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1

The Republic of Zambia.  

PubMed

In 1964, at independence, Zambia's economic future looked brighter than that of most other developing countries. Its copper production accounted for 8% of total world production, and only neighboring Zaire outpaced it in the production of cobalt. Its Central Province around Kabwe held rich deposits of both zinc and lead; uranium deposits also had been found, but their projected yield remained undetermined. Since 1974, the decline in the price of copper and the increase in the price of oil have played havoc with Zambia's balance of payments. Copper, which accounted for 40% of the gross national product (GNP) and 98% of all foreign exchange in 1964, shrank to 12% of the GNP in 1978 while still generating most of the foreign exchange. As a result, imports were cut back markedly from $1.5 billion in 1973 to $690 million in 1983. Although this trend is beginning to make a U-turn, Zambia's economic situation is grave. In 1984 the GNP continued to register negative growth and inflation stood at 25%. With its urbanization rate doubling from 21% in 1964 to 43% in 1985, Zambia is now the most urbanized country south of the Sahara. Zambia's 1985 population is estimated to be 6.8 million. Between 1963 and 1969, the average annual population growth rate was 2.5: it was 3.1% between 1969-80. The current birthrate of about 48/1000 is expected to decline only marginally in the next 15 years, but the death rate is declining more rapidly -- from 19/1000 in the late 1960s to 15/1000 in 1985. Life expectancy is expected to rise from the current 51 years to about 58 years. As a result of the high growth rate, Zambia's population is young, with a median age of about 16.3 years. Traditional African values stress the importance of large families. Zambia's total fertility rate was 6.9 in 1985. According to the World Bank, only 1% of married women of childbearing age in 1982 used contraceptives. Although tribal links are weakening, Zambia still counts 73 officially recognized tribes. Together, they speak about 40 different dialects. Zambia now apportions over 15% of its national budget to education. Despite some noticeable progress, the public health structure remains deficient. Principal health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, and, in Northern Province and Luapula Province, sleeping sickness and river blindness. About 2/3 of the labor force, an estimated 2.2 million persons in 1982, still work in agriculture. Female labor force participation is lower in Zambia than in many African nations. PMID:12267904

Hakkert, R; Wieringa, R

1986-05-01

2

Quality assurance in Zambia.  

PubMed

Primary health care reforms in Zambia have focused on the themes of effective leadership, community involvement, and improved service quality. To achieve these goals, the Ministry of Health's structure has been decentralized and a Health Reforms Implementation Team (including a Quality Assurance Unit) has been established. This unit collaborates with government and private sector organizations and professional groups in areas such as strategic planning, problem solving, facility assessment, standards setting, and indicator development. Each province has two linkage facilitators who provide district-level training and support to quality assurance coaches. As part of this process, staff at Nanga Rural Health Center in Mazabuka District selected patient privacy as a priority quality assurance issue and established an enclosed area for patient interviews. This measure facilitated increased patient disclosure about and comfort with discussing sensitive medical issues such as family planning and sexually transmitted diseases. Next, the health center staff examined the problem of pharmaceutical shortages, and user fees were identified as a means of purchasing commonly unavailable drugs. At the Magoye Rural Health Center, quality assurance assessment led to the consolidation of services such as infant weighing and immunization at the same location, thereby significantly increasing service utilization. PMID:12347471

Reinke, J; Tembo, J; Limbambala, M F; Chikuta, S; Zaenger, D

1996-01-01

3

The epidemiology of bovine dermatophilosis in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine dermatophilosis (Senkobo disease) has been reported annually in Zambia for many years. However, its epidemiology under Zambian conditions had never been adequately studied. Officially the disease has never been recognized as being of any economic consequence.

K. L. Samui; M. E. Hugh-Jones

1990-01-01

4

LAND TENURE in ZAMBIA Bastiaan van Loenen  

E-print Network

LAND TENURE in ZAMBIA Bastiaan van Loenen May 1999 University of Maine Department of Spatial Information Engineering Abstract Land registration and cadastral systems exist in great variety. This paper describes the rich history of Zambian land tenure systems and discusses the present land tenure system

Onsrud, Harlan J.

5

Gender differences in mathematics education in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses whether gender differences in mathematics education exist in Zambia, and if so, what are their possible causes. Differences are found to be present both in terms of access, and in terms of performance. Possible reasons for such differences are examined, in the light of empirical data consisting of responses to an attitude questionnaire.

Roy Sayers

1994-01-01

6

Orthopoxvirus infection among wildlife in Zambia.  

PubMed

Human monkeypox is a viral zoonosis caused by monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus (OPXV). The majority of human monkeypox cases have been reported in moist forested regions in West and Central Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In this study we investigated zoonotic OPXV infection among wild animals in Zambia, which shares a border with DRC, to assess the geographical distribution of OPXV. We screened for OPXV antibodies in sera from non-human primates (NHPs), rodents and shrews by ELISA, and performed real-time PCR to detect OPXV DNA in spleen samples. Serological analysis indicated that 38 of 259 (14.7?%) rodents, 14 of 42 (33.3?%) shrews and 4 of 188 (2.1?%) NHPs had antibodies against OPXV. The OPXV DNA could not be detected in spleens from any animals tested. Our results indicated that wild animals living in rural human habitation areas of Zambia have been infected with OPXV. PMID:25319753

Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Sawa, Hirofumi

2015-02-01

7

Viral diseases of livestock in Zambia.  

PubMed

This review is to provide information on viral diseases of livestock in Zambia. The distribution of the diseases as well as the control measures and limited research that has been done, are described. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) causes serious economic losses in the cattle industry. So far five serotypes (SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, O and At of FMD virus have been isolated in Zambia. Other notifiable viral diseases are rabies, Rift Valley fever, Lumpy skin disease, African horse sickness, bluetongue, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Marek's disease, fowlpox and infectious bursal disease. Based on the reports of clinical and/or serological diagnoses, these are widespread in the country, although their precise incidence rates are not known. With the establishment of a veterinary school equipped with modern diagnostic facilities and the increasing number of qualified veterinary personnel, this review would stimulate surveillance study on the viral diseases for the ultimate goal of achieving effective disease control measures. PMID:8870389

Mweene, A S; Pandey, G S; Sinyangwe, P; Nambota, A; Samui, K; Kida, H

1996-08-01

8

The epidemiology of HIV infection in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV-sero-status were collected in the 2001 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made

N. B. Kandala; C. Ji; P. F. Cappuccio; R. W. Stones

2008-01-01

9

Potential of rainwater harvesting in urban Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was associated with a WARFSA funded research project “Potential of rainwater harvesting in urban Zambia”. The general objective of the research was to investigate the applicability of rainwater harvesting in urban Zambia. This paper presents the results obtained at the time of writing the paper. Rainwater harvesting was not new to Zambia and there had been installations which were mainly confined to rural areas. Laboratory analysis of water samples from one such system showed that the water was suitable for drinking purposes. Two peri-urban areas of Lusaka were selected mainly based on the water stress in the areas. The socio-cultural survey conducted in the two areas indicated that water ranked among the top two priorities by the Residential Development Committee. Design of the systems was based on the mass curve analysis for storage and rational formula for the gutters. However, a maximum storage of 10 cubic meters was chosen due to budgetary limitation. Construction of five systems was in progress.

Handia, Lubinga; Tembo, James Madalitso; Mwiindwa, Caroline

10

Zambia, the TAZARA and the alternative outlets to the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zambia has attempted to reduce her excessive transport dependency on her traditional transport routes via South Africa and the former Portugese colonies. The costly construction of the Tanzania?Zambia Railway (TAZARA) was part of this diversification strategy. This article examines the nature, extent and direction of Zambian traffic, including its historical evolution. It explores further the place of TAZARA among the

Ngila Mwase

1987-01-01

11

Fires in Angola, Zambia, and Namibia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of MODIS images shows biomass burning in southern Africa in April, May, and June of 2002. The images span a number of different viewpoints of the region, but the country of Angola, with its highly dendritic (carved by rivers) geological formations are common to them all. Many of the images show part of four countries: Angola (usually at left), Zambia (right), Botswana (bottom right), and Namibia (bottom left). In many images, at lower center, the Okavango River creates a green broomstick-shaped delta in Boptwsana.

2002-01-01

12

The epidemiology of bovine dermatophilosis in Zambia.  

PubMed

Bovine dermatophilosis (Senkobo disease) has been reported annually in Zambia for many years. However, its epidemiology under Zambian conditions had never been adequately studied. Officially the disease has never been recognized as being of any economic consequence. A field study was designed and conducted from August to December 1986, to provide estimates of epidemiological statistics and other factors for the period January 1985 to December 1986 in four districts. These districts supported approximately 28% of the national cattle herd. The study was conducted in communally grazed herds as the disease was reportedly of little significance in commercial herds. A total of 365 herds containing 22,344 head of cattle were inspected and the owners interviewed; 286 herds (78.4%) and 1114 cattle (5.0%) were found to be affected. Rainy weather, vegetation type such as grass savannah, woodland savannah and thorny bush, ticks and biting flies were indicated as important factors in the appearance and course of dermatophilosis in Zambia. PMID:2392822

Samui, K L; Hugh-Jones, M E

1990-01-01

13

Syphilis in pregnant women in Zambia.  

PubMed Central

Because of the high incidence of congenital syphilis at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, the potential risks of congenital infection and fetal loss due to syphilis were assessed by screening 202 antenatal patients, 340 pregnant women admitted to the hospital whose pregnancies ended in either spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital. Primary serological screening was performed with the rapid plasma reagin test, and reactive sera were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test. In all cases detailed histories were obtained and patients were examined for clinical signs of syphilis. The TPHA test result was reactive in 12.5% of antenatal patients and in 42% of women who aborted in the later half of pregnancy. Among 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital, 30 had reactive results to the TPHA test; of these two were stillborn and four had signs of congenital syphilis at birth. Thus, syphilis appears to affect adversely an appreciably high number of pregnant women in Zambia. For this reason a special campaign to screen adequately and treat pregnant women and neonates is needed. PMID:6756542

Ratnam, A V; Din, S N; Hira, S K; Bhat, G J; Wacha, D S; Rukmini, A; Mulenga, R C

1982-01-01

14

Soil microbial community responses to farm management strategies in Zambia  

E-print Network

. 2007. Pyrosequencing enumerates and contrasts soil microbial diversity. ISME Journal 4Soil microbial community responses to farm management strategies in Zambia Lorena Gomez, Ari that preserve soil organic matter and improve crop productivity. Microbial communities in soil are involved

Garrett, Karen A.

15

Background on Zambia's Labor Market with Cross-National Comparisons  

E-print Network

, they began implementing the Zambia Business Survey (ZBS) to collect data that would be used to recommend policies. This survey ?is the first comprehensive, nationally representative survey of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises across all nine... nine provinces of Zambia. The Micro-, Small-, and Medium-Sized Enterprise (MSME) survey focused on firms that employed 50 workers or less, which constitutes the vast majority of Zambian businesses. The MSME covered 4,801 firms. The Large...

Chester, Alex; Dang, Thao; Edgell, Amanda; Harber, Matthew; Mahaney, Dace; Messer, Matthew; Ramos, Luis

2011-01-01

16

Financial deepening and poverty reduction in Zambia: an empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the inter-temporal causal relationship between financial sector development and poverty reduction in Zambia. The paper attempts to answer one critical question: does financial sector development in Zambia lead to poverty reduction? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses the newly developed autoregressive distributed lag-bounds testing procedure, which has numerous advantages, especially when

Nicholas M. Odhiambo

2010-01-01

17

Cucumis zambianus (Cucurbitaceae): A New Species from Northwestern Zambia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During germplasm explorations within Zambia in 1984, seven Cucumis accessions were collected that could not be identified to species. Two of the accessions were studied in-depth. Based on phenotypic characters, they were closest to Cucumis pustulatus. In ITS analyses of all available Cucumis spec...

18

Deschooling Language Study in East Africa: The Zambia Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second language learning methods of Southern Baptist missionaries in Zambia are described. Instead of studying the new language in a school setting, the student receives a week of orientation and is then placed in the community and expected to practice communicating with the native speakers at every opportunity. The student follows a course…

Roberts, David Harrill

19

Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Kafue, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Interest in developing countries smoking prevalence has been growing since 1999. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and associated factors among school-age adolescents in Kafue, Zambia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using standard Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) methodology. Frequencies and odds ratios

Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Adamson S. Muula

2007-01-01

20

The financial and production impacts of bovine dermatophilosis in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During October to December 1986, 365 traditional cattle herds in four provinces in Zambia were inspected and the owners interviewed. Information was collected on the treatment, management and disposal of cases of bovine dermatophilosis and on the effects of this disease on productivity for 1985. The contemporary financial cost per case of treatment and\\/or premature disposal, slaughter or death to

K. L. Samui; M. E. Hugh-Jones

1990-01-01

21

Theileriosis in Zambia: etiology, epidemiology and control measures.  

PubMed

In Zambia, theileriosis manifests itself in the form of Corridor disease (CD), caused by Theileria parva lawrencei, and East Coast fever (ECF), caused by T. parva parva. Of the approximately 3 million cattle in Zambia, 1.4 million are at risk to theileriosis. ECF is found in the Northern and Eastern provinces of the country, while CD appears in Southern, Central, Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces. Theileriosis is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in Zambia, with losses of about 10,000 cattle per annum. The disease is spreading at a very fast rate, over-flowing its original borders. The epidemiology is complicated by, among other factors, the wide distribution of the tick vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, which is found all over the country. The current strategy of relying on tick control and therapeutic drugs as a way of controlling the disease is becoming increasingly difficult for Zambia. This is because both curative drugs and acaricides are very costly. Immunization against theileriosis using the infection and treatment method as a way of controlling the disease is becoming increasingly accepted, provided local Theileria stocks are used. This paper reviews the incidence of theileriosis in the last 2 years, 1991 and 1992. It also gives a historical perspective of the disease, epidemiology and control measures presently in use. PMID:7933764

Nambota, A; Samui, K; Sugimoto, C; Kakuta, T; Onuma, M

1994-06-01

22

Use of Traditional Medicine among Pregnant Women in Lusaka, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We studied the prevalence of and predictors for traditional medicine use among pregnant women seeking care in the Lusaka, Zambia public health system. Subjects: We surveyed 1128 pregnant women enrolled in a clinical trial of perinatal human immunodefi- ciency virus (HIV) prevention strategies at two district delivery centers. Outcome measures: Postpartum questionnaires were administered to determine demographic characteris- tics,

Yolan Banda; Victoria Chapman; Robert L. Goldenberg; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer; Jennifer F. Culhane; Moses Sinkala; Sten H. Vermund; Benjamin H. Chi

2007-01-01

23

Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

US Agency for International Development, 2009

2009-01-01

24

Sexual activity among junior secondary school girls in Zambia.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a causal model of sexual activity among a randomly selected sample of 305 Junio secondary school girls in Zambia. The results indicate that liberal sexual attitudes influence romantic involvement with boys. Emotional involvement is likely to result in sexual activity. Traditional courtship forms are slowly being replaced by modern patterns of courtship behaviour. Policy and programme implications are discussed. PMID:9881137

Pillai, V K; Barton, T; Benefo, K

1997-07-01

25

Consumption Behaviour in Zambia: The Link to Poverty Alleviation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to be able to suggest viable solutions to the overwhelming problem of poverty on the African continent, it is first necessary to know exactly what is causing that poverty. It is the intention of this paper to measure welfare in Zambia, via an estimated consumption function, and then to compare this estimated consumption to the levels of poverty,

Kirsten Ludi

2006-01-01

26

Mapping the Geographical Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Methodology/Principal findings Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. Conclusions/significance LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia. PMID:24587466

Mwase, Enala T.; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul E.

2014-01-01

27

Factors contributing to the effectiveness of newly posted Peace Corps Volunteers in the Rural Aquaculture Promotion Project in Zambia  

E-print Network

The Rural Aquaculture Promotion (RAP) project is a vital development initiative by the Peace Corps in Zambia with the goal of increasing the nutritional and caloric intake of rural Zambian farmers in addition to augmenting income (Peace Corps Zambia...

Trant, Clay Allen

2004-09-30

28

The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a…

Siaciwena, Richard; Lubinda, Foster

2008-01-01

29

AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.  

PubMed

A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials. PMID:12315435

Msimuko, A K

1988-04-01

30

Strategies for Living with the Challenges of HIV and Antiretroviral Use in Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to identify strategies for living with the challenges of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) use among new medication users in urban Zambia. Participants (n = 160) were recruited from urban Lusaka, Zambia. Qualitative Data was drawn from monthly ARV treatment education intervention groups addressing HIV and antiretroviral use. Themes…

Jones, Deborah; Zulu, Isaac; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Vamos, Szonja; Gomez, Jacqueline; Weiss, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

31

Reforming pensions in Zambia : an analysis of existing schemes and options for reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of Zambia's pension schemes are deficient in design, financing, and administration. This report urges that Zambia restructure its social protection system to complement its new economic strategy. That restructuring must address such basic problems as macroeconomic fluctuations and an unstable financial sector; high inflation rates and politically-motivated low-yield investments and loans; income ceilings irregularly adjusted for inflation; overgenerous public

Monika Queisser; Clive Bailey; John Woodall

1997-01-01

32

Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to read whole…

Gray, Peter

2011-01-01

33

July 17, 2002 Zambia GNSS Earth Science 2002 1 Global Navigation Satellite Systems  

E-print Network

1 July 17, 2002 Zambia GNSS Earth Science 2002 1 Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for Earth Sciences Prof. Thomas Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA USA tah@mit.edu http://www-gpsg.mit.edu/~tah July 17, 2002 Zambia GNSS Earth Science 2002 2 Introduction · Earth

Herring, Thomas

34

Socioeconomic development of women in Zambia, an analysis of two women's organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report on the role of local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the improvement of the socioeconomic position of women in Zambia is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out in 1988 and 1989, and a consultancy mission undertaken on behalf of the Organization of Dutch volunteers abroad in May-June 1989. Chapter 1 reviews Zambia's socioeconomic situation, with special reference to the

Anne Touwen

1990-01-01

35

Personal and Environmental Predictors of the Intention to Use Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low maternal healthcare service utilization contributes to poor maternal and new born health outcomes in rural Zambia. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors influencing women's intention to use these services in Kalomo, Zambia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1007 women of…

Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

2014-01-01

36

Access to Land, and Poverty Reduction in Rural Zambia: Connecting the Policy Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

It might be considered unlikely that inadequate access to land would be one of the major causes of rural poverty in Zambia. However, evidence presented in this paper shows that economically viable arable land is not in great abundance in Zambia after considering the current situation with respect to access to road infrastructure and access to services and markets. In

Thomas S. Jayne; Ballard Zulu; Gear Kajoba; Michael T. Weber

2008-01-01

37

Quality of antenatal care in Zambia: a national assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the recommended interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries, high rates of ANC coverage coexist with high maternal and neonatal mortality. This disconnect has fueled calls to focus on the quality of ANC services. However, little conceptual or empirical work exists on the measurement of ANC quality at health facilities in low-income countries. We developed a classification tool and assessed the level of ANC service provision at health facilities in Zambia on a national scale and compared this to the quality of ANC received by expectant mothers. Methods We analysed two national datasets with detailed antenatal provider and user information, the 2005 Zambia Health Facility Census and the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), to describe the level of ANC service provision at 1,299 antenatal facilities in 2005 and the quality of ANC received by 4,148 mothers between 2002 and 2007. Results We found that only 45 antenatal facilities (3%) fulfilled our developed criteria for optimum ANC service, while 47% of facilities provided adequate service, and the remaining 50% offered inadequate service. Although 94% of mothers reported at least one ANC visit with a skilled health worker and 60% attended at least four visits, only 29% of mothers received good quality ANC, and only 8% of mothers received good quality ANC and attended in the first trimester. Conclusions DHS data can be used to monitor “effective ANC coverage” which can be far below ANC coverage as estimated by current indicators. This “quality gap” indicates missed opportunities at ANC for delivering effective interventions. Evaluating the level of ANC provision at health facilities is an efficient way to detect where deficiencies are located in the system and could serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate country progress. PMID:23237601

2012-01-01

38

Distribution of Rift Valley fever among cattle in Zambia.  

PubMed

In the present study, 1,421 cattle in 32 herds within nine districts, which are important cattle-producing centers in the nine provinces of Zambia, were tested for Rift Valley fever by the indirect immunofluorescence assay. One hundred and forty-seven cattle (10.5%) in 28 herds (88.9%) in the nine districts tested were positive for Rift Valley fever implying a country-wide distribution. In districts associated with flood plains and/or "dambos" (low lying areas of perpetual flooding), high herd and individual positive rates (100% and > 10%, respectively) were found, suggesting a significance of these features in the distribution of the disease. PMID:9559442

Samui, K L; Inoue, S; Mweene, A S; Nambota, A M; Mlangwa, J E; Chilonda, P; Onuma, M; Morita, C

1997-04-01

39

e-Government for Development Information Exchange (DIE): Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.

Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin

40

A review of tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Zambia’s estimated incidence of all forms of human tuberculosis (TB) is 707/100,000. High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) – infection with Mycobacterium bovis – in cattle and the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) has been reported in the Kafue basin. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and meat products from infected animals poses a risk of transmitting zoonotic tuberculosis to people living at the human-animal interface. Despite the reported high prevalence of BTB in both livestock and wildlife, information on the proportion of human patients infected with M. bovis is unknown in Zambia. This paper reviews the available information in English on human, livestock and wildlife TB in Zambia with the purpose of assessing the burden of animal infections with M. tuberculosis complex and its public health implications. PMID:23849550

2013-01-01

41

Maize, food insecurity, and the field of performance in southern Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interrelationship between maize farming, the discourse of modernity, and the performance of a modern\\u000a farmer in southern Zambia. The post-colonial Zambian government discursively constructed maize as a vehicle for expanding\\u000a economic modernization into rural Zambia and undoing the colonial government’s urban modernization bias. The pressures of\\u000a neo-liberal reform have changed this discursive construction in ways that

Nicholas Sitko

2008-01-01

42

Perception of cattle farmers of the efficacy of east coast fever immunization in Southern Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted to assess the perception of cattle farmers of the efficacy of East\\u000a Coast fever (ECF) immunization in southern Zambia. One hundred and seventy-nine farmers from five districts in southern Zambia\\u000a were interviewed. The majority of farmers (85%) perceived ECF immunization as being very effective and about half of them\\u000a (51.4%) preferred immunization

P. Fandamu; E. Thys; L. Duchateau; D. Berkvens

2006-01-01

43

Prevention and Management of Neonatal Hypothermia in Rural Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal hypothermia is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for newborn survival. The World Health Organization recommends maintaining a warm chain and skin-to-skin care for thermoprotection of newborn children. Since little is known about practices related to newborn hypothermia in rural Africa, this study's goal was to characterize relevant practices, attitudes, and beliefs in rural Zambia. Methods and Findings We conducted 14 focus group discussions with mothers and grandmothers and 31 in-depth interviews with community leaders and health officers in Lufwanyama District, a rural area in the Copperbelt Province, Zambia, enrolling a total of 171 participants. We analyzed data using domain analysis. In rural Lufwanyama, community members were aware of the danger of neonatal hypothermia. Caregivers' and health workers' knowledge of thermoprotective practices included birthplace warming, drying and wrapping of the newborn, delayed bathing, and immediate and exclusive breastfeeding. However, this warm chain was not consistently maintained in the first hours postpartum, when newborns are at greatest risk. Skin-to-skin care was not practiced in the study area. Having to assume household and agricultural labor responsibilities in the immediate postnatal period was a challenge for mothers to provide continuous thermal care to their newborns. Conclusions Understanding and addressing community-based practices on hypothermia prevention and management might help improve newborn survival in resource-limited settings. Possible interventions include the implementation of skin-to-skin care in rural areas and the use of appropriate, low-cost newborn warmers to prevent hypothermia and support families in their provision of newborn thermal protection. Training family members to support mothers in the provision of thermoprotection for their newborns could facilitate these practices. PMID:24714630

Lunze, Karsten; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Marsh, David R.; Kafwanda, Sarah Ngolofwana; Musso, Austen; Semrau, Katherine; Waltensperger, Karen Z.; Hamer, Davidson H.

2014-01-01

44

SHORT REPORT: PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST SPOTTED FEVER, MURINE TYPHUS, AND Q FEVER RICKETTSIAE IN HUMANS LIVING IN ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agents of rickettsial diseases ( Rickettsia conorii, R. typhi, and Coxiella burnetii) have been reported throughout the African continent. However, there have been no reports on epidemiologic surveys of these infections in Zambia. This study was designed to clarify the prevalence of three rickettsioses in 377 humans in Zambia. The seroprevalence of antibodies against R. conorii, R. typhi,

TAMAKI OKABAYASHI; FUTOSHI HASEBE; KENNY L. SAMUI; AARON S. MWEENE; SHANKER G. PANDEY; TSUYOSHI YANASE; YASUKAZU MURAMATSU; HIROSHI UENO; CHIHARU MORITA

45

Provision of Learning and Teaching Materials for Pupils with Visual Impairment: Results from a National Survey in Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide…

Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph

2012-01-01

46

Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.  

PubMed

There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

2012-05-25

47

Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results 985 individuals aged ? 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1–14 years to 20.6% in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ? 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to accelerate this positive trend of decline in LF transmission in the area. PMID:24499525

2013-01-01

48

The financial and production impacts of bovine dermatophilosis in Zambia.  

PubMed

During October to December 1986, 365 traditional cattle herds in four provinces in Zambia were inspected and the owners interviewed. Information was collected on the treatment, management and disposal of cases of bovine dermatophilosis and on the effects of this disease on productivity for 1985. The contemporary financial cost per case of treatment and/or premature disposal, slaughter or death to the owners was K. 202 (US$91). The cost due to draft oxen being affected was estimated at K. 428 (US$193) per affected ox. The cost of reduced milk production, replacing affected cows and calf deaths, directly or indirectly from bovine dermatophilosis, was estimated at K. 132 (US$78) per affected milking cow. The total annual national cost of bovine dermatophilosis in 1985 was conservatively estimated to be some K. 6.9 million, (US$3 million). There were indications that the true financial cost in 1985 may have been up to 1.8 times the estimated cost. PMID:2247943

Samui, K L; Hugh-Jones, M E

1990-01-01

49

Cost-effectiveness of eye care services in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery and refractive error/presbyopia correction in Zambia. Methods Primary data on costs and health related quality of life were collected in a prospective cohort study of 170 cataract and 113 refractive error/presbyopia patients recruited from three health facilities. Six months later, follow-up data were available from 77 and 41 patients who had received cataract surgery and spectacles, respectively. Costs were determined from patient interviews and micro-costing at the three health facilities. Utility values were gathered by administering the EQ-5D quality of life instrument immediately before and six months after cataract surgery or acquiring spectacles. A probabilistic state-transition model was used to generate cost-effectiveness estimates with uncertainty ranges. Results Utility values significantly improved across the patient sample after cataract surgery and acquiring spectacles. Incremental costs per Quality Adjusted Life Years gained were US$ 259 for cataract surgery and US$ 375 for refractive error correction. The probabilities of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios being below the Zambian gross national income per capita were 95% for both cataract surgery and refractive error correction. Conclusion In spite of proven cost-effectiveness, severe health system constraints are likely to hamper scaling up of the interventions. PMID:24568593

2014-01-01

50

Conceptualization of appropriate technology in Lundazi district of rural Zambia  

SciTech Connect

A sample of 144 people from the Lundazi District of the Eastern Province of rural Zambia in Central Africa responded to a questionnaire. The first objective of the study was to determine how men and women conceptualize and evaluated appropriate technology for food production, processing, preservation, and storage; second, to investigate if participation in modern institutions (COSISOCHINS) was related to conceptualization of appropriate technology. There were no significant gender differences in how men and women viewed appropriate technology. Participation in modern institutions was not significantly related to how people conceptualized and evaluated appropriate technology. There were significant gender differences in participation in modern institutions; men participated more than women. The findings remained the same when age, education, income and marital status held constant. Sex-role task overlap and exclusiveness in gender division of labor account for lack of significant gender differences. Modern institutions can be useful if they are effectively integrated with the social structure, gender division of labor, and social organization of the production process of the rural communities of the Third World.

Tembo, M.S.

1987-01-01

51

Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-01-01

52

Strengthening Community Involvement: Partnering with Indigenous Faith-Based Organizations to Develop Sustainable Partnerships in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in delivering HIV\\/AIDS services to the population of Zambia. It outlines the causes of HIV transmission, the development of community initiatives to provide services and education programs to underserved families and orphans affected by the disease, and activities of multinational organizations as they partner with FBOs to strengthen education programs, provide

Corliss Lentz

2010-01-01

53

Gender, British Administration and Mission Management of Education in Zambia 1900-1939  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the impact of including gender in the analytical framework in a study of the management and provision of education in Zambia from 1900 to 1939. It shows that a focus on gender allows females to enter the historical narrative and the leadership of women such as Mabel Shaw, Hannah Frances Davidson and Julia Smith can be given…

Allen, Julia

2010-01-01

54

e-Piano, A Case of Music Education via e-Learning in Rural Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new educational environment is emerging within the field of applied music instruction. For the purposes of testing the viability of e-learning through the study of the piano, a unique relationship was established between a teacher in suburban North America and two students (currently ages 10 and 9) in rural Zambia. Synchronous (real time) exchanges were initiated on a weekly

Kristin Shoemaker; Gertjan van Stam

2010-01-01

55

Of cabbages and King Cobra: Populist politics and Zambia's 2006 election  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zambia's 2006 election was won by incumbent President Levy Mwanawasa and his Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD). However, it is argued here that the most important outcome of the campaign was the successful articulation of a new populist politics by Michael Sata's Patriotic Front (PF), which won a significant majority in urban areas. Sata's attacks on foreign investors (particularly from

Miles Larmer; Alastair Fraser

2007-01-01

56

Risk factors for brucellosis in indigenous cattle reared in livestock–wildlife interface areas of Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate risk factors of Brucella seropositivity in cattle herds reared in livestock–wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar National Parks in Zambia between August 2003 and September 2004. Sera were collected from cattle aged ?2 years from 124 herds. Data on husbandry practices, grazing strategies, and herd structure (sex and age composition) were

J. B. Muma; K. L. Samui; J. Oloya; M. Munyeme; E. Skjerve

2007-01-01

57

Access, Quality, and Opportunity: A Case Study of Zambia Open Community Schools (ZOCS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community schools and other approaches to Alternative Primary Education or APE have increased access to primary education for underserved populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a major goal of the Education for All (EFA) movement. In Zambia, a country where an estimated 20 percent of the basic education enrollment now attends community…

Mwalimu, Michelle

2011-01-01

58

Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

2007-01-01

59

Inquiry-Based Science Education: A Scenario on Zambia's High School Science Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is aimed at elucidating the current state of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in Zambia's high school science curriculum. Therefore, we investigated Zambian teachers' conceptions of inquiry; determined inquiry levels in the national high school science curriculum materials, which include syllabi, textbooks and practical exams; and…

Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mumba, Frackson

2012-01-01

60

Post-impoundment changes in the fish fauna of Lake Itezhi-tezhi, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fish fauna of the newly inundated Lake Itezhi-tezhi, Zambia was observed between 1980 and 1985. Marked changes in the community structure were identified. The most obvious were a decline in species diversity and a shift in species composition from acommunity with a preponder- ance of Alesles lateralis (Boulenger) (Characidae), to one dominated by cichlids. These changes were primarily due

C. K. Kapasa; I. G. Cowx

1991-01-01

61

Living the end of empire: politics and society in late colonial Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on the foundational work of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, the essays in this collective volume offer a picture of the late colonial period in Zambia. The volume is based on untapped archival material and sources that have emerged in recent years and throws new light on some of the historical trajectories that the teleological gaze of nationalist scholars tended to

J. B. Gewald; M. Hinfelaar; G. Macola

2011-01-01

62

Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia. PMID:22954173

2012-01-01

63

DIARRHEA PREVENTION THROUGH HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL WATER DISINFECTION AND SAFE STORAGE IN ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water quality intervention that consists of water treatment, safe storage, and community education was field tested in Kitwe, Zambia. A total of 166 intervention households were randomly selected from one community and 94 control households from another. Baseline surveys were conducted and the intervention was distributed. Weekly active diarrhea surveillance, biweekly water testing, and a follow-up survey were conducted.

ROBERT E. QUICK; AKIKO KIMURA; ANGELICA THEVOS; MATHIAS TEMBO; ISIDORE SHAMPUTA; LORI HUTWAGNER; ERIC MINTZ

2002-01-01

64

Using Images to Promote Reflection: An Action Research Study in Zambia and Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the use of images to promote reflection and analysis of inclusive practices. The image-based work was set in the context of a two-year action research study, which took place in Tanzania and Zambia, 2001-2003, in collaboration with researchers from the Enabling Education Network (EENET), based at the University of…

Miles, Susie; Kaplan, Ian

2005-01-01

65

Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution  

E-print Network

Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution Anne M activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart surface ozone was over 90 ppbv and column tropospheric ozone exceeded 50 DU. These values are higher than

Thompson, Anne

66

A Micro-Isis-Based Information System for Suporting Research in the Institute for African Studies,University of Zambia.  

E-print Network

??The institute for African studies(IAS)is an interdisciplinary research unit in the University of Zambia.However,it operates as an independent entity.The institute undertakes research in the social… (more)

Simui, Muyoyeta

2010-01-01

67

The effect of ICTs on the accessibility of medical research Information by Medical Research Personnel in Zambia.  

E-print Network

??This study aimed at assessing the effects of information Communication Technologies(ICTs)on the accessibility of medical research information by medical research personnel in Zambia.It was an… (more)

Mwalimu, Chanda Edward

2010-01-01

68

18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437  

E-print Network

18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News

West, Stuart

69

Adolescent HIV disclosure in Zambia: barriers, facilitators and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Introduction As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help parents to assess and understand the evolving cognitive capacity and maturity of their adolescents in order to determine the appropriate time to inform them of their HIV-positive status. Such interventions should also mitigate the risk of HIV stigma, as well as local norms that may prevent discussions of sexuality within families. Adolescents who have been informed of their HIV status should be provided with on-going support to prevent disclosure from negatively affecting their psychological and sexual wellbeing. Further research is needed to explore the potential role of trusted family members in contributing to the disclosure process. PMID:24629845

Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Kalibala, Sam; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Cataldo, Fabian; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Ross, David

2014-01-01

70

Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.  

PubMed

This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension, thereby challenging the governing pattern of income control and decision making. Thus, the economic restructuring of the Philippines and Zambia did not necessarily bring about significant changes in the labor market such that gender equality would be promoted. PMID:12322204

Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

1998-01-01

71

Active Management of Third Stage of Labour Saves Facility Costs in Guatemala and Zambia  

PubMed Central

This study calculated the net benefit of using active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) rather than expectant management of the third stage of labour (EMTSL) for mothers in Guatemala and Zambia. Probabilities of events were derived from opinions of experts, publicly available data, and published literature. Costs of clinical events were calculated based on national price lists, observation of resources used in AMTSL and EMTSL, and expert estimates of resources used in managing postpartum haemorrhage and its complications, including transfusion. A decision tree was used for modelling expected costs associated with AMTSL or EMTSL. The base case analysis suggested a positive net benefit from AMTSL, with a net cost-saving of US$ 18,000 in Guatemala (with 100 lives saved) and US$ 145,000 in Zambia (with 467 lives saved) for 100,000 births. Facilities have strong economic incentives to adopt AMTSL if uterotonics are available. PMID:17591351

Frick, Kevin D.; Fogarty, Linda A.; Fishel, Joy D.; Vivio, Donna M.

2006-01-01

72

Cancrum oris: management, incidence, and implications of human immunodeficiency virus in Zambia.  

PubMed

The University Teaching Hospital is situated in the Zambian capital, Lusaka. In a 15-year period (1979 to 1993), 81 child patients with cancrum oris were admitted to the pediatric plastic surgery unit. There were 29 boys and 52 girls, of whom 58 were below 3 years of age. The majority of them were from certain provinces where the population is comparatively much lower than in other provinces of Zambia. The dietary habits in cancrum orisprone provinces are quite different than those of other provinces of Zambia. Of 81 patients, 3 refused surgery, 11 died during early medical treatment, and 12 died following early minor surgery. A total of 55 patients had reconstructive surgery by one of the authors (Nath). Problems encountered during management, such as anesthesia, trismus, and choice of appropriate flaps, are discussed in this paper. The implication of human immunodeficiency virus is also addressed. PMID:9703069

Nath, S; Jovic, G

1998-08-01

73

Mortality and commercial off-take rates in adult traditional cattle of Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort study was conducted in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia to determine cattle mortality and commercial\\u000a off-take rates among adult cattle as well as factors influencing them. A total of 416 animals from 43 herds were followed\\u000a up for one year and animals were individually identified and their fate was indicated as sold, slaughtered, dead or present\\u000a as

J. B. Muma; M. Munyeme; K. L. Samui; V. Siamudaala; J. Oloya; K. Mwacalimba; E. Skjerve

2009-01-01

74

Reforming Pensions in Zambia: An Analysis of Existing Schemes and Options for Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

January 1997The design of new pension systems in African countries requires choices between defined benefit and defined contribution schemes, between funding or pay-as-you-go schemes, and between public and private management. But those choices are less important than the basic challenge of improving macroeconomic stability, regulatory capabilities, and the ability to extend coverage to citizens.All of Zambia's pension schemes are deficient

Monika Queisser; Clive Bailey; John Woodall

1999-01-01

75

77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The United States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS) is amending notice for the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26-30, 2012, published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, to expand the eligibility to include U.S. trade associations and to set a new application deadline for trade......

2012-11-07

76

Financing smallholder agribusiness in Zambia: an economic analysis of the ZATAC model  

E-print Network

Klinefelter John C. Groth Head of Department, John P. Nichols August 2008 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics iii ABSTRACT Financing Smallholder Agribusiness in Zambia: An Economic Analysis of the ZATAC Model. (August 2008) Brian Namushi... To my wife and my daughter vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my profound gratitude to my advisory committee chair, Dr. Salin, and committee members, Dr. Groth, and Dr. Klinefelter, for their guidance and support throughout the course...

