Sample records for zambia

  1. Zambia Wetland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...   View Larger Image Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia ... wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that ...

  2. Zambia: Sustaining Agricultural Diversification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Bonaglia

    2009-01-01

    Zambia has a huge agricultural potential, which is still largely untapped, and could play a key role in growth and poverty eradication. Since the early 2000s, the government has implemented important reforms to promote privatisation and trade reforms, leading to higher investment and a strong growth in export crops such as cotton and horticulture. Despite this success, agricultural productivity, especially

  3. Novel Arenavirus, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang’ombe, Bernard; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA–positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus–related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses. PMID:22000372

  4. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    van der Sande, Marianne A.B.; de Graaff, Cas S.; Parkinson, Shelagh; Verbrugh, Henri A.; Petit, Pieter L.C.; van Soolingen, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from 180 chronically ill patients and 385 healthy controls in Zambia was evaluated to examine the contribution of these isolates to tuberculosis (TB)–like disease. The proportion of NTM-positive sputum samples was significantly higher in the patient group than in controls; 11% and 6%, respectively (p<0.05). NTM-associated lung disease was diagnosed for 1 patient, and a probable diagnosis was made for 3 patients. NTM-positive patients and controls were more likely to report vomiting and diarrhea and were more frequently underweight than the NTM-negative patients and controls. Chest radiographs of NTM-positive patients showed deviations consistent with TB more frequently than those of controls. The most frequently isolated NTM was Mycobacterium avium complex. Multiple, not previously identified mycobacteria (55 of 171 NTM) were isolated from both groups. NTM probably play an important role in the etiology of TB-like diseases in Zambia. PMID:19193268

  5. Zambia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is traditionally the duty and responsibility of the extended family to look after the aged. Gender based violence (GBV) is another issue. Women, who are totally dependent on their spouses economically, are forced by circumstances to continue living in abusive relationships to the detriment of their mental well-being. In Zambia, the family is considered sacrosanct and the affairs of the family members, private. It is within this context that GBV is regarded as a family affair and therefore a private affair, yet spouse beating has led to depression and in some cases death. In terms of psychiatric services, there are close to 560 beds for psychiatric patients across the country. Common mental disorders found in Zambia are acute psychotic episodes, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcohol related problems and organic brain syndromes. About 70-80% of people with mental health problems consult traditional health practitioners before they seek help from conventional health practitioners. Over time the number of frontline mental health workers and professional staff has been declining. This is due to the 'brain drain', retirement, death and low output from training institutions. For practicing psychiatrists, only one is available for the whole country. Other key mental health workers such as psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are also in short supply. All in all, the mental health services situation in Zambia could be described as critical, requiring urgent attention. PMID:15276939

  6. Maternal mortality in rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Vork, F C; Kyanamina, S; van Roosmalen, J

    1997-08-01

    The only prospective population-based study of maternal mortality in rural Zambia recorded a ratio of 889 per 100,000 births, about 8 times higher than that found in an urban hospital-based study. To obtain an accurate assessment of maternal mortality in Zambia's rural Kalabo district, both the sisterhood survey method and a review of hospital data were utilized. The maternal mortality ratio derived from the sisterhood survey (August-September 1994) of 1978 respondents was 1238 per 100,000 live births. Data from Kalabo Hospital on 2474 deliveries during 1990-94 revealed a ratio of 548 per 100,000 live births; however, when the latter ratio was corrected for an additional 15 maternal deaths that were not recorded as such, it rose to 1179 per 100,000 live births. The major causes of the 20 (71%) direct maternal deaths were obstructed labor and sepsis. Substandard hospital care factors (primarily inappropriate choice and/or lack of antibiotics, poor monitoring of vital signs, and poor provision of blood products by the laboratory) contributed to 71% of maternal deaths. Delay in seeking care played a role in 29% of all maternal deaths, and poor accessibility to the hospital was implicated in at least 25% of cases. These findings indicate that maternal mortality in rural Zambia is among the highest in the world. The sisterhood method survey appears to be an efficient indirect means of assessing maternal mortality in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:9292638

  7. MISR Images Zambia and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images of Zambia and Botswana, Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000 during Terra orbit 3655. The left image is a 'true' color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. True color means that the images acquired through MISR's red, green, and blue filters, respectively, are displayed as red, green, and blue when creating the digital image. The middle image combines data from the green, red, and near-infrared bands. The right image contains red band data only, but is a composite of imagery from the nadir (An), 70.5-degrees forward (Df), and 70.5-degrees aftward (Da) cameras. The color variations in the multi-angle composite arise not from how the different parts of the scene reflect light at different wavelengths, but rather, at different angles.

    The distinctive fan-like feature on the left of each image is the highly vegetated Okavango Delta, a mosaiced network of grasslands and water channels, observed here during the dry season. The town of Maunis at its southeastern edge. Note how the plant life, which is highly reflective in the near-infrared, shows up as bright red in the middle image. Vegetation also preferentially reflects light back toward the source of illumination, so in the right image, the Df camera image, which is displayed in green, is brighter in this region.

    The body of water in the upper right is the Itezhi-Tezhi Dam, fed by the Kafue River in Zambia. At the lower left, south of the Okavango Delta, is Lake Ngami. A smoke plume is present at the southern edge of the lake. This plume and others show up in shades of blue and purple in the multi-angle composite as a result of the manner in which the smoke particles scatter sunlight.

    Other landmarks include the Ntwetwe Pan, whose western edge is visible as the bright area in the lower right. The Zambezi River enters from the upper left and wends its way southeast, passing the Caprivi Strip, a narrow panhandle in northeast Namibia. The greater abundance of vegetation here testifies to the high rainfall that occurs during the wet season. Near the right-hand edge of the images is the location where the Zambezi plunges into Victoria Falls, considered to be among the most spectacular waterfalls in the world.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  8. 77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for...

  9. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for...

  10. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN ZAMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE 1963 POPULATION OF ZAMBIA WAS APPROXIMATELY 3.5 MILLION. THE 8-YEAR PRIMARY EDUCATION PROGRAM IS FOLLOWED BY SECONDARY, SECONDARY TECHNICAL, AND TRADE SCHOOL OPTIONS. THERE IS AN INCREASE IN ADULT EDUCATION AT THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LEVELS. CRAFT AND TECHNICIAN LEVEL PROGRAMS ARE CONDUCTED AT NORTHERN TECHNICAL COLLEGE AND ITS ANCILLARY…

  11. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  12. Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland.

    The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various cameras, the data from each camera were processed identically. Here, color changes indicate surface texture, and are influenced by terrain, vegetation structure, soil type and soil moisture content. Wet surfaces or areas with standing water appear blue in this display because sun glitter makes smooth, wet surfaces look brighter at the backward camera's view angle. Mostly the landscape appears somewhat purple, indicating that most of the surfaces scatter sunlight in both backward and forward directions. Areas that appear with a slight greenish hue can indicate sparce vegetation, since the nadir camera is more likely to sight the gaps between the trees or shrubs, and since vegetation is darker (in the red band) than the underlying soil surface. Areas which preferentially exhibit a red or pink hue correspond with wetland vegetation. The plateau of the Kafue National Park, to the west of Lukanga Swamp, appears brighter in 2004 compared with 2003, which indicates weaker absorption at the red band. Overall, the 2004 image exhibits a subtle blue hue (preference for forward-scattering) compared with 2003, which indicates overall surface changes that may be a result of enhanced surface wetness.

    The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 19072 and 24421. The panels cover an area of 235 kilometers x 239 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 100 to 103 within World Reference System-2 path 172.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Orthopoxvirus infection among wildlife in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Human monkeypox is a viral zoonosis caused by monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus (OPXV). The majority of human monkeypox cases have been reported in moist forested regions in West and Central Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In this study we investigated zoonotic OPXV infection among wild animals in Zambia, which shares a border with DRC, to assess the geographical distribution of OPXV. We screened for OPXV antibodies in sera from non-human primates (NHPs), rodents and shrews by ELISA, and performed real-time PCR to detect OPXV DNA in spleen samples. Serological analysis indicated that 38 of 259 (14.7?%) rodents, 14 of 42 (33.3?%) shrews and 4 of 188 (2.1?%) NHPs had antibodies against OPXV. The OPXV DNA could not be detected in spleens from any animals tested. Our results indicated that wild animals living in rural human habitation areas of Zambia have been infected with OPXV. PMID:25319753

  14. New Agricultural Settlement, Meheba River, Zambia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infra-red view of a new settlement along the Meheba River, Zambia, Africa (12.5S, 26.0E) resembles the resettlement clusters in the Amazon basin of Brazil. However, this settlement is on savanna land not a tropical forest region, so relatively little land clearing was required. The familiar pattern of small single family plots, no large commercial fields, along the branches of a herringbone road network is evident.

  15. Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 in Wild Nonhuman Primates, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Michihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Thomas, Yuka; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron S.; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Kimura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 baboons and 6 vervet monkeys in 2 distinct areas in Zambia. Our findings suggest that wild nonhuman primates are susceptible to HPIV3 infection. PMID:23968816

  16. The Impacts of Wildlife Conservation Policies on Rural Household Welfare in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Fernandez; Robert B. Richardson; David L. Tschirley; Gelson Tembo

    2009-01-01

    KEY POLICY POINTS • Tourism is increasingly important in Zambia as a vehicle for economic growth, and has been identified as a key sector for poverty reduction due to its potential to generate off-farm income and employment in rural areas. Growth in arrivals and receipts in Zambia has outpaced average growth rates for developing countries. • Tourism in Zambia relies

  17. Evaluation of natural family planning programmes in Liberia and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Gray, R H; Kambic, R T; Lanctot, C A; Martin, M C; Wesley, R; Cremins, R

    1993-04-01

    Studies to evaluate use-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of natural family planning (NFP) were conducted in Liberia and Zambia. The Liberian programme provided uni-purpose NFP services to 1055 clients mainly in rural areas; the Zambian programme provided NFP services integrated with MCH to 2709 clients predominantly in urban areas. The one-year life table continuation and unplanned pregnancy rates were 78.9 and 4.3 per 100 woman-years in Liberia, compared to 71.2 and 8.9 in Zambia. However, high rates of loss to follow-up mandate caution in interpretation of these results, especially in Zambia. More women progressed to autonomous NFP use in Liberia (58%) than in Zambia (35.3%). However, programme costs per couple-year protection were lower in Zambia (US$25.7) than in Liberia (US$47.1). Costs per couple-year protection were higher during learning than autonomy, and declined over time. These studies suggest that NFP programmes can achieve acceptable use- and cost-effectiveness in Africa. PMID:8478373

  18. Country experience in organizing for quality: Zambia.

    PubMed

    Marquez, L; Madubuike, C

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Quality Assurance Program (QAP) within the Central Board of Health (CBH) in Zambia. QAP provides training and technical support to quality assurance (QA) to District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) and health centers. DHMT members were trained as QA facilitators. Training in target districts first addressed the setting and monitoring of standards. Training later focused on development of problem solving capacity. Health providers were trained by central staff to self-assess, to measure performance to agreed standards, and to respond to client-user needs. The Directorate of Monitoring and Evaluation provides training and oversight in QA to the DHMTs and their health centers. Training generally consists of a sensitization workshop, week-long training in dynamic standard setting, 5-day training in development of monitoring indicators at the district and facility level, and 2-week skills training in use of QA tools. CBH monitors quality by quarterly performance audits, supervision visits by DHMTs, and the health management information system (HMIS). The new HMIS was piloted in 15 districts and is being established nationwide. CBH developed a manual of standards for 6 priority health areas: reproductive health and family planning, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, child health and nutrition, tuberculosis, and water and sanitation. 85 QA teams operate in 90% of the districts. Problem solving methods have led to team building among professionals, increased competence of staff to address problems, and capacity building for management. PMID:12322022

  19. The Implementation of School Based Continuous Assessment (CA) in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapambwe, William M.

    2010-01-01

    In Zambia, continuous assessment (CA) is defined as an on-going, diagnostic, classroom-based process that uses a variety of assessment tools to measure learner performance (MOE, 2005:5). Over the years, examinations have been used for selection and certification, without formal considerations on school-based continuous assessment as a component in…

  20. Deschooling Language Study in East Africa: The Zambia Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, David Harrill

    The second language learning methods of Southern Baptist missionaries in Zambia are described. Instead of studying the new language in a school setting, the student receives a week of orientation and is then placed in the community and expected to practice communicating with the native speakers at every opportunity. The student follows a course…

  1. www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia

    E-print Network

    1 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia Development and Energy in Africa (DEA) Regional Workshop, Arusha, 16-18 Oct. 2007 #12;2 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Foundation, more recently by Sida. · supported enterprise development in the five target countries ­ Ghana

  2. An annotated checklist of mites (Arachnida: Acari) of Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ENALA T. MWASE; ANNE S. BAKER

    Published literature on the mites of Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia) is scanty and fragmentary. As a baseline for further work to enhance knowledge of this fauna, an annotated list of the taxa reported to date is presented. Data for 90 species or incompletely identified species (representing four orders, 42 families and 57 genera) are given. The mites originated from vertebrates,

  3. Cucumis zambianus (Cucurbitaceae): A New Species from Northwestern Zambia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During germplasm explorations within Zambia in 1984, seven Cucumis accessions were collected that could not be identified to species. Two of the accessions were studied in-depth. Based on phenotypic characters, they were closest to Cucumis pustulatus. In ITS analyses of all available Cucumis spec...

  4. Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

  5. Debt Relief and Growth: A study of Zambia and Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Bigsten; Jorgen Levin; Hakan Persson

    2001-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses some issues on how,to evaluate the impact of HIPC debt relief in the cases of Tanzania and Zambia using two computable,general equilibrium models. Within our relatively simple model framework, we found that the macroeconomic impact of debt relief is modest. One reason for this relatively modest impact is that the annual injection of additional resources relative

  6. Mapping the Geographical Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwase, Enala T.; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Methodology/Principal findings Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. Conclusions/significance LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia. PMID:24587466

  7. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of newly posted Peace Corps Volunteers in the Rural Aquaculture Promotion Project in Zambia

    E-print Network

    Trant, Clay Allen

    2004-09-30

    The Rural Aquaculture Promotion (RAP) project is a vital development initiative by the Peace Corps in Zambia with the goal of increasing the nutritional and caloric intake of rural Zambian farmers in addition to augmenting income (Peace Corps Zambia...

  8. The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaciwena, Richard; Lubinda, Foster

    2008-01-01

    As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a…

  9. Health worker shortages in Zambia: an assessment of government responses.

    PubMed

    Gow, Jeff; George, Gavin; Mutinta, Given; Mwamba, Sylvia; Ingombe, Lutungu

    2011-11-01

    A dire health worker shortage in Zambia's national health programs is adversely impacting the quantity and quality of health care and posing a serious barrier to achieving Millennium Development Goals to improve population health. In 2005, Zambia's Ministry of Health developed a 10-year strategic plan for human resources for health to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. The plan has neither arrested nor reduced the shortage. We review the causes of the shortage, present results from a health worker survey showing that safe work conditions, manageable workloads, and career advancement opportunities matter more to respondents than financial compensation. We comment on the adequacy of government efforts to address the health worker shortage. PMID:21850054

  10. Pulmonary tuberculosis in free-living lechwe antelope in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. GALLAGI-IER; I. Macadam; J. Sayer; L. P. Van Lavieren

    1972-01-01

    The Kafue lechwe population of Zambia numbers90,000 and is divided by the River Kafue into two virtually segregated populations. The south bank population is known to be infected with tuberculosis but the north bank is thought to be free. One hundred and twenty-five south bank lechwe were cropped at random and lesions of tuberculosis were found in45 (36%). Isolates from

  11. Teacher Shocks and Student Learning: Evidence from Zambia

    E-print Network

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila

    2006-03-14

    learning achievement, even though it provides a means of identifying the impact of school resources. We address this gap by examining the effect of shocks that teachers faced on student learning. The study focuses on Zambia, where the impact of AIDS... may be accentuated due to low overall levels of learning in low-income countries. Perhaps not surprisingly then, the literature consistently finds that teachers contribute significantly to levels and growth in learning achievement; however...

  12. AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Msimuko, A K

    1988-04-01

    A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials. PMID:12315435

  13. Background on Zambia's Labor Market with Cross-National Comparisons

    E-print Network

    Chester, Alex; Dang, Thao; Edgell, Amanda; Harber, Matthew; Mahaney, Dace; Messer, Matthew; Ramos, Luis

    2011-01-01

    available. Employment Protections Various regulations exist for protecting the rights of formal sector employees in Zambia. The majority of these regulations are outlined in the Employment Act and the Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment Act.... Limitations on the use of contracts; duration of work day; vacation, sick and maternity leave; severance pay; and conditions for dismissal are included in these acts. Though the informal sector is not explicitly excluded from these acts, proving the various...

  14. July 17, 2002 Zambia GNSS Earth Science 2002 1 Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    E-print Network

    Herring, Thomas

    1 July 17, 2002 Zambia GNSS Earth Science 2002 1 Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for Earth Sciences Prof. Thomas Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA USA tah@mit.edu http://www-gpsg.mit.edu/~tah July 17, 2002 Zambia GNSS Earth Science 2002 2 Introduction · Earth

  15. Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to read whole…

  16. Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parsa Sanjana; Kwasi Torpey; Alison Schwarzwalder; Caroline Simumba; Prisca Kasonde; Lameck Nyirenda; Paul Kapanda; Matilda Kakungu-Simpungwe; Mushota Kabaso; Catherine Thompson

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained

  17. Urbanization in Zambia. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmance, Alan J. F.

    This report reviews the "Seers Report," which contained policy guidelines for modern development planning in Zambia, and compares its findings to recent findings during the period 1963-1970. The Seers Report found that Zambia was the most urbanized country in Africa south of the Sahara (excluding South Africa). This report finds that since…

  18. Harmful lifestyles' clustering among sexually active in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seter Siziya; Adamson S Muula; Lawrence N Kazembe; Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia.

  19. Personal and Environmental Predictors of the Intention to Use Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Low maternal healthcare service utilization contributes to poor maternal and new born health outcomes in rural Zambia. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors influencing women's intention to use these services in Kalomo, Zambia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1007 women of…

  20. Inequalities in public health care delivery in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to adequate health services that is of acceptable quality is important in the move towards universal health coverage. However, previous studies have revealed inequities in health care utilisation in the favour of the rich. Further, those with the greatest need for health services are not getting a fair share. In Zambia, though equity in access is extolled in government documents, there is evidence suggesting that those needing health services are not receiving their fair share. This study seeks therefore, to assess if socioeconomic related inequalities/inequities in public health service utilisation in Zambia still persist. Methods The 2010 nationally representative Zambia Living Conditions and Monitoring Survey data are used. Inequality is assessed using concentration curves and concentrations indices while inequity is assessed using a horizontal equity index: an index of inequity across socioeconomic status groups, based on standardizing health service utilisation for health care need. Public health services considered include public health post visits, public clinic visits, public hospital visits and total public facility visits. Results There is evidence of pro-poor inequality in public primary health care utilisation but a pro-rich inequality in hospital visits. The concentration indices for public health post visits and public clinic visits are ?0.28 and ?0.09 respectively while that of public hospitals is 0.06. After controlling for need, the pro-poor distribution is maintained at primary facilities and with a pro-rich distribution at hospitals. The horizontal equity indices for health post and clinic are estimated at ?0.23 and ?0.04 respectively while that of public hospitals is estimated at 0.11. A pro-rich inequity is observed when all the public facilities are combined (horizontal equity index?=?0.01) though statistically insignificant. Conclusion The results of the paper point to areas of focus in ensuring equitable access to health services especially for the poor and needy. This includes strengthening primary facilities that serve the poor and reducing access barriers to ensure that health care utilisation at higher-level facilities is distributed in accordance with need for it. These initiatives may well reduce the observed inequities and accelerate the move towards universal health coverage in Zambia. PMID:24645826

  1. Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront. PMID:21569490

  2. Will savannas survive outside the parks? A lesson from Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W.; Merbold, L.; Scholes, B.; Mukelabai, M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  3. e-Government for Development Information Exchange (DIE): Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin

    In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.

  4. A review of tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zambia’s estimated incidence of all forms of human tuberculosis (TB) is 707/100,000. High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) – infection with Mycobacterium bovis – in cattle and the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) has been reported in the Kafue basin. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and meat products from infected animals poses a risk of transmitting zoonotic tuberculosis to people living at the human-animal interface. Despite the reported high prevalence of BTB in both livestock and wildlife, information on the proportion of human patients infected with M. bovis is unknown in Zambia. This paper reviews the available information in English on human, livestock and wildlife TB in Zambia with the purpose of assessing the burden of animal infections with M. tuberculosis complex and its public health implications. PMID:23849550

  5. Institutionalizing Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counselling for Children: An Observational Case Study from Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane N. Mutanga; Juliette Raymond; Megan S. Towle; Simon Mutembo; Robert Captain Fubisha; Frank Lule; Lulu Muhe

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundProvider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia’s Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people.Methods and Principal FindingsOur retrospective case study examined best

  6. The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronan Van Rossem; Dominique Meekers

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV\\/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV\\/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact

  7. A study of malnourished children in children's hospital Lusaka (Zambia).

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Gupta, B M

    1979-01-01

    The parents of 200 malnourished childred referred and admitted over the July-December 1976 period to the nutrition wing of the Children's University Teaching Hospital, Zambia, were interviewed in an effort to understand the home environment of malnourished children in Lusaka, Zambia. The 1974 incidence of malnutrition in Zambia was about 23% with higher prevalences of marasmus and moderate malnutrition. There were 9.4% severly malnourished children admitted in 1976 as compared with less than 1% in 1971. Many of these children were admitted very late in a hypothermic shocked state which is directly responsible for the increasing incidence of mortality over these years. Plasma or blood transfusion is a standard procedure in all shocked cases of kwashiorkor, yet many of the children still die within 24 hours of admission. Malnutrition incidence was found to be closely linked to the rise in price index. The majority of the children were admitted from the rainy months November to March, the time associated with a higher incidence of gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, and measles. 88% of the children were between 1-3 years old. Marasmus (33.5%) and marasmic kwashiorkor (40.5%) were more frequent. 63% of the malnourished childred had attended the child health clinics in their infancy and were immunized but discontinued attendance one vaccination was completed. The problem of malnutrition was in the toddler age group. 86% of the childred came from urban slums and periurban areas; 83% were from unitary families, living in 1 or 2 bedroom houses with no separate provision for a kitchen. Rural families (14%) were living as joint families. 32% of the children were from large families. 52% of the parents were employed as casual laborers and earning under US $35 per month. There were only 10 families with earnings in excess of US $125 per month and only 8 had good sources of income from farms. As many as 68.5% children were experiencing 1 or more adverse factors which contributed to their present condition. Almost half of the mothers were pregnant or carrying a young child. An alcoholic family, divorce, or separation of parents was frequently observed. Separation from the mother was marked by a deterioration in the health of the children. Only 4 divorced mothers were working to support the family. The remainder were dependent on their parents. 53% of mothers were favorable to family spacing if properly motiavated. A social rehabilitation program should meaningfully involve the family unit. Parental responsibilities must be propagated. Family spacing with health education programs is vital in the improvement of child care. PMID:260744

  8. HIV stress in primary school teachers in Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, R.; Sulwe, J.; Chilala, M.; Mashambe, C.

    1999-01-01

    A study was made of stress factors experienced by primary school teachers in Zambia after they had attended a course on stress management and counselling skills. Their pupils were significantly affected by poverty, death and illness of parents, fellow-pupils and teachers, teenage sex and pregnancy, violence in the home and, among girls, low self-esteem. The HIV epidemic had a major bearing on these factors, and there were wide-ranging effects on the teachers' own lives. Despite the training they had been given, many teachers felt that they could not adequately counsel their pupils on these matters. The teachers were in need of continuing support and training to enable them to cope with this aspect of their work. PMID:10212524

  9. Clubs make a difference to project in Zambia.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Integrated Project (IP) was launched in 1985 in Zambia and now covers a target population of 104,000 in Kabushi, Katuba, and Fiwale of Copperbelt Province and Kapata and Kasoma Banguweulu of Luapula Province. The IP is developing innovative ways to promote project sustainability through a range of club-based income-generation activities. Village-level clubs have become so popular over the course of the project that 80 clubs now exist in the project areas. Club members engage in activities such as knitting, gardening, and food production. Members of one club in Kabushi are producing sawdust to fuel cooking braziers, while another club is producing bricks for sale. The clubs have chapters for both men and women. Such inclusiveness encourages male involvement in project activities such as family planning and male support of activities designed to empower women. PMID:12292049

  10. Geologic evolution of the neoproterozoic Zambezi orogenic belt in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Richard E.; Wilson, Terry J.; Munyanyiwa, Hubert

    1994-02-01

    The Neoproterozoic Zambezi belt links with the Mozambique belt, Lufilian arc, and the inland branch of the Damara belt within the regional Pan-African tectonic framework of southern Africa. The belt contains a thick supracrustal sequence deposited on older sialic basement and penetratively deformed with it during Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) orogenesis. In Zambia, where the entire width of the orogen is exposed, local bimodal volcanic rocks at the base of the sequence are overlain by psammites and pelites, which in turn are succeeded by extensive carbonate and calc-silicate rocks. Abundant scapolite in metamorphic assemblages within the belt is taken as evidence for the original presence of evaporites. The nature of the rock types and the inferred stratigraphic sequence are consistent with deposition in an intracontinental rift basin invaded by marine waters. Available isotopic age brackets for the timing of supracrusta deposition show that the basin developed between 880 nad 820 Ma. Main-phase deformation in the belt involved both transcurrent shearing and south- to southwest-vergent thrusting and was associated with predominantly amphibolite-facies regional metamorphism. Mineral assemblages throughout much of the belt in Zambia, together with limited thermobarometric data, indicate typical Barrovian-type intermediate P/T conditions during metamorphism. Eclogites and other high-pressure metamorphic assemblages in parts of the belt, however, provide evidence that significant crustal thickening occurred, presumably in relation to thrusting. Reworked basement and syntectonic granite were subjected to extensive mylonitization related to strike-slip and oblique, reverse-slip shearing. The major orogenic event is dated at c. 820 Ma, based on an igneous age for a sheet-like, syntectonic batholith injected into a transcurrent shear zone within the central part of the belt. Pan-African orogenesis along the Zambezi-Lufilian-Damara trend was diachronous and records closure of intracratonic basins in the Zambezi belt and Lufilian arc, with evidence for the involvement of oceanic lithosphere present only in the Damara belt.

  11. Epilepsy Care in Zambia: A Study of Traditional Healers

    PubMed Central

    Baskind, Roy; Birbeck, Gretchen

    2005-01-01

    Summary Purpose Most people with epilepsy (PWE) reside in developing countries with limited access to medical care. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), traditional healers (THs) play a prominent role in caring for PWE, yet little is known about epilepsy care by THs. We conducted a multimethod, qualitative study to better understand the epilepsy care delivered by THs in Zambia. Methods We conducted focus-group discussions with THs, in-depth semistructured interviews with a well-recognized TH at his place of work, and multiple informal interviews with health-care providers in rural Zambia. Results THs recognize the same symptoms that a neurologist elicits to characterize seizure onset (e.g., olfactory hallucinations, jacksonian march, automatisms). Although THs acknowledge a familial propensity for some seizures and endorse causes of symptomatic epilepsy, they believe witchcraft plays a central, provocative role in most seizures. Treatment is initiated after the first seizure and usually incorporates certain plant and animal products. Patients who do not experience further seizures are considered cured. Those who do not respond to therapy may be referred to other healers. Signs of concomitant systemic illness are the most common reason for referral to a hospital. As a consequence of this work, our local Epilepsy Care Team has developed a more collaborative relationship with THs in the region. Conclusions THs obtain detailed event histories, are treatment focused, and may refer patients who have refractory seizures to therapy to other healers. Under some circumstances, they recognize a role for modern health care and refer patients to the hospital. Given their predominance as care providers for PWE, further understanding of their approach to care is important. Collaborative relationships between physicians and THs are needed if we hope to bridge the treatment gap in SSA. PMID:16026565

  12. Prevention and Management of Neonatal Hypothermia in Rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Marsh, David R.; Kafwanda, Sarah Ngolofwana; Musso, Austen; Semrau, Katherine; Waltensperger, Karen Z.; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypothermia is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for newborn survival. The World Health Organization recommends maintaining a warm chain and skin-to-skin care for thermoprotection of newborn children. Since little is known about practices related to newborn hypothermia in rural Africa, this study's goal was to characterize relevant practices, attitudes, and beliefs in rural Zambia. Methods and Findings We conducted 14 focus group discussions with mothers and grandmothers and 31 in-depth interviews with community leaders and health officers in Lufwanyama District, a rural area in the Copperbelt Province, Zambia, enrolling a total of 171 participants. We analyzed data using domain analysis. In rural Lufwanyama, community members were aware of the danger of neonatal hypothermia. Caregivers' and health workers' knowledge of thermoprotective practices included birthplace warming, drying and wrapping of the newborn, delayed bathing, and immediate and exclusive breastfeeding. However, this warm chain was not consistently maintained in the first hours postpartum, when newborns are at greatest risk. Skin-to-skin care was not practiced in the study area. Having to assume household and agricultural labor responsibilities in the immediate postnatal period was a challenge for mothers to provide continuous thermal care to their newborns. Conclusions Understanding and addressing community-based practices on hypothermia prevention and management might help improve newborn survival in resource-limited settings. Possible interventions include the implementation of skin-to-skin care in rural areas and the use of appropriate, low-cost newborn warmers to prevent hypothermia and support families in their provision of newborn thermal protection. Training family members to support mothers in the provision of thermoprotection for their newborns could facilitate these practices. PMID:24714630

  13. Metallogenesis of the Nkana copper-cobalt South Orebody, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brems, D.; Muchez, Ph.; Sikazwe, O.; Mukumba, W.

