have children and correlating their WHRs with the proportion of existing male offspring. However, carrying a male child may alter WHRs in a different way to carrying a female child, and a high WHR may be an effect rather than a cause of male offspring. In order to test the predictive power of a pre-conceptual WHR and offspring gender, we took WHR measures from 458 women who intended to become pregnant and then correlated this with the genders of their subsequent children. We found no significant correlation. It is therefore not clear why a high WHR is preferred in some cultures. We suggest that differences in attractiveness preferences between different ethic groups are actually based on weight scaled for height (the body mass index or BMI) rather than the WHR since although there will be a preferred optimal BMI for each ethnic group, which will balance environmental and health factors, this optimal BMI may differ between groups and environments. PMID:11375083

Tovée, M J; Brown, J E; Jacobs, D

2001-05-22

171

DAFNE Setup And Operation With the Crab-Waist Collision Scheme  

SciTech Connect

In the second half of 2007 a major upgrade has been implemented on the Frascati DA{Phi}NE collider in order to test the novel idea of Crab-Waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, built and installed to realize the new configuration. At the same time the performances of relevant hardware components, such as fast injection kickers and shielded bellows have been improved relying on new design concepts. The collider has been successfully commissioned in this new configuration. The paper describes several experimental results about linear and non-linear optics setup and optimization, damping of beam-beam instabilities and discusses the obtained luminosity performances. DA{Phi}NE [1] is the Frascati lepton collider working at the c m. energy of the {Phi} meson resonance (1020). It came in operation in 2001 and till summer 2007 provided luminosity, in sequence, to three different experiments which logged a total integrated luminosity of {approx} 4.4 fb{sup -1}. During these years the collider reached its best performances in terms of luminosity and background (L{sub peak} = 1.6 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} L{sub day} {approx} 10 pb{sup -1}) by means of several successive upgrades, relying on the experience gathered during the collider operations and implemented exploiting the shutdowns required for the experiment change over [2, 3, 4].

Milardi, C.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Murtas, F.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Cosenza /INFN, Rome /SLAC

2011-10-21

172

Genome-Wide Mapping of Loci Explaining Variance in Scrotal Circumference in Nellore Cattle  

PubMed Central

The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility. PMID:24558400

Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Marcia C.; Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Ito, Pier K. R. K.; Perez O'Brien, Ana M.; Solkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Schenkel, Flavio S.; McEwan, John; Cole, John B.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Garcia, Jose Fernando

2014-01-01

173

Changes in mean scrotal circumference in performance tested Swedish beef bulls over time  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing interest in beef cattle breeding in Sweden. The majority of the females are bred naturally, which is why it is important to choose healthy fertile bulls to obtain good reproduction and profitability. The breeding soundness evaluation includes measurement of scrotal circumference (SC). Our aim was to analyze if the SC of performance tested beef bulls has changed over the years. In total, 1332 bulls (Angus, Charolais, Hereford and Simmental) from 13 batches (1997-2010) were included in the study. Case book entries from final evaluation of the bulls, 11-13 months old, were compiled and analyzed. Results An overall mean SC of 34.7 cm independent of breed and age was found which is above the set minimum level. Only eleven bulls did not reach the minimum level. An increase in SC of 0.06-0.07 cm/year was shown for all breeds. In all (1997-2010), the increase of the average SC (independent of breed and age) was approximately 1 cm. The positive trend was apparent for all breeds but only statistically significant for the Charolais breed. Conclusions In conclusion, our results indicated an increase in the SC over time, which improves the possibilities to obtain performance tested beef sires in Sweden with the potential for achieving better fertility results. PMID:23241352

2012-01-01

174

Use of mid-upper arm circumference for determining overweight and overfatness in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the use of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for identification of overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents. Methods Anthropometric data (weight, height, MUAC and % body fat) from a cross-sectional sample of 978 black South African 5–14-year-olds were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis determined the validity of MUAC as a proxy for determining overweight and overfatness. Findings Area under the curve (AUC) results were generally high. Boys and girls aged 10–14?years had ROC-AUC for overfatness classed as ‘excellent’, 0.97 and 0.98 respectively. Cut-points in the MUAC distribution which optimised the ROC-AUC for identification of overfatness and obesity were determined for boys and girls aged 5–9 and 10–14?years, and had high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions MUAC may have potential for clinical and surveillance applications as an accurate yet simple and widely available indicator of overweight and overfatness in children and adolescents in resource-poor settings. PMID:24890851

Craig, E; Bland, R; Ndirangu, J; Reilly, J J

2014-01-01

175

The Influence of Work Characteristics on Body Mass Index and Waist to Hip Ratio in Japanese Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study on 6,676 workers consisting of 4,243 males and 2,433 females aged 20-58 yr in a metal product factory was conducted to elucidate the relationship between work characteristics, e.g. job demand\\/control\\/support, sedentary job, overtime work and shift work, and waist to hip ratio (WHR) as well as body mass index (BMI) taking alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise and other

Masao ISHIZAKI; Yuko MORIKAWA; Hideaki NAKAGAWA; Ryumon HONDA; Norito KAWAKAMI; Takashi HARATANI; Fumio KOBAYASHI; Shunichi ARAKI; Yuichi YAMADA

2004-01-01

176

Multiple surface-plasmon resonance in uniform-waist tapered optical fibers with an asymmetric double-layer deposition.  

PubMed

Novel devices consisting of uniform-waist tapered optical fibers with asymmetric double-layer (metal plus dielectric) depositions have been recently proposed as refractive-index sensors. We study the properties of light transmission by use of this kind of devices, and we specifically perform a detailed study of the generation of surface-plasma waves in the structures. We show that multiple surface plasmons are excited for specific combinations of the constructive parameters of the devices and for specific ranges of the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The behavior also depends on the wavelength and the state of polarization of the incident light. The use of uniform-waist tapers allows for control of constructive parameters and an increase in the interaction length with the outer medium. We show how the plasmons are excited in the region of the taper waist by a coupling with the cladding modes guided in that area. This characterization shows the importance of the presence of a dielectric layer for selection of the operating range of the device. The results are useful for the design of new sensors. PMID:15726948

González-Cano, Agustín; Bueno, Francisco-Javier; Esteban, Oscar; Díaz-Herrera, Natalia; Navarrete, María-Cruz

2005-02-01

177

Assessing the short-term outcomes of a community-based intervention for overweight and obese children: The MEND 5-7 programme  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to report outcomes of the UK service level delivery of MEND (Mind,Exercise,Nutrition...Do it!) 5-7, a multicomponent, community-based, healthy lifestyle intervention designed for overweight and obese children aged 5–7?years and their families. Design Repeated measures. Setting Community venues at 37 locations across the UK. Participants 440 overweight or obese children (42% boys; mean age 6.1?years; body mass index (BMI) z-score 2.86) and their parents/carers participated in the intervention. Intervention MEND 5-7 is a 10-week, family-based, child weight-management intervention consisting of weekly group sessions. It includes positive parenting, active play, nutrition education and behaviour change strategies. The intervention is designed to be scalable and delivered by a range of health and social care professionals. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was BMI z-score. Secondary outcome measures included BMI, waist circumference, waist circumference z-score, children's psychological symptoms, parenting self-efficacy, physical activity and sedentary behaviours and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables. Results 274 (62%) children were measured preintervention and post-intervention (baseline; 10-weeks). Post-intervention, mean BMI and waist circumference decreased by 0.5?kg/m2 and 0.9?cm, while z-scores decreased by 0.20 and 0.20, respectively (p<0.0001). Improvements were found in children's psychological symptoms (?1.6 units, p<0.0001), parent self-efficacy (p<0.0001), physical activity (+2.9?h/week, p<0.01), sedentary activities (?4.1?h/week, p<0.0001) and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables per day (both p<0.0001). Attendance at the 10 sessions was 73% with a 70% retention rate. Conclusions Participation in the MEND 5-7 programme was associated with beneficial changes in physical, behavioural and psychological outcomes for children with complete sets of measurement data, when implemented in UK community settings under service level conditions. Further investigation is warranted to establish if these findings are replicable under controlled conditions. PMID:23645925

Smith, L R; Chadwick, P; Radley, D; Kolotourou, M; Gammon, C S; Rosborough, J; Sacher, P M

2013-01-01

178

Men’s ratings of female attractiveness are influenced more by changes in female waist size compared with changes in hip size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s attractiveness has been found to be negatively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in many studies. Two components of this ratio can, however, carry different signals for a potential mate. Hip size indicates pelvic size and the amount of additional fat storage that can be used as a source of energy. Waist size conveys information such as current reproductive status

Malgorzata Rozmus-Wrzesinska; Boguslaw Pawlowski

2005-01-01

179

Developmental Correlates of Head Circumference at Birth and Two Years in a Cohort of Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the developmental correlates of microcephaly evident at birth and at 2 years in a cohort born at extremely low gestational age. Methods We assessed development and motor function at 2 years of 958 children born before the 28th week of gestation, comparing those who had microcephaly at birth or 2 years with children with normal head circumference while considering the contribution of neonatal cranial ultrasound lesions. Results A total of 11% of infants in our sample had microcephaly at 2 years. Microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, predicts severe motor and cognitive impairments at 2 years. A total of 71% of children with congenital microcephaly had a normal head circumference at 2 years and had neurodevelopmental outcomes comparable with those with normal head circumference at birth and 2 years. Among children with microcephaly at 2 years, more than half had a Mental Developmental Index <70, and nearly a third had cerebral palsy. The risks were increased if the child also had cerebral white matter damage on a cranial ultrasound scan obtained 2 years previously. Conclusion Among extremely low gestational age newborns, microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, is associated with motor and cognitive impairment at age 2. PMID:19555967

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Westra, Sjirk; Miller, Cindy; Rosman, N. Paul; Leviton, Alan

2009-01-01

180

Use of nonlinear models for describing scrotal circumference growth in Guzerat bulls raised under grazing conditions.  

PubMed

The objective was to use various nonlinear models to describe scrotal circumference (SC) growth in Guzerat bulls on three farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The nonlinear models were: Brody, Logistic, Gompertz, Richards, Von Bertalanffy, and Tanaka, where parameter A is the estimated testis size at maturity, B is the integration constant, k is a maturating index and, for the Richards and Tanaka models, m determines the inflection point. In Tanaka, A is an indefinite size of the testis, and B and k adjust the shape and inclination of the curve. A total of 7410 SC records were obtained every 3 months from 1034 bulls with ages varying between 2 and 69 months (<240 days of age = 159; 241-365 days = 451; 366-550 days = 1443; 551-730 days = 1705; and >731 days = 3652 SC measurements). Goodness of fit was evaluated by coefficients of determination (R(2)), error sum of squares, average prediction error (APE), and mean absolute deviation. The Richards model did not reach the convergence criterion. The R(2) were similar for all models (0.68-0.69). The error sum of squares was lowest for the Tanaka model. All models fit the SC data poorly in the early and late periods. Logistic was the model which best estimated SC in the early phase (based on APE and mean absolute deviation). The Tanaka and Logistic models had the lowest APE between 300 and 1600 days of age. The Logistic model was chosen for analysis of the environmental influence on parameters A and k. Based on absolute growth rate, SC increased from 0.019 cm/d, peaking at 0.025 cm/d between 318 and 435 days of age. Farm, year, and season of birth significantly affected size of adult SC and SC growth rate. An increase in SC adult size (parameter A) was accompanied by decreased SC growth rate (parameter k). In conclusion, SC growth in Guzerat bulls was characterized by an accelerated growth phase, followed by decreased growth; this was best represented by the Logistic model. The inflection point occurred at approximately 376 days of age (mean SC of 17.9 cm). We inferred that early selection of testicular size might result in smaller testes at maturity. PMID:23290432

Loaiza-Echeverri, A M; Bergmann, J A G; Toral, F L B; Osorio, J P; Carmo, A S; Mendonça, L F; Moustacas, V S; Henry, M

2013-03-15

181

Seven tenths incorrect: heterogeneity and change in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners.  

PubMed

Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation in waist-to-hip ratios among these women is greater than reported. Second, the center of the distribution of waist-to-hip ratios is not 0.70, but less than this. Third, the average waist-to-hip ratio within both samples has changed over time in a manner that is statistically significant and can be regarded as mutually consistent. Taken together, the findings undermine some of the evidence given for the repeated suggestion that there is something special--evolutionarily hard-wired or otherwise--about a specific female waist-to-hip ratio of 0.70 as a preference of American heterosexual males. PMID:12476245

Freese, Jeremy; Meland, Sheri

2002-05-01

182

Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Volzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2012-01-01

183

The Correlates of Body Composition with Heart Rate Recovery after Step Test: An Exploratory Study of Malaysian Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background In adults, heart rate recovery is a predictor of mortality, while in adolescents it is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition measures and heart rate recovery (HRR) after step test in Malaysian secondary school students. Methods In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min) and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min) were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR. Results For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024) in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008). Conclusion There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of healthy living which should start from young. PMID:24349388

Abu Hanifah, Redzal; Mohamed, Mohd. Nahar Azmi; Jaafar, Zulkarnain; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin

2013-01-01

184

[Research on high sensitivity temperature sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer with waist-enlarged fiber bitapers].  

PubMed

Optical fiber sensing technology is one of the very promising techniques in sensing fields. A high sensitivity high temperature sensor based on inline optical fiber Mach-Zehnder(M-Z) interferometer by using standard single mode fiber with two waist-enlarged bitapers is proposed in the present paper. The waist-enlarged bitapers are considered as couplers, the distance between the two bitapers is the sensing arm. The light in the lead-in fiber core couples into the sensing arms' fiber core and cladding by the first bitaper, and then propagate in them. The phase difference between core mode and cladding mode is produced when the light reaches the second bitaper. Then the second bitaper couples the light into the lead-out single-mode fiber to get the interference spectrum. The sensors with different length were fabricated. The relationship between the sensor length and interference period, and the temperature response of the.sensor were studied by experiments. The results show that the 35 mm long sensor has a high sensitivity of 0.115 nm x degrees C(-1) in the range of 30-400 degrees C. The transmission spectrum of the sensor was also analyzed by the fast Fourier transform. It shows that only LP01 mode and LP08 mode propagate in the sensor. Thesensor has advantages of small size, high precision, and immunity to electromagnetic inteference. In addition, it is of easy fabrication, high signal-to-noise ratio, light weight, and high sensitivity, and could be operated under high temperature. This kind of sensor is a good candidate for high temperature measurement of hot gas, oil and gas well logging and other areas. PMID:25358196

Zhano, Na; Fu, Hai-wei; Shao, Min; Li, Hui-dong; Liu, Ying-gang; Qiao, Xue-guang

2014-06-01

185

Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’s education, maternal age, parity, BMI, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference respectively (p<0.05 for all) and Kohs’ block design score (visuo-spatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p<0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities and attention and concentration. In conclusion higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuo-spatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2011-01-01

186

Mode of Genetic Inheritance Modifies the Association of Head Circumference and Autism-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Frequently individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been noted with a larger head circumference (HC) than their typical developing peers. Biologic hypotheses suggest that an overly rapid brain growth leads to the core symptoms of ASD by impairing connectivity. Literature is divided however where deleterious, protective and null associations of HC with ASD symptoms in individuals with ASD have been found. Method Individuals (n?=?1,416) from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange with ASD were examined for associations of HC with ASD like symptoms. Mixed models controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, simplex/multiplex status and accounting for correlations between siblings were used. Interactions by simplex/multiplex were explored. Adjustments for height in a sub-population with available data were explored as well. Results A Significant interaction term (p?=?0.03) suggested that the effect of HC was dependent on whether the individual was simplex or multiplex. In simplex individuals at mean age (8.9 years) 1 cm increase in head circumference was associated with a 24% increase in the odds of a high social diagnostic score from the Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised (odds ratio ?=?1.24, p?=?0.01). There was no association in multiplex individuals. Additionally, individuals classified with a non-verbal IQ <70 were 90% simplex and had a significantly increased head circumference (0.7 cm p?=?0.03) relative to a mid-range non-verbal IQ group. Interestingly, children classified with a >110 non-verbal IQ also had an increased HC (0.4 cm p?=?0.04), relative to a mid-range non-verbal IQ group, and were 90% multiplex. HC effects do not appear to be confounded by height, however, larger samples with height information are needed. Conclusion The potential link between brain growth and autism like symptoms is complex and could depend on specific etiologies. Further investigations accounting for a likely mode of inheritance will help identify an ASD subtype related to HC. PMID:24058641

Davis, Jonathan M.; Keeney, Jonathon G.; Sikela, James M.; Hepburn, Susan

2013-01-01

187

Piloting a Global Collaborative Experiment to Determine your Place on the Planet and the Circumference of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the laboratory component in Bush Physics for the 21st Century, a distance delivered physics course geared toward rural and Indigenous students in Alaska, students determine their village location on earth from simple sun angle measurements at local-noon during the spring equinox. Students measure the length of the sun shadow cast by a rod mounted on a horizontal surface, over short time intervals on or near the spring equinox during mid-day. Local-noon occurs when the sun is the highest and its corresponding shadow the shortest. Local noon, when expressed in Universal Time, can be directly converted to the local longitude in degrees. Local latitude in degrees, is obtained from the local-noon shadow length on the spring equinox and simple trigonometry. As an added bonus, using data from different sites, students can collaborate to approximate the circumference of the earth from their measurements. In the spirit of Eratosthenes, students envision an earth-sized pie wedge cut from a polar great-circle where the curve of the wedge on the earth's surface is the North-South distance between two often road-less sites (determined using Google Earth, a map or a globe), and the angle of the wedge is the difference between the site latitudes. The earth's circumference is calculated from this wedge. In 2012 with the aim of including Indigenous groups from other regions of the planet, we expanded this experiment to include teams from Japan, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and New Zealand. We present our results from this pilot year.

Solie, D. J.; Paniwozik, R. L.; Wallace, P.

2012-12-01

188

A Preliminary Investigation into the Potential Role of Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Preference within the Assortative Mating Hypothesis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of particular interest to studying the etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is the potential for multiple risk factors to combine through non-random mechanisms--assortative mating. Both genetic influences and a high-testosterone prenatal environment have been implicated in the etiology of ASDs, and given that waist-hip ratio (WHR) is…

Brosnan, Mark; Walker, Ian

2009-01-01

189

Seven tenths incorrect: Heterogeneity and change in the waist?to?hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist?to?hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation

Jeremy Freese; Sheri Meland

2002-01-01

190

Abstract. The control of the width of a continuum generated in a tapered germanium-doped silica bre with the waist  

E-print Network

pulses, as well as in the broadening of the spectrum [5], including the supercontinuum generation [6 ë 8 refraction. This allows one to generate a supercontinuum due to the self- phase modulation (SPM]. The supercontinuum was generated in paper [8] by pumping tapered germanium-doped silica ébres with the waist diameter

Kobtsev, Sergei M.

191

Effect of Castration Method and the Provision of Local Anesthesia on Plasma Cortisol, Scrotal Circumference, Growth, and Feed Intake of Bull Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of castration of calves, with or without local anesthesia, on plasma cortisol, scrotal circumference, ADG, and ADFI, 56 Friesian bulls (5.5 mo of age; mean ± SE BW = 173 ± 2 kg) were randomly assigned to each of seven treat- ments: 1 ) control (CON); 2 ) s.c. injection of .1 mg of a human

A. D. Fisher; M. A. Crowe; M. E. Alonso de la Varga; W. J. Enright

2010-01-01

192

New cross sectional stature, weight, and head circumference references for Down's syndrome in the UK and Republic of Ireland  

PubMed Central

Aim: To present a growth reference for children with uncomplicated Down's syndrome living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Data are available for height and weight in the age range 0–18 years, including the first three months of life, and for head circumference in the first year. Methods: The study sample was drawn from 16 discrete geographical areas and was representative of children age 19 years of age or less who are now living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Multiple growth measurements for 1507 children were obtained retrospectively by case note search. Data from children with significant cardiac or other major pathology were excluded from analysis. Data from preterm babies were excluded up to age 2 years. Centile curves were constructed from 5913 selected measurements from 1089 children and were derived using Cole's LMS method. Results: The resulting centiles differ substantially from those previously available in the UK, which were based on selective US data published in 1988. Conclusions: We propose that these charts should now be adopted as the standard UK/Republic of Ireland reference. PMID:12138054

Styles, M; Cole, T; Dennis, J; Preece, M

2002-01-01

193

A Community Intervention Reduces BMI z-score in Children: Shape Up Somerville First Year Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that a community-based environmental change intervention could prevent weight gain in young children (7.6 ± 1.0 years).Research Methods and Procedures: A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three culturally diverse urban cities in Massachusetts. Somerville was the intervention community; two socio-demographically-matched cities were control communities. Children (n = 1178) in grades 1

Christina D. Economos; Raymond R. Hyatt; Jeanne P. Goldberg; Aviva Must; Elena N. Naumova; Jessica J. Collins; Miriam E. Nelson

2007-01-01

194

Pilot intervention to increase physical activity among sedentary urban middle school girls: a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of the study was to determine if girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school Physical Activity Club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions controlling for baseline measures showed no statistically significant group differences, but directionality of differences was consistent with greater intervention group improvement for minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity/hour (t = 0.95, p = .35), cardiovascular fitness (t = 1.26, p = .22), body mass index (BMI; t = ?1.47, p = .15), BMI z-score (t = ?1.19, p = .24), BMI percentile (t = ?0.59, p = .56), percent body fat (t = ?0.86, p = .39), and waist circumference (t = ?0.19, p = .85). Findings support testing with a larger sample. PMID:22472632

Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek, Stacey M.

2012-01-01

195

Body mass index and weight change from adolescence into adulthood, waist-to-hip ratio and perceived work ability among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:To study how body mass index (BMI, kg\\/m2) at 14 and 31 years (y) changes in BMI between 14 and 31 y, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 31 y are associated with poor perceived working ability at 31 y.DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:A population-based cohort, originally 11637 people, born in Northern Finland in 1966 was resurveyed at 14 and 31 y.MEASUREMENTS:Perceived work

J Laitinen; S Näyhä; V Kujala

2005-01-01

196

Fully automated waist-worn accelerometer algorithm for detecting children's sleep-period time separate from 24-h physical activity or sedentary behaviors.  