Mwanamambo, Brian Namushi

2009-05-15

77

Insecticide resistance and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus populations from Zambia and Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

BackgroundTwo mitochondrial DNA clades have been described in Anopheles funestus populations from southern Africa. Clade I is common across the continent while clade II is known only from Mozambique and Madagascar. The specific biological status of these clades is at present unknown. We investigated the possible role that each clade might play in the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and the insecticide resistance status of An. funestus from Zimbabwe and Zambia.MethodsMosquitoes were collected inside houses from Nchelenge District, Zambia and Honde Valley, Zimbabwe in 2013 and 2014. WHO susceptibility tests, synergist assays and resistance intensity tests were conducted on wild females and progeny of wild females. ELISA was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. Specimens were identified to species and mtDNA clades using standard molecular methods.ResultsThe Zimbabwean samples were all clade I while the Zambian population comprised 80% clade I and 20% clade II in both years of collection. ELISA tests gave an overall infection rate of 2.3% and 2.1% in 2013, and 3.5% and 9.2% in 2014 for Zimbabwe and Zambia respectively. No significant difference was observed between the clades. All populations were resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates but susceptible to organochlorines and organophosphates. Synergist assays indicated that pyrethroid resistance is mediated by cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases. Resistance intensity tests showed high survival rates after 8-hrs continuous exposure to pyrethroids but exposure to bendiocarb gave the same results as the susceptible control.ConclusionsThis is the first record of An. funestus mtDNA clade II occurring in Zambia. No evidence was found to suggest that the clades are markers of biologically separate populations. The ability of An. funestus to withstand prolonged exposure to pyrethroids has serious implications for the use of these insecticides, either through LLINs or IRS, in southern Africa in general and resistance management strategies should be urgently implemented. PMID:25293669

Choi, Kwang S; Christian, Riann; Nardini, Luisa; Wood, Oliver R; Agubuzo, Eunice; Muleba, Mbanga; Munyati, Shungu; Makuwaza, Aramu; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Brooke, Basil D; Hunt, Richard H; Coetzee, Maureen

2014-10-01

78

Managing private, commercial rangelands for agricultural production and wildlife diversity in Namibia and Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The private game industry has grown across Africa since the mid-20th century. While considerable research has documented wildlife\\u000a production on commercial land in many eastern and southern African countries, few studies have focused specifically on the\\u000a integration of livestock and game production in Namibia and Zambia. This paper reports a survey of 43 commercial conservancy\\u000a members in Namibia and 23

Devan Allen McGranahan

2008-01-01

79

Motivation and Marginalization in African Urban Agriculture: The Case of Lusaka, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban agriculture in Africa has been identified as an important income generation and survival strategy among poor and not\\u000a so poor households. However, official attitudes to urban agriculture vary considerably between and within different African\\u000a countries. Recent field-based research undertaken in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia, reveals that urban agriculture makes a\\u000a significant contribution to the food basket of many

Danny Mulala Simatele; Tony Binns

2008-01-01

80

Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The metamorphism in the country rocks E of the batholith is in the lower greenschist facies indicating that deformation along the ITZ and NZ occurred during the cooling of the granite. U-Pb zircon LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses reveal that the coarse-grained and fine-grained granites in the NE part of the batholith have the same age of 549×2 Ma. The age of an undeformed aplite that truncates the NZ's foliation brackets the strike-slip shearing between 549×2 Ma and 541×3 Ma. In the SE margin of the batholith deformed coarse-grained granite is dated at 544×2 Ma and an undeformed granitic vein gave an age of 543×3 Ma, thus relating the fabric formation to the same time interval. To the SW the deformed granite in the ITZ is dated at 533×3 Ma indicating that the E-W shortening was still active at this time. This study reports two deformational stages recorded in the Hook batholith and its country rocks. E-W shortening folded the sediments form the E margin of the granite and formed the solid-state fabric in the batholith. The following N-S shortening cold be related to the final docking of the Zambezi sequence to the Lufilian Arc along the Mwembeshi dislocation.

Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

2013-12-01

81

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02%) for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia. PMID:22280795

2012-01-01

82

Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

2014-11-01

83

Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system. PMID:23298401

2013-01-01

84

From targeted exemptions to user fee abolition in health care: experience from rural Zambia.  

PubMed

Poor access to health care is one of the greatest impediments to improved health in Africa. In Zambia, user fees are considered to be partly responsible for substantial disparities in access to health care. When the Government introduced user fees in 1993, considerable concern was expressed about the adverse effects on utilisation and access. A national exemption policy was designed to protect the poorest sections of the population. However, this was largely ineffective in reaching the majority of the eligible population. On January 13th, 2006, the President of Zambia announced a policy to abolish user fees at primary health care facilities in designated rural districts. This was a major policy shift from targeted exemptions to free primary health care across the board. This study reviewed the performance of free health care in Zambia, following 15 months of implementation. Using a comprehensive national facility-based dataset, we found that utilisation increased among the rural population aged at least five years by 55%. Importantly, utilisation increases were greatest in the districts with the highest levels of poverty and material deprivation. Further, our patient exit interview survey at facilities in two rural districts reveals that although there is some evidence of a strain on drug supplies, perceptions of quality of health care remain fairly positive. This is in contrast to the experience in other countries that have removed user fees. Our findings strongly suggest that fee removal is more effective than fragmented efforts to target exemptions to certain groups in providing protection against the financial consequences of using health services. PMID:20542363

Masiye, Felix; Chitah, Bona M; McIntyre, Diane

2010-08-01

85

Is the Bangweulu Basin in Zambia the Eroded Remnant of a Large, Multiring Impact Crater?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bangweulu Basin (BB) (ca. 29 degrees-31 degrees E, 10 degrees-12 degrees S) is a roughly circular depression, ~150 km in diameter, on the Bangweulu Block of Zambia. The basin, about 1148 m ASL, is occupied by Lakes Bangweulu (~85 km long) and Kampolombo (~20 km long) and the Bangweulu Swamps [1,2]. The basement consists partly of granitoids (~1.8 Ga) together with ~1.1-Ga Katangan cover rocks. To the north, cover rocks of the Mporokoso Group (~1.8-1.3 Ga) form the arcuate Luongo Fold Belt [3], partly defining the perimeter of the outermost ring (R = 125 km) of the Bangweulu structure. Drainage into the BB is centripetal, with one outlet in the south, draining into a tributary of the Luapula River, which then curves in a broad arc toward the north, along the Zambia-Zaire border, before entering Lake Mweru. Rivers entering the BB include the Luansenshi, which rises in the north and flows in an arc to the southeast and south before joining the Chambeshi River, which flows southwest, west, and northwest before entering Lake Bangweulu. There is an arcuate watershed in the west (at R = 100 km), to the west of which rivers drain to the southwest and west into the Luapula River. Several elongate curved sliver-like islands, including Mbawala (~30 x 4 km) and Chisi, are present in Lake Bangweulu. The curvature of the islands follows the arcuate northwest boundary of the lake in a concentric manner. Unlike all the other major lakes in Zambia and surrounding areas (Mweru, Tanganyika, Rukwa, Malawi, and Kariba), which occupy seismically active rift structures [4,5], the Bangweulu Basin is generally aseismic, and is unrelated to rifting. There is a positive aeromagnetic intensity anomaly over the central Bangweulu depression, and there is also a magnetic anomaly density high over the central part of the BB, surrounded by a concentric low [6]. A roughly circular anomaly, outlined by the -140 mgal contour, of the regional Bouguer gravity field is centerd on Lake Bangweulu, surrounded by an arcuate high south of the Luongo Fold Belt [7,8]. There are few heat flow measurements in Zambia [9], but there is no indication that the Bangweulu Basin has abnormally high heat flow, which is present in the Luangwaand Upper Zambezi rifts, as evidenced by numerous hot springs and historical geysers [10]. Satellite imagery of Central Africa clearly shows a roughly circular outline of the Bangweulu Basin, including the lakes and swamps, surrounded by a concentric ring of uplifts. The concentric islands in Lake Bangweulu are reminiscent of the multiple concentric rings around impact basins in other planetary bodies, e.g., Valhalla and Asgard structures on the jovian moon of Callisto. Lunar craters Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, and others also have similar terraced morphologies with concentric rings. Based on the above geomorphological and geophysical features, it is postulated that the Bangweulu Basin represents the eroded remnant of a large multiring impact structure that postdates the Katangan Supergroup. Any possible connection between the Bangweulu structure and the Lukanga swamp (a postulated astrobleme in central Zambia [11]) is unknown at this stage. Ground search for macro- and microscopic shock features in the Bangweulu Basin is planned for 1994. References: [1] Debenham F. (1947) Geog. Rev., 37, 351-368. [2] Thieme J. G. and Johnson R. L. (1976) The 1:1,000,000 Scale Geological Map of the Republic of Zambia, Geol. Surv. Zambia. [3] Andersen L. S. and Unrug R. (1984) Precambrian Res., 25, 187-212. [4] Bram K. (1972). Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 62, 1211-1216. [5] Fairhead J. D. and Henderson N. B. (1977) Tectonophysics, 41, 19-26. [6] Saviaro K. (1979) Bull. Geol. Surv. Botswana, 22, 159-181. [7] Mazac O. (1974) Tech. Rept. Geol. Surv. Zambia, 76, 40 pp. [8] Cowan I. M. and Pollack H. N. (1977) Nature, 266, 615-617. [9] Chapman D. S. and Pollack H. N. (1975) Nature, 256, 28-30. [10] Legg C. A. (1974) Econ. Rept. Geol. Surv. Zambia, 50, 60 pp. [11] Vrana S. (1985) Meteoritics, 20, 125-139.

Master, S.

1993-07-01

86

A Qualitative Assessment of the Risk of Introducing Peste des Petits Ruminants into Northern Zambia from Tanzania  

PubMed Central

A qualitative risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risk of introducing Peste des petits ruminants virus into northern Zambia from Tanzania via live goat trade. Data was collected during a mission to Tanzania and northern Zambia and also from literature and interviews with experts. The risk of PPRV introduction was evaluated as a function of the probability of hazard (PPRV) release, exposure of susceptible hosts, and the consequences of spread using the following parameters: prevalence of infection, volume of trade, C-ELISA and quarantine screening missing an infected animal, PPRV viability (remaining infective) in transit, and the virus potential for infection. The magnitude of the consequences was derived from the probability of transmission and spread and the impact of PPRV introduction and establishment. Accordingly, the probability of occurrence of PPRV in northern Zambia from Tanzania was rated as “high” and the economic consequences were also rated as “high.” Finally, the overall risk of introducing PPRV into northern Zambia from Tanzania at the time of the assessment was rated “high.” It was concluded that import of goats and sheep be prohibited until efficient and adequate measures to reduce the risk have been put in place. PMID:24558632

Chazya, R.; Muma, J. B.; Mwacalimba, K. K.; Karimuribo, E.; Mkandawire, E.; Simuunza, M.

2014-01-01

87

Sowing the good seed. The interweaving of agricultural change, gender relations and religion in Serenje District, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In de periode 1963-64 verrichtte Norman Long onderzoek in een rurale gemeenschap in Chibale Chiefdom, een van de Lala Chiefdoms in Serenje District, Zambia. Zijn onderzoek richtte zich voornamelijk op de analyse van de differentiële reacties van verschillende groepen op veranderende agrarische, sociale en economische omstandigheden alsmede op interventie door de koloniale overheid.Een belangrijk thema in Long's werk was de

H. Seur

1992-01-01

88

Short report: prevalence of antibodies against spotted fever, murine typhus, and Q fever rickettsiae in humans living in Zambia.  

PubMed

The causative agents of rickettsial diseases (Rickettsia conorii, R. typhi, and Coxiella burnetii) have been reported throughout the African continent. However, there have been no reports on epidemiologic surveys of these infections in Zambia. This study was designed to clarify the prevalence of three rickettsioses in 377 humans in Zambia. The seroprevalence of antibodies against R. conorii, R. typhi, and C. burnetii was 16.7%, 5.0%, and 8.2%, respectively. The rates of antibody positivity against R. conorii and C. burnetii were higher in the eastern (23.1% and 11.8%) and western (16.8% and 7.4%) areas of Zambia than in the northern (3.0% and 3.0%) area of this country. There was little difference among the three areas in the distribution of antibodies against R. typhi. Since cattle breeding is more extensive in the western and eastern areas than in the northern area, it is thought that cattle-breeding areas are foci of R. conorii and C. burnetii infections in Zambia. PMID:10432059

Okabayashi, T; Hasebe, F; Samui, K L; Mweene, A S; Pandey, S G; Yanase, T; Muramatsu, Y; Ueno, H; Morita, C

1999-07-01

89

Proc. of IEEE Africon'2011, 13-15 Sept., Livingstone, Zambia A Role for Robotics in Sustainable Development?  

E-print Network

Proc. of IEEE Africon'2011, 13-15 Sept., Livingstone, Zambia 1 A Role for Robotics in Sustainable Development? Guido Bugmann Centre for Robotic and Neural Systems University of Plymouth Plymouth, United Kingdom gbugmann@plymouth.ac.uk Mel Siegel and Rachel Burcin Robotic Institute Carnegie Melon University

Bugmann, Guido

90

Teacher Education Reform in Zambia...Is It a Case of a Square Peg in a Round Hole?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study of institutional response to policy-driven/donor-influenced teacher-education reforms in Zambia, exploring perceptions and reactions of teacher educators as they cope with a new teacher-education paradigm and examining how policy-driven reforms can be at cross-purposes with, and destabilize, the professional beliefs of the…

Musonda, Lawrence W.

1999-01-01

91

Factors Associated with School Teachers' Perceived Needs and Level of Adoption of HIV Prevention Education in Lusaka, Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural variables that may influence teachers' adoption of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education within the school setting and among school types in Zambia's Lusaka Province. Method: Mixed methods were used to collect original data. Using semi-structured interviews (n=11) and a survey…

Henning, Margaret; Chi, Chunheui; Khanna, Sunil K.

2011-01-01

92

An Audit of Skills and Qualifications in Preservation and Conservation Techniques: The Case of the University of Zambia Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article establishes the level of skills and experience in preservation and conservation management using a case study methodological approach conducted in the 3 university libraries at the University of Zambia. The findings revealed that 20 (57%) of the library staff had not received formal training in preservation and conservation of library…

Shameenda, Kimbo Lemmy; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

2012-01-01

93

Use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Remote Sensing Images in Wetland Change Detection on the Kafue Flats, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of remote sensing images as a method of change detection for the Kafue Flats, an inland wetland system in southern Zambia. The wetland is under human and natural pressures but is also an important wildlife habitat. A combination of Landsat MSS and TM images were used. The images used were

Christopher Munyati

2004-01-01

94

Local politicization of primary health care as an instrument for development: A case study of community health workers in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated approach of the Primary Health Care Concept has obvious implications for development. In view of Zambia's commitment to Primary Health Care it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of present institutional frameworks and the problems that may arise in shifting towards community responsibility for the provision of health. It is often assumed that the Primary Health Care approach

Patrick A. Twumasi; Paul J. Freund

1985-01-01

95

The impact of human immunodeficiency virus on mortality of patients treated for tuberculosis in a cohort study in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on mortality of patients treated for tuberculosis in a prospective study in Lusaka, Zambia. Patients with sputum smear-positive, miliary, or meningeal tuberculosis were prescribed 2 months' daily streptomycin, thiacetazone, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide followed by 6 months thiacetazone and isoniazid; others, 2 months streptomycin, thiacetazone and isoniazid followed by 10

Alison M. Elliott; Benita Halwiindi; Richard J. Hayes; Nkandu Luo; Alwyn G. Mwinga; George Tembo; Lieve Machiels; Ger Steenbergen; Joseph O. M. Pobee; Paul Nunn; Keith P. W. J. McAdam

1995-01-01

96

Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

2014-01-01

97

Genetic Diversity of African Swine Fever Virus Isolates from Soft Ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) Inhabiting Warthog Burrows in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The genomes of African swine fever virus isolates collected from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in four areas of Zambia were compared by restriction enzyme site mapping. Isolates from different areas showed considerable diversity. The regions of genomes that differed between isolates were distributed throughout the virus genome, although some more conserved regions were identified, such as

LINDA K. DIXON; PHILIP J. WILKINSON

1988-01-01

98

Antiretroviral adherence in rural Zambia: the first year of treatment availability.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective chart review of antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic patients treated during the first 12 months after clinics opened in rural Zambia and assessed adherence based on clinic attendance, patient report, and staff assessment. We identified 255 eligible patients (mean age, 39.7 years; 44.3% male; 56.5% married; and 45.5% with only primary school education). Twenty percent had partners known to be HIV positive. Twenty percent were widowed. Thirty-seven percent had disclosed their HIV status to their spouse. Disclosure was less likely among women (27.5% versus 49.6%, P = 0.0005); 36.5% had "clinic buddies" to provide adherence support. Adherence rates were good for 59.2%. Disclosure of HIV status to ones' spouse (P = 0.047), knowing spouses' HIV status (P = 0.02), and having a clinic buddy (P = 0.01) were associated with good adherence. Social support is a key patient-level resource impacting ART adherence in rural Zambia. Limited spousal disclosure affects women more than men. Clinic buddies are associated with better adherence. PMID:19346397

Birbeck, Gretchen L; Chomba, Elwyn; Kvalsund, Michelle; Bradbury, Richard; Mang'ombe, Charles; Malama, Kennedy; Kaile, Trevor; Byers, Peter A; Organek, Natalie

2009-04-01

99

African swine fever in Zambia: potential financial and production consequences for the commercial sector.  

PubMed

The first officially recorded outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) in Zambia was in Eastern province in 1965. The disease now covers almost the whole province and is endemic in the indigenous breeds. In 1989, an outbreak of ASF occurred on a commercial property in central Zambia for the first time and was eradicated by depopulation. In order to examine the justification of the drastic control measures and the continued ban on the export of pigs and their products, the impact of the outbreak on the affected property as well as the potential consequences on the commercial pig sector in the district was assessed in the present study. The affected property lost 421,238 Zambian Kwacha (ZK) (USf439,965) as a result of the outbreak and control measures. However, the cost to the district could have been at least ZK14,917,500 (US$1,415,323) if the measures had not been effected. Furthermore, not taking such measures would have increased the risk to the entire commercial pig sector along the line of rail in urban centers. PMID:8870391

Samui, K L; Nambota, A M; Mweene, A S; Onuma, M

1996-08-01

100

Lusaka, Zambia during SAFARI-2000: A Collection Point for Ozone Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In August and September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and other fire-related activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart of the southern African burning region were taken at Lusaka, Zambia (155 deg S, 28 deg E) in early September 2000. Over 90 ppbv ozone was recorded at the surface (1.3 km elevation) and column tropospheric ozone was greater than 50 DU during a stagnant period. These values are much higher than concurrent measurements over Nairobi (1 deg S, 38 deg E) and Irene (25 deg S, 28 deg E, near Pretoria). The heaviest ozone pollution layer (800-500 hPa) over Lusaka is due to recirculated trans-boundary ozone. Starting out over Zambia, Angola, and Namibia, ozone heads east to the Indian Ocean, before turning back over Mozambique and Zimbabwe, heading toward Lusaka. Thus, Lusaka is a collection point for pollution, consistent with a picture of absolutely stable layers recirculating in a gyre over southern Africa.

Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tal; Phahlane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

101

National malaria control and scaling up for impact: the Zambia experience through 2006.  

PubMed

With its 2006-2011 National Malaria Strategic Plan, Zambia committed to control malaria at a national scale. This scale-up for impact approach was facilitated by sound business planning and financing in 2006 of approximately US$35 million. Compared with surveys in 2001 and 2004, a 2006 national survey of 14,681 persons in 2,999 households at the end of the transmission season showed substantial coverage increases for preventive interventions. Ownership and use rates of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) among vulnerable groups doubled, with 44% of households owning ITNs and 23% of children less than five years of age and 24% of pregnant women using them. Roll Back Malaria Abuja targets for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) were exceeded, with 62% of pregnant women receiving at least two doses of IPTp. As of 2006, Zambia is demonstrating substantial progress toward the national targets (80% population coverage rates for the interventions) and aspires to show that malaria need not be its leading health problem, and that malaria control is a sound national investment. PMID:18606763

Steketee, Richard W; Sipilanyambe, Naawa; Chimumbwa, John; Banda, James J; Mohamed, Abdirahman; Miller, John; Basu, Suprotik; Miti, Simon K; Campbell, Carlos C

2008-07-01

102

Towards improving hospital performance in Uganda and Zambia: reflections and opportunities for autonomy.  

PubMed

Hospitals have been relatively neglected although their high resource consumption implies that gains from improving the services they deliver may be substantial. Nevertheless, the challenges posed by hospital reforms are great. Hospital autonomy usually consists of both decentralisation, and a greater measure of exposure to market forces. In Uganda and Zambia, more traditional 'decentralisation' of authority to district level authorities includes district hospitals; and some measure of 'autonomy' (known as 'self-accounting status' in Uganda) has been applied to some or all second and third level referral hospitals. The hospital policies pursued in both countries present opportunities to tackle their hospital sectors. In Zambia, purchasing of services means that new incentives and policy mechanisms can come into play. Little advantage has been taken of these opportunities to date. In Uganda, there is no financial link between districts and higher levels of the system, but decentralisation of control over personnel is more advanced. These two components--the alignment of incentives (to promote access and quality for those intended to be covered by the public budget) and the effective decentralisation of control over key resources--seem to us the key tools to address the stubborn problems of hospitals. PMID:12173498

Hanson, Kara; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kamwanga, Jolly; McPake, Barbara; Mungule, Oswald; Ssengooba, Freddie

2002-07-01

103

Community attitudes toward childbearing and abortion among HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcome of an HIV-positive woman’s pregnancy – induced abortion or birth – to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper. PMID:23173695

Moore, Ann M.; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni

2012-01-01

104

The construction and testing of a solar food drier in Zambia  

SciTech Connect

A small scale, forced convection, indirect solar food drier was designed, built and tested in Zambia. The drier consisted of five modules: a solar collector, a drying cabinet, a fan housing, a heat storage and a control unit. The construction methods and materials used were selected so as to match the level of technological development in the denser populated areas of Zambia. Practically all the materials were acquired locally. The drier could be run in three main operating modes (straight-through, heat storage, heat recovery) and a number of air recycling submodes by means of manipulating simple slide valves. The food was dried indirectly. A set of eight experiments was first carried out to determine the energy collection and heat transfer characteristics of the equipment in its various operating modes and submodes. Okra, cabbage and beef were then dried. Although the experiments were done during the Zambian 'winter', these foods could be dried to below 15% moisture in two or three operating days.

Kok, R.; Kwendakwema, N.

1983-12-01

105

High Schistosoma mansoni disease burden in a rural district of western Zambia.  

PubMed

Schistosoma mansoni disease is endemic in most parts of rural Zambia, and associated complications are common. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 754 people in rural communities of Kaoma District, western Zambia to determine the burden of S. mansoni infection and associated morbidity. Parasitology and ultrasonography assessments were conducted on consenting participants. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 42.4% (304) and 86.6 eggs per gram (95% confidence interval = 75.6-99.6), respectively. Prevalence was highest in the age group of 15-19 years old (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.70, P = 0.017). S. mansoni-related portal fibrosis was detected in 26% of the participants screened. Participants above 39 years old were 2.93 times more likely to have fibrosis than the 7-9 years old age group (P = 0.004). The study highlights the high burden of S. mansoni disease in this area and calls for immediate interventions to avert complications associated with the disease. PMID:25246696

Mutengo, Mable M; Mwansa, James C L; Mduluza, Takafira; Sianongo, Sandie; Chipeta, James

2014-11-01

106

Effects of the Gama Cuulu radio serial drama on HIV-related behavior change in Zambia.  

PubMed

The Gama Cuulu radio serial drama is written and produced in Zambia's Southern Province. It promotes behavior change and service use to prevent HIV transmission. The authors evaluated the effects of Gama Cuulu on intermediate outcomes (e.g., perceived norms), as well as number of sexual partners, condom use, and HIV testing in the past year among adults between 18 and 49 years of age. The authors used a pretest/posttest assessment with a comparison group design, with Southern Province as the intervention area and Western Province as the comparison area. Approximately 1,500 in-person interviews were conducted in both provinces in 2006 (pretest), 2007, and 2008. Regression models included terms for province, time, and the interaction of the two. Outcomes improved in both provinces (e.g., by 2008, 37.6% of participants in Southern Province and 28.3% participants in Western Province tested for HIV in the past year). Pretest-to-posttest changes in condom use (from 20.2% to 29.4% in Southern Province) and 5 intermediate outcomes were significantly different in the 2 provinces. However, changes in condom use were not associated with listening to Gama Cuulu and changes in other outcomes were similar in both provinces. Weak intervention effects might be attributable to implementation challenges or the saturation of HIV programs in Zambia. PMID:22568558

Kraft, Joan Marie; Hill, Zelee; Membe, Ian; Zhang, Yujia; Meassick, Elizabeth Onjoro; Monsour, Michael; Maumbi, Mwendalubi; Ndubani, Phillimon; Manengu, Joy Masheke; Mwinga, Alwyn

2012-01-01

107

Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.  

PubMed

Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

2014-08-01

108

Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy in Two African Countries: Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo  

PubMed Central

Objective To study pregnant women’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and exposure to advertising for and against tobacco products in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Design Prospective cross-sectional survey between November 2004 and September 2005. Setting Antenatal care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia and Kinshasa, DRC. Population Pregnant women in Zambia (909) and the DRC (847). Methods Research staff administered a structured questionnaire to pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Main Outcome Measures Pregnant women’s use of tobacco, exposure to SHS, knowledge of the harms of tobacco, and exposure to advertising for and against tobacco products. Results Only about 10% of pregnant women reported having ever tried cigarettes (6.6% Zambia; 14.1% DRC). However, in the DRC, 41.8% of pregnant women had ever tried other forms of tobacco, primarily snuff. About 10% of pregnant women and young children were frequently or always exposed to SHS. Pregnant women’s knowledge of the hazards of smoking and SHS exposure was extremely limited. About 13% of pregnant women had seen or heard advertising for tobacco products in the last 30 days. Conclusions Tobacco use and SHS exposure pose serious threats to the health of women, infants, and children. In many African countries, maternal and infant health outcomes are often poor and will likely worsen if maternal tobacco use increases. Our findings suggest that a “window of opportunity” exists to prevent increased tobacco use and SHS exposure of pregnant women in Zambia and the DRC. PMID:20230310

Chomba, Elwyn; Tshefu, Antoinette; Onyamboko, Marie; Kaseba - Sata, Christine; Moore, Janet; McClure, Elizabeth M; Moss, Nancy; Goco, Norman; Bloch, Michele; Goldenberg, Robert L

2013-01-01

109

Factors affecting the design of a partnership program to facilitate adoption of agricultural practices among small-scale farmers, Mpongwe, Zambia  

E-print Network

, environmentally friendly agricultural practices by the small-scale farmers in Mpongwe District, Zambia. Eleven separate surveys were conducted to gather descriptive information from four groups: 210 small-scale farmers, traditional chiefs, government departments...

Musoma, Henry Kasonde

2002-01-01

110

Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15–24 years in Zambia: An in-depth analysis of the 2001–2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001–2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15–24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p = .000) and 5.9% (p = .001) respectively, between 2001–2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p = .029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p = .000) and 1.4% (p = .000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15–24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (– 4.5%), premarital sex (– 2.6%), sex before age 18 (– 2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (– 1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the spread of HIV and AIDS, particularly among young people in Zambia and other sub-Saharan countries. PMID:24702245

Kembo, Joshua

2014-01-01

111

Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.  

PubMed

Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712

Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

2014-01-01

112

Un/doing Gender? a Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry out cleaning tasks generally viewed as "women's work". Observations, interviews, student diaries and surveys from this school and from government schools provide the basis for a comparison, indicating how the former strives to interrupt the transmission of gender inequalities as well as how students respond to these practices. The findings suggest that the pedagogical practices deployed by this school have generally succeeded in destabilising norms of gender subordination and gender-based violence, though the replicability of these practices is interrogated given broader questions about the country's public resources and political will.

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-11-01

113

Children’s Roles in Tuberculosis Treatment Regimes: Constructing childhood and kinship in urban Zambia  

PubMed Central

In Zambia, the burden of HIV-related diseases such as tuberculosis has received substantial international attention. Zambians experience and participate in a range of globally produced programs to manage TB and cure TB sufferers. Guided by the WHO’s Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) protocol, TB treatment regimens now emphasize adherence to medications as the primary way to achieve cure. This article aims to understand how adherence models enter into the daily lives of children who live with and care for adult TB patients in an area disproportionately affected by the disease. I suggest that children domesticate adherence models, using them as strategies to safeguard identities, relationships, livelihoods, and futures that are increasingly under threat in the age of HIV. They draw on TB treatment and the hope and agency it affords to hold onto a version of childhood in which they are cared for by adults who will advocate for their wellbeing. PMID:23804398

Hunleth, Jean

2013-01-01

114

Penicillinase-producing gonococcal strains in Zambia. Observations on treatment failures.  

PubMed Central

Penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) were detected in nine out of 27 (3.2%) treatment failures in 310 cases of acute gonococcal urethritis in men in Lusaka, Zambia. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin for 17.2% of 233 gonococcal isolates were less than or equal to 0.05 microgram/ml, for 38.2% between 0.125 and 0.25 microgram/ml, and for 46.6% greater than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml. At present the prevalence of PPNG in African countries is not known but is likely to increase rapidly unless simplified control schemes are adopted within the existing health care programmes. Endemic pockets of PPNG in a few countries can threaten worldwide efforts to control gonorrhoea. PMID:6799144

Ratnam, A V; Patel, M I; Mulenga, R C; Hira, S K

1982-01-01

115

Molecular Epidemiology of Paramyxoviruses in Frugivorous Eidolon helvum Bats in Zambia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In this study, we describe the detection of novel paramyxoviruses from the Eidolon helvum species of fruit bats. We extracted RNA from 312 spleen samples from bats captured in Zambia over a period of 4 years (2008–2011). Semi-nested RT-PCR detected a total of 25 (8%) positive samples for paramyxoviruses which were then directly sequenced and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. Among the positive samples, seven novel paramyxoviruses were detected. Five viruses were closely related to the genus Henipavirus, while two viruses were related to the unclassified Bat paramyxoviruses from Ghana and Congo Brazzaville. Our study identified novel Henipavirus-related and unrelated viruses using RT-PCR in fruit bats from Kansaka National Park and indicated the presence of similar Bat paramyxoviruses originating from wide geographic areas, suggesting the ability of bats to harbor and transmit viruses. The presence of these viruses in fruit bats might pose a public health risk. PMID:24389743

MULEYA, Walter; SASAKI, Michihito; ORBA, Yasuko; ISHII, Akihiro; THOMAS, Yuka; NAKAGAWA, Emiko; OGAWA, Hirohito; HANG’OMBE, Bernard; NAMANGALA, Boniface; MWEENE, Aaron; TAKADA, Ayato; KIMURA, Takashi; SAWA, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

116

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.  

PubMed

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-03-01

117

Human serum sensitivities of Trypanozoon isolates from naturally infected hosts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  

PubMed

Of 235 Trypanozoon stocks isolated from naturally infected hosts in northeastern Zambia and tested by the Blood Incubation Infectivity Test (BIIT), 176 came from man, 37 from wild-caught tsetse, 11 from wild animals and 11 from domestic livestock. Of those from man, 2 gave unexpected, human-serum-sensitive (HSS) reactions on first testing; all 15 stocks from tsetse in the northern area (Kampumbu) were strongly serum-resistant (HSR) while 22 other infections, from tsetse in the southern area (Kakumbi), gave 1 equivocal, 11 positive and 10 negative test responses. HSR Trypanozoon infections were found in a bushbuck, a warthog, in a giraffe (for the first time) and in a "sentinel" goat, used to monitor SS transmission in a small SS endemic village. PMID:1800082

Rickman, L R; Ernest, A; Kanyangala, S; Kunda, E

1991-11-01

118

Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors  

PubMed Central

Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers. PMID:19480710

Sanjana, Parsa; Torpey, Kwasi; Schwarzwalder, Alison; Simumba, Caroline; Kasonde, Prisca; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kapanda, Paul; Kakungu-Simpungwe, Matilda; Kabaso, Mushota; Thompson, Catherine

2009-01-01

119

Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries. PMID:20678205

2010-01-01

120

The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.  

PubMed

Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections. PMID:24862188

Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

2014-10-01

121

Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Genital ulcers (GU) are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29?years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2?weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms. PMID:22672697

2012-01-01

122

A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

2009-04-01

123

Fertilizer Subsidies and Smallholder Commercial Fertilizer Purchases: Crowding out, Leakage, and Policy Implications for Zambia  

E-print Network

1. Two key determinants of the effect of a fertilizer subsidy program on total fertilizer use are (a) the extent to which subsidized fertilizer “crowds out ” or “displaces ” farmers’ purchases of fertilizer from commercial retailers, and (b) the extent to which fertilizer intended for government subsidies leaks out of the government channel and is resold as commercial fertilizer. 2. Results suggest that smallholder farm households in Zambia reduce their purchases of fertilizer from commercial retailers by 0.13 kg, on average, for each additional kg of government-subsidized fertilizer they receive. 3. The displacement rate is: (a) higher in areas where the private sector was initially highly active in fertilizer retailing than in areas where it was less active; (b) higher among households cultivating more than two hectares than among households cultivating smaller areas; and (c) higher among male-headed households than among female-headed households. 4. During the years covered in the study (1999/2000, 2002/2003, and 2006/2007), only 67 % of the fertilizer intended for distribution through government subsidy programs reached smallholders as subsidized fertilizer. The remaining 33 % leaked out of the government channel and was likely resold through commercial channels. 5. This leakage figure coupled with the national average crowding out estimate of 0.13 kg suggests that each additional kg of fertilizer intended for government subsidies that is injected into the system increases total fertilizer acquisition in Zambia by only 0.53 kg. 6. The Zambian government may be able to add more to total fertilizer use through its subsidy programs by reducing leakage through better monitoring of subsidized fertilizer distribution and by targeting subsidized fertilizer to areas where the private sector is less active, to households with smaller landholdings, and to female-headed households. INTRODUCTION: Targeted

Nicole M. Mason; T. S. Jayne; Key Points

124

Practicalities and challenges in re-orienting the health system in Zambia for treating chronic conditions  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid evolution in disease burdens in low- and middle income countries is forcing policy makers to re-orient their health system towards a system which has the capability to simultaneously address infectious and non-communicable diseases. This paper draws on two different but overlapping studies which examined how actors in the Zambian health system are re-directing their policies, strategies and service structures to include the provision of health care for people with chronic conditions. Methods Study methods in both studies included semi-structured interviews with government health officials at national level, and governmental and non-governmental health practitioners operating from community-, primary health care to hospital facility level. Focus group discussions were conducted with staff, stakeholders and caregivers of programmes providing care and support at community- and household levels. Study settings included urban and rural sites. Results A series of adaptations transformed the HIV programme from an emergency response into the first large chronic care programme in the country. There are clear indications that the Zambian government is intending to expand this reach to patients with non-communicable diseases. Challenges to do this effectively include a lack of proper NCD prevalence data for planning, a concentration of technology and skills to detect and treat NCDs at secondary and tertiary levels in the health system and limited interest by donor agencies to support this transition. Conclusion The reorientation of Zambia’s health system is in full swing and uses the foundation of a decentralised health system and presence of local models for HIV chronic care which actively involve community partners, patients and their families. There are early warning signs which could cause this transition to stall, one of which is the financial capability to resource this process. PMID:25005125

2014-01-01

125

Unexpected Anthropophily in the Potential Secondary Malaria Vectors Anopheles coustani s.l. and Anopheles squamosus in Macha, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Anopheles coustani s.l. and Anopheles squamosus are sub-Saharan mosquito species that have been implicated in malaria transmission. Although generally believed to be of negligible importance due to their overwhelmingly zoophilic behavior, An. coustani s.l. and An. squamosus made up a large proportion of the anophelines collected by human landing catches during the 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 rainy seasons in Macha, Zambia. Further, polymerase chain reaction-based blood meal identification showed that the majority of blood meals from these mosquito species caught in human-baited Centers for Disease Control light traps were from human hosts. Although no An. coustani s.l. or An. squamosus were found to be positive for Plasmodium, the demonstrated anthropophilic tendencies of these mosquitoes in southern Zambia suggest their potential as secondary malaria vectors. PMID:21142969

Norris, Laura C.; Franco, Veronica; Norris, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

126

Epilepsy-Associated Stigma in Zambia: What factors predict greater felt stigma in a highly stigmatized population?  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy-associated stigma in Africa has been largely described in terms of enacted stigma or discrimination. We conducted a study of 169 adults with epilepsy attending epilepsy clinics in Zambia’s Lusaka or Southern province using a 3-item instrument (maximum score 3). Potential determinants of felt stigma including age, gender, education, wealth, disclosure status (meaning whether or how their community members knew of their condition), seizure type (generalized vs. partial), seizure frequency, the presence of visible epilepsy-associated stigmata, personal contagion beliefs and community contagion beliefs were also assessed. The median stigma score was 2.5, suggesting some ceiling effect in the instrument. People with epilepsy who believed their condition to be contagious, who thought their community believed epilepsy to be contagious and whose condition had been revealed to their community against their wishes reported more felt stigma. Community and clinic-based educational campaigns to dispel contagion beliefs are needed. PMID:20851056

Atadzhanov, Masharip; Haworth, Alan; Chomba, Elwyn N.; Mbewe, Edward K.; Birbeck, Gretchen Lano

2010-01-01

127

Genetic diversity of African swine fever virus isolates from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in Zambia.  