    2009-10-01

    The Central African Copperbelt is one of the largest and richest metallogenic provinces in the world. Despite the many studies, the genesis of the stratiform Cu-Co-mineralization remains a subject of intense discussion. A diagenetic, pre-folding origin is proposed for most ore deposits both in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, later mineralization and/or remobilization seem to be important in the enrichment of the ores. The geological mapping of the South Orebody mine at Nkana (Zambia) indicates a relation between the mineralization and the host rock but also with compressional deformation. The location of the rich ore bodies generally corresponds with the hinge zones of tight to isoclinal folds and with the contact between the sandstones and conglomerates of the Footwall Sandstone Formation and the overlying organic-rich shales of the Ore Formation. The circulation of the mineralizing/remobilizing fluids through the rocks was facilitated by fracturing, especially in the hinge zones of the folds resulting in a structural permeability. A petrographical study demonstrated that, in addition to disseminated sulphides, three successive vein generations occur at Nkana South Orebody, i.e. layer parallel veins, irregular, crosscutting veins and massive veins. These vein generations respectively formed during the initial phase of basin inversion, the main phase of deformation and a late phase of orogenesis or later extensional tensions. Early diagenetic disseminated framboidal pyrites were replaced by Cu-sulphides. The timing of this replacement could not be constrained. Silicification, K-feldspar alteration, albitization, carbonatization and replacement by anhydrite are the main alteration phases.

  14. Developmental assessment, cultural context, gender, and schooling in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Robert; Jere-Folotiya, Jacqueline

    2008-04-01

    Multiple perspectives on the assessment of children's development at the school-community interface in rural areas of Zambia are discussed in the light of several empirical studies conducted between 1974 and 2005. A longitudinal trace study of a cohort of 46 young people born into a rural, Chewa community in Katete District found that girls' scores in early childhood on a battery of ecoculturally grounded cognitive tests correlated less well than they did for boys with two educational outcomes: number of grades of schooling completed, and adult literacy scores. Conversely, ratings of the children on indigenous conceptions of intelligence by adults familiar with the children in the context of their home village lives predicted the same outcomes better for girls than for boys. A separate, linked experiment compared the performance of 76 Katete school children with that of 84 school children in the capital city of Lusaka on the US standardized Draw-a-Person Test (DPT) and the Panga Munthu Test (PMT), an expanded version of one of the tests developed for the Zambian trace study. Analysis of the correlations among scores on these two tests, age, and teacher ratings suggests that aptitudes evident in the home and school domains are less well integrated for rural girls than for urban boys, and that for a low-income, rural population, the PMT taps the domain of home cognition better than school cognition, while the converse is true of the DPT. Implications for educational assessment in Zambia are discussed, and supportive documentation is cited from two ongoing programs of test development. The authors conclude that if educational testing is to support the process of enhancing educational equity across gender, family socioeconomic status, and residential location, its focus should be broadened to include other dimensions of psychological development such as multilingual and personal-social competencies. PMID:22023603

  15. History and Culture of Tanzania and Zambia: A Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program, Summer, 1992. Curriculum Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    The curriculum projects described in this collection were developed by U.S. classroom teachers who traveled to Tanzania and Zambia as part of the Fulbright-Hays teacher exchange program in the summer of 1992. The included projects are as follows: "Curriculum Project: Tanzania/Zambia Seminar Abroad '92" (Donelle Blubaugh); "East Africa and Its…

  16. Provision of Learning and Teaching Materials for Pupils with Visual Impairment: Results from a National Survey in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide…

  17. The impact of solar home systems on rural livelihoods. Experiences from the Nyimba Energy Service Company in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Gustavsson; Anders Ellegård

    2004-01-01

    An Energy Service Company (ESCO) in the town of Nyimba, Zambia, has been operating 100 solar home systems since the year 2000. The company is part of a pilot project implemented by the Government of Zambia with the aim to apply the ESCO concept for diffusion of solar technology. The change in livelihood as a result of the access to

  18. WOMEN AND LAND IN ZAMBIA: A CASE STUDY OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN CHENENA VILLAGE, CHIBOMBO DISTRICT, CENTRAL ZAMBIA Gear M. Kajoba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The paper shows that most women in Zambia and especially in the study area suffer from insecurity in land since they do not have secure title to land under customary tenure. The results from the research which was carried out using semi structured interviews with 34 female farmers show that the majority of women farmers (62%) were not allocated land

  19. A review of tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Malama, Sydney; Muma, John Bwalya; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Zambia's estimated incidence of all forms of human tuberculosis (TB) is 707/100,000. High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) - infection with Mycobacterium bovis - in cattle and the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) has been reported in the Kafue basin. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and meat products from infected animals poses a risk of transmitting zoonotic tuberculosis to people living at the human-animal interface. Despite the reported high prevalence of BTB in both livestock and wildlife, information on the proportion of human patients infected with M. bovis is unknown in Zambia. This paper reviews the available information in English on human, livestock and wildlife TB in Zambia with the purpose of assessing the burden of animal infections with M. tuberculosis complex and its public health implications. PMID:23849550

  20. Experiences of the first female physics graduates of the University of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwewa, Chilufya; Namumba, Brenda; Mofya, Mwape

    2013-03-01

    Although the Department of Physics was established together with the University of Zambia in 1966, it has only graduated eight females to date. This calls for concern since the University of Zambia is the only institution that offers a physics degree program in Zambia. In this paper, three of these females discuss their understanding of the factors that have led to members of their gender shunning physics. They outline the way they themselves came to do physics and they discuss the problems they faced as they studied physics and the rewards they received from this. They propose ways and means of motivating other females to take up physics and of making studies easier and more fulfilling for those who opt to do so.

  1. Preliminary investigation of trypanosomosis in exotic dog breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi valleys using LAMP.

    PubMed

    Namangala, Boniface; Oparaocha, Elizabeth; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Moonga, Ladslav; Inoue, Noboru; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only confirm all six parasitologically positive CAT cases detected passively between April 2010 and January 2012, but was also critical in trypanosome speciation. According to LAMP, the majority of the dogs had monolytic infections with either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The LAMP is thus a potential simple and cost-effective tool for trypanosome diagnosis in endemic regions. The rare report of zoonotic trypanosomes in dogs in Zambia has public health implications and justifies further investigations of CAT. PMID:23716412

  2. Helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Zieger, U; Boomker, J; Cauldwell, A E; Horak, I G

    1998-06-01

    Helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the Central Province of Zambia. New host-parasite records are: Calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and Kafue lechwe Kobus leche kafuensis; Avitellina centripunctata, Gaigeria pachyscelis and Gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus; Cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck Redunca arundinum; Dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros; Dictyocaulus sp. from tsessebe and defassa waterbuck and Strobiloestrus sp. from sable antelope Hippotragus niger. Most of the other parasites collected are first records for Zambia and thus extend the distribution ranges of several species. PMID:9741058

  3. Impact of Drainage Networks on Cholera Outbreaks in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Yoshinari; Cheelo, Meetwell

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between precipitation patterns and cholera outbreaks and the preventative roles of drainage networks against outbreaks in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods. We collected data on 6542 registered cholera patients in the 2003–2004 outbreak season and on 6045 cholera patients in the 2005–2006 season. Correlations between monthly cholera incidences and amount of precipitation were examined. The distribution pattern of the disease was analyzed by a kriging spatial analysis method. We analyzed cholera case distribution and spatiotemporal cluster by using 2590 cholera cases traced with a global positioning system in the 2005–2006 season. The association between drainage networks and cholera cases was analyzed with regression analysis. Results. Increased precipitation was associated with the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, and insufficient drainage networks were statistically associated with cholera incidences. Conclusions. Insufficient coverage of drainage networks elevated the risk of cholera outbreaks. Integrated development is required to upgrade high-risk areas with sufficient infrastructure for a long-term cholera prevention strategy. PMID:19762668

  4. Two new Ophiostoma species from Protea caffra in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Roets, F; Wingfield, B D; de Beer, Z W; Wingfield, M J; Dreyer, L L

    2010-06-01

    The genus Ophiostoma (Ophiostomatales) has a global distribution and species are best known for their association with bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on conifers. An unusual assemblage of these fungi is closely associated with the African endemic plant genus Protea (Proteaceae). Protea-associated Ophiostoma species are ecologically atypical as they colonise the fruiting structures of various serotinous Protea species. Seven species have been described from this niche in South Africa. It has been speculated that novel species may be present in other African countries where these host plants also occur. This view was corroborated by recent collections of two unknown species from Protea caffra trees in Zambia. In the present study we evaluate the species delineation of these isolates using morphological comparisons with other Protea-associated species, differential growth studies and analyses of DNA sequence data for the beta-tubulin and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) regions. As a result, the species O. protea-sedis sp. nov., and O. zambiensis sp. nov. are described here as new. This study brings the number of Protea-associated Ophiostoma species to nine and highlights the need for more inclusive surveys, including additional African countries and hosts, to elucidate species diversity in this uncharacteristic niche. PMID:20664757

  5. The Socioeconomic status of children with epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chomba, Elwyn; Haworth, Alan; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mbewe, Edward; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Epilepsy is a highly stigmatized disorder in Zambia. Adult studies indicated that adults with epilepsy in many regions have significantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) than their peers. We conducted a case-control study of Zambian children with epilepsy (CWE) to assess the SES of CWE. 98 child pairs were recruited (n=196), mean age 10.8 yrs, 59.7% male. The comparison group’s medical conditions included asthma (54.0%), rheumatic heart disease (26.6%), type 1 diabetes (14.2%), and hypertension (5.2%). Compared to children with non-stigmatized chronic medical conditions, CWE have fewer educational opportunities, more environmental hazards, and poorer food quality and security (all p’s<0.05). These deprivations may be related to lost maternal income from mothers who deferred employment so they could remain at home to care for the child. These early deprivations have long-term implications for health and well-being. Healthcare workers and child advocates need to be aware of the circumstances facing CWE in this region. PMID:18602496

  6. Theileriosis control modelling (experiences from Southern Province, Zambia).

    PubMed

    Penne, K; D'Haese, L

    1999-09-01

    Effects of different tick-borne disease control strategies on cattle productivity are simulated based on a 30-year herd projection, calculated by a modified Markov Chain model. Input data can be grouped in technical, economic and epidemiological parameters. The output is a set of economic parameters such as benefit/cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) of the profit, internal rate of return (IRR), total economic cost (TEC) as well as graphs showing animal production over time. Shadow prices are obtained for input and output in kind. Throughout the calculations a distinction is made between transactions in cash and transactions in kind. A case study was run for Southern Province, Zambia, to illustrate the model. Either vector control or treatment, or a combination of these, controls theileriosis at farm level after natural infection. Preventive immunization against the parasite is also possible. Although the calculations are based on a mixture of data obtained from literature, field experience, expert opinion and assumptions, the importance of theileriosis control is clearly indicated. Immunization gives better economic results than chemotherapy. Vector control can only be used as a last resort. PMID:10540313

  7. Cost-effectiveness of eye care services in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery and refractive error/presbyopia correction in Zambia. Methods Primary data on costs and health related quality of life were collected in a prospective cohort study of 170 cataract and 113 refractive error/presbyopia patients recruited from three health facilities. Six months later, follow-up data were available from 77 and 41 patients who had received cataract surgery and spectacles, respectively. Costs were determined from patient interviews and micro-costing at the three health facilities. Utility values were gathered by administering the EQ-5D quality of life instrument immediately before and six months after cataract surgery or acquiring spectacles. A probabilistic state-transition model was used to generate cost-effectiveness estimates with uncertainty ranges. Results Utility values significantly improved across the patient sample after cataract surgery and acquiring spectacles. Incremental costs per Quality Adjusted Life Years gained were US$ 259 for cataract surgery and US$ 375 for refractive error correction. The probabilities of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios being below the Zambian gross national income per capita were 95% for both cataract surgery and refractive error correction. Conclusion In spite of proven cost-effectiveness, severe health system constraints are likely to hamper scaling up of the interventions. PMID:24568593

  8. An intervention to increase the condom supply in rural zambia.

    PubMed

    Seidenfeld, David

    2014-09-01

    More than US$800 million per year is spent on programs in low- and middle-income countries to increase demand for condoms, yet in rural areas of Africa condoms are often distributed for free only by regional health clinics that may be located far from home. Anecdotal evidence suggests that limited supply, resulting primarily from long travel times to acquire condoms, is a major barrier to use. This study investigates the potential unmet demand for condoms in rural sub-Saharan Africa. I provide empirical evidence of the importance of supply effects, based on an evaluation of a distribution program in which nine agents were enlisted to sell condoms across 92 rural villages in Zambia. I find that the number of individuals acquiring condoms tripled and the number of condoms distributed rose by more than 250 percent. The study demonstrates that individuals in poor rural areas are willing to pay for condoms and provides a model whereby public health goods can be acquired through market forces without the government incurring large costs and without detracting from public health services. PMID:25207498

  9. Folklore as an Instrument of Education among the Chewa People of Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Dennis; Morgan, W. John

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the folklore of the Chewa people of Zambia as an instrument of education. It suggests that there is only a fine distinction between Chewa culture ["mwambo wa a Chewa"] and Chewa education ["maphunziro ya Uchewa"]. The former comprises tribal "truths" to be imposed on the minds of the younger…

  10. Of cabbages and King Cobra: Populist politics and Zambia's 2006 election

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miles Larmer; Alastair Fraser

    2007-01-01

    Zambia's 2006 election was won by incumbent President Levy Mwanawasa and his Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD). However, it is argued here that the most important outcome of the campaign was the successful articulation of a new populist politics by Michael Sata's Patriotic Front (PF), which won a significant majority in urban areas. Sata's attacks on foreign investors (particularly from

  11. Rural people pay for solar: experiences from the Zambia PV-ESCO project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Ellegård; Anders Arvidson; Mattias Nordström; Oscar S Kalumiana; Clotilda Mwanza

    2004-01-01

    In the eastern province of Zambia, three companies for solar energy services have been operating for more than two years, with 400 clients paying for the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. Clients do not become owners of the systems. Instead, the company continues to charge a fee for keeping the systems in operation. In this way, the useful lifetime

  12. Constructing the Food Security Institution: The Early Warning System and Disaster Management Policy in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichiro Matsumura

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, establishment of an early warning system and disaster management policy has been an urgent matter since the 1970s. In Zambia, the initial effort for enhancing national food security started in the early 1980s. In FY 2008 research, we focused on the historical process of establishment of food security institutions and the system of food aid by examining

  13. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

  14. Inquiry-Based Science Education: A Scenario on Zambia's High School Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mumba, Frackson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at elucidating the current state of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in Zambia's high school science curriculum. Therefore, we investigated Zambian teachers' conceptions of inquiry; determined inquiry levels in the national high school science curriculum materials, which include syllabi, textbooks and practical exams; and…

  15. Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia. PMID:22954173

  16. Education and Zambia's Democratic Development: Reconstituting "Something" from the Predatory Project of Neoliberal Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.; Ellis, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million people, is currently exposed to the nonsubjective forces of globalization, including institutional weaknesses such as high unemployment rated and chronic levels of poverty that ipso facto problematize its governance and social development priorities. The first part of the article focuses on an…

  17. Disrupting Demand for Commercial Seed: Input Subsidies in Malawi and Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole M. Mason; Jacob Ricker-Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Input subsidy programs that provide inorganic fertilizer and improved maize seed to small farmers below market rates are currently receiving a great deal of support as a sustainable strategy to foster an African Green Revolution. In recent years numerous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia have implemented such programs at substantial cost

  18. WP 80 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Zambia on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the

  19. Predictors of Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Men in Zambia and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a…

  20. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  1. DIARRHEA PREVENTION THROUGH HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL WATER DISINFECTION AND SAFE STORAGE IN ZAMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT E. QUICK; AKIKO KIMURA; ANGELICA THEVOS; MATHIAS TEMBO; ISIDORE SHAMPUTA; LORI HUTWAGNER; ERIC MINTZ

    2002-01-01

    A water quality intervention that consists of water treatment, safe storage, and community education was field tested in Kitwe, Zambia. A total of 166 intervention households were randomly selected from one community and 94 control households from another. Baseline surveys were conducted and the intervention was distributed. Weekly active diarrhea surveillance, biweekly water testing, and a follow-up survey were conducted.

  2. Information Provision in Emergency Settings: The Experience of Refugee Communities in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Brendah Kakulwa; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies information provision services in emergency settings using Zambia as a case study by identifying innovative ways of providing library and information services. The thrust of the article is to analyze information management practices of organizations that work within refugee camps and how they take specific cognizance of the…

  3. Colonial Origins of Government Corruption? Evidence from Tax Collection in Kenya and Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh A Gardner

    2009-01-01

    Corruption has long been considered one of the most intractable obstacles to economic development in Africa. This paper uses evidence on tax collection in Kenya and Zambia to argue that government corruption was an unintended consequence of colonial policies which influence government institutions in Africa today. Lacking the administrative capacity to collect information on taxpayers, colonial administrations allowed local officials

  4. Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Susie

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

  5. Access, Quality, and Opportunity: A Case Study of Zambia Open Community Schools (ZOCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwalimu, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Community schools and other approaches to Alternative Primary Education or APE have increased access to primary education for underserved populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a major goal of the Education for All (EFA) movement. In Zambia, a country where an estimated 20 percent of the basic education enrollment now attends community…

  6. Urban waste landfill planning and karstic groundwater resources in developing countries: the example of Lusaka (Zambia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. De Waele; I. A. Nyambe; A. Di Gregorio; F. Di Gregorio; S. Simasiku; R. Follesa; S. Nkemba

    2004-01-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia with more than two million inhabitants, derives approximately 70% of its water requirements from groundwater sourced in the underlying karstic Lusaka aquifer. This water resource is, therefore, extremely important for the future of the population. The characteristics of the aquifer and the shallow water table make the resource vulnerable and in need of protection

  7. From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naawa Sipilanyambe; Jonathon L Simon; Pascalina Chanda; Peter Olumese; Robert W Snow; Davidson H Hamer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national

  8. Report from the Field: Education under Structural Adjustment in Nigeria and Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Joel B.; Lungwangwa, Geoffrey; Adeyinka, Augustus A.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) on the educational systems in Nigeria and Zambia. Reports that SAP impacted the public expenditure on education, the purchasing power of the incomes earned by both learning institutions and their staff, and on access, equity, and quality indicators in education at all levels. (CMK)

  9. Factors Related to Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion: A Case for Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muwana, Florence Chuzu; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a global trend in the provision of services for students with disabilities. In Zambia and other developing nations, international initiatives from UNESCO and other nongovernmental organisations have contributed to the consensus that all children have a right to a free and appropriate education and that all students…

  10. Brucellosis among smallholder cattle farmers in Zambia: public health significance.

    PubMed

    Muma, John Bwalya; Pandey, Girja Shankar; Munyeme, Musso; Mumba, Chisoni; Mkandawire, Ethel; Chimana, Henry Mwelwa

    2012-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in Southern and Lusaka provinces of Zambia between March and September 2008 to estimate Brucella seroprevalence in cattle kept by smallholder dairy farmers (n = 185). Rose Bengal test (RBT) was used as a screening test followed by confirmation with competitive ELISA (c-ELISA). We investigated 1,323 cattle, of which 383 had a history of receiving vaccination against brucellosis and 36 had a history of abortion. Overall seroprevalence was 6.0% with areas where vaccination was practiced having low seroprevalence. Age was associated with Brucella seropositivity (P = 0.03) unlike cattle breed (P = 0.21) and sex (P = 0.32). At area level, there was a negative correlation (Corr. coeff = -0.74) between percentage of animals with brucellosis vaccination history (vaccination coverage) and level of brucellosis; percentage of animals with history of abortion (Corr. coeff. = -0.82) and brucellosis vaccination coverage. However, a positive correlation existed between brucellosis infection levels with percentage of animals having a history of abortion (Corr. coeff. = 0.72). History of vaccination against brucellosis was positively associated with a positive Brucella result on RBT (P = 0.004) whereby animals with history of vaccination against brucellosis were more likely to give a positive RBT test results (OR = 1.52). However, the results of c-ELISA were independent of history of Brucella vaccination (P = 0.149) but was positively associated with history of abortion (OR = 4.12). Our results indicate a relatively low Brucella seroprevalence in cattle from smallholder dairy farmers and that vaccination was effective in reducing cases of Brucella infections and Brucella-related abortions. Human exposure to Brucella through milk from smallholder farmers could result through milk traded on the informal market since that milk is not processed and there no quality and safety controls. PMID:21947888

  11. Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI) funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART), while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective response in rural areas. PMID:20701749

  12. The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women). Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48), and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23). Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms. PMID:18088437

  13. MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SUBHUMID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ZAMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. N. LUNGU

    MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SUB-HUMID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ZAMBIA. Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop\\/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on

  14. Factors affecting the design of a partnership program to facilitate adoption of agricultural practices among small-scale farmers, Mpongwe, Zambia

    E-print Network

    Musoma, Henry Kasonde

    2002-01-01

    . Figure 3 Mpongwe Development Company operational structure, Mpongwe, Zambia, 2002 . . . 7 Figure 4 Factors and activities affecting decisions made and amount of external labor required at different stages in the crop production process at Mpongwe... Mushroom collection market, Mpongwe, Zambia, 2002 . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 10 Tripartite approach used in grouping organizations and individuals to gather research information needed in Mpongwe, Zambia, 2002 . . . . . 39 Figure 11 People engaged...

  15. Adolescent HIV disclosure in Zambia: barriers, facilitators and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Kalibala, Sam; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Cataldo, Fabian; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Ross, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help parents to assess and understand the evolving cognitive capacity and maturity of their adolescents in order to determine the appropriate time to inform them of their HIV-positive status. Such interventions should also mitigate the risk of HIV stigma, as well as local norms that may prevent discussions of sexuality within families. Adolescents who have been informed of their HIV status should be provided with on-going support to prevent disclosure from negatively affecting their psychological and sexual wellbeing. Further research is needed to explore the potential role of trusted family members in contributing to the disclosure process. PMID:24629845

  16. Antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: colours, 'spoiling', 'talk' and the meaning of antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, Lynette Louise; Bond, Virginia A

    2008-12-01

    We examine responses to the roll-out of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in Zambia in 2004, focusing on material features of the drugs (colour, shape, size, origin), 'spoiling' (concern about toxicity, side effects of the drugs) and rumours ('talk' about the drugs). Data consists of interviews with 10 people living with HIV and 21 healthcare practitioners. We found that the colour symbolism of 'traditional medicine' has some influence on ideas about ARVs, suggesting possible 'meaning responses' that could affect treatment outcomes. Respondents also become concerned when colours, shapes and side effects differ from expectations. 'Talk' about ARVs concerns risks of medication, sustainability of treatment programmes and people's feelings of vulnerability within larger socio-economic contexts in which countries like Zambia are disadvantaged. Understanding the associations that pharmaceuticals evoke can improve treatment programmes by elucidating public and patient concerns and sensitising healthcare professionals to the historical and political circumstances that condition the 'meaning' of ARVs. PMID:18952338

  17. Active Management of Third Stage of Labour Saves Facility Costs in Guatemala and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin D.; Fogarty, Linda A.; Fishel, Joy D.; Vivio, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This study calculated the net benefit of using active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) rather than expectant management of the third stage of labour (EMTSL) for mothers in Guatemala and Zambia. Probabilities of events were derived from opinions of experts, publicly available data, and published literature. Costs of clinical events were calculated based on national price lists, observation of resources used in AMTSL and EMTSL, and expert estimates of resources used in managing postpartum haemorrhage and its complications, including transfusion. A decision tree was used for modelling expected costs associated with AMTSL or EMTSL. The base case analysis suggested a positive net benefit from AMTSL, with a net cost-saving of US$ 18,000 in Guatemala (with 100 lives saved) and US$ 145,000 in Zambia (with 467 lives saved) for 100,000 births. Facilities have strong economic incentives to adopt AMTSL if uterotonics are available. PMID:17591351

  18. Evaluating the program effects of a radio drama about AIDS in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Yoder, P S; Hornik, R; Chirwa, B C

    1996-01-01

    This study describes an approach to the analysis of data that is designed to isolate program effects for evaluations and applies that approach to a program in Zambia designed to disseminate AIDS information. Evidence is considered that a radio drama broadcast for nine months had an impact on knowledge and behavior related to AIDS among Bemba speakers in northern Zambia. Using results from large sample surveys (1,600 men and women), conducted before and after the drama was broadcast, the analyses compare changes in knowledge and behavior in those most likely and least likely to have listened to the broadcast. While the population as a whole had improved its knowledge substantially, and some people reported having reduced risky behavior, attributing these changes to the program itself was not possible. PMID:8875732

  19. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  20. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in zambia.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Malama, Sydney; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Mwanza, Sydney; Djønne, Berit; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Infections due to M. bovis, which serves as a stable reservoir, can pose serious challenge to control and eradicate in both wildlife and livestock at the interface. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing M. bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) at the animal/human interface in Zambia. The samples with lesions compatible with BTB collected during the hunting seasons of 2009 and 2010 were cultured for isolation of mycobacteria using Stonebrink with pyruvate (BD Diagnostics, MD, USA) and Middlebrook 7H10 (BD Diagnostics) slants. Isolated mycobacteria were identified using IS6110 polymerase chain reaction and deletion analysis. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed using spoligotyping and mycobacteria interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) with nine loci. Data was analyzed using BioNumerics software 6.1. Out of the 39 samples, acid fast bacilli were detected in 27 (69.2 %) based on smear microscopy. Seven isolates were found to belong to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and all were identified as M. bovis based on deletion analysis. All seven isolates were identical on spoligotyping as belonging to the SB0120 (SIT 482). MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates into five different patterns. This study has confirmed that M. bovis circulates in the Kafue lechwe, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria were detected in the black lechwe in Zambia which represents a wildlife reservoir, with a potential to spillover to cattle and humans. Isolates of M. bovis from lechwe antelopes are much conserved as only one spoligotype was detected. The study has shown that three loci differentiated fairly well. This option is cheap and less laborious, and hence a better option in resource-strained country like Zambia. The study further showed that some of the loci recommended by the European Reference Laboratory are not suitable for typing M. bovis in Zambia. PMID:24146292

  2. Malaria prevention in Zambia: a practical application of the diffusion of innovations model.

    PubMed

    Steury, Elinda Enright

    2013-04-01

    Transcultural nursing educators can be change agents for health issues in other cultures. Yet unfamiliar disease processes and the foreign environment provide challenges that must be overcome to achieve a lasting, effective, and positive change. Rogers's Diffusion of Innovations Model can be used to plan and implement community-focused interventions into the cultures of developing nations, specifically malaria prevention in Zambia. Transcultural nurse educators could use concepts from the model to effect change in other cultures or communities. PMID:23341408

  3. Living as an adolescent with HIV in Zambia – lived experiences, sexual health and reproductive needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Hodgson; Julia Ross; Choolwe Haamujompa; D. Gitau-Mburu

    2012-01-01

    HIV services in developing countries are often ill-equipped to address the specific needs of HIV-positive adolescents. Studies suggest a lack of consistent, age-appropriate support regarding sexuality, relationships and transitioning to adulthood. The aims of this study were to explore and document the informational, psychosocial, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of adolescents (aged 10–19 years) living with HIV in Zambia,

  4. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.

  5. Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The metamorphism in the country rocks E of the batholith is in the lower greenschist facies indicating that deformation along the ITZ and NZ occurred during the cooling of the granite. U-Pb zircon LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses reveal that the coarse-grained and fine-grained granites in the NE part of the batholith have the same age of 549×2 Ma. The age of an undeformed aplite that truncates the NZ's foliation brackets the strike-slip shearing between 549×2 Ma and 541×3 Ma. In the SE margin of the batholith deformed coarse-grained granite is dated at 544×2 Ma and an undeformed granitic vein gave an age of 543×3 Ma, thus relating the fabric formation to the same time interval. To the SW the deformed granite in the ITZ is dated at 533×3 Ma indicating that the E-W shortening was still active at this time. This study reports two deformational stages recorded in the Hook batholith and its country rocks. E-W shortening folded the sediments form the E margin of the granite and formed the solid-state fabric in the batholith. The following N-S shortening cold be related to the final docking of the Zambezi sequence to the Lufilian Arc along the Mwembeshi dislocation.

  6. Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

  7. Underperformance of African Protected Area Networks and the Case for New Conservation Models: Insights from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; t’Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia’s PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia’s PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712

  8. Implementing antiretroviral therapy programs in resource-constrained settings: lessons from Monze, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Adedimeji, Adebola; Malokota, Oliver; Manafa, Ogenna

    2011-05-01

    We describe the impact of an antiretroviral therapy program on human resource utilization and service delivery in a rural hospital in Monze, Zambia, using qualitative data. We assess project impact on staff capacity utilization, service delivery, and community perception of care. Increased workload resulted in fatigue, low staff morale, and exacerbated critical manpower shortages, but also an increase in users of antiretroviral therapy, improvement in hospital infrastructure and funding, and an overall community satisfaction with service delivery. Integrating HAART programs within existing hospital units and services may be a good alternative to increase overall efficiency. PMID:21368850

  9. Evaluation of recruitment and retention strategies for health workers in rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In response to Zambia’s critical human resources for health challenges, a number of strategies have been implemented to recruit and retain health workers in rural and remote areas. Prior to this study, the effectiveness of these strategies had not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the impacts of the various health worker retention strategies on health workers in two rural districts of Zambia. Methods Using a modified outcome mapping approach, cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative data were collected from health workers and other stakeholders through focus group discussions and individual interview questionnaires and were supplemented by administrative data. Key themes emerging from qualitative data were identified from transcripts using thematic analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively as well as by regression modelling. In the latter, the degree to which variation in health workers’ self-reported job satisfaction, likelihood of leaving, and frequency of considering leaving, were modelled as functions of participation in each of several retention strategies while controlling for age, gender, profession, and district. Results Nineteen health worker recruitment and retention strategies were identified and 45 health care workers interviewed in the two districts; participation in each strategy varied from 0% to 80% of study participants. Although a salary top-up for health workers in rural areas was identified as the most effective incentive, almost none of the recruitment and retention strategies were significant predictors of health workers’ job satisfaction, likelihood of leaving, or frequency of considering leaving, which were in large part explained by individual characteristics such as age, gender, and profession. These quantitative findings were consistent with the qualitative data, which indicated that existing strategies fail to address major problems identified by health workers in these districts, such as poor living and working conditions. Conclusions Although somewhat limited by a small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the primary data available, the results nonetheless show that the many health worker recruitment and retention strategies implemented in rural Zambia appear to have little or no impact on keeping health workers in rural areas, and highlight key issues for future recruitment and retention efforts.