PubMed

Analysis of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer data for physical activity and sedentary behavior requires that sleep-period time (from sleep onset to the end of sleep, including all sleep epochs and wakefulness after onset) is first identified. To identify sleep-period time in children in this study, we evaluated the validity of a published automated algorithm that requires nonaccelerometer bed- and wake-time inputs, relative to a criterion expert visual analysis of minute-by-minute waist-worn accelerometer data, and validated a refined fully automated algorithm. Thirty grade 4 schoolchildren (50% girls) provided 24-h waist-worn accelerometry data. Expert visual inspection (criterion), a published algorithm (Algorithm 1), and 2 additional automated refinements (Algorithm 2, which draws on the instrument's inclinometer function, and Algorithm 3, which focuses on bedtime and wake time points) were applied to a standardized 24-h time block. Paired t tests were used to evaluate differences in mean sleep time (expert criterion minus algorithm estimate). Compared with the criterion, Algorithm 1 and Algorithm 2 significantly overestimated sleep time by 43 min and 90 min, respectively. Algorithm 3 produced the smallest mean difference (2 min), and was not significantly different from the criterion. Relative to expert visual inspection, our automated Algorithm 3 produced an estimate that was precise and within expected values for similarly aged children. This fully automated algorithm for 24-h waist-worn accelerometer data will facilitate the separation of sleep time from sedentary behavior and physical activity of all intensities during the remainder of the day. PMID:24383507

Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Barreira, Tiago V; Schuna, John M; Mire, Emily F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

2014-01-01

197

Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an

Iris M Heid; Anne U Jackson; Joshua C Randall; Thomas W Winkler; Lu Qi; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Gudmar Thorleifsson; M Carola Zillikens; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Reedik Magi; Tsegaselassie Workalemahu; Charles C White; Nabila Bouatia-Naji; Tamara B Harris; Sonja I Berndt; Erik Ingelsson; Cristen J Willer; Michael N Weedon; Jian'an Luan; Sailaja Vedantam; Tonu Esko; Tuomas O Kilpelainen; Zoltan Kutalik; Shengxu Li; Keri L Monda; Anna L Dixon; Christopher C Holmes; Lee M Kaplan; Liming Liang; Josine L Min; Miriam F Moffatt; Cliona Molony; George Nicholson; Eric E Schadt; Krina T Zondervan; Mary F Feitosa; Teresa Ferreira; Hana Lango Allen; Robert J Weyant; Eleanor Wheeler; Andrew R Wood; Karol Estrada; Michael E Goddard; Guillaume Lettre; Massimo Mangino; Dale R Nyholt; Shaun Purcell; Albert Vernon Smith; Peter M Visscher; Jian Yang; Steven A McCarroll; James Nemesh; Benjamin F Voight; Devin Absher; Najaf Amin; Thor Aspelund; Lachlan Coin; Nicole L Glazer; Caroline Hayward; Nancy L Heard-Costa; Jouke-Jan Hottenga; Asa Johansson; Toby Johnson; Marika Kaakinen; Karen Kapur; Shamika Ketkar; Joshua W Knowles; Peter Kraft; Aldi T Kraja; Claudia Lamina; Michael F Leitzmann; Barbara McKnight; Andrew P Morris; Ken K Ong; John R B Perry; Marjolein J Peters; Ozren Polasek; Inga Prokopenko; Nigel W Rayner; Samuli Ripatti; Fernando Rivadeneira; Neil R Robertson; Serena Sanna; Ulla Sovio; Ida Surakka; Alexander Teumer; Sophie van Wingerden; Veronique Vitart; Jing Hua Zhao; Christine Cavalcanti-Proenca; Peter S Chines; Eva Fisher; Jennifer R Kulzer; Cecile Lecoeur; Narisu Narisu; Camilla Sandholt; Laura J Scott; Kaisa Silander; Klaus Stark; Mari-Liis Tammesoo; Tanya M Teslovich; Nicholas John Timpson; Richard M Watanabe; Ryan Welch; Daniel I Chasman; Matthew N Cooper; John-Olov Jansson; Johannes Kettunen; Robert W Lawrence; Niina Pellikka; Markus Perola; Liesbeth Vandenput; Helene Alavere; Peter Almgren; Larry D Atwood; Amanda J Bennett; Reiner Biffar; Lori L Bonnycastle; Stefan R Bornstein; Thomas A Buchanan; Harry Campbell; Ian N M Day; Mariano Dei; Marcus Dorr; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Johan G Eriksson; Nelson B Freimer; Mao Fu; Stefan Gaget; Eco J C Geus; Anette P Gjesing; Harald Grallert; Jurgen Graszler; Christopher J Groves; Candace Guiducci; Anna-Liisa Hartikainen; Neelam Hassanali; Aki S Havulinna; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Andrew A Hicks; Jennie Hui; Wilmar Igl; Pekka Jousilahti; Antti Jula; Eero Kajantie; Leena Kinnunen; Ivana Kolcic; Seppo Koskinen; Peter Kovacs; Heyo K Kroemer; Vjekoslav Krzelj; Johanna Kuusisto; Kirsti Kvaloy; Jaana Laitinen; Olivier Lantieri; G Mark Lathrop; Marja-Liisa Lokki; Robert N Luben; Barbara Ludwig; Wendy L McArdle; Anne McCarthy; Mario A Morken; Mari Nelis; Matt J Neville; Guillaume Pare; Alex N Parker; John F Peden; Irene Pichler; Kirsi H Pietilainen; Carl G P Platou; Anneli Pouta; Martin Ridderstrale; Nilesh J Samani; Jouko Saramies; Juha Sinisalo; Jan H Smit; Rona J Strawbridge; Heather M Stringham; Amy J Swift; Maris Teder-Laving; Brian Thomson; Gianluca Usala; Joyce B J van Meurs; Gert-Jan van Ommen; Vincent Vatin; Claudia B Volpato; Henri Wallaschofski; G Bragi Walters; Elisabeth Widen; Sarah H Wild; Gonneke Willemsen; Daniel R Witte; Lina Zgaga; Paavo Zitting; John P Beilby; Alan L James; Mika Kahonen; Terho Lehtimaki; Markku S Nieminen; Claes Ohlsson; Lyle J Palmer; Olli Raitakari; Paul M Ridker; Michael Stumvoll; Anke Tonjes; Jorma Viikari; Beverley Balkau; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Richard N Bergman; Heiner Boeing; George Davey Smith; Shah Ebrahim; Philippe Froguel; Torben Hansen; Christian Hengstenberg; Kristian Hveem; Bo Isomaa; Torben Jorgensen; Fredrik Karpe; Kay-Tee Khaw; Markku Laakso; Debbie A Lawlor; Michel Marre; Thomas Meitinger; Andres Metspalu; Kristian Midthjell; Oluf Pedersen; Veikko Salomaa; Peter E H Schwarz; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Timo T Valle; Nicholas J Wareham; Alice M Arnold; Jacques S Beckmann; Sven Bergmann; Eric Boerwinkle; Dorret I Boomsma; Mark J Caulfield; Francis S Collins; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason; Ulf Gyllensten; Anders Hamsten; Andrew T Hattersley; Albert Hofman; Frank B Hu; Thomas Illig; Carlos Iribarren; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; W H Linda Kao; Jaakko Kaprio; Lenore J Launer; Patricia B Munroe; Ben Oostra; Brenda W Penninx; Peter P Pramstaller; Bruce M Psaty; Thomas Quertermous; Aila Rissanen; Igor Rudan; Alan R Shuldiner; Nicole Soranzo; Timothy D Spector; Ann-Christine Syvanen; Manuela Uda; Andre Uitterlinden; Henry Volzke; Peter Vollenweider; James F Wilson; Jacqueline C Witteman; Alan F Wright; Goncalo R Abecasis; Michael Boehnke; Ingrid B Borecki; Panos Deloukas

2010-01-01

198

Evidence to suggest that women's sexual behavior is influenced by hip width rather than waist-to-hip ratio.  

PubMed

Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is an important ornament display that signals women's health and fertility. Its significance derives from human development as a bipedal species. This required fundamental changes to hip morphology/musculature to accommodate the demands of both reproduction and locomotion. The result has been an obstetric dilemma whereby women's hips are only just wide enough to allow the passage of an infant. Childbirth therefore poses a significant hip width related threat to maternal mortality/risk of gynecological injury. It was predicted that this would have a significant influence on women's sexual behavior. To investigate this, hip width and WHR were measured in 148 women (M age = 20.93 + 0.17 years) and sexual histories were recorded via questionnaire. Data revealed that hip width per se was correlated with total number of sexual partners, total number of one night stands, percentage of sexual partners that were one night stands, number of sexual partners within the context of a relationship per year sexually active, and number of one night stands per year sexually active. By contrast, WHR was not correlated with any of these measures. Further analysis indicated that women who predominantly engaged in one night stand behavior had wider hips than those who did not. WHR was again without effect in this context. Women's hip morphology has a direct impact on their risk of potentially fatal childbirth related injury. It is concluded that when they have control over this, women's sexual behavior reflects this risk and is therefore at least in part influenced by hip width. PMID:24752789

Simpson, Victoria J; Brewer, Gayle; Hendrie, Colin A

2014-10-01

199

Waist-to-height ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence: findings from a prospective birth cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) measured in childhood and adolescence and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence. Methods Secondary data analysis of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population based cohort. Data from 2858 adolescents aged 15.5 (standard deviation 0.4) years and 2710 of these participants as children aged 7–9 years were used in this analysis. Outcome measures were cardiometabolic risk factors, including triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, glucose and blood pressure at 15 years of age. Results Both BMI and WHtR measured at ages 7–9 years and at age 15 years were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. A WHtR ?0.5 at 7–9 years increased the odds by 4.6 [95% confidence interval 2.6 to 8.1] for males and 1.6 [0.7 to 3.9] for females of having three or more cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence. Cross-sectional analysis indicated that adolescents who had a WHtR ?0.5, the odds ratio of having three or more cardiometabolic risk factors was 6.8 [4.4 to 10.6] for males and 3.8 [2.3 to 6.3] for females. The WHtR cut-point was highly specific in identifying cardiometabolic risk co-occurrence in male children and adolescents as well as female children (90 to 95%), but had poor sensitivity (17 to 53%). Similar associations were observed when BMI was used to define excess adiposity. Conclusions WHtR is a simple alternative to age and sex adjusted BMI for assessing cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. PMID:23894119

Graves, L; Garnett, S P; Cowell, C T; Baur, L A; Ness, A; Sattar, N; Lawlor, D A

2014-01-01

200

Peer-Supported Diabetes Prevention Program for Turkish- and Arabic-Speaking Communities in Australia  

PubMed Central

In Australia, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are more prevalent in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities than mainstream Australians. Purpose. To develop, implement, and evaluate culturally sensitive peer-supported diabetes education program for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk middle-aged Turkish- and Arabic-speaking people. Methods. A two-day training program was developed. Ten bilingual peer leaders were recruited from existing health and social networks in Melbourne and were trained by diabetes educators. Each leader recruited 10 high-risk people for developing diabetes. Questionnaires were administered, and height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and three months after the intervention. The intervention comprised two 2-hour group sessions and 30 minutes reinforcement and support telephone calls. Results. 94 individuals (73% women) completed the program. Three months after the program, the participants' mean body weight (before?=?78.1?kg, after?=?77.3; Z score?=??3.415, P = 0.001) and waist circumference (Z?=??2.569, P = 0.004) were reduced, their diabetes knowledge was enhanced, and lifestyle behaviours were significantly improved. Conclusions. A short diabetes prevention program delivered by bilingual peers was associated with improved diabetes awareness, changed lifestyle behaviour, and reduction in body weight 3 months after intervention. The findings are encouraging and should stimulate a larger control-designed study. PMID:24959573

Sulaiman, Nabil; Hadj, Elaine; Hussein, Amal; Young, Doris

2013-01-01

201

Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother–Child Study (NewGeneris)  

PubMed Central

Background: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. Objectives: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006–2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was –132 g (95% CI: –207, –56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was –0.33 cm (95% CI: –0.61, –0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women. PMID:23092936

Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hardie, Laura J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Merlo, Domenico F.; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Rydberg, Per; Segerbäck, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Törnqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C.

2012-01-01

202

The Effect of Two Different Hand Exercises on Grip Strength, Forearm Circumference, and Vascular Maturation in Patients Who Underwent Arteriovenous Fistula Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effect of two different hand exercises on hand strength and vascular maturation in patients who underwent arteriovenous fistula surgery. Methods We recruited 18 patients who had chronic kidney disease and had undergone arteriovenous fistula surgery for hemodialysis. After the surgery, 10 subjects performed hand-squeezing exercise with GD Grip, and other 8 subjects used Soft Ball. The subjects continued the exercises for 4 weeks. The hand grip strength, pinch strength (tip, palmar and lateral pinch), and forearm circumference of the subjects were assessed before and after the hand-squeezing exercise. The cephalic vein size, blood flow velocity and volume were also measured by ultrasonography in the operated limb. Results All of the 3 types of pinch strengths, grip strength, and forearm circumference were significantly increased in the group using GD Grip. Cephalic vein size and blood flow volume were also significantly increased. However, blood flow velocity showed no difference after the exercise. The group using Soft Ball showed a significant increase in the tip and lateral pinch strength and forearm circumference. The cephalic vein size and blood flow volume were also significantly increased. On comparing the effect of the two different hand exercises, hand-squeezing exercise with GD Grip had a significantly better effect on the tip and palmar pinch strength than hand-squeezing exercise with Soft Ball. The effect on cephalic vein size was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion The results showed that hand squeezing exercise with GD Grip was more effective in increasing the tip and palmar pinch strength compared to hand squeezing exercise with soft ball. PMID:25379494

Kong, Sangwon; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Junho

2014-01-01

203

Plasma Levels of Acylation-Stimulating Protein Are Strongly Predicted by Waist/Hip Ratio and Correlate with Decreased LDL Size in Men  

PubMed Central

The association of abdominal obesity with cardiovascular risk is often linked to altered secretion of adipose-derived factors and an abnormal lipid profile including formation of atherogenic small dense low density lipoprotein particles (sdLDL). Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipose-derived hormone that exhibits potent lipogenic effects. Plasma ASP levels increase in obesity; however, the association of ASP levels with body fat distribution is not yet established, and no study to date has investigated the association of ASP with LDL size. In this study, we examined the association of ASP levels with abdominal obesity measures and the lipid profile including LDL size in 83 men with a wide range of abdominal girths. Regression analysis showed that waist/hip ratio was the main predictor of ASP levels (? = 0.52, P < 0.0001), significantly followed by decreased LDL size. BMI and TG levels, although positively correlated with ASP levels, were excluded as significant predictors in regression analysis. No correlation was found with LDL-C or apoB levels. ASP levels were 62.5% higher in abdominally obese compared to nonobese men. Waist/hip ratio presenting as the main predictor of ASP levels, suggests increased ASP production by abdominal fat which, as proposed previously, may result from resistance to ASP function causing delayed TG clearance and subsequent formation of atherogenic sdLDL. PMID:24533222

Saleh, Jumana; Wahab, Rabab A.; Farhan, Hatem; Al-Amri, Issa; Cianflone, Katherine

2013-01-01

204

Why is low waist-to-chest ratio attractive in males? The mediating roles of perceived dominance, fitness, and protection ability.  

PubMed

Past research suggests that a lower waist-to-chest ratio (WCR) in men (i.e., narrower waist and broader chest) is viewed as attractive by women. However, little work has directly examined why low WCRs are preferred. The current work merged insights from theory and past research to develop a model examining perceived dominance, fitness, and protection ability as mediators of to WCR-attractiveness relationship. These mediators and their link to both short-term (sexual) and long-term (relational) attractiveness were simultaneously tested by having 151 women rate one of 15 avatars, created from 3D body scans. Men with lower WCR were perceived as more physically dominant, physically fit, and better able to protect loved ones; these characteristics differentially mediated the effect of WCR on short-term, long-term, and general attractiveness ratings. Greater understanding of the judgments women form regarding WCR may yield insights into motivations by men to manipulate their body image. PMID:24958664

Coy, Anthony E; Green, Jeffrey D; Price, Michael E

2014-06-01

205

Effects of a low glycemic load or a low-fat dietary intervention on body weight in obese Hispanic American children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial1234  

PubMed Central

Background: In Hispanic children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance is considerably greater than in non-Hispanic white children. A low–glycemic load diet (LGD) has been proposed as an effective dietary intervention for pediatric obesity, but to our knowledge, no published study has examined the effects of an LGD in obese Hispanic children. Objective: We compared the effects of an LGD and a low-fat diet (LFD) on body composition and components of metabolic syndrome in obese Hispanic youth. Design: Obese Hispanic children (7–15 y of age) were randomly assigned to consume an LGD or an LFD in a 2-y intervention program. Body composition and laboratory assessments were obtained at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 mo after intervention. Results: In 113 children who were randomly assigned, 79% of both groups completed 3 mo of treatment; 58% of LGD and 55% of LFD subjects attended 24-mo follow-up. Compared with the LFD, the LGD decreased the glycemic load per kilocalories of reported food intakes in participants at 3 mo (P = 0.02). Both groups had a decreased BMI z score (P < 0.003), which was expressed as a standard z score relative to CDC age- and sex-specific norms, and improved waist circumference and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) at 3, 12, and 24 mo after intervention. However, there were no significant differences between groups for changes in BMI, insulin resistance, or components of metabolic syndrome (all P > 0.5). Conclusions: We showed no evidence that an LGD and an LFD differ in efficacy for the reduction of BMI or aspects of metabolic syndrome in obese Hispanic youth. Both diets decreased the BMI z score when prescribed in the context of a culturally adapted, comprehensive weight-reduction program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01068197. PMID:23255569

Mirza, Nazrat M; Palmer, Matilde G; Sinclair, Kelly B; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B; Ludwig, David S; Yanovski, Jack A

2013-01-01

206

Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg) or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg). In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8?10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162). Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001), and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%), reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, ?6.75%) and noticeable increases in muscle strength after resistance training to leg press (P = 0.004, 41.29%) and bench press (P = 0.0001, 27.23%). Conclusion It was concluded that resistance training performed three times a week may reduce the metabolic syndrome Z-score with concomitant decreases in fasting blood glucose, improvements in body composition, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. PMID:24072967

Conceicao, Miguel Soares; Bonganha, Valeria; Vechin, Felipe Cassaro; de Barros Berton, Ricardo Paes; Lixandrao, Manoel Emilio; Nogueira, Felipe Romano Damas; de Souza, Giovana Verginia; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto

2013-01-01

207

Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Obesity: NHANES (2001-2006)  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens and suspected endocrine disruptors. Prenatal exposure to PAHs has been associated with obesity in early childhood. Objective: We examined the association of urinary PAH metabolites with adiposity outcomes [body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference (WC), and rate of obesity] in children and adolescents. Methods: We performed whole-sample analyses of 3,189 individuals 6–19 years of age who participated in the 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We performed multivariate linear and logistic regression to analyze the association of BMI z-score, WC, and obesity with concentrations of single urinary PAH compounds and the sum of PAHs. Furthermore, the analyses were stratified by developmental stage [i.e., children (6–11 years) and adolescents (12–19 years)]. Results: BMI z-score, WC, and obesity were positively associated with the molecular mass sum of the PAHs and the total sum of naphthalene metabolites. Most associations increased monotonically with increasing quartiles of exposure among children 6–11 years of age, whereas dose–response trends were less consistent for adolescents (12–19 years of age). Neither total PAHs nor total naphthalene metabolites were associated with overweight in either age group, and there was little evidence of associations between the outcomes and individual PAHs. Conclusions: Total urinary PAH metabolites and naphthalene metabolites were associated with higher BMI, WC, and obesity in children 6–11 years of age, with positive but less consistent associations among adolescents. Citation: Scinicariello F, Buser MC. 2014. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood obesity: NHANES (2001–2006). Environ Health Perspect 122:299–303;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307234 PMID:24380973

Buser, Melanie C.

2014-01-01

208

Postanesthesia patients with large upper arm circumference: is use of an "extra-long" adult cuff or forearm cuff placement accurate?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if blood pressure (BP) measured in the forearm or with an extra-long BP cuff in the upper arm accurately reflects BP measured in the upper arm with an appropriately sized BP cuff in patients with large upper arm circumference. A method-comparison design was used with a convenience sample of 49 PACU patients. Noninvasive blood pressures were obtained in two different locations (forearm; upper arm) and in the upper arm with an extra-long adult and recommended large adult cuff sizes. Data were analyzed by calculating bias and precision for the BP cuff size and location and Student's t-tests, with P < .0125 considered significant. Significantly higher forearm systolic (P < .0001) and diastolic (P < .0002) BP measurements were found compared to BP obtained in the upper arm with the reference standard BP cuff. Significantly higher systolic (t(48df) = 5.38, P < .0001), but not diastolic (t(48df) = 4.11, P < .019), BP differences were found for BP measured with the extra-long cuff at the upper arm site compared to the upper arm, reference standard BP. Findings suggest that the clinical practice of using the forearm or an extra-long cuff in the upper arm for BP measurement in post anesthesia patients with large upper arm circumferences may result in inaccurate BP values. PMID:21641528

Watson, Sheri; Aguas, Marita; Bienapfl, Tracy; Colegrove, Pat; Foisy, Nancy; Jondahl, Bonnie; Yosses, Mary Beth; Yu, Larissa; Anastas, Zoe

2011-06-01

209

High sensitivity refractive index sensing of Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on multimode fiber core sandwiched between two waist-enlarged fiber tapers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A taper based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for high sensitivity refractive index (RI) measurement is investigated. The sensor head consists of two waist-enlarged tapers, in which a section of multimode fiber core (MMFC) is sandwiched to improve the sensitivity of the MZI. Theoretical analysis shows that the RI sensitivity could be enhanced by reducing the MMFC diameter, which is verified in the experiments. A high RI sensitivity of 430.94 nm/RIU and resolution of 4.64×10-5 are achieved in the RI range of 1.33-1.39 for the MZI with MMFC core diameter of 68.5 um. The temperature response of the MZI is also demonstrated.

Shao, Min; Qiao, Xueguang; Fu, Haiwei; Liu, Yinggang; Zhao, Xue; Yao, Ni

2013-01-01

210

Creation and Validation of the Singapore Birth Nomograms for Birth Weight, Length and Head Circumference Based on a 12-year Birth Cohort.  