PubMed

The genomes of African swine fever virus isolates collected from soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in four areas of Zambia were compared by restriction enzyme site mapping. Isolates from different areas showed considerable diversity. The regions of genomes that differed between isolates were distributed throughout the virus genome, although some more conserved regions were identified, such as the right-hand third of the genome. The genomes of seven isolates from neighbouring warthog burrows within Livingstone Game Park in southern Zambia were more similar to each other than those from different areas. However, a number of differences were observed even between the genomes of isolates from the same warthog burrow. The variation between these latter isolates probably resulted from point mutations located at various positions along the genome, in addition to small additions or deletions at both terminal regions. Restriction enzyme site mapping indicated that one isolate may have originated by earlier recombination between two distinguishable viruses. PMID:3199101

Dixon, L K; Wilkinson, P J

1988-12-01

128

The socioeconomic status of children with epilepsy in Zambia: Implications for long-term health and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epilepsy is a highly stigmatized disorder in Zambia. Studies indicate that adults with epilepsy in many regions have significantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) than their peers. We conducted a case–control study of Zambian children with epilepsy (CWE) to assess their SES. Ninety-eight pairs of children were recruited (n=196); their mean age was 10.8 years, and 59.7% were male. The comparison

Elwyn Chomba; Alan Haworth; Masharip Atadzhanov; Edward Mbewe; Gretchen L. Birbeck

2008-01-01

129

The prevalence and factors contributing to domestic violence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lusaka urban clinics in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryDomestic violence among pregnant women has many faces in Lusaka, Zambia.Domestic violence among respondents was associated contraction of sexually transmitted infections, loss of pregnancy, bleeding in pregnancy, psychological trauma, divorce and social disharmony.In this study 385 pregnant women were randomly selected and entered into he study.MethodA Cross-sectional Descriptive Study of 385 pregnant women attending six randomly selected Antenatal Clinics in

M D Mwiinga Mtonga

2010-01-01

130

The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution  

PubMed Central

Introduction Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR) crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. Population and methods We used secondary data from the "March 2008 payroll data base", which lists all the public servants on the payroll of the Ministry of Health and of the National Health Service facilities. We computed rates and ratios and compared them. Results The highest relative concentration of all categories of workers was observed in Northern, Eastern, Lusaka, Western and Luapula provinces (in decreasing order of number of health workers). The ratio of clinical officers (mid-level clinical practitioners) to general medical officer (doctors with university training) varied from 3.77 in the Lusaka to 19.33 in the Northwestern provinces. For registered nurses (3 to 4 years of mid-level training), the ratio went from 3.54 in the Western to 15.00 in Eastern provinces and for enrolled nurses (two years of basic training) from 4.91 in the Luapula to 36.18 in the Southern provinces. This unequal distribution was reflected in the ratio of population per cadre. The provincial distribution of personnel showed a skewed staff distribution in favour of urbanized provinces, e.g. in Lusaka's doctor: population ratio was 1: 6,247 compared to Northern Province's ratio of 1: 65,763. In the whole country, the data set showed only 109 staff in health posts: 1 clinical officer, 3 environmental health technologists, 2 registered nurses, 12 enrolled midwives, 32 enrolled nurses, and 59 other. The vacancy rates for level 3 facilities(central hospitals, national level) varied from 5% in Lusaka to 38% in Copperbelt Province; for level 2 facilities (provincial level hospitals), from 30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals), from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively); for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. Discussion and Conclusions This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity. PMID:22182366

2011-01-01

131

Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p?=?0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p?=?0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the need for further studies on transmission dynamics and impact of the disease on the local people. PMID:22479664

Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

2012-01-01

132

Early detection of malaria foci for targeted interventions in endemic southern Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Zambia has achieved significant reductions in the burden of malaria through a strategy of "scaling-up" effective interventions. Progress toward ultimate malaria elimination will require sustained prevention coverage and further interruption of transmission through active strategies to identify and treat asymptomatic malaria reservoirs. A surveillance system in Zambia's Southern Province has begun to implement such an approach. An early detection system could be an additional tool to identify foci of elevated incidence for targeted intervention. Methods Based on surveillance data collected weekly from 13 rural health centres (RHCs) divided into three transmission zones, early warning thresholds were created following a technique successfully implemented in Thailand. Alert levels were graphed for all 52 weeks of a year using the mean and 95% confidence interval upper limit of a Poisson distribution of the weekly diagnosed malaria cases for every available week of historic data (beginning in Aug, 2008) at each of the sites within a zone. Annually adjusted population estimates for the RHC catchment areas served as person-time of weekly exposure. The zonal threshold levels were validated against the incidence data from each of the 13 respective RHCs. Results Graphed threshold levels for the three zones generally conformed to observed seasonal incidence patterns. Comparing thresholds with historic weekly incidence values, the overall percentage of aberrant weeks ranged from 1.7% in Mbabala to 36.1% in Kamwanu. For most RHCs, the percentage of weeks above threshold was greater during the high transmission season and during the 2009 year compared to 2010. 39% of weeks breaching alert levels were part of a series of three or more consecutive aberrant weeks. Conclusions The inconsistent sensitivity of the zonal threshold levels impugns the reliability of the alert system. With more years of surveillance data available, individual thresholds for each RHC could be calculated and compared to the technique outlined here. Until then, "aberrant" weeks during low transmission seasons, and during high transmission seasons at sites where the threshold level is less sensitive, could feasibly be followed up for household screening. Communities with disproportionate numbers of aberrant weeks could be reviewed for defaults in the scaling-up intervention coverage. PMID:21910855

2011-01-01

133

Implementation of cervical cancer prevention services for HIV-infected women in Zambia: measuring program effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer kills more women in low-income nations than any other malignancy. A variety of research and demonstration efforts have proven the efficacy and effectiveness of low-cost cervical cancer prevention methods but none in routine program implementation settings of the developing world, particularly in HIV-infected women. Methods In our public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses conduct screening using visual inspection with acetic acid aided by digital cervicography. Women with visible lesions are offered same-visit cryotherapy or referred for histologic evaluation and clinical management. We analyzed clinical outcomes and modeled program effectiveness among HIV-infected women by estimating the total number of cervical cancer deaths prevented through screening and treatment. Results Between 2006 and 2008, 6572 HIV-infected women were screened, 53.6% (3523) had visible lesions, 58.5% (2062) were eligible for cryotherapy and 41.5% (1461) were referred for histologic evaluation. A total of 75% (1095 out of 1462) of patients who were referred for evaluation complied. Pathology results from 65% (715 out of 1095) of women revealed benign abnormalities in 21% (151), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 30% (214), CIN 2/3 in 33% (235) and invasive cervical cancer in 16.1% (115, of which 69% were early stage). Using a conditional probability model, we estimated that our program prevented 142 cervical cancer deaths (high/low range: 238–96) among the 6572 HIV-infected women screened, or one cervical cancer death prevented per 46 (corresponding range: 28–68) HIV-infected women screened. Conclusion Our prevention efforts using setting-appropriate human resources and technology have reduced morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Zambia. Financial support for implementing cervical cancer prevention programs integrated within HIV/AIDS care programs is warranted. Our prevention model can serve as the implementation platform for future low-cost HPV-based screening methods, and our results may provide the basis for comparison of programmatic effectiveness of future prevention efforts. PMID:25419240

Parham, Groesbeck P; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Westfall, Andrew O; King, Kristin E; Chibwesha, Carla; Pfaendler, Krista S; Mkumba, Gracilia; Mudenda, Victor; Kapambwe, Sharon; Vermund, Sten H; Hicks, Michael L; Stringer, Jeffrey SA; Chi, Benjamin H

2014-01-01

134

Developing the national community health assistant strategy in Zambia: a policy analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, the Ministry of Health in Zambia developed the National Community Health Assistant strategy, aiming to integrate community health workers (CHWs) into national health plans by creating a new group of workers, called community health assistants (CHAs). The aim of the paper is to analyse the CHA policy development process and the factors that influenced its evolution and content. A policy analysis approach was used to analyse the policy reform process. Methodology Data were gathered through review of documents, participant observation and key informant interviews with CHA strategic team members in Lusaka district, and senior officials at the district level in Kapiri Mposhi district where some CHAs have been deployed. Results The strategy was developed in order to address the human resources for health shortage and the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia. However, some actors within the strategic team were more influential than others in informing the policy agenda, determining the process, and shaping the content. These actors negotiated with professional/statutory bodies and health unions on the need to develop the new cadre which resulted in compromises that enabled the policy process to move forward. International agencies also indirectly influenced the course as well as the content of the strategy. Some actors classified the process as both insufficiently consultative and rushed. Due to limited consultation, it was suggested that the policy content did not adequately address key policy content issues such as management of staff attrition, general professional development, and progression matters. Analysis of the process also showed that the strategy might create a new group of workers whose mandate is unclear to the existing group of health workers. Conclusions This paper highlights the complex nature of policy-making processes for integrating CHWs into the health system. It reiterates the need for recognising the fact that actors’ power or position in the political hierarchy may, more than their knowledge and understanding of the issue, play a disproportionate role in shaping the process as well as content of health policy reform. PMID:23870454

2013-01-01

135

Detection and characterization of zoonotic pathogens of free-ranging non-human primates from Zambia.  

PubMed

BackgroundWildlife may harbor infectious pathogens that are of zoonotic concern acting as a reservoir of diseases transmissible to humans and domestic animals. This is due to human-wildlife conflicts that have become more frequent and severe over recent decades, competition for the available natural habitats and resources leading to increased human encroachment on previously wild and uninhabited areas.MethodsA total of 88 spleen DNA samples from baboons and vervet monkeys from Zambia were tested for zoonotic pathogens using genus or species-specific PCR. The amplified products were then subjected to sequencing analysis.ResultsWe detected three different pathogenic agents, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 12 samples (13.6%), Rickettsia spp. in 35 samples (39.8%) and Babesia spp. in 2 samples (2.3%).ConclusionThe continuously increasing contacts between humans and primate populations raise concerns about transmission of pathogens between these groups. Therefore, increased medical and public awareness and public health surveillance support will be required to detect and control infections caused by these agents at the interface between humans and wildlife. PMID:25358853

Nakayima, Jesca; Hayashida, Kyouko; Nakao, Ryo; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang Ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Thomas, Yuka; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2014-10-29

136

Re-assessing community-directed treatment: evidence from Mazabuka District, Zambia.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional surveys with carers, health workers, community drug distributors (CDDs) and neighbourhood health committees were conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of community-directed treatment (ComDT) of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 12-59 months in Mazabuka district, Zambia. The surveys took place in December 2006 and December 2007. In addition child treatment records were reviewed. The factors that were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with treatment of children by the CDDs were: (1) the perception of soil-transmitted helminth infections as having significant health importance, (2) the community-based decision to launch and subsequently implement ComDT, (3) the use of the door-to-door method of drug distribution, (4) CDDs being visited by a supervisor, (5) CDDs receiving assistance in mobilizing community members for treatment, (6) CDDs having access to a bicycle and (7) CDDs having received assistance in collecting drugs from the health centre. Despite the effectiveness of ComDT in raising treatment coverage there are factors in the implementation process that will still affect whether children and their carers utilize the ComDT approach. Identification and understanding of these factors is paramount to achieving the desired levels of utilization of such interventions. PMID:24830775

Halwindi, H; Magnussen, P; Siziya, S; Meyrowitsch, D W; Olsen, A

2015-01-01

137

Mortality and commercial off-take rates in adult traditional cattle of Zambia.  

PubMed

A cohort study was conducted in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia to determine cattle mortality and commercial off-take rates among adult cattle as well as factors influencing them. A total of 416 animals from 43 herds were followed up for one year and animals were individually identified and their fate was indicated as sold, slaughtered, dead or present as appropriate. The overall mortality incidence risk was estimated at 7.5%. Cattle in Kazungula were at a greater risk of dying compared to those in Blue Lagoon and Lochnivar. Annual off-take was estimated at 13.7% (8.1-19.3%), unadjusted values, and 16.4% (8.1-24.5%) after adjusting for sampling fraction in primary sampling units (herds) and area stratification. Area variations were observed with Kazungula recording the highest in both instances, which was attributed to a contagious bovine pleural pneumonia (CBPP) outbreak. Herd size and gender were observed to influence cattle mortality rates. Cattle in the middle-sized herds (50-150 cattle) recorded high mortality rates (OR = 3.91) compared to smaller herds (10-50) and so were females compared to males (OR = 4.16). The logistic regression model showed that cattle death was influenced by managerial factors and that off-take rates tend to increase in the face of disease outbreaks. PMID:18949571

Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V; Oloya, J; Mwacalimba, K; Skjerve, E

2009-06-01

138

The prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1 in traditional cattle in Southern Province, Zambia.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, in cattle destined for market in Southern Province, Zambia. A total of 116 nasal secretion samples were tested using the direct fluorescent antibody test, while blood samples from the same cattle were examined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The prevalence of the BHV-1 antigens in cattle was 23.28% (27/116), while the mean prevalence of the BHV-1 antibodies was 48.28% (56/116). This study showed that cattle in transit to markets could easily spread the virus, which was reactivated by the stress of trekking for long distances under unfavourable conditions, to the other cattle with which they came into contact. Thus, these transit cattle posed a serious threat to other bovines. Systems of cattle trading where cattle must be transported a long wayto market should be reviewed by the authorities to minimise the conditions that may exacerbate the spread of infection. PMID:15005545

Mweene, A S; Fukushi, H; Pandey, G S; Syakalima, M; Simuunza, M; Malamo, M; Nambota, A; Samui, K L; Tsubota, T; Nakazato, Y; Onuma, M; Yasuda, J

2003-12-01

139

HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.  

PubMed

This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families. PMID:23991005

Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R S; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

2013-01-01

140

Associations between household responsibilities and academic competencies in the context of education accessibility in Zambia  

PubMed Central

The relationship between education and socioeconomic status has been demonstrated in studies of the developed and the developing world, yet there are communities in which schooling is either not available to all children or not a preferred activity for all children. In this study, we investigated the differences between children in-school and out-of-school in rural and peri-urban communities of Zambia. As expected, we found that the children in-school performed higher in domains of adaptive behavior and on assessments of academic achievement (i.e., mathematics, reading). Somewhat unexpectedly, however, when controlling for socioeconomic status, home responsibilities (i.e., chores, work) were a positive predictor for the performance of the children out-of-school, but a negative predictor for the children in-school. The relationship between home responsibilities and academic performance may be bidirectional and differential; for example, our findings allow for the hypothesis that for in-school children chores take time away from the studies, but for out-of-school children they provide some limited mathematics exposure. PMID:24347996

Reich, Jodi; Hein, Sascha; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hart, Lesley; Gumkowski, Nina; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2013-01-01

141

HIV testing among adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: how individual, relational, and environmental factors relate to demand.  

PubMed

This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed VCT with family). Multivariate regression analysis compared 98 respondents who planned to test for HIV within the year with 341 respondents who did not. Discussing HIV testing with family members was strongly associated with planning to test (odds ratio [OR] = 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.24-16.58). VCT discussions with sex partners (OR = 3.64; 95% CI = 1.13-11.71) and with friends (OR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.34-5.08) were also associated with HIV testing plans. Significant individual factors were having ever had sex (OR = 2.33; 95% CI = 1.41-3.84) and HIV risk perception (OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.51-4.88). Relational and individual factors strongly correlated with VCT demand, supporting the need to examine these factors when implementing and evaluating adolescent VCT strategies. PMID:19670967

Denison, Julie A; McCauley, Ann P; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D

2009-08-01

142

Wide needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Zambia.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To study the value of wide needle (19 gauge) aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymph node disease in Zambia in the absence of a trained cytologist. METHODS--Patients (n = 304) referred for surgical biopsy of an enlarged peripheral lymph node were studied prospectively. Surgical biopsy was routinely preceded by 19 gauge needle aspiration of the same node; aspirates were stained by haematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl Neelsen stains. RESULTS--Of 232 aspirates, 182 contained sufficient material for cytological characterisation. Tuberculosis was diagnosed or suspected in 122 of 126 aspirates with histologically confirmed tuberculous lymphadenitis; reactive follicular hyperplasia in 31 of 38 patients with primary HIV lymphadenopathy; malignancy in all five patients with malignant nodes; and Kaposi's disease in four of nine patients with this. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was falsely suspected in four patients, as was reactive follicular hyperplasia in four, and Kaposi's disease in four. CONCLUSIONS--Wide needle aspiration cytology is useful in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Central Africa, with the exception of lymphadenopathic Kaposi's disease. PMID:8227428

Patil, P S; Bem, C

1993-01-01

143

HIV Testing and Tolerance to Gender Based Violence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zambia  

PubMed Central

This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR?=?2.48 95% CI?=?1.00–6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR?=?2.10 95% CI?=?1.05–4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR?=?1.48 95% CI?=?1.23–1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families. PMID:23991005

Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R. S.; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

2013-01-01

144

Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689

Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

2014-01-01

145

Stigma and psychiatric morbidity among mothers of children with epilepsy in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy-associated stigma contributes substantially to the social, medical, and economic burden of disease for people with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about its impact on caregivers of PWE. Methods To better understand stigma experienced by caregivers of PWE, factors that influence caregiver stigma, and the effect of stigma on a caregiver's psychologic well being, we interviewed 100 caregivers of children with epilepsy in Zambia. Questions assessed maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to epilepsy, maternal stigma, mother's proxy report of child stigma, and maternal psychiatric morbidity. Results Of 100 mothers, 39 (39%) indicated that their child was stigmatized because of his or her epilepsy. Maternal proxy report of child stigma was highly correlated with maternal stigma (OR: 5.4, p=0.04), seizure frequency (p=0.03) and seizure severity (p=0.01). One in five of 100 mothers (20%) reported feeling stigmatized because of their child's epilepsy. Higher maternal stigma was associated with lower familial and community support (ORs: 65.2 and 34.7, respectively; both p<0.0001) as well as higher psychiatric morbidity (OR: 1.2; p=0.002). Formal education and epilepsy knowledge were associated with decreased maternal stigma (ORs: 0.8 and 0.7, respectively; both p<0.001). Conclusions One in five mothers of PWE feel stigmatized because of their child's epilepsy. As maternal stigma is associated with psychiatric morbidity, educating caregivers about epilepsy and screening for anxiety and depression are warranted. PMID:24214528

Elafros, Melissa A.; Sakubita-Simasiku, Claire; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Haworth, Alan; Chomba, Elwyn; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

2013-01-01

146

The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.  

PubMed

Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public–private investments through South–South cooperation and Asia-driven growth for reducing poverty in Zambia. PMID:22213879

Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

2011-01-01

147

Treatment of paediatric malaria during a period of drug transition to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate treatment practices for uncomplicated malaria after the policy change from chloroquine to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting Outpatient departments of all government and mission facilities in four districts in Zambia. Participants 944 children with uncomplicated malaria seen by 103 health workers at 94 health facilities. Main outcome measures Antimalarial prescriptions in accordance with national guidelines and influence of factors on health workers' decision to prescribeartemether-lumefantrine. Results Artemether-lumefantrine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and chloroquine were available, respectively, at 48 (51%), 94 (100%), and 71 (76%) of the 94 facilities. Of 944 children with uncomplicated malaria, only one child (0.1%) received chloroquine. Among children weighing less than 10 kg, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was commonly prescribed in accordance with guidelines (439/550, 79.8%). Among the children weighing 10 kg or more, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was commonly prescribed (266/394, 68%), whereas recommended artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed for only 42/394 (11%) children. Among children weighing 10 kg or more seen at facilities where artemether-lumefantrine was available, the same pattern was observed: artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed for only 42/192 (22%) children and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine remained the drug of choice (103/192, 54%). Programmatic activities such as in-service training and provision of job aids did not seem to influence the prescribing of artemether with lumefantrine. Conclusion Although the use of chloroquine for uncomplicated malaria was succesfully discontinued in Zambia, the change of drug policy towards artemether-lumefantrine does not necessarily translate into adequate use of this drug at the point of care. PMID:16195289

Zurovac, Dejan; Ndhlovu, Mickey; Rowe, Alexander K; Hamer, Davidson H; Thea, Donald M; Snow, Robert W

2005-01-01

148

High burden of malaria following scale-up of control interventions in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria control interventions have been scaled-up in Zambia in conjunction with a malaria surveillance system. Although substantial progress has been achieved in reducing morbidity and mortality, national and local information demonstrated marked heterogeneity in the impact of malaria control across the country. This study reports the high burden of malaria in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, Zambia from 2006 to 2012 after seven years of control measures. Methods Yearly aggregated information on cases of malaria, malaria deaths, use of malaria diagnostics, and malaria control interventions from 2006 to 2012 were obtained from the Nchelenge District Health Office. Trends in the number of malaria cases, methods of diagnosis, malaria positivity rate among pregnant women, and intervention coverage were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Malaria prevalence remained high, increasing from 38% in 2006 to 53% in 2012. Increasing numbers of cases of severe malaria were reported until 2010. Intense seasonal malaria transmission was observed with seasonal declines in the number of cases between April and August, although malaria transmission continued throughout the year. Clinical diagnosis without accompanying confirmation declined from 95% in 2006 to 35% in 2012. Intervention coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying increased from 2006 to 2012. Conclusions Despite high coverage with vector control interventions, the burden of malaria in Nchelenge District, Zambia remained high. The high parasite prevalence could accurately reflect the true burden, perhaps in part as a consequence of population movement, or improved access to care and case reporting. Quality information at fine spatial scales will be critical for targeting effective interventions and measurement of progress. PMID:24755108

2014-01-01

149

Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH) strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambia over the next ten years to identify a combination of interventions that would expand the workforce to meet staffing targets. The key forecasting variables are training enrolment, graduation rates, public sector entry rates for graduates, and attrition of workforce staff. We model, using Excel (Office, Microsoft; 2007), the effects of changes in these variables on the projected number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives in the public sector workforce in 2018. Results With no changes to current training, hiring, and attrition conditions, the total number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses, and midwives will increase from 44% to 59% of the minimum necessary staff by 2018. No combination of changes in staff retention, graduation rates, and public sector entry rates of graduates by 2010, without including training expansion, is sufficient to meet staffing targets by 2018 for any cadre except midwives. Training enrolment needs to increase by a factor of between three and thirteen for doctors, three and four for clinical officers, two and three for nurses, and one and two for midwives by 2010 to reach staffing targets by 2018. Necessary enrolment increases can be held to a minimum if the rates of retention, graduation, and public sector entry increase to 100% by 2010, but will need to increase if these rates remain at 2008 levels. Conclusions Meeting the minimum need for health workers in Zambia this decade will require an increase in health training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels. PMID:20591143

2010-01-01

150

Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4. PMID:21162717

2010-01-01

151

Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that

Thomson Sinkala; Enala T Mwase; Mick Mwala

2002-01-01

152

Sexual cleansing ( Kusalazya) and levirate marriage ( Kunjilila mung’anda) in the era of AIDS: changes in perceptions and practices in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since sexual cleansing (kusalazya) and the intertwined ritual of levirate marriage or widow and widower inheritance (kunjilila mung’anda) have come to be implicated in the transmission of HIV\\/AIDS, alternative rituals to sexual cleansing have emerged. Using both quantitative and qualitative data obtained from Zambia in the second half of 1998, this study reveals that the alternative rituals to sexual cleansing

J. R. S. Malungo

2001-01-01

153

Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in traditional cattle of the livestock\\/wildlife interface areas in the Kafue basin of Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a cross-sectional study from August 2003 to February 2004 to identify risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the Kafue basin of Zambia. We investigated a total of 106 herds of cattle for presence of BTB using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather epidemiological data on herd structure, management and

M. Munyeme; J. B. Muma; E. Skjerve; A. M. Nambota; I. G. K. Phiri; K. L. Samui; P. Dorny; M. Tryland

2008-01-01

154

Education in a Declining Economy: The Case of Zambia: 1975-1985. EDI Development Policy Case Series. Analytical Case Studies Number 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years Zambia has experienced increasingly grave financial problems. The decline in the economy has affected all sectors, including education. The deterioration occurred at a time when the population was growing at a rapid rate. Hence the education sector has been subject to two opposing pressures: a fiscal pressure to curtail financial…

Kelly, Michael J.

155

Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the  

E-print Network

Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the University of Southampton has challenged conventional thinking about. There is great demand for copper throughout the world, particularly to supply fast-growing economies in countries

Anderson, Jim

156

Situation Reports--Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data pertaining to population and family planning in seventeen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. Information is…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

157

Of Copper and Fire. The Self Help Action Plan for Education (SHAPE) in Zambia. Education for All. Making It Work Innovations Series, No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of UNESCO's "Education for All: Making It Work" shows how the SHAPE project's message of autonomy has been translated into productive work, community participation, emphasis on local context, self-reliance and innovations. Since 1987, the Self-Help Action Plan for Education (SHAPE) in Zambia reflects a new philosophy introduced by the…

Faccini, Benedict

158

The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  

PubMed

Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ~2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating ((10)Be/(26)Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (~78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record. PMID:21411121

Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M; Maher, Barbara A; Karloukovski, Vassil; Duller, Geoff A T; Jain, Mayank; Wintle, Ann G

2011-05-01

159

Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia.  

PubMed

Boiling is the most common method of disinfecting water in the home and the benchmark against which other point-of-use water treatment is measured. In a six-week study in peri-urban Zambia, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and potential cost of boiling among 49 households without a water connection who reported "always" or "almost always" boiling their water before drinking it. Source and household drinking water samples were compared weekly for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination. Demographics, costs, and other information were collected through surveys and structured observations. Drinking water samples taken at the household (geometric mean 7.2 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 5.4-9.7) were actually worse in microbiological quality than source water (geometric mean 4.0 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 3.1-5.1) (p < 0.001), although both are relatively low levels of contamination. Only 60% of drinking water samples were reported to have actually been boiled at the time of collection from the home, suggesting over-reporting and inconsistent compliance. However, these samples were of no higher microbiological quality. Evidence suggests that water quality deteriorated after boiling due to lack of residual protection and unsafe storage and handling. The potential cost of fuel or electricity for boiling was estimated at 5% and 7% of income, respectively. In this setting where microbiological water quality was relatively good at the source, safe-storage practices that minimize recontamination may be more effective in managing the risk of disease from drinking water at a fraction of the cost of boiling. PMID:21650207

Psutka, Rebecca; Peletz, Rachel; Michelo, Sandford; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

2011-07-15

160

Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research  

PubMed Central

The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP) provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues. PMID:23034056

2012-01-01

161

Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.  

PubMed

Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

2014-09-15

162

Moving malaria in pregnancy programs from neglect to priority: experience from Malawi, Senegal, and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background: Pregnant women and infants are particularly vulnerable to malaria. National malaria in pregnancy (MIP) programs in Malawi, Senegal, and Zambia were reviewed to identify promising strategies that have helped these countries achieve relatively high coverage of MIP interventions as well as ongoing challenges that have inhibited further progress. Methods: We used a systematic case study methodology to assess health system strengths and challenges in the 3 countries, including desk reviews of available reports and literature and key informant interviews with national stakeholders. Data were collected between 2009 and 2011 and analyzed across 8 MIP health systems components: (1) integration of programs and services, (2) policy, (3) commodities, (4) quality assurance, (5) capacity building, (6) community involvement, (7) monitoring and evaluation, and (8) financing. Within each program area, we ranked degree of scale up across 4 stages and synthesized the findings in a MIP table of analysis to reveal common themes related to better practices, remaining bottlenecks, and opportunities to accelerate MIP coverage, strengthen MIP programs, and improve results. Findings: Each of the 3 countries has malaria policies in place that reflect current MIP guidance from the World Health Organization. The 3 countries successfully integrated MIP interventions into a platform of antenatal care services, but coordination at the national level was disjointed. All 3 countries recognized the importance of having a MIP focal person to ensure collaboration and planning at the national level, but only Malawi had appointed one. Commodity stockouts were frequent due to problems at all levels of the logistics system, from quantification to distribution. Lack of support for quality assurance and weak monitoring and evaluation mechanisms across all 3 countries affected optimal coverage. Conclusions: MIP programs should address all 8 interconnected MIP health systems areas holistically, in the context of a health systems approach to building successful programs. The MIP table of analysis can be a useful tool for other malaria-endemic countries to review their programs and improve MIP outcomes. PMID:25276563

Roman, Elaine; Wallon, Michelle; Brieger, William; Dickerson, Aimee; Rawlins, Barbara; Agarwal, Koki

2014-01-01

163

Improving performance of Zambia Defence Force antiretroviral therapy providers: evaluation of a standards-based approach  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) has applied the Standards-Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R®) approach, which uses detailed performance standards, at some health facilities to improve HIV-related services offered to military personnel and surrounding civilian communities. This study examines the effectiveness of the SBM-R approach in improving facility readiness and provider performance at ZDF facilities. Methods: We collected data on facility readiness and provider performance before and after the 2010–2012 intervention at 4 intervention sites selected for their relatively poor performance and 4 comparison sites. Assessors observed whether each facility met 16 readiness standards and whether providers met 9 performance standards during consultations with 354 returning antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients. We then calculated the percentages of criteria achieved for each readiness and performance standard and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses of provider performance data. Results: Facilities' ART readiness scores exceeded 80% before the intervention at both intervention and comparison sites. At endline, scores improved on 4 facility readiness standards in the intervention group but on only 1 standard in the comparison group. Multivariate analysis found that the overall provider performance score increased significantly in the intervention group (from 58% to 84%; P<.01) but not in the comparison group (from 62% to 70%). The before-and-after improvement in scores was significantly greater among intervention sites than among comparison sites for 2 standards—initial assessment of the client's condition and nutrition counseling. Conclusion: The standards-based approach, which involved intensive and mutually reinforcing intervention activities, showed modest improvements in some aspects of providers' performance during ART consultations. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in provider performance affect client outcomes such as adherence to ART. PMID:25276534

Kim, Young Mi; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Sarkar, Supriya; Bazant, Eva; Hiner, Cyndi; Tholandi, Maya; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Njobvu, Panganani Dalisani; Kols, Adrienne; Benavides, Bruno

2013-01-01

164

Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.  

PubMed

Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed. PMID:23242696

Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

2014-01-01

165

Health systems analysis of eye care services in Zambia: evaluating progress towards VISION 2020 goals  

PubMed Central

Background VISION 2020 is a global initiative launched in 1999 to eliminate avoidable blindness by 2020. The objective of this study was to undertake a situation analysis of the Zambian eye health system and assess VISION 2020 process indicators on human resources, equipment and infrastructure. Methods All eye health care providers were surveyed to determine location, financing sources, human resources and equipment. Key informants were interviewed regarding levels of service provision, management and leadership in the sector. Policy papers were reviewed. A health system dynamics framework was used to analyse findings. Results During 2011, 74 facilities provided eye care in Zambia; 39% were public, 37% private for-profit and 24% owned by Non-Governmental Organizations. Private facilities were solely located in major cities. A total of 191 people worked in eye care; 18 of these were ophthalmologists and eight cataract surgeons, equivalent to 0.34 and 0.15 per 250,000 population, respectively. VISION 2020 targets for inpatient beds and surgical theatres were met in six out of nine provinces, but human resources and spectacles manufacturing workshops were below target in every province. Inequalities in service provision between urban and rural areas were substantial. Conclusion Shortage and maldistribution of human resources, lack of routine monitoring and inadequate financing mechanisms are the root causes of underperformance in the Zambian eye health system, which hinder the ability to achieve the VISION 2020 goals. We recommend that all VISION 2020 process indicators are evaluated simultaneously as these are not individually useful for monitoring progress. PMID:24575919

2014-01-01

166

The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ??? 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (???78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Barham, L.; Phillips, W.M.; Maher, B.A.; Karloukovski, V.; Duller, G.A.T.; Jain, M.; Wintle, A.G.

2011-01-01

167

A Bayesian Geostatistical Moran Curve Model for Estimating Net Changes of Tsetse Populations in Zambia  

PubMed Central

For the first time a Bayesian geostatistical version of the Moran Curve, a logarithmic form of the Ricker stock recruitment curve, is proposed that is able to give an estimate of net change in population demographic rates considering components such as fertility and density dependent and density independent mortalities. The method is applied to spatio-temporally referenced count data of tsetse flies obtained from fly-rounds. The model is a linear regression with three components: population rate of change estimated from the Moran curve, an explicit spatio-temporal covariance, and the observation error optimised within a Bayesian framework. The model was applied to the three main climate seasons of Zambia (rainy – January to April, cold-dry – May to August, and hot-dry – September to December) taking into account land surface temperature and (seasonally changing) cattle distribution. The model shows a maximum positive net change during the hot-dry season and a minimum between the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Density independent losses are correlated positively with day-time land surface temperature and negatively with night-time land surface temperature and cattle distribution. The inclusion of density dependent mortality increases considerably the goodness of fit of the model. Cross validation with an independent dataset taken from the same area resulted in a very accurate estimate of tsetse catches. In general, the overall framework provides an important tool for vector control and eradication by identifying vector population concentrations and local vector demographic rates. It can also be applied to the case of sustainable harvesting of natural populations. PMID:24755848

Sedda, Luigi; Mweempwa, Cornelius; Ducheyne, Els; De Pus, Claudia; Hendrickx, Guy; Rogers, David J.

2014-01-01

168

'One health' and development priorities in resource-constrained countries: policy lessons from avian and pandemic influenza preparedness in Zambia.  

PubMed

'One World, One Health' has become a key rallying theme for the integration of public health and animal health priorities, particularly in the governance of pandemic-scale zoonotic infectious disease threats. However, the policy challenges of integrating public health and animal health priorities in the context of trade and development issues remain relatively unexamined, and few studies to date have explored the implications of global disease governance for resource-constrained countries outside the main centres of zoonotic outbreaks. This article draws on a policy study of national level avian and pandemic influenza preparedness between 2005 and 2009 across the sectors of trade, health and agriculture in Zambia. We highlight the challenges of integrating disease control interventions amidst trade and developmental realities in resource-poor environments. One Health prioritizes disease risk mitigation, sidelining those trade and development narratives which speak to broader public health concerns. We show how locally important trade and development imperatives were marginalized in Zambia, limiting the effectiveness of pandemic preparedness. Our findings are likely to be generalizable to other resource-constrained countries, and suggest that effective disease governance requires alignment with trade and development sectors, as well as integration of veterinary and public health sectors. PMID:24532120

Mwacalimba, Kennedy Kapala; Green, Judith

2015-03-01

169

Evaluation of a Density-Based Rapid Diagnostic Test for Sickle Cell Disease in a Clinical Setting in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Although simple and low-cost interventions for sickle cell disease (SCD) exist in many developing countries, child mortality associated with SCD remains high, in part, because of the lack of access to diagnostic tests for SCD. A density-based test using aqueous multiphase systems (SCD-AMPS) is a candidate for a low-cost, point-of-care diagnostic for SCD. In this paper, the field evaluation of SCD-AMPS in a large (n?=?505) case-control study in Zambia is described. Of the two variations of the SCD-AMPS used, the best system (SCD-AMPS-2) demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% (82–90%) and a specificity of 60% (53–67%). Subsequent analysis identified potential sources of false positives that include clotting, variation between batches of SCD-AMPS, and shipping conditions. Importantly, SCD-AMPS-2 was 84% (62–94%) sensitive in detecting SCD in children between 6 months and 1 year old. In addition to an evaluation of performance, an assessment of end-user operability was done with health workers in rural clinics in Zambia. These health workers rated the SCD-AMPS tests to be as simple to use as lateral flow tests for malaria and HIV. PMID:25490722

Hennek, Jonathan W.; Mantina, Hamakwa; Lee, S. Y. Ryan; Patton, Matthew R.; Sambo, Pauline; Sinyangwe, Silvester; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chintu, Chifumbe; Brugnara, Carlo; Stossel, Thomas P.; Whitesides, George M.

2014-01-01

170

“ARVs” as Sickness and Medicine: Examining children’s knowledge and experience in the HIV era in urban Zambia  

PubMed Central

Since the roll out of no cost antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in health centers in Zambia in 2004, the number of Zambians receiving treatment has substantially increased. While research has addressed adult responses to ARVs in Zambia and elsewhere, there is little known about how children experience and respond to the presence of treatment in their communities and households. The increasing acknowledgement that children provide care and treatment support to people with HIV in their households demands a better understanding of children’s knowledge of HIV and ARVs. To examine children’s ARV knowledge, this article focuses on three children’s workshops carried out with 38 children ages 8 to 12, who participated in a yearlong ethnographic study in 2007 and 2008. All children lived in a low-income and heavily HIV-affected residential area in Lusaka, and many children lived with parents or guardians who had HIV. Findings suggest that when the children discussed ARVs, they made two intersecting points: 1) local conditions make living with HIV, even while on ART, difficult; and 2) children face particular challenges, concerns, and insecurities when caring for and living with the ill. Children’s discussions about ARVs offer a deeper understanding of experiences of HIV and childhood in a disproportionately HIV-affected and low resource area. Such insights might productively inform future programming and research aimed at assisting children and adults. PMID:23256500

Hunleth, Jean

2012-01-01

171

Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: a review of the aetiology and epidemiology and recommendations for possible control.  

PubMed

In Zambia, foot and mouth disease (FMD) has been caused by all three of the South African Territories serotypes (SAT 1, 2 and 3) and by European types O and A. Three areas of the country which have experienced repeated occurrences of the disease are considered high-risk areas. The three areas are as follows: the southern border area between Zambia and Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia, the Kafue Flats and the northern border with Tanzania in the Nakonde and Mbala districts. The transfer mechanism of the virus is poorly understood but the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is considered to be the natural host, acting as a reservoir of infection for the SAT types of the virus. Cattle are known to be carriers of the virus for up to two and a half years and individual semi-domesticated buffalo have been reported to act as carriers for up to five years. In wild herds of buffalo, the virus has been recorded for periods of up to twenty-five years. Current control measures include mass vaccination of cattle in high-risk areas and restrictions on the movement of cattle from areas in which contact exists with buffalo. New protocols should be developed for the prevention and control of FMD, including the enforcement of livestock movement control, improved disease surveillance and reporting, and the monitoring of FMD virus in carrier cattle and buffalo. These measures will contribute towards building the confidence of the regulatory bodies of importing countries in the region. PMID:10588002

Chilonda, P; Woodford, J D; Ahmadu, B; Samui, K L; Syakalima, M; Mlangwa, J E

1999-12-01

172

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.  

PubMed

A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-03-01

173

Molecular identification of Schistosoma mattheei from feces of Kinda (Papio cynocephalus kindae) and grayfoot baboons (Papio ursinus griseipes) in Zambia.  

PubMed

Terminal-spined Schistosoma sp. eggs were detected in several groups of baboons living in Kafue National Park in central Zambia. A total of 166 fecal samples was screened; egg prevalence overall ranged between 7% and 10%, while infection intensities were low. Formalin-fixed eggs had an average length of 144.5 microm and a breadth of 48.3 microm, but the schistosome species could not be unambiguously identified by size or morphology. We used molecular methods to definitively identify the parasite species. Parasite DNA was amplified from stools by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis of fragments of the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1), mitochondrial 12S rDNA, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (nad6), and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) from 3 egg-positive samples revealed the presence of S. mattheei in these samples. This is the first molecular identification of S. mattheei from free-ranging baboons. Schistosoma mattheei is typically a parasite of bovids, but it can also infect humans. Schistosoma mattheei in baboons in Zambia may affect other wildlife species and humans that live in close proximity to baboons. PMID:19697970

Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fischer, Kerstin; Weil, Gary J; Chansa, Wilbroad; Fischer, Peter U

2010-02-01

174

HIV Incidence Rates and Risk Factors for Urban Women in Zambia: Preparing for a Microbicide Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives A preparedness study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of sites and populations following the same study procedures intended for a larger scale microbicide efficacy trial. In the process the study evaluated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence, prevalence, and risk profiles for HIV-acquisition among young women in urban Zambia. Methods Women aged 16 to 49 years were screened for participation in the study that involved HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing and the assessment of sexual behavioral characteristics. Two hundred thirty-nine eligible women were enrolled and followed up for 12 months. Results Baseline HIV prevalence at screening was 38.7% (95% CI: 34.2%–43.3%). The highest age-specific prevalence of HIV was 54.1% (95% CI: 46.3%–61.8%) seen in women aged 26 to 34 years. HIV incidence was 2.6% per 100 woman years. Pregnancy rates were high at 17.4 per 100 woman years (95% CI: 12.2–24.1). Conclusion It was concluded that our general population sample, characterized by high HIV prevalence and ongoing incidence rates despite receiving regular risk reduction counseling and free condoms qualifies for future microbicide studies. A microbicide preparedness study conducted in Lusaka, Zambia found high HIV prevalence and appreciable HIV incidence in a population of women in an urban setting. PMID:19174729

Kapina, Muzala; Reid, Cheri; Roman, Karisse; Cyrus-Cameron, Elena; Kwiecien, Antonia; Weiss, Stephen; Vermund, Sten H.