  10. Girl's Education in Zambia: Everyone's Responsibility -- A Policy Framework for Participatory Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Claudia; Blaeser, Marilyn; Chilangwa, Barbara; Maimbolwa-Sinyangwe, Irene M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper is based on a panel in which the four authors participated at the 10th World Congress of Comparative Education Societies in Cape Town in July 1998. The overall focus of the panel was on how an initiative to promote girl's education in Zambia -- involving governments, NGOs, donor organizations, teachers and girls themselves -- has influenced policy development to the point where the Zambian Ministry of Educaion now has clear directives on girl's education. The authors analyse some of the important factors that contributed to this outcome.

  11. Is the Bangweulu Basin in Zambia the Eroded Remnant of a Large, Multiring Impact Crater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, S.

    1993-07-01

    The Bangweulu Basin (BB) (ca. 29 degrees-31 degrees E, 10 degrees-12 degrees S) is a roughly circular depression, ~150 km in diameter, on the Bangweulu Block of Zambia. The basin, about 1148 m ASL, is occupied by Lakes Bangweulu (~85 km long) and Kampolombo (~20 km long) and the Bangweulu Swamps [1,2]. The basement consists partly of granitoids (~1.8 Ga) together with ~1.1-Ga Katangan cover rocks. To the north, cover rocks of the Mporokoso Group (~1.8-1.3 Ga) form the arcuate Luongo Fold Belt [3], partly defining the perimeter of the outermost ring (R = 125 km) of the Bangweulu structure. Drainage into the BB is centripetal, with one outlet in the south, draining into a tributary of the Luapula River, which then curves in a broad arc toward the north, along the Zambia-Zaire border, before entering Lake Mweru. Rivers entering the BB include the Luansenshi, which rises in the north and flows in an arc to the southeast and south before joining the Chambeshi River, which flows southwest, west, and northwest before entering Lake Bangweulu. There is an arcuate watershed in the west (at R = 100 km), to the west of which rivers drain to the southwest and west into the Luapula River. Several elongate curved sliver-like islands, including Mbawala (~30 x 4 km) and Chisi, are present in Lake Bangweulu. The curvature of the islands follows the arcuate northwest boundary of the lake in a concentric manner. Unlike all the other major lakes in Zambia and surrounding areas (Mweru, Tanganyika, Rukwa, Malawi, and Kariba), which occupy seismically active rift structures [4,5], the Bangweulu Basin is generally aseismic, and is unrelated to rifting. There is a positive aeromagnetic intensity anomaly over the central Bangweulu depression, and there is also a magnetic anomaly density high over the central part of the BB, surrounded by a concentric low [6]. A roughly circular anomaly, outlined by the -140 mgal contour, of the regional Bouguer gravity field is centerd on Lake Bangweulu, surrounded by an arcuate high south of the Luongo Fold Belt [7,8]. There are few heat flow measurements in Zambia [9], but there is no indication that the Bangweulu Basin has abnormally high heat flow, which is present in the Luangwaand Upper Zambezi rifts, as evidenced by numerous hot springs and historical geysers [10]. Satellite imagery of Central Africa clearly shows a roughly circular outline of the Bangweulu Basin, including the lakes and swamps, surrounded by a concentric ring of uplifts. The concentric islands in Lake Bangweulu are reminiscent of the multiple concentric rings around impact basins in other planetary bodies, e.g., Valhalla and Asgard structures on the jovian moon of Callisto. Lunar craters Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, and others also have similar terraced morphologies with concentric rings. Based on the above geomorphological and geophysical features, it is postulated that the Bangweulu Basin represents the eroded remnant of a large multiring impact structure that postdates the Katangan Supergroup. Any possible connection between the Bangweulu structure and the Lukanga swamp (a postulated astrobleme in central Zambia [11]) is unknown at this stage. Ground search for macro- and microscopic shock features in the Bangweulu Basin is planned for 1994. References: [1] Debenham F. (1947) Geog. Rev., 37, 351-368. [2] Thieme J. G. and Johnson R. L. (1976) The 1:1,000,000 Scale Geological Map of the Republic of Zambia, Geol. Surv. Zambia. [3] Andersen L. S. and Unrug R. (1984) Precambrian Res., 25, 187-212. [4] Bram K. (1972). Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 62, 1211-1216. [5] Fairhead J. D. and Henderson N. B. (1977) Tectonophysics, 41, 19-26. [6] Saviaro K. (1979) Bull. Geol. Surv. Botswana, 22, 159-181. [7] Mazac O. (1974) Tech. Rept. Geol. Surv. Zambia, 76, 40 pp. [8] Cowan I. M. and Pollack H. N. (1977) Nature, 266, 615-617. [9] Chapman D. S. and Pollack H. N. (1975) Nature, 256, 28-30. [10] Legg C. A. (1974) Econ. Rept. Geol. Surv. Zambia, 50, 60 pp. [11] Vrana S. (1985) Meteoritics, 20, 125-139.

  12. Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT), a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. Methods This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs) conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership. Results Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both planning and delivery. Conclusion Poor status of the AFR conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership corresponds well to the differing perceptions of fairness and unfairness among outpatient attendees and decision-makers. This may have been re-enforced by existing disagreements between the two groups regarding who the legitimate stakeholders to involve during service delivery were. Conflicts identified in this study could be resolved by promoting application of approaches such as AFR during priority setting in the district. PMID:21040552

  13. The role of Financial Intelligence Units in combating money laundering : A comparative analysis of Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Musonda Simwayi; Muhammed Haseed

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative position of Financial Intelligence Units (FIU) in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi and assess their role in combating money laundering. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study employed a multiple case study research methodology. The units in the three countries are compared using a framework based on the Financial Action Task Force

  14. A Library Response to the Massification of Higher Education: The Case of the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the challenges that libraries in Africa face in responding to massification of higher education by discussing the University of Zambia library's response in library and information resources provision. As a result of massification of higher education, libraries have been forced not only to employ new and different strategies to…

  15. An Audit of Skills and Qualifications in Preservation and Conservation Techniques: The Case of the University of Zambia Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameenda, Kimbo Lemmy; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2012-01-01

    This article establishes the level of skills and experience in preservation and conservation management using a case study methodological approach conducted in the 3 university libraries at the University of Zambia. The findings revealed that 20 (57%) of the library staff had not received formal training in preservation and conservation of library…

  16. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  17. A qualitative assessment of the risk of introducing peste des petits ruminants into northern zambia from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chazya, R; Muma, J B; Mwacalimba, K K; Karimuribo, E; Mkandawire, E; Simuunza, M

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risk of introducing Peste des petits ruminants virus into northern Zambia from Tanzania via live goat trade. Data was collected during a mission to Tanzania and northern Zambia and also from literature and interviews with experts. The risk of PPRV introduction was evaluated as a function of the probability of hazard (PPRV) release, exposure of susceptible hosts, and the consequences of spread using the following parameters: prevalence of infection, volume of trade, C-ELISA and quarantine screening missing an infected animal, PPRV viability (remaining infective) in transit, and the virus potential for infection. The magnitude of the consequences was derived from the probability of transmission and spread and the impact of PPRV introduction and establishment. Accordingly, the probability of occurrence of PPRV in northern Zambia from Tanzania was rated as "high" and the economic consequences were also rated as "high." Finally, the overall risk of introducing PPRV into northern Zambia from Tanzania at the time of the assessment was rated "high." It was concluded that import of goats and sheep be prohibited until efficient and adequate measures to reduce the risk have been put in place. PMID:24558632

  18. A Qualitative Assessment of the Risk of Introducing Peste des Petits Ruminants into Northern Zambia from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chazya, R.; Muma, J. B.; Mwacalimba, K. K.; Karimuribo, E.; Mkandawire, E.; Simuunza, M.

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risk of introducing Peste des petits ruminants virus into northern Zambia from Tanzania via live goat trade. Data was collected during a mission to Tanzania and northern Zambia and also from literature and interviews with experts. The risk of PPRV introduction was evaluated as a function of the probability of hazard (PPRV) release, exposure of susceptible hosts, and the consequences of spread using the following parameters: prevalence of infection, volume of trade, C-ELISA and quarantine screening missing an infected animal, PPRV viability (remaining infective) in transit, and the virus potential for infection. The magnitude of the consequences was derived from the probability of transmission and spread and the impact of PPRV introduction and establishment. Accordingly, the probability of occurrence of PPRV in northern Zambia from Tanzania was rated as “high” and the economic consequences were also rated as “high.” Finally, the overall risk of introducing PPRV into northern Zambia from Tanzania at the time of the assessment was rated “high.” It was concluded that import of goats and sheep be prohibited until efficient and adequate measures to reduce the risk have been put in place. PMID:24558632

  19. Grassroot Soccer Resiliency Pilot Program: Building Resiliency through Sport-Based Education in Zambia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock-Villada, Paola; DeCelles, Jeff; Banda, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Grassroot Soccer (GRS), a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, designed a curriculum and sport-based teaching model to build resiliency, targeting boys and girls in Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa, where most children are reminded daily of the devastation caused by AIDS and where many face chronic and acute hardship. Collaborating…

  20. A summative evaluation of a HIV\\/AIDS Early Childhood Care, Education and Development Teacher Training Workshop in Mongu, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Rene Zesch

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To conduct a summative evaluation of an Early Childhood Care, Education and Development (ECCED) Teacher Training Workshop in Mongu, Zambia by assessing changes in knowledge, attitudes and intent to use the information. ^ Study design. A matched cohort survey design was used with additional qualitative data collected by structured observation of workshop sessions, daily facilitator and participant debriefs and

  1. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles ( Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Almli; Maxwell Mwase; Tore Sivertsen; Mike M. Musonda; Arne Flåøyen

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and

  2. Factors Associated with School Teachers' Perceived Needs and Level of Adoption of HIV Prevention Education in Lusaka, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Margaret; Chi, Chunheui; Khanna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural variables that may influence teachers' adoption of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education within the school setting and among school types in Zambia's Lusaka Province. Method: Mixed methods were used to collect original data. Using semi-structured interviews (n=11) and a survey…

  3. The effect of food insecurity on mental health: panel evidence from rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Cole, Steven M; Tembo, Gelson

    2011-10-01

    A growing number of studies show support for a positive association between food insecurity and poor mental health in developing countries. Few of these studies, however, explore the relationship statistically employing longitudinal data. This study combines ethnography with randomly sampled household-level panel data (two waves) collected in 2009 to examine the association between food insecurity and mental health in rural Zambia. Mental health was measured using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire and food insecurity was assessed utilizing a modified 7-item scale based on local coping strategies used during food shortages. A multilevel linear regression model was employed with repeated measures nested within individuals (N = 280 observations) living in 81 households nested within 16 villages. Regression results confirm the postulated positive association between poor mental health and food insecurity. Food insecurity during the dry season, the time of year in rural Zambia when many households are typically food secure, had a subsequent greater effect on mental health than food insecurity during the rainy season. The difference in the effect was statistically significant at the five-percent level. In a country where mental health care resources are severely lacking, policy and applied efforts aimed at improving access to key agricultural resources, thereby increasing agricultural output, could potentially produce beneficial mental health outcomes. PMID:21852028

  4. National malaria control and scaling up for impact: the Zambia experience through 2006.

    PubMed

    Steketee, Richard W; Sipilanyambe, Naawa; Chimumbwa, John; Banda, James J; Mohamed, Abdirahman; Miller, John; Basu, Suprotik; Miti, Simon K; Campbell, Carlos C

    2008-07-01

    With its 2006-2011 National Malaria Strategic Plan, Zambia committed to control malaria at a national scale. This scale-up for impact approach was facilitated by sound business planning and financing in 2006 of approximately US$35 million. Compared with surveys in 2001 and 2004, a 2006 national survey of 14,681 persons in 2,999 households at the end of the transmission season showed substantial coverage increases for preventive interventions. Ownership and use rates of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) among vulnerable groups doubled, with 44% of households owning ITNs and 23% of children less than five years of age and 24% of pregnant women using them. Roll Back Malaria Abuja targets for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) were exceeded, with 62% of pregnant women receiving at least two doses of IPTp. As of 2006, Zambia is demonstrating substantial progress toward the national targets (80% population coverage rates for the interventions) and aspires to show that malaria need not be its leading health problem, and that malaria control is a sound national investment. PMID:18606763

  5. An Evaluation of Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Laura K; Familiar, Itziar; Skavenski, Stephanie; Jere, Elizabeth; Cohen, Judy; Imasiku, Mwiya; Mayeya, John; Bass, Judith K; Bolton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To monitor and evaluate the feasibility of implementing Trauma Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) to address trauma and stress-related symptoms in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Zambia as part of ongoing programming within a non-governmental organization (NGO). Methods As part of ongoing programming, voluntary care-workers administered locally validated assessments to identify children who met criteria for moderate to severe trauma symptomatology. Local lay counselors implemented TF-CBT with identified families, while participating in ongoing supervision. Fifty-eight children and adolescents aged 5–18 completed the TF-CBT treatment, with pre- and post-assessments. Results The mean number of traumas reported by the treatment completers (N=58) was 4.11. Post assessments showed significant reductions in severity of trauma symptoms (p<0.0001), and severity of shame symptoms (p<0.0001). Conclusions Our results suggest that TF-CBT is a feasible treatment option in Zambia for OVC. A decrease in symptoms suggests that a controlled trial is warranted. Implementation factors monitored suggest that it is feasible to integrate and evaluate evidence-based mental health assessments and intervention into programmatic services run by an NGO in low/middle resource countries. Results also support the effectiveness of implementation strategies such as task shifting, and the apprenticeship model of training and supervision. PMID:23768939

  6. Motivations and experiences of women who accessed ‘see and treat’ cervical cancer prevention services in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Heather L.; Mulambia, Chishimba; Sinkala, Moses; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Kapambwe, Sharon; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam C.; Chamot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background In Zambia, a country with a generalized HIV epidemic, age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence is among the highest worldwide. In 2006, the UAB-Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia and the Zambian Ministry of Health launched a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)-based “see and treat” cervical cancer prevention program in Lusaka. All services were integrated within existing government-operated primary health care facilities. Objective Study aims were to: 1) identify women's motivations for cervical screening; 2) document women's experiences with screening; and 3) describe the potentially reciprocal influences between women undergoing cervical screening and their social networks. Design & Methods Focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with women who accepted screening and with care providers. Low-level content analysis was performed to identify themes evoked by participants. Between September, 2009 and July, 2010, 60 women and 21 care providers participated in 8 FGD and 10 IDI. Results Women presented for screening with varying needs and expectations. A majority discussed their screening decisions and experiences with members of their social networks. Key reinforcing factors and obstacles to VIA screening were identified. Conclusions Interventions are needed to gain support for the screening process from influential family members and peers. PMID:22369192

  7. The effect of seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Fredrick; Siamudaala, Victor Mukulule; Munyeme, Musso; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob; Hamududu, Byman

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activities. Retrospective data for the period 1999 to 2007 showed that a total of 1,216 bovine cases of anthrax were reported. During the same period, 1,790 human anthrax cases and a corresponding case fatality rate of 4.63% (83/1,790) was documented in the upper Zambezi floodplain. Occurrence of human cases was highly correlated with cattle outbreaks (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Differences in precipitation were significantly associated with the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks (?2 = 4.75, p < 0.03), indicating that the likelihood of outbreaks occurring was higher during the dry months when human occupancy of the floodplain was greater compared to the flooding months when people and livestock moved out of this region. Human dependency on the floodplain was shown to significantly influence the epidemiology of anthrax in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia. Methods for mitigating anthrax outbreaks by disrupting the cycle of transmission are herein highlighted. PMID:23000586

  8. Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mbulo, Grace; Muwonge, Adrian; Djønne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples (n = 67) yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended. PMID:24847441

  9. Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-08-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

  10. Lusaka, Zambia during SAFARI-2000: A Collection Point for Ozone Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tal; Phahlane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In August and September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and other fire-related activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart of the southern African burning region were taken at Lusaka, Zambia (155 deg S, 28 deg E) in early September 2000. Over 90 ppbv ozone was recorded at the surface (1.3 km elevation) and column tropospheric ozone was greater than 50 DU during a stagnant period. These values are much higher than concurrent measurements over Nairobi (1 deg S, 38 deg E) and Irene (25 deg S, 28 deg E, near Pretoria). The heaviest ozone pollution layer (800-500 hPa) over Lusaka is due to recirculated trans-boundary ozone. Starting out over Zambia, Angola, and Namibia, ozone heads east to the Indian Ocean, before turning back over Mozambique and Zimbabwe, heading toward Lusaka. Thus, Lusaka is a collection point for pollution, consistent with a picture of absolutely stable layers recirculating in a gyre over southern Africa.

  11. Clinical and ultrasonographic features of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV positive adults in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on abdominal TB in HIV infection. We estimated the prevalence and clinical features of abdominal (excluding genitourinary) TB in HIV infected adults attending the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia. Methods We screened 5,609 medical inpatients, and those with fever, weight loss, and clinical features suggestive of abdominal pathology were evaluated further. A clinical algorithm was used to specify definitive investigations including laparoscopy or colonoscopy, with culture of biopsies and other samples. Results Of 140 HIV seropositive patients with these features, 31 patients underwent full evaluation and 22 (71%) had definite or probable abdominal TB. The commonest presenting abdominal features were ascites and persistent tenderness. The commonest ultrasound findings were ascites, para-aortic lymphadenopathy (over 1 cm in size), and hepatomegaly. Abdominal TB was associated with CD4 cell counts over a wide range though 76% had CD4 counts <100 cells/?L. Conclusion The clinical manifestations of abdominal TB in our HIV-infected patients resembled the well-established pattern in HIV-uninfected adults. Patients with fever, weight loss, abdominal tenderness, abdominal lymphadenopathy, ascites and/or hepatomegaly in Zambia have a high probability of abdominal TB, irrespective of CD4 cell count. PMID:19374757

  12. High Schistosoma mansoni disease burden in a rural district of western Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mutengo, Mable M; Mwansa, James C L; Mduluza, Takafira; Sianongo, Sandie; Chipeta, James

    2014-11-01

    Schistosoma mansoni disease is endemic in most parts of rural Zambia, and associated complications are common. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 754 people in rural communities of Kaoma District, western Zambia to determine the burden of S. mansoni infection and associated morbidity. Parasitology and ultrasonography assessments were conducted on consenting participants. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 42.4% (304) and 86.6 eggs per gram (95% confidence interval = 75.6-99.6), respectively. Prevalence was highest in the age group of 15-19 years old (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.70, P = 0.017). S. mansoni-related portal fibrosis was detected in 26% of the participants screened. Participants above 39 years old were 2.93 times more likely to have fibrosis than the 7-9 years old age group (P = 0.004). The study highlights the high burden of S. mansoni disease in this area and calls for immediate interventions to avert complications associated with the disease. PMID:25246696

  13. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15–24 years in Zambia: An in-depth analysis of the 2001–2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kembo, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001–2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15–24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p = .000) and 5.9% (p = .001) respectively, between 2001–2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p = .029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p = .000) and 1.4% (p = .000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15–24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (– 4.5%), premarital sex (– 2.6%), sex before age 18 (– 2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (– 1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the spread of HIV and AIDS, particularly among young people in Zambia and other sub-Saharan countries. PMID:24702245

  14. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712

  15. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas. PMID:20849626

  16. Ubendian basement and its late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic structural and metamorphic overprint in northeastern Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrána, S.; Kachlík, V.; Kröner, A.; Marheine, D.; Seifert, A. V.; Žá?ek, V.; Bab?rek, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic basement in the Muyombe and Luwumbu River areas of northeastern Zambia comprises a WNW-ESE (to E-W) trending cordierite-garnet-sillimanite granulite unit with numerous enderbite bodies and an amphibolite-facies migmatite unit. Zircons from a biotite metatonalite intruding the granulites were dated at 1960.7 ± 0.4 Ma, and this is time-equivalent with the Nyika granite in adjacent Malawi. Mesoproterozoic intrusions into this basement are represented by a nepheline syenite at Mivula Hill (zircon age: 1360.1 ± 0.8 Ma) and the porphyritic Ntendele biotite metagranite (zircon age: 1329.1 ± 0.6 Ma). The Ntendele granite attains plutonic dimensions north of Muyombe. The Mesoproterozoic Mafinga Group occurs in two major belts imbricated in the basement, i.e., the Makutu Range belt and Nyika escarpment belt, both trending NE-SW, nearly at right angles to the Ubendian structures in the basement. Numerous smaller tectonic slices of the Mafinga Group, in the Ubendian basement gneisses farther south of the two major belts, document a significant areal extent of this unit. Structures and metamorphic effects (greenschist-facies, biotite ± garnet zone) imprinted in the Mafinga Group rocks correlate with those in the Irumide belt farther west near Isoka and to the north, in the Mafinga Hills. A mylonitic foliation and newly-formed mineral assemblages (biotite zone) in the Ntendele granite correspond to deformation and metamorphism of the Mafinga Group. Mylonitization affecting the basement complex near the Mafinga Group slices resulted in strongly but heterogeneously sheared domains with a corresponding Irumide-age structural and metamorphic overprint. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of muscovite from mylonitic gneisses derived from basement rocks and from a Mafinga Group phyllite point to closure of the K-Ar system in the interval 860-890 Ma. These early Neoproterozoic ages correlate with published muscovite and biotite K-Ar ages of biotite gneisses and muscovite schists from other parts of the Irumide belt in NE Zambia. They probably indicate slow cooling rates after main Irumide tectonism and associated magmatism around 1015 Ma. The 40Ar/ 39Ar data show that the Muyombe area was not affected by Pan-African thermal overprinting on a regional scale. In view of contrasting relations between the area studied and published results from northern Malawi, where both structural and thermal Pan-African overprints are documented, it is suggested that the NW-SE trending Mugesse shear zone in northern Malawi and along the border with NE Zambia is an important structural boundary separating contrasting crustal domains, i.e. the Ubendian belt, Irumide belt, and East African Orogen.

  17. From project aid to sustainable HIV services: a case study from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sustainable service delivery is a major challenge in the HIV response that is often not adequately addressed in project implementation. Sustainable strategies must be built into project design and implementation to enable HIV efforts to continue long after donor-supported projects are completed. Case description This paper presents the experiences in operational sustainability of Family Health International's Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership in Zambia, which is supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through United States Agency for International Development (October 2004 to September 2009). The partnership worked with Zambia's Ministry of Health to scale up HIV clinical services in five of the country's nine provinces, reaching 35 districts and 219 facilities. It provided technical and financial support from within the ministry's systems and structures. By completion of the project, 10 of the 35 districts had graduated beyond receiving ongoing technical support. Discussion and evaluation By working within the ministry's policies, structures and systems, the partnership was able to increase the ministry's capacity to add a comprehensive HIV service delivery component to its health services. Ministry structures were improved through renovations of health facilities, training of healthcare workers, procurement of essential equipment, and establishment of a quality assurance plan to ensure continued quality of care. The quality assurance tools were implemented by both the ministry and project staff as the foundation for technical graduation. Facilities that met all the quality criteria for more than six months were graduated from project technical support, as were districts where most supported facilities met the criteria. The district health offices then provided ongoing supervision of services. This predetermined "graduation" exit strategy, with buy in of the provincial and district health offices, set the stage for continued delivery of high-quality HIV services. Conclusions Achieving operational sustainability in a resource-limited setting is feasible. Developing and institutionalizing a quality assurance/quality improvement system is the basis on which facilities and districts can move beyond project support and, therefore, sustain services. Quality assurance/quality improvement tools should be based on national standards, and project implementation should use and improve existing health system structures. PMID:20529255

  18. Barriers and resources to PMTCT of HIV: Luba-Kasai men's perspective in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Jaana; Kylmä, Jari; Välimäki, Maritta; Bweupe, Max; Suominen, Tarja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Luba-Kasai (a Congolese tribe) men on barriers inhibiting them from the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and the resources they need to implement such prevention in Lusaka, Zambia. Twenty-one men were interviewed and the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The barriers identified in the data were poverty, refugee status, absence of support arrangements, and the working culture in antenatal care, passivity, ignorance, marital disharmony, HIV-related stigma, and cultural characteristics, such as ways of being a man and religious beliefs. The resources were spiritual outlook on life, knowledge of HIV issues, support and availability of advanced health services, and satisfaction of basic needs. Improving male participation in PMTCT in this subpopulation presupposes cooperation between different sectors of society and inspiring trust in antenatal care. PMID:24070641

  19. Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2010-03-01

    Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

  20. Children’s Roles in Tuberculosis Treatment Regimes: Constructing childhood and kinship in urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Hunleth, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In Zambia, the burden of HIV-related diseases such as tuberculosis has received substantial international attention. Zambians experience and participate in a range of globally produced programs to manage TB and cure TB sufferers. Guided by the WHO’s Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) protocol, TB treatment regimens now emphasize adherence to medications as the primary way to achieve cure. This article aims to understand how adherence models enter into the daily lives of children who live with and care for adult TB patients in an area disproportionately affected by the disease. I suggest that children domesticate adherence models, using them as strategies to safeguard identities, relationships, livelihoods, and futures that are increasingly under threat in the age of HIV. They draw on TB treatment and the hope and agency it affords to hold onto a version of childhood in which they are cared for by adults who will advocate for their wellbeing. PMID:23804398

  1. Translation and sustainability of an HIV prevention intervention in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Szonja; Mumbi, Miriam; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Weiss, Stephen Marshall; Jones, Deborah Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The scale-up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa necessitates creative solutions that do not further burden the health system to meet global initiatives in prevention and care. This study assessed the work environment and impact of providing a behavioral risk reduction intervention in six community health centers (CHCs) in Lusaka, Zambia; opportunities and challenges to long-term program sustainability were identified. CHC staff participants (n?=?82) were assessed on perceived clinic burden, job satisfaction, and burnout before and after implementation of the intervention. High levels of clinic burden were identified; however, no increase in perceived clinic burden or staff burnout was associated with providing the intervention. The intervention was sustained at the majority of CHCs and also adopted at additional clinics. Behavioral interventions can be successfully implemented and maintained in resource-poor settings. Creative strategies to overcome structural and economic challenges should be applied to enhance translation research. PMID:24904697

  2. Un/doing Gender? a Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-11-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry out cleaning tasks generally viewed as "women's work". Observations, interviews, student diaries and surveys from this school and from government schools provide the basis for a comparison, indicating how the former strives to interrupt the transmission of gender inequalities as well as how students respond to these practices. The findings suggest that the pedagogical practices deployed by this school have generally succeeded in destabilising norms of gender subordination and gender-based violence, though the replicability of these practices is interrogated given broader questions about the country's public resources and political will.

  3. HIVCorps: using volunteers to rapidly expand HIV health services across Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chi, Benjamin H; Fusco, Harmony; Goma, Fastone M; Zulu, Isaac; Simmers, Erin; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2006-05-01

    In 2004, we created HIVCorps, an international volunteer program to involve pre-medical, medical, and public health students in the scale-up of HIV care and prevention services in Zambia. In our first year, we used 27 American and Zambian volunteers to assist with the administrative and logistical aspects of program implementation. Ten volunteers were based in the capital Lusaka; the remaining 17 were stationed across five rural districts. Supervision was provided by local health care providers, district officials, and hospital administrators. In our setting, the use of volunteers has proven feasible and effective for program support. Depending on a program's immediate needs, use of many basic field personnel may be more beneficial than employment of one to two trained clinicians. Formal volunteer programs like HIVCorps should be developed alongside initiatives focused on deploying more specialized, experienced healthcare workers aboard. PMID:16687703

  4. Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Ronald W.; Shea, Barbara W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Ward, Darold E.; Haskins, Craig I.; Scholes, Mary C.

    1996-10-01

    Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites, differentiated by distinct burn frequency histories and land-use patterns, were established and burned during August and September 1992 in savanna parklands of South Africa and savanna woodlands of Zambia. Vegetation physiognomy, available fuel loads, the levels of biomass consumed by fire, environmental conditions, and fire behavior are described. In the South African sites, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 2218 to 5492 kg ha-1 where fire return intervals were 1-4 years and exceeded 7000 kg ha-1 at a site subjected to 38 years of fire exclusion. However, fireline intensity was only 1419 kW m-1 at the fire exclusion site, while ranging from 480 to 6130 kW m-1 among the frequent fire sites. In Zambia, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 3164 kg ha-1 in a hydromorphic grassland to 7343 kg ha-1 in a fallow shifting cultivation site. Dormant grass and litter constituted 70-98% of the total fuel load among all sites. Although downed woody debris was a relatively minor fuel component at most sites, it constituted 43-57% of the total fuel load in the fire exclusion and shifting cultivation sites. Fire line intensity ranged between 1734 and 4061 kW m-1 among all Zambian sites. Mean grass consumption generally exceeded 95%, while downed woody debris consumption ranged from 3 to 73% at all sites. In tropical savannas and savanna woodlands of southern Africa, differences in environmental conditions, land- use patterns, and fire regimes influence vegetation characteristics and thus influence fire behavior and biomass consumption.