PubMed

Introduction: Both gestation and birth weight have significant impact on mortality and morbidity in newborn infants. Nomograms at birth allow classification of infants into small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) categories, for risk stratification and more intensive monitoring. To date, the growth charts for preterm newborn infants in Singapore are based on the Fenton growth charts, which are constructed based on combining data from various Western growth cohorts. Hence, we aim to create Singapore nomograms for birth weight, length and head circumference at birth, which would reflect the norms and challenges faced by local infants. Materials and Methods: Growth parameters of all babies born or admitted to our unit from 2001 to 2012 were retrieved. Following exclusion of outliers, nomograms for 3 percentiles of 10th, 50th, and 90th were generated for the gestational age (GA) ranges of 25 to 42 weeks using quantile regression (QR) combined with the use of restricted cubic splines. Various polynomial models (second to third degrees) were investigated for suitability of fit. The optimum QR model was found to be a third degree polynomial with a single knotted cubic spline in the mid-point of the GA range, at 33.5 weeks. Check for goodness of fit was done by visual inspection first. Next, check was performed to ensure the correct proportion: 10% of all cases fall above the upper 90th percentile and 10% fall below the lower 10th percentile. Furthermore, an alternative formula-based method of nomogram construction, using mean, standard deviation (SD) and assumption of normality at each gestational age, was used for counterchecking. Results: A total of 13,403 newborns were included in the analysis. The new infant-foetal growth charts with respect to birth weight, heel-crown length and occipitofrontal circumference from 25 to 42 weeks gestations with the 10th, 50th and 90th were presented. Conclusion: Nomograms for birth weight, length and head circumference at birth had significant impact on neonatal practice and validation of the Singapore birth nomograms against Fenton growth charts showed better sensitivity and comparable specificity, positive and negative predictive values. PMID:25028138

Poon, Woei Bing; Fook-Chong, Stephanie Mc; Ler, Grace Yl; Loh, Zhi Wen; Yeo, Cheo Lian

2014-06-01

211

The predictive value of the ratio of neck circumference to thyromental distance in comparison with four predictive tests for difficult laryngoscopy in obstetric patients scheduled for caesarean delivery  

PubMed Central

Background: Preoperative assessment of anatomical landmarks andclinical factors help detect potentially difficult laryngoscopies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from thefollowing preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Neck circumference to thyromental distance (NC/TMD), neck circumference (NC), modified Mallampatitest (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT). Materials and Methods: We collected data on657 consecutive patients scheduled for elective caesarean delivery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all five factors before caesarean. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined. Results: Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 53 (8.06%) patients. There were significant differences in thyromental distance (TMD), RHTMD, NC, and NC/TMD between difficult visualization of larynx and easy visualization of larynx patients (P < 0.05). The main end-point area under curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) was lower for MMT (AUC = 0.497; 95% Confidence Interval = CI,0.045-0.536) and ULBT (AUC = 0.500, 95% CI, 0.461-0.539) compared to RHTMD, NC, TMD, and NC/TMD score ([AUC = 0.627, 95% CI, 0.589-0.664], [AUC = 0.691; 95% CI, 0.654-0.726], [AUC = 0.606; 95% CI, 0.567-0.643], [AUC = 0.689;95% CI, 0.625-0.724], respectively), and the differences of six ROC curves were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The NC/TM Discomparable with NC, RHTMD, and ULBT for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in caes are an delivery. PMID:25337530

Hirmanpour, Anahita; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Honarmand, Azim; Jabalameli, Mitra; Banisadr, Golnaz

2014-01-01

212

Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Dyslipidemia, Glycemic Levels, Blood Pressure and Depressive Symptoms among Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and waist-to-hip ratio, dyslipidemia, glycemic levels or blood pressure among diabetic and non-diabetic Chinese women. Methods 11,908 women aged ?40 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, including 2,511 with type 2 diabetes and 9,397 without. Depressive symptoms (defined as having mild-to-severe depressive symptoms) were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic algorithm. The prevalence and the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for having depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in non-diabetic subjects with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) ?0.9 (8.6%, age-adjusted OR 1.51 [95% CI 1.17, 1.95]), total cholesterol (TC)>6.22 mmol/L (8.8%, 1.58 [1.16, 2.15]), and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ?6.00 mmol/L (7.7%, 1.69 [1.34, 2.14]), while it was significantly lower in non-diabetic subjects with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 80 to 89 mmHg (6.2%, 0.78 [0.64, 0.95]). These relationships remained significant even after controlling for multiple factors (WHR ?0.9: multivariable-adjusted OR 1.39 [95% CI 1.07, 1.80]; TC>6.22 mmol/L: 1.56 [1.14, 2.12]; HbA1c ?6.00 mmol/L: 1.64 [1.30, 2.08]; DBP 80-89 mmHg: 0.78 [0.64, 0.95]). However, no significant trend between depressive symptoms and WHC, TC, HbA1c, DBP was observed in diabetic women, and no significant trend relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI, WC, TG, or SBP was observed in both non-diabetic and diabetic women. Moreover, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in previously-diagnosed diabetes, compared with non-diabetic subjects, while no significant differences were observed between newly-diagnosed diabetes and non-diabetic subjects. Conclusion The present study showed a relationship between WHR, TC, HbA1c, DBP and depressive symptoms among non-diabetic women, while no significant relationship between them was observed among diabetic women, even after controlling for multiple confounding factors. PMID:25314156

Zheng, Yu; Sun, Qihong; Chen, Kang; Yan, Wenhua; Pan, Changyu; Lu, Juming; Dou, Jingtao; Lu, Zhaohui; Jianming, Ba; Wang, Baoan; Mu, Yiming

2014-01-01

213

The train problem assumes a circular track 101 miles in circumference. The track is labeled clockwise in miles starting at due north. ie. 0 through 100. Mile 101 would be at the same spot as mile 0.  

E-print Network

: Speed of train1: 100 Speed of train2: 50 Output: Trains meet at mile 100 #12;A3 Trains ­ Test CasesA3: trains The train problem assumes a circular track 101 miles in circumference. The track First time: Run the first three test cases. No special formatting required. Input prompts are also

Huth, Michael

214

Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in Peripubertal Girls with First-Degree Family History of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess metabolic and endocrine defects in girls genetically predisposed to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Controlled cross-sectional study. Setting University hospital. Patients Nine girls aged 8–14 years having a first-degree relative diagnosed with PCOS (PCOSr) and 10 age-matched girls unrelated to PCOS. Intervention None. Main outcome measure Insulin sensitivity determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing (ISFSivGTT) and insulin-induced non-esterified fatty acid suppression (NEFAsupp), estimated by the log-linear slope of NEFA levels during the first 20 min of FSivGTT. Results In comparison to controls, PCOSr had higher body mass index Z-score (BMI-z), waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Levels of the androgen 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHPg) were significantly increased in PCOSr, independently of adiposity, and inversely correlated with ISFSivGTT. ISFSivGTT was decreased and NEFAsupp was less steep in PCOSr as compared to controls, independently of BMI-z and 17OHPg. NEFAsupp was more pronounced with increasing ISFSivGTT, independently of adiposity. Conclusions Girls at high risk of developing PCOS display increased adiposity and 17OHPg levels, but are mainly characterized by global insulin resistance and resistance to insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis that were independent of adiposity and 17OHPg levels. Therefore, genetic predisposition to PCOS may be related to early insulin resistance and adipocyte dysfunction. PMID:22985947

Trottier, Andreanne; Battista, Marie-Claude; Geller, David H; Moreau, Brigitte; Carpentier, Andre C; Simoneau-Roy, Judith; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

2014-01-01

215

Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution  

PubMed Central

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?9 to P = 1.8 × 10?40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?3 to P = 1.2 × 10?13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Magi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian'An; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tonu; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltan; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proenca, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dorr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grassler, Jurgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Pare, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietilainen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstrale, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tonjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; J?rgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas

2011-01-01

216

Preference for women's body mass and waist-to-hip ratio in Tsimane' men of the Bolivian Amazon: biological and cultural determinants.  

PubMed

The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N?=?66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation. PMID:25148034

Sorokowski, Piotr; Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

2014-01-01

217

Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.  

PubMed

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?? to P = 1.8 × 10???) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?³ to P = 1.2 × 10?¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian'an; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Lango Allen, Hana; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Grässler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J; Munroe, Patricia B; Oostra, Ben; Penninx, Brenda W; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M

2010-11-01

218

Abdominal and total adiposity and risk of coronary heart disease in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Waist circumference is a simpler measure of abdominal adiposity than waist\\/hip ratio (WHR), but few studies have directly compared the two measures as predictors of coronary heart disease (CHD) in men. In addition, whether the association of abdominal adiposity is independent of total adiposity as measured by body mass index (BMI) in men remains uncertain.OBJECTIVE: To compare waist circumference

KM Rexrode; JE Buring; JE Manson

2001-01-01

219

[Validating mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurement for detecting acute malnutrition in 6-59 month-old children in emergency and disaster situations].  

PubMed

Objectives Validating the results of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurement in 6-59 month-old children when MUAC was measured by community agents in areas where an emergency had been declared. Evaluating the cut-offs used for identifying children suffering from acute malnutrition in Colombia today. Methodology Previously trained community agents and a nutritionist carried out a cross-sectional study for evaluating MUAC agreement, reproducibility and sensitivity in detecting acute malnutrition. Three hundred and six children were assessed in three municipalities where an emergency had been declared in the Cordoba department of Colombia. Results A Bland and Altman plot gave high agreement regarding measurements taken by the community agents and the nutritionist, 94 % of the measurements coming within the agreement limits. The intra-class correlation coefficient gave 0.87 reproducibility; however, validating the criterion for calculating the area below the ROC curve, sensitivity and the impact of the children's age on MUAC measurements highlighted problems in using 11.5 centimeters as the cut-off. Conclusions MUAC measurement was reliable, had good reproducibility and led to rapid diagnosis of nourishment status in 6-59 month-old children living in areas where an emergency had been declared. Validating the criterion, sensitivity, the impact of the children's age on MUAC measurement results and improved nourishment status concerning children aged less than 5 years old in Colombia highlighted the need for changing the current cut-off and using 14 centimeters instead. PMID:25383494

Mantilla-Hernández, Laura C; Niño-Bautista, Lucila; Prieto-Pinilla, Elva E; Galvis-Padilla, Diana C; Bueno-Pérez, Inés

2014-04-01

220

Males prefer a larger bust size in women than females themselves: an experimental study on female bodily attractiveness with varying weight, bust size, waist width, hip width, and leg length independently.  

PubMed

What determines a female figure as attractive and is there a consensus of both sexes in judging female bodily attractiveness? To answer these questions, an extensive experiment was conducted using high-quality photographic stimulus material, several systematically varied figure parameters (weight, hip width, waist width, bust size, and leg length), and a large sample of 34,000 participants. The results showed that women prefer slightly wider hips, a narrower waist, and longer legs than men (highly significant but small effects). A clear difference was found with regard to the ideal bust size: 40% of men but only 25% of women preferred a large bust. The findings are discussed with respect to the changed role of women in Western industrialized countries who tend to concentrate on their career rather than on reproduction, and the effect of a curvaceous body with a large-sized bust on social perception. PMID:21359983

Prantl, Lukas; Gründl, Martin

2011-10-01

221

Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight\\/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility

Jasmeet S Mokha; Sathanur R Srinivasan; Pronabesh DasMahapatra; Camilo Fernandez; Wei Chen; Jihua Xu; Gerald S Berenson

2010-01-01

222

Males Prefer a Larger Bust Size in Women Than Females Themselves: An Experimental Study on Female Bodily Attractiveness with Varying Weight, Bust Size, Waist Width, Hip Width, and Leg Length Independently  

Microsoft Academic Search

What determines a female figure as attractive and is there a consensus of both sexes in judging female bodily attractiveness?\\u000a To answer these questions, an extensive experiment was conducted using high-quality photographic stimulus material, several\\u000a systematically varied figure parameters (weight, hip width, waist width, bust size, and leg length), and a large sample of\\u000a 34,000 participants. The results showed that

Lukas Prantl; Martin Gründl

223

Association Between Waist-to-Height Ratio, Isolated and Combined Morbidities and C-Reactive Protein in the Elderly: A Clinical-Epidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

da Silva, Jousianny Patricio; Lima, Raquel Patricia Ataide; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; da Conceicao Rodrigues Goncalves, Maria; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Rosalia Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria Jose

2014-01-01

224

Association between waist-to-height ratio, isolated and combined morbidities and C-reactive protein in the elderly: a clinical-epidemiological study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the elderly (considering their most prevalent morbidities and lifestyles), to investigate the relationship between this anthropometric index and the presence of the most prevalent morbidities (isolated or combined), and to identify which morbidities (analyzed individually) would have greater associations with WHtR. This cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study of a stratified sampling comprised 170 elderly individuals between 60 and 90 years of age (both genders). Home visits were used to administer questionnaires and to perform anthropometric measurements and blood collection. The mean patient age was younger than 70 years, with women comprising the majority (69.41%) and with 90% of the patients presenting with inadequate WHtR. Hypertension was the most prevalent morbidity in this cohort (58.52%), and when analyzed in combination, hypertension plus obesity were the most frequently diagnosed morbidities (17.65%). Obesity, which was among the most prevalent comorbidities, was the only comorbidity combined with WHtR (p = 0.0019). Individuals with no morbidities had lower mean WHtR values compared with individuals with at least one morbidity (p = 0.0075). In the multiple linear regression model, it was identified that when individuals had one or more of the most prevalent comorbidities, the mean WHtR increased by 0.0415 (p = 0.0065). A correlation between WHtR and CRP (p = 0.0379) was also verified. Based on the relationships observed between WHtR (isolated or in combination, data unpublished) and CRP among the elderly, WHtR may represent a screening tool because it is a simple and effective anthropometric index. PMID:25229696

da Silva, Jousianny Patrício; Lima, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; de Oliveira Silva, Cassia Surama; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceiço Rodrigues; Filho, Malaquias Batista; Filizola, Rosália Gouveia; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Asciutti, Luiza Sonia Rios; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

2014-09-01

225

The effect of decibel level of music stimuli and gender on head circumference and physiological responses of premature infants in the NICU.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine different protocols with regard to the presentation of music stimuli and compare gender differential reactions to those stimuli. Subjects for this study (N = 63) were premature infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between the gestational ages of 28 and 33 weeks. Half of the experimental infants listened to 20 mins of lullaby music (female voice with orchestral background) on 2 days followed by 20 mins of classical music (Mozart string music) on 2 days. The other half listened to the same music in the reverse order. One quarter of the males and one quarter of the females listened to music presented at an average of 65 dB, one quarter at an average of 70 dB, one quarter at an average of 75 dB, and one quarter did not listen to any music and served as control subjects. Head circumference data were collected four times by the researcher: (a) upon receipt of parental consent, (b) on the first day of music presentation (1 week after consent), (c) on the last day of music presentation, and (d) 1 week after music presentation. Physiological data (heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation) were recorded by the researcher at 2-minute intervals starting 4 minutes prior to and ending 4 minutes after music presentation. There was a significant difference (p < .0001) in average daily head growth across time, but this seems unrelated to the music condition as the same curvilinear trend (larger gain during days of treatment, smaller gain during baseline before and after treatment) was noted for control infants who did not listen to music. Results indicate a significant (p = .002), but biologically unimportant, decrease in heart rate over the course of data collection. No differences due to gender were noted. PMID:19757874

Cassidy, Jane W

2009-01-01

226

Cross-sectional association between maximal estimated cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome for men and women in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between estimated maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Patients Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (N=38,659) participants examined between 1979–2006. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of participants to examine CRF levels defined as low (lower 20%), moderate (middle 40%) and high (upper 40%) of age/gender specific distributions versus NCEP derived MetSyn expressed as a summed z-score continuous variable. We used a general linear model for continuous variables, chi-square for distribution of categorical variables, and multiple linear regression for single and cumulative MetS scores adjusted for BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake and family history of cardiovascular disease. Results We observed significant inverse trends for MetS vs. CRF in both genders (p-for-trend, < 0.001). CRF associations vs. individual components were: Waist circumference (men, ?= ?0.14, r2 = 0.78; women, ?= ?0.04, r2 = 0.71), triglycerides (men, ?= ?0.29, r2 = 0.18; women, ?= ?0.17, r2 = 0.18), HDL-cholesterol (men, ?= 0.25, r2 = 0.17; women, ?= 0.08, r2 = 0.19), fasting glucose (men, ?= ?0.09, r2 = 0.09; women, ?= 0.09, r2 = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (men, ?= ?0.09, r2 = 0.09; women, ?= ?0.01, r2 = 0.21), and diastolic blood pressure (men, ?= ?0.07, r2 = 0.12; women, ?= ?0.05, r2 = 0.14). All associations except for systolic blood pressure (both genders) and glucose (women) are significant (p<0.001). Conclusion CRF demonstrated a strong inverse relationship with MetS in both genders with the strongest single associative component being waist circumference. PMID:23391253

Artero, Enrique G.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

2013-01-01

227

Dose Effect of Cardiorespiratory Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

As an ancillary report to a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)–funded trial, we examined the effects of 6 months of exercise training at 50%, 100%, and 150% of the NIH Consensus Recommendations for physical activity (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure/wk [KKW]) versus a nonexercise control group on the metabolic syndrome (MS) in sedentary, overweight, moderately hypertensive, postmenopausal women. We examined the clinically defined National Cholesterol Education Program MS, individual components scores, and summed z-scores, expressed as a continuous variable (zMS), using chi-square and general linear models to assess the clinical and progressive nature of MS, respectively. Our results showed significant improvements in zMS for all exercise groups and MS for the 8- and 12 KKW groups only (all, p for trend = 0.02). Post hoc analyses showed that 12 KKW for zMS and 8 and 12 KKW for MS was significant versus the control group (all, p <0.05). When examining the composite scores, we observed significant trends for improvement in waist circumference (p for trend = 0.001), fasting glucose (p for trend = 0.01), and systolic blood pressure (p for trend = 0.02), which appeared to be dose dependent, given the additive nature for incorporating the within-group improvements in waist circumference (4, 8, and 12 KKW), fasting glucose (8 and 12 KKW), and systolic blood pressure (12 KKW). Our results suggest that low-to-moderate intensity cardiorespiratory exercise appears to improve components of the MS in postmenopausal women at levels at or greater than NIH recommendations and that zMS improves at half the NIH recommendations. Greater levels of energy expenditure appear to enhance this effect by incorporating a greater number of requisite MS composite scores. PMID:23578351

Earnest, Conrad P.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Swift, Damon L.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

228

A School-Based Intervention for Diabetes Risk Reduction  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [±SD] age, 11.3±0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS There was a decrease in the primary outcome — the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity — in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P = 0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P = 0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. CONCLUSIONS Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.) PMID:20581420

2010-01-01

229

Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution  

E-print Network

To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ...

Hunter, David J.

230

Index of Central Obesity as a Parameter to Evaluate Metabolic Syndrome for White, Black, and Hispanic Adults in the United States.  

E-print Network

??Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Today's metabolic syndrome definitions identify central obesity by waist circumference (WC)… (more)

Griesemer, Rebecca Lynn

2008-01-01

231

Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. PMID:24838901

Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Ti?li; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

2014-01-01

232

National Adolescent Treatment Trial for Obesity in Kuwait (NATTO): project design and results of a randomised controlled trial of a good practice approach to treatment of adolescent obesity in Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Background Few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for the treatment of adolescent obesity have taken place outside the western world. This RCT tested whether a simple ‘good practice’ intervention for the treatment of adolescent obesity would have a greater impact on weight status and other outcomes than a referral to primary care (control) in adolescents in Kuwait City. Methods We report on an assessor-blinded RCT of a treatment intervention in 82 obese 10- to 14-year-olds (mean age 12.4, SD 1.2 years), randomised to a good practice treatment or primary care control group over 6 months. The good practice intervention was intended as relatively low intensity (6 hours contact over 24 weeks, group-based), aiming to change sedentary behaviour, physical activity, and diet. The primary outcome was a change in body mass index (BMI) Z score; other outcomes were changes in waist circumference and blood pressure. Results The retention of subjects to follow up was acceptable (n?=?31 from the intervention group, and n?=?32 from the control group), but engagement with both the intervention and control treatment was poor. Treatment had no significant effect on BMI Z score relative to control, and no other significant benefits to intervention were observed. Conclusions The trial was feasible, but highlights the need to engage obese adolescents and their families in the interventions being trialled. The trial should inform the development of future adolescent obesity treatment trials in the Gulf States with the incorporation of qualitative assessment in future intervention trials. Trial registration RCT Registered as National Adolescent Treatment Trial for Obesity in Kuwait (NATTO): http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN37457227, 1 December 2009. PMID:24943283

2014-01-01

233

Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children: the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.  

PubMed

We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were analysed. In total 1481 children aged 11-12 years completed a questionnaire (including questions on sleep) and underwent a medical examination. We measured body mass index, waist circumference, total- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. Results showed that in girls, some sleep characteristics were related to anthropometrics (body mass index, waist circumference) and cholesterol. Girls who had a long time in bed (11-12.5 h) had 0.16 lower body mass index z-score (95% confidence interval -0.31; -0.01) and 0.99 cm smaller waist circumference (95% confidence interval -2.01; -0.13) compared with girls who spent 10-10.5 h in bed. Girls who went to bed late and rose early had 0.16 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.31) and 0.08 mm higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.14) than 'early to bed/early rise' girls. Girls with night-time awakenings had 0.14 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.03; 0.25) than girls without night-time awakenings. Girls who felt sleepy/tired ?1 day per week had 0.10 mm lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval -0.16; -0.04) and 0.17 mm higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.32) than girls who did not feel sleepy. No associations were found for boys. Sleep characteristics were not related to blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin, and effect sizes of the associations in girls were small. Therefore, we consider it premature to propose that improved sleep could reduce cardiovascular risk during childhood. PMID:24118590

Berentzen, Nina E; Smit, Henriëtte A; Bekkers, Marga B M; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; De Jongste, Johan C; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H

2014-02-01

234

The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC) over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs). Methods We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC), aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run), physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry), healthy eating (dietary recall) and cardiovascular risk (CV risk). Results zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05). No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01). There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05) but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.1 PMID:22456048

Tomlin, Dona; Naylor, PJ; McKay, Heather; Zorzi, Alexandra; Mitchell, Marc; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

2012-01-01

235

Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2). Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room) for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL), lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides), oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes) and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62%) and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57%) subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10%) and 36/61 (59%), respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [?=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001)]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents. PMID:24676190

Teske, Marcia; Melges, Ana Paula B.; de Souza, Fabiola Isabel S.; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz A.; Sarni, Roseli Oselka S.