2009-01-01

175

Maternal and infant health problems after normal childbirth: a randomised controlled study in Zambia  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The main aim of the study was to discover if a midwife home visiting programme has a significant effect on the prevalence of health problems and breast feeding behaviour of mothers who delivered normally and their healthy fullterm newborn babies, during a period of 42 days after delivery. Another aim was to compare the mothers', the midwife's, and the doctor's findings of prevalence of health problems at the end of the puerperium period. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial was carried out. One group of mothers and their infants were randomly allocated to a home visiting group (Group A); the other group (Group B) was only visited at day 42. SETTING: The study was carried out at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 408 mothers who had a normal delivery and gave birth to a healthy fullterm infant, as assessed by the attending midwife, were randomised to two groups. Group A consisted of 208 mother/infant dyads who were visited by a midwife in their homes at days 3, 7, 28, and 42 after delivery and Group B consisted of 200 mother/infant dyads who were only visited at day 42. MAIN RESULTS: At day 42 an equal proportion (30%) of mothers in both groups perceived that they had health problems. The prevalence of infant health problems in Group B was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as perceived by mothers. There were more mothers in Group B (p < 0.01) perceiving insufficient milk production and giving supplementary feeding. At day 42, mothers in Group A (56%) took more actions than mothers in Group B (41%) to solve infant health problems (p < 0.03). In both groups the mothers' perceived own health problems, were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than those observed by the obstetrician and those observed by the midwife. The midwife found more infant health problems in Group B (p < 0.01) than in Group A and more infants with health problems in both groups compared with the paediatrician's findings (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant difference between the mothers' reported health problems and the health problems identified by the midwife and the doctors. The study shows that a midwife home visit and individual health education to mothers, reduce the prevalence of infant health problems, and enables the mother to more often take action when an infant health problem is identified. There is a need to re-evaluate the midwifery training curriculums with the intention to include more infant management care.   PMID:9764260

Ransjo-Arvidson, A. B.; Chintu, K.; Ng'andu, N.; Eriksson, B.; Susu, B.; Christensson, K.; Diwan, V. K.

1998-01-01

176

Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect traumatic stress among youth. This valid tool can now be used to appropriately measure treatment effectiveness, and more effectively and efficiently triage youth to appropriate services. PMID:21943178

2011-01-01

177

Risk factors for brucellosis in indigenous cattle reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.  

PubMed

We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate risk factors of Brucella seropositivity in cattle herds reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar National Parks in Zambia between August 2003 and September 2004. Sera were collected from cattle aged > or =2 years from 124 herds. Data on husbandry practices, grazing strategies, and herd structure (sex and age composition) were also collected. Sera were screened for anti-Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) as a presumptive test and a competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) as a confirmatory test. A herd was classified as Brucella seropositive if at least one animal tested positive on both RBT and c-ELISA in series testing. Risk factors for herd-level brucellosis seropositivity were tested using multivariable logistic regression; risk factors for increases in the within-herd counts of seropositive cattle were analyzed using the negative binomial regression model with the number of seropositive animals as outcome and total number of cattle tested in a herd as the population at risk (exposure). Of the 110 herds tested, 68 (62; 95% CI: 53, 71% after adjusting for clustering by area) tested seropositive for exposure to Brucella spp. The final logistic-regression model identified geographical area, with Lochinvar (OR=3.4; CI: 0.97, 12) and Kazungula (OR=4.3; CI: 0.91, 20) recording higher odds of Brucella infections compared to Blue Lagoon. Herds coming in contact with wildlife had higher odds compared to those without contact (OR=3.4; CI: 1, 11). Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection were progressively higher in the larger herd categories (26-40 cattle, OR=2.6; CI: 0.70, 10; 41-82 cattle, OR=4.9; CI: 0.93, 26; >82 cattle, OR=9.4; CI: 1.7-51) compared to the smallest herd category (10-25). The negative binomial regression model identified geographical area, contact with wildlife, and herd size as having significant effect on counts of seropositive cattle in a herd. PMID:17481753

Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Oloya, J; Munyeme, M; Skjerve, E

2007-08-16

178

The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits, NW Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits of NW Zambia are large, tabular, disseminated ore bodies, hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome of the Lufilian Arc. The host rocks to the Lumwana deposits are two mineralogically similar but texturally distinct gneisses, a granitic to pegmatitic gneiss and a banded to augen gneiss which both comprise quartz-feldspar ± biotite ± muscovite ± haematite ± amphibole and intervening quartz-feldspar ± biotite schist. The sulphide ore horizons are typically developed within a biotite-muscovite-quartz-kyanite schist, although mineralization locally occurs within internal gneiss units. Contacts between the ore and host rocks are transitional and characterized by a loss of feldspar. Kinematic indicators, such as S-C fabrics and pressure shadows on porphyroblasts, suggest a top to the north shear sense. The sulphides are deformed by a strong shear fabric, enclosed within kyanite or concentrated into low strain zones and pressure shadows around kyanite porphyroblasts. This suggests that the copper mineralization was introduced either syn- or pre-peak metamorphism. In addition to Cu and Co, the ores are also characterized by enrichments in U, V, Ni, Ba and S and small, discrete zones of uranium mineralization, occur adjacent to the hanging wall and footwall of the copper ore bodies or in the immediate footwall to the copper mineralization. Unlike typical Copperbelt mineralization, unmineralized units show very low background copper values. Whole rock geochemical analyses of the interlayered schist and ore schist, compared to the gneiss, show depletions in Ca, Na and Sr and enrichments in Mg and K, consistent with replacement of feldspar by biotite. The mineral chemistry of muscovite, biotite and chlorite reflect changes in the bulk rock chemistry and show consistent increases in X Mg as the schists develop. ?34S for copper sulphides range from +2.3 ‰ to +18.5 ‰, with pyrite typically restricted to values between +3.9 ‰ and +6.2 ‰. These values are atypical of sulphides precipitated by bacteriogenic sulphate reduction. ?34S data for Chimiwungo (Cu + Co) show a broader range and increased ?34S values compared to the Malundwe (Cu) mineralization. The Lumwana deposits show many characteristics which distinguish them from classical Copperbelt mineralization and which suggests that they are formed by metasomatic alteration, mineralization and shearing of pre-Katangan basement. Although this style of mineralization is reported elsewhere in the Copperbelt, sometimes associated with the more widely reported stratiform ores of the Lower Roan, none of the previously reported occurrences have so far developed the tonnages of ore reported at Lumwana.

Bernau, Robin; Roberts, Stephen; Richards, Mike; Nisbet, Bruce; Boyce, Adrian; Nowecki, James

2013-02-01

179

Measuring health workers’ motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors to measure. Methods We assessed health worker motivation as part of the baseline assessment for a health system strengthening intervention in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention (Better Health Outcomes Through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA)) aims to increase health worker motivation through training, mentoring and support. We assessed motivation by examining underlying issues grouped around relevant outcome constructs such as job satisfaction, general motivation, burnout, organization commitment, conscientiousness and timeliness that collectively measure overall levels of motivation. The tools and the concepts have been used in high-income countries and they were recently applied in African settings to measure health worker motivation. Results Female participants had the highest motivation scores (female: mean 78.5 (SD 7.8) vs male: mean (SD 7.0)). By type of worker, nurses had the highest scores while environmental health technicians had the lowest score (77.4 (SD 7.8 vs 73.2 (SD 9.3)). Health workers who had been in post longer also had higher scores (>7 months). Health workers who had received some form of training in the preceding 12 months were more likely to have a higher score; this was also true for those older than 40 years when compared to those less than 40 years of age. The highest score values were noted in conscientiousness and timeliness, with all districts scoring above 80. Conclusions This study evaluated motivation among rural health workers using a simple adapted tool to measure the concept of motivation. Results showed variation in motivation score by sex, type of health worker, training and time in post. Further research is needed to establish why these health worker attributes were associated with motivation and whether health system interventions targeting health workers, such as the current intervention, could influence health worker motivation. PMID:23433226

2013-01-01

180

Characterisation of the Wildlife Reservoir Community for Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species) and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study was to characterise the nature of the reservoir community for trypanosomiasis in the absence of influence from domesticated hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of trypanosome prevalence in wildlife hosts was conducted in the Luangwa Valley from 2005 to 2007. Samples were collected from 418 animals and were examined for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax using molecular diagnostic techniques. The overall prevalence of infection in all species was 13.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.71–17.57%). Infection was significantly more likely to be detected in waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) (Odds ratio [OR]?=?10.5, 95% CI: 2.36–46.71), lion (Panthera leo) (OR?=?5.3, 95% CI: 1.40–19.69), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (OR?=?4.7, 95% CI: 1.41–15.41) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) (OR?=?4.5, 95% CI: 1.51–13.56). Bushbucks are important hosts for T. brucei s.l. while the Bovidae appear the most important for T. congolense. The epidemiology of T. vivax was less clear, but parasites were detected most frequently in waterbuck. Human infective T. b. rhodesiense were identified for the first time in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and T. brucei s.l. in leopard (Panthera pardus). Variation in infection rates was demonstrated at species level rather than at family or sub-family level. A number of significant risk factors interact to influence infection rates in wildlife including taxonomy, habitat and blood meal preference. Conclusion and Significance Trypanosoma parasites circulate within a wide and diverse host community in this bio-diverse ecosystem. Consistent land use patterns over the last century have resulted in epidemiological stability, but this may be threatened by the recent influx of people and domesticated livestock into the mid-Luangwa Valley. PMID:21713019

Anderson, Neil E.; Mubanga, Joseph; Fevre, Eric M.; Picozzi, Kim; Eisler, Mark C.; Thomas, Robert; Welburn, Susan C.

2011-01-01

181

Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Methods Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. Results During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor results at the zonal level. Conclusions In this study, the fit of ARIMAX models improves when environmental variables are included. There is a significant association of remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point with malaria transmission. Interestingly, dew point might be one of the factors sustaining malaria transmission in areas of general aridity during the dry season. PMID:24927747

2014-01-01

182

Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions Despite the growing body of literature on increased risk of exposure to HIV among HIV-negative PWDs, this is the first published study to examine perceptions of testing, treatment and other HIV services for PWDs who have become HIV-positive. Findings reveal far-reaching opportunities for improving the quality of care for this population. PMID:24763077

Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse

2014-01-01

183

Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

2011-01-01

184

Identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of Trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  

PubMed

A total of 7 stocks of Trypanosoma brucei subspecies, isolated from naturally infected game animals in the Luangwa Valley, Eastern Province, Zambia were examined using a modified version of the Blood Incubation Infectivity Test (BIIT). One stock giving consistent BIIT responses typical of T.b. rhodesiense, was obtained from warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). Four other stocks, 2 from hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), 1 from a waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) and 1 from a lion (Panthera leo) responded like T.b. brucei. One stock from a waterbuck and 1 from a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) failed to infect mice after incubation in human serum for 30 min at 37 degrees C when first tested, but after 5 or 6 further serial passages in mice and even with serum incubation time increased to 5 h, they retained infectivity. PMID:44098

Awan, M A

1979-12-01

185

Local Perceptions, Cultural Beliefs and Practices That Shape Umbilical Cord Care: A Qualitative Study in Southern Province, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Methods and Findings This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust), lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil) and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces). Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. Conclusion Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize effectiveness of evidence-based interventions. PMID:24244447

Herlihy, Julie M.; Shaikh, Affan; Mazimba, Arthur; Gagne, Natalie; Grogan, Caroline; Mpamba, Chipo; Sooli, Bernadine; Simamvwa, Grace; Mabeta, Catherine; Shankoti, Peggy; Messersmith, Lisa; Semrau, Katherine; Hamer, Davidson H.

2013-01-01

186

Making the cut: evidence-based lessons for improving the informed consent process for voluntary medical male circumcision in Swaziland and Zambia.  

PubMed

The informed consent (IC) process for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) was evaluated in Zambia and Swaziland as VMMC programs scaled up. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with clients 1 week after surgery to explore understanding of IC and gauge how expectations of MC surgery compared to actual experiences. In Zambia, key opinion leaders (KOLs) were also interviewed. Some clients equated written IC with releasing the clinic from liability. Most clients felt well prepared for the procedure, although many were surprised by the level of pain experienced during anesthesia and postsurgery. Clients were highly motivated to adhere to wound care, but some were overwhelmed by extensive instructions. Adolescents described barriers to accessing follow-up care and the need for support in overcoming adult gatekeepers. KOLs indicated that IC is not well understood in poorly educated communities. Results led to concrete programmatic changes, including revised patient education materials and more effective anesthesia for longer-lasting pain relief. PMID:24694330

Schenk, Katie D; Friedland, Barbara A; Sheehy, Meredith; Apicella, Louis; Hewett, Paul C

2014-04-01

187

Monitoring the correct use of isometamidium by farmers and veterinary assistants in Eastern Province of Zambia using the isometamidium-ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey to monitor the use of trypanocidal drugs by cattle breeders was conducted in Zambia. Use was made of a questionnaire and of the isometamidium-ELISA technique. One hundred and twenty-two farmers and 50 veterinary assistants were interviewed. The isometamidium-ELISA was used to monitor the isometamidium serum concentration in 72 cattle, 1 week after unsupervised treatment by 56 farmers and

V. Delespaux; S. Geerts; J. Brandt; R. Elyn; M. C. Eisler

2002-01-01

188

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and animal level risk factors for indigenous cattle under different grazing strategies in the livestock\\/wildlife interface areas of Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and animal level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis\\u000a (BTB) in indigenous cattle of the livestock\\/wildlife interface areas in Zambia. A total of 944 cattle from 111 herds were\\u000a investigated. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) was used to identify reactor animals for BTB. Animal level\\u000a data on sex, age, parity and

M. Munyeme; J. B. Muma; K. L. Samui; E. Skjerve; A. M. Nambota; I. G. K. Phiri; L. Rigouts; M. Tryland

2009-01-01

189

The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zambian willemite (Zn2SiO4) deposits occur in the metasedimentary carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic Katangan Supergroup. The most important orebodies are located around Kabwe and contain both sulphides and willemite in dolomites of low metamorphic grade. The Star Zinc and Excelsior prospects (Lusaka area), discovered in the early 1920s, occur in the metamorphic lithotypes of the late Proterozoic Zambezi Supracrustal sequence, which were deposited in a transtensional basin formed during the oblique collision of the Kalahari and Congo cratons. The deposits are hosted by the limestone and dolomitic marbles of the Cheta and Lusaka Formations. Structural analysis indicates that several fracture sets host the deposits, which may be genetically related to the Pan-African Mwembeshi dislocation zone (a major geotectonic boundary between the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt). In both prospects, willemite replaces the marbles and is found along joints and fissures with open-space filling textures and locally may develop colloform and vuggy fabrics as well. Silver as well as traces of germanium and cadmium have been detected within the willemite ore, and lead or zinc sulphides are scarce or absent. Calcite locally replaces willemite. Willemite is associated with specular hematite and franklinite and post-dates the Zn-spinel gahnite in the paragenesis. Genthelvite [Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S] occurs as a minor phase in irregular aggregates. The willemites from the Lusaka area, though Mn-poor, show green cathodoluminescence colours and bright green fluorescence in short-wave UV (as the high-temperature willemites in USA). Thermometric analyses of primary fluid inclusions in willemite yield homogenization temperatures that range from 160°C to 240°C and salinities of 8-16 wt.% equiv. NaCl. The homogenization temperatures suggest a hypogene-hydrothermal origin for the willemite concentrations. The geochemistry of fluid inclusion leachates suggests that the hydrothermal fluids were brines derived from highly evaporated seawater. Precise age constraints are currently lacking for the Lusaka area deposits, though the deposits are not deformed, indicating that they post-date the Lufilian orogeny (~520 Ma). The possibility of precursor ores exists; the gahnite-franklinite-willemite deposits could have been derived from a metamorphosed primary sulphide (or even nonsulphide) concentration that has subsequently been completely destroyed. However, there is no real evidence of such a primary source for the willemite mineral association. The Lusaka zinc ores may have been produced by an extensive hydrothermal system, with fluids discharging along basinal fracture zones controlled by the pre-Pan-African rifting stage. A paragenesis similar to that of the Lusaka prospects has been proposed to be a vector towards massive sulphide ores in several parts of the world; therefore, it is possible that these small willemite showings in Zambia may be part of a much bigger, and still unexplored, zinc province.

Boni, Maria; Terracciano, Rosario; Balassone, Giuseppina; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Matthews, Alexander

2011-10-01

190

Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from companion animals and environment in the veterinary teaching hospital in Zambia, Africa.  

PubMed

The Republic of Zambia consists of only one veterinary teaching school at the University of Zambia (UNZA) where students and veterinarians are exposed to many bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP). The aim of this study was the characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of eleven SA and 48 SP isolates from the veterinary hospitals' in- and outpatients and the environment. No isolate was resistant to cefoxitin by disk diffusion test and the corresponding resistance gene mecA was not found. In contrast, the resistance rates of SA to penicillin (63.6%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36.4%) and SP to penicillin (52.1%) and tetracycline (25.0%) were the highest. A variety of sequence types (STs) without a predominant type including numerous novel types were determined, especially for SP (39.6%). The spa typing provided a clonal assignment for all SAs (100%) and 24 SPs (50%) with three and two novel types, respectively. This study has provided an overview of SA and SP in the veterinary teaching hospital at UNZA. However, for a better understanding of these species regarding pathogenesis and transmission, further studies on the prevalence and characterization of SA and SP from veterinary staff, pet owners, and farm animals in Zambia is needed. PMID:24480623

Youn, Jung-Ho; Park, Yong Ho; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2014-03-01

191

Healthcare provision for HIV co-infected tuberculosis patients in rural Zambia: an observational cohort study at primary care centers  

PubMed Central

Background Linkage of healthcare services for tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major challenge in resource-limited settings. Our operational research aimed to evaluate the linkage between TB and HIV services in a rural area of Zambia, and to explore factors associated with the enrolment of TB/HIV co-infected patients in HIV care services. Methods All TB patients newly diagnosed as HIV-positive in Chongwe district, Zambia between 2009 and 2010 were included. Data from TB registers and medical records were reviewed. Patient referral to HIV services and provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were further examined through HIV registers and records. Results Of 621 patients (median age 33.0 years, female 42.4%) who started anti-TB treatment, clinic records indicated that 297 patients were newly diagnosed as HIV-positive, and 176 (59.3%) of these were referred to an ART clinic. Analysis of records at the ART clinic found that only 85 (28.6%) of TB/HIV patients had actually been enrolled in HIV care, of whom only 58 (68.2%) had commenced ART. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated the following factors associated with lower enrolment: “male” sex (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI 0.26-0.78), “previous TB treatment” (aOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.75), “registration at sites that did not provide ART services (non-ART site)” (aOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.77) and “death on TB treatment outcome (aOR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06-0.65). However, patient registration at TB clinics in 2010 was associated with markedly higher enrolment in HIV care as compared to registration in 2009 (aOR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.53-5.12). Conclusions HIV testing for TB patients has been successfully scaled up. However referrals of co-infected patients still remain a challenge due to poor linkage between TB and HIV healthcare services. Committed healthcare workers, a well-organized health services system and patient education are urgently required to ensure a higher rate of referral of TB/HIV co-infected patients for appropriate care. PMID:24103082

2013-01-01

192

Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector: the case of Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled ‘Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems’ (REACT). The project aimed to strengthen fairness and accountability in the PS processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district level in Kapiri-Mposhi District in Zambia. Methods Data was collected using in depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and review of documents from national to district level. The study population for this paper consisted of health related stakeholders employed in the district administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. Results During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported devolution of PS and decision making procedures. However, important gaps were identified in terms of experiences of stakeholder involvement and fairness in PS processes in practice. The evaluation study revealed that a transformation of the views and methods regarding fairness in PS processes was ongoing in the study district, which was partly attributed to the AFR based intervention. Conclusions The study findings suggest that increased attention was given to fairness in PS processes at district level. The changes were linked to a number of simultaneous factors among them the concepts introduced by the present project with its emphasis on fairness and enhanced participation. A responsive leadership that was increasingly accountable to its operational staff and communities emerged as one of the key elements in driving the processes forward. PMID:24548767

2014-01-01

193

Recognition of a novel melanotic mutant in a field population of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in southern Zambia.  

PubMed

Genetic mutations controlling eye color, fat body color, structural abnormalities, and insecticide resistance are common in mosquitoes. We have identified a novel color variant of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus characterized by a heavily pigmented integument in adult specimens circulating in field populations of this species in southern Zambia. Mosquitoes were collected monthly by pyrethrum spray catch between November and May 2004-05 and 2005-06, with between 25% and 80% of the total Cx. p. quinquefasciatus collections comprising this pigmented variety. The identity of pigmented specimens was morphologically confirmed as Cx. p. quinquefasciatus by examination of orientation of the dorsal and ventral arms of the male genitalia of F1 male progeny reared in the laboratory, and molecularly verified by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase subunit 4 nucleotide sequence homology. Preliminary laboratory rearings indicated that the pigmentation was heritable and not influenced by larval habitat and environmental conditions. Further investigation into the mechanism of the mutation, inheritance patterns, and potential linkage to additional markers is pending. PMID:17536371

Kent, Rebekah J; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Hamapumbu, Harry; Norris, Douglas E

2007-03-01

194

Prevalence and determinants of mucous membrane irritations in a community near a cement factory in zambia: a cross sectional study.  

PubMed

Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15-59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79), 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55)) and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18)) for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory. PMID:25602972

Nkhama, Emmy; Ndhlovu, Micky; Dvonch, J Timothy; Siziya, Seter; Voyi, Kuku

2015-01-01

195

Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in an Urban Population in Zambia: Strong Association With HIV and Environmental Enteropathy  

PubMed Central

Background.?Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes major epidemics of infectious hepatitis, with high mortality rates in pregnant women. Recent reports indicate that HEV coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a more protracted course. However, the impact of HEV infections in communities heavily affected by HIV remains poorly studied. We set out to examine age-related seroprevalence in a community where we have previously carried out studies on environmental enteropathy. Methods.?Blood samples from 194 children and 106 adults were examined for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies for HEV. HEV data were correlated with HIV status and morphometric analysis of small intestinal biopsies. Results.?Seroprevalence rose throughout childhood, from 8% in children aged 1–4 years, to 36% in children aged 10–14 years. In adults, the overall prevalence was 42%, with 28% in HIV-seronegative adults and 71% in HIV-seropositive adults (odds ratio, 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.2–18; P = .0001). In adults, villous height and crypt depth measurements showed that HEV seropositivity was associated with worse enteropathy (P = .05 and P = .005, respectively). Conclusions.?HEV infection is common in Zambia. In adults it is strongly associated with HIV status, and also with environmental enteropathy. PMID:23926328

Jacobs, Choolwe; Chiluba, Clarance; Phiri, Cynthia; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Chomba, Mumba; Hill, Philip C.; Ijaz, Samreen; Kelly, Paul

2014-01-01

196

'Big push' to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia enhanced health systems but lacked a sustainability plan.  

PubMed

In the past decade, "big push" global health initiatives financed by international donors have aimed to rapidly reach ambitious health targets in low-income countries. The health system impacts of these efforts are infrequently assessed. Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a global public-private partnership that aims to reduce maternal mortality dramatically in one year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. We evaluated the first six to twelve months of the program's implementation, its ownership by national ministries of health, and its effects on health systems. The project's impact on maternal mortality is not reported here. We found that the Saving Mothers, Giving Life initiative delivered a large "dose" of intervention quickly by capitalizing on existing US international health assistance platforms, such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Early benefits to the broader health system included greater policy attention to maternal and child health, new health care infrastructure, and new models for collaborating with the private sector and communities. However, the rapid pace, external design, and lack of a long-term financing plan hindered integration into the health system and local ownership. Sustaining and scaling up early gains of similar big push initiatives requires longer-term commitments and a clear plan for transition to national control. PMID:24889956

Kruk, Margaret E; Rabkin, Miriam; Grépin, Karen Ann; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Masvawure, Tsitsi Beatrice; Sacks, Emma Rose; Vail, Daniel; Galea, Sandro

2014-06-01

197

Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15–59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79), 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55)) and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18)) for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory. PMID:25602972

Nkhama, Emmy; Ndhlovu, Micky; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Siziya, Seter; Voyi, Kuku

2015-01-01

198

Urban and Rural Ozone Pollution Over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5S, 25E) During SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka during a six-day period in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, interspersed by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30 percent. Smoke aerosol column variations aloft and total ozone were monitored by a sun photometer. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39- 54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). High ozone concentrations above the mixed and inversion layers were advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia where SAFARI aircraft and ground-based instruments observed intense biomass fires and elevated aerosol and trace gas amounts. TOMS tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols products show the distribution of biomass burning and associated pollution throughout southern Africa in September 2000. Animations of satellite images and trajectories confirm pollutant recirculation over south central African fires, exit of ozone from Mozambique and Tanzania to the Indian Ocean and the characteristic buildup of tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic from western African outflow.

Thompson, Anne M.; Herman, J. R.; Witte, J. C.; Phahlane, A.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Mukula, C.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

199

Urban and Rural Ozone Collect over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5 S, 28 E) during SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, broken by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30%. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39-54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). A stable layer of high ozone at 2-5 km was advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia and neighboring countries, making Lusaka a collection point for transboundary pollution. This is confirmed by trajectories that show ozone leaving Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa before heading toward the Indian Ocean and returning to Lusaka via Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Ozone in the mixed layer at Lusaka is heavily influenced by local sources.

Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tai; Phalane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, Gert J. R.

2002-01-01

200

ZAMSTAR, The Zambia South Africa TB and HIV Reduction study: Design of a 2 × 2 factorial community randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background TB and HIV form a deadly synergy in much of the developing world, especially Africa. Interventions to reduce the impact of these diseases at community level are urgently needed. This paper presents the design of a community randomised trial to evaluate the impact of two complex interventions on the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in high HIV prevalence settings in Zambia and South Africa. Methods The interaction between TB and HIV is reviewed and possible interventions that could reduce the prevalence of TB in HIV-endemic populations are discussed. Two of these interventions are described in detail and the design of a 2 × 2 factorial community randomised trial to test these interventions is presented. The limitations and challenges of the design are identified and discussed. Conclusion There is an urgent need to reduce the prevalence of TB in communities highly affected by HIV. Potential interventions are complex and require innovative trial designs to provide the rigorous evidence needed to inform health policy makers and to ensure that resources are used optimally. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN36729271 PMID:18992133

Ayles, Helen M; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Beyers, Nulda; Hayes, Richard J; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

2008-01-01

201

A quantitative risk assessment of bovine theileriosis entering Luapula Province from Central Province in Zambia via live cattle imports from traditional and commercial production sectors.  

PubMed

Theileriosis or East Coast Fever (ECF) is an important livestock disease widespread in Zambia except for some provinces such as Luapula. This freedom status has been achieved due to strict livestock movement regulations that only authorise cattle imports from commercial farms implementing strict ECF control regimens. Recent increases in both the demand and price of beef in Zambia are stimulating a policy change towards a more inclusive inter-provincial trade in live cattle. This may also encourage the introduction of breeding cattle from high production pastoral sectors such as Central Province to stimulate the beef industry in disease free low production areas such as the Luapula Province. To estimate and compare the risks linked with those potential introductions of cattle from the traditional or commercial production sectors of the Central Province, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. This risk comparison was necessary because the traditional livestock production sector accounts for over 79% of breeding cattle trade in Central Province but is characterised by minimalistic tick-borne disease control and a higher prevalence of ECF. We estimate that should the importation of breeding cattle from Central into Luapula Province be permitted, we could expect to import ECF by the introduction of infected animals at a median rate (5th and 95th percentiles) of every 0.44 years (0.12, 2.60), from the traditional sector compared to every 3.57 years (0.37, 103.6) from the commercial sector. Infected ticks would be expected to enter every 3.46 (0.66, 43.8) years via traditional cattle imports. These risks are strongly influenced by the prevalence of infection, performance of pre-transport screening tests, and the effectiveness of pre-transport tick cleansing. This assessment is expected to provide a model for tick borne disease risk assessments in similar settings, as well as inform ECF control, cattle trade, and stock movement policies in Zambia. PMID:24974081

Makungu, C; Mwacalimba, K K

2014-09-01

202

“The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18) and district stakeholders (n= 10) in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6) in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground and accurate costings for sustainable service delivery, building on existing community strengths, are needed before projects commence. This study highlights the importance of enabling and building the capacity of existing CBOs and community structures, rather than creating new mechanisms. PMID:23192013

2012-01-01

203

Protocol-driven primary care and community linkages to improve population health in rural Zambia: the Better Health Outcomes through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project  

PubMed Central

Introduction Zambia’s under-resourced public health system will not be able to deliver on its health-related Millennium Development Goals without a substantial acceleration in mortality reduction. Reducing mortality will depend not only upon increasing access to health care but also upon improving the quality of care that is delivered. Our project proposes to improve the quality of clinical care and to improve utilization of that care, through a targeted quality improvement (QI) intervention delivered at the facility and community level. Description of implementation The project is being carried out 42 primary health care facilities that serve a largely rural population of more than 450,000 in Zambia’s Lusaka Province. We have deployed six QI teams to implement consensus clinical protocols, forms, and systems at each site. The QI teams define new clinical quality expectations and provide tools needed to deliver on those expectations. They also monitor the care that is provided and mentor facility staff to improve care quality. We also engage community health workers to actively refer and follow up patients. Evaluation design Project implementation occurs over a period of four years in a stepped expansion to six randomly selected new facilities every three months. Three annual household surveys will determine population estimates of age-standardized mortality and under-5 mortality in each community before, during, and after implementation. Surveys will also provide measures of childhood vaccine coverage, pregnancy care utilization, and general adult health. Health facility surveys will assess coverage of primary health interventions and measures of health system effectiveness. Discussion The patient-provider interaction is an important interface where the community and the health system meet. Our project aims to reduce population mortality by substantially improving this interaction. Our success will hinge upon the ability of mentoring and continuous QI to improve clinical service delivery. It will also be critical that once the quality of services improves, increasing proportions of the population will recognize their value and begin to utilize them. PMID:23819614

2013-01-01

204

A preliminary investigation of the effect of age, sex and time of collection on the feeding patterns of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westw. in Zambia.  

PubMed

Glossina morsitans morsitans were collected during the dry season of 1975 from two areas in the Luangwa Valley (Zambia) and from one of the areas in the wet season of 1976. In all, 1,190 flies were analysed for sex, wing fray category and source of bloodmeal. Differences in the feeding patterns in the morning and afternoon collections reflected host behaviour. Warthog consistently emerged as a major host but there appeared to be some local variation resulting from seasonal and diurnal availability of hosts. PMID:7200644

Newberry, K; Boreham, P F; Sheppard, M

1982-01-01

205

Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.  

PubMed

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408

Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

2015-01-30

206

Counselor and Participant Perspectives of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children in Zambia: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined Zambian counselors, children, and caregivers' perceptions of an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for trauma (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, TF-CBT) utilized in Zambia to address mental health problems in children. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local counselors trained in TF-CBT (N=19; 90% of those trained; 12 Female) and children/caregivers who had received TF-CBT in a small feasibility study (N=18; 86% of the children and N=16; 76% of the caregivers) who completed TF-CBT (Total completed; N=21). Each client was asked six open-ended questions, and domain analysis was used to explore the data. Results Counselors were positive about the program, liked the structure and flexibility, reported positive changes in their clients, and discussed the cultural adaptation around activities and language. Counselors stated the training was too short, and the supervision was necessary. Challenges included client engagement and attendance, availability of location, funding, and a lack of community understanding of “therapy.” Children and caregivers stated multiple positive changes they attributed to TF-CBT, such as better family communication, reduction of problem behaviors, and ability to speak about the trauma. They recommended continuing the program. Conclusion This study brings a critical examination of providers' and clients' perspectives of the implementation of an EBT for children in a low-resource setting. Clinical implications include changing implementation methods based on responses. Research implications include future study directions such as an effectiveness trial of TF-CBT and an examination of implementation factors. PMID:24400677

Murray, Laura K.; Skavenski, Stephanie; Michalopoulos, Lynn M.; Bolton, Paul A.; Bass, Judith K.; Familiar, Itziar; Imasiku, Mwiya; Cohen, Judy

2014-01-01

207

Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper-cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irregular veins. The hypogene sulphide mineralogy consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite. Based upon relationships with metamorphic biotite, vein sulphides and most of the sulphides in cemented lenses were precipitated during or after biotite zone greenschist facies metamorphism. New ?34S values of sulphides from the Konkola deposit are presented. The sulphur isotope values range from -8.7‰ to +1.4‰ V-CDT for chalcopyrite from all mineralising phases and from -4.4‰ to +2.0‰ V-CDT for secondary chalcocite. Similarities in ?34S for sulphides from different vein generations, earlier sulphides and secondary chalcocite can be explained by (re)mobilisation of S from earlier formed sulphide phases, an interpretation strongly supported by the petrographic evidence. Deep supergene enrichment and leaching occurs up to a km in depth, predominantly in the form of secondary chalcocite, goethite and malachite and is often associated with zones of high permeability. Detailed distribution maps of total copper and total cobalt contents of the Ore Shale formation show a close relationship between structural features and higher copper and lower cobalt contents, relative to other areas of the mine. Structural features include the Kirilabombwe anticline and fault zones along the axial plane and two fault zones in the southern limb of the anticline. Cobalt and copper behave differently in relation to these structural features. These structures are interpreted to have played a significant role in (re)mobilisation and concentration of the metals, in agreement with observations made elsewhere in the Zambian Copperbelt.

Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Dewaele, S.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, Ph.

2013-03-01

208

Prevalence and source of trypanosome infections in field-captured vector flies (Glossina pallidipes) in southeastern Zambia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes, collected from Chiawa and Chakwenga in Zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 550 G. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome DNA. Infection rates of tsetse with Trypanosoma vivax universal, Trypanosoma congolense savannah, T. congolense forest and T. congolense kilifi were 4.2% (23/550), 4.7% (26/550), 1.1% (6/550) and 1.6% (9/550), respectively. To determine the mammalian hosts of T. congolense and T. vivax infections from the tsetse flies, mammalian mitochondrion DNA of blood meal in these flies were analyzed by PCR and subsequent gene sequence analysis of the amplicons. Sequence analysis showed the presence of cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of 7 different mammalian species such as human, elephant, buffalo, goat, warthog, greater kudu and cattle. Goats which were main livestock in these areas were further examined to know the extent of its contribution in spreading the infection. We examined the prevalence of trypanosome infections in the domestic goat population in 6 settlements in Chiawa alone. Of the 86 goats sampled, 4 (4.6%), 5 (5.8%), 4 (4.6%) and 4 (4.6%) were positive for T. vivax universal, T. congolense savannah, forest and kilifi, respectively. These findings showed that the host-source of trypanosome infections in vector fly give a vital information about spread of infection. The result of this study will certainly contribute in elucidating more the epidemiology of trypanosomosis. PMID:18840966

Mekata, Hirohisa; Konnai, Satoru; Simuunza, Martin; Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Kano, Rika; Witola, William H; Tembo, Mwase E; Chitambo, Harrison; Inoue, Noboru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

2008-09-01

209

Unintended Pregnancy among HIV Positive Couples Receiving Integrated HIV Counseling, Testing, and Family Planning Services in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Objective We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. Design Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. Methods Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. Results The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (p<0.05) with time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users in multivariate analysis included the man wanting more children, the woman being HIV negative versus having stage IV HIV disease, and the woman reporting: younger age, no previous OCP use, missed OCPs, or sex without a condom. Conclusions Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522 PMID:24098692

Wall, Kristin M.; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

2013-01-01

210

Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control  

PubMed Central

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

211

Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia.  

PubMed

The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5' and 3' region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5' and 3' proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes. PMID:24667303

Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M Bradford

2014-07-01

212

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Zambia: implementing efficacious ARV regimens in primary health centers  

PubMed Central

Background Safety and effectiveness of efficacious antiretroviral (ARV) regimens beyond single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) have been demonstrated in well-controlled clinical studies or in secondary- and tertiary-level facilities in developing countries. This paper reports on implementation of and factors associated with efficacious ARV regimens among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in primary health centers (PHCs) in Zambia. Methods Blood sample taken for CD4 cell count, availability of CD4 count results, type of ARV prophylaxis for mothers, and additional PMTCT service data were collected for HIV-positive pregnant women and newborns who attended 60 PHCs between April 2007 and March 2008. Results Of 14,815 HIV-positive pregnant women registered in the 60 PHCs, 2,528 (17.1%) had their CD4 cells counted; of those, 1,680 (66.5%) had CD4 count results available at PHCs; of those, 796 (47.4%) had CD4 count ? 350 cells/mm3 and thus were eligible for combination antiretroviral treatment (cART); and of those, 581 (73.0%) were initiated on cART. The proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women whose blood sample was collected for CD4 cell count was positively associated with (1) blood-draw for CD4 count occurring on the same day as determination of HIV-positive status; (2) CD4 results sent back to the health facilities within seven days; (3) facilities without providers trained to offer ART; and (4) urban location of PHC. Initiation of cART among HIV-positive pregnant women was associated with the PHC's capacity to provide care and antiretroviral treatment services. Overall, of the 14,815 HIV-positive pregnant women registered, 10,015 were initiated on any type of ARV regimen: 581 on cART, 3,041 on short course double ARV regimen, and 6,393 on sdNVP. Conclusion Efficacious ARV regimens beyond sdNVP can be implemented in resource-constrained PHCs. The majority (73.0%) of women identified eligible for ART were initiated on cART; however, a minority (11.3%) of HIV-positive pregnant women were assessed for CD4 count and had their test results available. Factors associated with implementation of more efficacious ARV regimens include timing of blood-draw for CD4 count and capacity to initiate cART onsite where PMTCT services were being offered. PMID:19712454

2009-01-01

213

Spatial and temporal variation of CO2 efflux along a disturbance gradient in a miombo woodland in Western Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide efflux from the soil surface was measured over a period of several weeks within a heterogeneous Brachystegia spp. dominated miombo woodland in Western Zambia. The objectives were to examine spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration along a disturbance gradient from a protected forest reserve to a cut, burned, and grazed area outside, and to relate the flux to various abiotic and biotic drivers. The highest daily mean fluxes (around 12 ?mol m-2 s-1) were measured in the protected forest in the wet season and lowest daily mean fluxes (around 1 ?mol m-2 s-1) in the most disturbed area during the dry season. Diurnal variation of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil temperature. The combination of soil water content and soil temperature was found to be the main driving factor at seasonal time scale. There was a 75% decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the dry season and a 20% difference in peak soil respiratory flux measured in 2008 and 2009. Spatial variation of CO2 efflux was positively related to total soil carbon content in the undisturbed area but not at the disturbed site. Coefficients of variation of efflux rates between plots decreased towards the core zone of the protected forest reserve. Normalized soil respiration values did not vary significantly along the disturbance gradient. Spatial variation of respiration did not show a clear distinction between the disturbed and undisturbed sites and was neither explained by soil carbon nor leaf area index. In contrast, within plot variability of soil respiration was explained by soil organic carbon content. Three different approaches to calculate total ecosystem respiration (Reco) from eddy covariance measurements were compared to two bottom-up estimates of Reco obtained from chambers measurements of soil- and leaf respiration which differed in the consideration of spatial heterogeneity. The consideration of spatial variability resulted only in small changes of Reco when compared to simple averaging. Total ecosystem respiration at the plot scale, obtained by eddy covariance differed by up to 25% in relation to values calculated from the soil- and leaf chamber efflux measurements but without showing a clear trend.

Merbold, L.; Ziegler, W.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Kutsch, W. L.