  5. Assessing Zambia's industrial fortification options: getting beyond changes in prevalence and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Tehinse, John; Bermudez, Odilia I; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Background. Since fortification of sugar with vitamin A was mandated in 1998, Zambia's fortification program has not changed, while the country remains plagued by high rates ofmicronutrient deficiencies. Objective. To provide evidence-based fortification options with the hope of reinvigorating the Zambian fortification program. Methods. Zambia's 2006 Living Conditions Monitoring Survey is used to estimate the apparent intakes of vitamin A, iron, and zinc, as well as the apparent consumption levels and coverage of four fortification vehicles. Fourteen alternativefoodfortification portfolios are modeled, and their costs, impacts, average cost-effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness are calculated using three alternative impact measures. Results. Alternative impact measures result in different rank orderings of the portfolios. The most cost-effective portfolio is vegetable oil, which has a cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved ranging from 12% to 25% of that of sugar, depending on the impact measure used. The public health impact of fortified vegetable oil, however, is relatively modest. Additional criteria beyond cost-effectiveness are introduced and used to rank order the portfolios. The size of the public health impact, the total cost, and the incremental cost-effectiveness of phasing in multiple vehicle portfolios over time are analyzed. Conclusions. Assessing fortification portfolios by measuring changes in the prevalence of inadequate intakes underestimates impact. A more sensitive measure, which also takes into account change in the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) gap, is provided by a dose-response-based approach to estimating the number ofDALYs saved. There exist highly cost-effective fortification intervention portfolios with substantial public health impacts and variable price tags that could help improve Zambians' nutrition status. PMID:24605698

  6. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  7. Practicalities and challenges in re-orienting the health system in Zambia for treating chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid evolution in disease burdens in low- and middle income countries is forcing policy makers to re-orient their health system towards a system which has the capability to simultaneously address infectious and non-communicable diseases. This paper draws on two different but overlapping studies which examined how actors in the Zambian health system are re-directing their policies, strategies and service structures to include the provision of health care for people with chronic conditions. Methods Study methods in both studies included semi-structured interviews with government health officials at national level, and governmental and non-governmental health practitioners operating from community-, primary health care to hospital facility level. Focus group discussions were conducted with staff, stakeholders and caregivers of programmes providing care and support at community- and household levels. Study settings included urban and rural sites. Results A series of adaptations transformed the HIV programme from an emergency response into the first large chronic care programme in the country. There are clear indications that the Zambian government is intending to expand this reach to patients with non-communicable diseases. Challenges to do this effectively include a lack of proper NCD prevalence data for planning, a concentration of technology and skills to detect and treat NCDs at secondary and tertiary levels in the health system and limited interest by donor agencies to support this transition. Conclusion The reorientation of Zambia’s health system is in full swing and uses the foundation of a decentralised health system and presence of local models for HIV chronic care which actively involve community partners, patients and their families. There are early warning signs which could cause this transition to stall, one of which is the financial capability to resource this process. PMID:25005125

  8. Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Babaniyi, Olusegun A.; Mwaba, Peter; Mulenga, David; Monze, Mwaka; Songolo, Peter; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Chizema, Elizabeth; Eshetu-Shibeshi, Messeret; Malama, Costantine; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation. PMID:25722614

  9. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff) and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management. PMID:22985229

  10. Assessing the Consequences of Stigma for Tuberculosis Patients in Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Anne Lia; de Laat, Myrthe Manon; Kapata, Nathan; Gerrets, Rene; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Stigma is one of the many factors hindering tuberculosis (TB) control by negatively affecting hospital delay and treatment compliance. In Zambia, the morbidity and mortality due to TB remains high, despite extended public health attempts to control the epidemic and to diminish stigma. Study Aim To enhance understanding of TB-related stigmatizing perceptions and to describe TB patients’ experiences of stigma in order to point out recommendations to improve TB policy. Methods We conducted a mixed method study at Kanyama clinic and surrounding areas, in Lusaka, Zambia; structured interviews with 300 TB patients, multiple in-depth interviews with 30 TB patients and 10 biomedical health workers, 3 focus group discussions with TB patients and treatment supporters, complemented by participant observation and policy analysis of the TB control program. Predictors of stigma were identified by use of multivariate regression analyses; qualitative analysis of the in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation was used for triangulation of the study findings. Results We focused on the 138/300 patients that described TB-related perceptions and attitudes, of whom 113 (82%) reported stigma. Stigma provoking TB conceptions were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, alleged immoral behaviour, (perceived) incurability, and (traditional) myths about TB aetiology. Consequences of stigma prevailed both among children and adults and included low self-esteem, insults, ridicule, discrimination, social exclusion, and isolation leading to a decreased quality of life and social status, non-disclosure, and/or difficulties with treatment compliance and adherence. Women had significantly more stigma-related problems than men. Conclusions The findings illustrate that many TB patients faced stigma-related issues, often hindering effective TB control and suggesting that current efforts to reduce stigma are not yet optimal. The content and implementation of sensitization programs should be improved and more emphasis needs to be placed on women and children. PMID:25806955

  11. Testing the Validity and Reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among Sexually Abused Girls in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Lynn T. M.; Murray, Laura K.; Kane, Jeremy C.; Skavenski van Wyk, Stephanie; Chomba, Elwyn; Cohen, Judith; Imasiku, Mwiya; Semrau, Katherine; Unick, Jay; Bolton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study is to test the validity and reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among traumatized girls in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods The Shame Questionnaire was validated through both classical test and item response theory methods. Internal reliability, criterion validity and construct validity were examined among a sample of 325 female children living in Zambia. Sub-analyses were conducted to examine differences in construct validity among girls who reported sexual abuse and girls who did not. Results All girls in the sample were sexually abused, but only 61.5% endorsed or reported that sexual abuse had occurred. Internal consistency was very good among the sample with alpha = .87. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a significant difference of mean Shame Questionnaire scores between girls who experienced 0–1 trauma events and more than one traumatic event, with higher mean Shame Questionnaire scores among girls who had more than one traumatic event (p = .004 for 0–1 compared to 2 and 3 events and p = .016 for 0–1 compared to 4+ events). Girls who reported a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse had a significantly higher mean Shame Questionnaire score than girls who did not report a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse (p<.0001). There was no significant difference in mean Shame Questionnaire score between girls who reported a sexual abuse history and girls who did not. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model of the Shame Questionnaire, with an experience of shame dimension and an active outcomes of shame dimension. Item response theory analysis indicated adequate overall item fit. Results also indicate potential differences in construct validity between girls who did and did not endorse sexual abuse. Conclusions This study suggests the general utility of the Shame Questionnaire among Zambian girls and demonstrates the need for more psychometric studies in low and middle income countries. PMID:25879658

  12. Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors

    PubMed Central

    Sanjana, Parsa; Torpey, Kwasi; Schwarzwalder, Alison; Simumba, Caroline; Kasonde, Prisca; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kapanda, Paul; Kakungu-Simpungwe, Matilda; Kabaso, Mushota; Thompson, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers. PMID:19480710

  13. Measurement of HIV Prevention Indicators: A Comparison of the PLACE Method and a Household Survey in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jackie; Singh, Kavita; Ndubani, Phillimon; Kamwanga, Jolly; Buckner, Bates

    2014-01-01

    Reaching populations at greatest risk for acquiring HIV is essential for efforts to combat the epidemic. This paper presents, the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method which focuses on understanding the venues where people are meeting new sexual partners and behaviors which put people at risk. A comparison of data from two PLACE studies in Zambia with a national household survey, the Zambia Sexual Behavior Survey (ZSBS) 2005, indicated that the PLACE population was at greater risk of acquiring HIV. Respondents in the two PLACE studies were significantly more likely to report 1+ new partners in the past 4 weeks, 2+ partners in the past 12 months, 1+ new partner in the past 12 months and transactional sex. Data from the PLACE method is important for targeting interventions for those most likely to acquire and transmit HIV. PMID:19089607

  14. "Health regains but livelihoods lag": findings from a study with people on ART in Zambia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Fiona A; Rutenberg, Naomi

    2011-06-01

    Although ART is increasingly accessible and eases some stresses, it creates other challenges including the importance of food security to enhance ART-effectiveness. This paper explores the role livelihood strategies play in achieving food security and maintaining nutritional status among ART patients in Kenya and Zambia. Ongoing quantitative studies exploring adherence to ART in Mombasa, Kenya (n=118) and in Lusaka, Zambia (n=375) were used to identify the relationship between BMI and adherence; an additional set of in-depth interviews with people on ART (n=32) and members of their livelihood networks (n=64) were undertaken. Existing frameworks and scales for measuring food security and a positive deviance approach was used to analyse data. Findings show the majority of people on ART in Zambia are food insecure; similarly most respondents in both countries report missing meals. Snacking is important for dietary intake, especially in Kenya. Most food is purchased in both countries. Having assets is key for achieving livelihood security in both Kenya and Zambia. Food supplementation is critical to survival and for developing social capital since most is shared amongst family members and others. Whilst family and friends are key to an individual's livelihood network, often more significant for daily survival is proximity to people and the ability to act immediately, characteristics most often found amongst neighbours and tenants. In both countries findings show that with ART health has rebounded but livelihoods lag. Similarly, in both countries respondents with high adherence and high BMI are more self-reliant, have multiple income sources and assets; those with low adherence and low BMI have more tenuous livelihoods and were less likely to have farms/gardens. Food supplementation is, therefore, not a long-term solution. Building on existing livelihood strategies represents an alternative for programme managers and policy-makers as do other strategies including supporting skills and asset accumulation. PMID:21574075

  15. The public-private sector wage gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A quantile regression approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Skyt Nielsen; Michael Rosholm

    2001-01-01

    .   We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects\\u000a differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from\\u000a the early nineties, which was a period of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the

  16. Detection of Babesia spp. in free-ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a game ranch in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M

    2011-12-01

    Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n = 12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n = 47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 µm and 3.02 µm (mean = 2.12 µm, n = 27; SD = 0.76 µm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia. PMID:22355215

  17. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control.

    PubMed

    Sinkala, Yona; Simuunza, Martin; Muma, John B; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Kasanga, Christopher J; Mweene, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD), but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space-time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala-Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke-Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation. PMID:25005590

  18. Uptake of WHO Recommendations for First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Duber, Herbert C.; Dansereau, Emily; Masters, Samuel H.; Achan, Jane; Burstein, Roy; DeCenso, Brendan; Gasasira, Anne; Ikilezi, Gloria; Kisia, Caroline; Masiye, Felix; Njuguna, Pamela; Odeny, Thomas; Okiro, Emelda; Roberts, D. Allen; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines were significantly changed by the World Health Organization in 2010. It is largely unknown to what extent these guidelines were adopted into clinical practice. Methods This was a retrospective observational analysis of first-line ART regimens in a sample of health facilities providing ART in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia between 2007-2008 and 2011-2012. Data were analyzed for changes in regimen over time and assessed for key patient- and facility-level determinants of tenofovir (TDF) utilization in Kenya and Uganda using a mixed effects model. Results Data were obtained from 29,507 patients from 146 facilities. The overall percentage of patients initiated on TDF-based therapy increased between 2007-2008 and 2011-2012 from 3% to 37% in Kenya, 2% to 34% in Uganda, and 64% to 87% in Zambia. A simultaneous decrease in stavudine (d4T) utilization was also noted, but its use was not eliminated, and there remained significant variation in facility prescribing patterns. For patients initiating ART in 2011-2012, we found increased odds of TDF use with more advanced disease at initiation in both Kenya (odds ratio [OR]: 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73-4.48) and Uganda (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.46-3.17). Having a CD4 test performed at initiation was also a significant predictor in Uganda (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.16-1.76). No facility-level determinants of TDF utilization were seen in Kenya, but private facilities (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.45-5.66) and those employing a doctor (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.48-5.51) were more likely to initiate patients on TDF in Uganda. Discussion d4T-based ART has largely been phased out over the study period. However, significant in-country and cross-country variation exists. Among the most recently initiated patients, those with more advanced disease at initiation were most likely to start TDF-based treatment. No facility-level determinants were consistent across countries to explain the observed facility-level variation. PMID:25807553

  19. Pilot-testing service-based planning for health care in rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human resources for health (HRH) planning in Zambia, as in other countries, is often done by comparing current HRH numbers with established posts, without considering whether population health needs are being met. Service-based HRH planning compares the number and type of services required by populations, given their needs, with the capacity of existing HRH to perform those services. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of service-based HRH planning through its adaptation in two rural Zambian districts, Gwembe and Chibombo. Methods The health conditions causing the greatest mortality and morbidity in each district were identified using administrative data and consultations with community health committees and health workers. The number and type of health care services required to address these conditions were estimated based on their population sizes, incidence and prevalence of each condition, and desired levels of service. The capacity of each district’s health workers to provide these services was estimated using a survey of health workers (n=44) that assessed the availability of their specific competencies. Results The primary health conditions identified in the two districts were HIV/AIDS in Gwembe and malaria in Chibombo. Although the competencies of the existing health workforces in these two mostly aligned with these conditions, some substantial gaps were found between the services the workforce can provide and the services their populations need. The largest gaps identified in both districts were: performing laboratory testing and interpreting results, performing diagnostic imaging and interpreting results, taking and interpreting a patient’s medical history, performing a physical examination, identifying and diagnosing the illness in question, and assessing eligibility for antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions Although active, productive, and competent, health workers in these districts are too few to meet the leading health care needs of their populations. Given the specific competencies most lacking, on-site training of existing health workers to develop these competencies may be the best approach to addressing the identified gaps. Continued use of the service-based approach in Zambia will enhance the country’s ability to align the training, management, and deployment of its health workforce to meet the needs of its people. PMID:25080074

  20. Institutionalizing Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counselling for Children: An Observational Case Study from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutanga, Jane N.; Raymond, Juliette; Towle, Megan S.; Mutembo, Simon; Fubisha, Robert Captain; Lule, Frank; Muhe, Lulu

    2012-01-01

    Background Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia’s Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. Methods and Principal Findings Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n?=?5074), 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n?=?4983), 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital’s inpatient and outpatient departments (n?=?1342), 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early infant diagnosis. The hospital’s bolstered antiretroviral supply chain, package of on-site HIV services, and follow-up care for children and families improved the continuum of service uptake. Conclusions and Significance The clinical impact and operational experience emphasizes that institutional PITC is a feasible strategy for increasing access to paediatric HIV care, particularly in generalized epidemic settings. PMID:22536311

  1. Hydrological and ecological impacts of dams on the Kafue Flats floodplain system, southern Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumba, M.; Thompson, J. R.

    Developmental changes in river basins in Africa have become a reality. Many wetland ecosystems have been impacted by dams and other hydrological interventions resulting in both foreseen and unexpected consequences. The Kafue Flats in southern Zambia is an extensive floodplain system that lies within the middle Kafue river basin. The floodplain is about 255 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of approximately 6,500 km 2. It is currently sandwiched between two large dams which are approximately 270 km apart. These dams have completely altered the hydrological regime of the system. Backwater from the downstream dam and releases from upstream have created a permanently flooded area within the floodplain that was not present in the past. Elsewhere, flooding has been reduced. The ecological consequences of these changes for the floodplain, which hosts two national parks (both Ramsar sites), have been extensive. Hydrological and vegetation changes have impacted the habitat for important wildlife communities including the endemic antelope, Kobus leche kafuensis. The most dramatic change in vegetation is associated with the colonisation of parts of the floodplain by the invasive alien plant, Mimosa pigra. This paper discusses these changes and their potential consequences.

  2. Spatial Heteogeneity of Methane Ebullition in a Large Tropical Reservoir (Lake Kariba, Zambia/Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sontro, T.; Kunz, M.; Wuest, A.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    While ebullition has the capacity to be a significant methane (CH4) release pathway from reservoirs, it has not been systematically studied in most surveyed systems, due in part to ebullition's high spatiotemporal variability. We hypothesized that CH4 ebullition from littoral areas that are influenced by riverine organic carbon inputs contributes disproportionately to overall CH4 emissions from Lake Kariba (Zambia-Zimbabwe border), one of the world's largest reservoirs. Hydroacoustic measurements and traditional surface chamber surveys revealed substantially higher fluxes in river deltas (~10^3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) compared to littoral zones with no river input (< 100 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). Hydroacoustic measurements additionally showed that ebullition frequency varied strongly between all sites and that flux events varied over several orders of magnitude (up to 10^5 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) in the ebullition hot spots. An ebullition estimate for the largest subbasin of Lake Kariba was two orders of magnitude more than potential atmospheric CH4 emissions from turbine degassing and surface diffusion combined. Thus, we suggest that CH4 ebullition emissions from river deltas should be explored in greater detail and their contribution included in the CH4 budgets of reservoirs, including even large tropical reservoirs.

  3. Examining Targets for HIV Prevention: Intravaginal Practices in Urban Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chisembele, Maureen; Mumbi, Miriam; Malupande, Emeria; Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Intravaginal practices (IVP) are the introduction of products inside the vagina for hygienic, health, or sexuality reasons. The influence of men and Alengizis, traditional marriage counselors for girls, in promoting IVP has not been explored. We conducted gender-concordant focus groups and key informant interviews with Alengizis. The responses were conducted grouped into three themes: (1) cultural norms, (2) types and reasons for IVP, and (3) health consequences. We found that IVP were used by all participants in our sample and were taught from generation to generation by friends, relatives, or Alengizis. The reasons for women to engage in IVP were hygienic, though men expect women to engage in IVP to enhance sexual pleasure. Approximately 40% of women are aware that IVP can facilitate genital infections, but felt they would not feel clean discontinuing IVP. All men were unaware of the vaginal damage caused by IVP, and were concerned about the loss of sexual pleasure if women discontinued IVP. Despite the health risks of IVP, IVP continue to be widespread in Zambia and an integral component of hygiene and sexuality. The frequency of IVP mandates exploration into methods to decrease or ameliorate their use as an essential component of HIV prevention. PMID:24568672

  4. Understanding local water conflict and cooperation: The case of Namwala District, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funder, Mikkel; Mweemba, Carol; Nyambe, Imasiku; van Koppen, Barbara; Ravnborg, Helle Munk

    Understanding the nature of water conflict and cooperation is a crucial element in water governance within Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Much of the recent attention to the issue has however focused on transboundary aspects, while we know rather less about the nature and dynamics of local water conflict and cooperation. Drawing on the work of the collaborative Competing for Water Research Programme, this article presents selected findings from a quantitative and qualitative mapping and exploration of water conflict and cooperation events in Namwala District of Zambia. It is found that local water competition situations often involve both conflictive and cooperative events in a dynamic succession of each other, but also that the majority of events are conflictive, and that they primarily take place between different types of water uses, and less frequently among the same types of uses. There is a distinct tendency for both conflictive and cooperative events to originate in the dry season, and many events are associated with water infrastructure development, particularly boreholes. The study found that most conflictive and cooperative events took place within individual communities, and only to a lesser extent between two or more communities or between districts. While third parties are involved in some events, these are primarily local village institutions such as Headmen. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these findings for local water governance, including the need to ensure that the very localized nature of such conflict and cooperation events is taken into consideration in the institutional development of IWRM.

  5. Detection and characterization of zoonotic pathogens of free-ranging non-human primates from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakayima, Jesca; Hayashida, Kyouko; Nakao, Ryo; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang Ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Thomas, Yuka; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2014-10-29

    BackgroundWildlife may harbor infectious pathogens that are of zoonotic concern acting as a reservoir of diseases transmissible to humans and domestic animals. This is due to human-wildlife conflicts that have become more frequent and severe over recent decades, competition for the available natural habitats and resources leading to increased human encroachment on previously wild and uninhabited areas.MethodsA total of 88 spleen DNA samples from baboons and vervet monkeys from Zambia were tested for zoonotic pathogens using genus or species-specific PCR. The amplified products were then subjected to sequencing analysis.ResultsWe detected three different pathogenic agents, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 12 samples (13.6%), Rickettsia spp. in 35 samples (39.8%) and Babesia spp. in 2 samples (2.3%).ConclusionThe continuously increasing contacts between humans and primate populations raise concerns about transmission of pathogens between these groups. Therefore, increased medical and public awareness and public health surveillance support will be required to detect and control infections caused by these agents at the interface between humans and wildlife. PMID:25358853

  6. Wide needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Patil, P S; Bem, C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To study the value of wide needle (19 gauge) aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymph node disease in Zambia in the absence of a trained cytologist. METHODS--Patients (n = 304) referred for surgical biopsy of an enlarged peripheral lymph node were studied prospectively. Surgical biopsy was routinely preceded by 19 gauge needle aspiration of the same node; aspirates were stained by haematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl Neelsen stains. RESULTS--Of 232 aspirates, 182 contained sufficient material for cytological characterisation. Tuberculosis was diagnosed or suspected in 122 of 126 aspirates with histologically confirmed tuberculous lymphadenitis; reactive follicular hyperplasia in 31 of 38 patients with primary HIV lymphadenopathy; malignancy in all five patients with malignant nodes; and Kaposi's disease in four of nine patients with this. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was falsely suspected in four patients, as was reactive follicular hyperplasia in four, and Kaposi's disease in four. CONCLUSIONS--Wide needle aspiration cytology is useful in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Central Africa, with the exception of lymphadenopathic Kaposi's disease. PMID:8227428

  7. Stigma and psychiatric morbidity among mothers of children with epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Elafros, Melissa A.; Sakubita-Simasiku, Claire; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Haworth, Alan; Chomba, Elwyn; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy-associated stigma contributes substantially to the social, medical, and economic burden of disease for people with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about its impact on caregivers of PWE. Methods To better understand stigma experienced by caregivers of PWE, factors that influence caregiver stigma, and the effect of stigma on a caregiver's psychologic well being, we interviewed 100 caregivers of children with epilepsy in Zambia. Questions assessed maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to epilepsy, maternal stigma, mother's proxy report of child stigma, and maternal psychiatric morbidity. Results Of 100 mothers, 39 (39%) indicated that their child was stigmatized because of his or her epilepsy. Maternal proxy report of child stigma was highly correlated with maternal stigma (OR: 5.4, p=0.04), seizure frequency (p=0.03) and seizure severity (p=0.01). One in five of 100 mothers (20%) reported feeling stigmatized because of their child's epilepsy. Higher maternal stigma was associated with lower familial and community support (ORs: 65.2 and 34.7, respectively; both p<0.0001) as well as higher psychiatric morbidity (OR: 1.2; p=0.002). Formal education and epilepsy knowledge were associated with decreased maternal stigma (ORs: 0.8 and 0.7, respectively; both p<0.001). Conclusions One in five mothers of PWE feel stigmatized because of their child's epilepsy. As maternal stigma is associated with psychiatric morbidity, educating caregivers about epilepsy and screening for anxiety and depression are warranted. PMID:24214528

  8. Elephants, people, parks and development: the case of the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Nick; Blaikie, Piers

    1986-11-01

    New ideas about conserving wildlife are emerging to compete with conventional national park policies. But methods of analyzing wildlife conservation problems in Africa are inadequate for the analysis of complex issues of policy. Much of the analysis of conservation policy attempts to be ‘apolitical’ on issues charged with social conflict. Analyses are too often ahistorical when history can say a great deal about the origins of present-day ecological problems. Further-more, problems are commonly analyzed within narrow discilinary frameworks which predetermine the nature of conclusions and lead to professionally biased proposals. This case study of the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, is used to demonstrate a method which attempts to remedy these weaknesses, In the first part of the article we examine the role of the Luangwa National Parks in the context of the Zambian political economy, and identify social groups which compete for the resources of the national parks. Next we trace the historical origins of present-day ecological changes. These analyses lead toward a model of the Parks and some of their relationships with the national economy. We end with a proposal for communal use of wildlife which attempts to resolve some of the contradictions inherent in current policy.

  9. Associations between household responsibilities and academic competencies in the context of education accessibility in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Reich, Jodi; Hein, Sascha; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hart, Lesley; Gumkowski, Nina; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between education and socioeconomic status has been demonstrated in studies of the developed and the developing world, yet there are communities in which schooling is either not available to all children or not a preferred activity for all children. In this study, we investigated the differences between children in-school and out-of-school in rural and peri-urban communities of Zambia. As expected, we found that the children in-school performed higher in domains of adaptive behavior and on assessments of academic achievement (i.e., mathematics, reading). Somewhat unexpectedly, however, when controlling for socioeconomic status, home responsibilities (i.e., chores, work) were a positive predictor for the performance of the children out-of-school, but a negative predictor for the children in-school. The relationship between home responsibilities and academic performance may be bidirectional and differential; for example, our findings allow for the hypothesis that for in-school children chores take time away from the studies, but for out-of-school children they provide some limited mathematics exposure. PMID:24347996

  10. Implementation of the Zambia Electronic Perinatal Record System for comprehensive prenatal and delivery care

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Benjamin H.; Vwalika, Bellington; Killam, William P.; Wamalume, Chibesa; Giganti, Mark J.; Mbewe, Reuben; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Chintu, Namwinga T.; Putta, Nande B.; Liu, Katherine C.; Chibwesha, Carla J.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize prenatal and delivery care in an urban African setting. Methods The Zambia Electronic Perinatal Record System (ZEPRS) was implemented to record demographic characteristics, past medical and obstetric history, prenatal care, and delivery and newborn care for pregnant women across 25 facilities in the Lusaka public health sector. Results From June 1, 2007, to January 31, 2010, 115 552 pregnant women had prenatal and delivery information recorded in ZEPRS. Median gestation age at first prenatal visit was 23 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 19–26). Syphilis screening was documented in 95 663 (83%) pregnancies: 2449 (2.6%) women tested positive, of whom 1589 (64.9%) were treated appropriately. 111 108 (96%) women agreed to HIV testing, of whom 22% were diagnosed with HIV. Overall, 112 813 (98%) of recorded pregnancies resulted in a live birth, and 2739 (2%) in a stillbirth. The median gestational age was 38 weeks (IQR 35–40) at delivery; the median birth weight of newborns was 3000 g (IQR 2700–3300 g). Conclusion The results demonstrate the feasibility of using a comprehensive electronic medical record in an urban African setting, and highlight its important role in ongoing efforts to improve clinical care. PMID:21315347

  11. Folklore as an instrument of education among the Chewa people of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, Dennis; Morgan, W. John

    2013-07-01

    This article considers the folklore of the Chewa people of Zambia as an instrument of education. It suggests that there is only a fine distinction between Chewa culture [ mwambo wa a Chewa] and Chewa education [ maphunziro ya Uchewa]. The former comprises tribal "truths" to be imposed on the minds of the younger generation. The latter comprises stages in the development of the young through training and some formalised learning. However, by and large, the former dominates the latter. The strongest features of an African Indigenous Knowledge System (AIKS) such as that of the Chewa people are best expressed in terms of Jakayo Peter Ocitti's five philosophical principles of African indigenous education, namely preparationism, functionalism, communalism, perennialism and holisticism. They build on one another and are, therefore, related. The authors of this article demonstrate how Chewa culture and education use folklore to influence the minds of the young. They give examples of how various components of Chewa folklore are used to criticise, commend, dislike, admire, discard and adapt various traits in people. This paper does not present folklore as an educational panacea; there are weaknesses in Chewa traditional education which are also discussed. Rather, folklore is considered here as a valuable supplementary element in education. What the authors propose is to integrate folklore and informal learning as practised by the community in the formal curriculum to enhance the quality of the education provided for all and to maintain cultural identity.

  12. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689

  13. Risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease in Zambia, 1981-2012.

    PubMed

    Hamoonga, R; Stevenson, M A; Allepuz, A; Carpenter, T E; Sinkala, Y

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Zambia for the period January 1981-December 2012 and to quantify the association between geographical features (proximity to roads, national parks, wetland areas) and the spatial distribution of FMD using a Poisson point process model. Details of FMD outbreaks retrieved from the Zambian Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development included the date of onset of clinical signs and the name of the ward in which the index case enterprise was located. A total of 62 FMD outbreaks occurred throughout the study period. Outbreaks occurred in the south of the Southern province along the border with Namibia and Botswana (n=5), in the Western province (n=2), in the Southern and Central provinces on the Kafue flood plains (n=44), and in the north east of the country close to the border with Tanzania (n=11). Increases in distance to the nearest major international border crossing, distance to the nearest major road, distance to the wetland area of the Kafue flood plain, wetness index and elevation were all associated with a decrease in FMD-outbreak ward intensity. Our analyses support the hypothesis that in drier areas of the country cattle are more likely to aggregate around communal drinking pools. Aggregation of cattle provides conditions suitable for FMD spread and detection. PMID:24486093

  14. High burden of malaria following scale-up of control interventions in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria control interventions have been scaled-up in Zambia in conjunction with a malaria surveillance system. Although substantial progress has been achieved in reducing morbidity and mortality, national and local information demonstrated marked heterogeneity in the impact of malaria control across the country. This study reports the high burden of malaria in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, Zambia from 2006 to 2012 after seven years of control measures. Methods Yearly aggregated information on cases of malaria, malaria deaths, use of malaria diagnostics, and malaria control interventions from 2006 to 2012 were obtained from the Nchelenge District Health Office. Trends in the number of malaria cases, methods of diagnosis, malaria positivity rate among pregnant women, and intervention coverage were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Malaria prevalence remained high, increasing from 38% in 2006 to 53% in 2012. Increasing numbers of cases of severe malaria were reported until 2010. Intense seasonal malaria transmission was observed with seasonal declines in the number of cases between April and August, although malaria transmission continued throughout the year. Clinical diagnosis without accompanying confirmation declined from 95% in 2006 to 35% in 2012. Intervention coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying increased from 2006 to 2012. Conclusions Despite high coverage with vector control interventions, the burden of malaria in Nchelenge District, Zambia remained high. The high parasite prevalence could accurately reflect the true burden, perhaps in part as a consequence of population movement, or improved access to care and case reporting. Quality information at fine spatial scales will be critical for targeting effective interventions and measurement of progress. PMID:24755108

  15. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths and their effects on weight gain in free-range chickens in Central Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. K. Phiri; A. M. Phiri; M. Ziela; A. Chota; M. Masuku; J. Monrad

    2007-01-01

    Examination of helminths from gastrointestinal tracts of 125 free-range chickens in Zambia revealed a 95.2% prevalence rate.\\u000a The species and their prevalences were: Allodapa suctoria (85.6%), Tetrameres americana (80.8%), Ascaridia galli (28.8%), Gonglonema ingluvicola (50.4%), Raillietina spp. (81.6%) and Heterakis gallinarum (32.8%). No trematodes or Syngamus trachea were found. Mixed infections accounted for 88.2% as compared to 7.2% of single

  16. We are also dying like any other people, we are also people: perceptions of the impact of HIV\\/AIDs on health workers in two distrcits in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjolein Dieleman; Godfrey Biemba; Simon Mphuka; Karen Sichinga-Sichali; Dagmar Sissolak; Anke van der Kwaak; Gert-Jan van der Wilt

    2007-01-01

    In countries with a high AIDS prevalence, the health workforce is affected by AIDS in several ways. In Zambia, which has a prevalence rate of 16.5%, a study was carried out in 2004 with the aim to: explore the impact of HIV\\/AIDS on health workers, describe their coping mechanisms and recommend supportive measures. The qualitative study was complemented by a

  17. Sexual cleansing ( Kusalazya) and levirate marriage ( Kunjilila mung’anda) in the era of AIDS: changes in perceptions and practices in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. S. Malungo

    2001-01-01

    Since sexual cleansing (kusalazya) and the intertwined ritual of levirate marriage or widow and widower inheritance (kunjilila mung’anda) have come to be implicated in the transmission of HIV\\/AIDS, alternative rituals to sexual cleansing have emerged. Using both quantitative and qualitative data obtained from Zambia in the second half of 1998, this study reveals that the alternative rituals to sexual cleansing

  18. "If You Were the Researcher What Would You Research?": Understanding Children's Perspectives on Educational Research in Mongolia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Julia; Sengedorj, Tumendelger

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a project undertaken with children (N?=?72) in Mongolia and Zambia. The research is distinctive in bringing together diverse children, ranging from those living on the street to those in mainstream education and involving them in discussions about educational research. Being conscious of critiques of adult-initiated…

  19. Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the University of Southampton has challenged conventional thinking about. There is great demand for copper throughout the world, particularly to supply fast-growing economies in countries

  20. Lithic reduction sequences as an aid to the analysis of Late Stone Age quartz assemblages from the Luano Spring, Chingola, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Bisson

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes Late Stone Age assemblages of quartz tools and debitage from sites near Luano Hot Spring, Chingola, Zambia. Formal tools at the Luano rock shelter site suggest a ‘Nachikufan II’ to ‘Nachikufan III’ sequence according to the traditional terminology. However, analysis of the debitage demonstrates that all levels of the site represent a single Late Stone Age technological

  1. Situation Reports--Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data pertaining to population and family planning in seventeen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. Information is…

  2. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for the time range 1990 to 2013 to identify the extent of aquatic vegetation in the dry season for all years available within the time range using spectral data. We derived rainfall for the time period from TRMM data and temperature from MODIS LST data. Overall weed coverage tended to increase from 1990 to 2013. There was no significant correlation between rainfall (as measured by TRMM) and water hyacinth coverage. However there was a significant positive correlation between minimum October temperatures (the warmest month of the year) and weed coverage (exponential fit, R2 = 0.81). There was no indication that the release of bio-control agents reduced weed coverage. Water hyacinth is known to be sensitive to temperature, with cooler temperatures retarding growth. In the Kafue River, aquatic plant coverage varies mainly with October low temperatures indicating an overall control of temperature on weed coverage. Increasing low temperatures in the region would be expected to exacerbate problems associated with aquatic weeds.