2014-01-01

236

Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

2007-01-01

237

Perceived Stress and Weight Gain in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although perceived stress has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for obesity, epidemiological studies relating stress to weight gain have shown mixed results. We examined prospective associations between perceived stress and changes in waist circumference and BMI in a large study of adolescents. As part of the Health and Behaviour in Teenagers Study (HABITS), height, weight, and waist circumference

Cornelia H. M. van Jaarsveld; Jennifer A. Fidler; Andrew Steptoe; David Boniface; Jane Wardle

2009-01-01

238

Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention trial on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study  

PubMed Central

Background School-based interventions that target prevention of overweight and obesity in children have been tested with mixed results. Thus, successful interventions are still called for. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent school-based intervention programme targeting physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours on anthropometric outcomes. Methods A 20-month intervention was evaluated in a cluster randomised, controlled study of 1324 11-year-olds. Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age z-score (BMIz), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) and weight status (International Obesity Task Force's cut-offs). Weight, height and WC were measured objectively; pubertal status was self-reported and parental education was self-reported by the parents. Intervention effects were determined by one-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression, after checking for clustering effects of school, and moderating effects of gender, pubertal status and parental education. Results Beneficial effects were found for BMI (p=0.02) and BMIz (p=0.003) in girls, but not in boys. While a beneficial effect was found for BMI (p=0.03) in participants of parents reporting a high level of education, a negative effect was found for WTHR in participants with parents reporting a low level of education (p=0.003). There were no intervention effects for WC and weight status. Conclusions A multicomponent 20-month school-based intervention had a beneficial effect on BMI and BMIz in adolescent girls, but not in boys. Furthermore, children of higher educated parents seemed to benefit more from the intervention, and this needs attention in future interventions to avoid further increase in social inequalities in overweight and obesity. PMID:23624466

Grydeland, May; Bjelland, Mona; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bergh, Ingunn Holden; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Lien, Nanna

2014-01-01

239

Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous natural products are marketed and sold claiming to decrease body weight and fat, but few undergo finished product-specific research demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of a multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium (Prograde Metabolism™ [METABO]) as an adjunct to an eight-week weight loss program. Methods Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 70 obese but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to METABO or a placebo and underwent 8?weeks of daily supplementation, a calorie restricted diet, and exercise training. Subjects were tested for changes in body composition, serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, TNF-?, IL-6) and markers of health including heart rate and blood pressure. Results Of the 45 subjects who completed the study, significant differences were observed in: body weight (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.5%, P?waist girth (METABO -2.0% vs. placebo -0.2%, P?waist and hip girth. Adherence to the eight-week weight loss program also led to beneficial changes in body fat in placebo. Ongoing studies to confirm these results and clarify the mechanisms (i.e., biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators) by which METABO exerts the observed salutary effects are being conducted. PMID:23601452

2013-01-01

240

Slimness is Associated with Greater Intercourse and Lesser Masturbation Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19–38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with

STUART BRODY

2004-01-01

241

The relationships of body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage with blood pressure and its hemodynamic determinants in Korean adolescents: a school-based study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Obesity is an important risk factor for hypertension in adolescents. We investigated the relationship of obesity-related indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-height ratio [WHR], and body fat percentage [%BF]) with blood pressure and the hemodynamic determinants of blood pressure in Korean adolescents. Methods In 2008, 565 adolescents, aged 12-16 years, were examined. The %BF of the participants was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Echocardiography and brachial artery pulse tracing were used to estimate the stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), total vascular resistance (TVR), and total arterial compliance (TAC). Results We noted that BMI, WHR, and %BF were positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The positive correlation between BMI and blood pressure (SBP and DBP) persisted after adjustment for WHR and %BF. However, after adjustment for BMI, the positive associations between blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and WHR as well as %BF, were not noted. With regard to the hemodynamic factors, BMI, but not WHR and %BF, was an independent positive factor correlated with SV and CO. TVR had an independent negative association with BMI; however, it was not associated with WHR or %BF. Moreover, we noted that BMI, WHR, and %BF did not affect TAC. Conclusion In Korean adolescents, BMI had an independent positive correlation with SBP and DBP, possibly because of its effects on SV, CO, and TVR. WHR and %BF are believed to indirectly affect SBP and DBP through changes in BMI. PMID:24416048

Kim, Na Young; Hong, Young Mi; Jung, Jo Won; Kim, Nam Su; Noh, Chung Il

2013-01-01

242

shRNA Clone Name Gene Symbol Z score NM_016653.x-331s1c1 ZAK -4.35  

E-print Network

_004606.2-1480s1c1 TAF1 -2.78 XM_498204.1-650s1c1 LOC442313 -2.76 NM_014911.x-3143s1c1 AAK1 -2.76 rfp_621s1c1 rfp -2.74 rfp_621s1c1 -2.74 rfp_621s1c1 -2.74 rfp_621s1c1 -2.74 XM_498204.1-118s1c1 LOC442313 -2.50 rfp_612s1c1 rfp -2.50 rfp_612s1c1 -2.50 rfp_612s1c1 -2.50 rfp_612s1c1 -2.50 XM_372542.2-640s1c1 LOC

Cai, Long

243

Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?  

MedlinePLUS

... causing particles. ; 2. Chew sugarless gum with xylitol ; Chewing sugarless gum after meals can help keep bad breath away. ... production and rinse food particles from the mouth. Chewing parsley can have the same effect ... ; Sugar-free gum with xylitol can also help prevent cavities. Xylitol ...

244

Waist Size and Breast Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... about their health, including details about fertility, family history of breast and ovarian cancer, use of hormone ... were diagnosed with breast cancer. Infertility treatment, family history of breast and ovarian cancer and use of ...

245

Do Changes in Sex Steroid Hormones Precede or Follow Increases in Body Weight during the Menopause Transition? Results from The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation  

PubMed Central

Context: Whether menopause-related changes in sex steroids account for midlife weight gain in women or whether weight drives changes in sex steroids remains unanswered. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize the potential reciprocal nature of the associations between sex hormones and their binding protein with waist circumference in midlife women. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study included 1528 women (mean age 46 yr) with 9 yr of follow-up across the menopause transition from the observational Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Main Outcome Measures: Waist circumference, SHBG, testosterone, FSH, and estradiol were measured. Results: Current waist circumference predicted future SHBG, testosterone, and FSH but not vice versa. For each sd higher current waist circumference, at the subsequent visit SHBG was lower by 0.04–0.15 sd, testosterone was higher by 0.08–0.13 sd, and log2 FSH was lower by 0.15–0.26 sd. Estradiol results were distinct from those above, changing direction across the menopause transition. Estradiol and waist circumference were negatively associated in early menopausal transition stages and positively associated in later transition stages (for each sd higher current waist circumference, future estradiol was lower by 0.15 sd in pre- and early perimenopause and higher by 0.38 sd in late peri- and postmenopause; P for interaction <0.001). In addition, they appeared to be reciprocal, with current waist circumference associated with future estradiol and current estradiol associated with future waist circumference. However, associations in the direction of current waist circumference predicting future estradiol levels were of considerably larger magnitude than the reverse. Conclusions: These Study of Women's Health Across the Nation data suggest that the predominant temporal sequence is that weight gain leads to changes in sex steroids rather than vice versa. PMID:22723312

Tepper, Ping G.; Crawford, Sybil; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Santoro, Nanette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Greendale, Gail A.

2012-01-01

246

Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children  

PubMed Central

Background As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Objective To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. Results 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P<0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, low physical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all P<0.005); however, after mutual adjustments for movement behaviors, physical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P<0.03). Further adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (all P>0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P?=?0.005). Conclusion The present findings indicate that physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration should all be targeted to improve cardio-metabolic risk markers in childhood; this is possibly mediated by adiposity. PMID:25102157

Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Andersen, Rikke; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Sjodin, Anders

2014-01-01

247

Effects of parental origins and length of residency on adiposity measures and nutrition in urban middle school students: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity in U.S. has been rising at an alarming rate, particularly among Hispanic, African, and Asian minority groups. This trend is due in part to excessive calorie consumption and sedentary lifestyle. We sought to investigate whether parental origins influence eating behaviors in healthy urban middle school students. Methods A multiethnic/racial population of students (N?=?182) enrolled in the ROAD (Reduce Obesity and Diabetes) Study, a school-based trial to assess clinical, behavioral, and biochemical risk factors for adiposity and its co-morbidities completed questionnaires regarding parental origins, length of US residency, and food behaviors and preferences. The primary behavioral questionnaire outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, attitude, intention and behavior, which were then related to anthropometric measures of waist circumference, BMI z-scores, and percent body fat. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the joint effects of number of parents born in the U.S. and ethnicity on food preference and knowledge score. The Tukey-Kramer method was used to compute pairwise comparisons to determine where differences lie. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the joint effects of number of parents born in the US and student ethnicity, along with the interaction term, on each adiposity measure outcome. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between maternal and paternal length of residency in the US with measures of adiposity, food preference and food knowledge. Results African Americans had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Neither ethnicity/race nor parental origins had an impact on nutrition behavior. Mothers’ length of US residency positively correlated with students’ nutrition knowledge, but not food attitude, intention or behavior. Conclusions Adiposity measures in children differ according to ethnicity and race. In contrast, food behaviors in this middle school sample were not influenced by parental origins. Longer maternal US residency benefited offspring in terms of nutrition knowledge only. We suggest that interventions to prevent obesity begin in early childhood. PMID:24134822

2013-01-01

248

IRS Scan-mapping of the Wasp-waist Nebula (IRAS 16253-2429). I. Derivation of Shock Conditions from H2 Emission and Discovery of 11.3 ?m PAH Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a ~1' × 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H2 lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 ?m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 ?m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 ?m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of ~1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H2 transitions is found to be 1.94 ± 0.05 × 10-5 L sun in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 ± 0.04 × 10-5 L sun in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T ~ 1000 K) H2 gas is 7.95 ± 0.19 × 10-7 M sun in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 ± 0.17 × 10-7 M sun in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10-3, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H2 ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H2 data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 104 cm-3<= n H <= 105 cm-3 are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n H <= 103 cm-3 for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s-1 <= vs <= 10 km s-1 for the redshifted gas and vs = 10 km s-1 for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 ?G, and just 3 ?G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.; O'Linger, JoAnn

2010-09-01

249

Does bone resorption stimulate periosteal expansion? A cross-sectional analysis of ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), genetic markers of the RANKL pathway, and periosteal circumference as measured by pQCT.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that bone resorption acts to increase bone strength through stimulation of periosteal expansion. Hence, we examined whether bone resorption, as reflected by serum ?-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), is positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC), in contrast to inverse associations with parameters related to bone remodeling such as cortical bone mineral density (BMDC ). CTX and mid-tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans were available in 1130 adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, time of sampling, tanner stage, lean mass, fat mass, and height. CTX was positively related to PC (?=0.19 [0.13, 0.24]) (coefficient=SD change per SD increase in CTX, 95% confidence interval)] but inversely associated with BMDC (?=-0.46 [-0.52,-0.40]) and cortical thickness [?=-0.11 (-0.18, -0.03)]. CTX was positively related to bone strength as reflected by the strength-strain index (SSI) (?=0.09 [0.03, 0.14]). To examine the causal nature of this relationship, we then analyzed whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within key osteoclast regulatory genes, known to reduce areal/cortical BMD, conversely increase PC. Fifteen such genetic variants within or proximal to genes encoding receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were identified by literature search. Six of the 15 alleles that were inversely related to BMD were positively related to CTX (p<0.05 cut-off) (n=2379). Subsequently, we performed a meta-analysis of associations between these SNPs and PC in ALSPAC (n=3382), Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) (n=938), and the Young Finns Study (YFS) (n=1558). Five of the 15 alleles that were inversely related to BMD were positively related to PC (p<0.05 cut-off). We conclude that despite having lower BMD, individuals with a genetic predisposition to higher bone resorption have greater bone size, suggesting that higher bone resorption is permissive for greater periosteal expansion. PMID:24014423

Kemp, John P; Sayers, Adrian; Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Deere, Kevin; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ring, Susan M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Joel; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievänen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Smith, George Davey; Fraser, William D; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Ohlsson, Claes; Tobias, Jon H

2014-04-01

250

Enhancing of Women Functional Status with Metabolic Syndrome by Cardioprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training  

PubMed Central

These data describe the effects of combined aerobic plus resistance training (CT) with regards to risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), quality of life, functional capacity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in women with MetS. In this context, thirteen women (35.4±6.2 yr) completed 10 weeks of CT consisting of three weekly sessions of ?60 min aerobic training (treadmill at 65–70% of reserve heart rate, 30 min) and resistance training (3 sets of 8–12 repetitions maximum for main muscle groups). Dependent variables were maximum chest press strength; isometric hand-grip strength; 30 s chair stand test; six minute walk test; body mass; body mass index; body adiposity index; waist circumference; systolic (SBP), diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP); blood glucose; HDL-C; triglycerides; interleukins (IL) 6, 10 and 12, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and serum nitric oxide metabolite (NOx); quality of life (SF-36) and Z-Score of MetS. There was an improvement in muscle strength on chest press (p?=?0.009), isometric hand-grip strength (p?=?0.03) and 30 s chair stand (p?=?0.007). There was a decrease in SBP (p?=?0.049), MBP (p?=?0.041), Z-Score of MetS (p?=?0.046), OPG (0.42±0.26 to 0.38±0.19 ng/mL, p<0.05) and NOx (13.3±2.3 µmol/L to 9.1±2.3 µmol/L; p<0.0005). IL-10 displayed an increase (13.6±7.5 to 17.2±12.3 pg/mL, p<0.05) after 10 weeks of training. Combined training also increased the perception of physical capacity (p?=?0.011). This study endorses CT as an efficient tool to improve blood pressure, functional capacity, quality of life and reduce blood markers of inflammation, which has a clinical relevance in the prevention and treatment of MetS. Trial Registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec) - RBR-6gdyvz - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/?q=RBR-6gdyvz PMID:25379699

Alsamir Tibana, Ramires; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; Frade de Sousa, Nuno Manuel; de Souza, Vinicius Carolino; Durigan, João; Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; de Toledo Nóbrega, Otávio; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Navalta, James Wilfred; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Prestes, Jonato

2014-01-01

251

Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years, suggesting avenues for primary prevention. PMID:20096893

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

2011-01-01

252

IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H{sub 2} EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 {mu}m PAH ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a {approx}1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H{sub 2} lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 {mu}m imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of {approx}1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H{sub 2} transitions is found to be 1.94 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 x 10{sup -5} L{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T {approx} 1000 K) H{sub 2} gas is 7.95 {+-} 0.19 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 {+-} 0.17 x 10{sup -7} M{sub sun} in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10{sup -3}, of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H{sub 2} ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H{sub 2} data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3{<=}} n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n {sub H{<=}} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub s} {<=} 10 km s{sup -1} for the redshifted gas and v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} for the blueshifted gas. Initial transverse (to the shock) magnetic field strengths for the redshifted lobe are in the range 10-32 {mu}G, and just 3 {mu}G for the blueshifted lobe. A cookbook for using the CUBISM contributed software for IRS spectral mapping data is presented in the Appendix.

Barsony, Mary [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Drive, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace A. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); O'Linger, JoAnn, E-mail: mbarsony@stars.sfsu.ed, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.or, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: joanno@ipac.caltech.ed [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2010-09-01

253

Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy ?-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

2013-01-01

254

Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

de Assuncao, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilario da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antonio Carlos Moreira

2014-01-01

255

A cross-sectional study of food group intake and C-reactive protein among children  

PubMed Central

Background C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of sub-clinical inflammation, is a predictor of future cardiovascular diseases. Dietary habits affect serum CRP level however the relationship between consumption of individual food groups and CRP levels has not been established. Methods This study was designed to explore the relation between food intake and CRP levels in children using data from the cross-sectional 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. CRP level was classified as low, average or high (<1.0, 1.0-3.0, and >3.0 mg/L, respectively). Adjusted mean daily intakes of dairy, grains, fruit, vegetables, and meat/other proteins in each CRP category were estimated using multivariate analysis of covariance modeling. The effect modification by age (5-11 years vs. 12-16 years), gender and race/ethnicity was explored. We examined whether total or central body fat (using BMI Z-scores and waist circumference) explained any of the observed associations. Results A total of 4,010 children and adolescents had complete information on diet, CRP and all covariates of interest and were included in the analyses. Individuals with high CRP levels had significantly lower intake of grains (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.0002). Selected individual food subgroups (e.g., fluid milk and "citrus, melon and berry" consumption) were more strongly associated with lower CRP than were their respective major food groups. Consumption of meat/other proteins did not influence CRP levels. The addition of body composition variables to the models attenuated the results for all food groups to varying degrees. Conclusion Children and adolescents with higher CRP levels had significantly lower intakes of grains and vegetables. The associations between selected childhood dietary patterns and CRP levels seem largely mediated through effects on body composition. PMID:19822004

Qureshi, M Mustafa; Singer, Martha R; Moore, Lynn L

2009-01-01

256

Energy Balance and Obesity  

Cancer.gov

Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

257

Gastric Banding  

MedlinePLUS

... received gastric banding have reported the following benefits: Weight-loss Decreased waist and hip circumference Improvements in obesity-related conditions, like diabetes, hypertension, and sleep apnea Improvements in general health Improvements in quality ...

258

Heart-Health Screenings  

MedlinePLUS

... can be controlled through lifestyle changes or medication. Body Weight Starting around 20 years old, your healthcare provider ... ask for your waist circumference or use your body weight to calculate your body mass index (BMI) during ...

259

Prevalence and Control of Hypertension and Albuminuria in South Korea: Focus on Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between albuminuria and hypertension is well established in many studies. So the control of hypertension is critical for decreasing cardiovascular events and albuminuria. Obesity and abdominal obesity are also associated with hypertension and albuminuria. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between albuminuria and the prevalence and control of hypertension in the general Korean population according to obesity status. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 9,519 subjects were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-obese/normal waist circumference, non-obese/high waist circumference, obese/normal waist circumference, and obese/high waist circumference. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with albumin–creatinine ratio in all groups (all p values <0.005). Non-obese/normal waist circumference group were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratios [95% confidential intervals (CIs)] were 3.20 [2.21–4.63] in microalbuminuria level and 3.09 [1.05–9.14] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension (odds ratios <1 for both albuminuria levels) after adjusting for all covariates. Obese/normal waist circumference group were also more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [95% CI] were 3.10 [1.56–6.15] in microalbuminuria level and 21.75 [3.66–129.04] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension in macroalbuminuria level (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.04 [0.01–0.15]). Conclusions Non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects have an increased prevalence and decreased control of hypertension in microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels. Screening for albuminuria may provide helpful information about hypertension and blood pressure control, particularly in the non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects. PMID:25360593

Yoon, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hoon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Han, Kyung-Do; Jung, Dong-Wook; Park, Sang-Woon; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Su; Kim, Yang-Hyun

2014-01-01

260

Defining Health-Related Obesity in Prepubertal Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop percentage of fat and waist circumference cut-points in prepubertal children with the intention of defining obesity associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional analysis of 87 prepubertal children aged 4 to 11 years was used. Percentage of body fat was determined by DXA. Waist circumference was measured

Paul B. Higgins; Barbara A. Gower; Gary R. Hunter; Michael I. Goran

2001-01-01

261

Prevalence of Obesity and the Relationship between the Body Mass Index and Body Fat: Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference are widely used as convenient indices of adiposity, yet there are limitations in their estimates of body fat. We aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity using criteria based on the BMI and waist circumference, and to examine the relationship between the BMI and body fat.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis population-based,

Julie A. Pasco; Geoffrey C. Nicholson; Sharon L. Brennan; Mark A. Kotowicz

2012-01-01

262

Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.Design:Prospective, population-based study with an 11.4-year follow-up.Subjects:A total of 21 729 men and women aged 45–79

B. J. Arsenault; J. S. Rana; I. Lemieux; J.P. Després; J. J. P. Kastelein; S. M. Boekholdt; N. J. Wareham; K. T. Khaw

2010-01-01

263

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods  

PubMed Central

Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

2013-01-01

264

Body mass index, recreational physical activity and female urinary incontinence in Gansu, China  

PubMed Central

Objective To elucidate the influence of recreational physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference on the risk of specific types of urinary incontinence. Study design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Gansu, China among 2603 women aged 20 years or older. Results The study found that BMI was positively associated with urinary incontinence (P for trend = 0.008) and the association was mainly observed for stress urinary incontinence (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9 for BMI = 24.0–27.9 kg/m2; OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.6 for BMI ? 28.0 kg/m2; P for trend = 0.0005). A positive association between stress incontinence (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.5) and waist circumference was observed for women who had waist circumference between 70 cm and 75 cm compared to waist circumference less than 70 cm. Recreational physical activity was inversely associated with overall and mixed urinary incontinence (P for trend <0.0001 for both). A significant interaction between physical activity and waist circumference was found for overall (P = 0.0007) and stress incontinence (P = 0.001). Conclusions The findings that physical activity inversely associated with urinary incontinence and its interaction with waist circumference warrant further investigation, particularly in prospective studies. PMID:21821342

Qiu, Jie; Lv, Ling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Long, Lixia; Zhu, Daling; Xu, Ruifeng; Deng, Xiaohui; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Lan; Kim, Christopher; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

2011-01-01

265

Assessment of adiponectin level in obese and lean Nepalese population and its possible correlation with lipid profile: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Adiponectin- one of the most important adipokines plays a pivotal role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and vascular biology. Changing food trend and lifestyle has tremendously affected the health status of Nepalese population. Studies have shown that between 1996 and 2006 obesity in Nepal has increased from 1.6% to 10%. Studies have been conducted in Nepal on the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with lipid profile. But based on our knowledge, this is the first study correlating adiponectin with obesity and lipid profile in Nepal. This piece of work will certainly help to assess the impact of obesity in Nepalese population. Materials and Methods: Fifty four obese and Thirty six normal/lean participants were included from different locations of Kathmandu Valley. Anthropometric measurements like age, BMI, Waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, mid thigh circumference and chest circumferences were taken from each participant. Blood glucose, lipid profile and serum adiponectin levels were measured from overnight fasting samples. Results: Significant differences were observed in BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference, Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) and Chest circumference between obese and normal groups. Fasting Blood Glucose, Serum Triglyceride, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio, Non-HDL Cholesterol and Adiponectin Levels were significant between the groups. Inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin level and BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference, Waist to Hip ratio, Chest Circumference, Fasting Blood Glucose, Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio, LDL/HDL Cholesterol ratio and Non-HDL Cholesterol levels. Positive correlation was found between adiponectin and HDL Cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Our study showed significant inverse association of serum adiponectin with obesity and lipid profile parameters except for Serum HDL Cholesterol level in Nepalese population. PMID:24251211

Tamang, Hem K.; Timilsina, Uddhav; Singh, Khelanand P.; Shrestha, Sanjit; Pandey, Bishal; Basnet, Sameer; Waiba, Binod; Shrestha, Umang

2013-01-01

266

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perceived Weight Discrimination Amplifies the Link Between  

E-print Network

of obesity and central adiposity on nondiabetic glycemic control (indexed by HbA1c) were moderated and Nondiabetic Glycemic Control (HbA1c) Vera K. Tsenkova, Ph.D. & Deborah Carr, Ph.D. & Dale A. Schoeller, Ph Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference were linked to significantly higher

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

267

Neither a Zinc Supplement nor Phytate-Reduced Maize nor Their Combination Enhance Growth of 6- to 12-Month-Old Guatemalan Infants1–4  

PubMed Central

After age 6 mo, the combination of breast-feeding and unfortified plant-based complementary feeding provides inadequate zinc (Zn). Additionally, high phytate intakes compromise the bioavailability of zinc. Our principal objective in this randomized controlled, doubly masked trial was to determine the effect of substituting low-phytate maize, a daily 5-mg zinc supplement, or both, in infants between ages 6–12 mo on impaired linear growth velocity, a common feature of zinc deficiency. In the Western Highlands of Guatemala, 412 infants were randomized to receive low-phytate or control maize. Within each maize group, infants were further randomized to receive a zinc supplement or placebo. Length, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. There were no significant differences between the 2 maize groups or between the Zn supplement and placebo groups and no treatment interaction was observed for length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) or head circumference Z-scores. Overall mean (± SD) Z-scores at 6 mo for combined treatment groups were: LAZ, ?2.1 ± 1.1; WLZ, 0.7 ± 1.0; and head circumference Z-score, ?0.7.0 ± 1.0. At 12 mo, these had declined further to: LAZ, ?2.5 ± 1.1; WLZ, ?0.0 ± 0.9; and head circumference Z-score, ?0.9 ± 1.1; 83.3% were stunted and 2% were wasted. Low linear growth in older Guatemalan infants was not improved with either low-phytate maize or a daily 5-mg zinc supplement. Low contribution of maize to the complementary food of the infants negated any potential advantage of feeding low-phytate maize. PMID:20335626

Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Westcott, Jamie E.; Solomons, Noel W.; Raboy, Victor; Das, Abhik; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L.; Krebs, Nancy F.