2010-07-01

214

Spatial and temporal variation of CO2 efflux along a disturbance gradient in a miombo woodland in Western Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide efflux from the soil surface was measured over a period of several weeks within a heterogeneous Brachystegia spp. dominated miombo woodland in Western Zambia. The objectives were to examine spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration along a disturbance gradient from a protected forest reserve to a cut, burned, and grazed area outside, and to relate the flux to various abiotic and biotic drivers. The highest daily mean fluxes (around 12 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) were measured in the protected forest in the wet season and lowest daily mean fluxes (around 1 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) in the most disturbed area during the dry season. Diurnal variation of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil temperature. The combination of soil water content and soil temperature was found to be the main driving factor at seasonal time scale. There was a 75% decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the dry season and a 20% difference in peak soil respiratory flux measured in 2008 and 2009. Spatial variation of CO2 efflux was positively related to total soil carbon content in the undisturbed area but not at the disturbed site. Coefficients of variation of efflux rates between plots decreased towards the core zone of the protected forest reserve. Normalized soil respiration values did not vary significantly along the disturbance gradient. Spatial variation of respiration did not show a clear distinction between the disturbed and undisturbed sites and could not be explained by variables such as leaf area index. In contrast, within plot variability of soil respiration was explained by soil organic carbon content. Three different approaches to calculate total ecosystem respiration (Reco) from eddy covariance measurements were compared to two bottom-up estimates of Reco obtained from chambers measurements of soil- and leaf respiration which differed in the consideration of spatial heterogeneity. The consideration of spatial variability resulted only in small changes of Reco when compared to simple averaging. Total ecosystem respiration at the plot scale, obtained by eddy covariance differed by up to 25% in relation to values calculated from the soil- and leaf chamber efflux measurements but without showing a clear trend.

Merbold, L.; Ziegler, W.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Kutsch, W. L.

2011-01-01

215

A retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at twelve health facilities in four districts in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the appropriateness of malaria case management at health facility level in four districts in Zambia. Methods This study was a retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at health facilities in four districts conveniently sampled to represent both urban and rural settings in different epidemiological zones and health facility coverage. The review period was from January to December 2008. The sample included twelve lower level health facilities from four districts. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to identify characteristics which affected the quality of case management. Results Out of 4?891 suspected malaria cases recorded at the 12 health facilities, more than 80% of the patients had a temperature taken to establish their fever status. About 67% (CI95 66.1-68.7) were tested for parasitemia by either rapid diagnostic test or microscopy, whereas the remaining 22.5% (CI95 21.3.1-23.7) were not subjected to any malaria test. Of the 2?247 malaria cases reported (complicated and uncomplicated), 71% were parasitologically confirmed while 29% were clinically diagnosed (unconfirmed). About 56% (CI95 53.9-58.1) of the malaria cases reported were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 35% (CI95 33.1-37.0) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, 8% (CI95 6.9-9.2) with quinine and 1% did not receive any anti-malarial. Approximately 30% of patients WHO were found negative for malaria parasites were still prescribed an anti-malarial, contrary to the guidelines. There were marked inter-district variations in the proportion of patients in WHOm a diagnostic tool was used, and in the choice of anti-malarials for the treatment of malaria confirmed cases. Association between health worker characteristics and quality of case malaria management showed that nurses performed better than environmental health technicians and clinical officers on the decision whether to use the rapid diagnostic test or not. Gender, in service training on malaria, years of residence in the district and length of service of the health worker at the facility were not associated with diagnostic and treatment choices. Conclusions Malaria case management was characterised by poor adherence to treatment guidelines. The non-adherence was mainly in terms of: inconsistent use of confirmatory tests (rapid diagnostic test or microscopy) for malaria; prescribing anti-malarials which are not recommended (e.g. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine) and prescribing anti-malarials to cases testing negative. Innovative approaches are required to improve health worker adherence to diagnosis and treatment guidelines. PMID:25182953

Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Chanda, Emmanuel; Masaninga, Freddie; Habluetzel, Annette; Masiye, Felix; Fall, Ibrahima Soce

2014-01-01

216

Community Case Management of Fever Due to Malaria and Pneumonia in Children Under Five in Zambia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pneumonia and malaria, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under five in Zambia, often have overlapping clinical manifestations. Zambia is piloting the use of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) by community health workers (CHWs) to treat uncomplicated malaria. Valid concerns about potential overuse of AL could be addressed by the use of malaria rapid diagnostics employed at the community level. Currently, CHWs in Zambia evaluate and treat children with suspected malaria in rural areas, but they refer children with suspected pneumonia to the nearest health facility. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using CHWs to manage nonsevere pneumonia and uncomplicated malaria with the aid of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Methods and Findings Community health posts staffed by CHWs were matched and randomly allocated to intervention and control arms. Children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years were managed according to the study protocol, as follows. Intervention CHWs performed RDTs, treated test-positive children with AL, and treated those with nonsevere pneumonia (increased respiratory rate) with amoxicillin. Control CHWs did not perform RDTs, treated all febrile children with AL, and referred those with signs of pneumonia to the health facility, as per Ministry of Health policy. The primary outcomes were the use of AL in children with fever and early and appropriate treatment with antibiotics for nonsevere pneumonia. A total of 3,125 children with fever and/or difficult/fast breathing were managed over a 12-month period. In the intervention arm, 27.5% (265/963) of children with fever received AL compared to 99.1% (2066/2084) of control children (risk ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.38). For children classified with nonsevere pneumonia, 68.2% (247/362) in the intervention arm and 13.3% (22/203) in the control arm received early and appropriate treatment (risk ratio 5.32, 95% confidence interval 2.19–8.94). There were two deaths in the intervention and one in the control arm. Conclusions The potential for CHWs to use RDTs, AL, and amoxicillin to manage both malaria and pneumonia at the community level is promising and might reduce overuse of AL, as well as provide early and appropriate treatment to children with nonsevere pneumonia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00513500 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20877714

Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Pilingana, Portipher; Macleod, William B.; Semrau, Katherine; Siazeele, Kazungu; Kalesha, Penelope; Hamainza, Busiku; Seidenberg, Phil; Mazimba, Arthur; Sabin, Lora; Kamholz, Karen; Thea, Donald M.; Hamer, Davidson H.

2010-01-01

217

The effect of joint contraceptive decisions on the use of Injectables, Long-Acting and Permanent Methods (ILAPMs) among married female (15–49) contraceptive users in Zambia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Zambia’s fertility rate and unmet need for family planning are still high. This is in spite of the progress reported from 1992 to 2007 of the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate from 15% to 41% and use of modern methods of family planning from 9% to 33%. However, partner disapproval of family planning has been cited by many women in many countries including Zambia. Given the effectiveness of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning (ILAPMs) in fertility regulation, this paper sought to examine the relationship between contraceptive decision-making and use of ILAPMs among married women in Zambia. Methods This paper uses data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. The analysis is based on married women (15–49) who reported using a method of family planning at the time of the survey. Out of the 7,146 women interviewed, only 1,630 women were valid for this analysis. Cross-tabulations and binary logistic regressions with Chi-square were used to analyse associations and the predictors of use of ILAPMs of contraception, respectively. A confidence interval of .95 was used in determining relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results Two thirds of women made joint decisions regarding contraception and 29% of the women were using ILAPMs. Women who made joint contraceptive decisions are significantly more likely to use ILAPMs than women who did not involve their husband in contraceptive decisions. However, the most significant predictor is the wealth index. Women from rich households are more likely to use ILAPMs than women from medium rich and poor households. Results also show that women of North Western ethnicities and those from Region 3 had higher odds of using ILAPMs than Tonga women and women from Region 2, respectively. Conclusion Joint contraceptive decision-making between spouses is key to use of ILAPMs in Zambia. Our findings have also shown that the wealth index is actually the strongest factor determining use of these methods. As such, family planning programmes directed at increasing use of LAPMs ought to not only encourage spousal communication but should also consider rolling out interventions that incorporate economic empowerment. PMID:24993034

2014-01-01

218

Hospitalizations and costs incurred at the facility level after scale-up of malaria control: pre-post comparisons from two hospitals in Zambia.  

PubMed

There is little evidence on the impact of malaria control on the health system, particularly at the facility level. Using retrospective, longitudinal facility-level and patient record data from two hospitals in Zambia, we report a pre-post comparison of hospital admissions and outpatient visits for malaria and estimated costs incurred for malaria admissions before and after malaria control scale-up. The results show a substantial reduction in inpatient admissions and outpatient visits for malaria at both hospitals after the scale-up, and malaria cases accounted for a smaller proportion of total hospital visits over time. Hospital spending on malaria admissions also decreased. In one hospital, malaria accounted for 11% of total hospital spending before large-scale malaria control compared with < 1% after malaria control. The findings demonstrate that facility-level resources are freed up as malaria is controlled, potentially making these resources available for other diseases and conditions. PMID:24218409

Comfort, Alison B; van Dijk, Janneke H; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Stillman, Kathryn; Gabert, Rose; Korde, Sonali; Nachbar, Nancy; Derriennic, Yann; Musau, Stephen; Hamazakaza, Petan; Zyambo, Khozya D; Zyongwe, Nancy M; Hamainza, Busiku; Thuma, Philip E

2014-01-01

219

Hospitalizations and Costs Incurred at the Facility Level after Scale-up of Malaria Control: Pre-Post Comparisons from Two Hospitals in Zambia  

PubMed Central

There is little evidence on the impact of malaria control on the health system, particularly at the facility level. Using retrospective, longitudinal facility-level and patient record data from two hospitals in Zambia, we report a pre-post comparison of hospital admissions and outpatient visits for malaria and estimated costs incurred for malaria admissions before and after malaria control scale-up. The results show a substantial reduction in inpatient admissions and outpatient visits for malaria at both hospitals after the scale-up, and malaria cases accounted for a smaller proportion of total hospital visits over time. Hospital spending on malaria admissions also decreased. In one hospital, malaria accounted for 11% of total hospital spending before large-scale malaria control compared with < 1% after malaria control. The findings demonstrate that facility-level resources are freed up as malaria is controlled, potentially making these resources available for other diseases and conditions. PMID:24218409

Comfort, Alison B.; van Dijk, Janneke H.; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Stillman, Kathryn; Gabert, Rose; Korde, Sonali; Nachbar, Nancy; Derriennic, Yann; Musau, Stephen; Hamazakaza, Petan; Zyambo, Khozya D.; Zyongwe, Nancy M.; Hamainza, Busiku; Thuma, Philip E.

2014-01-01

220

Multi-Country Analysis of Treatment Costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH): Facility-Level ART Unit Cost Analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. Methods & Findings In 2010–2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy) across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2–8% annual loss to follow-up or death) were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77–95% alive and on treatment). Conclusions This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation. PMID:25389777

Tagar, Elya; Sundaram, Maaya; Condliffe, Kate; Matatiyo, Blackson; Chimbwandira, Frank; Chilima, Ben; Mwanamanga, Robert; Moyo, Crispin; Chitah, Bona Mukosha; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Assefa, Yibeltal; Pillay, Yogan; Mayer, Sam; Shear, Lauren; Dain, Mary; Hurley, Raphael; Kumar, Ritu; McCarthy, Thomas; Batra, Parul; Gwinnell, Dan; Diamond, Samantha; Over, Mead

2014-01-01

221

Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

222

The (Mis)Reporting of Male Circumcision Status among Men and Women in Zambia and Swaziland: A Randomized Evaluation of Interview Methods  

PubMed Central

Background To date, male circumcision prevalence has been estimated using surveys of men self-reporting their circumcision status. HIV prevention trials and observational studies involving female participants also collect data on partners' circumcision status as a risk factor for HIV/STIs. A number of studies indicate that reports of circumcision status may be inaccurate. This study assessed different methods for improving self- and partner reporting of circumcision status. Methods/Findings The study was conducted in urban and rural Zambia and urban Swaziland. Men (N?=?1264) aged 18–50 and their female partners (N?=?1264), and boys (N?=?840) aged 13–17 were enrolled. Participants were recruited from HIV counseling and testing sites, health centers, and surrounding communities. The study experimentally assessed methods for improving the reporting of circumcision status, including: a) a simple description of circumcision, b) a detailed description of circumcision, c) an illustration of a circumcised and uncircumcised penis, and d) computerized self-interviewing. Self-reports were compared to visual examination. For men, the error in reporting was largely unidirectional: uncircumcised men more often reported they were circumcised (2–7%), depending on setting. Fewer circumcised men misrepresented their status (0.05–5%). Misreporting by women was significantly higher (11–15%), with the error in both directions. A sizable number of women reported that they did not know their partner's circumcision status (3–8%). Computerized interviewing did not improve accuracy. Providing an illustration, particularly for illiterate participants, significantly improved reporting of circumcision status, decreasing misreporting among illiterate participants from 13% to 10%, although misreporting was not eliminated. Conclusions Study results suggest that the prevalence of circumcision may be overestimated in Zambia and Swaziland; the error in reporting is higher among women than among men. Improved reporting when a description or illustration is provided suggests that the source of the error is a lack of understanding of male circumcision. PMID:22629312

Hewett, Paul C.; Haberland, Nicole; Apicella, Lou; Mensch, Barbara S.

2012-01-01

223

New constraints on the Pan-African Orogeny in Central Zambia: A structural and geochronological study of the Hook Batholith and the Mwembeshi Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Central Zambia, the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Pan-African Orogen: the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt. To the north of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within Neoproterozoic Katangan metasedimentary rocks. Field mapping and structural studies, microstructural observations, interpretation of airborne geophysical images and U-Pb zircon geochronology constrain a new model for the tectonic evolution of this poorly studied part of the orogen. Two temporarily separated and highly oblique orogenic contraction events are defined. D1 is characterised by a regional low-metamorphic grade E-W shortening that produced strain partitioning between N-S trending pure-shear-dominated and NW trending sinistral simple-shear dominated domains. The emplacement of the batholith between ca. 550 and 533 Ma (U-Pb zircon ages) is syn-tectonic to D1. The D2 N-S shortening event was active after ca. 530, which is indicated by the age of the newly dated, deformed molasse of the Hook Batholith. During D2, the MwZ developed as an E- to ENE-striking zone of pure-shear dominated deformation that localised to the south and within the already exhumed Hook Batholith. At the scale of the Pan-African Orogen in Southern Africa, the D1 is considered to be a far field expression of the E-W collision event in the Mozambique Belt. The following Early Cambrian D2 event corresponds to the high angle collision between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons and the stitching of the Lufilian and Zambezi belts along the MwZ. Therefore, in the Hook area, the MwZ cannot be regarded as a continental-scale wrench structure as widely discussed in the literature. The tectonic events in Central Zambia suggest that the amalgamation of Gondwana was accompanied by suturing along highly oblique orogenic belts during plate reorganization at around 530 Ma.

Naydenov, Kalin V.; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Charlesworth, Guy; Frei, Dirk; Rankin, William

2014-12-01

224

Zambia and Botswana  

... the multi-angle composite arise not from how the different parts of the scene reflect light at different wavelengths, but rather, at ... The town of Maun is at its southeastern edge. Note how the plant life, which is highly reflective in the near-infrared, shows up as bright ...

2013-04-16

225

Determination of the prevalence of African trypanosome species in indigenous dogs of Mambwe district, eastern Zambia, by loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs have been implicated to serve as links for parasite exchange between livestock and humans and remain an important source of emerging and re-emerging diseases including trypanosome infections. Yet, canine African trypanosomosis (CAT), particularly in indigenous dogs (mongrel breed) remains under- reported in literature. This study evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in detecting trypanosomes in blood from indigenous dogs of tsetse-infested Mambwe district in eastern Zambia. Methods A cross sectional survey of CAT was conducted within 5 chiefdoms (Msoro, Kakumbi, Munkanya, Nsefu, Malama) of Mambwe district, eastern Zambia, during October 2012. Blood samples from 237 indigenous hunting dogs were collected and screened by microscopy and LAMP. Results Of the 237 dogs screened for CAT, 14 tested positive by microscopy (5.9%; 95% CI: 2.9 – 8.9%), all of which also tested positive by LAMP. In addition, LAMP detected 6 additional CAT cases, bringing the total cases detected by LAMP to 20 (8.4%; 95% CI: 4.9 – 12.0%). Irrespective of the detection method used, CAT was only recorded from 3 chiefdoms (Munkanya, Nsefu, Malama) out of the 5. According to LAMP, these infections were caused by Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and the zoonotic Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Although these CAT cases generally did not manifest clinical illness, an association was observed between infection with Trypanosoma brucei subspecies and occurrence of corneal opacity. Conclusions This communication reports for the first time the occurrence of CAT in indigenous Zambian dogs. Our study indicates that LAMP is a potential diagnostic tool for trypanosome detection in animals. LAMP was more sensitive than microscopy and was further capable of distinguishing the closely related T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense. In view of the sporadic cases of re-emerging HAT being reported within the Luangwa valley, detection of the human serum resistant associated (SRA) gene in trypanosomes from mongrels is intriguing and indicative of the risk of contracting HAT by local communities and tourists in Mambwe district. Consequently, there is a need for continuous trypanosome surveillances in animals, humans and tsetse flies using sensitive and specific tests such as LAMP. PMID:24411022

2014-01-01

226

Genomic Signature of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates Related to a Massive Outbreak in Zambia between 2010 and 2012.  

PubMed

Retrospectively, we investigated the epidemiology of a massive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi outbreak in Zambia during 2010 to 2012. Ninety-four isolates were susceptibility tested by MIC determinations. Whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) of 33 isolates and bioinformatic analysis identified the multilocus sequence type (MLST), haplotype, plasmid replicon, antimicrobial resistance genes, and genetic relatedness by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic deletions. The outbreak affected 2,040 patients, with a fatality rate of 0.5%. Most (83.0%) isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). The isolates belonged to MLST ST1 and a new variant of the haplotype, H58B. Most isolates contained a chromosomally translocated region containing seven antimicrobial resistance genes, catA1, blaTEM-1, dfrA7, sul1, sul2, strA, and strB, and fragments of the incompatibility group Q1 (IncQ1) plasmid replicon, the class 1 integron, and the mer operon. The genomic analysis revealed 415 SNP differences overall and 35 deletions among 33 of the isolates subjected to whole-genome sequencing. In comparison with other genomes of H58, the Zambian isolates separated from genomes from Central Africa and India by 34 and 52 SNPs, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that 32 of the 33 isolates sequenced belonged to a tight clonal group distinct from other H58 genomes included in the study. The small numbers of SNPs identified within this group are consistent with the short-term transmission that can be expected over a period of 2 years. The phylogenetic analysis and deletions suggest that a single MDR clone was responsible for the outbreak, during which occasional other S. Typhi lineages, including sensitive ones, continued to cocirculate. The common view is that the emerging global S. Typhi haplotype, H58B, containing the MDR IncHI1 plasmid is responsible for the majority of typhoid infections in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa; we found that a new variant of the haplotype harboring a chromosomally translocated region containing the MDR islands of IncHI1 plasmid has emerged in Zambia. This could change the perception of the term "classical MDR typhoid" currently being solely associated with the IncHI1 plasmid. It might be more common than presently thought that S. Typhi haplotype H58B harbors the IncHI1 plasmid or a chromosomally translocated MDR region or both. PMID:25392358

Hendriksen, Rene S; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Mwaba, John; Kalonda, Annie; Nakazwe, Ruth; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Jensen, Jacob Dyring; Svendsen, Christina A; Dittmann, Karen K; Kaas, Rolf S; Cavaco, Lina M; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hasman, Henrik; Mwansa, James C L

2015-01-01

227

Taking ART to Scale: Determinants of the Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy in 45 Clinical Sites in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background We estimated the unit costs and cost-effectiveness of a government ART program in 45 sites in Zambia supported by the Centre for Infectious Disease Research Zambia (CIDRZ). Methods We estimated per person-year costs at the facility level, and support costs incurred above the facility level and used multiple regression to estimate variation in these costs. To estimate ART effectiveness, we compared mortality in this Zambian population to that of a cohort of rural Ugandan HIV patients receiving co-trimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis. We used micro-costing techniques to estimate incremental unit costs, and calculated cost-effectiveness ratios with a computer model which projected results to 10 years. Results The program cost $69.7 million for 125,436 person-years of ART, or $556 per ART-year. Compared to CTX prophylaxis alone, the program averted 33.3 deaths or 244.5 disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 person-years of ART. In the base-case analysis, the net cost per DALY averted was $833 compared to CTX alone. More than two-thirds of the variation in average incremental total and on-site cost per patient-year of treatment is explained by eight determinants, including the complexity of the patient-case load, the degree of adherence among the patients, and institutional characteristics including, experience, scale, scope, setting and sector. Conclusions and Significance The 45 sites exhibited substantial variation in unit costs and cost-effectiveness and are in the mid-range of cost-effectiveness when compared to other ART programs studied in southern Africa. Early treatment initiation, large scale, and hospital setting, are associated with statistically significantly lower costs, while others (rural location, private sector) are associated with shifting cost from on- to off-site. This study shows that ART programs can be significantly less costly or more cost-effective when they exploit economies of scale and scope, and initiate patients at higher CD4 counts. PMID:23284843

Marseille, Elliot; Giganti, Mark J.; Mwango, Albert; Chisembele-Taylor, Angela; Mulenga, Lloyd; Over, Mead; Kahn, James G.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

2012-01-01

228

Factors Associated with HIV-Testing and Acceptance of an Offer of Home-Based Testing by Men in Rural Zambia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to describe HIV-testing among men in rural Lusaka Province, Zambia, using a population-based survey for a cluster-randomized trial. Households (N = 120) were randomly selected from each of the 42 clusters, defined as a health facility catchment area. Individuals aged 15-60 years were invited to complete questionnaires regarding demographics and HIV-testing history. Men testing in the last year were defined as recent-testers. After questionnaire completion adults were offered home-based rapid HIV-testing. Of the 2,828 men, 53 % reported ever-testing and 25 % recently-testing. Factors independently associated with ever- and recent-testing included age 20+ years, secondary/higher education, being married or widowed, a history of TB-treatment and higher socioeconomic position. 53 % of never-testers and 57 % of men who did not report a recent-test accepted home-based HIV-testing. Current HIV-testing approaches are inadequate in this high prevalence setting. Alternative strategies, including self-testing, mobile- or workplace-testing, may be required to complement facility-based services. PMID:25096893

Hensen, B; Lewis, J J; Schaap, A; Tembo, M; Mutale, W; Weiss, H A; Hargreaves, J; Ayles, H

2014-08-01

229

The role of Brucella infection in abortions among traditional cattle reared in proximity to wildlife on the Kafue flats of Zambia.  

PubMed

The role of Brucella infections in cattle abortions was investigated in 914 females from 124 herds. Animals were tested for exposure to Brucella species and history of abortion over the past three years. Sera were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Of 886 females tested, 189 were positive on RBT, and 154 (81.5%) were confirmed by c-ELISA. At the individual animal level, 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.6% to 19.8%) of the cows had aborted their foetuses in the last three years, while Brucella seroprevalence was estimated at 23.9% (95% CI: 19.8% to 28.0%), after adjusting for area clustering and weighting according to sampling fraction. At the herd level, abortions were recorded in 50% of the herds (95% CI: 41.2% to 58.8%) and the seroprevalence was 58.1% (95% CI: 49.5% to 66.6%). A multiple logistic regression model identified the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies (odds ratio = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.6 to 7.4) and age as having significant effects on the risk of cattle abortion but no distinct factors could be identified at herd level. These results establish that Brucella infections contribute significantly to cattle abortions in the traditional livestock sector of Zambia. PMID:18293620

Muma, J B; Godfroid, J; Samui, K L; Skjerve, E

2007-12-01

230

Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in traditional cattle of the livestock/wildlife interface areas in the Kafue basin of Zambia.  

PubMed

We conducted a cross-sectional study from August 2003 to February 2004 to identify risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the Kafue basin of Zambia. We investigated a total of 106 herds of cattle for presence of BTB using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather epidemiological data on herd structure, management and grazing strategies. BTB prevalence at herd level was estimated and possible risk factors were investigated using the multiple logistic regression model. The true herd level prevalence of BTB was estimated at 49.8% (95% CI: 37.9, 61.7%). The logistic regression model showed that cattle herd BTB status was highly associated with area and husbandry practices. When compared to Kazungula, cattle herds in Blue Lagoon were more likely to test positive for BTB when other factors such as management practices were controlled (OR=10.5). In terms of grazing strategies, transhumant herds (TH) had higher odds (OR=3.0) of being positive compared to sedentary herds (OR=1.0). The results in this study provide preliminary information about potential risk factors that were found to be associated with BTB status in cattle. PMID:18455816

Munyeme, M; Muma, J B; Skjerve, E; Nambota, A M; Phiri, I G K; Samui, K L; Dorny, P; Tryland, M

2008-07-15

231

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and animal level risk factors for indigenous cattle under different grazing strategies in the livestock/wildlife interface areas of Zambia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and animal level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in indigenous cattle of the livestock/wildlife interface areas in Zambia. A total of 944 cattle from 111 herds were investigated. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) was used to identify reactor animals for BTB. Animal level data on sex, age, parity and body condition score were registered. The overall animal prevalence of BTB as determined by the CIDT was 6.8% (95% CI: 4.2, 9.5%). In Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon areas, animal level prevalence were observed at 5.2% (95% CI: 2.2, 8.2%) and 9.6% (95% CI: 6.1, 13.2%), respectively. Kazungula, an area outside the livestock/wildlife interface, had a prevalence of only 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0, 2.3%). The age of the animal, its body condition score and the type of management system, were predictive of its BTB status. The study revealed that BTB was relatively high in the livestock/wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon compared to Kazungula. These findings should raise a serious public health concern considering the extent to which the communities of the study areas are in contact with their animals and the levels at which they use untreated milk. PMID:18536998

Munyeme, M; Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Skjerve, E; Nambota, A M; Phiri, I G K; Rigouts, L; Tryland, M

2009-03-01

232

A Review of Ecological Factors Associated with the Epidemiology of Wildlife Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa and Zambezi Valley Ecosystems of Zambia  

PubMed Central

Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis. PMID:22693499

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

233

Clinic-Based Food Assistance is Associated with Increased Medication Adherence among HIV-Infected Adults on Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background There has been limited research to date on the effects of food assistance provided to HIV-infected adults in resource-constrained settings with a high prevalence of malnutrition and chronic food insecurity. We compare antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, weight gain, and CD4+ lymphocyte count change among HIV-infected adults enrolled in a clinic-based food assistance program in Lusaka, Zambia versus a control group of non-recipients. Methods We conducted a cohort study incorporating interviewer-administered surveys and retrospective clinical data to compare ART patients receiving food assistance with a control group of non-recipients. Medication adherence was assessed using pharmacy dispensation records. We use propensity score matching to assess the effect of food assistance on outcome measures. Results After 6 months, food assistance recipients (n=145) had higher ART adherence compared to non-recipients (n=147, 98.3% versus 88.8%, respectively; p<0.01), but no significant effects were observed for weight or CD4+ lymphocyte count change. The improvement in adherence rates was greater for participants on ART for less than 230 days, and those with BMI<18.5 kg/m2, a higher HIV disease stage, or a CD4+ lymphocyte count ? 350 cells/?l. Conclusions Promoting optimal medication adherence among persons on ART is relevant to public health and the success of HIV control efforts. The provision of food assistance to HIV-infected adults on ART may have an incentivizing effect which can improve medication adherence, particularly among patients recently initiated on treatment and those with poor nutrition or advanced disease. The effects on body weight and immune reconstitution appear minimal. PMID:23227443

Tirivayi, Nyasha; Koethe, John R; Groot, Wim

2012-01-01

234

Association between early childhood exposure to malaria and children’s pre-school development: evidence from the Zambia early childhood development project  

PubMed Central

Background Despite major progress made over the past 10?years, malaria remains one of the primary causes of ill health in developing countries in general, and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Whilst a large literature has documented the frequency and severity of malaria infections for children under-five years, relatively little evidence is available regarding the impact of early childhood malaria exposure on subsequent child development. Methods The objective of the study was to assess the associations between early childhood exposure to malaria and pre-school development. Child assessment data for 1,410 children in 70 clusters collected through the 2010 Zambian Early Childhood Development Project was linked with malaria parasite prevalence data from the 2006 Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey. Linear and logistic models were used to estimate the effect of early childhood exposure to malaria on anthropometric outcomes as well as on a range of cognitive and behavioural development measures. Results No statistically significant associations were found between parasite exposure and children’s height and weight. Exposure to the malaria parasite was, however, associated with lower ability to cope with cognitive tasks administered by interviewers (z-score difference ?1.11, 95% CI ?2.43–0.20), as well as decreased overall socio-emotional development as assessed by parents (z-score difference ?1.55, 95% CI ?3.13–0.02). No associations were found between malaria exposure and receptive vocabulary or fine-motor skills. Conclusions The results presented in this paper suggest potentially large developmental consequences of early childhood exposure to malaria. Continued efforts to lower the burden of malaria will not only reduce under-five mortality, but may also have positive returns in terms of the long-term well-being of exposed cohorts. PMID:23297692

2013-01-01

235

U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon geochronology of granitoid rocks in eastern Zambia: Terrane subdivision of the Mesoproterozoic Southern Irumide Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Irumide Belt (SIB) is a structurally and metamorphically complex region of mainly Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in southern and eastern Zambia, northern Mozambique and northern Malawi that was strongly overprinted in the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Damara-Lufilian-Zambezi (DLZ) orogeny. Because of the scarcity of geological data from this region, little is known about the timing of tectonomagmatic events; however, this belt has traditionally been considered to be a southerly continuation of the adjacent Irumide Belt (IB). Here we provide 27 new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon ages that constrain the Paleoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonomagmatic history of this belt and which, for the first time, allow for direct comparison with the adjoining IB. The SIB is floored by a predominantly late Paleoproterozoic basement, which was intruded by voluminous continental margin arc-related magmas between 1.09 and 1.04 Ga and accompanied by high-temperature/low-pressure metamorphism. In contrast, the IB is floored by a late Paleoproterozoic basement that is generally older than 2.0 Ga, contains significant mid-Mesoproterozoic plutonic rocks that are not present within the SIB, and underwent moderate-pressure/moderate-temperature compressional metamorphism and S-type granitoid magmatism at circa 1.02 Ga. These data indicate that the crust underlying the SIB is not a continuation of that underlying the IB but represents an allocthonous continental margin arc terrane juxtaposed against the Congo-Tanzania-Bangweulu Craton during the late Mesoproterozoic Irumide orogeny. Reworking and shearing of the SIB occurred during the DLZ orogen, resulting in the present-day architecture as a series of stacked terranes which have been exploited by voluminous posttectonic granitoid batholiths.

Johnson, S. P.; de Waele, B.; Liyungu, K. A.

2006-12-01

236

Trends in all-cause mortality during the scale-up of an antiretroviral therapy programme: a cross-sectional study in Lusaka, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To follow the trends in all-cause mortality in Lusaka, Zambia, during the scale-up of a national programme of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Between November 2004 and September 2011, we conducted 12 survey rounds as part of a cross-sectional study in Lusaka, with independent sampling in each round. In each survey, we asked the heads of 3600 households to state the number of deaths in their households in the previous 12 months and the number of orphans aged less than 16 years in their households and investigated the heads’ knowledge, attitudes and practices related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Findings The number of deaths we recorded – per 100 person–years – in each survey ranged from 0.92 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.78–1.09) in September 2011, to 1.94 (95% CI: 1.60–2.35) in March 2007. We found that mortality decreased only modestly each year (mortality rate ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.95–1.00; P?=?0.093). The proportion of households with orphans under the age of 16 years decreased from 17% in 2004 to 7% in 2011. The proportions of respondents who had ever been tested for HIV, had a comprehensive knowledge of HIV, knew where to obtain free ART and reported that a non-pregnant household member was receiving ART gradually increased. Conclusion The expansion of ART services in Lusaka was not associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. Coverage, patient adherence and retention may all have to be increased if ART is to have a robust and lasting impact at population level in Lusaka. PMID:25378727

Chi, Benjamin H; Kusanthan, Thankian; Chilopa, Batista; Levy, Jens; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Mwaba, Peter; Stringer, Jeffrey SA

2014-01-01

237

Management of cryotherapy-ineligible women in a “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia: Lessons from the field  

PubMed Central

Objective We demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a referral and management system for cryotherapy-ineligible women in a “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia. Methods We established criteria for patient referral, developed a training program for loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) providers, and adapted LEEP to a resource-constrained setting. Results We successfully trained 15 nurses to perform visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) followed by immediate cryotherapy. Women with positive tests but ineligible for cryotherapy were referred for further evaluation. We trained four Zambian physicians to evaluate referrals, perform punch biopsy, LEEP, and manage intra-operative and post-operative complications. From January 2006 through October 2007, a total of 8823 women (41.5% HIV seropositive) were evaluated by nurses in outlying prevention clinics; of these, 1477 (16.7%) were referred for physician evaluation based on established criteria. Of the 875 (59.2% of 1147 referred) that presented for evaluation, 748 (8.4% of total screened) underwent histologic evaluation in the form of punch biopsy or LEEP. Complications associated with LEEP included anesthesia reaction (n=2) which spontaneously resolved, intra-operative (n=12) and post-operative (n=2) bleeding managed by local measures, and post-operative infection (n=12) managed with antibiotics. Conclusion With adaptations for a resource-constrained environment, we have demonstrated that performing LEEP is feasible and safe, with low rates of complications that can be managed locally. It is important to establish referral and management systems using LEEP-based excisional evaluation for women with cryotherapy-ineligible lesions in VIA-based “screen-and-treat” protocols nested within HIV-care programs in resource-constrained settings. PMID:18556050

Pfaendler, Krista S.; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Mudenda, Victor; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Parham, Groesbeck P.

2009-01-01

238

Efficiency of Household Reactive Case Detection for Malaria in Rural Southern Zambia: Simulations Based on Cross-Sectional Surveys from Two Epidemiological Settings  

PubMed Central

Background Case detection and treatment are critical to malaria control and elimination as infected individuals who do not seek medical care can serve as persistent reservoirs for transmission. Methods Household malaria surveys were conducted in two study areas within Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted approximately five times throughout the year in each of the two study areas. During study visits, adults and caretakers of children were administered a questionnaire and a blood sample was obtained for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria. These data were used to estimate the proportions of individuals with malaria potentially identified through passive case detection at health care facilities and those potentially identified through reactive case finding. Simulations were performed to extrapolate data from sampled to non-sampled households. Radii of increasing size surrounding households with an index case were examined to determine the proportion of households with an infected individual that would be identified through reactive case detection. Results In the 2007 high transmission setting, with a parasite prevalence of 23%, screening neighboring households within 500 meters of an index case could have identified 89% of all households with an RDT positive resident and 90% of all RDT positive individuals. In the 2008 low transmission setting, with a parasite prevalence of 8%, screening neighboring households within 500 meters of a household with an index case could have identified 77% of all households with an RDT positive resident and 76% of all RDT positive individuals. Conclusions Testing and treating individuals residing within a defined radius from an index case has the potential to be an effective strategy to identify and treat a large proportion of infected individuals who do not seek medical care, although the efficiency of this strategy is likely to decrease with declining parasite prevalence. PMID:23940677

Searle, Kelly M.; Shields, Timothy; Hamapumbu, Harry; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E.; Smith, David L.; Glass, Gregory; Moss, William J.

2013-01-01

239

Finding a Needle in the Haystack: The Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Syphilis Diagnosis and Treatment during Pregnancy to Prevent Congenital Syphilis in Kalomo District of Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background In March 2012, The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation trained maternal and child health workers in Southern Province of Zambia to use a new rapid syphilis test (RST) during routine antenatal care. A recent study by Bonawitz et al. (2014) evaluated the impact of this roll out in Kalomo District. This paper estimates the costs and cost-effectiveness from the provider's perspective under the actual conditions observed during the first year of the RST roll out. Methods Information on materials used and costs were extracted from program records. A decision-analytic model was used to evaluate the costs (2012 USD) and cost-effectiveness. Basic parameters needed for the model were based on the results from the evaluation study. Results During the evaluation study, 62% of patients received a RST, and 2.8% of patients tested were positive (and 10.4% of these were treated). Even with very high RST sensitivity and specificity (98%), true prevalence of active syphilis would be substantially less (estimated at <0.7%). For 1,000 new ANC patients, costs of screening and treatment were estimated at $2,136, and the cost per avoided disability-adjusted-life year lost (DALY) was estimated at $628. Costs change little if all positives are treated (because prevalence is low and treatment costs are small), but the cost-per-DALY avoided falls to just $66. With full adherence to guidelines, costs increase to $3,174 per 1,000 patients and the cost-per-DALY avoided falls to $60. Conclusions Screening for syphilis is only useful for reducing adverse birth outcomes if patients testing positive are actually treated. Even with very low prevalence of syphilis (a needle in the haystack), cost effectiveness improves dramatically if those found positive are treated; additional treatment costs little but DALYs avoided are substantial. Without treatment, the needle is essentially found and thrown back into the haystack. PMID:25478877

Larson, Bruce A.; Lembela-Bwalya, Deophine; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hammond, Emily E.; Thea, Donald M.; Herlihy, Julie

2014-01-01

240

The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications. PMID:25142148

2014-01-01

241

Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) at Zambia defence force facilities  

PubMed Central

Background The Zambian Defence Force (ZDF) is working to improve the quality of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) at its health facilities. This study evaluates the impact of an intervention that included provider training, supportive supervision, detailed performance standards, repeated assessments of service quality, and task shifting of group education to lay workers. Methods Four ZDF facilities implementing the intervention were matched with four comparison sites. Assessors visited the sites before and after the intervention and completed checklists while observing 387 antenatal care (ANC) consultations and 41 group education sessions. A checklist was used to observe facilities’ infrastructure and support systems. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted of findings on provider performance during consultations. Results Among 137 women observed during their initial ANC visit, 52% came during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, but 19% waited until the 28th week or later. Overall scores for providers’ PMTCT skills rose from 58% at baseline to 73% at endline (p=0.003) at intervention sites, but remained stable at 52% at comparison sites. Especially large gains were seen at intervention sites in family planning counseling (34% to 75%, p=0.026), HIV testing during return visits (13% to 48%, p=0.034), and HIV/AIDS management during visits that did not include an HIV test (1% to 34%, p=0.004). Overall scores for providers’ ANC skills rose from 67% to 74% at intervention sites, but declined from 65% to 59% at comparison sites; neither change was significant in the multivariate analysis. Overall scores for group education rose from 87% to 91% at intervention sites and declined from 78% to 57% at comparison sites. The overall facility readiness score rose from 73% to 88% at intervention sites and from 75% to 82% at comparison sites. Conclusions These findings are relevant to civilian as well as military health systems in Zambia because the two are closely coordinated. Lessons learned include: the ability of detailed performance standards to draw attention to and strengthen areas of weakness; the benefits of training lay workers to take over non-clinical PMTCT tasks; and the need to encourage pregnant women to seek ANC early. PMID:24011137

2013-01-01

242

Innovative approaches to promoting cervical health and raising cervical cancer awareness by use of existing cultural structures in resource-limited countries: experiences with traditional marriage counseling in Zambia.  