  3. The Incidence of Human Cysticercosis in a Rural Community of Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n?=?226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

  4. The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n?=?226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

  5. Reducing uncertainties in global HIV prevalence estimates: the case of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2006-01-01

    Background The premise for using antenatal care (ANC) clinic data for estimating HIV prevalence in the general population is the finding from community studies in sub-Saharan Africa that total HIV prevalence in pregnant women attending ANC clinics closely approximate levels in the total general population of both women and men aged 15–49 years. In this study, the validity of national level HIV prevalence estimates for the total general population 15–49 years made from ANC clinic and population survey data was assessed. Methods In 2001–2002, a national population HIV prevalence survey for women 15–49 years and men 15–59 years was conducted in Zambia. In the same period, a national HIV sentinel surveillance survey among pregnant women attending ANC clinics was carried out. Results The ANC HIV prevalence estimates for age-group 15–49 years (rural: 11.5%; 95% CI, 11.2–11.8; urban: 25.4%; 95% CI, 24.8–26.0; adjusted national: 16.9%; 95% CI, 16.6–17.2) were similar to the population survey estimates (rural: 10.8%; 95% CI, 9.6–12.1; urban: 23.2%; 95% CI 20.7–25.6; national: 15.6%; 95% CI, 14.4–16.9). The HIV prevalence urban to rural ratio was 2.2 in ANC and 2.1 in population survey estimates. Conclusion The HIV prevalence estimate for the total general population 15–49 years derived from testing both women and men in the population survey was similar to the estimate derived from testing women attending ANC clinics. It shows that national HIV prevalence estimates for adults aged 15–49 years can also be obtained from ANC HIV sentinel surveillance surveys with good coverage when ANC attendance and fertility are high. PMID:16579863

  6. Health systems analysis of eye care services in Zambia: evaluating progress towards VISION 2020 goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background VISION 2020 is a global initiative launched in 1999 to eliminate avoidable blindness by 2020. The objective of this study was to undertake a situation analysis of the Zambian eye health system and assess VISION 2020 process indicators on human resources, equipment and infrastructure. Methods All eye health care providers were surveyed to determine location, financing sources, human resources and equipment. Key informants were interviewed regarding levels of service provision, management and leadership in the sector. Policy papers were reviewed. A health system dynamics framework was used to analyse findings. Results During 2011, 74 facilities provided eye care in Zambia; 39% were public, 37% private for-profit and 24% owned by Non-Governmental Organizations. Private facilities were solely located in major cities. A total of 191 people worked in eye care; 18 of these were ophthalmologists and eight cataract surgeons, equivalent to 0.34 and 0.15 per 250,000 population, respectively. VISION 2020 targets for inpatient beds and surgical theatres were met in six out of nine provinces, but human resources and spectacles manufacturing workshops were below target in every province. Inequalities in service provision between urban and rural areas were substantial. Conclusion Shortage and maldistribution of human resources, lack of routine monitoring and inadequate financing mechanisms are the root causes of underperformance in the Zambian eye health system, which hinder the ability to achieve the VISION 2020 goals. We recommend that all VISION 2020 process indicators are evaluated simultaneously as these are not individually useful for monitoring progress. PMID:24575919

  7. Diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa: Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mario; Alla, Sridevi

    2008-01-01

    Until a few years ago, a limited number of epidemiologists or public health experts mentioned the words “diabetes.” As new lifestyles, imported dietary practices, and globalization take roots in the developing world, as Africa is, today, diabetes and its complications are considered an epidemic in Africa, compelling African governments to start paying more attention to its impact as thousands of Africans run the risk of dying young. The potential severity of diabetes is such that some epidemiologists predict that its economic impact and death toll will surpass the ravages of HIV and AIDS in the near future. On the African sub-continent, present literature and the work of the World Diabetes Foundation have highlighted three countries, namely, Mali, Mozambique, and Zambia. However, the conditions in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria, some of the most developed areas of the continent, provide a clue to how people are coping and how governments are responding to diabetes and its full impact. This study is, therefore, a meta-summary of the incidence and prevalence of today's emerging silent killer or diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. The theme is that time is running out for Africa and that, as was for HIV/AIDS, by the time the governments wake up and stop denying the catastrophic potential of the epidemic, diabetes will simply overwhelm the continent's resources, and the world will witness the death of millions of Africans. The last section is a call for action against diabetes in terms of advocacy, promotion of awareness, and public health policies that empower people to diabetes self-management. PMID:20165596

  8. Gastroenterology training in a resource-limited setting: Zambia, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Asombang, Akwi W; Turner-Moss, Eleanor; Seetharam, Anil; Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate need for and efficacy of a structured gastroenterology didactic session in expanding awareness and understanding of digestive disorders. METHODS: A four-day symposium was developed with didactic sessions (days 1, 2) and practical endoscopy (days 3, 4). Didactic sessions included case presentations highlighting pathophysiology and management. One nurse and four practicing gastroenterologists from the United Kingdom led lectures and supervised workshops with audience participation. Practical endoscopy focused on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and their application to diagnosis and treatment of ailments of the gastrointestinal tract. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were distributed to participants during didactic sessions. A pre-workshop questionnaire gauged expectations and identified objectives to be met at the symposium. Post-workshop questionnaires were administered to assess efficacy of each session. Participants graded sessions from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) on quality of case presentations, knowledge, clarity and mode of presentation. We assessed if time allotted to each topic was sufficient, value of sessions, impact on practice and interest in future symposiums. RESULTS: There were 46 attendees on day 1: 41% undergraduates, 41% residents, 11% consultants and 4% unspecified. Day 2 (a Saturday) had 24 participants: 17% undergraduates, 71% residents, 9% consultants, 4% unspecified. Primary pre-workshop symposium expectation was to gain knowledge in: general gastroenterology (55.5%), practical endoscopy (13.8%), pediatric gastroenterology (5%), epidemiology of gastrointestinal disorders specific to Zambia (6%), and interaction with international speakers (6%). The post-symposium questionnaire was answered by 19 participants, of whom 95% felt specific aims were met; all would attend future conferences and recommend to others. CONCLUSION: The beneficial effect of a structured symposium in developing countries warrants further attention as a mechanism to improve disease awareness in areas where resources are limited. PMID:23840144

  9. Excreta disposal facilities and intestinal parasitism in urban Africa: preliminary studies in Botswana, Ghana and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Feachem, R G; Guy, M W; Harrison, S; Iwugo, K O; Marshall, T; Mbere, N; Muller, R; Wright, A M

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between intestinal parasitism and excreta disposal technologies in Gaborone (Botswana), Ndola (Zambia) and Kumasi (Ghana) were investigated. Parasitic prevalence and intensity rates amongst groups of urban residents having similar socio-economic status and housing, but different excreta disposal technologies, were compared. In Gaborone, there was no evidence of a difference in intestinal parasitism between those using aqua privies and having access to public taps and those in identical houses enjoying flush toilets, in-house water connections and showers. In Ndola, the group with sewered aqua privies had larger houses, cleaner toilets, better water supplies, longer residence and more people in paid employment than the groups using pit latrines or communal flush toilets. Despite this, the sewered aqua privy users were not found to be different from the other groups with regard to hookworm and protozoal infection but had significantly higher Ascaris infection rates. In Kumasi, despite the differences in toilet type--from squalid communal aqua privies, through often fouled bucket latrines to well-maintained flush toilet systems--and despite also the differences in water provision, no evidence was obtained of any differences in intestinal parasitism between the groups studied. These findings suggest that the provision of superior water and sanitation facilities to a small cluster of houses, or to houses scattered through an area, may not protect those families from infection if the over-all level of faecal contamination of the environment is high. The sample sizes and response rates achieved in this study were low and follow-up studies, employing the same methodology but with larger samples, are recommended. PMID:6636280

  10. The challenge of hospitals in health sector reform: the case of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Blas, E; Limbambala, M

    2001-12-01

    Zambia underwent a period of health sector reform from 1993 to 1998. The reform attracted substantial support from the World Bank and bilateral donors. While significant achievements were made with respect to decentralization, increased accountability and donor collaboration, the reform stalled in 1998 without having achieved its objectives, largely because of the handling of hospital reform and the civil servants in the health sector. This study was an attempt to analyze this experience with the hospital issue. Service and infrastructure information was collected from all 88 hospitals in the country. Further, information was collected about the social, economic, and political context of the reform. The results show that an historical legacy from the colonial and post-colonial eras has left the country with an expensive and skewed hospital structure that is rapidly deteriorating and very difficult to reform. The referral system is not functioning: higher-level hospitals provide a higher level of care to their immediate catchment populations than is available to the population in general. The reality is thus far from the vision of equity of access to cost-effective quality care. Zambian doctors have either left the country or are concentrated at the highest referral levels in two provinces, leaving the lower levels and most of the country in the hands of expatriate doctors. There are no resources in the government or the private systems to maintain the current hospital infrastructure and things will likely deteriorate unless radical decisions are taken and implemented. The study further shows that the question of hospital reform is a political high-risk zone. If the problems are to be dealt with, the Zambian planners must, together with the politicians, work to create a broad national consensus for understanding the situation, its urgency, and the limited options for forward action. PMID:11772988

  11. Attitudes to 'Kaponya Mafumo': the terminators of pregnancy in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Webb, D

    2000-06-01

    As part of a larger study of adolescent sexual and reproductive health in urban Zambia, the issue of unwanted pregnancy and abortion was considered through the examination of the perceptions of both adolescents and adults. Young people rank sexual health as their primary health issue, and sexual behaviour is integrally linked into other aspects of their lives. Pregnancies were deemed to be a common occurrence amongst the adolescents, with an estimated two-thirds of unwanted pregnancies ending in unsafe abortion. The decision to abort is primarily determined by the reaction of the boyfriend and his willingness to accept paternity and the associated financial implications. Other crucial influences are the desire to stay in school and the stigma attached to unwanted pregnancy. The decision-making process regarding the abortion itself is related to the perceived advantages and disadvantages of various service providers. Around 40% of the respondents stated that in the event of an abortion being carried out, it would be performed either by the girl herself or with the assistance of other non-medical personnel. Less popular but still significant are traditional healers and private doctors. Formal health services tend to be rejected due to their poor perception by young people, centred on the lack of privacy and confidentiality, and the de facto illegal nature of abortion itself. The services of nurses are sought, but outside of the clinic setting. The most popular method of self-induced abortion is overdosing on chloroquine. Other methods involve the use of traditional medicines such as various types of roots, as well as more modern methods such as ingesting washing powder. Recommendations for policy-makers concentrate on the improvement of formal, 'youth friendly' health services and the development of appropriate outreach education methods which address specific concerns widely held by young people. PMID:10837042

  12. Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed. PMID:23242696

  13. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

  14. Mobilizing communities to improve maternal health: results of an intervention in rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Green, Cathy; Quigley, Paula; Badru, Abdul Razak; Kaluba, Dynes; Kureya, Tendayi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether a complex community intervention in rural Zambia improved understanding of maternal health and increased use of maternal health-care services. Methods The intervention took place in six rural districts selected by the Zambian Ministry of Health. It involved community discussions on safe pregnancy and delivery led by trained volunteers and the provision of emergency transport. Volunteers worked through existing government-established Safe Motherhood Action Groups. Maternal health indicators at baseline were obtained from women in intervention (n?=?1775) and control districts (n?=?1630). The intervention’s effect on these indicators was assessed using a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference approach that involved propensity score matching and adjustment for confounders such as education, wealth, parity, age and distance to a health-care facility. Findings The difference-in-difference comparison showed the intervention to be associated with significant increases in maternal health indicators: 14–16% in the number of women who knew when to seek antenatal care; 10–15% in the number who knew three obstetric danger signs; 12–19% in those who used emergency transport; 22–24% in deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant; and 16–21% in deliveries in a health-care facility. The volunteer drop-out rate was low. The estimated incremental cost per additional delivery involving a skilled birth attendant was around 54 United States dollars, comparable to that of other demand-side interventions in developing countries. Conclusion The community intervention was associated with significant improvements in women’s knowledge of antenatal care and obstetric danger signs, use of emergency transport and deliveries involving skilled birth attendants. PMID:24391300

  15. A Bayesian geostatistical Moran Curve model for estimating net changes of tsetse populations in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Luigi; Mweempwa, Cornelius; Ducheyne, Els; De Pus, Claudia; Hendrickx, Guy; Rogers, David J

    2014-01-01

    For the first time a Bayesian geostatistical version of the Moran Curve, a logarithmic form of the Ricker stock recruitment curve, is proposed that is able to give an estimate of net change in population demographic rates considering components such as fertility and density dependent and density independent mortalities. The method is applied to spatio-temporally referenced count data of tsetse flies obtained from fly-rounds. The model is a linear regression with three components: population rate of change estimated from the Moran curve, an explicit spatio-temporal covariance, and the observation error optimised within a Bayesian framework. The model was applied to the three main climate seasons of Zambia (rainy--January to April, cold-dry--May to August, and hot-dry--September to December) taking into account land surface temperature and (seasonally changing) cattle distribution. The model shows a maximum positive net change during the hot-dry season and a minimum between the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Density independent losses are correlated positively with day-time land surface temperature and negatively with night-time land surface temperature and cattle distribution. The inclusion of density dependent mortality increases considerably the goodness of fit of the model. Cross validation with an independent dataset taken from the same area resulted in a very accurate estimate of tsetse catches. In general, the overall framework provides an important tool for vector control and eradication by identifying vector population concentrations and local vector demographic rates. It can also be applied to the case of sustainable harvesting of natural populations. PMID:24755848

  16. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M; Maher, Barbara A; Karloukovski, Vassil; Duller, Geoff A T; Jain, Mayank; Wintle, Ann G

    2011-05-01

    Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ~2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating ((10)Be/(26)Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (~78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record. PMID:21411121

  17. Improving performance of Zambia Defence Force antiretroviral therapy providers: evaluation of a standards-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Mi; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Sarkar, Supriya; Bazant, Eva; Hiner, Cyndi; Tholandi, Maya; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Njobvu, Panganani Dalisani; Kols, Adrienne; Benavides, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) has applied the Standards-Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R®) approach, which uses detailed performance standards, at some health facilities to improve HIV-related services offered to military personnel and surrounding civilian communities. This study examines the effectiveness of the SBM-R approach in improving facility readiness and provider performance at ZDF facilities. Methods: We collected data on facility readiness and provider performance before and after the 2010–2012 intervention at 4 intervention sites selected for their relatively poor performance and 4 comparison sites. Assessors observed whether each facility met 16 readiness standards and whether providers met 9 performance standards during consultations with 354 returning antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients. We then calculated the percentages of criteria achieved for each readiness and performance standard and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses of provider performance data. Results: Facilities' ART readiness scores exceeded 80% before the intervention at both intervention and comparison sites. At endline, scores improved on 4 facility readiness standards in the intervention group but on only 1 standard in the comparison group. Multivariate analysis found that the overall provider performance score increased significantly in the intervention group (from 58% to 84%; P<.01) but not in the comparison group (from 62% to 70%). The before-and-after improvement in scores was significantly greater among intervention sites than among comparison sites for 2 standards—initial assessment of the client's condition and nutrition counseling. Conclusion: The standards-based approach, which involved intensive and mutually reinforcing intervention activities, showed modest improvements in some aspects of providers' performance during ART consultations. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in provider performance affect client outcomes such as adherence to ART. PMID:25276534

  18. Pediatric Malignancies, Treatment Outcomes and Abandonment of Pediatric Cancer Treatment in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Jeremy S.; Chunda-Liyoka, Catherine; Perez, Marta; Mutalima, Nora; Newton, Robert; Chintu, Chifumbe; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chipeta, James; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Vermund, Sten H.; Friedman, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. Methods Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0–15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. Results Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]?=?0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.97). Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR?=?1.65; 95% CI 1.05–2.58). Conclusions Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection be adapted for pediatric cancer treatment to improve outcome. PMID:24586527

  19. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

  20. 'One health' and development priorities in resource-constrained countries: policy lessons from avian and pandemic influenza preparedness in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwacalimba, Kennedy Kapala; Green, Judith

    2015-03-01

    'One World, One Health' has become a key rallying theme for the integration of public health and animal health priorities, particularly in the governance of pandemic-scale zoonotic infectious disease threats. However, the policy challenges of integrating public health and animal health priorities in the context of trade and development issues remain relatively unexamined, and few studies to date have explored the implications of global disease governance for resource-constrained countries outside the main centres of zoonotic outbreaks. This article draws on a policy study of national level avian and pandemic influenza preparedness between 2005 and 2009 across the sectors of trade, health and agriculture in Zambia. We highlight the challenges of integrating disease control interventions amidst trade and developmental realities in resource-poor environments. One Health prioritizes disease risk mitigation, sidelining those trade and development narratives which speak to broader public health concerns. We show how locally important trade and development imperatives were marginalized in Zambia, limiting the effectiveness of pandemic preparedness. Our findings are likely to be generalizable to other resource-constrained countries, and suggest that effective disease governance requires alignment with trade and development sectors, as well as integration of veterinary and public health sectors. PMID:24532120

  1. Evaluation of a Density-Based Rapid Diagnostic Test for Sickle Cell Disease in a Clinical Setting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Hennek, Jonathan W.; Mantina, Hamakwa; Lee, S. Y. Ryan; Patton, Matthew R.; Sambo, Pauline; Sinyangwe, Silvester; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chintu, Chifumbe; Brugnara, Carlo; Stossel, Thomas P.; Whitesides, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although simple and low-cost interventions for sickle cell disease (SCD) exist in many developing countries, child mortality associated with SCD remains high, in part, because of the lack of access to diagnostic tests for SCD. A density-based test using aqueous multiphase systems (SCD-AMPS) is a candidate for a low-cost, point-of-care diagnostic for SCD. In this paper, the field evaluation of SCD-AMPS in a large (n?=?505) case-control study in Zambia is described. Of the two variations of the SCD-AMPS used, the best system (SCD-AMPS-2) demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% (82–90%) and a specificity of 60% (53–67%). Subsequent analysis identified potential sources of false positives that include clotting, variation between batches of SCD-AMPS, and shipping conditions. Importantly, SCD-AMPS-2 was 84% (62–94%) sensitive in detecting SCD in children between 6 months and 1 year old. In addition to an evaluation of performance, an assessment of end-user operability was done with health workers in rural clinics in Zambia. These health workers rated the SCD-AMPS tests to be as simple to use as lateral flow tests for malaria and HIV. PMID:25490722

  2. Sex differences in neuropsychological performance as an effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection: a pilot study in Zambia, Africa.

    PubMed

    Hestad, Knut A; Menon, J Anitha; Silalukey-Ngoma, Mary; Franklin, Donald R; Imasiku, Mwiya L; Kalima, Kalima; Heaton, Robert K

    2012-04-01

    This study examined whether there are neuropsychological performance differences between human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive participants being followed at a University of Zambia clinic and demographically comparable seronegative controls being tested for infection in the same setting. All participants were administered a standardized neurocognitive test battery that has been found sensitive to HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorder in the United States and internationally (e.g., in China, India, Romania, and Cameroon). The test battery was found to be applicable to a Zambian population. A clear HIV effect was seen with a medium to large overall effect size (Cohen d = 0.74). However, it was only the female seropositive participants who showed this HIV effect. HIV can result in neuropsychological deficits in Zambia, where clade C of the virus dominates. It is suggested that the HIV-infected women are more at risk of developing cognitive deficits than are men in this population, possibly because of sex-related social, financial, and healthcare disadvantages. However, further analyses are required regarding this conclusion because the finding was a result of an unplanned subanalysis. PMID:22456588

  3. An assessment of mental health policy in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Approximately half of the countries in the African Region had a mental health policy by 2005, but little is known about quality of mental health policies in Africa and globally. This paper reports the results of an assessment of the mental health policies of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods The WHO Mental Health Policy Checklist was used to evaluate the most current mental health policy in each country. Assessments were completed and reviewed by a specially constituted national committee as well as an independent WHO team. Results of each country evaluation were discussed until consensus was reached. Results All four policies received a high level mandate. Each policy addressed community-based services, the integration of mental health into general health care, promotion of mental health and rehabilitation. Prevention was addressed in the South African and Ugandan policies only. Use of evidence for policy development varied considerably. Consultations were mainly held with the mental health sector. Only the Zambian policy presented a clear vision, while three of four countries spelt out values and principles, the need to establish a coordinating body for mental health, and to protect the human rights of people with mental health problems. None included all the basic elements of a policy, nor specified sources and levels of funding for implementation. Deinstitutionalisation and the provision of essential psychotropic medicines were insufficiently addressed. Advocacy, empowerment of users and families and intersectoral collaboration were inadequately addressed. Only Uganda sufficiently outlined a mental health information system, research and evaluation, while only Ghana comprehensively addressed human resources and training requirements. No country had an accompanying strategic mental health plan to allow the development and implementation of concrete strategies and activities. Conclusions Six gaps which could impact on the policies' effect on countries' mental health systems were: lack of internal consistency of structure and content of policies, superficiality of key international concepts, lack of evidence on which to base policy directions, inadequate political support, poor integration of mental health policies within the overall national policy and legislative framework, and lack of financial specificity. Three strategies to address these concerns emerged, namely strengthening capacity of key stakeholders in public (mental) health and policy development, creation of a culture of inclusive and dynamic policy development, and coordinated action to optimize use of available resources. PMID:21477285

  4. Hope and despair: community health assistants’ experiences of working in a rural district in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to address the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia, the Ministry of Health implemented the national community health assistant strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to address the challenges by creating a new group of workers called community health assistants (CHAs) and integrating them into the health system. The first group started working in August 2012. The objective of this paper is to document their motivation to become a CHA, their experiences of working in a rural district, and how these experiences affected their motivation to work. Methods A phenomenological approach was used to examine CHAs’ experiences. Data collected through in-depth interviews with 12 CHAs in Kapiri Mposhi district and observations were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Personal characteristics such as previous experience and knowledge, passion to serve the community and a desire to improve skills motivated people to become CHAs. Health systems characteristics such as an inclusive work culture in some health posts motivated CHAs to work. Conversely, a non-inclusive work culture created a social structure which constrained CHAs’ ability to learn, to be innovative and to effectively conduct their duties. Further, limited supervision, misconceptions about CHA roles, poor prioritisation of CHA tasks by some supervisors, as well as non- and irregular payment of incentives also adversely affected CHAs’ ability to work effectively. In addition, negative feedback from some colleagues at the health posts affected CHA’s self-confidence and professional outlook. In the community, respect and support provided to CHAs by community members instilled a sense of recognition, appreciation and belonging in CHAs which inspired them to work. On the other hand, limited drug supplies and support from other community-based health workers due to their exclusion from the government payroll inhibited CHAs’ ability to deliver services. Conclusions Programmes aimed at integrating community-based health workers into health systems should adequately consider multiple incentives, effective management, supervision and support from the district. These should be tailored towards enhancing the individual, health system and community characteristics that positively impact work motivation at the local level if such programmes are to effectively contribute towards improved primary healthcare. PMID:24886146

  5. The impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance on the plateau of eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ducheyne, E; Mweempwa, C; De Pus, C; Vernieuwe, H; De Deken, R; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2009-09-01

    Tsetse-transmitted human or livestock trypanosomiasis is one of the major constraints to rural development in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiology of the disease is determined largely by tsetse fly density. A major factor, contributing to tsetse population density is the availability of suitable habitat. In large parts of Africa, encroachment of people and their livestock resulted in a destruction and fragmentation of such suitable habitat. To determine the effect of habitat change on tsetse density a study was initiated in a tsetse-infested zone of eastern Zambia. The study area represents a gradient of habitat change, starting from a zone with high levels of habitat destruction and ending in an area where livestock and people are almost absent. To determine the distribution and density of the fly, tsetse surveys were conducted throughout the study area in the dry and in the rainy season. Landsat ETM+ imagery covering the study area were classified into four land cover classes (munga, miombo, agriculture and settlements) and two auxiliary spectral classes (clouds and shadow) using a Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Classifier. The classes were regrouped into natural vegetation and agricultural zone. The binary images were overlaid with hexagons to obtain the spatial spectrum of spatial pattern. Hexagonal coverage was selected because of its compact and regular form. To identify scale-specific spatial patterns and associated entomological phenomena, the size of the hexagonal coverage was varied (250 and 500 m). Per coverage, total class area, mean patch size, number of patches and patch size standard deviation were used as fragmentation indices. Based on the fragmentation index values, the study zone was classified using a Partitioning Around Mediods (PAM) method. The number of classes was determined using the Wilks' lambda coefficient. To determine the impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance, the correlation between the fragmentation indices and the index of apparent density of the flies was determined and habitat changes most affecting tsetse abundance was identified. From this it followed that there is a clear relationship between habitat fragmentation and the abundance of tsetse flies. Heavily fragmented areas have lower numbers of tsetse flies, but when the fragmentation of natural vegetation decreases, the number of tsetse flies increases following a sigmoidal-like curve. PMID:19523702

  6. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional investigations regarding phenobarbital side effects during routine care in low income settings is warranted. PMID:25219354

  7. Geochemistry and mineralogy of Cu and Co in mine tailings at the Copperbelt, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, O.; Mihaljevi?, M.; K?íbek, B.; Majer, V.; Veselovský, F.

    2010-04-01

    Two sulfidic mine tailings within the Zambian Copperbelt in the north of Zambia have been studied: Chambishi, representing an old site (age about 40 y) and Mindolo, which represents a relatively recent site (age less than 10 y). The neutralization capacity based on solid phase carbonates at both sites remains high, thus neutral to alkaline conditions (paste pH up to 8.5 at Chambishi and up to 6.9 at Mindolo) predominate. Pore water at Chambishi has 568 mg/l of Ca and 1820 mg/l of sulfate, but concentrations of Fe and Mn are below 0.1 mg/l and concentrations of Cu and Co are below 0.05 mg/l. The principal secondary minerals at both sites are gypsum, poorly crystalline Fe(III) phases and hematite. Secondary Fe(III) phases are found as mineral coatings or completely replaced primary sulfides like pyrite and chalcopyrite and include large quantities of copper and cobalt in surface rims (up to 7.0 wt.% of Cu and up to 2.0 wt.% of Co). The presence of Fe(III) phases is marked by red color of mine tailings material, which is observed even below the expected penetration of the sulfide oxidation front. This may be explained by reductive dissolution of Fe(III) phases caused by flooding of tailings and temporarily reducing conditions during rainy period, when dissolved iron is transported by infiltrating water to the deeper zone of mine tailings, where it re-precipitates later. At the Chambishi site, precipitation of secondary minerals resulted in an early stage of hardpan formation at 0.6-0.9 m depth, composed mostly of gypsum and hematite. This zone also corresponds to maximum solid phase contents of Cu and Co. No such hardpans were found at the relatively young Mindolo site, where red tailings material, which includes poorly crystalline Fe(III) phases and hematite, is present only in discrete banded zones at several depth levels. Based on geochemical modeling results at the Mindolo site, precipitation of secondary Cu phases such as brochantite and malachite is likely in the zone of evaporation enrichment close to the mine tailings surface. At both the Chambishi and Mindolo sites, there does not seem to be a threat of acid mine drainage formation even over the long-term. Furthermore, the Cu and Co incorporated in hematite seem to be immobilized within the mine tailings.