2010-01-01

268

Adherence to an overweight and obesity treatment: how to motivate a patient?  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore anthropometric changes in normal-weight, overweight and obese subjects who did not dropout or fail a weight loss program over the 16 treatment weeks to improve patient motivation and treatment adherence. Methods. A clinical intervention study was conducted among 271 (including 100 dropouts and/or failures) obese and overweight patients who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for the purpose of nutritional assessment. They were subject to a personalized weekly follow-up consultation over the course of 16 weeks in which initial and the final Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2), photographs, food consumption patterns, percentage weight loss, waist and hip circumference were registered and grouped according to BMI, measuring treatment response. Data’s nonparametric statistical comparison was made. Results. In 62 patients from the BMI < 25 group, there is weight loss of 2.6% (3.1 SD), 5.5% (3.3 SD) in waist circumference and 3.0% (2.5 SD) in hip circumference. In 67 patients from the 25 ? BMI < 30 group, there is weight loss of 3.8% (4.1 SD), 5.7% (4.5 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.7% (3.0 SD) in hip circumference loss. In 42 patients from the BMI > 30 group, there is weight loss of 4.8% (3.7 SD), 7.0% (3.6 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.9% (2.4 SD) in hip circumference loss. Monitoring is done every 4 weeks by the Friedman test, with significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.001). Patients do not drop out of treatment because they start to see physical results in waist decrease. When comparing final values of initial waist/hip circumference ratios and waist/height ratios, a clear decrease in the three BMI groups was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion. After three weeks of continuous treatment patients improved in all overweight and obesity parameter indicators; there were not statistically significant differences in hip circumference (HC) and waist loss (WC) (%) among the three BMI groups (normal-weight, overweight, and obesity). In contrast, there were statistically significant differences in weight loss (%) and waist-to-hip ratios. Based on anthropometric outcomes and patient perception of their body image it can be concluded that the waist circumference loss is the parameter that retains obese patients in the weight loss program. PMID:25101227

Rizo, Mercedes; Cortes-Castell, Ernesto

2014-01-01

269

The association between metabolic syndrome and vascular endothelial dysfunction in adolescents  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and vascular endothelial cell dysfunction (ECD) in adolescents. Sixty obese pediatric inpatients at the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from February 2011 to February 2012 were included. Among these, 30 patients were obese and 30 patients were diagnosed with MS. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly selected as the control group. A series of indices, including height, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip circumference and body mass index (BMI), as well as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were evaluated. von Willebrand factor (vWF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were determined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlation analysis between height, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip circumference, BMI, TC, TG, LDL, HDL and PAI-1, as well as vWF was performed. Significant increases of vWF and PAI-1 levels were observed in the MS group compared with the control group (P<0.05). For the adolescents in the obese group, a significant increase of PAI-1 level was observed compared with the control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between the vWF levels in the obese and control groups. PAI-1 was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, waist/hip circumference, TC, TG, LDL, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively (P<0.05). In addition, PAI-1 was negatively associated with HDL levels (P<0.05). PAI-1 and vWF may be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of ECD. ECD in individuals with MS may be associated with obesity, blood fat, blood sugar and blood pressure. FPG, TC and TG may be risk factors for ECD. PMID:23837050

WEI, YING; LIU, GELI; YANG, JINGYAN; ZHENG, RONGXIU; JIANG, LIHONG; BAO, PENGLI

2013-01-01

270

Cerebral Blood Flow Characteristics and Biometry in Fetuses Undergoing Prenatal Intervention for Aortic Stenosis with Evolving Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) are at risk for neurodevelopmental dysfunction; prenatal factors may play a role in this predilection. Cerebral blood flow profiles are abnormal in fetuses with HLHS, raising the possibility that cerebral hemodynamics in utero may be related to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Prenatal aortic valvuloplasty for fetal aortic stenosis with evolving HLHS is technically feasible and improves left heart hemodynamics. This study aimed to assess the effects of prenatal intervention on cerebral blood flow profiles and head circumference in fetuses with evolving HLHS. Seventy fetuses underwent prenatal aortic valvuloplasty for evolving HLHS (median 23 weeks gestation). Among 46 fetuses that had successful valvuloplasty and available data, middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility (PI) and resistive (RI) indices were abnormal (Z-scores ?1.7 ± 1.1 and ?2.2 ± 1.4, p < 0.001). Early post-valvuloplasty (n = 33) and at late gestation follow-up (n = 28), MCA PI and RI Z-scores remained low with no difference from pre- or early postintervention. Fetal head circumference was normal, as were umbilical artery PI and RI Z-scores. Cerebral blood flow characteristics are abnormal in mid-gestation fetuses with evolving HLHS, suggesting low cerebral vascular impedance. The mechanisms and significance of these abnormalities are unknown. Prenatal aortic valvuloplasty did not have a major impact on these indices. PMID:19931971

McElhinney, Doff B.; Benson, Carol B.; Brown, David W.; Wilkins-Haug, Louise E.; Marshall, Audrey C.; Zaccagnini, Linda; Tworetzky, Wayne

2014-01-01

271

Preconception metabolic indicators predict gestational diabetes and offspring birthweight.  

PubMed

Abstract Pregnancy conditions such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and macrosomia lead to an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the offspring, perpetuating a cycle of poor health. We hypothesized that (1) pre-pregnancy indicators of metabolism would be associated with GDM and birthweight; and (2) the lipid accumulation product (LAP; incorporating waist circumference and triglycerides) and visceral adiposity index (VAI; incorporating waist circumference, triglycerides, and HDL-c) would be better predictors of GDM and birthweight than other indicators. Data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study were linked to the Finnish birth registry for 349 women. BMI, triglycerides, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-IR, LAP, and VAI at the visit prior to the pregnancy were examined as predictors of GDM and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) using logistic regression with adjustment for age, parity, and smoking. Waist circumference was the strongest predictor of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.38) and LGA (aOR 1.41, 1.00-1.99). For GDM, all markers had similar discrimination; for LGA, the area under the receiver operating curve for waist circumference was significantly higher than for BMI (p?

Harville, Emily W; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

2014-11-01

272

Associations of eating frequency with adiposity measures, blood lipid profiles and blood pressure in British children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological studies in adults have suggested a favourable effect of frequent eating on blood lipid profiles, but evidence in younger populations is lacking. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the associations of eating frequency (EF) with metabolic risk factors in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record. EF was calculated based on all eating occasions, except for those providing < 210 kJ of energy. Metabolic risk factors examined were total, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, TAG concentration, BMI z-score, waist:height ratio (WHtR; only adolescents), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Adjustment was made for age, sex, social class, physical activity levels, intakes of protein, fat, total sugar and dietary fibre, ratio of reported energy intake to estimated energy requirement (EI:EER) and BMI z-score (except for BMI z-score and WHtR). In children, EF was inversely associated with total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (n 324, P= 0·01 and 0·04, respectively). Conversely, EF was positively associated with BMI z-score in adolescents (P= 0·004). There were no associations between EF and other metabolic risk factors. In analyses in which only plausible energy reporters (EI:EER: 0·72-1·28) were included, similar results were obtained, except for an inverse association between EF and diastolic blood pressure in children. In conclusion, a higher EF is associated with lower total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in children but with a higher BMI z-score in adolescents. PMID:24655480

Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

2014-06-28

273

Introduction The seasonal circumference growth of trees has  

E-print Network

Recorded by Band Dendrometers in NE Lithuania ADOMAS VITAS Vytautas Magnus University, Faculty of Nature, LT-46324 Kaunas, Lithuania; E-mail: a.vitas@gmf.vdu.lt Vitas, A. 2011. Seasonal Growth Variations of Pine, Spruce, and Birch Recorded by Band Dendrometers in NE Lithuania. Baltic Forestry 17(2): 197204

274

Waist Compression in the Aegean Late Bronze Age  

E-print Network

stiff, as if made of thick hide or even metal. The rolls at top and bot- tom may be rouletted with vertical striations, al- though the lower roll is less pronounced. Another material, stone, is a remote possibility (cf., the Mayan hip yokes), if only...- vester Vase also from Ayia Triada (Web Fig. 7), and processional figures; 30 there are many more belted figures. 31 In all these examples, the torso assumes a strongly triangular shape, the chest high and shoulders flared in the so-called pouter...

Younger, John G.

2000-01-01

275

Sufficiently good measures of obesity: the case of a developing country.  

PubMed

Obesity is pandemic, but no consensus has yet emerged regarding appropriate tools for measuring it. Medical research based on populations in the developed world has largely dismissed body mass index (BMI) because it is a weak predictor of some health outcomes. In contrast, social science research still relies on it for its simplicity and ready availability in surveys. This paper uses consistent definitions and measures to select sufficiently good predictors of health and economic outcomes from among the anthropometrics that are considered alternatives to BMI. The results from the Indonesian Family Life Survey indicate that BMI and waist circumference are better predictors than waist-to-height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio. This paper argues that given its advantages, BMI is an adequate measure of obesity for Indonesia and possibly for the developing world. Further, if BMI is to be replaced, waist circumference is preferable to other anthropometrics. PMID:24423615

Sohn, Kitae

2014-11-01

276

Dietary Energy Density: A Mediator of Depressive Symptoms and Abdominal Obesity or Independent Predictor of Abdominal Obesity?  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., Europe, and throughout the world, abdominal obesity prevalence is increasing. Depressive symptoms may contribute to abdominal obesity through the consumption of diets high in energy density. Purpose To test dietary energy density ([DED]; kilocalories/gram of food and beverages consumed) for an independent relationship with abdominal obesity or as a mediator between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study included 87 mid-life, overweight adults; 73.6% women; 50.6% African-American. Variables and measures: Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depressive symptoms; 3-day weighed food records to calculate DED; waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal obesity. Hierarchical regression tested if DED explained waist circumference variance while controlling for depressive symptoms and consumed food and beverage weight. Three approaches tested DED as a mediator. Results Nearly three-quarters of participants had abdominal obesity, and the mean waist circumference was 103.2 (SD 14.3) cm. Mean values: BDI-II was 8.67 (SD 8.34) which indicates most participants experienced minimal depressive symptoms, and 21.8% reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II ? 14); DED was 0.75 (SD 0.22) kilocalories/gram. Hierarchical regression showed an independent association between DED and waist circumference with DED explaining 7.0% of variance above that accounted for by BDI-II and food and beverage weight. DED did not mediate between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and DED were associated with elevated waist circumference, thus a comprehensive intervention aimed at improving depressive symptoms and decreasing DED to reduce waist circumference is warranted. PMID:21530408

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Gary, Rebecca; Tohill, Beth C.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Higgins, Melinda K.

2014-01-01

277

Impact of a nurse-directed, coordinated school health program to enhance physical activity behaviors and reduce body mass index among minority children: A parallel-group, randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Underserved children, particularly girls and those in urban communities, do not meet the recommended physical activity guidelines (>60 min of daily physical activity), and this behavior can lead to obesity. The school years are known to be a critical period in the life course for shaping attitudes and behaviors. Children look to schools for much of their access to physical activity. Thus, through the provision of appropriate physical activity programs, schools have the power to influence apt physical activity choices, especially for underserved children where disparities in obesity-related outcomes exist. Objectives To evaluate the impact of a nurse directed, coordinated, culturally sensitive, school-based, family-centered lifestyle program on activity behaviors and body mass index. Design, settings and participants: This was a parallel group, randomized controlled trial utilizing a community-based participatory research approach, through a partnership with a University and 5 community schools. Participants included 251 children ages 8–12 from elementary schools in urban, low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles, USA. Methods The intervention included Kids N Fitness©, a 6-week program which met weekly to provide 45 min of structured physical activity and a 45 min nutrition education class for parents and children. Intervention sites also participated in school-wide wellness activities, including health and counseling services, staff professional development in health promotion, parental education newsletters, and wellness policies for the provision of healthy foods at the school. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health School Physical Activity and Nutrition Student Questionnaire measured physical activity behavior, including: daily physical activity, participation in team sports, attending physical education class, and TV viewing/computer game playing. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, body mass index, resting blood pressure, and waist circumference. Measures were collected at baseline, completion of the intervention phase (4 months), and 12 months post-intervention. Results Significant results for students in the intervention, included for boys decreases in TV viewing; and girls increases in daily physical activity, physical education class attendance, and decreases in body mass index z-scores from baseline to the 12 month follow-up. Conclusions Our study shows the value of utilizing nurses to implement a culturally sensitive, coordinated, intervention to decrease disparities in activity and TV viewing among underserved girls and boys. PMID:23021318

Wright, Kynna; Giger, Joyce Newman; Norris, Keth; Suro, Zulma

2013-01-01

278

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001) and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001) than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p=0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). Conclusion This study suggests that candy consumption did not adversely affect health risk markers in children and adolescents. PMID:21691462

O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

279

Evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Families for Health V2 for the treatment of childhood obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Effective programs to help children manage their weight are required. Families for Health focuses on a parenting approach, designed to help parents develop their parenting skills to support lifestyle change within the family. Families for Health V1 showed sustained reductions in overweight after 2 years in a pilot evaluation, but lacks a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence base. Methods/design This is a multi-center, investigator-blind RCT, with parallel economic evaluation, with a 12-month follow-up. The trial will recruit 120 families with at least one child aged 6 to 11 years who is overweight (?91st centile BMI) or obese (?98th centile BMI) from three localities and assigned randomly to Families for Health V2 (60 families) or the usual care control (60 families) groups. Randomization will be stratified by locality (Coventry, Warwickshire, Wolverhampton). Families for Health V2 is a family-based intervention run in a community venue. Parents/carers and children attend parallel groups for 2.5 hours weekly for 10 weeks. The usual care arm will be the usual support provided within each NHS locality. A mixed-methods evaluation will be carried out. Child and parent participants will be assessed at home visits at baseline, 3-month (post-treatment) and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the change in the children’s BMI z-scores at 12 months from the baseline. Secondary outcome measures include changes in the children’s waist circumference, percentage body fat, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and quality of life. The parents’ BMI and mental well-being, family eating/activity, parent–child relationships and parenting style will also be assessed. Economic components will encompass the measurement and valuation of service utilization, including the costs of running Families for Health and usual care, and the EuroQol EQ-5D health outcomes. Cost-effectiveness will be expressed in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. A de novo decision-analytic model will estimate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of the Families for Health program. Process evaluation will document recruitment, attendance and drop-out rates, and the fidelity of Families for Health delivery. Interviews with up to 24 parents and children from each arm will investigate perceptions and changes made. Discussion This paper describes our protocol to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a parenting approach for managing childhood obesity and presents challenges to implementation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials http://ISRCTN45032201 PMID:23514100

2013-01-01

280

Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist–hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir; Lu Qi; Elizabeth K. Speliotes; Gudmar Thorleifsson; Cristen J. Willer; Blanca M. Herrera; Anne U. Jackson; Noha Lim; Paul Scheet; Nicole Soranzo; Najaf Amin; Yurii S. Aulchenko; John C. Chambers; Alexander Drong; Jianan Luan; Helen N. Lyon; Fernando Rivadeneira; Serena Sanna; Nicholas J. Timpson; M. Carola Zillikens; Jing Hua Zhao; Peter Almgren; Stefania Bandinelli; Amanda J. Bennett; Richard N. Bergman; Lori L. Bonnycastle; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Cyrus Cooper; Gabriel Crawford; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Shah Ebrahim; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; Candace Guiducci; David Hadley; Anders Hamsten; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Fredrik Karpe; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Anna Nordström; Peter Nordström; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; Felicity Payne; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renström; Aimo Ruokonen; Veikko Salomaa; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Kijoung Song; Xin Yuan; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield; Francis S. Collins; George Davey Smith; Ian N. M. Day; Paul W. Franks; Andrew T. Hattersley; Frank B. Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Augustine Kong; Jaspal S. Kooner; Markku Laakso; Edward Lakatta; Vincent Mooser; Andrew D. Morris; Leena Peltonen; Nilesh J. Samani; Timothy D. Spector; David P. Strachan; Toshiko Tanaka; Jaakko Tuomilehto; André G. Uitterlinden; Cornelia M. van Duijn; Nicholas J. Wareham; Hugh Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia; Dawn M. Waterworth; Michael Boehnke; Panos Deloukas; Leif Groop; David J. Hunter; Unnur Thorsteinsdottir; David Schlessinger; H.-Erich Wichmann; Timothy M. Frayling; Gonçalo R. Abecasis; Joel N. Hirschhorn; Ruth J. F. Loos; Kari Stefansson; Karen L. Mohlke; Inês Barroso

2009-01-01

281

Body fat distribution and risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population: are there differences between men and women? The MONICA\\/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It remains controversial whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a better risk predictor of type 2 diabetes. Objective:Theobjectivewastoexaminethesex-specificrelevance of WC, WHR, and BMI to the development of type 2 diabetes. Design: The prospective population-based cohort study was based on3055menand2957womenaged35-74ywhoparticipatedinthe second (1989-1990) or third (1994-1995) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants on Cardiovascular Diseases)

Christa Meisinger; Angela Döring; Barbara Thorand; Margit Heier; Hannelore Löwel

282

Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: a prospective study in the EPIC cohort.  

PubMed

Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p?=?0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking. PMID:24771290

Roswall, Nina; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn Erica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Helen-Maria; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Ehrnström, Roy; Brennan, Paul; Ferrari, Pietro; Ljungberg, Börje; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Halkjaer, Jytte

2014-12-15

283

Correlations of C-reactive protein levels with anthropometric profile, percentage of body fat and lipids in healthy adolescents and young adults in urban North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationships of sub-clinical inflammation and regional and generalized obesity and lipids in adolescent and young adult Asian Indians in north India. Methods: We determined serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker for sub-clinical inflammation, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (W-HR), four skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac), percentage of body fat

Naval K. Vikram; Anoop Misra; Manjari Dwivedi; Rekha Sharma; R. M. Pandey; Kalpana Luthra; Ananya Chatterjee; Vibha Dhingra; B. L. Jailkhani; K. K. Talwar; Randeep Guleria

2003-01-01

284

Evaluating race\\/ethnicity in moderating baseline cardiometabolic risk and body composition changes in North Carolina first-year college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of race\\/ethnicity and geographical region in the context of first-year college weight gain remain largely under-examined. The present study evaluated whether race\\/ethnicity: 1) at baseline was associated with greater representation in cardiometabolic health risk categories for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio in the full sample of 54 Black\\/African American and 80

Jennifer B. Webb

2012-01-01

285

Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and\\/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for

Cecilia M. Lindgren; Iris M. Heid; Joshua C. Randall; Claudia Lamina; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Stephen J. Chanock; Lynn Cherkas; Cyrus Cooper; Angela Doering; Anna Dominiczak; Alex S. F. Doney; Paul Elliott; Michael R. Erdos; Karol Estrada; Luigi Ferrucci; Guido Fischer; Nita G. Forouhi; Christian Gieger; Harald Grallert; Christopher J. Groves; Scott Grundy; David Hadley; Aki S. Havulinna; Albert Hofman; Rolf Holle; John W. Holloway; Thomas Illig; Bo Isomaa; Leonie C. Jacobs; Karen Jameson; Pekka Jousilahti; Johanna Kuusisto; G. Mark Lathrop; Debbie A. Lawlor; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L. McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Mario A. Morken; Andrew P. Morris; Patricia Munroe; Anna Nordstrom; Peter Nordstrom; Ben A. Oostra; Colin N. A. Palmer; John F. Peden; Inga Prokopenko; Frida Renstrom; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S. Sandhu; Laura J. Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Heather M. Stringham; Amy J. Swift; Manuela Uda; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; G. Bragi Walters; Michael N. Weedon; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Cuilin Zhang; Weihua Zhang; Mark J. Caulfield

2009-01-01

286

Association of heart rate recovery after exercise with indices of obesity in healthy, non-obese adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed at determining whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated\\u000a with heart rate recovery (HRR) and to demonstrate which of the three indices of obesity, is the strongest predictor of HRR\\u000a in apparently healthy non-obese adults. Three hundred and twenty-five subjects aged 18–66 years participated in the study.\\u000a Anthropometric indices were measured, and

Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Jude O. Oji

2010-01-01

287

Association of a Reduction in Central Obesity and Phosphorus Intake With Changes in Urinary Albumin Excretion: The PREMIER Study  

PubMed Central

Background Excess adiposity and dietary factors may be important determinants of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Study Design Observational analysis of PREMIER, a randomized trial designed to lower blood pressure using behavioral interventions (counseling on weight loss, healthy diet, and exercise). Setting & Participants 481 participants with normal kidney function who provided adequate 24-hour urine collections at baseline and 6 months. Predictors Change in waist circumference, 24-hour urine sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and protein intake estimated from urea nitrogen. Outcomes & Measurements The primary outcome was change in log-transformed 24-hour UAE over 6 months. Results After 6 months, the proportion of individuals with UAE ?10 mg/d decreased from 18.7% to 12.7% (p<0.001). Changes in mean waist circumference (?4.2±6.6 [SD] cm), 24-hour excretion of sodium (?28.2±71.7 mmol/d), potassium (+8.4±27.8 mmol/d), phosphorus (?27.7±314.1 mg/d), and protein intake(?1.7±19.4 g/d) were observed. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the following variables were significantly associated with reduction in ln(UAE) in separate models: decrease in waist circumference (p=0.001), decrease in 24-hour urine phosphorus (p<0.001), and decrease in protein intake (p=0.01). In a multivariable model including these three predictors, decreases in waist circumference (p=0.002) and 24-hour urine phosphorus (p=0.03), but not change in protein intake (p=0.5), remained significantly associated with reduction in ln(UAE). These associations remained significant even after adjustment for changes in blood pressure and insulin resistance. Baseline UAE and metabolic syndrome modified the relationship of waist circumference with ln(UAE); specifically, individuals with higher UAE and baseline metabolic syndrome experienced greater reductions in ln(UAE) from decreases in waist circumference. Limitations Observational study with potential for confounding. Conclusions In adults with normal kidney function, decreases in waist circumference and 24-hour urine phosphorus are associated with reductions in UAE. These findings support the rationale for clinical trials to determine whether reducing dietary phosphorus or waist circumference could prevent CKD or slow its progression. PMID:23810691

Chang, Alex; Batch, Bryan C.; McGuire, Heather L.; Vollmer, William M.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Tyson, Crystal C.; Sanguankeo, Anawin; Anderson, Cheryl; Houston, Jessica; Appel, Lawrence J.

2013-01-01

288

Relationship between anthropometric variables and lipid levels among school children: The Taipei Children Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between anthropometric parameters and lipid levels among Taiwanese school children.DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a probability-proportional-to size sampling and multi-stages sampling procedure, we sampled 1500 school children from 10 schools in Taipei city. Anthropometric parameters including body weight, body height, waist circumference, hip circumference and skinfolds were measured. Serum total cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), high density

N-F Chu; EB Rimm; D-J Wang; H-S Liou; S-M Shieh; Nain-Feng Chu

1998-01-01

289

Detection of lipoatrophy in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been associated with lipodystrophy in adults. Much is unknown about its characteristics, especially in children. OBJECTIVE: To obtain an objective case definition of the lipodystrophy syndrome. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. One investigator rated clinical lipodystrophy. Body composition was measured using body mass index, skin fold thickness and circumference of arm, leg, waist

Karin Hartman; Gwenda Verweel; Ronald de Groot; Nico G. Hartwig

2006-01-01

290

Current Research Food Preference Questionnaire as a Screening  

E-print Network

foods/beverages, alcoholic beverages, fiber-rich foods (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables circumferences liked fat more, consumed less fiber, and exercised less. Waist cir- cumference in turn contributed significantly to models predicting serum lipid levels and blood pressure. Alcohol intake explained variability

Johnson, Marcia K.