PubMed

The Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia (CCPPZ) has increasingly used community-level structures to increase the uptake and ensure the sustainability of the program. Traditional marriage counselors, the alangizi, who have existed in the Zambian society for many years, are one of the structures used by the program to impart cervical cancer knowledge and increase access to screening and care using an existing community structure. Several steps were followed in developing this intervention: (a) ensuring the alangizi understood the process of screening by encouraging them to go through the screening process; (b) workshops were arranged for the alangizi to meet and share experiences during which lessons were given on cervical cancer by health workers as well; and (c) eight alangizi were chosen to help document the lessons as part of ensuring that cervical cancer information is accurate and passed in a consistent manner. Over 70 alangizi, who had undergone cervical cancer screening, were trained by CCPPZ. A 'Cervical Cancer Training Manual for Marriage Counsellors' was developed to help the alangizi integrate cervical cancer lessons in their routine teachings. An evaluation was conducted during the training of the alangizi that forms the basis for this paper. The results show that although the alangizi face key challenges in their work (e.g. changing social contexts), they are still considered relevant by most communities in Zambia and are potentially an important avenue for cervical cancer and other health information. This paper shows that it is possible to integrate sexual and reproductive health messages into existing structures in the community. However, it is important to design culturally specific and sensitive healthcare strategies that embrace locally accepted good practices. PMID:24722743

Kapambwe, Sharon; Parham, Groesbeck; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi; Chirwa, Susan; Mwanza, Jacob; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary

2013-12-01

243

New constraints on the Pan-African tectonics and the role of the Mwembeshi Zone in Central Zambia: Deformation style and timing of two orthogonal shortening events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Central Zambia the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Late Neoproterozoic - Cambrian Pan-African Orogen: the NE-convex Lufilian Arc and the E-W trending Zambezi Belt whose distinct features emphasize the role of the zone as a regional structural and metamorphic boundary. North of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within the low metamorphic grade Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks, and represents the largest Pan-African intrusion in Southern Africa. The granitoids and their host-rocks were affected by two deformation events. During the D1 deformation of E-W shortening, two high-strained zones developed in the batholith. To the NE, the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) is a ~3 km wide NW-striking subvertical sinistral strike-slip shear zone. To the SW, a ~2.5 km wide N-S trending subvertical pure-shear Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) formed. In both structures, the granitoids show a smooth transition from weakly deformed rocks to porphyroclastic mylonites. Microstructural analysis defined them as medium metamorphic grade zones, deforming the granitoids at temperatures between 500 and 550°C. The lower greenschist facies metamorphism in the country rocks indicates that the deformation occurred during the cooling of the granitoids. D1 in the metasedimentary rocks east of the Hook batholith formed tight, upright folds with subvertical axial-planar cleavage and NNW-SSE trending axis consistent with the E-W shortening. U-Pb zircon geochronology and cross-cutting relationships between granites bracket D1 deformation between 549 ± 2 Ma and 541 ± 3 Ma in the NZ and in the SE part of the batholith. In the ITZ, the 533 ± 3 Ma age on a deformed granite indicates prolonged E-W shortening during granite emplacement and cooling history. D2 represents a stage of N-S shortening. Airborne geophysical data revealed bending of the N-S trending ITZ and rotation to the east. The D1 structures in the granitoids are cut by D2 north-vergent thrusts and subvertical NW trending dextral strike-slip zones. East of the granite, D2 resulted in E-W trending open folds that refolded the D1 structures. This folding becomes more intense and the folds are tighter when approaching the MwZ to the south. Along the MwZ, the molasse rocks, deposited after D1 (post ~528 Ma, based on new detrital-zircon ages), recorded high-strain greenschist facies coaxial deformation and the formation of E-W trending isoclinal folds with a steep south-dipping axial planar cleavage. This study shows that the area north of the MwZ is characterised by two orthogonal contraction events. The newly described D1 event of E-W shortening in the Hook area cannot be correlated with any of the published Pan-African tectonic models for the Lufilian Arc and Zambezi Belt. The D2 event of N-S shortening affected the region in response to the final docking between the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt. The strongest effect of this event was observed along the MwZ, which, during this stage, was a zone of intense coaxial deformation.

Naydenov, Kalin; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith; Charlesworth, Guy; Rankin, William; Frei, Dirk

2014-05-01

244

Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region. In 2011, the CACB accounted for 7.2 percent of the estimated global mine production of copper. Global production of copper is principally derived from porphyry and sediment-hosted copper deposits (57 and 23 percent, respectively). Almost 50 percent of the copper known to exist in sediment-hosted deposits (past production plus identified resources) is contained in the CACB, 25 percent is contained in the Zechstein Basin of northern Europe, and the remainder is contained in an additional 29 sedimentary basins distributed around the globe. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) led an assessment of undiscovered copper resources in the CACB as part of a global mineral resource assessment for undiscovered resources of potash, copper, and platinum-group elements in selected mineral deposit types. As part of the assessment process, available data for the CACB were compiled and evaluated. This report describes the results of that work, including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits. Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.

Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

2013-01-01

245

North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 count >350?cells/?L) have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate “real world” programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of an early ART intervention for HIV-positive truck drivers along a transport corridor across South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, as part of an enhanced strategy to improve treatment adherence and retention in care. Methods and Analysis. This demonstration study would follow an observational cohort of truck drivers receiving early treatment. Our mixed methods approach includes quantitative, qualitative, and economic analyses. Key ethical and logistical issues are discussed (i.e., choice of drug regimen, recruitment of participants, and monitoring of adherence, behavioural changes, and adverse events). Conclusion. Questions specific to the design of tailored early ART programmes are amenable to operational research approaches but present substantial ethical and logistical challenges. Addressing these in demonstration projects can inform policy decisions regarding strategies to reduce health inequalities in access to HIV prevention and treatment programmes. PMID:23606977

Gomez, G. B.; Venter, W. D. F.; Lange, J. M. A.; Rees, H.; Hankins, C.

2013-01-01

246

Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global Mineral Resource Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

2014-01-01

247

Does provider-initiated counselling and testing (PITC) strengthen early diagnosis and treatment initiation? Results from an analysis of an urban cohort of HIV-positive patients in Lusaka, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Building on earlier works demonstrating the effectiveness and acceptability of provider-initiated counselling and testing (PITC) services in integrated outpatient departments of urban primary healthcare clinics (PHCs), this study seeks to understand the relative utility of PITC services for identifying clients with early-stage HIV-related disease compared to traditional voluntary testing and counselling (VCT) services. We additionally seek to determine whether there are any significant differences in the clinical and demographic profile of PITC and VCT clients. Methods Routinely collected, de-identified data were collated from two cohorts of HIV-positive patients referred for HIV treatment, either from PITC or VCT in seven urban-integrated PHCs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to compare the two cohorts across demographic and clinical characteristics at enrolment. Results Forty-five per cent of clients diagnosed via PITC had CD4<200, and more than 70% (i.e. two thirds) had CD4<350 at enrolment, with significantly lower CD4 counts than that of VCT clients (p<0.001). PITC clients were more likely to be male (p=0.0005) and less likely to have secondary or tertiary education (p<0.0001). Among those who were initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART), PITC clients had lower odds of initiating treatment within four weeks of enrolment into HIV care (adjusted odds ratio, or AOR: 0.86; 95% confidence interval, or CI: 0.75–0.99; p=0.035) and significantly lower odds of retention in care at six months (AOR: 0.84; CI: 0.77–0.99; p=0.004). Conclusions In Lusaka, Zambia, large numbers of individuals with late-stage HIV are being incidentally diagnosed in outpatient settings. Our findings suggest that PITC in this setting does not facilitate more timely diagnosis and referral to care but rather act as a “safety net” for individuals who are unwilling or unable to seek testing independently. Further work is needed to document the way provision of clinic-based services can be strengthened and linked to community-based interventions and to address socio-cultural norms and socio-economic status that underpin healthcare-seeking behaviour. PMID:23010377

Topp, Stephanie M; Li, Michelle S; Chipukuma, Julien M; Chiko, Matimba M; Matongo, Evelyn; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Reid, Stewart E

2012-01-01

248

Reaction & Resistance to Neoliberalism in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the current Zambian discourse around neo-liberal economic polices, in particular its expression in a trade union-led campaign against the privatisation of the Zambian National Commercial Bank (ZNCB). It locates the origin of these protests in the impact of economic liberalisation programmes implemented by the ruling Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) since 1991. The paper studies the privatisation

Miles Larmer

2005-01-01

249

Design of bicycle ambulances for Zambia  

E-print Network

In developing countries, people are dying from treatable diseases because they cannot reach medical care when they need it most. Typical methods of transport, such as wheelbarrows or motorcycles, are too slow, dangerous, ...

Vechakul, Jessica

2008-01-01

250

Treatment of theileriosis with parvaquone in Zambia.  

PubMed

Parvaquone was used to treat 126 cattle with theileriosis. Theileria species schizonts were present in their lymph node biopsy smears and the majority of the animals had clinical signs of theileriosis. One hundred and fifteen treated and one untreated cattle survived the infection while 11 treated and 12 untreated animals died of the disease. Despite serological evidence of a parasite challenge during the subsequent rainy season, recovered cattle did not develop clinical signs of theileriosis but untreated cattle in the area continued to die from the disease. An intermittent low piroplasm parasitaemia (less than 1 per cent) was observed in recovered cattle for up to 14 months after detailed monitoring of cattle in the trial; this could be evidence for a carrier status for the Theileria species or strains involved. PMID:4060542

Musisi, F L; Morgan, D W; Schels, H F

1985-09-28

251

Knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Zambia: a questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

Misconception and stigma towards epilepsy have a profound impact on this disease in Africa. An unselected sample of Zambian people was interviewed to investigate their knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy. Proper/improper answers were scored, and a composite score was developed with negative values for unsatisfactory awareness and high stigma levels. The sample comprised 231 people residing in urban (107) or in rural (124) areas. The median and interquartile range of scores for epilepsy awareness and stigma were, respectively, -1 (-3; +1) and +1 (-1; +6). Poor education was the only significant predictor of unsatisfactory awareness (p=0.0131), while education and residency were significantly associated with stigma (p<0.0001 and p=0.0004). Rural people were mostly in the highest stigma level (44.2%) and urban people in the lowest stigma level (60.4%). Misconception and negative attitudes towards epilepsy among Zambian people reflect poor education and rural residency. PMID:24681384

Pupillo, Elisabetta; Vitelli, Eugenio; Messina, Paolo; Beghi, Ettore

2014-05-01

252

Structured trade finance in agribusiness- a case of Zambia  

E-print Network

(Papers are reproduced in the language in which they have been received from experts, and have only been edited to create a consistent layout) The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. UNCTAD/DITC/MISC/2004/19/Add.1

N. V. Ramana; Hans Muzoora; J. Chomba Sindazi; Lucy Bu De Bueso; Alex Valdez Buenaventura; Malick Ndiaye; Rajeshwor P. Pant; Ammar Assabah; Krassimir Kiriakov; Dennis De Santis

2004-01-01

253

Urban agriculture as local initiative in Lusaka, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of urban agriculture has, for a significant period of time, been recognized as a key facet of urban survival in the cities in the South. While it normally forms part of multilivelihood strategies and its overall significance is the subject of some debate, it nonetheless is an important feature of both urban landscapes and urban survival. This paper

Godfrey Hampwaye; Etienne Nel; Christian M Rogerson

2007-01-01

254

Long-Term Feasibility of Agriculture in Zambia  

E-print Network

life. Calculated similarly to PET but with a different KC #12;The Crop Coefficient Model 3 #12;Map to Analyze Trends in the Rainfall Dataset Storm depth, [mm]: The mean seasonal size of each storm. Storm with small average storm depth. Large variation means short storms with large average storm depth. µp

Petta, Jason

255

Zambia's food system: multiple sites of power and intersecting governances   

E-print Network

on economic restructuring and the way supermarkets and agribusiness firms increasingly transform African food economies. This thesis is an empirically grounded research endeavour that presents insights about key dynamics in the domestic food system in urban...

Abrahams, Caryn N

2010-11-26

256

www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia  

E-print Network

DevelopmentalContext Can we attribute development effects to individual energy interventions? Poverty and hunger Health to development and poverty alleviation. · Particular focus on M&E and impact analysis of energy projects and interventions ­ to document, find evidence for how the projects impact on poverty alleviation ­ achieving MDGs

257

An Overview of the Malaria Control Programme in Zambia  

PubMed Central

The Zambian national malaria control programme has made great progress in the fight against Malaria. The country has solid, consistent, and coordinated policies, strategies, and guidelines for malaria control, with government prioritizing malaria in both the National Health Strategic Plan and the National Development Plan. This has translated into high coverage of proven and effective key preventive, curative, and supportive interventions with concomitant marked reduction in both malaria cases and deaths. The achievements attained can be attributed to increased advocacy, communication and behaviour changes, efficient partnership coordination including strong community engagement, increased financial resources, and evidence-based deployment of key technical interventions in accordance with the national malaria control programme policy and strategic direction. The three-ones strategy has been key for increased and successful public-private sector partner coordination, strengthening, and mobilization. However, maintaining the momentum and the gains is critical as the programme strives to achieve universal coverage of evidence-based and proven interventions. The malaria control programme's focus is to maintain the accomplishments, by mobilizing more resources and partners, increasing the government funding towards malaria control, scaling up and directing interventions based on epidemiological evidence, and strengthen active malaria surveillance and response to reduce transmission and to begin considering elimination. PMID:24967138

Chanda, Emmanuel; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Steketee, Richard W.; Macdonald, Michael B.; Babaniyi, Olusegun; Mukonka, Victor M.

2013-01-01

258

10.1177/0270467605279324BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / October 2005Imboela / POVERTY REDUCTION IN ZAMBIA Poverty Reduction in Zambia  

E-print Network

qualitatively departs from previous failed attempts at national economic management under the tutelage of IFIs is in part a reluctant recognition of the failures of previous attempts at multilateral economic management

Delaware, University of

259

Pupils' Projects from Zambia. Third World Science. A Collection of Third Form Science Projects from Lubushi Seminary, Kasama, Zambia as Written and Drawn by the Pupils Themselves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Third World Science Project (TWSP) is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless facination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere; application of knowledge…

University Coll. of North Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Education.

260

The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

2008-01-01

261

Design and Validation of Assessment Tests for Young Children in Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood education has received unprecedented attention among African policymakers in recent years, recognizing that the early years form an important foundation upon which later development is anchored and noting evidence that various Early Childhood Development (ECD) indicators are predictive of future academic success. Central to the…

Matafwali, Beatrice; Serpell, Robert

2014-01-01

262

Investigation into the ecology of trypanosomiasis in the Lungawa Valley, Zambia   

E-print Network

keeping is almost non-existent due to losses from trypanosomiasis and predation by wild animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecology of trypanosomiasis in this mult-host wildlife community, relatively free from anthropogenic influences...

Anderson, Neil Euan

2009-01-01

263

Ecology and productivity of an African wetland system: The Kafue, Zambia  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the main ecological processes in African floodplain grasslands. It researches the structure of the various types of grasslands, and their correlation with the environmental factors operating in the floodplain ecosystem. From detailed measurements of structure and biomass it estimates primary production in various habitats. It also surveys the impact of disturbing factors like grazing and fires and discusses the year to year variation in the ecosystems.

Ellenbroek, G.A.

1987-01-01

264

Widows' land security in the era of HIV/AIDS: panel survey evidence from Zambia.  

PubMed

In areas of Africa hard hit by HIV/AIDS, there are growing concerns that many women lose access to land after the death of their husbands. However, there remains a dearth of quantitative evidence on the proportion of widows who lose access to their deceased husband's land, whether they lose all or part of that land, and whether there are factors specific to the widow, her family, or the broader community that influence her ability to maintain rights to land. This study examines these issues using average treatment effects models with propensity score matching applied to a nationally representative panel data of 5,342 rural households surveyed in 2001 and 2004. Results are highly variable, with roughly a third of households incurring the death of a male household head controlling less than 50% of the land they had prior to their husband's death, while over a quarter actually controlled as much or even more land than while their husbands were alive. Widows who were in relatively wealthy households prior to their husband's death lose proportionately more land than widows in households that were relatively poor. Older widows and widows related to the local headman enjoy greater land security. Women in matrilineal inheritance areas were no less likely to lose land than women in patrilineal areas. PMID:21744545

Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, T S; Mason, Nicole M

2011-01-01

265

77 FR 29369 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Zambia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the performance of involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or...incentive to any person to undergo sterilizations or to pay for any biomedical research...performance of, abortions or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning....

2012-05-17

266

Theatre for Development in Africa with Case Studies from Malawi and Zambia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the development of theater in Africa, over the last 20 years, from a medium of entertainment for the colonial elite to an African theatre, after independence. It describes various approaches to the use of theater as a medium of education and development. Nine chapters in the book concern: (l) background to African drama;…

Kamlongera, Christopher

267

77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...economy standards, South Africa continues to lag far behind...gathering momentum in South Africa with an array of projects currently...pipeline. Although no formal statistics are currently recorded for green building products in South Africa, the current building...

2012-05-29

268

Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites,

Ronald W. Shea; Barbara W. Shea; J. Boone Kauffman; Darold E. Ward; Craig I. Haskins; Mary C. Scholes

1996-01-01

269

Factors Influencing the Profitability of Fertilizer Use on Maize in Zambia  

E-print Network

? The additional maize produced from a given amount of fertilizer applied varied widely across households even after largely controlling for soil and rainfall conditions. The median estimated response rate was 15.9kgs of maize per kg nitrogen applied; ? Under the range of conditions and smallholder management practices, average maizefertilizer response rates declined as the application rate increased beyond 2 bags of urea and 2 bags of D compound; ? Factors raising the response rate and profitability of fertilizer use included timely availability, application rates less than the MOA 4x4 recommendation, use of animal draft power in land preparation, and use of hybrid seed. In remote areas, and given current management practices, fertilizer use appears to be profitable only for a minority of smallholder farmers in the relatively remote areas. For farmers in the more accessible areas, profitability of fertilizer use depends on timely availability. If fertilizer is not available on time, even farmers in the more accessible parts of this area of relatively high agronomic suitability for maize production are largely unable to use fertilizer profitably.

Z. Xu; Z. Guan; T. S. Jayne; Roy Black; Major Findings

270

Elephants, people, parks and development: the case of the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ideas about conserving wildlife are emerging to compete with conventional national park policies. But methods of analyzing wildlife conservation problems in Africa are inadequate for the analysis of complex issues of policy. Much of the analysis of conservation policy attempts to be ‘apolitical’ on issues charged with social conflict. Analyses are too often ahistorical when history can say a

Nick Abel; Piers Blaikie

1986-01-01

271

VILLAGE--A Minimum Structure Simulation Game Developed for Agricultural Extension Training in Central Africa (Zambia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses training needs of agricultural students and the process, activities, and resources utilized by a simulation game designed to encourage development of appropriate conflict resolution and communications skills and to create awareness of agricultural extension needs. Summarizes results of field test evaluation of VILLAGE and deficiencies in…

Dall, Frank

1984-01-01

272

Using a geographical-information-system-based decision support to enhance malaria vector control in zambia.  

PubMed

Geographic information systems (GISs) with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS) has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control. PMID:22548086

Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor Munyongwe; Mthembu, David; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Coetzer, Sarel; Shinondo, Cecilia Jill

2012-01-01

273

Cost escalation and schedule delays in road construction projects in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of any nation is gauged by its performance in infrastructure provision through its construction industry. The construction industry is large, volatile, and requires tremendous capital outlays. For developing economies, road construction constitutes a major component of the construction industry. This means that much of the national budget on infrastructure development is channelled to road construction projects. The aim

Chabota Kaliba; Mundia Muya; Kanyuka Mumba

2009-01-01

274

The effect of household wealth on the adoption of improved maize varieties in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and price risks that could render input use unprofitable sometimes prevent rural households from benefiting from input technological change. The household’s ability to cope with such risks and hence benefit from input technological change is often positively related to its wealth or stock of productive assets. Empirical evidence, however, suggests a non-linear relationship between wealth and adoption of new

Augustine S. Langyintuo; Catherine Mungoma

2008-01-01

275

The prevalence of Cryptopsoridium Parvum infections in cattle, sheep and goats in Zambia.  

E-print Network

??Cryptosporidium parvum has become increasingly important in ruminants in recent years as an etiological agent of neonatal diarrhoea complex causing significant economic losses. Cryptosporidium parvum… (more)

Goma, Fusya Yvonne

2012-01-01

276

Property-grabbing: why Zambia needs stronger laws to protect widows' rights.  

PubMed

Zambian widows, after the deaths of their husbands, face the loss of property and children at the hands of their in-laws. Those whose husbands have died of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who are themselves infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are treated the worst. About half of the cases seen by counselors at the center run by the Young Women's Christian Association in Lusaka are fighting legal battles against their families from their beds. Traditionally in Africa, a widow remains in her husband's village and is cared for by in-laws. With urbanization and difficult economic times, the modern case is different. Although the widow and her children are legally entitled to all household property, the family home, and 70% of outside assets (In-laws receive the other 30%.), the women fear beatings and bewitchings if they claim their property. If the husband dies without a will, a legal representative is appointed to handle the estate. This person is often a brother who treats the appointment as a license to steal. The widow does have legal control over the appointment, but fears reprisals. Courts do not oversee the administrator; the widow must take legal action if she is robbed. This requires withdrawing the original appointment, appointing the widow as the new administrator, and attempting to acquire the stolen property. This is quite difficult to do for a woman confined to her bed with AIDS. Police refuse to help, even when the widow is threatened with death. In addition, customary practices for widows are abusive. The widow, who may have AIDS, can be beaten and made to crawl to the funeral ceremony; she is blamed for the death of her husband and often is forced to have sex with her brother-in-law (to prove she is free of her husband's spirit). She must fast during the 3-day funeral and cannot bathe for a year afterwards. Individual stories are described. Women's groups are lobbying for stronger laws to protect widow's rights. PMID:12288155

1994-01-01

277

Participatory Appropriation of Health Science by Primary School Students in Rural Zambia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Child-to-Child (CtC) project involved school-age African children in monitoring younger children's weight and health (since much of the daily infant care in Africa is performed by preadolescents). CtC emphasizes local autonomy and is based on respect for children as morally responsible community members with a basic right to health and…

Mwape, Gertrude; Serpell, Robert

278

Environmental changes at Lake Cheshi, Zambia since 40,000 years B.P.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and microfossil analyses of a 7.5-m core from Lake Cheshi suggest that south-central Africa experienced late Quaternary climate changes similar to those in East Africa. The lake formed around 34,000 yr B.P., after a prelacustrine phase of at least 6000 yr, from climatic or tectonic causes. Ratios of precipitation to evaporation were probably similar to those of today until a decline about 15,000-13,000 yr B.P. when the lake shrank and became chemically concentrated. Maximal lake levels occurred between 8000 and 4000 yr B.P., and were followed by a low stand under presumably arid conditions about 3500 yr B.P. Encroachment of sudd vegetation contributed to shallowing during the last 3000 yr. A phase of microfossil dilution may reflect human activity in the basin, or climatic or hydrological changes. Melosira valve morphology seems to reflect mixing regimes. Sponge and testate amoeba remains were most numerous relative to diatoms during low-water phases.

Curt Stager, J.

1988-01-01

279

Working Together to Improve the Lives of People Affected by Epilepsy in Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder that results in recurrent, unprovoked seizures. The biomedical burden of epilepsy can be substantial, but for many the social consequences may be just as extreme, with epilepsy victims suffering from social abandonment as well as economic and physical vulnerabilities. Since its founding in 2000, the Chikankata…

Birbeck, Gretchen L.

2012-01-01

280

Untitled  

Cancer.gov

P a g e | 1 ZAMBIA HUMAN RESOURCES FOR TREATING NEW CANCER CASES IN ZAMBIA Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to describe the human resources needed in Zambia to treat new cancer patients. The population of Zambia is approximately

281

The Carbonate-Hosted Willemite Deposits in the Zambesi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia): a "Franklin-Type" Mineralization?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zambian willemite (Zn2SiO4) deposits occur in metasedimentary carbonate rocks of Proterozoic age. The most important orebodies are located in the dolomites of the Katangan Supergroup at Kabwe, and contain both Zn-Pb sulfides and willemite. The Star Zinc and Excelsior prospects (Lusaka area), discovered in the early twenties and since then subjected to sporadic exploration, are hosted in the highly metamorphic lithotypes of the late Proterozoic Zambezi Supracrustal sequence. In the above-mentioned prospects willemite occurs epigenetically along joints and fissures of the Cheta Fm, consisting mainly of limestone and dolomite marbles, with minor quartz-muscovite schists and feldspathic quartzite. On a local scale, the Star Zinc deposit displays open-space filling, colloform and vuggy textures. Structural analysis resulted in two main fracture trends hosting willemite mineralization: E-W and N-S, the latter being compatible with the Riedel shears related to the pan-African Mwembeshi dislocation zone. Willemite is associated with specular hematite and replaces the Zn- spinels franklinite and gahnite. Calcite commonly replaces willemite. The luminescence of the willemite, observed under cathodic light varies from dull to bright green with recurrent zonations. The green color, however, cannot be attributed to anomalous Mn contents: at Star Zinc Mn is absent in both willemite and franklinite. The Zn-Be bearing sulfosilicate genthelvite [Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S] occurs as a minor phase in irregular aggregates and may contain micrometric inclusions of Fe-Sr-Ba-Fe sulfates. Fluorapatite is also recurrent in the mineral association. At both Star Zinc and Excelsior Zn-Pb sulfides are totally absent, while native silver, as well as traces of germanium and cadmium have been locally detected. Thermometric analyses of willemite inclusions from both prospects result in the following Th: 200-240 °C, and salinities: 8 to 16 wt% NaCl. The zinc spinels franklinite and gahnite are commonly associated with willemite in several hypogene nonsulfide zinc deposits. The typical occurrences are in the Franklin Marbles of the Middle Proterozoic Grenvillian basement in North America, with the best example represented by the Franklin-Sterling Hill deposit. In the latter the franklinite-gahnite-willemite ore association is considered as having been originated by amphibolite-granulite facies metamorphism from a previous zinc sulfide/nonsulfide mineralization. Franklinite (as well as genthelvite) has been reported from the Gamsberg Zn-Pb deposit (Namaqua province, South Africa), which has been also metamorphosed to amphibolite facies. The origin of the franklinite-gahnite protore in the Lusaka area is still unclear. However, the existing mineralization could represent a metamorphosed occurrence derived from primary sulfide concentrations (now completely disappeared), as the Nampundwe massive sulfide deposit occurring SW of Lusaka. Precise age constraints are currently lacking for these willemite deposits. Since no major tectonic deformation is affecting the ores, and there is no record of any geological cover, their only possible temporal constraint may involve the emplacement age of the Hook granite, dated at 559±18 Ma. This intrusion is supposed to be coeval with the Mwembeshi shear zone, whose lineaments are also controlling the Star Zinc deposit.

Boni, M.; Terracciano, R.

2009-05-01

282

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Dacus ciliatus, Dacus frontalis, Dacus lounsburyii, Dacus punctatifrons, Dacus vertebratus, Diaphania indica, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Approved greenhouses. The baby squash and baby courgettes must...

2010-01-01

283

Sediment accumulation and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus deposition in the large tropical reservoir Lake Kariba (Zambia/Zimbabwe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large dams affect the aquatic continuum from land to ocean by accumulating particles and nutrients in their reservoirs. We examined sediment cores to quantify sediment, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) accumulation, and to examine historic changes and spatial variability in the sedimentation pattern in Lake Kariba, the largest hydropower reservoir in the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Sediment characteristics (concentrations of OC, N, P; ?13C and ?15N; wet bulk density) showed large variability both with sediment depth and between cores. While organic matter (OM) in river deltas was primarily allochthonous in origin, OM characteristics (?13C, C:N) in lacustrine sediments suggest that autochthonous sources account for >45% of the OM that accumulates over large areas of the lake. At the same time, the relative contribution of allochthonous material within individual layers of lacustrine cores varied considerably with depth due to discrete flood deposits. The overall sediment accumulation rate in Lake Kariba is on the order of 4 × 106 t yr-1, and the estimated OC accumulation of 120 × 103 t C yr-1 accounts for ˜1‰ of globally buried OC in reservoirs. In addition, mass balance calculations revealed that approximately 70% and 90% of incoming total N and P, respectively, are eliminated from the water column by sedimentation (N, P) and denitrification (N). Since Lake Kariba attenuates flow from ˜50% of the ZRB, these OC, N, and P removals represent a drastic reduction in nutrient loadings to downstream riparian ecosystems and to the coastal Indian Ocean.

Kunz, Manuel J.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Wüest, Alfred; Wehrli, Bernhard; Vollenweider, Adrian; Thüring, Silvan; Senn, David B.

2011-09-01

284

Environmental and climatic factors associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in fish from the Zambezi floodplains, Zambia.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in fish in the Zambezi floodplains. EUS is a fish disease that causes economic loses to the fishing industry. Streambed colour in affected water was rusty-, reddish- or yellowish- brown and pH 4.5-6.0 while pH of non affected water was 7.2. The rusty-brown precipitate on fish gills was positive for Prussian blue iron stain. Therefore, predisposing factors for EUS in the Zambezi floodplains were the acidification of ground water during drought years and eventual contamination of surface water during the floods of 2006/2007. PMID:19565173

Choongo, K; Hang'ombe, B; Samui, K L; Syachaba, M; Phiri, H; Maguswi, C; Muyangaali, K; Bwalya, G; Mataa, L

2009-10-01

285

Environmental and Climatic Factors Associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in Fish from the Zambezi Floodplains, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS)\\u000a in fish in the Zambezi floodplains. EUS is a fish disease that causes economic loses to the fishing industry. Streambed colour\\u000a in affected water was rusty-, reddish- or yellowish- brown and pH 4.5–6.0 while pH of non affected water was 7.2. The rusty-brown\\u000a precipitate

K. Choongo; B. Hang’ombe; K. L. Samui; M. Syachaba; H. Phiri; C. Maguswi; K. Muyangaali; G. Bwalya; L. Mataa

2009-01-01

286

Integrating HIV treatment with primary care outpatient services: opportunities and challenges from a scaled-up model in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Integration of HIV treatment with other primary care services has been argued to potentially improve effectiveness, efficiency and equity. However, outside the field of reproductive health, there is limited empirical evidence regarding the scope or depth of integrated HIV programmes or their relative benefits. Moreover, the body of work describing operational models of integrated service-delivery in context remains thin. Between 2008 and 2011, the Lusaka District Health Management Team piloted and scaled-up a model of integrated HIV and general outpatient department (OPD) services in 12 primary health care clinics. This paper examines the effect of the integrated model on the organization of clinic services, and explores service providers’ perceptions of the integrated model. Methods We used a mixed methods approach incorporating facility surveys and key informant interviews with clinic managers and district officials. On-site facility surveys were carried out in 12 integrated facilities to collect data on the scope of integrated services, and 15 semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 clinic managers and three district officials to explore strengths and weaknesses of the model. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated to inform overall analysis. Findings Implementation of the integrated model substantially changed the organization of service delivery across a range of clinic systems. Organizational and managerial advantages were identified, including more efficient use of staff time and clinic space, improved teamwork and accountability, and more equitable delivery of care to HIV and non-HIV patients. However, integration did not solve ongoing human resource shortages or inadequate infrastructure, which limited the efficacy of the model and were perceived to undermine service delivery. Conclusion While resource and allocative efficiencies are associated with this model of integration, a more important finding was the model’s demonstrated potential for strengthening organizational culture and staff relationships, in turn facilitating more collaborative and motivated service delivery in chronically under-resourced primary healthcare clinics. PMID:22791556

Topp, Stephanie M; Chipukuma, Julien M; Chiko, Matimba M; Matongo, Evelyn; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Reid, Stewart E

2013-01-01

287

Community health workers use malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) safely and accurately: results of a longitudinal study in Zambia.  

PubMed

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could radically improve febrile illness management in remote and low-resource populations. However, reliance upon community health workers (CHWs) remains controversial because of concerns about blood safety and appropriate use of artemisinin combination therapy. This study assessed CHW ability to use RDTs safely and accurately up to 12 months post-training. We trained 65 Zambian CHWs, and then provided RDTs, job-aids, and other necessary supplies for village use. Observers assessed CHW performance at 3, 6, and 12 months post-training. Critical steps performed correctly increased from 87.5% at 3 months to 100% subsequently. However, a few CHWs incorrectly read faint positive or invalid results as negative. Although most indicators improved or remained stable over time, interpretation of faint positives fell to 76.7% correct at 12 months. We conclude that appropriately trained and supervised CHWs can use RDTs safely and accurately in community practice for up to 12 months post-training. PMID:22764292

Counihan, Helen; Harvey, Steven A; Sekeseke-Chinyama, Masela; Hamainza, Busiku; Banda, Rose; Malambo, Thindo; Masaninga, Freddie; Bell, David

2012-07-01

288

From Albania to Zambia: Travel Back to Country of Origin as a Goal of Care for Terminally Ill Patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: With unprecedented levels of international migration, physicians in the United States may care for terminally ill patients who have strong connections to their country of origin and such patients may desire to return in the final stages of life. Objective: In this study, we analyzed how often terminally ill patients cited travel to country of origin as a goal of care, how often travel occurred, and factors associated with successful travel. Design: A retrospective chart review from January 1, 2005 through May 1, 2007. Setting/Subjects: All foreign-born patients seen by a palliative care consultation service, including inpatient and outpatient consultations, in an urban safety-net health system in the United States. Measurements: We determined whether patients expressed a desire to travel to their country of origin and the factors, including demographics and functional status associated with travel. Results: Of 336 foreign-born patients, 129 (38%) expressed a desire to travel to their country of origin; 60 (47%) successfully returned to 24 unique countries. Countries to which the largest number of patients returned were Mexico (n=14), Poland (n=11), and the Philippines (n=7). Although patients with the best functional status were most likely to travel successfully, 16 (31%) who wanted to travel despite having the worst functional status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] score indicating confinement to bed or chair) traveled successfully. There were no deaths en route or flight diversions due to medical crisis; all trips were made on regularly scheduled commercial airline flights. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients in our cohort expressed a desire to return to their country of origin. We facilitated successful travel for nearly half of these patients. Our findings identify the need to include travel back to country of origin in the framework of planning care for terminally ill patients. PMID:25469906

Deamant, Catherine D; Liu, Elaine; Hinami, Keiki; Weinstein, Robert A; Trick, William E

2014-12-01

289

Increasing access to legal termination of pregnancy and postabortion contraception at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.  

PubMed

The Zambian Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics is one of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) member societies participating in the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences from the East, Central, and Southern Africa region. The activities included in this country's plan of action were to provide access to safe abortion within the full extent of the law to women receiving care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, and to increase the proportion of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method. Zambian law regarding abortion is liberal, but in general it was not applied until very recently. The proportion of legal terminations of pregnancy among patients receiving abortion care at the hospital increased from 3.2% in 2009 to 7.7% in 2011, while the percentage of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method increased from 25.3% to 69.4% over the same period. PMID:24786142

Macha, Swebby; Muyuni, Mutinta; Nkonde, Scholastica; Faúndes, Anibal

2014-07-01

290

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the greenhouse every 6 to 10 days starting at least 30 days before and during harvest. (iii) Dacus spp. fruit fly prevalence levels lower than 0.7 flies per trap per week (F/T/W) must be maintained outside the greenhouse for the...

2011-01-01

291

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the greenhouse every 6 to 10 days starting at least 30 days before and during harvest. (iii) Dacus spp. fruit fly prevalence levels lower than 0.7 flies per trap per week (F/T/W) must be maintained outside the greenhouse for the...

2013-01-01

292

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the greenhouse every 6 to 10 days starting at least 30 days before and during harvest. (iii) Dacus spp. fruit fly prevalence levels lower than 0.7 flies per trap per week (F/T/W) must be maintained outside the greenhouse for the...

2012-01-01

293

An Assessment of Cost, Quality and Outcomes for Five HIV Prevention Youth Peer Education Programs in Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth peer education (YPE) programs are a popular strategy for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, research on the effectiveness of YPE programs is scarce and the wide variation in programs makes it difficult to generalize research findings. Measuring quality and comparing program effectiveness require the use of standardized…

Burke, H. M.; Pedersen, K. F.; Williamson, N. E.

2012-01-01

294

Effects of traditional and discovery instructional approaches on learning outcomes for learners of different intellectual development: A study of chemistry students in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the differential effectiveness of traditional and discovery methods of instruction for the teaching of science concepts, understandings about science, and scientific attitudes, to learners at the concrete and formal level of cognitive development. The dependent variables were achievement, understanding science, and scientific attitude; assessed through the use of the ACS Achievement Test (high school chemistry, Form 1979),

Moses M. Mulopo; H. Seymour Fowler

1987-01-01

295

Heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Serranochromis thumbergi), and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and Lake Kariba, Zambia.  

PubMed

We measured the level of heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, herbivorous (Oreochromis niloticus) and carnivorous (Serranochromis thumbergi) fish, and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) from Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT) and Lake Kariba. We used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the levels of seven heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni). The sediment and the herbivorous fish O. niloticus accumulated a very high concentration of Cu in Lake ITT, most likely due to the discharge of Cu waste from a mining area 450 km upstream. The aquatic species we sampled in Lake Kariba had higher concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Pb relative to those in Lake ITT. This is most likely due to anthropogenic activities, such as the use of leaded petrol and antifouling agents in marine paints. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between the coefficient of condition (K) and Ni concentration in the crayfish hepatopancreas. Both O. niloticus and the crayfish had much higher biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, and Cd relative to Cr, Co, Pb, and Ni. The rank of BSAF values for O. niloticus (Cu>Cd>Zn) and C. quadricarinatus (Zn>Cd>Cu) differed from the expected ranks based on the general order of affinity of metals (Cd>Zn>Cu). PMID:20162262

Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Oroszlany, Balazs; Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2010-08-01

296

A study of the nutritional and medicinal values of Moringa oleifera leaves from sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal and Zambia.  