  8. The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits, NW Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernau, Robin; Roberts, Stephen; Richards, Mike; Nisbet, Bruce; Boyce, Adrian; Nowecki, James

    2013-02-01

    The Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits of NW Zambia are large, tabular, disseminated ore bodies, hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome of the Lufilian Arc. The host rocks to the Lumwana deposits are two mineralogically similar but texturally distinct gneisses, a granitic to pegmatitic gneiss and a banded to augen gneiss which both comprise quartz-feldspar ± biotite ± muscovite ± haematite ± amphibole and intervening quartz-feldspar ± biotite schist. The sulphide ore horizons are typically developed within a biotite-muscovite-quartz-kyanite schist, although mineralization locally occurs within internal gneiss units. Contacts between the ore and host rocks are transitional and characterized by a loss of feldspar. Kinematic indicators, such as S-C fabrics and pressure shadows on porphyroblasts, suggest a top to the north shear sense. The sulphides are deformed by a strong shear fabric, enclosed within kyanite or concentrated into low strain zones and pressure shadows around kyanite porphyroblasts. This suggests that the copper mineralization was introduced either syn- or pre-peak metamorphism. In addition to Cu and Co, the ores are also characterized by enrichments in U, V, Ni, Ba and S and small, discrete zones of uranium mineralization, occur adjacent to the hanging wall and footwall of the copper ore bodies or in the immediate footwall to the copper mineralization. Unlike typical Copperbelt mineralization, unmineralized units show very low background copper values. Whole rock geochemical analyses of the interlayered schist and ore schist, compared to the gneiss, show depletions in Ca, Na and Sr and enrichments in Mg and K, consistent with replacement of feldspar by biotite. The mineral chemistry of muscovite, biotite and chlorite reflect changes in the bulk rock chemistry and show consistent increases in X Mg as the schists develop. ?34S for copper sulphides range from +2.3 ‰ to +18.5 ‰, with pyrite typically restricted to values between +3.9 ‰ and +6.2 ‰. These values are atypical of sulphides precipitated by bacteriogenic sulphate reduction. ?34S data for Chimiwungo (Cu + Co) show a broader range and increased ?34S values compared to the Malundwe (Cu) mineralization. The Lumwana deposits show many characteristics which distinguish them from classical Copperbelt mineralization and which suggests that they are formed by metasomatic alteration, mineralization and shearing of pre-Katangan basement. Although this style of mineralization is reported elsewhere in the Copperbelt, sometimes associated with the more widely reported stratiform ores of the Lower Roan, none of the previously reported occurrences have so far developed the tonnages of ore reported at Lumwana.

  9. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions Despite the growing body of literature on increased risk of exposure to HIV among HIV-negative PWDs, this is the first published study to examine perceptions of testing, treatment and other HIV services for PWDs who have become HIV-positive. Findings reveal far-reaching opportunities for improving the quality of care for this population. PMID:24763077

  10. Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Methods Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. Results During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor results at the zonal level. Conclusions In this study, the fit of ARIMAX models improves when environmental variables are included. There is a significant association of remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point with malaria transmission. Interestingly, dew point might be one of the factors sustaining malaria transmission in areas of general aridity during the dry season. PMID:24927747

  11. Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

  12. `WORSE THAN HIV' OR `NOT AS SERIOUS AS OTHER DISEASES'? CONCEPTUALIZATION OF CERVICAL CANCER AMONG NEWLY SCREENED WOMEN IN ZAMBIA

    PubMed Central

    White, Heather L.; Mulambia, Chishimba; Sinkala, Moses; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Moneyham, Linda; Grimley, Diane M.; Chamot, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with approximately 85% of the disease burden occurring in developing countries. To date, there have been few systematic efforts to document African women's conceptualization of cervical cancer after participation in a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)-based “see and treat” cervical cancer prevention program. In this study, conducted between September, 2009-July, 2010, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women who had recently undergone cervical cancer screening at a government-operated primary health care clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. Interviewers elicited participants' causal representations of cervical cancer, associated physical signs and symptoms, perceived physical and psychological effects, and social norms regarding the disease. The lay model of illness causation portrayed by participants after recent exposure to program promotion messages departed in several ways from causal models described in other parts of the world. However, causal conceptualizations included both lay and biomedical elements, suggesting a possible shift from a purely traditional causal model to one that incorporates both traditional concepts and recently promoted biomedical concepts. Most, but not all, women still equated cervical cancer with death, and perceived it to be a highly stigmatized disease in Zambia because of its anatomic location, dire natural course, connections to socially-condemned behaviors, and association with HIV/AIDS. No substantive differences of disease conceptualization existed according to HIV serostatus, though HIV positive women acknowledged that their immune status makes them more aware of their health and more likely to seek medical attention. Further attention should be dedicated to the processes by which women incorporate new knowledge into their representations of cervical cancer. PMID:22459188

  13. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-10-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  14. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  15. The Paris Declaration in practice: challenges of health sector aid coordination at the district level in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sundewall, Jesper; Forsberg, Birger C; Jönsson, Kristina; Chansa, Collins; Tomson, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing resources available for and number of partners providing health sector aid have stimulated innovations, notably, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which aim to improve aid coordination. In this, one of the first studies to analyse implementation of aid coordination below national level, the aim was to investigate the effect of the Paris Declaration on coordination of health sector aid at the district level in Zambia. Methods The study was carried out in three districts of Zambia. Data were collected via interviews with health centre staff, district managers and officials from the Ministry of Health, and from district action plans, financial reports and accounts, and health centre ledger cards. Four indicators of coordination related to external-partner activity, common arrangements used by external partners and predictability of funding were analysed and assessed in relation to the 2010 targets set by the Paris Declaration. Findings While the activity of external partners at the district level has increased, funding and activities provided by these partners are often not included in local plans. HIV/AIDS support show better integration in planning and implementation at the district level than other support. Regarding common arrangements used for fund disbursement, the share of resources provided as programme-based support is not increasing. The predictability of funds coming from outside the government financing mechanism is low. Conclusion Greater efforts to integrate partners in district level planning and implementation are needed. External partners must improve the predictability of their support and be more proactive in informing the districts about their intended contributions. With the deadline for achieving the targets set by the Paris Declaration fast approaching, it is time for the signatories to accelerate its implementation. PMID:19505300

  16. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time. PMID:23342517

  17. Local Perceptions, Cultural Beliefs and Practices That Shape Umbilical Cord Care: A Qualitative Study in Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Herlihy, Julie M.; Shaikh, Affan; Mazimba, Arthur; Gagne, Natalie; Grogan, Caroline; Mpamba, Chipo; Sooli, Bernadine; Simamvwa, Grace; Mabeta, Catherine; Shankoti, Peggy; Messersmith, Lisa; Semrau, Katherine; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Methods and Findings This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust), lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil) and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces). Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. Conclusion Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize effectiveness of evidence-based interventions. PMID:24244447

  18. Defining the malaria burden in Nchelenge District, northern Zambia using the World Health Organization malaria indicators survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is considered as one of the major public health problems and among the diseases of poverty. In areas of stable and relatively high transmission, pregnant women and their newborn babies are among the higher risk groups. A multicentre trial on the safety and efficacy of several formulations of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) during pregnancy is currently on-going in four African countries, including Zambia, whose study site is in Nchelenge district. As the study outcomes may be influenced by the local malaria endemicity, this needs to be characterized. A cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection among <10 years old was carried out in March-April 2012 in Nchelenge district. Methods The sampling unit was the household where all children?Zambia, despite the reported decline in malaria burden, pockets of high malaria endemicity, such as Nchelenge district, still remain. This is a border area and significant progress can be achieved only by concerted efforts aimed at increasing coverage of current control interventions across the border. PMID:24902708

  19. Making the cut: evidence-based lessons for improving the informed consent process for voluntary medical male circumcision in Swaziland and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Katie D; Friedland, Barbara A; Sheehy, Meredith; Apicella, Louis; Hewett, Paul C

    2014-04-01

    The informed consent (IC) process for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) was evaluated in Zambia and Swaziland as VMMC programs scaled up. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with clients 1 week after surgery to explore understanding of IC and gauge how expectations of MC surgery compared to actual experiences. In Zambia, key opinion leaders (KOLs) were also interviewed. Some clients equated written IC with releasing the clinic from liability. Most clients felt well prepared for the procedure, although many were surprised by the level of pain experienced during anesthesia and postsurgery. Clients were highly motivated to adhere to wound care, but some were overwhelmed by extensive instructions. Adolescents described barriers to accessing follow-up care and the need for support in overcoming adult gatekeepers. KOLs indicated that IC is not well understood in poorly educated communities. Results led to concrete programmatic changes, including revised patient education materials and more effective anesthesia for longer-lasting pain relief. PMID:24694330

  20. Does making clinic-based reproductive health services more youth-friendly increase service use by adolescents? evidence from Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin N Mmari; Robert J Magnani

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo report the findings of a study that evaluated the impact of three youth-friendly service (YFS) projects in Lusaka, Zambia. In 1994, the Lusaka District Health Management Team (LDHMT) identified adolescents as a priority underserved population with regard to reproductive health information and services. As part of its long-term goal to improve the health and well-being of Lusaka youth, the

  1. Detection of Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei subspecies in cattle in Zambia by polymerase chain reaction from blood collected on a filter paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Katakura; Clement Lubinga; Harrison Chitambo; Yusuke Tada

    1997-01-01

    To facilitate epidemiology studies of African trypanosomiasis in cattle in Zambia, we adapted a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using blood spotted on filter papers. For easy preparation of template DNA from the dried blood, we adapted a simple DNA extraction method using Chelex-100, an anion-exchange resin. Using primers directed for repetitive nuclear DNA sequences, species-specific DNA amplifications were detected

  2. Topotaxial reactions during the genesis of oriented rutile/hematite intergrowths from Mwinilunga (Zambia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re?nik, Aleksander; Stankovi?, Nadežda; Daneu, Nina

    2015-02-01

    Oriented rutile/hematite intergrowths from Mwinilunga in Zambia were investigated by electron microscopy methods in order to resolve the complex sequence of topotaxial reactions. The specimens are composed of up to several-centimeter-large euhedral hematite crystals covered by epitaxially grown reticulated rutile networks. Following a top-down analytical approach, the samples were studied from their macroscopic crystallographic features down to subnanometer-scale analysis of phase compositions and occurring interfaces. Already, a simple morphological analysis indicates that rutile and hematite are met near the orientation relationship. However, a more detailed structural analysis of rutile/hematite interfaces using electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has shown that the actual relationship between the rutile and hosting hematite is in fact . The intergrowth is dictated by the formation of equilibrium interfaces leading to 12 possible directions of rutile exsolution within a hematite matrix and 144 different incidences between the intergrown rutile crystals. Analyzing the potential rutile-rutile interfaces, these could be classified into four classes: (1) non-crystallographic contacts at 60° and 120°, (2) {101} twins with incidence angles of 114.44° and their complementaries at 65.56°, (3) {301} twins at 54.44° with complementaries at 125.56° and (4) low-angle tilt boundaries at 174.44° and 5.56°. Except for non-crystallographic contacts, all other rutile-rutile interfaces were confirmed in Mwinilunga samples. Using a HRTEM and high-angle annular dark-field scanning TEM methods combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we identified remnants of ilmenite lamellae in the vicinity of rutile exsolutions, which were an important indication of the high-T formation of the primary ferrian-ilmenite crystals. Another type of exsolution process was observed in rutile crystals, where hematite precipitates topotaxially exsolved from Fe-rich parts of rutile through intermediate Guinier-Preston zones, characterized by tripling the {101} rutile reflections. Unlike rutile exsolutions in hematite, hematite exsolutions in rutile form equilibrium interfaces. The overall composition of our samples indicates that the ratio between ilmenite and hematite in parent ferrian-ilmenite crystals was close to Ilm67Hem33, typical for Fe-Ti-rich differentiates of mafic magma. The presence of ilmenite lamellae indicates that the primary solid solution passed the miscibility gap at 900 °C. Subsequent exsolution processes were triggered by surface oxidation of ferrous iron and remobilization of cations within the common oxygen sublattice. Based on nanostructural analysis of the samples, we identified three successive exsolution processes: (1) exsolution of ilmenite lamellae from the primary ferrian-ilmenite crystals, (2) exsolution of rutile lamellae from ilmenite and (3) exsolution of hematite precipitates from Fe-rich rutile lamellae. All observed topotaxial reactions appear to be a combined function of temperature and oxygen fugacity, fO2.

  3. Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from companion animals and environment in the veterinary teaching hospital in Zambia, Africa.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Park, Yong Ho; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2014-03-01

    The Republic of Zambia consists of only one veterinary teaching school at the University of Zambia (UNZA) where students and veterinarians are exposed to many bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP). The aim of this study was the characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of eleven SA and 48 SP isolates from the veterinary hospitals' in- and outpatients and the environment. No isolate was resistant to cefoxitin by disk diffusion test and the corresponding resistance gene mecA was not found. In contrast, the resistance rates of SA to penicillin (63.6%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36.4%) and SP to penicillin (52.1%) and tetracycline (25.0%) were the highest. A variety of sequence types (STs) without a predominant type including numerous novel types were determined, especially for SP (39.6%). The spa typing provided a clonal assignment for all SAs (100%) and 24 SPs (50%) with three and two novel types, respectively. This study has provided an overview of SA and SP in the veterinary teaching hospital at UNZA. However, for a better understanding of these species regarding pathogenesis and transmission, further studies on the prevalence and characterization of SA and SP from veterinary staff, pet owners, and farm animals in Zambia is needed. PMID:24480623

  4. Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in the northern and eastern parts of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parva positive samples for PCR using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers. Microsatellite data was analyzed using microsatellite toolkit, GenAlEx ver. 6, Fstat ver. 2.9.3.2, and LIAN computer softwares. Results The combined percentage of positive samples in both districts determined by PCR using the p104 gene primers was 54.9% (95% CI: 46.7 – 63.1%, 78/142), while in each district, it was 44.8% (95% CI: 34.8 – 54.8%) and 76.1% (95% CI = 63.9 – 88.4%) for Isoka and Petauke districts, respectively. We analyzed the population genetic structure of Theileria parva from a total of 61 samples (33 from Isoka and 28 from Petauke) using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers encompassing the 4 chromosomes of Theileria parva. Wright’s F index (FST = 0.178) showed significant differentiation between the Isoka and Petauke populations. Linkage disequilibrium was observed when populations from both districts were treated as a single population. When analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Kanyelele and Kalembe areas in Isoka district, Isoka district overall and in Petauke district. Petauke district had a higher multiplicity of infection than Isoka district. Conclusion Population genetic analyses of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts showed a low level of genotype exchange between the districts, but a high level of genetic diversity within each district population, implying genetic and geographic sub-structuring between the districts. The sub-structuring observed, along with the lack of panmixia in the populations, could have been due to low transmission levels at the time of sampling. However, the Isoka population was less diverse than the Petauke population. PMID:23146577

  5. Adherence to the Food and Agricultural Organization guidelines on trypanocide usage among cattle farmers in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mbewe, Njelembo J; Sitali, Lungowe; Namangala, Boniface; Michelo, Charles

    2015-04-15

    Trypanocides will continue to play an important role in the control of tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis now and in the near future. The drugs are mostly administered by farmers without any veterinary supervision leading to misuse and under dosing of medication, and these could be factors that promote trypanocidal drug resistance (TDR) development. In order to delay or prevent TDR, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended guidelines on trypanocide use. It is not known if these recommended guidelines are adhered to in Itezhi tezhi district of Zambia. A survey was undertaken to examine how socio-economic and environmental factors were associated with adherence to the recommended guidelines on trypanocide use in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia. Ninety farmers who use trypanocides were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect their socio-economic characteristics (age, education in years, cattle herd size, competence on trypanocide use and their access to extension on trypanocide use) and trypanocide usage practices while crush pens which they use were stratified according to location, whether in the Game Management Area (GMA) (Mutenda, Itumbi, Kapulwe and Banachoongo) or non-GMA (Iyanda, New Ngoma and Shinampamba) as an environmental factor. Associations and measures of associations to adherence of FAO guidelines were determined. The results showed that 25.6% of the farmers adhered to guidelines by FAO on trypanocide use and that none of the socio-economic factors under investigation were significantly associated with it. Further the farmers that used crush pens that were in the GMA had an 80% reduction in the likelihood of adhering to the FAO guidelines on trypanocide use than those that used crush pens in the non-GMA (AOR 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.81, P=0.02). There was low adherence to the recommended FAO guidelines on trypanocide use and it was associated with the location of the crush pen whether in the GMA or not, as an environmental factor. With farmers in the GMA less likely to adhere to FAO guidelines than those in the non-GMA, we recommend an integrated approach of measures to control trypanosomosis in the GMA of Itezhi tezhi to lessen overuse of trypanocides by the farmers. PMID:25740569

  6. Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts) and LLINs (15 rural districts) implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR) of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015), while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666). A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005), but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913). No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933). Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which were being scaled up countrywide in both rural and urban districts. PMID:23273109

  7. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector: the case of Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled ‘Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems’ (REACT). The project aimed to strengthen fairness and accountability in the PS processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district level in Kapiri-Mposhi District in Zambia. Methods Data was collected using in depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and review of documents from national to district level. The study population for this paper consisted of health related stakeholders employed in the district administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. Results During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported devolution of PS and decision making procedures. However, important gaps were identified in terms of experiences of stakeholder involvement and fairness in PS processes in practice. The evaluation study revealed that a transformation of the views and methods regarding fairness in PS processes was ongoing in the study district, which was partly attributed to the AFR based intervention. Conclusions The study findings suggest that increased attention was given to fairness in PS processes at district level. The changes were linked to a number of simultaneous factors among them the concepts introduced by the present project with its emphasis on fairness and enhanced participation. A responsive leadership that was increasingly accountable to its operational staff and communities emerged as one of the key elements in driving the processes forward. PMID:24548767

  8. Retention in care, resource utilization, and costs for adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Of the estimated 800,000 adults living with HIV in Zambia in 2011, roughly half were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). As treatment scale up continues, information on the care provided to patients after initiating ART can help guide decision-making. We estimated retention in care, the quantity of resources utilized, and costs for a retrospective cohort of adults initiating ART under routine clinical conditions in Zambia. Methods Data on resource utilization (antiretroviral [ARV] and non-ARV drugs, laboratory tests, outpatient clinic visits, and fixed resources) and retention in care were extracted from medical records for 846 patients who initiated ART at ?15 years of age at six treatment sites between July 2007 and October 2008. Unit costs were estimated from the provider’s perspective using site- and country-level data and are reported in 2011 USD. Results Patients initiated ART at a median CD4 cell count of 145 cells/?L. Fifty-nine percent of patients initiated on a tenofovir-containing regimen, ranging from 15% to 86% depending on site. One year after ART initiation, 75% of patients were retained in care. The average cost per patient retained in care one year after ART initiation was $243 (95% CI, $194-$293), ranging from $184 (95% CI, $172-$195) to $304 (95% CI, $290-$319) depending on site. Patients retained in care one year after ART initiation received, on average, 11.4 months’ worth of ARV drugs, 1.5 CD4 tests, 1.3 blood chemistry tests, 1.4 full blood count tests, and 6.5 clinic visits with a doctor or clinical officer. At all sites, ARV drugs were the largest cost component, ranging from 38% to 84% of total costs, depending on site. Conclusions Patients initiate ART late in the course of disease progression and a large proportion drop out of care after initiation. The quantity of resources utilized and costs vary widely by site, and patients utilize a different mix of resources under routine clinical conditions than if they were receiving fully guideline-concordant care. Improving retention in care and guideline concordance, including increasing the use of tenofovir in first-line ART regimens, may lead to increases in overall treatment costs. PMID:24684772

  9. Efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets in use in Macha, Zambia, against the local Anopheles arabiensis population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mosquito Anopheles arabiensis is the primary vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Macha, Zambia. A major portion of Zambia's current malaria control programme relies on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides. Currently, the efficacy of these measures against An. arabiensis in Macha is unknown, and previous data has shown that An. arabiensis has continued to feed on human hosts, despite high ITN coverage. It is possible that this could be due to either decreased efficacy of ITNs in used in Macha, or pyrethroid resistance in the vector. Methods F1 offspring of field-collected adult An. arabiensis were tested for insecticide resistance, using CDC bottle bioassays and deltamethrin ITN susceptibility assays. The mosquitoes were characterized for the knock-down resistance (kdr) allele by PCR. LLINs that had been in use for two years in nearby villages were collected and tested for residual deltamethrin concentration and net quality, and were used in bioassays against susceptible colonized Anopheles gambiae s.s. Keele. Additionally, a survey on ITN use and care was conducted among LLIN owners. Results In the F1 An. arabiensis field population, low levels of resistance to DDT and deltamethrin-treated net material were detected by bioassay, although the knock-down resistance (kdr) allele not present in the population. ITN evaluations revealed high variability in residual deltamethrin concentration, quality of the nets, and mosquito mortality in bioassays. Mortality against An. gambiae s.s. in bioassays was correlated with residual deltamethrin concentration, which was dependent upon the number of washes each net had received. Conclusions Proper LLIN care was a strong determinant of LLIN efficacy, indicating that education on the importance of LLIN use and care is key when distributing nets. As there is little insecticide resistance in the local vector population, degradation of LLINs most likely allowed for continued human feeding by An. arabiensis. Continued monitoring and assessment of both the vector population and the efficacy of LLINs in use is necessary in order to appropriately modify vector control operations and prevent the development of pyrethroid resistance. PMID:21880143

  10. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators. PMID:21050496

  11. Urban and Rural Ozone Collect over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5 S, 28 E) during SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tai; Phalane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, Gert J. R.

    2002-01-01

    In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, broken by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30%. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39-54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). A stable layer of high ozone at 2-5 km was advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia and neighboring countries, making Lusaka a collection point for transboundary pollution. This is confirmed by trajectories that show ozone leaving Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa before heading toward the Indian Ocean and returning to Lusaka via Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Ozone in the mixed layer at Lusaka is heavily influenced by local sources.

  12. 'Big push' to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia enhanced health systems but lacked a sustainability plan.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Rabkin, Miriam; Grépin, Karen Ann; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Masvawure, Tsitsi Beatrice; Sacks, Emma Rose; Vail, Daniel; Galea, Sandro

    2014-06-01

    In the past decade, "big push" global health initiatives financed by international donors have aimed to rapidly reach ambitious health targets in low-income countries. The health system impacts of these efforts are infrequently assessed. Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a global public-private partnership that aims to reduce maternal mortality dramatically in one year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. We evaluated the first six to twelve months of the program's implementation, its ownership by national ministries of health, and its effects on health systems. The project's impact on maternal mortality is not reported here. We found that the Saving Mothers, Giving Life initiative delivered a large "dose" of intervention quickly by capitalizing on existing US international health assistance platforms, such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Early benefits to the broader health system included greater policy attention to maternal and child health, new health care infrastructure, and new models for collaborating with the private sector and communities. However, the rapid pace, external design, and lack of a long-term financing plan hindered integration into the health system and local ownership. Sustaining and scaling up early gains of similar big push initiatives requires longer-term commitments and a clear plan for transition to national control. PMID:24889956

  13. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths and their effects on weight gain in free-range chickens in Central Zambia.

    PubMed

    Phiri, I K; Phiri, A M; Ziela, M; Chota, A; Masuku, M; Monrad, J

    2007-05-01

    Examination of helminths from gastrointestinal tracts of 125 free-range chickens in Zambia revealed a 95.2% prevalence rate. The species and their prevalences were: Allodapa suctoria (85.6%), Tetrameres americana (80.8%), Ascaridia galli (28.8%), Gonglonema ingluvicola (50.4%), Raillietina spp. (81.6%) and Heterakis gallinarum (32.8%). No trematodes or Syngamus trachea were found. Mixed infections accounted for 88.2% as compared to 7.2% of single infections. Effects of helminthoses on weight gain were investigated in 100 growing chickens randomly assigned to treatment (levamisole) and untreated control groups. There was a significant mean (+/- SEM) weight gain (grams) of 812.8 +/- 51.4 in the treatment group and 623 +/- 57.4 in the control group (p < 0.01). The mean (+/- SEM) worm burdens from the control group and the treatment group were 96.3 +/- 5.61 and 22.05 +/- 2.61, respectively. These results confirm the higher risk of helminth infections in free-range systems and may explain the deleterious effects in chickens. PMID:17847826

  14. High maternal mortality levels and additional risk from poor accessibility in two districts of northern province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Le Bacq, F; Rietsema, A

    1997-04-01

    Two community-based retrospective studies conducted in the northern province of Zambia and a review of mortality data from Kasama General Hospital from 1991 to 1995 confirmed the existence of exceptionally high maternal mortality levels in this area. The sisterhood method was applied to a randomly selected sample of 3123 respondents from Kasama District and 2953 from Kaputa District. The life-time risk of dying from maternal causes was 5.4% in Kasama and 11.0% in Kaputa. The maternal mortality ratio was 764/100,000 live births in Kasama District, 1549/100,000 live births in Kaputa District, and 543/100,000 live births at Kasama District Hospital. 94% of women delivering at the hospital were within two hours' walking distance from the facility. In Kasama District, the population-attributable risk (PAR, "risk in the total population minus risk in the unexposed population") of maternal mortality from poor accessibility (more than 2 hours' walking distance) was 220 maternal deaths/100,000 live births, and the population etiologic fraction (PEF, "PAR/risk in total population") was 29%. In Kaputa District, where there is no hospital, the PAR from poor accessibility was 1006 maternal deaths/100,000 live births and the PEF was 65%. To reduce accessibility-related maternal mortality, both districts have established an ambulance service, set up strategic blood banks, and provided short wave radios to outlying health centers. PMID:9169171

  15. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Almli, Bjørn; Mwase, Maxwell; Sivertsen, Tore; Musonda, Mike M; Flåøyen, Arne

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 microg As/g and below 0.16 microg Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 microg Hg/g, and up to 8.7 microg Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians. PMID:15626380

  16. Female Sex Workers, Male Circumcision and HIV: A Qualitative Study of Their Understanding, Experience, and HIV Risk in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Sharon A.; Haberland, Nicole A.; Mulenga, Drosin M.; Hewett, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Several sub-Saharan African countries, including Zambia, have initiated national voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) programs to reduce HIV incidence. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty female sex workers (FSWs) in Lusaka to examine their understanding of MC and experiences with circumcised clients. Knowledge of MC was derived primarily through informal sources, with very few FSWs reporting exposure to MC educational campaigns. MC was not widely believed to be protective against HIV, however it was viewed by some as protective against STIs. Three FSWs reported having sex with recently circumcised clients, and most reported that men often used their MC status to try to convince FSWs to forego condoms. Findings suggest that FSWs, already at high risk for HIV infection, may face additional pressure toward higher risk behavior as a result of MC. As MC services are expanded, programs should support FSWs' efforts to protect themselves by providing information about what MC can - and cannot - offer for HIV/STI infection prevention. PMID:23349745

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nkhama, Emmy; Ndhlovu, Micky; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Siziya, Seter; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15–59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79), 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55)) and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18)) for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory. PMID:25602972

  18. Urban and Rural Ozone Pollution Over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5S, 25E) During SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Herman, J. R.; Witte, J. C.; Phahlane, A.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Mukula, C.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka during a six-day period in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, interspersed by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30 percent. Smoke aerosol column variations aloft and total ozone were monitored by a sun photometer. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39- 54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). High ozone concentrations above the mixed and inversion layers were advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia where SAFARI aircraft and ground-based instruments observed intense biomass fires and elevated aerosol and trace gas amounts. TOMS tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols products show the distribution of biomass burning and associated pollution throughout southern Africa in September 2000. Animations of satellite images and trajectories confirm pollutant recirculation over south central African fires, exit of ozone from Mozambique and Tanzania to the Indian Ocean and the characteristic buildup of tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic from western African outflow.