291

Developmental Trajectories of Girls' BMI Across Childhood and Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes qualitatively distinct trajectories of BMI change among girls participating in a longitudinal study of non-Hispanic, white girls (n = 182) and their parents, assessed at daughters' ages 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. Height, weight, body fat, fasting blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure, waist circumference, and pubertal status were measured, and participants self-reported dietary,

Alison K. Ventura; Eric Loken; Leann L. Birch

2009-01-01

292

Food Intake Patterns and Body Mass Index in Older Adults: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between food intake patterns and obesity remains unclear. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the current body of literature on food intake patterns of older adults and their associations with weight status, including obesity and waist circumference. Eleven observational studies were identified and reviewed. Diets characterized by more favorable dietary scores or indices were generally

Pao Ying Hsiao; Gordon L. Jensen; Terryl J. Hartman; Diane C. Mitchell; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson; Donna L. Coffman

2011-01-01

293

Diet and Body Composition Outcomes of an Environmental and Educational Intervention among Men in Treatment for Substance Addiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the effect of an educational and environmental intervention on diet, body mass index, and waist circumference of men in substance addiction treatment. Methods: One hundred three racially/ethnically diverse men in 6 urban substance addiction residential treatment facilities in Upstate New York participated in weekly…

Cowan, Jennifer A.; Devine, Carol M.

2013-01-01

294

Physical activity recommendations and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young Hispanic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the benefits associated with regular physical activity, there is little epidemiological evidence to support positive health outcomes when meeting physical activity guidelines in high-risk ethnic groups, such as Hispanic women. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between young Hispanic women who meet and those who do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure

Chantal A. Vella; Diana Ontiveros; Raul Y. Zubia; Lance Dalleck

2011-01-01

295

Evolving ideals of male body image as seen through action toys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We hypothesized that the physiques of male action toys — small plastic figures used by children in play — would provide some index of evolving American cultural ideals of male body image. Method: We obtained examples of the most popular American action toys manufactured over the last 30 years. We then measured the waist, chest, and bicep circumference of

Harrison G. Pope; Roberto Olivardia; Amanda Gruber; John Borowiecki

1999-01-01

296

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Collegiate American Football Players, by Position  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in a collegiate football team. Participants: Eighty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players volunteered to participate. Methods: The authors measured height, weight, and waist circumference (WC), and estimated…

Mathews, Emily Millard; Wagner, Dale R.

2008-01-01

297

Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

2011-01-01

298

Use of CHAID Decision Trees to Formulate Pathways for the Early Detection of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young adults (age 20–39) is often undiagnosed. A simple screening tool using a surrogate measure might be invaluable in the early detection of MetS. Methods. A chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree analysis with waist circumference user-specified as the first level was used to detect MetS in young adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 Cohort as a representative sample of the United States population (n = 745). Results. Twenty percent of the sample met the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP) classification criteria for MetS. The user-specified CHAID model was compared to both CHAID model with no user-specified first level and logistic regression based model. This analysis identified waist circumference as a strong predictor in the MetS diagnosis. The accuracy of the final model with waist circumference user-specified as the first level was 92.3% with its ability to detect MetS at 71.8% which outperformed comparison models. Conclusions. Preliminary findings suggest that young adults at risk for MetS could be identified for further followup based on their waist circumference. Decision tree methods show promise for the development of a preliminary detection algorithm for MetS. PMID:24817904

Liu, Pei-Yang

2014-01-01

299

Abdominal obesity in the United States: prevalence and attributable risk of hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity and its impact on the risks of hypertension in the US adult population. Design and methods: Data from the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988–1994, were utilised. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women.

TE Prewitt; RS Cooper; Ike S Okosun

1999-01-01

300

Metabolic Syndrome With and Without C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recently proposed a simple definition for metabolic syndrome. Information on the prospective association of this definition for coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes is currently limited. Methods and Results—We used a modified NCEP definition with body mass index in place of waist circumference. Baseline assessments in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention

Naveed Sattar; Allan Gaw; Olga Scherbakova; Ian Ford; J. O'Reilly; Steven M. Haffner; Chris Isles; Peter W. Macfarlane; Chris J. Packard; Stuart M. Cobbe; James Shepherd

301

The Relationship between Balance, Muscles, and Anthropomorphic Features in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Posture can be defined as the form of the body when sitting, walking, or standing. There would be no problem if muscles interact in harmony with musculoskeletal system or nervous system. Posture analysis is crucial for clinical assessments in physical medicine and rehabilitation. However, studies into this issue are limited. In this study, the relationship between static standing balance and anthropomorphic features in healthy subjects was investigated. The study was carried out with a total of 240 students at Baskent University (116 females, 124 males) aged between 18 and 25 years. Type of balance of the subjects was determined with lateral posture analysis. Additionally, muscle shortness tests, subcutaneous fat thickness, and waist and thigh circumference were measured. As the results of lateral posture analysis, 107 subjects (71 males, 36 females) were detected to have anterior balance, 89 (41 males, 48 females) posterior balance, and 44 (12 males, 32 girls) neutral balance. Values of waist circumference, thigh circumference, and waist/thigh ratio were compared with all three balance types. A statistically significant difference was detected between these values in the subjects who had anterior balance (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a significant relationship was detected between muscle shortness, waist and thigh circumferences, and postural balance type. PMID:22567305

Zagyapan, Rag?ba; Iyem, Cihan; Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Can; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

2012-01-01

302

Prevalence of physical activity and inactivity among Saudis aged 30-70 years A population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess physical activity levels among Saudi adults, and to examine the relationships of physical activity with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity prevalence. Methods: Data taken from the Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis Study which is a National Epidemiological Health Survey carried out between 1995 and 2000. Participants included 17395 Saudi males and females aged

Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa; Mohammed R. Arafah; Akram Al-Khadra; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Moheeb Abdullah; Maie S. Al-Shahid

2007-01-01

303

VARIABLES ASOCIADAS A HIPERTENSION ARTERIAL EN UNA REGION DE LA ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional variables associated with high blood pressure in Argentina. We conducted a study in a random sample of 1523 inhabitants (15-75 years old) of Rauch city to determine risk factors prevalence to development hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We measured blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, cholesterol and glucose levels, sodium excretion, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We found a high

HORACIO A. CARBAJAL; MARTIN R. SALAZAR; BEATRIZ RIONDET; HORACIO F. RODRIGO; SUSANA M. QUAINI; VALENTIN RECHIFORT; MARCELO AIZPURUA; RAUL F. ECHEVERRIA

2001-01-01

304

La circunferencia de la cintura en niños con sobrepeso y obesidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine children with additional risk consisting in visceral fat increase. Material and Methods: The study was carried out at Uripa district (Apurímac), Trujillo (La Libertad), and Lima public schools. The population studied consisted in 1234 children 6 through 10 year-old; 48,6% were female. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were done in all children and body mass index

JAIME PAJUELO; ESTHER CANCHARI; JHON CARRERA

2004-01-01

305

Obesity, Blood Pressure and Health-Related Behaviour among German Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To examine the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with blood pressure, waist circumference and other health related risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and TV/PC-screen time) in German youths. Material and methods: A cohort of 831 boys and 808 girls, fifth- to tenth-graders from 3 German high schools…

Graf, Christine; Jouck, Stefanie; Koch, Benjamin; Platschek, Anna-Maria; Arnold, Christiane; Bohm, Michael; Dordel, Sigrid; Tokarski, Walter

2008-01-01

306

negative association with FENO. In normal weight/ underweight patients with asthma, only age affected  

E-print Network

. The increased abdominal and chest wall mass causes decreased functional residual capacity and reduced lung anthropometric measures (eg, waist-circumference, skinfold thickness, or bioelectrical impedance analysis devices: a randomized agreement study. Chest 2005;128:1258-65. 5. World Health Organization. Obesity

Mosher, Deane F.

307

Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires were completed. Independent t tests and Pearson correlations were utilized for analysis.

Sarah Grinnell; Geoffrey Greene; Kathleen Melanson; Bryan Blissmer; Ingrid E. Lofgren

2011-01-01

308

CENTRAL ADIPOSITY RATHER THAN OVERALL OBESITY INFLUENCES CARDIO-METABOLIC RISK FACTORS AMONG ADULT MALES IN NORTHERN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of the study was to examine the effect of normal and high waist circumference on the risk of coronary heart disease within the same body mass index categories. A cross-sectional study using the multistage cluster sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. A total of 948 apparently healthy adult Jordanian males aged 30-50 years were recruited.

Omar Alboqai; Ahmad Suleiman; Huda Al Hourani; Bayan Obeidat; Naji Abuirmeileh; Jafar M. El-Qudah; Motasem M. Al Masad

2009-01-01

309

Original Research Independent Multiple Correlates of Post-Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure Recovery in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Int J Exerc Sci 3(1): 25-35, 2010. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the independent relationships of systolic blood pressure recovery (SBPR) with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), resting heart rate (HR), physical activity, and cigarette smoking in healthy adults. Subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise at progressive incremental workloads until subjects reached 80%

UCHECHUKWU DIMKPA; ANDREW C. UGWU

310

Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

2004-01-01

311

Dartmouth College Wellness Program 2013 Doctor/Health Care Professional Verification Form for Biometric Screenings  

E-print Network

complete the screening requirements including blood pressure, cholesterol (including HDL), glucose (blood Cholesterol HDL Cholesterol Glucose Body Mass Index Waist Circumference Please keep this page for your records for completion of the biometric screening milestone. The required screenings include: Blood pressure, cholesterol

312

Smoking and body mass index as risk factors for subtypes of cancer of unknown primary  

E-print Network

Smoking and body mass index as risk factors for subtypes of cancer of unknown primary Kari Hemminki metastatic tissue and the primary tumor often remains undetected. Based on autopsy data, the most common patients of diverse and unspecified histologies; alcohol drinking and wide waist circumference were

Hemminki, Akseli

313

Monitoring the obesity epidemic in France: the Obepi surveys 1997-2006 Charles Marie-Aline 1 *  

E-print Network

French households by the method of quotas Weight, height and waist circumference were reported by all ; Body Height ; Body Mass Index ; Body Weight ; Disease Outbreaks ; Female ; France ; epidemiology of food quality ( ). Four3 surveys with the same methodology. in 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, document

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Weight loss diet trial Participant Information  

E-print Network

your height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and resting metabolic rate. We will ask your a 7-day food diary, to be completed 1 week before the weight loss study begins to note your normal and kidney function and ECG measurement to monitor your heart rhythm. We will also record your height, weight

Levi, Ran

315

Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg\\/m2, waist circumference (WC) ? 94

Nathalie Duvigneaud; Katrien Wijndaele; Lynn Matton; Peter Deriemaeker; Renaat Philippaerts; Johan Lefevre; Martine Thomis; William Duquet

2007-01-01

316

The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

2010-01-01

317

NTU Health Exam Requirement for Incoming Exchange / Visiting Students In order to understand the general health condition of coming students, and to meet the  

E-print Network

: Male Female Date of Birth: Y/ M / DNationality: ARC or Passport No.: Department : Student ID Weight: kg Waist circumference: cm Blood Pressure: mmHg Pulse Rate: /min Skin: Head & Neck: Chest: Lungs: Abdomen: Heart: Oral Cavity: Others: Muscles/Bones/Joints: Visual Acuity: Uncorrected R L

Wu, Yih-Min

318

NTU Health Exam Requirement for Incoming Exchange / Visiting Students In order to understand the general health condition of coming students, and to meet the  

E-print Network

. #12;2 NTU Incoming Exchange / Visiting Students Health Exam Form Name Sex: Male Female Photo Waist circumference: cm Blood Pressure: mmHg Pulse Rate: /min Skin: Head & Neck: Chest: Lungs: Abdomen: Heart: Oral Cavity: Others: Muscles/Bones/Joints: Visual Acuity: Uncorrected R L

Wu, Yih-Min

319

Predictors of epicardial adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), visceral fat depot of the heart, was found to be associated with coronary artery disease in cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were introduced as potential markers to determine inflammation in various disorders. Recently, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was found to be closely associated with atherosclerosis in general population. Waist circumference is commonly used to assess the risk factors in various metabolic disorders. There has been a well known relation between inflammation and peripheral adipose tissue in diabetes mellitus. However, the data regarding EAT and inflammation is scant in this population. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between PLR, NLR, AIP, waist circumference and EAT in diabetic patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 156 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (87 females, 69 males; mean age, 53.62?±?9.33 years) and 50 control subjects (35 females, 15 males; mean age, 51.06?±?8.74 years). EAT was measured by using a trans-thoracic echocardiogram. Atherogenic index of plasma was calculated as the logarithmically transformed ratio of the serum triglyceride to high density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol. NLR and PLR were calculated as the ratio of the neutrophils and platelets to lymphocytes, respectively. Results Waist circumference, PLR, NLR, AIP and EAT measurements were significantly higher in diabetic patients when compared to control subjects. When diabetic patients were separated into two groups according to their median value of EAT (Group 1, EAT?waist circumference, AIP, NLR and PLR levels. In the bivariate correlation analysis, EAT was positively correlated with PLR, NLR, AIP, BMI and waist circumference (r?=?0.197, p?=?0.014; r?=?0.229, p?=?0.004; r?=?0.161, p?=?0.044; r?=?0.248, p?=?0.002; r?=?0.306, p?Waist circumference was found to be independent variables of EAT. Conclusions Simple calculation of PLR and measurement of waist circumference were found to be associated with increased EAT in diabetic patients. PMID:24822086

2014-01-01

320

The Relation of Rapid Changes in Obesity Measures to Lipid Profile - Insights from a Nationwide Metabolic Health Survey in 444 Polish Cities  

PubMed Central

Objective The impact of fast changes in obesity indices on other measures of metabolic health is poorly defined in the general population. Using the Polish accession to the European Union as a model of political and social transformation we examined how an expected rapid increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference relates to changes in lipid profile, both at the population and personal level. Methods Through primary care centres in 444 Polish cities, two cross-sectional nationwide population-based surveys (LIPIDOGRAM 2004 and LIPIDOGRAM 2006) examined 15,404 and 15,453 adult individuals in 2004 and 2006, respectively. A separate prospective sample of 1,840 individuals recruited in 2004 had a follow-up in 2006 (LIPIDOGRAM PLUS). Results Two years after Polish accession to European Union, mean population BMI and waist circumference increased by 0.6% and 0.9%, respectively. This tracked with a 7.6% drop in HDL-cholesterol and a 2.1% increase in triglycerides (all p<0.001) nationwide. The direction and magnitude of the population changes were replicated at the personal level in LIPIDOGRAM PLUS (0.7%, 0.3%, 8.6% and 1.8%, respectively). However, increases in BMI and waist circumference were both only weakly associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides changes prospectively. The relation of BMI to the magnitude of change in both lipid fractions was comparable to that of waist circumference. Conclusions Moderate changes in obesity measures tracked with a significant deterioration in measures of pro-atherogenic dyslipidaemia at both personal and population level. These associations were predominantly driven by factors not measureable directly through either BMI or waist circumference. PMID:24497983

Kaess, Bernhard M.; Jozwiak, Jacek; Nelson, Christopher P.; Lukas, Witold; Mastej, Miroslaw; Windak, Adam; Tomasik, Tomasz; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Tykarski, Andrzej; Gasowski, Jerzy; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Slezak, Andrzej; Charchar, Fadi J.; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, John R.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Tomaszewski, Maciej

2014-01-01

321

International Differences in the Links between Obesity and Physiological Dysregulation: The United States, England, and Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Excess weight has generally been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, the link between overweight and health outcomes may vary with socioeconomic, cultural, and epidemiological conditions. We examine associations of weight with indicators of biological risk in three nationally representative populations: the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study in Taiwan. Indicators of biological risk were compared for obese (defined using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) and normal weight individuals aged 54+. Generally, obesity in England was associated with elevated risk for more markers examined; obese Americans also had elevated risks except that they did not have elevated blood pressure (BP). Including waist circumference in our consideration of BMI indicated different links between obesity and waist size across countries; we found higher physiological dysregulation among those with high waist but normal BMI compared to those with normal waist and normal BMI. Americans had the highest levels of biological risk in all weight/waist groups. Cross-country variation in biological risk associated with obesity may reflect differences in health behaviors, lifestyle, medication use, and culture. PMID:23781331

Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Kim, Jung Ki; Crimmins, Eileen M.

2013-01-01

322

The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 89 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

CHB C Borneo N Ratio Std.Err. Z-score Ratio Std.Err. Z-score Ratio Std.Err. Z-score Ratio Std.Err. Z-score Ratio Std.Err. Z-score Ratio Std.Err. Z-score Australian 1 8 103% 6% 16.6 101% 6% 15.8 108% 11% 9.6 103

Reich, David

323

Exploring Causality between TV Viewing and Weight Change in Young and Middle-Aged Adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study  

PubMed Central

Background Television viewing time (TV time) is associated with increased weight and obesity, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. Methods and Results We evaluated changes in TV time, waist circumference (waist) and body mass index (BMI) in participants of the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (761 women, 626 men aged 33–50 years in 2011). Waist and BMI were measured, and TV time was self-reported in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Changes in waist and BMI between 2001 and 2011 were studied a) for the whole group, b) in groups with constantly low (?1 h/d), moderate (1–3 h/d), or high (?3 h/d) TV time, and c) in groups with ?1 hour in-/decrease in daily TV time between 2001 and 2011. BMIs in 1986 were also evaluated. We explored the causal relationship of TV time with waist and BMI by classical temporality criterion and recently introduced causal-discovery algorithms (pairwise causality measures). Both methods supported the hypothesis that TV time is causative to weight gain, and no evidence was found for reverse or bidirectional causality. Constantly low TV time was associated with less pronounced increase in waist and BMI, and waist and BMI increase was lower with decreased TV time (P<0.05). The increase in waist and BMI was at least 2-fold in the high TV time group compared to the low TV time group (P<0.05). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI/waist in 2001, physical activity, energy intake, or smoking did not change the results. Conclusions In young and middle-aged adults, constantly high TV time is temporally antecedent to BMI and waist increase. PMID:25028965

Helajarvi, Harri; Rosenstrom, Tom; Pahkala, Katja; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Heinonen, Olli J.; Oikonen, Mervi; Tammelin, Tuija; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.

2014-01-01

324

Impact on Bone of an Estrogen Receptor-? Gene Loss of Function Mutation  

PubMed Central

Context: The kindred described is the only known instance of a germ line loss of function mutation of estrogen receptor (ER)-?. Objective: Our objective was to assess the impact of a loss of function mutation in the ER-? gene on histomorphometry, bone volumetric density, bone geometry and skeletal growth, and ER-? heterozygosity on spine density and adult height in an extended pedigree. Design and Participants: A longitudinal follow-up of the propositus with homozygous loss of function mutation of ER-? and single contact evaluation of the kindred were performed. Main Outcome Measures: Iliac crest bone biopsy and peripheral quantitative computed tomography of propositus with serial measures of areal spine bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone age were performed. Members of pedigree were evaluated for ER-? mutation carrier status and spine aBMD. Results: Bone biopsy revealed marked osteopenia (cortex: 641 ?m), low trabecular volume (10.6%), decreased thickness (76.2 ?m), normal trabecular number, and low activation frequency (0.099/yr). Radial periosteal circumference was similar, endosteal circumference larger, and trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density markedly lower (158 and 1092 mg/cm3, respectively) than controls. Spine aBMD at age 28.5 yr (0.745 g/cm2) decreased to 0.684 g/cm2 (Z score ?3.85) in 3.5 yr. Bone age advanced from 15–17.5 yr. Kindred analysis revealed that gene carriers had spine aBMD Z scores less than zero (P = 0.003), but carriers and nonmutant members were similar (?0.84 ± 0.26 vs. ?0.64 ± 0.16). Conclusion: Homozygous ER-? disruption markedly affects bone growth, mineral content, and structure but not periosteal circumference. ER-? heterozygosity appears to not impair spine aBMD. PMID:18505767

Smith, Eric P.; Specker, Bonny; Bachrach, Bert E.; Kimbro, K. S.; Li, X. J.; Young, Marian F.; Fedarko, Neal S.; Abuzzahab, M. J.; Frank, Graeme R.; Cohen, Robert M.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Korach, Kenneth S.

2008-01-01

325

Ramifications of adolescent menstrual cycles >=42 days in young adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine to what degree annual reports from ages 14 to 19 years of menstrual cycles ?42 days would be associated with increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at ages 14–25 years. Design Prospective 11-year follow-up from ages 14 to 25 years. Setting Urban-suburban schools, post–high school. Patient(s) A total of 370 schoolgirls. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) BMI, waist, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR. Result(s) From ages 14 to 19 years, 269 girls had 0/6 annual reports of menstrual cycles ?42 days, 74 had 1, 19 had 2, and 8 had ?3. Among these four categories, girls with ?3 annual reports had highest free T and DHEAS at age 14, highest BMI and waist at ages 14, 19, and 25, highest insulin at age 25, and highest glucose and HOMA-IR at age 24 years. The number of annual reports of menstrual cycles ?42 days was positively related to change in BMI and waist and inversely with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol from ages 14 to 25 years. Conclusion(s) Three or more annual reports of menstrual cycles ?42 days during ages 14–19 are associated with high BMI, waist circumference, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR at ages 14–25 years. (Fertil Steril® 2011;96: 236–40). PMID:21550045

Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Daniels, Stephen; Wang, Ping; Stroop, Davis

2012-01-01

326

Early pubertal development and insulin sensitivity among school-aged girls: mediation via adiposity  

PubMed Central

Study Objective To examine whether the known association between early pubertal breast maturation and insulin sensitivity (SI) is mediated by adiposity. Design Cross-sectional analyses, Setting: Observational study examining the roles of environment, diet, and obesity on puberty Participants 379 girls with a mean age, 7.03 years; 62% were white and 29% black Main Outcome Measure(s) Pubertal development was assessed via physical examination and adiposity by body mass index Z score (BMI Z) and waist-to-height ratio. Fasting blood samples were obtained for insulin and glucose concentrations. SI was calculated with the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Analysis of variance and Sobel’s test was used to assess mediation. Results Fifty-five girls were pubertal (Tanner 2 breast). Breast maturation was inversely associated with SI (p=.005) and positively associated with BMI Z (p<.001) and waist-to-height ratio (p<.001). The effect of breast maturation on SI was no longer significant (p=.41) after adjusting for the effect of BMI Z, which remained significant (p<.001). Similar results were obtained when waist-to-height ratio replaced BMI Z in the models. Mediation analyses demonstrated that 75% of the association between breast maturation and SI is mediated by adiposity. Conclusions In girls, decreased SI during early puberty is largely mediated by total and visceral adiposity. PMID:23158754

Hillman, Jennifer B.; Huang, Bin; Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.

2012-01-01

327

Patterns of body fat deposition in youth and their relation to left ventricular markers of adverse cardiovascular prognosis.  