E-print Network

??Moringa oleifera is an important multipurpose tropical tree under-recognized for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Leaves of M. oleifera collected from the sub-Saharan African countries… (more)

Coppin, Julia

2008-01-01

297

Wim van Binsbergen Religious change in Zambia: Exploratory studies (London\\/Boston: Kegan Paul, 1981) Bibliography (pp. 370-398 in the original version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberle, D., 1972, 'A note on relative deprivation theory as applied to millenarian and other cult movements', in: W. Lessa & E. Z Vogt, eds., Reader in comparative religion, New York: Harper and Row, pp. 527-531 Alavi, H., 1972, 'The state in post-colonial societies: Pakistan and Bangla Desh', New Left Review, 74: 25-39. Alexander, D. & W. Rau, 1972, 'Spirit

R. W. Johnson

298

Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk Factors of Infection in Traditional Cattle, Goats and Sheep Reared in Livestock–Wildlife Interface Areas of Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock–wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks\\u000a and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds\\u000a and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were

J. B. Muma; K. L. Samui; V. M. Siamudaala; J. Oloya; G. Matope; M. K. Omer; M. Munyeme; C. Mubita; E. Skjerve

2006-01-01

299

A comparative study of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in commercial and small-scale mixed dairy-beef cattle enterprises of Lusaka province and Chibombo district, Zambia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2007 and February 2008 to estimate seroprevalence of brucellosis and identify risk factors associated with Brucella infections in commercial cattle in three districts of Lusaka province (Chongwe, Luangwa, and Kafue; n = 849) and in one rural district from the Central province (n = 48). A total of 897 serum samples were randomly collected from 55 farms along with animal-level data such as sex, age, and parity. Sera were screened for presence of anti-Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test, and positive samples were confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the animal level, seroprevalence was estimated at 7.9% (95% CI = 4.4-11.4%) in the Lusaka province and 18.7% (95% CI = 7.5-29.9%) for Chibombo district. Brucellosis seroprevalence varied according to district, with Chongwe district recording the highest compared to other districts. Seroprevalence also varied according to sex with bulls (n = 96) having higher seroprevalence (12.5%; 95% CI = 3.8-21.1%) compared to females (8.1%; 95% CI = 4.6-11.6). Similarly, seroprevalence varied according to age groups, with the age category 1-4 years recording the highest (10.7%). The study recorded relatively low Brucella seroprevalence in commercial farms in Lusaka, compared to the traditional small-scale farms. We suggest that testing and stamping out of infected animals is likely to improve the situation and significantly reduce the public health risk associated with Brucella infections in animals. PMID:20517646

Chimana, Henry M; Muma, John Bwalya; Samui, Kenny L; Hangombe, Benard M; Munyeme, Musso; Matope, Gift; Phiri, Andrew M; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein; Tryland, Morten

2010-10-01

300

A comparative study of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in commercial and small-scale mixed dairy–beef cattle enterprises of Lusaka province and Chibombo district, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2007 and February 2008 to estimate seroprevalence of brucellosis and\\u000a identify risk factors associated with Brucella infections in commercial cattle in three districts of Lusaka province (Chongwe, Luangwa, and Kafue; n?=?849) and in one rural district from the Central province (n?=?48). A total of 897 serum samples were randomly collected from 55 farms

Henry M. Chimana; John Bwalya Muma; Kenny L. Samui; Benard M. Hangombe; Musso Munyeme; Gift Matope; Andrew M. Phiri; Jacques Godfroid; Eystein Skjerve; Morten Tryland

2010-01-01

301

Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were tested sequentially for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive ELISA. In cattle, individual seroprevalence ranged from 14.1% to 28.1%, while herd sero-prevalence ranged from 46.2% to 74.0% in the three study areas. No goat or sheep tested positive for Brucella antibodies. Three types of cattle grazing strategies were encountered: locally grazed herds (LGH), transhumantly grazed herds (TGH) and river flood plain grazed herds (FGH). Brucella seroprevalence was seen to vary according to area and grazing strategy: Lochinvar and transhumant grazed herds recorded the highest figures, respectively. Age, sex and history of abortion were found to have independent effects on individual seroprevalence. This study establishes that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar national parks and the disease is also present in Kazungula. We observed that type of grazing strategy had significant impact on cattle Brucella seroprevalence and that transhumant herds were at high risk of being infected. PMID:16986767

Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V M; Oloya, J; Matop, G; Omer, M K; Munyeme, M; Mubita, C; Skjerve, E

2006-04-01

302

The role of Brucella infection in abortions among traditional cattle reared in proximity to wildlife on the Kafue flats of Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The role of Brucella infections in cattle abortions was investigated in 914 females from 124 herds. Animals were tested for exposure to Brucella species and history of abortion over the past three years. Sera were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Of 886 females tested, 189 were positive on RBT, and 154

J. B. Muma; J. Godfroid; K. L. Samui; E. Skjerve

303

Educational benefits from solar technology—Access to solar electric services and changes in children's study routines, experiences from eastern province Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar technology is diffused in many parts of the world with the ambition to improve the situation in rural areas. One claimed benefit of solar power at household level is improved situation for studies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impacts that access to solar electric services can have on education in a rural setting. The results

Mathias Gustavsson

2007-01-01

304

Orphaned and Vulnerable Children in Zambia: The Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on Basic Education for Children at Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is an emerging corpus of work on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on education in sub-Saharan Africa. This mainly employs demographic models to make projections of student enrolments and teacher requirements. However, there is a paucity of research in basic schools to examine the experiences of AIDS-affected teachers and…

Robson, Sue; Sylvester, Kanyanta Bonaventure

2007-01-01

305

Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2014-01-01

306

Emissions of CO 2 , CO, and hydrocarbons from fires in diverse African savanna ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of CO2, CO, and hydrocarbons from 13 savanna fires (- 7 ha) were investigated in Zambia and South Africa in August and September 1992. The experiments were conducted at two moist woodland savanna sites, a moist grassland savanna site, and a semiarid woodland savanna site in Zambia, and nine semiarid woodland savanna sites in South Africa. The hydrocarbons measured

Wei Min Hao; Darold E. Ward; Gerald Olbu; Stephen P. Baker

1996-01-01

307

Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1/22  

E-print Network

Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION © Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1 Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire 4 Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia 5, 33076 inserm-00409524,version1-10Aug2009 Author manuscript, published in "Clinical Infectious Diseases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

Syphilis intervention in pregnancy: Zambian demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite availability of simpler serologic tests for syphilis and near cure with penicillin, unacceptably high prevalence of infectious maternal syphilis exist in many developing countries, including Zambia. It is the foremost risk factor for mid-trimester abortions, stillbirths, prematurity and morbidity and mortality among infants born with congenital syphilis in Zambia. An intervention project was conducted in Lusaka aimed at demonstrating

S K Hira; G J Bhat; D M Chikamata; B Nkowane; G Tembo; P L Perine; A Meheus

1990-01-01

309

Water acquisition from rainfall and groundwater by legume crops developing deep rooting systems determined with stable hydrogen isotope compositions of xylem waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deuterium\\/hydrogen isotope ratios (?D) of xylem waters from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and sesbania (Sesbania sesban) plants grown in semi-arid Zambia were investigated to know the seasonal variation in water sources for those crops. The study was conducted at a field site in the Zambia National Irrigation Research Station from November 2000 until April 2001. We measured the ?D

N. Sekiya; K. Yano

2002-01-01

310

Taxonomic notes on Polygonaceae from southern tropical Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of taxonomic studies of the family Polygonaceae for the Flora Zambesiaca project, two new species from southern tropical Africa are described Persicaria nogueirae S. Ortiz & Paiva, from Zambia and Angola, and Oxygonum annuum S. Ortiz & Paiva, from Zambia. In addition, two new combinations are proposed Polygonum glomeratum Dammer is transferred to the genus Persicaria as Persicaria

SANTIAGO ORTIZ; JORGE A. R PAIVA

1999-01-01

311

The Sensitivity and Specificity of Using a Computer Aided Diagnosis Program for Automatically Scoring Chest X-Rays of Presumptive TB Patients Compared with Xpert MTB/RIF in Lusaka Zambia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) program for scoring chest x-rays (CXRs) of presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients compared to Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). Method Consecutive presumptive TB patients with a cough of any duration were offered digital CXR, and opt out HIV testing. CXRs were electronically scored as normal (CAD score ?60) or abnormal (CAD score>60) using a CAD program. All patients regardless of CAD score were requested to submit a spot sputum sample for testing with Xpert and a spot and morning sample for testing with LED Fluorescence Microscopy-(FM). Results Of 350 patients with evaluable data, 291 (83.1%) had an abnormal CXR score by CAD. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CXR compared to Xpert were 100% (95%CI 96.2–100), 23.2% (95%CI 18.2–28.9), 33.0% (95%CI 27.6–38.7) and 100% (95% 93.9–100), respectively. The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) for CAD was 0.71 (95%CI 0.66–0.77). CXR abnormality correlated with smear grade (r?=?0.30, p<0.0001) and with Xpert CT(r?=?0.37, p<0.0001). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first time that a CAD program for TB has been successfully tested in a real world setting. The study shows that the CAD program had high sensitivity but low specificity and PPV. The use of CAD with digital CXR has the potential to increase the use and availability of chest radiography in screening for TB where trained human resources are scarce. PMID:24705629

Muyoyeta, Monde; Maduskar, Pragnya; Moyo, Maureen; Kasese, Nkatya; Milimo, Deborah; Spooner, Rosanna; Kapata, Nathan; Hogeweg, Laurens; van Ginneken, Bram; Ayles, Helen

2014-01-01

312

Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

Asayeghn, Desta

1982-01-01

313

GEOBULLETIN GeoBulletin is distributed weekly, by E-mail. Contributions are requested!  

E-print Network

international graduate development program. Spanning current operations in Mauritania, Zambia, Finland, Peru their career in the mining industry. During this two-year development program you will undertake a three- month

Carlson, Anders

314

Clinical care as part of integrated AIDS management in a Zambian rural community.  

PubMed

Inpatient and community-based care can be complementary in relation to the management of HIV disease. Some special features and advantages of community-based care are described, drawing on experience from Zambia. PMID:2488294

Chela, C M; Campbell, I D; Siankanga, Z

1989-01-01

315

Prospective observational study of blood transfusion practices and outcome at the University Teaching Hospital.  

E-print Network

??To determine the incidence, common indications,appropriateness and outcome of blood transfusions and blood products among adult in-patients admitted to the University teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.… (more)

Siamuyoba, Lawrence S

2012-01-01

316

Stort projekt skal ruste ulandene til at klare sig bedre i globale forhandling-  

E-print Network

, Marokko, Cote d'Ivoire, Guatamala og Ecuador. ENERGI, MILJ� OG UDVIKLINGSEKSPERTISE RIS�NYT 3/02 >> Ulande følgende Afrikanske lande: Marokko, Cote D'ivoire, Mauritius, Senegal, Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia, Burkina

317

Reflections on the Macro Foundations of the Middle Class in the Developing World  

E-print Network

Sweden United States Note: * Or most recent available year. The middleMiddle Strata Brazil Chile* Ecuador** Argentina Zambia Venezuela Nepal China*** Mexico Kenya Ghana**** United States India Egypt Sweden***** *

Birdsall, Nancy

2007-01-01

318

NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers  

MedlinePLUS

... Global Health Researchers Fogarty scholar helps Zambians fight cervical cancer Medical student and Fogarty scholar Krista Pfaendler (right) assists with surgery on a patient with cervical cancer in Zambia. Photo courtesy of Krista Pfaendler An ...

319

Clinical presentation, natural history, and cumulative death rates of 230 adults with primary cryptococcal meningitis in Zambian AIDS patients treated under local conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SETTINGInpatient medical wards, Department of Medicine, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.OBJECTIVETo define the natural history, clinical presentation, and management outcome of microbiologically confirmed cryptococcal meningitis in adult AIDS patients treated under local conditions where antifungal and antiretroviral therapies are not routinely available.DESIGNA descriptive, longitudinal, observational study.METHODSAll adult patients admitted to the medical wards of the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

P Mwaba; J Mwansa; C Chintu; J Pobee; M Scarborough; S Portsmouth; A Zumla

2001-01-01

320

Management of Spent and Disused Radiation Sources - The Zambian Experience  

SciTech Connect

Zambia like all other countries in the world is faced with environmental problems brought about by a variety of human activities. In Zambia the major environmental issues as identified by Nation Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) of 1994 are water pollution, poor sanitation, land degradation, air pollution, poor waste management, misuse of chemicals, wildlife depletion and deforestation. Zambian has been using a lot of radioactive materials in its various industries. The country has taken several projects with help of external partners. These partners however left these projects in the hands of the Zambians without developing their capacities to manage these radioactive sources. The Government recognized the need to manage these sources and passed legislation governing the management of radioactive materials. The first act of Parliament on Radiation Protection work was passed in 1975 to legislate the use of ionizing radiation. However, because of financial constraints the Country is facing, these regulations have remained unimplemented. Fortunately the international Community has been working in partnership with the Zambian Government in the Management of Radioactive Material. Therefore this paper will present the following aspects of radioactive waste management in Zambia: review Existing Legislation in Zambia regarding management of spent/radioactive sources; capacity building in the field of management of radioactive waste; management of spent and disused radiation sources; existing disposal systems in Zambia regarding spent/orphaned sources; existing stocks of radioactive sources in the Zambian industries.

Chabala, F.

2002-02-26

321

Detection, mapping and estimation of rate of spread of grass fires from southern African ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sequential band-6 imagery of the Zambesi Basin of southern Africa recorded substantial changes in burn patterns resulting from late dry season grass fires. One example from northern Botswana, indicates that a fire consumed approximately 70 square miles of grassland over a 24-hour period. Another example from western Zambia indicates increased fire activity over a 19-day period. Other examples clearly define the area of widespread grass fires in Angola, Botswana, Rhodesia and Zambia. From the fire patterns visible on the sequential portions of the imagery, and the time intervals involved, the rates of spread of the fires are estimated and compared with estimates derived from experimental burning plots in Zambia and Canada. It is concluded that sequential ERTS-1 imagery, of the quality studied, clearly provides the information needed to detect and map grass fires and to monitor their rates of spread in this region during the late dry season.

Wightman, J. M.

1973-01-01

322

Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

323

Barriers to acceptance and adherence of antiretroviral therapy in urban Zambian women: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Saharan Africa contains over 60% of the world's HIV infections and Zambia is among the most severely affected countries in the region. As antiretroviral programs have been rapidly expanding, the long-term success of these programs depends on a good understanding of the behavioral determinants of acceptance and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The study used qualitative methods to gain local

Laura K. Murray; Katherine Semrau; Ellen McCurley; Donald M. Thea; Nancy Scott; Mwiya Mwiya; Chipepo Kankasa; Judith Bass; Paul Bolton

2009-01-01

324

Distance Education for Health Personnel: New Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An intercountry workshop on distance learning (DL) was conducted at the University of Khartoum, Sudan, in November 1991. Individuals involved in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Health Learning Materials network in nine African countries (Sudan, Ethiopia, Guyana, Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) met to share their…

Mwakilasa, Amos

325

Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and Southern Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)

Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.

1995-01-01

326

Unemployed Youth: Alternative Approaches to an African Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on the findings of seven country studies of youth employment programs in Africa (Botswana, Somalia, Zambia, Malawi, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Mauritius). Considered are public service/public works programs, agricultural development, employable skills development and vocationalization of education, and national youth services. (SK)

Livingstone, Ian

1989-01-01

327

Trends in Innovation: Basic Education in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative study is reported of basic education in 10 African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia, Benin, Mali, Upper Volta, and Angola. Basic education is defined as learning experiences to which all citizens are entitled or which are required to help them develop their potential to function effectively as individuals…

Bartels, Francis L.

328

The Education of Refugees in Africa: The Role of Distance and Open Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of education services to refugees in Africa focuses on three case studies: Institute of In-Service Teacher Training (IITT) in Somalia; Sudan Extension Unit (SEU); and Namibian Extension Unit (NEU) in Angola and Zambia. Highlights include refugee problems, the relevance of distance and open learning approaches, and international…

Dodds, Tony

1988-01-01

329

Survey of Basic Education in Eastern Africa. UNESCO/UNICEF Co-Operation Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of basic education in 13 Eastern African countries (Madagascar, Burundi, Comores, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, and Somalia) covers basic education programs and UNICEF's supporting role. Basic education is seen as a concept evolved in the region, involving formal school systems and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Nairobi (Kenya). Regional Office of Science and Technology for Africa.

330

International Compilation of Human Research Standards 2014 Edition  

E-print Network

subjects research in 107 countries, as well as the standards from a number of international and regional, France, Kyrgyzstan, Switzerland, Taiwan, and Turkey. Three new countries are featured in the 2014 edition: Cameroon, Mozambique, and Zambia. ORGANIZATION The Table of Contents is found on page 3. For each country

Puglisi, Joseph

331

Energy and Development Gordon A. Mackenzie  

E-print Network

causal diagram to assessment tables: example solar ESCO in Zambia Provision of electricity service access) · solar/wind irrigation (TZ) · improved stoves (SE + TZ) · r.e. for women's groups (Mali) #12;From 4-level to electricity use of electricity business hours educational and social activities income gender relations Inputs

332

Social Studies in African Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays is organized into two sections: Section 1 deals with general issues in social studies, while Section 2 examines social studies education in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia. Essays in Section One are: (1) "The Historical Context of Education in British Colonial Africa" (L.…

Adeyemi, Michael B., Ed.

333

AFRICA'S WILDLIFE ON SAFARI in Botswana,  

E-print Network

presents AFRICA'S WILDLIFE ON SAFARI in Botswana, Zambia & Victoria Falls May 19-June 1, 2013 by check or credit card. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY RESERVATION FORM: AFRICA'S WILDLIFE Enclosed is my/our deposit for $______($500 per person) for ____ person/people on Africa's Wildlife departing May 19, 2013. I/we understand

Lazar, Aurel A.

334

Southern Africa  

article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

2013-04-16

335

Early Marriage and HIV Risks in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of girl’s early marriage on the risks of acquiring HIV\\/AIDS. It explores the counterintuitive finding that married adolescent girls in urban centers in Kenya and Zambia have higher rates of HIV than sexually active unmarried girls, by comparing several underlying HIV risk factors. In both countries, we find that early marriage increases coital frequency, decreases

Shelley Clark

2004-01-01

336

Privatisation from Above and from Below: A Comparative Analysis of the Privatisation of Water and Sanitation and Solid Waste Management Services in the City of Kitwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like most developing countries, Zambia has been going through very difficult times economically. This has seriously affected the capacity of various government agencies to provide public services. As a result the government and its agencies have over the past decade been forced to reassess the way in which publicly provided urban services are delivered. The key policy response has been

Albert Malama; Barbara Mwila Kazimbaya-Senkwe

337

Attracting Foreign Investment Through Privatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privatization serves as a potential source of foreign direct investment in Africa. During the Chiluba era (1991–2001), Zambia conducted one of Africa's most sweeping privatization programs. Accordingly, direct investment swelled with the sale of state enterprises. This paper explores foreign and domestic ownership patterns following investor purchases of Zambian state-owned assets. Previous foreign owners of mining and manufacturing companies represent

Robert J. Rolfe; Douglas P. Woodward

2004-01-01

338

Sky View Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sky View Cafe is a Java applet for viewing graphical and numerical astronomical information including star charts, a 3-D orrery, displays of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, an astronomical events calendar, and an ephemeris generator. The source code for the Sky View Cafe Java applet is provided. There are also photographs of the 2001 Zambia total solar eclipse.

Shetline, Kerry

339

The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

340

Student Politics. Perspectives for the Eighties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status of student political activism in the 1970s and 1980s in such nations as the United States, Britain, India, Japan, Italy, Canada, West Germany, Greece, Zambia and Latin America is examined. The volume consists of 13 chapters written by scholars who all agree that student activism is not now at peak levels of the 1960s, yet student…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

341

Economics of Antipoaching Enforcement and the Ivory Trade Ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of elephant conservation that includes illegal poaching, enforcement effort, and legal culling is used to analyze enforcement and elephant populations for alternative policies, with and without legal trade in ivory. Consistent with previous theoretical models, banning trade may increase or decrease equilibrium stocks. As an empirical application, information for Zambia, along with sensitivity analysis, are used to show

Erwin H. Bulte; G. Cornelis van Kooten

1999-01-01

342

artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater  

E-print Network

artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater NERC EQUIP;protected spring in Kampala (Uganda) · groundwater supplies 50% of world's drinking water Kundzewicz and Döll (2009) #12;maize plantation irrigated by a groundwater-fed pivot, Katwe (Zambia) · and 42

Stevenson, Paul

343

A prequel to Nollywood: South African photo novels and their pan-African consumption in the late 1960s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article interrogates the history of the photo novel in Africa with particular reference to African Film, a magazine of almost pan-African circulation, published between 1968 and 1972 in South Africa. Featuring the adventures of Lance Spearman, an African crime fighter, the magazine was read widely across Anglophone Africa, from Nigeria and Ghana to South Africa, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya and

Matthias Krings

2010-01-01

344

Methodological complexities of product carbon footprinting: a sensitivity analysis of key variables in a developing country context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product carbon footprinting schemes adopt different analytical methodologies. The calculations can also be affected by limited data availability and uncertainty surrounding the value of key variables. The combination of these factors reduces the validity of comparing carbon footprints between products and countries.We used data from sugar production in Zambia and Mauritius to test how variations in methodology affected the product

K. Plassmann; A. Norton; N. Attarzadeh; M. P. Jensen; P. Brenton; G. Edwards-Jones

2010-01-01

345

Changing Patterns of Access to Education in Anglophone and Francophone Countries in Sub Saharan Africa: Is Education for All Pro-Poor? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 52  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores patterns of growth in participation in six Anglophone and seven Francophone countries in SSA. The countries are Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Madagascar, Mali, Niger and Senegal. These countries all have large scale Universal Primary Education programmes and all have…

Lewin, Keith M.; Sabates, Ricardo

2011-01-01

346

Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia

Mooko, Theophilus

2009-01-01

347

Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

348

Evaluation of three serological tests for brucellosis in naturally infected cattle using latent class analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological methods are traditionally used in diagnosis of brucellosis. However, the comparative performance of these tests and their accuracy under the local environment in Zambia has not been assessed. Thus, the objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of three serological tests for brucellosis; Rose Bengal Test (RBT), competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and Fluorescence Polarisation Assay (FPA) in

J. B. Muma; N. Toft; J. Oloya; A. Lund; K. Nielsen; K. Samui; E. Skjerve

2007-01-01

349

FIFA 11 for Health Programme: Implementation in Five Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the FIFA 11 for Health programme in increasing children's knowledge about communicable and non-communicable diseases in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Method: A prospective five-cohort study was implemented in schools in Ghana (17), Malawi (12), Namibia (11), Tanzania (18) and Zambia (11). The…

Fuller, Colin W.; Junge, Astrid; Amaning, Jacob; Kaijage, Rogasian R.; Kaputa, John; Magwende, George; Pambo, Prince; Dvorak, Jiri

2015-01-01

350

100 years of living science THE SCHISTOSOMIASIS  

E-print Network

and Cote D'Ivoire Tanzania Burundi and Rwanda Cote D Ivoire Z bi SCI Supported countries and 4 d Zambia to new countries ­ Cote D'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Malawi, , p , , Mozambique #12;H t d t liHow to donate

351

The Development of Distance Education in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Botswana is a landlocked semi-arid country sharing boundaries with Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Setswana and English are the official languages, with English being the most used as the language of government and business transactions. In comparison to most African countries, Botswana is culturally homogenous, and nearly 80% of the…

Nage-Sibande, Bogadi

2005-01-01

352

Importance of Labor in Adoption of a Modern Farm Input.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores relationship between farm technology and labor availability in Africa. Studies introduction of high-yielding maize variety in Zambia and resulting effects on labor availability/mobilization. Shows shift to hybrids requires additional labor, including available children. Illustrates need for adoption research taking broader farming…

Ndiaye, Serigne; Sofranko, Andrew J.

1988-01-01

353

Embedded Filming for Social Change Learning about HIV/AIDS and Rural Development Professionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Development Professionals (RDPs) are key actors in processes of social change for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas. This article reports on the filming of a series of workshops and courses for RDPs in Ghana, India, Tanzania and Zambia. In this article the filming and the films are analyzed as tools for learning and social change…

Witteveen, Loes; Lie, Rico

2009-01-01

354

Impact of Natural Resource Conservation Policies on Household Consumption Around Zambian National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key Policy Points - Game Management Areas (GMAs) in Zambia aim to combine nature conservation with economic empowerment of rural households and communities. - We find evidence of consumption gains from living in GMAs and from participating in natural resource management through Community-Resource Boards (CRBs) and Village Action Groups (VAGs). - However, these benefits are unevenly distributed. Only GMAs with

Gelson Tembo; Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay; Jean-Michel Pavy

2009-01-01

355

Mapping agroecological zones and time lag in vegetation growth by means of Fourier analysis of time series of NDVI images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examples are presented of applications of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to analyze time series of images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values. The results obtained for a case study on Zambia indicated that differences in vegetation development among map units of an existing agroclimatic map were not significant, while reliable differences were observed among the map units obtained using the Fourier analysis.

Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Verhoef, W.; Van Swol, R.

1993-01-01

356

Adjustment Costs, Irreversibility and Investment Patterns in African Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines dynamic patterns of investment in Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe, assessing the consistency of those patterns with different adjustment cost structures. Using survey data on manufactured firms, we document the importance of zero investment episodes and lumpy investment. The proportion of firms experiencing large investment spikes is significant in explaining aggregate manufacturing investment. Taken together, evidence

Arne Bigsten; Paul Collier; Stefan Dercon; Marcel Fafchamps; Bernard Gauthier; Jan Willem Gunning; Abena Oduro; Remco Oostendorp; Catherine Pattillo; Måns Söderbom; Francis Teal; Albert Zeufack

1999-01-01

357

Universal Basic Education and the Provision of Quality Mathematics in Southern Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I discuss Universal Basic Education (UBE) in relation to the teaching and learning of mathematics in Southern Africa. I present the status of UBE for all countries in the region and then use 3 selected examples: Botswana, Malawi, and Zambia, to illustrate the provision of mathematics in the general framework of UBE in the countries.…

Kazima, Mercy

2014-01-01

358

False Promise or False Premise? The Experience of Food and Input Market Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the effects of agricultural market reform in Africa is sharply divided and inconsistent. This article attempts to reconcile opposing viewpoints on the effects of food and input market policy reform in eastern and southern Africa. Drawing from studies of Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, we argue that a major source of the controversy stems from assumptions

A Chapoto; J. Govereh; A. Mwanaumo; J. K. Nyoro

2002-01-01

359

Resilience and Religion in Children and Youth in Southern Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the relationship between religion and resilience in children and youth in difficult situations. The article builds on two data collections: (a) a retrospective study where preschool teacher students from Zambia and Swaziland wrote about a difficult period in their childhood and what made them to cope; and (b) an interview…

Gunnestad, Arve; Thwala, S'lungile

2011-01-01

360

Early spatial and temporal validation of MODIS LAI product in the Southern Africa Kalahari  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the operational MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI) product using field-sampled data collected at five sites in southern Africa in March 2000. One site (Mongu, Zambia) was sampled monthly throughout the year. All sites were along the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme's (IGBP) Kalahari Transect, which features progressively lower annual precipitation, and hence, lower vegetation productivity, from north to south.

J. L. Privette; R. B. Myneni; Y. Knyazikhin; M. Mukelabai; G. Roberts; Y. Tianb; Y. Wang; S. G. Leblanc

2002-01-01

361

CANADA-SOUTHERN AFRICA MIGRATION SURVEY INFORMATION What is SAMP?  

E-print Network

1 CANADA-SOUTHERN AFRICA MIGRATION SURVEY INFORMATION What is SAMP? SAMP is the Southern African in that country. Which countries form part of `Southern Africa'? Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe Is any research being done in Southern Africa? Yes

Abolmaesumi, Purang

362

Terrestrial heat flow in east and southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 26 new heat production measurements from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania, together with details and some revisions of 18 previous heat flow measurements by other investigtors from Kenya and Tanzania. These measurements come from Archean cratons, Proterozoic mobile belts, and Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts. Heat flow data from eight new sites in the Archean Zimbabwe Craton are consistent with

Andrew A. Nyblade; Henry N. Pollack; D. L. Jones; Francis Podmore; Martin Mushayandebvu

1990-01-01

363

Slavery, Colonialism and the Pursuit of Community Life: Anglican Mission Education in Zanzibar and Northern Rhodesia 1864-1940  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education became the central focus of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa (UMCA) following a disastrous and unsuccessful attempt to settle in Nyasaland (now Malawi). The aim of this article is to trace the UMCA educational policy from Zanzibar, where the mission became established in 1864, to Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). From their…

Allen, Julia

2008-01-01

364

Search for radiative decays of solar neutrinos during a solar eclipse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for possible radiative decays of solar neutrinos with emission of photons in the visible range may be performed during total solar eclipses. We discuss some results obtained from the digitized images recorded during the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse in Romania, and report on the observations made in June 21, 2001, in Zambia. Added reference for Section

G. Giacomelli; V. Popa

2001-01-01

365

Silent Auction Preview Ten African Countries  

E-print Network

;2. Women's Cooperative Mfuwe Game Park, South Luangwa, Zambia #12;3. Traditional Basket - Kenya #12;7. Crafted by Artisans-Eco Africa Social Ventures Project - Zimbabwe #12;8. Nesting Baskets-Rwanda #12 Makwana ­ South Africa #12;11. Mankala-Traditional Game of Africa Carving from South Africa #12

Farritor, Shane

366

Zambian Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Views on Chemistry Education Goals and Challenges for Achieving Them in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that…

Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

2014-01-01

367

Thermal tolerance in a south-east African population of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera, Glossinidae): Implications for forecasting climate change impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For tsetse (Glossina spp.), the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiases, the physiological mechanisms linking variation in population dynamics with changing weather conditions have not been well established. Here, we investigate high- and low-temperature tolerance in terms of activity limits and survival in a natural population of adult Glossina pallidipes from eastern Zambia. Due to increased interest in chilling flies

John S. Terblanche; Susana Clusella-Trullas; Jacques A. Deere; Steven L. Chown

2008-01-01

368

The Public Health Leadership Program (PHLP) hosted a first-ever "Gathering" on April 11, 2014, that brought together students, faculty and alumni from around the world in an  

E-print Network

The Public Health Leadership Program (PHLP) hosted a first-ever "Gathering" on April 11, 2014 School of Global Public Health Alumni Association, the event focused on connectivity, providing at the Gillings School of Global Public Health, led the group from his hotel room in Zambia. (The original plan

McLaughlin, Richard M.

369

Steep HIV prevalence declines among young people in selected Zambian communities: population-based observations (1995–2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Understanding the epidemiological HIV context is critical in building effective setting-specific preventive strategies. We examined HIV prevalence patterns in selected communities of men and women aged 15–59 years in Zambia. METHODS: Population-based HIV surveys in 1995 (n = 3158), 1999 (n = 3731) and 2003 (n = 4751) were conducted in selected communities using probability proportional to size stratified

Charles Michelo; Ingvild F Sandøy; Kumbutso Dzekedzeke; Seter Siziya; Knut Fylkesnes

2006-01-01

370

Sexual Risk Intervention In Multiethnic Drug And Alcohol Users 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: An estimated 38.6 million persons globally are living with HIV, of whom over 1.1 million reside in Zambia. Of the 2 million cases in the US, 64% of new cases among women are among African Americans. Alcohol and drug use represents a significant risk factor for HIV transmission among both Zambians and African Americans. In addition, gender dynamics in

Deborah L. Jones; Stephen M. Weiss; Ndashi Chitalu; Olga Villar; Mahendra Kumar; Violet Bwalya; Maureen Mumbi

2008-01-01

371

Gender and the New Free Market: Using International Frameworks to Assess Developments in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the bustling and colorful outdoor markets of Zambia, where women shopping for food strolled among stalls displaying regional produce and caught up on local gossip, shoppers had quite a shock in 1985. In that year, the price of maize rose by fifty percent after the Zambian government eliminated a subsidy that had earlier controlled the cost of the popular

Jane Berger

372

Cost-effectiveness of novel vaccines for tuberculosis control: a decision analysis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development of a successful new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine would circumvent many limitations of current diagnostic and treatment practices. However, vaccine development is complex and costly. We aimed to assess the potential cost effectiveness of novel vaccines for TB control in a sub-Saharan African country - Zambia - relative to the existing strategy of directly observed treatment, short course

Chia-Lin Tseng; Olivia Oxlade; Dick Menzies; Anne Aspler; Kevin Schwartzman

2011-01-01

373

Development Communication in an Urban Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of lessons gained from rural experience with development communications to the problems of delivering social services to the poorer segments of the urban areas is described in a report on the squatter upgrading project in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. A Project Support Communications Unit established to provide communication…

Development Communication Report, 1980

1980-01-01

374

AED in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 30 years, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) has worked to support African development. In Uganda, Tanzania, and Botswana AED promoted some of Africa's first AIDS prevention programs. AED is funding research in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and perhaps Zambia that will target stigma and its role in AIDS prevention. Working with governments…

Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

375

Learning by Performing Arts: From Indigenous to Endogenous Cultural Development. CESO Paperback No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explores, from a Dutch perspective, the role of the performing arts in education in developing nations. In particular, the analysis focuses on Zambia. Introductory sections of the report touch on the connections among culture, education, and performance, as well as the role of avant-garde and popular theater, the theme of alienation,…

Epskamp, Kees

376

Smallholder income and land distribution in Africa: implications for poverty reduction strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a micro-level foundation for discussions of land allocation and its relation to income poverty within the smallholder sectors of Eastern and Southern Africa. Results are drawn from nationally-representative household surveys between 1990 and 2000 in five countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Mozambique, and Zambia. The paper shows that farm sizes are declining over time; that roughly a quarter

T. S. Jayne; Takashi Yamano; Michael T. Weber; David Tschirley; Rui Benfica; Antony Chapoto; Ballard Zulu

2003-01-01

377

Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable  

E-print Network

(received for review October 12, 2010) In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present, business-oriented model for poverty alleviation, food production, and biodiversity conservation characteristic linkages be- tween poverty traps and risks to biodiversity. There is heavy reliance of households

Lehmann, Johannes

378

Some observations on the sero-prevalence of heartwater and tick infestation in Zambian goats.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to define the distribution of heartwater in goats that originated from six districts in communal grazing semi-arid areas of Zambia. A total of 181 samples (40.1%) out of 451 serum samples from adult goats were positive for Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies after screening using indirect MAP-1B antigen ELISA technique with statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between the six districts. Out of 1 036 adult goats examined for tick infestation, 105 were infested by ticks, with Amblyomma species being the most dominant tick encountered. Amblyomma variegatum, which is the vector for heartwater transmission in Zambia constituted 42.4% of the tick species, identified. The overall tick infestation rate was 10% while the tick:goat ratio was 2.1:1. Amblyomma variegatum appears to be widespread throughout the study area, as are antibodies to E. ruminantium. PMID:15373339

Ahmadu, B; Lovelace, C E A; Samui, K L; Mahan, S

2004-06-01

379

Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

Privette, Jeffrey L.

2000-01-01

380

A new species and new host records of the quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with sunbirds (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae).  

PubMed

Neoaulonastus cinnyris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitising Cinnyris mediocris (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from Tanzania is described. Additionally, Picobia oritis Skoracki et al. 2009 was recorded on four new hosts belonging to the family Nectariniidae from Ethiopian region: Cinnyris oustaleti (Bocage) from Angola, Cinnyris venustus (Shaw) from West Somalia, Cinnyris talatala Smith from Botswana and Zambia and Cinnyris erythrocercus (Hartlaub) from Uganda. All known quill mite species from family Nectariniidae are summarized in table. PMID:24827094

Klimovi?ová, Miroslava; Smo?ák, Radoslav; Njoroge, Peter; Hromada, Martin

2014-06-01

381

GIS Projects From the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew has added a GIS unit to their Web site that currently includes four projects. Take a virtual tour through the Princess of Wales Conservatory, or view satellite imagery of the deforestation of the Itgi thicket in Zambia. Data on world plant distribution, and vegetation and geology of Madagascar can be downloaded with ArcView software. The use of technology on this site makes it worth checking out, even for those not interested in botany or conservation.

2000-01-01

382

GIS Projects From the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew has added a GIS unit to their Web site that currently includes four projects. Take a virtual tour through the Princess of Wales Conservatory, or view satellite imagery of the deforestation of the Itgi thicket in Zambia. Data on world plant distribution, and vegetation and geology of Madagascar can be downloaded with ArcView software. The use of technology on this site makes it worth checking out, even for those not interested in botany or conservation.

2007-03-04

383

Prevalence and type spectrum of human papillomaviruses in healthy skin samples collected in three continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate whether previous findings of ubiquitous skin papillomavirus infection in Caucasiansapplytopopulationsfromotherpartsoftheworld,skinswabsamplesfromBangladesh, Japan,EthiopiaandZambiawereanalysedinparallelwithSwedishsamples.TheprevalenceofHPV DNA in the material from Bangladesh was 68%, Japan 54%, Ethiopia 52%, Zambia 42% and Sweden 70%. A great multiplicity of genotypes was demonstrated by the finding of 88 HPV types or putative types in 142 HPV DNA-positive samples in total. Double or multiple genotypes

Annika Antonsson; Cornelia Erfurt; Kristina Hazard; Veroniqa Holmgren; Melinda Simon; Akio Kataoka; Shahadat Hossain; Camilla Hakangard; Bengt Goran Hansson

2003-01-01

384

Sequence analyses of human herpesvirus-8 strains from both African human immunodeficiency virus-negative and -positive childhood endemic Kaposi's sarcoma show a close relationship with strains identified in febrile children and high variation in the K1 glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) DNA sequences have been identified in all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a cancer found primarily in adult AIDS patients. We have identified HHV-8 strains in a rare human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative form of KS, which is endemic in children in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This was shown in Zambia, where we also had identified HHV-8 sequences

F. C. Kasolo; M. Monze; N. Obel; R. A. Anderson; U. A. Gompels

385

3. (2) ---(TOEFL ITP)  

E-print Network

, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States of America, Zambia, Zimbabwe H. . 1) . 13,000 13,000 .(, .) (3-mail . YAHOOHOTMAILGMAIL ; e-mail 1e-mail 2 G. . H. (3 ) ­ 9 30 (9 ) ­ 3 31 . I. ()() (). (). J. (). K. .(TOEFL,IELTS,TEPS,TOPIK-.) L. . M. . / 1,142,000 4,886,000 32,500 6,060,500 5,653 34,393 4,111 1,142,000 4,886,000 32,500

386

3. (2) ---(TOEFL ITP)  

E-print Network

and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States of America, Zambia, Zimbabwe H. . 1) . 13,000 13-mail . YAHOOHOTMAILGMAIL ; e-mail 1e-mail 2 G. . H. (3 ) ­ 9 30 (9 ) ­ 3 31 . I. ()() (). (). J. (). K. .(TOEFL,IELTS,TEPS,TOPIK-.) L. . M. . / 1,142,000 4,886,000 32,500 6,060,500 5,653 34,393 4,111 1,142,000 4,886,000 32,500

387

Chloramphenicol versus ampicillin plus gentamicin for community acquired very severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months in low resource settings: multicentre randomised controlled trial (SPEAR study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate whether five days’ treatment with injectable ampicillin plus gentamicin compared with chloramphenicol reduces treatment failure in children aged 2-59 months with community acquired very severe pneumonia in low resource settings.Design Open label randomised controlled trial.Setting Inpatient wards within tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Yemen, and Zambia.Participants Children aged 2-59 months with WHO defined

Rai Asghar; Salem Banajeh; Josefina Egas; Patricia Hibberd; Imran Iqbal; Mary Katep-Bwalya; Zafarullah Kundi; Paul Law; William MacLeod; Irene Maulen-Radovan; Greta Mino; Samir Saha; Fernando Sempertegui; Jonathon Simon; Mathuram Santosham; Sunit Singhi; Donald M Thea; Shamim Qazi

2008-01-01

388

The uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of eastern Africa from Rayleigh wave tomography: constraints on rift evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expanded model of the 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath eastern Africa has been developed using earthquakes recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined data set comprises 331 earthquakes recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this study, data from 149 earthquakes were used to determine fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s using the two-plane wave method, and then combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the uppermost mantle. New features in the model include (1) a low-velocity region in western Zambia, (2) a high-velocity region in eastern Zambia, (3) a low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania and (4) low-velocity regions beneath the Lake Malawi rift. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, these results support a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. We estimate a lithospheric thickness of ˜150-200 km for the substantial fast shear wave anomaly imaged in eastern Zambia, which may be a southward subsurface extension of the Bangweulu Block. The low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. Pronounced velocity lows along the Lake Malawi rift are found beneath the northern and southern ends of the lake, but not beneath the central portion of the lake.

O'Donnell, J. P.; Adams, A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.