  19. Measuring Health System Strengthening: Application of the Balanced Scorecard Approach to Rank the Baseline Performance of Three Rural Districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. Methodology The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Results Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff ?0.40, p?=?0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p?=?0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p?=?0.03). Conclusion The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery performing poorly in all study districts. This tool could be valuable in monitoring and evaluation of health systems. PMID:23555590

  20. “The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18) and district stakeholders (n= 10) in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6) in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground and accurate costings for sustainable service delivery, building on existing community strengths, are needed before projects commence. This study highlights the importance of enabling and building the capacity of existing CBOs and community structures, rather than creating new mechanisms. PMID:23192013

  1. Protocol-driven primary care and community linkages to improve population health in rural Zambia: the Better Health Outcomes through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Zambia’s under-resourced public health system will not be able to deliver on its health-related Millennium Development Goals without a substantial acceleration in mortality reduction. Reducing mortality will depend not only upon increasing access to health care but also upon improving the quality of care that is delivered. Our project proposes to improve the quality of clinical care and to improve utilization of that care, through a targeted quality improvement (QI) intervention delivered at the facility and community level. Description of implementation The project is being carried out 42 primary health care facilities that serve a largely rural population of more than 450,000 in Zambia’s Lusaka Province. We have deployed six QI teams to implement consensus clinical protocols, forms, and systems at each site. The QI teams define new clinical quality expectations and provide tools needed to deliver on those expectations. They also monitor the care that is provided and mentor facility staff to improve care quality. We also engage community health workers to actively refer and follow up patients. Evaluation design Project implementation occurs over a period of four years in a stepped expansion to six randomly selected new facilities every three months. Three annual household surveys will determine population estimates of age-standardized mortality and under-5 mortality in each community before, during, and after implementation. Surveys will also provide measures of childhood vaccine coverage, pregnancy care utilization, and general adult health. Health facility surveys will assess coverage of primary health interventions and measures of health system effectiveness. Discussion The patient-provider interaction is an important interface where the community and the health system meet. Our project aims to reduce population mortality by substantially improving this interaction. Our success will hinge upon the ability of mentoring and continuous QI to improve clinical service delivery. It will also be critical that once the quality of services improves, increasing proportions of the population will recognize their value and begin to utilize them. PMID:23819614

  2. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408

  3. Estimating average inpatient and outpatient costs and childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea treatment costs in an urban health centre in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chola, Lumbwe; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    Background Millions of children die every year in developing countries, from preventable diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhoea, owing to low levels of investment in child health. Investment efforts are hampered by a general lack of adequate information that is necessary for priority setting in this sector. This paper measures the health system costs of providing inpatient and outpatient services, and also the costs associated with treating pneumonia and diarrhoea in under-five children at a health centre in Zambia. Methods Annual economic and financial cost data were collected in 2005-2006. Data were summarized in a Microsoft excel spreadsheet to obtain total department costs and average disease treatment costs. Results The total annual cost of operating the health centre was US$1,731,661 of which US$1 284 306 and US$447,355 were patient care and overhead departments costs, respectively. The average cost of providing out-patient services was US$3 per visit, while the cost of in-patient treatment was US$18 per bed day. The cost of providing dental services was highest at US$20 per visit, and the cost of VCT services was lowest, with US$1 per visit. The cost per out-patient visit for under-five pneumonia was US$48, while the cost per bed day was US$215. The cost per outpatient visit attributed to under-five diarrhoea was US$26, and the cost per bed day was US$78. Conclusion In the face of insufficient data, a cost analysis exercise is a difficult but feasible undertaking. The study findings are useful and applicable in similar settings, and can be used in cost effectiveness analyses of health interventions. PMID:19845966

  4. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Max O

    2009-01-01

    Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision tree model compared the costs (in year 2008 international dollars) and outcomes of CTC to a hypothetical 'do-nothing' alternative. The primary outcomes were mortality within one year, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) after surviving one year. Outcomes and health service costs of CTC were obtained from the CTC programme, local health services and World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of unit costs. Outcomes of doing nothing were estimated from published African cohort studies. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were done. Results The mean cost of CTC per child was $203 (95% confidence interval (CI) $139–$274), of which ready to use therapeutic food (RUTF) cost 36%, health centre visits cost 13%, hospital admissions cost 17% and technical support while establishing the programme cost 34%. Expected death rates within one year of presentation were 9.2% with CTC and 20.8% with no treatment (risk difference 11.5% (95% CI 0.4–23.0%). CTC cost $1760 (95% CI $592–$10142) per life saved and $ 53 (95% CI $18–$306) per DALY gained. CTC was at least 80% likely to be cost effective if society was willing to pay at least $88 per DALY gained. Analyses were most sensitive to assumptions about mortality rates with no treatment, weeks of CTC per child and costs of purchasing RUTF. Conclusion CTC is relatively cost effective compared to other priority health care interventions in developing countries, for a wide range of assumptions. PMID:19146668

  5. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Dewaele, S.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper-cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irregular veins. The hypogene sulphide mineralogy consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite. Based upon relationships with metamorphic biotite, vein sulphides and most of the sulphides in cemented lenses were precipitated during or after biotite zone greenschist facies metamorphism. New ?34S values of sulphides from the Konkola deposit are presented. The sulphur isotope values range from -8.7‰ to +1.4‰ V-CDT for chalcopyrite from all mineralising phases and from -4.4‰ to +2.0‰ V-CDT for secondary chalcocite. Similarities in ?34S for sulphides from different vein generations, earlier sulphides and secondary chalcocite can be explained by (re)mobilisation of S from earlier formed sulphide phases, an interpretation strongly supported by the petrographic evidence. Deep supergene enrichment and leaching occurs up to a km in depth, predominantly in the form of secondary chalcocite, goethite and malachite and is often associated with zones of high permeability. Detailed distribution maps of total copper and total cobalt contents of the Ore Shale formation show a close relationship between structural features and higher copper and lower cobalt contents, relative to other areas of the mine. Structural features include the Kirilabombwe anticline and fault zones along the axial plane and two fault zones in the southern limb of the anticline. Cobalt and copper behave differently in relation to these structural features. These structures are interpreted to have played a significant role in (re)mobilisation and concentration of the metals, in agreement with observations made elsewhere in the Zambian Copperbelt.

  6. A seasonal survey of gastrointestinal parasites in captive wild impala antelope on a game facility south of Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nalubamba, K S; Mudenda, N B; Malamo, M R

    2012-12-01

    Faecal samples (n = 1947) from captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus melampus) were examined over a period of 14 months to determine quantitative seasonal helminth egg excretion patterns and qualitative protozoan oocyst excretion patterns. Geometric mean monthly faecal egg counts (FECs) ranged from 20 to 575 and coprocultures revealed three parasite genera, namely Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Strongyloides. Larvae of the Trichostrongylus spp. were most predominant from faecal cultures. No trematode eggs or lungworms were detected and eggs of the cestode Monezia were only seen in two samples during the entire study period. The nematode FECs showed a marked seasonal variation, being higher during the rainy season, moderate during the cool dry season and low during the hot dry season. The rainy season had significantly higher FECs than the dry season (P < 0.01). The percentage of helminth-egg positive faecal samples ranged from 90.6 to 100% in the rainy season and 72.4 to 85.6% in the dry season. Overall mean FECs in unpelleted faeces were significantly higher than in pelleted faeces (P < 0.01). However, the FECs were not significantly different among seasons in unpelleted faeces (P>0.05), but were significantly higher in pelleted faeces in the rainy season than the dry season (P < 0.05). Pellet size had a significant effect on FEC, with smaller pellets having higher FEC (P < 0.05). Strongyloides eggs and coccidia oocysts were only seen during the rainy season. This represents the first documentation of seasonal parasitic infestation in captive wild antelopes in Zambia. Treatment and control strategies for helminths in these captive wild impala are also suggested based on the findings from this study. PMID:22071007

  7. Unravelling the quality of HIV counselling and testing services in the private and public sectors in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Ron Levey, Ilana; Wang, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the substantial investment for providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services in Zambia, there has been little effort to systematically evaluate the quality of VCT services provided by various types of health providers. This study, conducted in 2009, examines VCT in the public and private sectors including private for-profit and NGO/faith-based sectors in Copperbelt and Luapula. Methods The study used five primary data collection methods to gauge quality of VCT services: closed-ended client interviews with clients exiting VCT sites; open-ended client interviews; interviews with facility managers; review of service statistics; and an observation of the physical environment for VCT by site. Over 400 clients and 87 facility managers were interviewed from almost 90 facilities. Sites were randomly selected and results are generalizable at the provincial level. Results The study shows concerning levels of underperformance in VCT services across the sectors. It reveals serious underperformance in counselling about key risk-reduction methods. Less than one-third of clients received counselling on reducing number of sexual partners and only approximately 5% of clients received counselling about disclosing test results to partners. In terms of client profiles, the NGO sector attracts the most educated clients and less educated Zambians seek VCT services at very low rates (7%). The private for-profit performs equally or sometimes better than other sectors even though this sector is not adequately integrated into the Zambian national response to HIV. Conclusion The private for-profit sector provides VCT services on par in quality with the other sectors. Most clients did not receive counselling on partner reduction or disclosure of HIV test results to partners. In a generalized HIV epidemic where multiple concurrent sexual partners are a significant problem for transmitting the disease, risk-reduction methods and discussion should be a main focus of pre-test and post-test counselling. PMID:25012796

  8. Counselor and Participant Perspectives of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children in Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Laura K.; Skavenski, Stephanie; Michalopoulos, Lynn M.; Bolton, Paul A.; Bass, Judith K.; Familiar, Itziar; Imasiku, Mwiya; Cohen, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined Zambian counselors, children, and caregivers' perceptions of an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for trauma (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, TF-CBT) utilized in Zambia to address mental health problems in children. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local counselors trained in TF-CBT (N=19; 90% of those trained; 12 Female) and children/caregivers who had received TF-CBT in a small feasibility study (N=18; 86% of the children and N=16; 76% of the caregivers) who completed TF-CBT (Total completed; N=21). Each client was asked six open-ended questions, and domain analysis was used to explore the data. Results Counselors were positive about the program, liked the structure and flexibility, reported positive changes in their clients, and discussed the cultural adaptation around activities and language. Counselors stated the training was too short, and the supervision was necessary. Challenges included client engagement and attendance, availability of location, funding, and a lack of community understanding of “therapy.” Children and caregivers stated multiple positive changes they attributed to TF-CBT, such as better family communication, reduction of problem behaviors, and ability to speak about the trauma. They recommended continuing the program. Conclusion This study brings a critical examination of providers' and clients' perspectives of the implementation of an EBT for children in a low-resource setting. Clinical implications include changing implementation methods based on responses. Research implications include future study directions such as an effectiveness trial of TF-CBT and an examination of implementation factors. PMID:24400677

  9. The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed. PMID:22222028

  10. Evidence for participation of microbial mats in the deposition of the siliciclastic ‘ore formation’ in the Copperbelt of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, H.; Druschel, G.

    2010-10-01

    The Copperbelt of Zambia is the world's largest sediment-hosted stratiform copper province, hosted in siliciclastic sediments of the Roan Group, which forms the basal part of the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic Katanga Supergroup. Much of the ore deposition occurred between 880 Ma and 780 Ma, on a rimmed platform consisting of a carbonate barrier, a lagoonal basin and tidal flats grading into sabkhas in the hinterland. Various sedimentary structures developed in the ore formation at the Mindola Open Pit mine, are herein considered to be microbially induced and are identified as microbial shrinkage cracks, wrinkle structures, mat deformation structures, petees, concentric microfaults, and microbial mat chips. The occurrence of these structures in all ore formation units at the Mindola Mine suggests microbial mats grew on the paleo-sediment surface throughout deposition of the cupriferous succession. As these structures require cohesive layers, the mats were likely of the cyanobacterial type, that grew in the well aerated intertidal to lower supratidal zones. Cyanobacterial mats typically consist of a surface layer of filamentous cyanobacteria underlain by anaerobic, heterotrophic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). A distinct sulfide mineral zonation, developed in all major deposits of the Copperbelt, ranges from barren supratidal (sabkha) sediments, through chalcocite in the lower supratidal zone, to bornite followed by chalcopyrite in the intertidal zone, and pyrite in the subtidal zone and anoxic lagoonal depotcentre. This sequence of minerals can be modelled as a paragenetic sequence of mineralization resulting from the progressive reduction of a source fluid, indicating that geochemical conditions of ore formation, at least, are produced by the activity of SRB.

  11. Prevalence and source of trypanosome infections in field-captured vector flies (Glossina pallidipes) in southeastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Hirohisa; Konnai, Satoru; Simuunza, Martin; Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Kano, Rika; Witola, William H; Tembo, Mwase E; Chitambo, Harrison; Inoue, Noboru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-09-01

    The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes, collected from Chiawa and Chakwenga in Zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 550 G. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome DNA. Infection rates of tsetse with Trypanosoma vivax universal, Trypanosoma congolense savannah, T. congolense forest and T. congolense kilifi were 4.2% (23/550), 4.7% (26/550), 1.1% (6/550) and 1.6% (9/550), respectively. To determine the mammalian hosts of T. congolense and T. vivax infections from the tsetse flies, mammalian mitochondrion DNA of blood meal in these flies were analyzed by PCR and subsequent gene sequence analysis of the amplicons. Sequence analysis showed the presence of cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of 7 different mammalian species such as human, elephant, buffalo, goat, warthog, greater kudu and cattle. Goats which were main livestock in these areas were further examined to know the extent of its contribution in spreading the infection. We examined the prevalence of trypanosome infections in the domestic goat population in 6 settlements in Chiawa alone. Of the 86 goats sampled, 4 (4.6%), 5 (5.8%), 4 (4.6%) and 4 (4.6%) were positive for T. vivax universal, T. congolense savannah, forest and kilifi, respectively. These findings showed that the host-source of trypanosome infections in vector fly give a vital information about spread of infection. The result of this study will certainly contribute in elucidating more the epidemiology of trypanosomosis. PMID:18840966

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Infant Infection Adversely Affects Growth and Development in Maternally HIV-Exposed and Unexposed Infants in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Larke, N.; Sanz-Ramos, M.; Bates, M.; Musonda, K.; Manno, D.; Siame, J.; Monze, M.; Filteau, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Methods.?Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. Results.?All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation [z]-score difference: ?0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, ?.72 to ?.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: ?0.72 [95% CI, ?1.23 to ?.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: ?4.1 [95% CI, ?7.8 to ?.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. Conclusion.?HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region. PMID:22247303

  13. Use of task-shifting to rapidly scale-up HIV treatment services: experiences from Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mary B; Chapula, Bushimbwa Tambatamba; Chi, Benjamin H; Mwango, Albert; Chi, Harmony F; Mwanza, Joyce; Manda, Handson; Bolton, Carolyn; Pankratz, Debra S; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Reid, Stewart E

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization advocates task-shifting, the process of delegating clinical care functions from more specialized to less specialized health workers, as a strategy to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. However, there is a dearth of literature describing task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, where services for antiretroviral therapy (ART) have scaled up rapidly in the face of generalized human resource crises. As part of ART services expansion in Lusaka, Zambia, we implemented a comprehensive task-shifting program among existing health providers and community-based workers. Training begins with didactic sessions targeting specialized skill sets. This is followed by an intensive period of practical mentorship, where providers are paired with trainers before working independently. We provide on-going quality assessment using key indicators of clinical care quality at each site. Program performance is reviewed with clinic-based staff quarterly. When problems are identified, clinic staff members design and implement specific interventions to address targeted areas. From 2005 to 2007, we trained 516 health providers in adult HIV treatment; 270 in pediatric HIV treatment; 341 in adherence counseling; 91 in a specialty nurse "triage" course, and 93 in an intensive clinical mentorship program. On-going quality assessment demonstrated improvement across clinical care quality indicators, despite rapidly growing patient volumes. Our task-shifting strategy was designed to address current health care worker needs and to sustain ART scale-up activities. While this approach has been successful, long-term solutions to the human resource crisis are also urgently needed to expand the number of providers and to slow staff migration out of the region. PMID:19134202

  14. Unintended Pregnancy among HIV Positive Couples Receiving Integrated HIV Counseling, Testing, and Family Planning Services in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kristin M.; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. Design Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. Methods Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. Results The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (p<0.05) with time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users in multivariate analysis included the man wanting more children, the woman being HIV negative versus having stage IV HIV disease, and the woman reporting: younger age, no previous OCP use, missed OCPs, or sex without a condom. Conclusions Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522 PMID:24098692

  15. Vegetation and hydrological changes in the Kafue Flats, Zambia, associated with the construction of the Itezhi-tezhi and Kafue Gorge Dams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumba, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Kafue River is the second largest river in Zambia with a length of about 1,500km. The river is a major tributary of the Zambezi and lies entirely in Zambia. The Kafue flats floodplain is an extensive floodplain of about 255 kilometers long and 60 kilometers wide, covering an area of more than 6,500km^2. The area has approximately 1.3 million inhabitants, within the flats and in its catchment. The lower Kafue is highly regulated that it is now essentially physically changed i.e. flood regime especially in the Kafue flats floodplain by the upstream dam, Itezhi-tezhi and a downstream one, the Kafue Gorge. Itezhi-tezhi dam was constructed as a storage dam for the Kafue Gorge. It is also significant because it was the first major dam in Africa that was designed and constructed to release an artificial flood for the maintenance of wetlands and the support of people dependent on them. However, there has been some indication of changes in the vegetation structure after the dams were constructed. This study is investigating in detail these changes in relation to the hydrological changes and also the spread of Mimosa pigra, an alien invasive weed in the Kafue Flats particularly the South bank.

  16. The Efficacy of Vectron 20?WP, Etofenprox, for Indoor Residual Spraying in Areas of High Vector Resistance to Pyrethroids and Organochlorines in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Kandyata, Alister; Chanda, Javan; Phiri, Faustina N.; Muzia, Lucy; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa

    2013-01-01

    The selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has the potential to compromise any insecticide-based vector control programme. To ensure that the insecticides used for indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets in Zambia remain effective and their choice is evidence based, insecticide resistance surveillance and monitoring are essential. This study assessed and compared the residual efficacy of etofenprox (Vectron 20?WP), an ether pyrethroid, at 0.1?g/m2 with pyrethroids: bifenthrin (Bistar 10?WP) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Icon 10 CS) at 25?mg/m2 for indoor residual spraying. We also assessed the resistance status of etofenprox to local malaria vectors, An. funestus s.s and An. gambiae s.s, using World Health Organization standard protocols. The residual efficacy of Vectron 20?WP on cement, rendered walls of houses lasted for four months with 100% mortality. By the eighth month, the killing effect had reduced to 73.8% compared to 63.3% for bifenthrin and 77.0% for lambda-cyhalothrin. Susceptibility tests using standard World Health Organization assays on An. gambiae s.s showed susceptibility to etofenprox (0.1%) but some resistance was detected to Anopheles funestus s.s. The product is recommended as an ideal insecticide for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in Zambia as part of a resistance management programme in selected areas of the country. PMID:24967135

  17. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

    2012-01-01

    Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

  18. Improved HIV testing coverage after scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs in urban Zambia: Evidence from serial hospital surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kancheya, Nzali G.; Jordan, Atia K.; Zulu, Isaac S.; Chanda, Duncan; Vermund, Sten H.

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated changing HIV testing coverage and prevalence rates before and after expanding city-wide antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods We conducted serial cross-sectional surveys on the University Teaching Hospital medical ward to assess HIV prevalence among inpatients of unknown status in 2003 and 2006. Willing participants received counseling and dual HIV rapid tests. We compared the proportion of inpatients receiving their test results in 2003 (off-the-ward testing) to 2006 (on-the-ward). Results In 2003, none of 103 inpatients knew their HIV status or took ART; 99.0% (102/103) agreed to testing. In 2006, 49.3% (99 of 201) patients knew they were HIV-infected and were on ART; of those with unknown status, 98.0% (100/102) agreed to testing. In 2003, only 54.9% (56/102) received post-test counseling and 98.2% (55/56) learned their status. In 2006, 99.0% (99/100) received post-test counseling and 99.1% (98 of 99) learned their status. In 2003, 62.8% (64 of 102) of status-unknown inpatients who agreed to testing were seropositive by dual rapid test, compared to 48.0% (48 of 100) of status-unknown inpatients in 2006. When including inpatients who already knew their seropositive status plus those unknowns who tested seropositive, the proportion of inpatients that was seropositive in 2006 was 73.1% (147 of 201), higher than in 2003. Conclusions After ART program expansion, inpatients in 2006 were far more likely than their 2003 counterparts to know their HIV status and to be taking ART. In both years, 63–73% of medical inpatients were HIV-infected and 98.5% of inpatients agreed to testing. On-the-ward testing in 2006 avoided the 2003 problem of patient discharge before learning of their test results. Hospital-based HIV testing is an essential clinical service in high prevalence settings and can serve further as a surveillance system to help track the community impact of outpatient AIDS services in Africa. PMID:23180895

  19. Individual and contextual factors influencing patient attrition from antiretroviral therapy care in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Musheke, Maurice; Bond, Virginia; Merten, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Despite the relatively effective roll-out of free life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy (ART) in public sector clinics in Zambia since 2005, and the proven efficacy of ART, some people living with HIV (PLHIV) are abandoning the treatment. Drawing on a wider ethnographic study in a predominantly low-income, high-density residential area of Lusaka, this paper reports the reasons why PLHIV opted to discontinue their HIV treatment. Methods Opened-ended, in-depth interviews were held with PLHIV who had stopped ART (n = 25), ART clinic staff (n = 5), religious leaders (n = 5), herbal medicine providers (n = 5) and lay home-based caregivers (n = 5). In addition, participant observations were conducted in the study setting for 18 months. Interview data were analysed using open coding first, and then interpreted using latent content analysis. The presentation of the results is guided by a social-ecological framework. Findings Patient attrition from ART care is influenced by an interplay of personal, social, health system and structural-level factors. While improved corporeal health, side effects and need for normalcy diminished motivation to continue with treatment, individuals also weighed the social and economic costs of continued uptake of treatment. Long waiting times for medical care and placing “defaulters” on intensive adherence counselling in the context of insecure labour conditions and livelihood constraints not only imposed opportunity costs which patients were not willing to forego, but also forced individuals to balance physical health with social integrity, which sometimes forced them to opt for faith healing and traditional medicine. Conclusions Complex and dynamic interplay of personal, social, health system and structural-level factors coalesces to influence patient attrition from ART care. Consequently, while patient-centred interventions are required, efforts should be made to improve ART care by extending and establishing flexible ART clinic hours, improving patient-provider dialogue about treatment experiences and being mindful of the way intensive adherence counselling is being enforced. In the context of insecure labour conditions and fragile livelihoods, this would enable individuals to more easily balance time for treatment and their livelihoods. As a corollary, the perceived efficacy of alternative treatment and faith healing needs to be challenged through sensitizations targeting patients, religious leaders/faith healers and herbal medicine providers. PMID:22713354

  20. Factors associated with health facility childbirth in districts of Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia: a population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality continues to be a heavy burden in low and middle income countries where half of all deliveries take place in homes without skilled attendance. The study aimed to investigate the underlying and proximate determinants of health facility childbirth in rural and urban areas of three districts in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. Methods A population-based survey was conducted in 2007 as part of the ‘REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems’ (REACT) project. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and the data included information on place of delivery and factors that might influence health care seeking behaviour. A total of 1800 women who had childbirth in the previous five years were analysed. The distal and proximate conceptual framework for analysing determinants of maternal mortality was modified for studying factors associated with place of delivery. Socioeconomic position was measured by employing a construct of educational attainment and wealth index. All analyses were stratified by district and urban–rural residence. Results There were substantial inter-district differences in proportion of health facility childbirth. Facility childbirth was 15, 70 and 37% in the rural areas of Malindi, Mbarali and Kapiri Mposhi respectively, and 57, 75 and 77% in the urban areas of the districts respectively. However, striking socio-economic inequities were revealed regardless of district. Furthermore, there were indications that repeated exposure to ANC services and HIV related counselling and testing were positively associated with health facility deliveries. Perceived distance was negatively associated with facility childbirth in rural areas of Malindi and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi. Conclusion Strong socio-economic inequities in the likelihood of facility childbirths were revealed in all the districts added to geographic inequities in two of the three districts. This strongly suggests an urgent need to strengthen services targeting disadvantaged and remote populations. The finding of a positive association between HIV counselling/testing and odds in favor of giving birth at a health facility suggests potential positive effects can be achieved by strengthening integrated approaches in maternal health service delivery. PMID:24996456

  1. The seven Cs of the high acceptability of home-based VCT: results from a mixed methods approach in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Marte; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut; Mwangala, Sheila; Blystad, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    HIV testing and counselling is a critical gateway to prevention and treatment. Yet, coverage remains insufficient, few couples are tested together and gender differences in access exist. We used an embedded mixed methods approach to investigate possible explanations for the high acceptance of home-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing (HB-VCT) in a pair-matched cluster-randomized trial in Zambia. A baseline survey included 1694 individuals in 36 clusters. Adults in 18 intervention clusters were offered HB-VCT by lay counsellors. Standard testing services were available in both trial arms. After the completion of the intervention, a follow-up survey was conducted in all trial clusters. In addition, 21 in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted with home-based VCT clients in the intervention arm. Informants favoured the convenience, confidentiality and credibility of HB-VCT. Counsellors were perceived as trustworthy owing to their closeness and conduct, and the consent process was experienced as convincing. Couple testing was selected by 70% of cohabiting couples and was experienced as beneficial by both genders. Levels of first-time testing (68% vs. 29%, p < 0.0001) and re-testing (94% vs. 74%, p < 0.0001) were higher in the intervention than in the control arm. Acceptance of HIV testing and counselling is dependent on stigma, trust and gender. The confidentiality of home-based VCT was essential for overcoming stigma-related barriers, and the selection of local counsellors was important to ensure trust in the services. The high level of couple counselling within HB-VCT may contribute to closing the gender gap in HIV testing, and has benefits for both genders and potentially for prevention of HIV transmission. The study demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high test coverage with an opt-in consent approach. The embedded qualitative component confirmed the high satisfaction with HB-VCT reported in the quantitative survey and was crucial to fully understand the intervention and its consequences. PMID:23972555

  2. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable. PMID:23181969

  3. Diarrhea is a Major killer of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Inpatient Set-up in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to December 2009 were followed. Data on nutritional status, socio-demographic factors, and admission medical conditions were collected up on enrollment. T-test and chi-square tests were used to compare difference in mean or percentage values. Logistic regression was used to assess risk of mortality by admission characteristics. Results Majority, 55.3% (238/430) were boys. The median age of the cohort was 17 months (inter-quartile range, IQR 12-22). Among the children, 68.9% (295/428) had edema at admission. The majority of the children, 67.3% (261/388), presented with diarrhea; 38.9% (162/420) tested HIV positive; and 40.5% (174/430) of the children died. The median Length of stay of the cohort was 9 days (IQR, 5-14 days); 30.6% (53/173) of the death occurred within 48 hours of admission. Children with diarrhea on admission had two and half times higher odds of mortality than those without diarrhea; Adjusted OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.50-4.09, P < 0.001). The odds of mortality for children with HIV infection was higher than children without HIV infection; Adjusted OR = 1.6 (95% CI 0.99-2.48 P = 0.5). Conclusion Diarrhea is a major cause of complication in children with severe acute malnutrition. Under the current standard management approach, diarrhea in children with SAM was found to increase their odds of death substantially irrespective of other factors. PMID:21989455

  4. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Zambia: implementing efficacious ARV regimens in primary health centers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Safety and effectiveness of efficacious antiretroviral (ARV) regimens beyond single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) have been demonstrated in well-controlled clinical studies or in secondary- and tertiary-level facilities in developing countries. This paper reports on implementation of and factors associated with efficacious ARV regimens among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in primary health centers (PHCs) in Zambia. Methods Blood sample taken for CD4 cell count, availability of CD4 count results, type of ARV prophylaxis for mothers, and additional PMTCT service data were collected for HIV-positive pregnant women and newborns who attended 60 PHCs between April 2007 and March 2008. Results Of 14,815 HIV-positive pregnant women registered in the 60 PHCs, 2,528 (17.1%) had their CD4 cells counted; of those, 1,680 (66.5%) had CD4 count results available at PHCs; of those, 796 (47.4%) had CD4 count ? 350 cells/mm3 and thus were eligible for combination antiretroviral treatment (cART); and of those, 581 (73.0%) were initiated on cART. The proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women whose blood sample was collected for CD4 cell count was positively associated with (1) blood-draw for CD4 count occurring on the same day as determination of HIV-positive status; (2) CD4 results sent back to the health facilities within seven days; (3) facilities without providers trained to offer ART; and (4) urban location of PHC. Initiation of cART among HIV-positive pregnant women was associated with the PHC's capacity to provide care and antiretroviral treatment services. Overall, of the 14,815 HIV-positive pregnant women registered, 10,015 were initiated on any type of ARV regimen: 581 on cART, 3,041 on short course double ARV regimen, and 6,393 on sdNVP. Conclusion Efficacious ARV regimens beyond sdNVP can be implemented in resource-constrained PHCs. The majority (73.0%) of women identified eligible for ART were initiated on cART; however, a minority (11.3%) of HIV-positive pregnant women were assessed for CD4 count and had their test results available. Factors associated with implementation of more efficacious ARV regimens include timing of blood-draw for CD4 count and capacity to initiate cART onsite where PMTCT services were being offered. PMID:19712454

  5. Systems thinking in practice: the current status of the six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening in three BHOMA intervention districts of Zambia: a baseline qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia’s MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. Methods A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. Results The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating communities seemed to lack the capacity to hold health workers accountable for the drugs and services. Conclusion The study has shown that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks. These linkages emphasised the need to use system wide approaches in assessing the performance of health system strengthening interventions. PMID:23902601

  6. First sero-prevalence of dengue fever specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in Western and North-Western provinces of Zambia: a population based cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a tropical infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), a single positive-stranded RNA Flavivirus. There is no published evidence of dengue in Zambia. The objective of the study was to determine the sero-prevalence and correlates for dengue fever specific IgG antibodies in Western and North-Western provinces in Zambia. Methods A randomized cluster design was used to sample participants for yellow fever risk assessment. In order to rule out cross reactivity with other flaviviruses including dengue, differential antibody tests were done by ELISA. Data was processed using Epi Data version 3.1 and transferred to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of dengue fever with various factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Results A total of 3,624 persons were sampled for dengue virus infection of whom 53.3% were female and 23.9% were in the 5–14 years age group. Most persons in the survey attained at least primary education (47.6%). No significant association was observed between sex and dengue virus infection (p?=?1.000). Overall, 4.1% of the participants tested positive for Dengue IgG. In multivariate analysis, the association of age with Dengue infection showed that those below 5 years of age were 63% (AOR?=?0.37; 95% CI [0.16, 0.86]) less likely to be infected with Dengue virus compared to those aged 45 years or older. A significant association was observed between grass thatched roofing and Dengue infection (AOR?=?2.28; 95% CI [1.15, 4.53]) Respondents who used Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) were 21% (AOR?=?1.21; 95% CI [1.01, 1.44]) more likely to be infected with dengue infection than those who did not use ITNs. Meanwhile, participants who visited Angola were 73% (AOR?=?1.73; 95% CI [1.27, 2.35]) more likely to be infected with Dengue virus than those who did not visit Angola. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence of dengue infection circulation in both North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. It is important that surveillance activities for Dengue and diagnostic systems are expanded and strengthened, nationwide in order to capture information related to dengue virus and other flaviviruses. PMID:25078113

  7. Measuring teamwork and taskwork of community-based “teams” delivering life-saving health interventions in rural Zambia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of teams is a well-known approach in a variety of settings, including health care, in both developed and developing countries. Team performance is comprised of teamwork and task work, and ascertaining whether a team is performing as expected to achieve the desired outcome has rarely been done in health care settings in resource-limited countries. Measuring teamwork requires identifying dimensions of teamwork or processes that comprise the teamwork construct, while taskwork requires identifying specific team functions. Since 2008 a community-based project in rural Zambia has teamed community health workers (CHWs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs), supported by Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs), to provide essential newborn and continuous curative care for children 0–59 months. This paper describes the process of developing a measure of teamwork and taskwork for community-based health teams in rural Zambia. Methods Six group discussions and pile-sorting sessions were conducted with three NHCs and three groups of CHW-TBA teams. Each session comprised six individuals. Results We selected 17 factors identified by participants as relevant for measuring teamwork in this rural setting. Participants endorsed seven functions as important to measure taskwork. To explain team performance, we assigned 20 factors into three sub-groups: personal, community-related and service-related. Conclusion Community and culturally relevant processes, functions and factors were used to develop a tool for measuring teamwork and taskwork in this rural community and the tool was quite unique from tools used in developed countries. PMID:23802766

  8. New constraints on the Pan-African Orogeny in Central Zambia: A structural and geochronological study of the Hook Batholith and the Mwembeshi Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Kalin V.; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Charlesworth, Guy; Frei, Dirk; Rankin, William

    2014-12-01

    In Central Zambia, the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Pan-African Orogen: the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt. To the north of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within Neoproterozoic Katangan metasedimentary rocks. Field mapping and structural studies, microstructural observations, interpretation of airborne geophysical images and U-Pb zircon geochronology constrain a new model for the tectonic evolution of this poorly studied part of the orogen. Two temporarily separated and highly oblique orogenic contraction events are defined. D1 is characterised by a regional low-metamorphic grade E-W shortening that produced strain partitioning between N-S trending pure-shear-dominated and NW trending sinistral simple-shear dominated domains. The emplacement of the batholith between ca. 550 and 533 Ma (U-Pb zircon ages) is syn-tectonic to D1. The D2 N-S shortening event was active after ca. 530, which is indicated by the age of the newly dated, deformed molasse of the Hook Batholith. During D2, the MwZ developed as an E- to ENE-striking zone of pure-shear dominated deformation that localised to the south and within the already exhumed Hook Batholith. At the scale of the Pan-African Orogen in Southern Africa, the D1 is considered to be a far field expression of the E-W collision event in the Mozambique Belt. The following Early Cambrian D2 event corresponds to the high angle collision between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons and the stitching of the Lufilian and Zambezi belts along the MwZ. Therefore, in the Hook area, the MwZ cannot be regarded as a continental-scale wrench structure as widely discussed in the literature. The tectonic events in Central Zambia suggest that the amalgamation of Gondwana was accompanied by suturing along highly oblique orogenic belts during plate reorganization at around 530 Ma.