PubMed

The patterns of body fat deposition in healthy youth and their relation to future development of cardiovascular disease remain incompletely understood. To further evaluate these patterns, we measured indirect indexes of central and general fat deposition in healthy adolescents (mean age 15.4+/-2.3 years) with family histories of hypertension. We examined the relation between these indexes and echocardiographic markers of adverse prognosis as well as the effect of gender and ethnicity. All 225 subjects (64% black and 48% female) had > or =1 biologic parent and 1 grandparent with hypertension. Skinfold thicknesses, waist-to-hip girth ratio, Quetelet index, Ponderal index, conicity, and Z score weight - Z score height were measured. Left ventricular (LV) mass, indexed LV mass, relative wall thickness (RWT), and midwall fractional shortening (MFS) were determined using echocardiography. In both black and white subjects, the adiposity indexes were significantly correlated with posterior wall thickness, total LV mass, and indexed LV mass (p <0.05 for all). Additionally, in black subjects, central adiposity was inversely related to MFS and directly related to RWT and septal thickness. General adiposity independently predicted indexed and nonindexed LV mass, whereas central adiposity predicted MFS and RWT. Compared with subjects with normal LV geometry, those with abnormal geometry were heavier and fatter based on every index of obesity (p <0.03 for all). Thus, indexes of fat deposition are significantly correlated with LV markers of adverse prognosis in healthy youth. PMID:10482160

Mensah, G A; Treiber, F A; Kapuku, G K; Davis, H; Barnes, V A; Strong, W B

1999-09-01

328

7.G The Circumference of a Circle and the Area of the Region it Encloses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: What is the definition of a circle with center $A$ and radius $r$? A circle has center $A$ and radius $AB$. Is point $A$ on the circle? Is point $B$ on...

329

Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary  

E-print Network

(MVC) in EMG Systems James A.R. Cannan and Huosheng Hu University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester Voluntary Contraction(MVC) is frequently used in human machine muscle interfaces, especially the ones using Elec- tromyography(EMG) and Acousticmyography(AMG). In some cases MVC alone is enough to adapt a system

Hu, Huosheng

330

Biacromical and biiliac length and chest circumference measurements of male Turkish adolescents according to biological maturation.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a period which is characterized by rapid physical growth and development of secondary sex characteristics. Male adolescence begins at 11-12 years of age and lasts approximately 5 years. During this interval, there is a growth spurt period which is observed any time between 11 and 16 years of age, lasting 2-3 years. Some authors claim that a male may have nearly 20-25% of his adult height and 50% of his adult weight during adolescence. When evaluating the maturational aspects of adolescence, it is essential to consider bone age (BA) as well as chronological age (CA). Bone age is the mean CA at which the skeletal maturation is normally attained. It is influenced by genetic, endocrinological and nutritional factors. An adolescent may not demonstrate the expected maturational steps if his BA is retarded. This report examines the relationship between CA, biological maturation and some anthropometrical measurements. PMID:8165916

Büyükgebiz, A; Eroglu, Y; Karaman, O; Kinik, E

1994-02-01

331

Lecture 26 181 Figure 4.5. Relating curvature to the circumference of a circle.  

E-print Network

, or some other piece of proverbial clothing, and give without motivation the definition of the upper half that Euclidean lengths are increased when y is small, and decreased when y is large; Figure 4.6 #12;182 4 that f fixes the real line, which must

Katok, Svetlana

332

Accuracy of Neck Circumference in Classifying Overweight and Obese US Children  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate classification accuracy of NC and compare it with body mass index (BMI) in identifying overweight/obese US children. Methods. Data were collected from 92 children (boys: 61) aged 7 to 13 over a 2-year period. NC, BMI, and percent of body fat (BF%) were measured in each child and their corresponding cut-off values were applied to classify the children as being overweight/obese. Classification accuracy of NC and BMI was systematically investigated for boys and girls in relation to true overweight/obesity categorization as assessed with a criterion measure of BF% (i.e., Bod Pod). Results. For boys, Cohen's ? (0.25), sensitivity (38.1%), and specificity (85.0%) of NC were smaller in comparison with Cohen's ? (0.57), sensitivity (57.1%), and specificity (95.0%) of BMI in relation to BF% categorization. For girls, Cohen's ? (0.45), sensitivity (50.0%), and specificity (91.3%) of NC were smaller in comparison with Cohen's ? (0.52), sensitivity (50.0%), and specificity (95.7%) of BMI. Conclusion. NC measurement was not better than BMI in classifying childhood overweight/obesity and, for boys, NC was inferior to BMI. Pediatricians and/or pediatric researchers should be cautious or wary about incorporating NC measurements in their pediatric care and/or research. PMID:24639913

Gaesser, Glenn A.; Welk, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

333

Effect of improved diet on semen quality and scrotal circumference in the ram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to assess the effect of improved diet above maintenance requirement on reproductive parameters, including testicular size, semen volume, sperm concentration and viability. Twelve Bakhtiary rams were allocated to two groups of six animals and were fed during a 12-week experiment period with different diets which were designed to supply maintenance and above maintenance requirements

Arash Kheradmand; Homayoon Babaei; Rooz Ali Batavani

334

First Beam Waist Measurements in the Final Focus Beam Line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

The ATF2 project is the final focus system prototype for the ILC and CLIC linear collider projects, with a purpose to reach a 37 nm vertical beam size at the interaction point using compact optics based on a novel scheme of local chromaticity correction. Construction of all components and installation were completed at the end of 2008. An initial commissioning phase followed in 2009, using larger than nominal {beta} functions at the interaction point, corresponding to reduced demagnification factors in comparison to the design, to limit effects from higher-order optical aberrations and hence simplify beam tuning procedures while key instrumentation was being tested and calibrated. In this paper, first measurements of dispersion and Twiss parameters are presented based on scanning the beam during this period with a set of tungsten wires located just behind the interaction point, using two complementary analysis methods.

Bai, Sha; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Aryshev, Alexander; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bambade, Philip; /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, IPN; McCormick, Doug; /SLAC; Bolzon, Benoit; /Annecy, LAPP; Gao, Jie; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Tauchi, Toshiaki; /KEK, Tsukuba; Zhou, Feng; /SLAC

2012-06-22

335

Neuromuscular electrostimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle waisting.  

PubMed

Application of electricity for pain treatment dates back to thousands of years BC. The Ancient Egyptians and later the Greeks and Romans recognized that electrical fishes are capable of generating electric shocks for relief of pain. In the 18th and 19th centuries these natural producers of electricity were replaced by man-made electrical devices. This happened in following phases. The first was the application of static electrical currents (called Franklinism), which was produced by a friction generator. Christian Kratzenstein was the first to apply it medically, followed shortly by Benjamin Franklin. The second phase was Galvanism. This method applied a direct electrical current to the skin by chemical means, applied a direct and pulsed electrical current to the skin. In the third phase the electrical current was induced intermittently and in alternate directions (called Faradism). The fourth stage was the use of high frequency currents (called d'Arsonvalisation). The 19th century was the "golden age" of electrotherapy. It was used for countless dental, neurological, psychiatric and gynecological disturbances. However, at beginning of the 20th century electrotherapy fell from grace. It was dismissed as lacking a scientific basis and being used also by quacks and charlatans for unserious aims. Furthermore, the development of effective analgesic drugs decreased the interest in electricity. In the second half of the 20th century electrotherapy underwent a revival. Based on animal experiments and clinical investigations, its neurophysiological mechanisms were elucidated in more details. The pain relieving action of electricity was explained in particular by two main mechanisms: first, segmental inhibition of pain signals to the brain in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and second, activation of the descending inhibitory pathway with enhanced release of endogenous opioids and other neurochemical compounds (serotonin, noradrenaline, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine and adenosine). The modern electrotherapy of neuromusculo- skeletal pain is based in particular on the following types: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS or electro-acupuncture) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS). In mild to moderate pain, TENS and PENS are effective methods, whereas SCS is very useful for therapy of refractory neuropathic or ischemic pain. In 2005, high tone external muscle stimulation (HTEMS) was introduced. In diabetic peripheral neuropathy, its analgesic action was more pronounced than TENS application. HTEMS appeared also to have value in the therapy of symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Besides its pain-relieving effect, electrical stimulation is of major importance for prevention or treatment of muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia. In controlled clinical studies electrical myostimulation (EMS) has been shown to be effective against the sarcopenia of patients with chronic congestive heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ESRD. PMID:23249528

Heidland, August; Fazeli, Gholamreza; Klassen, André; Sebekova, Katarina; Hennemann, Hans; Bahner, Udo; Di Iorio, Biagio

2013-01-01

336

Statewide Physical Fitness Testing: A BIG Waist or a BIG Waste?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statewide physical fitness testing is gaining popularity in the United States because of increased childhood obesity levels, the relations between physical fitness and academic performance, and the hypothesized relations between adult characteristics and childhood physical activity, physical fitness, and health behaviors. Large-scale physical…

Morrow, James R., Jr.; Ede, Alison

2009-01-01

337

WHY YOU SHOULD NOT BEND FROM THE WAIST TO PICK UP A LOAD  

E-print Network

as high. Fulcrum in the middle - It takes 10Kg force to lift 10Kg Fulcrum at 10:1 - It takes 10 x 10Kg totter. To lift this load, you apply 10 Kg force because the fulcrum is placed in the middle. Place the fulcrum to the right at 1/10 of the length, and the force to lift that same weight becomes 10 times

338

[Effectiveness of web-based psychological interventions for weight loss--a systematic review].  

PubMed

Weight reduction is a core objective in the rehabilitation of somatic diseases. This systematic review aims to investigate the effectiveness of web-based psychological interventions for weight loss.Included were randomized controlled trials comparing web-based psychological interventions for weight loss with waiting list or usual care. Outcomes were body mass index (BMI), weight and waist circumference. Effect sizes were analyzed in random-effects meta-analyses.The search identified 5 trials. Subjects of the intervention group reduced their BMI (weighted mean difference--WMD = -0.49 [95%--CI: -0.95; -0.03]), weight (WMD = -1.32 [-2.59; -0.06]) and waist circumference (WMD = -2.35 [-3.18; -1.52]) significantly more than controls.Web-based psychological interventions are effective weight loss interventions. However, the effects are small and their clinical importance is limited. PMID:23761207

Grunenberg, E; Lin, J; Baumeister, H

2013-06-01

339

Sedentary Behaviors and Obesity in a Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Population  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have documented adverse health effects from prolonged sitting and TV viewing. These sedentary pastimes are linked to increased risk for obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. No studies, however, have examined these associations specifically in low-income, minority communities in the US. Methods This cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted in South Dallas, TX. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sedentary behaviors (self-report) and measures of objectively assessed obesity (BMI, waist circumference). Results Among a low-income, ethnic-minority population, there were independent and significant associations between higher levels of sitting time, computer use, and transit time with elevated BMI (P < .05). Elevated waist circumference was also linked to increased sitting time, computer use, and transit time, yet without statistical significance. Conclusions Increased time spent in passive-leisure activities is a risk marker for obesity in this population. PMID:22398752

Shuval, Kerem; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Caughy, Margaret O.; Kohl, Harold W.; Skinner, Celette Sugg

2013-01-01

340

Emerging Longitudinal Trends in Health Indicators for Rural Residents Participating in a Diabetes and Cardiovascular Screening Program in Northern Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background. Geographic isolation, poverty, and loss of culture/tradition contribute to “epidemic” rates of diabetes amongst indigenous Canadians. The Mobile Diabetes Screening Initiative travels to rural indigenous and other remote communities in Alberta to screen for diabetes and cardiovascular risk. We sought to examine risk factors longitudinally. Methods. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were undertaken for 809 adults (aged 20–91) between November 2003 and December 2009. For those who had more than one MDSi visit, trend estimates (actual changes) were calculated for body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (A1c), total cholesterol, and blood pressure. Results. Among those without diabetes (N = 629), BMI and weight increased (P < .01) and blood pressure decreased (P < .05). For those with diabetes (N = 180), significant improvements (P < .05) were observed for all indicators except waist circumference. Conclusion. Improvements observed suggest that MDSi's model may effectively mediate some barriers and support subjects in managing their health. PMID:22295188

Ralph-Campbell, Kelli; Oster, Richard T.; Connor, Tracy; Toth, Ellen L.

2011-01-01

341

Association between vitamin D levels and central adiposity in an eastern Africa outpatient clinical population.  

PubMed

Background Eastern Africa is a vast area straddling the Equator at roughly between latitude 18° North and 25° South of the Equator. This region enjoys overhead or near overhead sunshine throughout the year receiving an estimated 200-275 W/M2 of UVB annually. It is a region undergoing rapid socio-economic changes and thus impacting change in work habits and environment from the outdoors to the indoors. There however exists a dearth of vitamin D3 data on people in this region despite the recognition of vitamin D3 deficiency being a global epidemic. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of vitamin D3 and central obesity in this clinical population and their relationship if any. Methods Serum 25(OH)D, Waist circumference (WC) and Waist to Hip ratio (WHR) data on 182 outpatients attending a Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes was retrospectively analyzed by gender, age category and ethnicity. Results Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in this clinical population in Eastern Africa, females had lower serum concentration, with the younger population having lower serum concentrations than the elderly. There was also a significant difference in serum levels when data was analyzed by ethnicity. Similarly central obesity was also highly prevalent in this population. The odds of being Vitamin D deficient was 3.3 times (p = 0.022) higher among individuals with elevated waist circumference than those with normal waist circumferences. Among the males, the odds of being Vitamin D deficient and having an elevated waist circumference was 6.8 times (p = 0.011) higher than for males with normal waist circumferences. This was however not observed among the females. Conclusion Living on or close to the equator and having overhead or near overhead sunshine throughout the year in and of itself is not a guarantee of adequate serum 25(OH)D concentrations. It may therefore be prudent for clinicians in this region to risk stratify their patients based on work location, age category and ethnicity. PMID:24494058

Theuri, Gitahi; Kiplamai, Festus

2013-01-01

342

Craniofacial anthropometric analysis in Down's syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Past investigations of Down's syndrome (DS) have indicated that there are marked abnormalities in the craniofacial morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the craniofacial anthropometric variables which discriminate DS group from healthy population and also to observe the changes occurring with growth. Using noninvasive method of craniofacial anthropometry, craniofacial pattern profile (CFPP) analysis (from twenty-five anthropometric measurements per person) was performed in 104 DS individuals and 365 healthy controls, aged seven to fifty-seven and divided into four age ranges. Z-scores were calculated for each variable and the variations in the craniofacial region have been identified by multivariate discriminative analysis. The results showed that three variables (head length (g-op), head circumference (OFC) and outer canthal distance (ex-ex) were responsible for 85.68% variability (p < 0.001). The analysis of z-scores showed that the majority of variables were in subnormal (under -2 SD) and normal range (from -2SD to +2SD), but none of them was in the supernormal range (over the +2SD). Some craniofacial characteristics are age-related. On the basis of craniofacial anthropometric traits it was possible to separate even 91.35% of DS patients from the healthy population. It could be concluded that these findings demonstrate the usefulness of application of CFPP in defining abnormal craniofacial dimensions in DS individuals. PMID:12971167

Bagi?, Ivana; Verzak, Zeljko

2003-01-01

343

Gestational Diabetes Independently Increases Birth Length and Augments the Effects of Maternal BMI on Birth Weight: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effect of the interaction between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the individual neonatal growth parameters. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: A tertiary maternity service in Sydney, Australia, between 2005 and 2009. Population: A cohort of 8859 women. Methods: Generalized linear models. Main outcome measures: Neonatal growth parameters, represented by z-scores for infant birth weight (BW), birth length (BL), and head circumference (HC) in GDM and non-GDM groups. Results: Only GDM alone had an independent and positive effect on BL (p?=?0.02) but not on BW or HC. In addition, in pregnancies complicated with GDM, the association between maternal weight and BW was significantly stronger (p?z-score differences between BW and BL (p?

Bystrom, Magdalena; Liu, Anthony; Quinton, Ann Elizabeth; Champion, Bernard Linton; Mann, Kristy; Peek, Michael; Nanan, Ralph Kay Heinrich

2014-01-01

344

Common SNPs in FTO Gene Are Associated with Obesity Related Anthropometric Traits in an Island Population from the Eastern Adriatic Coast of Croatia  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple studies have provided compelling evidence that the FTO gene variants are associated with obesity measures. The objective of the study was to investigate whether FTO variants are associated with a broad range of obesity related anthropometric traits in an island population. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined genetic association between 29 FTO SNPs and a comprehensive set of anthropometric traits in 843 unrelated individuals from an island population in the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia. The traits include 11 anthropometrics (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, bicondilar upper arm width, upper arm circumference, and biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal skin-fold thicknesses) and two derived measures (BMI and WHR). Using single locus score tests, 15 common SNPs were found to be significantly associated with “body fatness” measures such as weight, BMI, hip and waist circumferences with P-values ranging from 0.0004 to 0.01. Similar but less significant associations were also observed between these markers and bicondilar upper arm width and upper arm circumference. Most of these significant findings could be explained by a mediating effect of “body fatness”. However, one unique association signal between upper arm width and rs16952517 (P-value?=?0.00156) could not be explained by this mediating effect. In addition, using a principle component analysis and conditional association tests adjusted for “body fatness”, two novel association signals were identified between upper arm circumference and rs11075986 (P-value?=?0.00211) and rs16945088 (P-value?=?0.00203). Conclusions/Significance The current study confirmed the association of common variants of FTO gene with “body fatness” measures in an isolated island population. We also observed evidence of pleiotropic effects of FTO gene on fat-free mass, such as frame size and muscle mass assessed by bicondilar upper arm width and upper arm circumference respectively and these pleiotropic effects might be influenced by variants that are different from the ones associated with “body fatness”. PMID:20442772

Zhang, Ge; Karns, Rebekah; Narancic, Nina Smolej; Sun, Guangyun; Cheng, Hong; Missoni, Sasa; Durakovic, Zijad; Rudan, Pavao; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Deka, Ranjan

2010-01-01

345

Higher Insulin, Triglycerides, and Blood Pressure With Greater Trunk Fat in Tanner 1 Chinese  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the body fat distribution pattern in prepubertal Chinese children and to investigate the relationship between central fat distribution and specific biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Research Methods and Procedures The study was conducted in an urban Mainland Chinese (Jinan, Shandong) sample of children using a cross-sectional design. Pubertal status was determined by Tanner criteria. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, DXA measures of total body fat and trunk fat; fasting serum measures of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Multiple regression models were developed with the biomarkers of cardiovascular risk factor as the dependent variables, and adjustments were made for significant covariates, including sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, total body fat, trunk fat, and interactions. Results A total of 247 healthy prepubertal subjects were studied. After co-varying for age, weight, height, and extremity fat (the sum of arm fat and leg fat), girls had greater trunk fat than boys (p < 0.0001, R2 for model = 0.95). Insulin and triglyceride were positively related to central fat measured by DXA-trunk fat (p < 0.05) but not related to the waist circumference. In the blood pressure model, waist circumference was a significant predictor of both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, while DXA-trunk fat was associated with diastolic blood pressure only. Significant interactions between sex and trunk fat, and sex and total fat, were found in relation to diastolic blood pressure. Discussion In prepubertal Chinese children, greater trunk fat was significantly associated with higher insulin and triglyceride in boys and girls and was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in boys only. PMID:17426336

He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Heshka, Stanley; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Gallagher, Dympna

2009-01-01

346

Android Fat Distribution as Predictor of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Obesity is considered an independent risk factor for the development of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this study was to define the type of fat distribution related to severity in AP. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with first-time AP underwent measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness on admission. Severity was defined according to Atlanta

Carlos M. Mery; Valeria Rubio; Andrés Duarte-Rojo; Jorge Suazo-Barahona; Mario Peláez-Luna; Pilar Milke; Guillermo Robles-Díaz

2002-01-01

347

Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD. PMID:24519179

Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

2014-08-01

348

Interethnic differences in the accuracy of anthropometric indicators of obesity in screening for high risk of coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Cut points for defining obesity have been derived from mortality data among Whites from Europe and the United States and their accuracy to screen for high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in other ethnic groups has been questioned.Objective:To compare the accuracy and to define ethnic and gender-specific optimal cut points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and

V M Herrera; J P Casas; J J Miranda; P Perel; R Pichardo; A González; J R Sanchez; C Ferreccio; X Aguilera; E Silva; M Oróstegui; L F Gómez; J A Chirinos; J Medina-Lezama; C M Pérez; E Suárez; A P Ortiz; L Rosero; N Schapochnik; Z Ortiz; D Ferrante; M Diaz; L E Bautista

2009-01-01

349

Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Refugee Somali Women Living in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee\\u000a Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess\\u000a physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness\\u000a Walk Test was

Pauline B. Guerin; Fatuma Hussein Elmi; Callie Corrigan

2007-01-01

350

Association of type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci with one-year weight loss in the look AHEAD clinical trial.  

PubMed

The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Kopin, Alan S; Huggins, Gondon S

2012-08-01

351

Physical activity and academic achievement across the curriculum (A + PAAC): rationale and design of a 3-year, cluster-randomized trial  

E-print Network

each. The outcome measures are reaction time and response accuracy. This test (including rest between blocks) can be completed in approximately 15 minutes. Anthropometrics (Height/weight/waist circumference) Children were weighed to the nearest 0.1 kg..., Children, Academic achievement, Cluster-randomized trial, Cognitive function, Fitness, Attention to task * Correspondence: jdonnelly@ku.edu 1Cardiovascular Research Institute, Division of Internal Medicine, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901...