2013-08-01

389

Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. METHODS: In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban\\/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all

Neil Andersson; Ari Ho-Foster; Steve Mitchell; Esca Scheepers; Sue Goldstein

2007-01-01

390

Understanding controls on biotic assemblages and ecological status in Zambian rivers for the development of sustainable monitoring protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources of Zambia are likely to experience increasing multiple pressures in the future as a result of very high predicted population growth, industrial development, land use change, and potentially, altered regional rainfall patterns. It is well known that rivers in tropical regions typically have a rich biodiversity, controlled in part by inter-annual variability in climate and discharge, and in part by local catchment conditions. However, till recently little country-wide work had had been carried out on the biota of Zambian rivers, and little was therefore known about the ecological status, or degree of catchment alteration of many of the rivers. To underpin sustainable water management, protocols have been developed to assess the ecological status of Zambian rivers. This paper describes the development of the protocols and their application to provide the first extensive assessment of the ecological status of rivers in the country. The protocols were designed to be simple, and hence rapid, easy and relatively inexpensive to apply. Status scores were derived for individual sites using sensitivity weightings from 3 major groups (macrophytes, diatoms and macroinvertebrates). The general approach was based on schemes used successfully elsewhere, with species and family sensitivity weightings modified so as be appropriate to Zambia. Modifications were based on a survey of 140 Zambian rivers, incorporating data on species distributions, physical habitat conditions and water quality. Analysis of historical data suggests that established Freshwater Ecoregions reflect hydro-climatic variability across Zambia. Survey data indicate that most of the spatial variation in biological assemblages across the country reflects these same hydro-climatic gradients, in addition to hydrochemical differences linked to geology. Site status scores suggest that rivers are generally in good health, although exceptions occur in some large urban areas and a small number of catchments with major industrial activity. Data form an important baseline against which to assess future changes related to population growth and climate change, and will therefore help inform policy within Zambia for sustainable river monitoring and management.

Kennedy, Michael; Gibbins, Chris; Lowe, Steven; Dallas, Helen; Taylor, Jonathan; Lang, Pauline; Saili, Kothelani; Sichingabula, Henry; Murphy, Kevin

2014-05-01

391

Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.  

PubMed

The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. PMID:24102661

Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

2014-04-01

392

Southeast Atlantic warm events and southern african rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From January to May 2001, several countries of Southern Africa experienced above normal rainfall and floods. 23 000 people were displaced in Southern Angola after a flood in April. In March, an inundation killed several people and displaced 5,000 others in eastern Zambia's. The situation in Zambia was aggravated when authorities had to open the spillway gates at the Kariba Dam, the main source of electricity for Zambia and Zimbabwe. Water discharged from the Kariba dam ran into neighbouring Mozambique, aggravating floods in that country. At the same time warm sea surface anomalies were measured off the Angolan and Namibian coast. Warm events in the Southeast Tropical Atlantic off Angola and Namibia called "Benguela Nino" are known to affect the fisheries of the region but they also affect the rainfall. In 1995, the warmest recorded Benguela Nino happened with anomalies off up to 8°C extending 300 km offshore with a southward extension to 27°S. During the 1984, 1986, 1995 and 2001 warm events, above average rainfall occurred near the sea surface temperature anomalies and extended inland from the coast to an extent that appeared to depend on the intensity of the regional moisture convergence and atmospheric circulation anomalies. Rainfall over western Angola / Namibia is greatest for those events for which the local circulation anomalies act to strengthen the climatological westwards flux of Indian Ocean sourced moisture across low latitude southern Africa and which flow anticyclonically over the warmest SST off the northern coast. The significance of the warm events occurring during the February to April period is that this is the time when SST reaches its maximum in the annual cycle (up to 28oC off northern Angola) and this favours more intense local evaporation and convection and a greater impact on late austral summer rainfall.

Rouault, M.

2003-04-01

393

The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.  

PubMed

The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2) in 1997 to 177 and ?6,000 km(2) by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ?91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ?USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ?1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching. PMID:24367493

Lindsey, Peter A; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; t'Sas Rolfes, Michael

2013-01-01

394

Transportation planning and automated guideways. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

The 8 papers in this report deal with the following areas: Green River Valley transportation action plan: the development of a successful interjurisdictional road-improvement plan; public-involvement process for identifying problems and alternative solutions for the Year 2010 transportation plan; Miami-downtown people mover demand analysis model; traffic-modeling techniques for the developing world: case studies; some issues in transport planning for third world cities; use of models by french consultants for urban transport planning in developing countries; stepwise regression model of development at nonmetropolitan interchanges; transport in rural areas of developing countries: empirical findings from Western Province, Zambia.

Not Available

1988-01-01

395

Pathogenicity of the lesion nematodes on sorghum  

E-print Network

) December 1985 ABSTRACT Pathogenicity of the Lesion Nematodes on Sorghum. (December 1985) Baikabile Motalaote, B. S. , University of Zambia Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. James L. Starr R P M t' f ~gt 1 h ~hh lthdf gl P'1'Pj & Shuurmans...-Stekhoven, P. crenatus (Loof), P. coffeae (Zimmermann) Filipjev & Shuurmanns-Stekhoven and P. zeae (Graham) in both ghpt dftld'pit. Pthg 1'tg 1P. 'h~h and P. zeae was studied under greenhouse conditions, and that of P. zeae was also determined in field...

Motalaote, Baikabile

1985-01-01

396

Solar Eclipse: Stories form the Path of Totality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Exploratorium's Solar Eclipse web page posts past solar eclipse dates, webcasts of these eclipses, and resources for understanding and viewing eclipses. Information on eclipses in Turkey, Greece, Zambia, Aruba and the United States are featured. Some of the prominent features include an explanation on the sun-eating dragon theory, the sun-earth connection and eclipse expeditions. There is also a page for users to share their eclipse stories. A world map of future eclipses can be found so you can create your own eclipse experience.

2009-05-06

397

Energy resources in southern Africa: a select bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The aims, progress, and possibilities involved in Southern Africa's energy development are the subject of this 473-item bibliography. The primary items of information described in this document are relatively recent (1975-81), originate from both indigenous and international sources, and are mostly in English, although a few are in French and Portuguese. The presented information focuses on the African continent, the Southern African region, and the nations of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The energy source topics include alcohol, coal, gas, oil, solar, uranium, water, wind, and wood; as well as a general energy-development category.

Cavan, A.

1981-01-01

398

Fires in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of MODIS images shows biomass burning in southern Africa in April, May, and June of 2002. The images span a number of different viewpoints of the region, but the country of Angola, with its highly dendritic (carved by rivers) geological formations are common to them all. Many of the images show part of four countries: Angola (usually at left), Zambia (right), Botswana (bottom right), and Namibia (bottom left). In many images, at lower center, the Okavango River creates a green broomstick-shaped delta in Boptwsana.

2002-01-01

399

Fires and Smoke in Central Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This year's fire season in central Africa may have been the most severe ever. This true-color image also shows the location of fires (red dots) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, and Zambia. The image was taken by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA 's Terra spacecraft on August 23, 2000, and was produced using the MODIS Active Fire Detection product. NASA scientists studied these fires during the SAFARI 2000 field campaign. Image By Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Team

2002-01-01

400

Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.  

PubMed

Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:24761043

Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Paw?owska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwi?ska-Wyrzychowska, A; M?trak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

2013-12-01

401

EVALUATION OF MEAT AS A FIRST COMPLEMENTARY FOOD FOR BREASTFED INFANTS: IMPACT ON IRON INTAKE & GROWTH  

PubMed Central

The rationale is considered for promoting the availability of local, affordable, non-fortified food sources of bioavailable iron in developing countries. Intakes of iron from the regular consumption of meat from the age of six months are evaluated with respect to physiological requirements. The paper includes a description of two major randomized controlled trials of meat as a first and regular complementary food that are currently in progress. These trials involve poor communities in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia, Democratic Republic of the Congo and China. PMID:22043884

Hambidge, K. Michael; Krebs, Nancy F.; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Tianjiang; Mazariegos, Manolo; Garces, Ana; Li, Dinghua; Westcott, Jamie; Tshefu, Antoinette; Sami, Neelofar; Chomba, Elwyn; Pasha, Omrana; Lokangaka, Adrien; Goco, Norman; Manasyan, Albert; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Bose, Carl; Goldenberg, Robert L; Carlo, Waldemar A; McClure, Elizabeth M

2013-01-01

402

Evaluation of meat as a first complementary food for breastfed infants: impact on iron intake.  

PubMed

The rationale for promoting the availability of local, affordable, non-fortified food sources of bioavailable iron in developing countries is considered in this review. Intake of iron from the regular consumption of meat from the age of 6 months is evaluated with respect to physiological requirements. Two major randomized controlled trials evaluating meat as a first and regular complementary food are described in this article. These trials are presently in progress in poor communities in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and China. PMID:22043884

Hambidge, K Michael; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Mazariegos, Manolo; Jiang, Tianjiang; Garces, Ana; Li, Dinghua; Westcott, Jamie; Tshefu, Antoinette; Sami, Neelofar; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; Lokangaka, Adrien; Goco, Norman; Manasyan, Albert; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Bose, Carl; Goldenberg, Robert L; Carlo, Waldemar A; McClure, Elizabeth M; Krebs, Nancy F

2011-11-01

403

Managing multiple funding streams and agendas to achieve local and global health and research objectives: lessons from the field  

PubMed Central

Multiple funding sources provide research and program implementation organizations a broader base of funding and facilitate synergy, but also entail challenges that include varying stakeholder expectations, unaligned grant cycles, and highly variable reporting requirements. Strong governance and strategic planning are essential to ensure alignment of goals and agendas. Systems to track budgets and outputs as well as procurement and human resources are required. A major goal is to transition leadership and operations to local ownership. This article details successful approaches used by the newly independent non-governmental organization, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ). PMID:24321983

Holmes, Charles B.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Raelly, Roselyne; Freeman, Bethany; Wambulawae, Inonge; Silwizya, Geoffrey; Topp, Stephanie; Chilengi, Roma; Henostroza, German; Kapambwe, Sharon; Simbeye, Darius; Sibajene, Sheila; Chi, Harmony; Godfrey, Katy; Chi, Benjamin; Moore, Carolyn Bolton

2014-01-01

404

Benefits of infant massage.  

PubMed

After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

Day, Jane

2014-05-01

405

Zoonotic tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis): memorandum from a WHO meeting (with the participation of FAO).  

PubMed Central

In view of the considerable and continuing public health significance of Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans and animals, WHO convened a meeting on zoonotic tuberculosis in Geneva in November 1993. The participants at the meeting reviewed the human and animal tuberculosis situation worldwide, discussed the zoonotic aspects of M. bovis infection in United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia, exchanged views on methodologies in epidemiology, immunology and molecular biology, and identified areas for further research and intersectoral collaboration. A project protocol to investigate the zoonotic aspects of bovine tuberculosis was elaborated by the group and included in their report. This Memorandum is a summary of the full report of the meeting. PMID:7867130

1994-01-01

406

Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.  

PubMed

Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

2013-01-01

407

National immunisation day.  

PubMed

National immunization days (NIDs) are key components of the eradication of polio. On Zambia's polio day in July 1997, 8000 vaccination points were set up around the country, each staffed by 1 nurse and 2 volunteer workers, who worked from thatched huts built for the day, churches, health centers, and house-to-house to reach the target of 2.1 million children. With about half of Zambia's 10 million people living in rural communities poorly served by roads and without main electricity, it was a particular challenge to maintain the cold chain. The cold chain began at Lusaka airport with the arrival of 5.4 million doses of frozen vaccine from Copenhagen, Denmark. The vaccines were then stored in freezers at a central location in Lusaka until they were eventually trucked out to the regional and district centers. The Flying Doctor Service and air force were used, as well as ox and carts, to get vaccines to hard to reach communities. The vaccines arrived at such sites on the NID packed in ice carried over the shoulders of the nurses who delivered them. The NID was deemed successful by the minister of health the morning after it occurred even though some districts ran short of vaccine. Two annual NIDs will continue as long as polio is present in that part of Africa. The global effort to eradicate polio is discussed. PMID:12348370

Carlisle, D

1997-11-01

408

Evaluation of three serological tests for brucellosis in naturally infected cattle using latent class analysis.  

PubMed

Serological methods are traditionally used in diagnosis of brucellosis. However, the comparative performance of these tests and their accuracy under the local environment in Zambia has not been assessed. Thus, the objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of three serological tests for brucellosis; Rose Bengal Test (RBT), competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and Fluorescence Polarisation Assay (FPA) in naturally infected cattle in Zambia without an appropriate reference test to classify animals into truly infected and non-infected. Serological test results from a study to determine sero-prevalence were used to compare the performance of RBT, c-ELISA and FPA in diagnosing brucellosis in traditional cattle. Since none of the tests can be seen as a perfect reference test or gold standard, their performance in a population of naturally infected cattle was evaluated using latent class analysis which allows the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) to be estimated in the absence of a gold standard. The highest Se was achieved by the c-ELISA (97%; Credible Posterior Interval (CPI)=93-100%) and the highest Sp by the FPA (93%; CPI=85-99%), conversely these tests also had the lowest Sp and Se, respectively, with the RBT performing well in both the Se (93%; CPI=84-98%) and Sp (81%; CPI=61-97). PMID:17590540

Muma, J B; Toft, N; Oloya, J; Lund, A; Nielsen, K; Samui, K; Skjerve, E

2007-11-15

409

The political economy of HIV / AIDS: a case study of the "Kariba nexus".  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS in southern Africa threatens the re-establishment of political and economic stability in the region after decades of conflict. 4 of the 5 highest HIV prevalence countries in the world are in southern Africa. While the process of re-integration has partly shaped the epidemiology of HIV in the region and contributes to its continued spread, the impact of AIDS will also create negative forces which will counteract the process of regionalization. The end of longstanding conflicts and turmoil in southern Africa has been followed by the massive movement of returning migrants together with considerable internal displacement. This movement has considerable implications for the spread of HIV. The example of the Kariba nexus is presented. Possibly the world's current area of highest HIV seroprevalence is the nexus centered upon Lake Kariba on the Zambia/Zimbabwe border. The area, encompassing the Southern Province of Zambia up as far as Lusaka and Mongu in Western Province, western and central Zimbabwe, northern Botswana, and the Caprivi Strip of Namibia, is characterized by large movements of people involved in formal and informal sector trading. The high 1996 adult HIV seroprevalence in Francistown, Botswana, of 43.1% suggests cross-border movements with neighboring Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. High regional HIV prevalence, planning to cope with the impact of HIV/AIDS, private sector costs, political factors, welfare implications, and recommendations are discussed. PMID:12293624

Webb, D

1998-04-01

410

Occurrence of Eimeria Species Parasites on Small-Scale Commercial Chicken Farms in Africa and Indication of Economic Profitability  

PubMed Central

Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

Fornace, Kimberly M.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A.; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P.; Rushton, Jonathan

2013-01-01

411

A note on drillhole depths required for reliable heat flow determinations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In general, there is a limiting depth in a drillhole above which the reliability of a single determination of heat flow decreases rapidly with decreasing depth and below which the statistical uncertainty of a heat flow determination does not change perceptibly with increasing depth. This feature has been established empirically for a test case comprising a group of twelve heat flow sites in the Republic of Zambia. The technique consists of constructing heat flow versus depth curves for individual sites by progressively discarding data from the lower part of the hole and recomputing heat flow from the remaining data. For the Zambian test case, the curves converge towards a uniform value of 67 ?? 3 mW m-2 when all available data are used, but values of heat flow calculated for shallow(< 100 m) parts of the same holes range from 45 to 95 mW m-2. The heat flow versus depth curves are enclosed by a perturbation envelope which has an amplitude of 40 mW m-2 at the surface and decreases linearly to the noise level at 190 m. For the test region of Zambia a depth of 170 m is needed to guarantee a heat flow measurement within ?? 10% of the background regional value. It is reasonable to expect that this depth will be shallower in some regions and deeper in others. Features of heat flow perturbation envelopes can be used as quantitative reliability indices for heat flow studies. ?? 1984.

Chapman, D.S.; Howell, J.; Sass, J.H.

1984-01-01

412

Success and challenges of measuring program impacts: an international study of an infant nutrition program for AIDS orphans.  

PubMed

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia threatens maternal survival and jeopardizes the ability for families to care for their children. The Christian Alliance for Children in Zambia (CACZ) operates a program called Milk and Medicine (M&M) that distributes food, formula, and medicine at churches in the compounds. This article reports on a mixed methods study to evaluate the outcomes of the M&M program. On-site interviews with families combined with an analysis of a longitudinal data set were the methods used. The results of the study showed families face continuous hardship including hunger, unemployment, disease, and loss. Families expressed appreciation for the program and its staff and suggested improvements. The longitudinal data review helped researchers to recommend an improved protocol for data management. Improved data will assist researchers in an on-going evaluation to compare the growth rates of children in the study to the Zambian normal growth charts. Lessons learned from this evaluation validated the use of mixed methods design for exploratory research on an emerging program. Lessons were also learned about the difficulty of working in natural settings with political and cultural variations. Future evaluations of the M&M program are expected to shed light on more specific program impacts. PMID:24189160

Sturtevant, Deborah; Wimmer, Jane S

2014-02-01

413

Challenges and Economic Implications in the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from the Zambian Experience  

PubMed Central

Foot and mouth disease is one of the world's most important livestock diseases for trade. FMD infections are complex in nature and there are many epidemiological factors needing clarification. Key questions relate to the control challenges and economic impact of the disease for resource-poor FMD endemic countries like Zambia. A review of the control challenges and economic impact of FMD outbreaks in Zambia was made. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journals articles, conference proceedings, unpublished scientific reports, and personal communication with scientists and personal field experiences. The challenges of controlling FMD using mainly vaccination and movement control are discussed. Impacts include losses in income of over US$ 1.6 billion from exports of beef and sable antelopes and an annual cost of over US$ 2.7 million on preventive measures. Further impacts included unquantified losses in production and low investment in agriculture resulting in slow economic growth. FMD persistence may be a result of inadequate epidemiological understanding of the disease and ineffectiveness of the control measures that are being applied. The identified gaps may be considered in the annual appraisal of the FMD national control strategy in order to advance on the progressive control pathway. PMID:25276472

Sinkala, Y.; Simuunza, M.; Pfeiffer, D. U.; Munang'andu, H. M.; Mulumba, M.; Kasanga, C. J.; Muma, J. B.; Mweene, A. S.

2014-01-01

414

Cenozoic extension, volcanism and plateau uplift in eastern Africa and the African Superplume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent body and surface wave studies combine to image mantle velocity structure to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa using teleseismic earthquake data recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined network spans Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. The 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle was imaged using fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s, subsequently inverted for shear velocity structure. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, the shear velocity model supports a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. In eastern Tanzania a low-velocity region suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. The results suggest that existing lithospheric structures exert a significant governing influence on rift development. Sub-lithospheric mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km were tomographically imaged from the inversion of P and S wave relative arrival time residuals. The images shows a low wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths greater than 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths below 350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is consistent with a 150-300 K thermal perturbation, and its depth extent indicates that the African superplume, originally identified as a lower mantle anomaly, is likely a whole mantle structure. A mantle transition zone about 30-40 km thinner than the global average in a region 200-400 km wide extending in a SW-NE direction from central Zambia, across Tanzania and into Kenya was inferred from P to S conversions from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities observed in receiver function stacks. The thinning of the transition zone indicates a 190-300 K thermal anomaly in the same location where the P and S wave tomography models suggest that the lower mantle African superplume structure connects to thermally perturbed upper mantle beneath eastern Africa. These findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of a continuous thermal structure extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface associated with the African superplume, implying an origin for the Cenozoic extension, volcanism and plateau uplift in eastern Africa rooted in the dynamics of the lower mantle.

Nyblade, A.; O'Donnell, J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Adams, A. N.

2013-12-01

415

Letters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every child is charged. Because folk are so poor, the fees have to be very low and the resources bought are consequently minimal. Apparatus for physics lessons? Very rarely. Electricity, gas and water services to the labs? Sometimes. Physics textbooks? Very few, old and battered through much use. I visited the David Kuanda School in Lusaka, a high status technical school, and there met some very impressive teachers. Were they doing technical subjects like electronics and car maintenance? No, they could not afford to buy the required equipment, and thus did the academic subjects, physics, chemistry and maths etc, which were cheaper as they could be taught with 'chalk and talk'! Were their students bright, resourceful and keen to learn? They certainly were. Despite all these difficulties the teachers were seeking to teach, and help their students enjoy, the same physics that is common around the world—and prepare them for very similar exams at GCE and A-level, in English. If anyone would like to help a Zambian secondary school, perhaps by sending a set of physics texts no longer used here, or by providing some other resources, perhaps by forming a personal link with a school in Zambia, please contact me and I would be happy to help with arrangements. I could guarantee that you, and your students, would gain an enormous amount from such links—as well as making a real contribution to the development of a less favoured country. Brian E Woolnough Oxford University, UK brian.woolnough@edstud.ox.ac.uk Pedantry or compromise I write in response to S Wynchank's letter in the May issue entitled 'Grammar and Gender'. Many have been using 'They' as common-sex third-person pronoun for years, in order to avoid the irritating and clumsy 'Him or Her'. This commonsense compromise is logically compatible with the universal use of 'They' to include the singular... OF EITHER SEX! For example, in 'Those who ignore this instruction may lose their right to compensation.', both 'Those' and 'their' include the possibility of the singular, of either sex. On the other hand, in 'Anyone who ign

2001-07-01

416

Distributions of trace gases and aerosols during the dry biomass burning season in southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles in the lower troposphere of temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), condensation nuclei (CN), and carbon monoxide (CO), and horizontal distributions of twenty gaseous and particulate species, are presented for five regions of southern Africa during the dry biomass burning season of 2000. The regions are the semiarid savannas of northeast South Africa and northern Botswana, the savanna-forest mosaic of coastal Mozambique, the humid savanna of southern Zambia, and the desert of western Namibia. The highest average concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), CO, methane (CH4), O3, black particulate carbon, and total particulate carbon were in the Botswana and Zambia sectors (388 and 392 ppmv, 369 and 453 ppbv, 1753 and 1758 ppbv, 79 and 88 ppbv, 2.6 and 5.5 ?g m-3, and 13.2 and 14.3 ?g m-3). This was due to intense biomass burning in Zambia and surrounding regions. The South Africa sector had the highest average concentrations of SO2, sulfate particles, and CN (5.1 ppbv, 8.3 ?g m-3, and 6400 cm-3, respectively), which derived from biomass burning and electric generation plants and mining operations within this sector. Air quality in the Mozambique sector was similar to the neighboring South Africa sector. Over the arid Namibia sector there were polluted layers aloft, in which average SO2, O3, and CO mixing ratios (1.2 ppbv, 76 ppbv, and 310 ppbv, respectively) were similar to those measured over the other more polluted sectors. This was due to transport of biomass smoke from regions of widespread savanna burning in southern Angola. Average concentrations over all sectors of CO2 (386 ± 8 ppmv), CO (261 ± 81 ppbv), SO2 (2.5 ± 1.6 ppbv), O3 (64 ± 13 ppbv), black particulate carbon (2.3 ± 1.9 ?g m-3), organic particulate carbon (6.2 ± 5.2 ?g m-3), total particle mass (26.0 ± 4.7 ?g m-3), and potassium particles (0.4 ± 0.1 ?g m-3) were comparable to those in polluted, urban air. Since the majority of the measurements in this study were obtained in locations well removed from industrial sources of pollution, the high average concentrations of pollutants reflect the effects of widespread biomass burning. On occasions, relatively thin (˜0.5 km) layers of remarkably clean air were located at ˜3 km above mean sea level, sandwiched between heavily polluted air. The data presented here can be used for inputs to and validation of regional and global atmospheric chemical models.

Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

2003-09-01

417

Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models  

PubMed Central

Background New WHO guidelines recommend ART initiation for HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts ?500 cells/µL, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers must consider whether to further expand ART eligibility accordingly. Methods We used multiple independent mathematical models in four settings—South Africa, Zambia, India, and Vietnam—to evaluate the potential health impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of different adult ART eligibility criteria under scenarios of current and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses considered extending eligibility to include individuals with CD4 ?500 cells/µL or all HIV-positive adults, compared to the previous recommendation of initiation with CD4 ?350 cells/µL. We assessed costs from a health system perspective, and calculated the incremental cost per DALY averted ($/DALY) to compare competing strategies. Strategies were considered ‘very cost-effective’ if the $/DALY was less than the country’s per capita gross domestic product (GDP; South Africa: $8040, Zambia: $1425, India: $1489, Vietnam: $1407) and ‘cost-effective’ if $/DALY was less than three times per capita GDP. Findings In South Africa, the cost per DALY averted of extending ART eligibility to CD4 ?500 cells/µL ranged from $237 to $1691/DALY compared to 2010 guidelines; in Zambia, expanded eligibility ranged from improving health outcomes while reducing costs (i.e. dominating current guidelines) to $749/DALY. Results were similar in scenarios with substantially expanded treatment access and for expanding eligibility to all HIV-positive adults. Expanding treatment coverage in the general population was therefore found to be cost-effective. In India, eligibility for all HIV-positive persons ranged from $131 to $241/DALY and in Vietnam eligibility for CD4 ?500 cells/µL cost $290/DALY. In concentrated epidemics, expanded access among key populations was also cost-effective. Interpretation Earlier ART eligibility is estimated to be very cost-effective in low- and middle-income settings, although these questions should be revisited as further information becomes available. Scaling-up ART should be considered among other high-priority health interventions competing for health budgets. Funding The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and World Health Organization PMID:25083415

Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B

2014-01-01

418

The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other of its African neighbours. The question arises whether and how money and technology transfer to increase regenerative electrical power generation should become part of a post-Kyoto process. Furthermore, better inventory data are urgently required to improve knowledge about the current state of the woodland usage and recovery. Net greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced substantially by improving the post-harvest management, charcoal production technology and/or providing alternative energy supply. PMID:21854587

2011-01-01

419

Building a shared vision among leaders across sectors and professions.  

PubMed

Many attempts have been made to give responsibility for leadership in health to community committees or inter-sectoral bodies. Often such attempts have failed due to lack of common understanding, vision and direction. The article provides a tool that can explore difference is in perception and facilitate the creation of a shared vision among leaders who have different backgrounds and insights with regards to health and community development. Through a test case at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia this article provides an example of how the tool can be used in the change processes which are essential in any health reform. The test case describes the use of a Hospital Management Board, but the tool will be useful for any board, committee or group that is heterogeneous in respect of knowledge, view and insights. PMID:17581007

Blas, E; Limbambala, M E

1998-01-01

420

Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models?  

PubMed Central

As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

2013-01-01

421

High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change.  

PubMed

Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were the only climate domain to exhibit a trend, with forest loss increasing by 2101 square kilometers per year. Brazil's well-documented reduction in deforestation was offset by increasing forest loss in Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Angola, and elsewhere. Intensive forestry practiced within subtropical forests resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally. Boreal forest loss due largely to fire and forestry was second to that in the tropics in absolute and proportional terms. These results depict a globally consistent and locally relevant record of forest change. PMID:24233722

Hansen, M C; Potapov, P V; Moore, R; Hancher, M; Turubanova, S A; Tyukavina, A; Thau, D; Stehman, S V; Goetz, S J; Loveland, T R; Kommareddy, A; Egorov, A; Chini, L; Justice, C O; Townshend, J R G

2013-11-15

422

ANOSPEX: A Stochastic, Spatially Explicit Model for Studying Anopheles Metapopulation Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria, a major public health problem among many African countries. One of the most effective methods to control malaria is by controlling the Anopheles mosquito vectors that transmit the parasites. Mathematical models have both predictive and explorative utility to investigate the pros and cons of different malaria control strategies. We have developed a C++ based, stochastic spatially explicit model (ANOSPEX; AnophelesSpatially-Explicit) to simulate Anopheles metapopulation dynamics. The model is biologically rich, parameterized by field data, and driven by field-collected weather data from Macha, Zambia. To preliminarily validate ANOSPEX, simulation results were compared to field mosquito collection data from Macha; simulated and observed dynamics were similar. The ANOSPEX model will be useful in a predictive and exploratory manner to develop, evaluate and implement traditional and novel strategies to control malaria, and for understanding the environmental forces driving Anopheles population dynamics. PMID:23861847

Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga O.; Fornadel, Christen M.; Adebiyi, Ezekiel F.; Norris, Douglas E.; Rasgon, Jason L.

2013-01-01

423

A multinational injury surveillance system pilot project in Africa.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of a pilot project to test the implementation of an epidemiological surveillance system for intentional (violent) and non-intentional injuries, at emergency departments in selected hospitals in five African countries applying the World Health Organization's guidelines. We outline obstacles and opportunities encountered during the process. By definition, a surveillance system systematically collects, reviews, and evaluates information to understand the context in which specific injuries occur. Implementation in diverse sociocultural environments in Zambia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, and Kenya has provided an opportunity to gather reliable data on injuries for comparisons between these countries. Analysis of the detailed information may permit researchers to generate evidence-based recommendations. Addressed to public authorities, and health authorities in particular, they can help address injury incidence in their communities from a public health perspective. PMID:17955008

Zavala, Diego E; Bokongo, Simon; John, Ime A; Mpanga, Senoga Ismail; Mtonga, Robert E; Aminu, Zakari Mohammed; Odhiambo, Walter; Olupot-Olupot, Peter

2007-12-01

424

Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial-temporal models.  

PubMed

As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

Alegana, Victor A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wright, Jim A; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

2013-12-01

425

Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.  

PubMed

Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses. PMID:24189618

Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

2014-02-01

426

SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser  

SciTech Connect

The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

None

2011-02-08

427

Use of an acidophilic yeast strain to enable the growth of leaching bacteria on solid media.  

PubMed

In this study, a Candida digboiensis strain was isolated from a heap leaching plant in Zambia and used in double-layer agar plate to efficiently isolate and purify leaching bacteria. Unlike Acidiphilium sp., the yeast strain was tetrathionate tolerant and could metabolize a great range of organic compounds including organic acids. These properties allowed the yeast strain to enable and fasten the growth of iron and sulfur oxidizers on double-layer agar plate. The isolates were identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans FOX1, Leptospirillun ferriphilum BN, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZMB. These three leaching bacteria were inhibited by organic acids such as acetic and propionic acids; however, their activities were enhanced by Candida digboiensis NB under dissolved organic matter stress. PMID:25347960

Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Yi; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Xueduan

2015-03-01

428

Genesis of sediment-hosted stratiform copper cobalt deposits, central African Copperbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic central African Copperbelt is one of the greatest sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co provinces in the world, totalling 140 Mt copper and 6 Mt cobalt and including several world-class deposits (?10 Mt copper). The origin of Cu-Co mineralisation in this province remains speculative, with the debate centred around syngenetic-diagenetic and hydrothermal-diagenetic hypotheses. The regional distribution of metals indicates that most of the cobalt-rich copper deposits are hosted in dolomites and dolomitic shales forming allochthonous units exposed in Congo and known as Congolese facies of the Katangan sedimentary succession (average Co:Cu = 1:13). The highest Co:Cu ratio (up to 3:1) occurs in ore deposits located along the southern structural block of the Lufilian Arc. The predominantly siliciclastic Zambian facies, exposed in Zambia and in SE Congo, forms para-autochthonous sedimentary units hosting ore deposits characterized by lower a Co:Cu ratio (average 1:57). Transitional lithofacies in Zambia (e.g. Baluba, Mindola) and in Congo (e.g. Lubembe) indicate a gradual transition in the Katangan basin during the deposition of laterally correlative clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks exposed in Zambia and in Congo, and are marked by Co:Cu ratios in the range 1:15. The main Cu-Co orebodies occur at the base of the Mines/Musoshi Subgroup, which is characterized by evaporitic intertidal-supratidal sedimentary rocks. All additional lenticular orebodies known in the upper part of the Mines/Musoshi Subgroup are hosted in similar sedimentary rocks, suggesting highly favourable conditions for the ore genesis in particular sedimentary environments. Pre-lithification sedimentary structures affecting disseminated sulphides indicate that metals were deposited before compaction and consolidation of the host sediment. The ore parageneses indicate several generations of sulphides marking syngenetic, early diagenetic and late diagenetic processes. Sulphur isotopic data on sulphides suggest the derivation of sulphur essentially from the bacterial reduction of seawater sulphates. The mineralizing brines were generated from sea water in sabkhas or hypersaline lagoons during the deposition of the host rocks. Changes of Eh-pH and salinity probably were critical for concentrating copper-cobalt and nickel mineralisation. Compressional tectonic and related metamorphic processes and supergene enrichment have played variable roles in the remobilisation and upgrading of the primary mineralisation. There is no evidence to support models assuming that metals originated from: (1) Katangan igneous rocks and related hydrothermal processes or; (2) leaching of red beds underlying the orebodies. The metal sources are pre-Katangan continental rocks, especially the Palaeoproterozoic low-grade porphyry copper deposits known in the Bangweulu block and subsidiary Cu-Co-Ni deposits/occurrences in the Archaean rocks of the Zimbabwe craton. These two sources contain low grade ore deposits portraying the peculiar metal association (Cu, Co, Ni, U, Cr, Au, Ag, PGE) recorded in the Katangan sediment-hosted ore deposits. Metals were transported into the basin dissolved in water. The stratiform deposits of Congo and Zambia display features indicating that syngenetic and early diagenetic processes controlled the formation of the Neoproterozoic Copperbelt of central Africa.

Cailteux, J. L. H.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Lerouge, C.; Kaputo, A. K.; Milesi, J. P.

2005-07-01

429

Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines  

PubMed Central

A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains. PMID:25478575

Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

2014-01-01

430

Combustion efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions from charcoal production kilns in the tropics  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal is one of the major energy resources in tropical countries. We investigate the combustion processes in charcoal production kilns in Zambia and Brazil. The Zambian kilns were made of earth and there was sufficient air for combustion inside the kilns. The Brazilian kilns were made of bricks which limited the available oxygen. The combustion efficiency and the concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6} alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic compounds produced were monitored throughout the combustion processes. The contributions of charcoal production processes to the atmospheric sources of these gases were estimated. The strategies for improving charcoal yield and reducing emissions of carbon-containing compounds are discussed.

Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.; Babbitt, R.E. [Intermountain Research Station, Missoula, MT (United States)

1995-12-01

431

SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser  

ScienceCinema

The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

None

2011-10-06

432

Clarifying Some Fundamental Errors in Herries' “A Chronological Perspective on the Acheulian and Its Transition to the Middle Stone Age in Southern Africa: The Question of the Fauresmith” (2011)  

PubMed Central

Herries provides a timely review of the archaeological and dating evidence of the transition from the Acheulean to the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in southern Africa, however, in relation to the site of Twin Rivers, Zambia he makes several fundamental errors of interpretation that demand correction. The stratigraphic sequence of the site is admittedly complex, but it deserves a more careful analysis than that offered by Herries. This detailed response by the most recent excavator of the site addresses Herries critique by placing the site in its historical context and then dealing with the central issue of the association of dated speleothem with the surviving archaeological deposits. Herries is shown to have mistakenly combined the dates from two separate cave passages and to have misunderstood the published sections, plans, and taphonomic assessment of each excavation area. His reinterpretation of the site as being significantly younger than published is based on a conflation of unrelated data. PMID:22655215

Barham, Lawrence

2012-01-01

433

Infectivity of Echinostoma friedi miracidia to different snail species under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

The infectivity of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) miracidia was studied experimentally in a range of laboratory-reared snails that coexist in the same natural locality, namely Radix peregra, Lymnaea fuscus, L. truncatula (Lymnaeidae), Gyraulus chinensis, Helisoma duryi (Planorbidae) and Physella acuta (Physidae), and snails from different geographical origins acting naturally or experimentally as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma spp., namely Planorbarius metidjensis (from Málaga, Spain), Biomphalaria glabrata (Guadeloupe), B. alexandrina (Egypt) (Planorbidae), Bulinus cernicus (Mauritius), B. globosus (Zambia), B. natalensis (South Africa) and B. truncatus (Niger) (Bulinidae). Six species of snails were found to be susceptible, with the rate of infection ranging from 0 to 36.7%. The highest infection was detected in R. peregra. The low host specificity of E. friedi might have an epidemiological significance as a requisite for a recent establishment in a new geographical area. PMID:16923279

Muñoz-Antoli, C; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J G

2006-09-01

434

The unusual Afrotropical and Oriental leafhopper subfamily Signoretiinae (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae): taxonomic notes, new distributional records, and description of two new Signoretia species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The leafhopper subfamily Signoretiinae is redescribed and includes two tribes: Signoretiini Baker and Phlogisini Linnavuori. Redescriptions of included tribes, diagnoses and a taxonomic key to genera are provided. New records for genera of Signoretiinae are as follows: Phlogis in Central African Republic, Malaysia and Thailand; Preta in Thailand; and Signoretia in the Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan (China). Signoretia pacifica is newly recorded from Cameroon. In addition, detailed illustrations of the male genitalia of the previously described species, Chouious tianzeus, Preta gratiosa,and Signoretia yangli are provided; the male genitalia of Signoretia malaya are described for the first time; and two new species of Signoretia are described, Signoretia delicata sp. n. from the Philippinesand Signoretia kintendela sp. n. from the Republic of the Congo. PMID:24039527

Takiya, Daniela M.; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Viraktamath, Chandra A.

2013-01-01

435

Concordance of Collagen-Based Radiocarbon and Aspartic-Acid Racemization Ages  

PubMed Central

By determining the extent of racemization of aspartic acid in a well-dated bone, it is possible to calculate the in situ first-order rate constant for the interconversion of the L and D enantiomers of aspartic acid. Collagen-based radiocarbon-dated bones are shown to be suitable samples for use in “calibrating” the racemization reaction. Once the aspartic-acid racemization reaction has been “calibrated” for a site, the reaction can be used to date other bones from the deposit. Ages deduced by this method are in good agreement with radiocarbon ages. These results provide evidence that the aspartic-acid racemization reaction is an important chronological tool for dating bones either too old or too small for radiocarbon dating. As an example of the potential application of the technique for dating fossil man, a piece of Rhodesian Man from Broken Hill, Zambia, was analyzed and tentatively assigned an age of about 110,000 years. PMID:4522802

Bada, Jeffrey L.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Protsch, Reiner; Berger, Rainer

1974-01-01

436

Endemic type of animal trypanosomiasis is not associated with lower genotype variability of Trypanosoma congolense isolates circulating in livestock  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether the low impact on livestock production in endemic areas is related to a low number of trypanosome strains circulating in livestock, 37 Trypanosoma congolense isolates collected from cattle in 11 sites in an endemic trypanosomiasis area in Eastern Zambia were characterised for genotype variability using a modified amplified fragment length polymorphism technique (AFLP). Isolates were further cloned to evaluate the occurrence of mixed infections in individuals. The results obtained revealed a high genotype diversity (94.6%) among these isolates. Apart from one site, all isolates gave different AFLP profiles in each of the sites. When clones were compared, three (8%) of the 37 isolates had mixed infections. These results indicate the circulation of a high number of strains in this trypanosomiasis endemic area despite the low impact the disease has on livestock production. PMID:19356778

Masumu, J.; Geysen, D.; Bossche, P. Van den

2009-01-01