Donnelly, Joseph E.; Greene, Jerry L.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Hansen, David M.; Hillman, Charles H.; Poggio, John; Mayo, Matthew S.; Smith, Bryan K.; Lambourne, Kate; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Scudder, Mark; Betts, Jessica L.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

2013-04-08

352

6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging  

PubMed Central

Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

2009-01-01

353

Obesity, Diabetes and Risk of Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective To investigate whether obesity and diabetes are related to risk of Parkinson disease (PD). Methods We prospectively followed 147,096 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Participants provided information on anthropometric variables and medical history at baseline, and on waist circumference in 1997. Incident cases of PD (n = 656) were confirmed by treating neurologists and medical record review. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, gender, smoking and other risk factors. Results Neither BMI nor waist circumference significantly predicted PD risk. The RR comparing individuals with a baseline BMI of ? 30 to those with a BMI < 23 was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.34; p-trend: 0.79), and that comparing individuals with a waist circumference in the top category (>=40.3 inches in men and >=35 inches in women) to those in the bottom category (<34.5 inches in men and <28 inches in women) was 1.35 (95% CI 0.95, 1.93; p-trend 0.08). History of diabetes was not significantly associated with PD risk (combined RR = 0.88; 95 % CI: 0.62, 1.25; p-heterogeneity = 0.96). In addition, neither BMI at age 18, nor changes in weight between age 18 and baseline were significantly associated with PD risk. The results did not differ significantly by gender Conclusion Our results do not provide evidence for a relationship between BMI, weight change, waist circumference or baseline diabetes and risk of PD. PMID:21739472

Palacios, Natalia; Gao, Xiang; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Patel, Alpa V.; Mayo, Tinisha; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Ascherio, Alberto

2012-01-01

354

Low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation is related to adiposity and metabolic risk factors123  

PubMed Central

Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal nutrition assistance program. In recent years, SNAP participation rates increased during times of economic hardship. Objective: We examined whether household SNAP participation was associated with adiposity and metabolic risk factors in a representative sample of low-income US adults. Design: A cross-sectional analysis was performed with the use of data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The study population was restricted to nonelderly adults whose household incomes fell to or <130% of the federal poverty level. Multinomial logistic and Poisson regression models were fit to examine the associations between SNAP participation and BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic risk factors among 2250 low-income adults. Results: In the previous 12 mo, 32.8% of adults received household SNAP benefits. SNAP participation was positively associated with obesity [prevalence ratio (PR): 1.58; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.31], waist circumference in men (PR for top compared with bottom quartile: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.62; P = 0.02), and waist circumference in women (PR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.51, 5.77; P = 0.003; P-interaction with sex = 0.11), independent of sociodemographic characteristics. SNAP participation was also related to elevated triglycerides (PR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20), lower HDL cholesterol (PR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.41), elevated fasting glucose (?110 mg/dL; PR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.52), and metabolic syndrome (PR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.95). Associations with triglycerides and HDL cholesterol persisted after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion: Household SNAP participation was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic risk factors among low-income adults. These associations may be mediated by dietary intake and warrant further investigation. PMID:22170370

Willett, Walter C; Ding, Eric L

2012-01-01

355

Impact of Race\\/Ethnicity on the Relationship Between Visceral Fat and Inflammatory Biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether racial\\/ethnic differences exist in the relationship between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and selected inflammatory biomarkers. Subjects included 136 African-American, 133 Hispanic, and 100 white men and women, aged ?45. Waist circumference and BMI were measured using standard methods. Total VAT, and VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) at the L4L5 spinal

Joan F. Carroll; Kimberly G. Fulda; Ana L. Chiapa; Mayra Rodriquez; David R. Phelps; Kathryn M. Cardarelli; Jamboor K. Vishwanatha; Roberto Cardarelli

2009-01-01

356

The Relationship Between Obesity and Blood Pressure Differs by Ethnicity in Sydney School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in Southeast Asian (SEAsian) and Australian children living in Australia.MethodsSBP, country of birth, and obesity indices (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percent body fat (%TBF)) were recorded in 1,232 9-year-old children from Sydney schools and remeasured 3 years later

Liang Ke; Kaye E. Brock; Rosemary V. Cant; Yang Li; Stephen L. Morrell

2009-01-01

357

The Relations of Body Composition and Adiposity Measures to Ill Health and Physical Disability in Elderly Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although body build is related to disability and mortality in older people, the independent contributions of adiposity and lean mass are not fully defined. The authors examined the relations of body composition (fat mass index, fat-free mass index) and adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference) to ill health and physical disability in a cross-sectional study of 4,252 British men aged

Sheena E. Ramsay; Peter H. Whincup; A. G. Shaper; S. G. Wannamethee

358

Migration Surrogates and Their Association With Obesity Among Within-Country Migrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited studies have evaluated the link between acculturation and health outcomes of within-country migrants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether well-known acculturation surrogates were associated with obesity among Peruvian rural-to-urban migrants. We performed a cross-sectional survey, the PERU MIGRANT study, using single-stage random sampling. Evaluation included weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) as well as acculturation surrogates.

Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz; Robert H. Gilman; Liam Smeeth; J. Jaime Miranda

2010-01-01

359

Effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometric and lifestyle variables in males.  

PubMed

The obesity epidemic in North America has focused attention on the health risks of excess weight gain. The transition from high school to university is a critical period for weight gain, commonly referred to as the Freshman 15. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometrics and physical and sedentary activities in males. A total of 108 males completed 3 study visits: the summer prior to first year university, and the ends of the first and second semesters. Outcome measures were body mass, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, dietary intake, and participation in physical and sedentary activities. Between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students experienced a significant weight gain, of 3.0 kg, with significant increases in BMI, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist:hip ratio. Energy and nutrient intake did not change. Final body mass was significantly predicted by intention for body mass to stay the same, relative to weight loss intention. Fast aerobic physical activity significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, while slow aerobic physical activity, strength training, and flexibility training did not change. Computer and studying time significantly increased, while television time and hours of nightly sleep significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university. Weekly alcoholic drinks and binge drinking frequency significantly increased over this time period. In conclusion, between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students gained an average of 3.0 kg, with increases in related anthropometrics. These changes may be due to body mass change intention and (or) the observed decreased physical and increased sedentary activities, but appear to be unrelated to dietary intake. PMID:19370046

Pullman, Allison W; Masters, Rachel C; Zalot, Lindsay C; Carde, Lauren E; Saraiva, Michelle M; Dam, Yian Yian; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Duncan, Alison M

2009-04-01

360

Adiposity and Blood Pressure in South Asian Children and Adolescents in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe association of adiposity during childhood with future risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) in South Asian children is not known. We aimed to investigate the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) with BP over a 2-year period, independent of the baseline BP.MethodsWe analyzed data on children aged 5–14 years who participated in the Control of

Aysha Almas; Tazeen H. Jafar

2011-01-01

361

Relationship between short sleeping hours and childhood overweight\\/obesity: results from the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the relationship between short sleep duration and obesity-related variables in children involved in the ‘Québec en Forme’ Project.Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) aged between 5 and 10 years from primary schools in the City of Trois-Rivières (Québec) were selected to participate in this study.Measurements:Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured. The

J-P Chaput; M Brunet; A Tremblay

2006-01-01

362

Cross-Sectional Analysis of Obesity and Serum Analytes in Males Identifies sRAGE as a Novel Biomarker Inversely Associated with Diverticulosis  

PubMed Central

Diverticulosis can lead to diverticulitis, a colon condition involving inflammation and other complications. Diverticulosis can result from biological, behavioral, or genetic causes. However, the etiology of diverticulosis is unknown. Although diet is associated with diverticulosis, recent studies suggest other factors influence risk. We sought to identify anthropometric or serum markers that were associated with the presence of diverticulosis. To determine these associations, 126 asymptomatic men (48–65 yr) were recruited at the time of preventative screening colonoscopy. Anthropometric measures were taken, and blood was collected for serum protein analysis. Data were analyzed by logistic regression and factor analysis. Obese individuals (BMI >30) were 7.8 (CI: 2.3–26.3) times more likely than normal weight (BMI <25) individuals to have diverticulosis. The relationship was similar for waist circumference. Individuals with a waist circumference >45 inches were 8.1 (CI: 2.8–23.8) times more likely to have diverticulosis than those with a waist circumference <38 inches. Leptin was also positively associated with diverticulosis (OR?=?5.5, CI: 2.0–14.7). Both low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW, OR?=?0.50; CI: 0.3–0.8) and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, OR?=?0.4, CI: 0.3–0.7) were inversely related to the presence of diverticulosis. sRAGE levels were not correlated with leptin or C-peptide concentrations. The pattern of high BMI, waist circumference, leptin and C-peptide increased the odds of diverticulosis while the pattern of high levels of sRAGE and LMW adiponectin decreased the odds of diverticulosis. Associations between diverticulosis and anthropometric or serum markers may elucidate the origins of diverticulosis and may enable physicians to identify individuals at risk for diverticulitis. PMID:24740401

Comstock, Sarah S.; Lewis, Markita M.; Pathak, Dorothy R.; Hortos, Kari; Kovan, Bruce; Fenton, Jenifer I.

2014-01-01

363

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in the Metabolically Healthy Obese Phenotype  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the correlates of the “metabolically healthy obese” (MHO) phenotype and the longitudinal risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD)/stroke associated with this phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The North West Adelaide Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 4,056 randomly selected adults aged ?18 years. Participants free of CVD/stroke and not underweight (n = 3,743) were stratified by BMI categories and metabolic risk, defined as having two or more International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome criteria, excluding waist circumference. RESULTS Correlates of the MHO (n = 454 [12.1%]) included smoking, socioeconomic disadvantage, and physical inactivity. Compared with metabolically healthy normal-weight subjects (n = 1,172 [31.3%]), the MHO were more likely to develop metabolic risk (15.5 vs. 33.1%, P < 0.001) and incident diabetes (odds ratio 2.09 [95% CI 0.87–5.03]) but not CVD/stroke (1.16 [0.58–2.29]) during 5.5–10.3 years of follow-up. These risks were not seen in MHO subjects maintaining metabolic health (n = 188 [67%]). Sustained metabolic health in obese participants was associated with age ?40 years and lower waist circumference. Compared with the metabolically at-risk obese, MHO women demonstrated a significantly higher (mean [SE]) percentage of leg fat (49.9 [0.5] vs. 53.2 [0.7]) and lower waist circumference (104 [0.6] vs. 101 cm [0.8]), despite no significant differences in overall adiposity. CONCLUSIONS “Healthy” obesity was a transient state for one-third of subjects. Persistence of a MHO phenotype, which was associated with favorable outcomes, was related to younger age and a more peripheral fat distribution. The MHO phenotype may be sustained by promoting lower waist circumferences. PMID:23491523

Appleton, Sarah L.; Seaborn, Christopher J.; Visvanathan, Renuka; Hill, Catherine L.; Gill, Tiffany K.; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert J.

2013-01-01

364

Body fat distribution in Alaskan Eskimos of the Bering Straits region: the Alaskan Siberia Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe the body fat content and distribution of adult Alaska Natives of the Bering Straits Region.DESIGN: Cross-sectional screening in the spring of 1994.SUBJECTS: 454 non-pregnant native residents from four rural Alaskan villages.MEASUREMENTS: Height, weight, waist, hip and thigh circumference, bioelectrical impedance, sagittal abdominal diameter, and triceps, biceps, suprailiac, subscapular and thigh skinfolds.RESULTS: Mean height, weight and subscapular-to-triceps ratio

PM Risica; SOE Ebbesson; CD Schraer; ED Nobmann; BH Caballero

2000-01-01

365

Gender-Related Differences in the Relationship between Plasma Homocysteine, Anthropometric and Conventional Biochemical Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objective: Gender-related differences in anthropometric measures [body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)] and other coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors have been reported in other ethnics. However, information available on middle aged healthy Indians are scanty. The aim of our present study is to determine plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), anthropometric measures (BMI and WC) and conventional biochemical CHD

Sujatha Pitla; Balakrishna Nagalla

2009-01-01

366

Obesity in adults. Effect of diet and physical exercise on weight, hypertension and biochemical profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of a low caloric diet and regular aerobic exercise on blood pressure, lipid profile, waist-to-hip circumference (W\\/H) ratio and weight reduction.Thirty-five obese subjects aged 38±12 years BMI>27 Kg\\/m2, with a mean follow-up of 12±3 months were studied. Implementation of aerobic exercise (40 minutes, 3 times for week) was prescribed. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR)

Rosa M. Santos; Joao P. Freitas; Mario E. Macedo; Elisabeth M. Castro; Rebelo Irene; Agostinho A. Monteiro; Maria J. Lima; Antonio F. Freitas

2002-01-01

367

Associations between daily food intake and excess adiposity in Irish adults: towards the development of food-based dietary guidelines for reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled in Ireland since 1990 and over half of the population has a large waist circumference (WC). No food-based, dietary guidelines exist in Ireland for a reduction in the prevalence of body fat or obesity.Objective:To examine the association between daily food intake and categories of body mass index and WC for the development of

S N McCarthy; P J Robson; M B E Livingstone; M Kiely; A Flynn; G W Cran; M J Gibney

2006-01-01

368

Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Excessive television (TV) viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents. METHODS: A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose,

David Martinez-Gomez; J. Pablo Rey-López; Palma Chillón; Sonia Gómez-Martínez; Germán Vicente-Rodríguez; Miguel Martín-Matillas; Miguel Garcia-Fuentes; Manuel Delgado; Luis A Moreno; Oscar L Veiga; Joey C Eisenmann; Ascension Marcos

2010-01-01

369

Birthplace, Language Use, and Body Size among Mexican American Women and Men: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Introduction. Mexican immigrant status has been associated with decreased obesity, but this pattern may be changing. We draw from 2001–2006 NHANES data on Mexican Americans to examine whether body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference vary by country of birth and among the U.S.-born by language. Results. Among women, U.S.-born Spanish speakers had the highest mean BMI, followed by immigrant

Claire Brindis; Dorothy Thornton; Sylvia Guendelman; Alicia Fernandez

2011-01-01

370

Birthplace, Language Use, and Body Size among Mexican American Women and Men: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Mexican immigrant status has been associated with decreased obesity, but this pattern may be changing. We draw from 2001–2006 NHANES data on Mexican Americans to examine whether body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference vary by country of birth and among the U.S.-born by language. Results. Among women, U.S.-born Spanish speakers had the highest mean BMI, followed by immigrant

Claire Brindis; Dorothy Thornton; Sylvia Guendelman; Alicia Fernandez

2011-01-01

371

Oxidative damage and inflammation in obese diabetic emirati subjects.  

PubMed

Visceral obesity is more common in the Arab population and more closely related to morbidity, including diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Possible mechanisms that link visceral fat/obesity to diabetes and CVD complications include inflammation and increased oxidative stress; however, few data are available from the Arab population. Our aim was to determine whether increased adiposity in obese diabetic United Arab Emirates citizens is associated with sub-clinical inflammation and/or increased oxidative stress. A hundred diabetic patients who were part of a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements had their baseline characteristics assessed from anthropometric and clinical data following informed written consent. We used WHO figures to classify general and central obesity. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of antioxidants and markers of oxidative damage and inflammation. We found that increased adiposity measured by both body mass index and waist circumference was associated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and decreased vitamin C after adjusting for age, duration and treatment of diabetes (p < 0.05). Although there is a clear trend of increased inflammatory markers, notably CRP, and decreased antioxidants with increased BMI and waist circumference in both men and women, the results are statistically significant for women only. CRP were also inversely associated with HDL. Overall, we found that BMI underestimates the rates of obesity compared to waist circumference and that increased adiposity is associated with increased inflammation and decreased HDL and antioxidant status. PMID:25375631

Gariballa, Salah; Kosanovic, Melita; Yasin, Javed; Essa, Awad El

2014-01-01

372

Correlations of non-exercise activity thermogenesis to metabolic parameters in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expenditure due to physical activities besides active sports-like exercise and resistance training in daily life. Methods We studied 45 subjects (22 women and 23 men) with type 2 diabetes who did not take any hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive, or cholesterol-lowering agents and asked them about physical activity concerned with NEAT using an original questionnaire modified from a compendium of physical activities. We studied the association of the NEAT score to body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, and arterial stiffness. Results The NEAT score was negatively correlated with serum insulin levels (r = -0.42, P < 0.05) in all subjects. The NEAT score was also negatively correlated with waist circumference (r = -0.509, P < 0.05) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (r = 0.494, P < 0.05) in women, and negatively associated with serum insulin levels (r = -0.732, p < 0.005), systolic (r = -0.482, P < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.538, P < 0.05) in patients with abdominal obesity. Furthermore, the NEAT score was negatively associated with pulse wave velocity (r = -0.719, P < 0.005) in smokers. Conclusion The study demonstrated that NEAT is associated with amelioration in insulin sensitivity, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood pressure and the marker for atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23711224

2013-01-01

373

Trajectories of Change in Obesity and Symptoms of Depression: The CARDIA Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether, over time, baseline obesity is associated with change in depressive symptoms or if baseline symptoms of depression are associated with change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Methods. We used latent growth curve modeling to examine data from years 5, 10, 15, and 20 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (n = 4643). We assessed depressive symptomatology with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Results. Respondents who started out with higher levels of depressive symptoms experienced a faster rate of increase in BMI (for Whites only) and waist circumference (for Blacks and Whites) over time than did those who reported fewer symptoms of depression in year 5. Initial BMI and waist circumference did not influence the rate of change in symptoms of depression over time. Conclusions. Depressive symptomatology likely plays a role in the development of physical health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, through its association with increases in relative weight and abdominal obesity over time. PMID:20395582

Epel, Elissa S.; Adler, Nancy E.; Kiefe, Catarina

2010-01-01

374

Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits  

PubMed Central

Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10?8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tonu; Magi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amelie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Gronberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Volzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tonjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hypponen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindstrom, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutA?kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Goran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nothen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Marz, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Nj?lstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Ines; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David

2013-01-01

375

Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship with Metabolic Markers in Persons with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in the UAE: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aim. To report vitamin D status and its impact on metabolic parameters in people in the United Arab Emirates with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methodology. This cross-sectional study included 309 individuals with obesity and T2D who were randomly selected based on study criteria. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (s-25(OH)D), calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, glycemic profile, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed in fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results. Vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 50?nmol/L) was observed in 83.2% of the participants, with a mean s-25(OH)D of 33.8 ± 20.3?nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D correlated negatively (P < 0.01) with body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and positively (P < 0.01) with age and calcium concentration. Waist circumference was the main predictor of s-25(OH)D status. There was no significant association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic profile. Conclusion. There is an overwhelming prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our sample of the Emirati population with obesity and T2D. Association of s-25(OH)D with body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, markers of calcium homeostasis and cardiometabolic parameters suggests a role of vitamin D in the development of cardiometabolic disease-related process. PMID:25371907

Ahmed, Solafa M.; Skaria, Sijomol; Abusnana, Salah

2014-01-01

376

Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Obese Diabetic Emirati Subjects  

PubMed Central

Visceral obesity is more common in the Arab population and more closely related to morbidity, including diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Possible mechanisms that link visceral fat/obesity to diabetes and CVD complications include inflammation and increased oxidative stress; however, few data are available from the Arab population. Our aim was to determine whether increased adiposity in obese diabetic United Arab Emirates citizens is associated with sub-clinical inflammation and/or increased oxidative stress. A hundred diabetic patients who were part of a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements had their baseline characteristics assessed from anthropometric and clinical data following informed written consent. We used WHO figures to classify general and central obesity. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of antioxidants and markers of oxidative damage and inflammation. We found that increased adiposity measured by both body mass index and waist circumference was associated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and decreased vitamin C after adjusting for age, duration and treatment of diabetes (p < 0.05). Although there is a clear trend of increased inflammatory markers, notably CRP, and decreased antioxidants with increased BMI and waist circumference in both men and women, the results are statistically significant for women only. CRP were also inversely associated with HDL. Overall, we found that BMI underestimates the rates of obesity compared to waist circumference and that increased adiposity is associated with increased inflammation and decreased HDL and antioxidant status. PMID:25375631

Gariballa, Salah; Kosanovic, Melita; Yasin, Javed; El Essa, Awad

2014-01-01

377

Late-life depression symptom profiles are differentially associated with immunometabolic functioning.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests immune and metabolic dysregulation among depressed persons, possibly restricted to specific subgroups. This study explores the association between depressive disorders and characteristics with immunometabolic functioning among older persons. Data are from the baseline assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons, including 131 non-depressed and 358 depressed (6-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder) persons (60-93 years). Immune (C-reactive protein, interleukin [IL]-6) and metabolic (waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose) factors were measured. Depression characteristics included severity, age of onset, symptom profile (atypical/melancholic) and antidepressant use. Depressed persons showed lower IL-6 levels compared with non-depressed persons. Depressed persons, except those with atypical depression, had lower waist circumference, lower glucose levels and scored lower on an overall index including all immunometabolic factors. Low waist circumference was more pronounced among those with less severe depression and those with a later age of onset, whom also had lower blood pressure levels. Atypical depression was associated with higher triglyceride levels. Antidepressant use was not clearly associated with immunometabolic functioning. To conclude, contrary to our expectations, we found overall immunometabolic downregulation in older depressed persons, in particular among those with less severe symptoms and those with late-life onset. However, persons with atypical depression presented with metabolic upregulation compared with other depressed persons. Taking depression symptom profiles into account is important when examining biological dysregulation in late-life depression. PMID:24838021

Vogelzangs, Nicole; Comijs, Hannie C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Stek, Max L; Penninx, Brenda W J H

2014-10-01

378

Continental-Mediterranean and rural-urban differences in cardiovascular risk factors in Croatian population  

PubMed Central

Aim To compare the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) factors between continental and Mediterranean areas and urban and rural areas of Croatia, as well as to investigate the differences in achieving treatment goals by the general practitioners (GP) in different settings. Methods A multicenter prospective study was performed on 2467 participants of both sexes ?40 years old, who visited for any reason 59 general practices covering the whole area of Croatia (May-July 2008). The study was a part of the Cardiovascular Risk and Intervention Study in Croatia-family medicine (CRISIC-fm) study. Patients were interviewed using a 140-item questionnaire on socio-demographics and CVD risk factors. We measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and determined biochemical variables including blood pressure, total, high-density lipoprotein-, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, glycemia, and uric acid. Results Participants from continental rural areas had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P?waist circumference (P?waist circumference. Conclusion Prevalence of CVD risk factors in Croatian population is high. Greater burden of risk factors in continental region and rural areas may be partly explained by lifestyle differences. PMID:21853552

Bergman Markovic, Biserka; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjcevic, Ksenija; Vucak, Jasna; Kern, Josipa; Bielen, Ivan; Ivezic Lalic, Dragica; Katic, Milica; Reiner, Zeljko

2011-01-01

379

A 6-month observational study of energy, sexual desire, and body proportions in hypogonadal men treated with a testosterone 1% gel  

PubMed Central

Aims and Methods This was a 6-month, open label, multinational, observational study in hypogonadal men treated with daily titrated dose of 50, 75, or 100?mg 1% testosterone gel (AndroGel®) in community practice. Primary outcome was effect of treatment on hypogonadal symptoms and quality of life as assessed by Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale. Secondary objectives included erectile dysfunction (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI]), and surrogates for body composition (waist circumference, body mass index [BMI]). Results Seven hundred and ninety-nine of the 1053 men enrolled had follow-up data at 6 months, 81.2% had ?1 testosterone value in the normal range during the study. Substantial and significant improvements were observed in mean AMS score (?29%), IIEF score (+115.7%), and MFI scores (?21.5%). Further beneficial effects were significant decreases in mean BMI (?0.8?kg/m2) and waist circumference (?3.3?cm). Younger age quartiles showed greater improvements in AMS, MFI, BMI, and waist circumference than older quartiles. IIEF scores, however, did not differ significantly by age category. Conclusions Substantial improvements in hypogonadal symptoms, quality of life, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and libido/sexual desire were observed. Adverse drug reactions were experienced by 7.5% of the safety population over the 6-month study period. PMID:24274081

Behre, Hermann M.; Morales, Alvaro; Kan-Dobrosky, Natalia; Miller, Michael G.

2014-01-01

380

Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate which obese children have an increased risk for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), a risk factor for later diabetes. METHODS: We studied 169 European untreated obese children and adolescents with normal glucose tolerance at baseline. Waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipids, blood pressure, pubertal stage, 2 h glucose in oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT), and HbA1c were determined at baseline and 1 year later. RESULTS: One year after baseline, 19 (11.2%) children demonstrated IGT, 4 (2.4%) children had impaired fasting glucose, no (0%) child suffered from diabetes, and 146 (86%) children still showed normal glucose tolerance. At baseline, the children with IGT and with normal glucose tolerance in a one-year follow-up did not differ significantly in respect of any analyzed parameter, apart from pubertal stage. The children developing IGT entered puberty significantly more frequently (37% vs 3%, P < 0.001). One year after baseline, the children with IGT demonstrated significantly increased waist circumference, blood pressure values, insulin and triglyceride concentrations, and insulin resistance index HOMA. The children remaining in the normal glucose tolerance status 1 year after baseline did not demonstrate any significant changes. CONCLUSION: During the study period of 1 year, more than 10% of the obese children with normal glucose tolerance converted to IGT. Repeated screening with oGTT seems meaningful in obese children entering puberty or demonstrating increased insulin resistance, waist circumference, blood pressure, or triglyceride concentrations. PMID:21537438

Kleber, Michaela; de Sousa, Gideon; Papcke, Sophie; Reinehr, Thomas

2010-01-01