  9. Scaling-Up Access to Antiretroviral Therapy for Children: A Cohort Study Evaluating Care and Treatment at Mobile and Hospital-Affiliated HIV Clinics in Rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Janneke H.; Moss, William J.; Hamangaba, Francis; Munsanje, Bornface; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Travel time and distance are barriers to care for HIV-infected children in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Decentralization of care is one strategy to scale-up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), but few programs have been evaluated. We compared outcomes for children receiving care in mobile and hospital-affiliated HIV clinics in rural Zambia. Methods Outcomes were measured within an ongoing cohort study of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital, Zambia from 2007 to 2012. Children in the outreach clinic group received care from the Macha HIV clinic and transferred to one of three outreach clinics. Children in the hospital-affiliated clinic group received care at Macha HIV clinic and reported Macha Hospital as the nearest healthcare facility. Results Seventy-seven children transferred to the outreach clinics and were included in the analysis. Travel time to the outreach clinics was significantly shorter and fewer caretakers used public transportation, resulting in lower transportation costs and fewer obstacles accessing the clinic. Some caretakers and health care providers reported inferior quality of service provision at the outreach clinics. Sixty-eight children received ART at the outreach clinics and were compared to 41 children in the hospital-affiliated clinic group. At ART initiation, median age, weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and CD4+ T-cell percentages were similar for children in the hospital-affiliated and outreach clinic groups. Children in both groups experienced similar increases in WAZ and CD4+ T-cell percentages. Conclusions HIV care and treatment can be effectively delivered to HIV-infected children at rural health centers through mobile ART teams, removing potential barriers to uptake and retention. Outreach teams should be supported to increase access to HIV care and treatment in rural areas. PMID:25122213

  10. Multi-Country Analysis of Treatment Costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH): Facility-Level ART Unit Cost Analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Tagar, Elya; Sundaram, Maaya; Condliffe, Kate; Matatiyo, Blackson; Chimbwandira, Frank; Chilima, Ben; Mwanamanga, Robert; Moyo, Crispin; Chitah, Bona Mukosha; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Assefa, Yibeltal; Pillay, Yogan; Mayer, Sam; Shear, Lauren; Dain, Mary; Hurley, Raphael; Kumar, Ritu; McCarthy, Thomas; Batra, Parul; Gwinnell, Dan; Diamond, Samantha; Over, Mead

    2014-01-01

    Background Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. Methods & Findings In 2010–2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy) across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2–8% annual loss to follow-up or death) were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77–95% alive and on treatment). Conclusions This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation. PMID:25389777

  11. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  12. The (Mis)Reporting of Male Circumcision Status among Men and Women in Zambia and Swaziland: A Randomized Evaluation of Interview Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, Paul C.; Haberland, Nicole; Apicella, Lou; Mensch, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, male circumcision prevalence has been estimated using surveys of men self-reporting their circumcision status. HIV prevention trials and observational studies involving female participants also collect data on partners' circumcision status as a risk factor for HIV/STIs. A number of studies indicate that reports of circumcision status may be inaccurate. This study assessed different methods for improving self- and partner reporting of circumcision status. Methods/Findings The study was conducted in urban and rural Zambia and urban Swaziland. Men (N?=?1264) aged 18–50 and their female partners (N?=?1264), and boys (N?=?840) aged 13–17 were enrolled. Participants were recruited from HIV counseling and testing sites, health centers, and surrounding communities. The study experimentally assessed methods for improving the reporting of circumcision status, including: a) a simple description of circumcision, b) a detailed description of circumcision, c) an illustration of a circumcised and uncircumcised penis, and d) computerized self-interviewing. Self-reports were compared to visual examination. For men, the error in reporting was largely unidirectional: uncircumcised men more often reported they were circumcised (2–7%), depending on setting. Fewer circumcised men misrepresented their status (0.05–5%). Misreporting by women was significantly higher (11–15%), with the error in both directions. A sizable number of women reported that they did not know their partner's circumcision status (3–8%). Computerized interviewing did not improve accuracy. Providing an illustration, particularly for illiterate participants, significantly improved reporting of circumcision status, decreasing misreporting among illiterate participants from 13% to 10%, although misreporting was not eliminated. Conclusions Study results suggest that the prevalence of circumcision may be overestimated in Zambia and Swaziland; the error in reporting is higher among women than among men. Improved reporting when a description or illustration is provided suggests that the source of the error is a lack of understanding of male circumcision. PMID:22629312

  13. HIV infection and domestic smoke exposure, but not human papillomavirus, are risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Zambia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kayamba, Violet; Bateman, Allen C; Asombang, Akwi W; Shibemba, Aaron; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Banda, Themba; Soko, Rose; Kelly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that esophageal cancer occurs in younger adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe or North America. The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high in this region. We postulated that HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk. This was a case–control study based at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Cases were patients with confirmed OSCC and controls had completely normal upper endoscopic evaluations. A total of 222 patients were included to analyze the influence of HIV infection; of these, 100 patients were used to analyze the influence of HPV infection, alcohol, smoking, and exposure to wood smoke. The presence of HIV infection was determined using antibody kits, and HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HIV infection on its own conferred increased risk of developing OSCC (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–5.1; P = 0.03). The OR was stronger when only people under 60 years were included (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.5–13.2; P = 0.003). Cooking with charcoal or firewood, and cigarette smoking, both increased the odds of developing OSCC ([OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.4–9.3; P = 0.004] and [OR 9.1; 95% CI 3.0–30.4; P < 0.001], respectively). There was no significant difference in HPV detection or alcohol intake between cases and controls. We conclude that HIV infection and exposure to domestic and cigarette smoke are risk factors for OSCC, and HPV immunization unlikely to reduce OSCC incidence in Zambia. PMID:25641622

  14. Health Outcomes and Cost Impact of the New WHO 2013 Guidelines on Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Shimbo, Takuro; Miyano, Shinsuke; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Mwango, Albert; Ghidinelli, Massimo N.; Syakantu, Gardner

    2014-01-01

    Background Countries are currently progressing towards the elimination of new paediatric HIV infections by 2015. WHO published new consolidated guidelines in June 2013, which now recommend either ‘Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for women living with HIV during pregnancy and breastfeeding (Option B)’ or ‘Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV (Option B+)’, while de facto phasing out Option A. This study examined health outcomes and cost impact of the shift to WHO 2013 recommendations in Zambia. Methods A decision analytic model was developed based on the national health system perspective. Estimated risk and number of cases of HIV transmission to infants and to serodiscordant partners, and proportions of HIV-infected pregnant women with CD4 count of ?350 cells/mm3 to initiate ART were compared between 2010 Option A and the 2013 recommendations. Total costs of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services per annual cohort of pregnant women, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per infection averted and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained were examined. Results Our analysis suggested that the shift from 2010 Option A to the 2013 guidelines would result in a 33% reduction of the risk of HIV transmission among exposed infants. The risk of transmission to serodiscordant partners for a period of 24 months would be reduced by 72% with ‘ARVs during pregnancy and breastfeeding’ and further reduced by 15% with ‘Lifelong ART’. The probability of HIV-infected pregnant women to initiate ART would increase by 80%. It was also suggested that while the shift would generate higher PMTCT costs, it would be cost-saving in the long term as it spares future treatment costs by preventing infections in infants and partners. Conclusion The shift to the WHO 2013 guidelines in Zambia would positively impact health of family and save future costs related to care and treatment. PMID:24604067

  15. Adherence Support Workers: A Way to Address Human Resource Constraints in Antiretroviral Treatment Programs in the Public Health Setting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Torpey, Kwasi E.; Kabaso, Mushota E.; Mutale, Liya N.; Kamanga, Mpuma K.; Mwango, Albert J.; Simpungwe, James; Suzuki, Chiho; Mukadi, Ya Diul

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to address staff shortages and improve adherence counseling for people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), the Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership (ZPCT) developed an innovative strategy of training community volunteers to provide adherence support at the health facility and community levels. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of these ‘adherence support workers’ (ASWs) in adherence counseling, treatment retention and addressing inadequate human resources at health facilities. Methodology/Principal Findings The study used quantitative and qualitative research techniques at five selected ART sites in four provinces in Zambia. Five hundred patients on ART were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to compare the quality of adherence counseling before and after the ASW scheme was introduced at the selected sites and between ASWs and HCWs after the introduction of ASWs. In addition, 3,903 and 4,972 electronic records of all new patients accessing antiretroviral therapy for the time period of 12 months before and 12 months after the introduction of ASWs respectively, were analyzed to assess loss to follow-up rates. Two focus group discussions with ASWs and health care workers (HCWs) were conducted in each clinic. Key informant interviews in the ART clinics were also conducted. There was a marked shift of workload from HCWs to ASWs without any compromise in the quality of counseling. Quality of adherence counseling by ASWs was comparable to HCWs after their introduction. The findings suggest that the deployment of ASWs helped reduce waiting times for adherence counseling. Loss to follow-up rates of new clients declined from 15% to 0% after the deployment of ASWs. Conclusion Adherence counseling tasks can be shifted to lay cadres like ASWs without compromising the quality of counseling. Follow-up of clients by ASWs within the community is necessary to improve retention of clients on ART. PMID:18493615

  16. The impact of an immunization programme administered through the Growth Monitoring Programme Plus as an alternative way of implementing Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses in urban-slum areas of Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumiko Igarashi; Satoshi Sasaki; Yasuyuki Fujino; Naohito Tanabe; Clara Mbwili Muleya; Bushimbwa Tambatamba; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    A time-lag study design was used to examine the effects of an immunization programme implemented through an integrated community-based child health approach called the Growth Monitoring Programme Plus (GMP+) in peri-urban areas of Lusaka, Zambia. The immunization coverage and sociodemographic data of eligible children and households were obtained from three repeated surveys in two intervention areas. Logistic regression analysis was

  17. Does knowledge about antiretroviral therapy and mother-to-child transmission affect the relationships between HIV status and fertility preferences and contraceptive use? New evidence from Nigeria and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Biddlecom, Ann E; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Akinyemi, Joshua O; Awolude, Olutosin; Adewole, Isaac F

    2014-09-01

    The increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and drug regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has probably changed the context of childbearing for people living with HIV. Using data from 2009-2010 community-based surveys in Nigeria and Zambia, this study explores whether women's knowledge about ART and PMTCT influences the relationship between HIV status and fertility preferences and contraceptive behaviour. The findings show that women living with HIV are more likely to want more children in Nigeria and to want to limit childbearing in Zambia compared with HIV-negative women. While there is no significant difference in contraceptive use by women's HIV status in the two countries, women who did not know their HIV status are less likely to use contraceptives relative to women who are HIV-negative. Knowledge about ART reduces the childbearing desires of HIV-positive women in Nigeria and knowledge about PMTCT increases desire for more children among HIV-positive women in Zambia, as well as contraceptive use among women who do not know their HIV status. The findings indicate that knowledge about HIV prevention and treatment services changes how living with HIV affects childbearing desires and, at least in Zambia, pregnancy prevention, and highlight the importance of access to accurate knowledge about ART and PMTCT services to assist women and men to make informed childbearing decisions. Knowledge about ART and PMTCT should be promoted not only through HIV treatment and maternal and newborn care facilities but also through family planning centres and the mass media. PMID:24331375

  18. Paleomagnetism of the 765 Ma Luakela Volcanics in NW Zambia and Implications for Neoproterozoic Positions of the Congo Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, M. T.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; de Waele, B.

    2004-12-01

    Owing to the scarcity of reliable paleopoles, the Neoproterozoic position of the Congo craton (incorporating the Sao Francisco, Tanzania, and Bangweulu blocks) is very poorly known. We report new paleomagnetic data for the 765 ± 5 Ma Luakela volcanics, a NE-trending belt of basaltic to andesitic flows in NW Zambia (Key et al., 2001, J. Afr. Earth Sci., 33, 503-528). The volcanics are up to 0.8 km thick and occur within a 2 km thick succession of siliciclastic rocks that unconformably overlies Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Congo craton margin, and is correlated with the Roan and Mwashia Groups of the Katanga Supergroup (Key et al., 2001). The strata are essentially undeformed, and either subhorizontal or dip shallowly to the SE. Although no metamorphic mineral growth is observed in fine-grained sedimentary rocks, alteration has strongly affected plagioclase and pyroxene in the volcanic rocks, and magnetite has been partially altered to hematite (Key et al., 2001). AF and thermal analysis of 65 samples from nine sites isolated three magnetisation components. Component A, carried mainly by SD magnetite, is directed very shallowly to the SE. Component B, carried mainly by hematite, is oriented shallowly SW-up. A low stability component C is directed very steeply downward. Some samples contain only component A, others only component B, and some contain both A and B. Component A is likely to be primary, because it is carried by SD magnetite (which petrography indicates is primary), does not resemble younger magnetisations from the Congo craton, and because the rocks have not been thermally metamorphosed. Component B, carried by hematite, we consider to be an overprint, possibly acquired during Pan-African deformation in the Lufilian Arc. Component C is similar to Permo-Carboniferous paleodirections from the region, and may have been acquired at that time. Paleopoles for components A and B (LVA and LVB) are about 90° apart, and similar to those from the Tanzania block. LVA coincides with a reliable pole for the Mbozi complex (Meert et al., 1995, Precamb. Res., 69, 113-131), for which several K-Ar results are within uncertainty of a U-Pb age of 748 ± 6 Ma (Mbede et al., 2004, ICESA Conf: The East African Rift, Addis Ababa, PDF abst.). The LVA and Mbozi poles place Congo at the equator at 765-750 Ma. LVB falls within uncertainty of a pole for the Gagwe lavas (Meert et al., 1995), which have an Ar-Ar cooling age of 795 ± 7 Ma (Deblond et al., 2001, J. Afr. Earth Sci., 32, 435-449). LVB cannot be older than 765 Ma, however. If the Tanzania block has not moved significantly relative to the Congo craton since at least 800 Ma, either the 795 Ma age is incorrect, or the Gagwe pole represents a younger overprint. The latter possibly implies that models which invoke a 90° CCW rotation of Congo between 800 and 750 Ma are no longer supported. Instead, the Congo craton rotated in the opposite direction between 750 Ma and the time of component B acquisition. The Luakela volcanics are overlain by 200 m of siltstones, followed by an unknown thickness of poorly-exposed diamictite, correlated with the `Grand Conglomerat', a widespread glaciogenic unit of Sturtian age at the base of the Kundelungu Group. The diamictite is younger than the 765 Ma volcanics, and older than volcanic pods, dated at 735 Ma, in contact with the diamictite (Key et al., 2001). The Congo craton occupied equatorial latitudes at 765-750 Ma, suggesting that the diamictite, the `Grand Conglomerat', and other Sturtian glaciogenic rocks in the Congo craton, represent a low-latitude glaciation.

  19. Zambia and Botswana

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... town of Maun is at its southeastern edge. Note how the plant life, which is highly reflective in the near-infrared, shows up as bright red ... manner in which the smoke particles scatter sunlight. Other landmarks include the Ntwetwe Pan, whose western edge is visible as the ...

  20. Genomic signature of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi isolates related to a massive outbreak in Zambia between 2010 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Mwaba, John; Kalonda, Annie; Nakazwe, Ruth; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Jensen, Jacob Dyring; Svendsen, Christina A; Dittmann, Karen K; Kaas, Rolf S; Cavaco, Lina M; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hasman, Henrik; Mwansa, James C L

    2015-01-01

    Retrospectively, we investigated the epidemiology of a massive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi outbreak in Zambia during 2010 to 2012. Ninety-four isolates were susceptibility tested by MIC determinations. Whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) of 33 isolates and bioinformatic analysis identified the multilocus sequence type (MLST), haplotype, plasmid replicon, antimicrobial resistance genes, and genetic relatedness by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic deletions. The outbreak affected 2,040 patients, with a fatality rate of 0.5%. Most (83.0%) isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). The isolates belonged to MLST ST1 and a new variant of the haplotype, H58B. Most isolates contained a chromosomally translocated region containing seven antimicrobial resistance genes, catA1, blaTEM-1, dfrA7, sul1, sul2, strA, and strB, and fragments of the incompatibility group Q1 (IncQ1) plasmid replicon, the class 1 integron, and the mer operon. The genomic analysis revealed 415 SNP differences overall and 35 deletions among 33 of the isolates subjected to whole-genome sequencing. In comparison with other genomes of H58, the Zambian isolates separated from genomes from Central Africa and India by 34 and 52 SNPs, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that 32 of the 33 isolates sequenced belonged to a tight clonal group distinct from other H58 genomes included in the study. The small numbers of SNPs identified within this group are consistent with the short-term transmission that can be expected over a period of 2 years. The phylogenetic analysis and deletions suggest that a single MDR clone was responsible for the outbreak, during which occasional other S. Typhi lineages, including sensitive ones, continued to cocirculate. The common view is that the emerging global S. Typhi haplotype, H58B, containing the MDR IncHI1 plasmid is responsible for the majority of typhoid infections in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa; we found that a new variant of the haplotype harboring a chromosomally translocated region containing the MDR islands of IncHI1 plasmid has emerged in Zambia. This could change the perception of the term "classical MDR typhoid" currently being solely associated with the IncHI1 plasmid. It might be more common than presently thought that S. Typhi haplotype H58B harbors the IncHI1 plasmid or a chromosomally translocated MDR region or both. PMID:25392358

  1. Uptake, Outcomes, and Costs of Antenatal, Well-Baby, and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Services under Routine Care Conditions in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Callie A.; Iyer, Hari S.; Lembela Bwalya, Deophine; Bweupe, Maximillian; Rosen, Sydney B.; Scott, Nancy; Larson, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Zambia adopted Option A for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in 2010 and announced a move to Option B+ in 2013. We evaluated the uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services under routine care conditions in Zambia after the adoption of Option A. Methods We enrolled 99 HIV-infected/HIV-exposed (index) mother/baby pairs with a first antenatal visit in April-September 2011 at four study sites and 99 HIV-uninfected/HIV-unexposed (comparison) mother/baby pairs matched on site, gestational age, and calendar month at first visit. Data on patient outcomes and resources utilized from the first antenatal visit through six months postpartum were extracted from site registers. Costs in 2011 USD were estimated from the provider’s perspective. Results Index mothers presented for antenatal care at a mean 23.6 weeks gestation; 55% were considered to have initiated triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on information recorded in site registers. Six months postpartum, 62% of index and 30% of comparison mother/baby pairs were retained in care; 67% of index babies retained had an unknown HIV status. Comparison and index mother/baby pairs utilized fewer resources than under fully guideline-concordant care; index babies utilized more well-baby resources than comparison babies. The average cost per comparison pair retained in care six months postpartum was $52 for antenatal and well-baby services. The average cost per index pair retained was $88 for antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services and increased to $185 when costs of triple-drug ART services were included. Conclusions HIV-infected mothers present to care late in pregnancy and many are lost to follow up by six months postpartum. HIV-exposed babies are more likely to remain in care and receive non-HIV, well-baby care than HIV-unexposed babies. Improving retention in care, guideline concordance, and moving to Option B+ will result in increased service delivery costs in the short term. PMID:24015245

  2. Taking ART to Scale: Determinants of the Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy in 45 Clinical Sites in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Marseille, Elliot; Giganti, Mark J.; Mwango, Albert; Chisembele-Taylor, Angela; Mulenga, Lloyd; Over, Mead; Kahn, James G.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background We estimated the unit costs and cost-effectiveness of a government ART program in 45 sites in Zambia supported by the Centre for Infectious Disease Research Zambia (CIDRZ). Methods We estimated per person-year costs at the facility level, and support costs incurred above the facility level and used multiple regression to estimate variation in these costs. To estimate ART effectiveness, we compared mortality in this Zambian population to that of a cohort of rural Ugandan HIV patients receiving co-trimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis. We used micro-costing techniques to estimate incremental unit costs, and calculated cost-effectiveness ratios with a computer model which projected results to 10 years. Results The program cost $69.7 million for 125,436 person-years of ART, or $556 per ART-year. Compared to CTX prophylaxis alone, the program averted 33.3 deaths or 244.5 disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 person-years of ART. In the base-case analysis, the net cost per DALY averted was $833 compared to CTX alone. More than two-thirds of the variation in average incremental total and on-site cost per patient-year of treatment is explained by eight determinants, including the complexity of the patient-case load, the degree of adherence among the patients, and institutional characteristics including, experience, scale, scope, setting and sector. Conclusions and Significance The 45 sites exhibited substantial variation in unit costs and cost-effectiveness and are in the mid-range of cost-effectiveness when compared to other ART programs studied in southern Africa. Early treatment initiation, large scale, and hospital setting, are associated with statistically significantly lower costs, while others (rural location, private sector) are associated with shifting cost from on- to off-site. This study shows that ART programs can be significantly less costly or more cost-effective when they exploit economies of scale and scope, and initiate patients at higher CD4 counts. PMID:23284843

  3. Validation of brief screening tools for depressive and alcohol use disorders among TB and HIV patients in primary care in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and determine the optimum cut-off scores for clinical use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) against a reference psychiatric diagnostic interview, in TB and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) patients in primary care in Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in 16 primary level care clinics. Consecutive sampling was used to select 649 participants who started TB treatment or ART in the preceding month. Participants were first interviewed using the CES-D and AUDIT, and subsequently with a psychiatric diagnostic interview for current major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The diagnostic accuracy was calculated using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC). The optimum cut-off scores for clinical use were calculated using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). Results The CES-D and AUDIT had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84; 0.98 respectively). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-factor CES-D model was not a good fit for the data (Tucker-Lewis Fit Index (TLI) = 0.86; standardized root-mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.06) while the two-factor AUDIT model fitted the data well (TFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.04). Both the CES-D and AUDIT demonstrated good discriminatory ability in detecting MINI-defined current MDDs and AUDs (AUROC for CES-D = 0.78; AUDIT = 0.98 for women and 0.75 for men). The optimum CES-D cut-off score in screening for current MDD was 22 (sensitivity 73%, PPV 76%) while that of the AUDIT in screening for AUD was 24 for women (sensitivity 60%, PPV 60%), and 20 for men (sensitivity 55%, PPV 50%). Conclusions The CES-D and AUDIT showed high discriminatory ability in measuring MINI-defined current MDD and AUD respectively. They are suitable mental health screening tools for use among TB and ART patients in primary care in Zambia. PMID:21542929

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in human and animal pathogens in Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique and Tanzania: an urgent need of a sustainable surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Mshana, Stephen E; Matee, Mecky; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A review of the published and unpublished literature on bacterial resistance in human and animals was performed. Sixty-eight articles/reports from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia were reviewed. The majority of these articles were from Tanzania. There is an increasing trend in the incidence of antibiotic resistance; of major concern is the increase in multidrug- resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, non-typhoid Salmonella and other pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. The increase in methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers in the countries under review confirms the spread of these clones worldwide. Clinical microbiology services in these countries need to be strengthened in order to allow a coordinated surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and provide data for local treatment guidelines and for national policies to control antimicrobial resistance. While the present study does not provide conclusive evidence to associate the increasing trend in antibiotic resistance in humans with the use of antibiotics in animals, either as feed additives or veterinary prescription, we strongly recommend a one-health approach of systematic surveillance across the public and animal health sectors, as well as the adherence to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)-OIE (World Organization of animal Health) -WHO(World Health Organization) recommendations for non-human antimicrobial usage. PMID:24119299

  5. Impact of long-term contraceptive promotion on incident pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Haddad, Lisa; Htee Khu, Naw; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kilembe, William; Chomba, Elwyn; Stephenson, Rob; Kleinbaum, David; Nizam, Azhar; Brill, Ilene; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of family planning promotion on incident pregnancy in a combined effort to address Prongs 1 and 2 of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. Design We conducted a factorial randomized controlled trial of two video-based interventions. Methods “Methods-focused” and “Motivational” messages promoted long-term contraceptive use among 1060 couples with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Results Among couples not using contraception prior to randomization (N=782), the video interventions had no impact on incident pregnancy. Among baseline contraceptive users, viewing the “Methods” video which focused on the IUD and contraceptive implant was associated with a significantly lower pregnancy incidence (HR=0.38; 95%CI:0.19–0.75) relative to those viewing control and/or motivational videos. The effect was strongest in concordant positive couples (HR=0.22; 95%CI:0.08–0.58) and couples with HIV+ women (HR=0.23; 95%CI:0.09–0.55). Conclusions The “Methods video” intervention was previously shown to increase uptake of longer-acting contraception and to prompt a shift from daily oral contraceptives to quarterly injectables and long-acting methods such as the IUD and implant. Follow-up confirms sustained intervention impact on pregnancy incidence among baseline contraceptive users, in particular couples with HIV positive women. Further work is needed to identify effective interventions to promote long-acting contraception among couples who have not yet adopted modern methods. PMID:23202814

  6. Factors Associated with HIV-Testing and Acceptance of an Offer of Home-Based Testing by Men in Rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Lewis, J J; Schaap, A; Tembo, M; Mutale, W; Weiss, H A; Hargreaves, J; Ayles, H

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to describe HIV-testing among men in rural Lusaka Province, Zambia, using a population-based survey for a cluster-randomized trial. Households (N = 120) were randomly selected from each of the 42 clusters, defined as a health facility catchment area. Individuals aged 15-60 years were invited to complete questionnaires regarding demographics and HIV-testing history. Men testing in the last year were defined as recent-testers. After questionnaire completion adults were offered home-based rapid HIV-testing. Of the 2,828 men, 53 % reported ever-testing and 25 % recently-testing. Factors independently associated with ever- and recent-testing included age 20+ years, secondary/higher education, being married or widowed, a history of TB-treatment and higher socioeconomic position. 53 % of never-testers and 57 % of men who did not report a recent-test accepted home-based HIV-testing. Current HIV-testing approaches are inadequate in this high prevalence setting. Alternative strategies, including self-testing, mobile- or workplace-testing, may be required to complement facility-based services. PMID:25096893

  7. A Review of Ecological Factors Associated with the Epidemiology of Wildlife Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa and Zambezi Valley Ecosystems of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis. PMID:22693499

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Promote Long-Term Contraceptive Use Among HIV-Serodiscordant and Concordant Positive Couples in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Vwalika, Bellington; Greenberg, Lauren; Ahmed, Yusuf; Vwalika, Cheswa; Chomba, Elwyn; Kilembe, William; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Countries facing high HIV prevalence often also experience high levels of fertility and low contraceptive use, suggesting high levels of unmet need for contraceptive services. In particular, the unique needs of couples with one or both partners HIV positive are largely missing from many current family planning efforts, which focus on the prevention of pregnancies in the absence of reduction of the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods This article presents an examination of contraceptive method uptake among a cohort of HIV serodiscordant and concordant positive study participants in Zambia. Results Baseline contraceptive use was low; however, exposure to a video-based intervention that provided information on contraceptive methods and modeled desirable future planning behaviors dramatically increased the uptake of modern contraceptive methods. Conclusions Including information on family planning in voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services in addition to tailoring the delivery of family planning information to meet the needs and concerns of HIV-positive women or those with HIV-positive partners is an essential step in the delivery of services and prevention efforts to reduce the transmission of HIV. Family planning and HIV prevention programs should integrate counseling on dual method use, combining condoms for HIV/STI prevention with a long-acting contraceptive for added protection against unplanned pregnancy. PMID:21410332

  9. Assessing Scale-Up of mHealth Innovations Based on Intervention Complexity: Two Case Studies of Child Health Programs in Malawi and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Noordam, A Camielle; George, Asha; Sharkey, Alyssa B; Jafarli, Arzu; Bakshi, Salina S; Kim, Julia C

    2015-03-01

    As interest in mHealth (including Short Message Services or SMS) increases, it is important to assess potential benefits and limitations of this technology in improving interventions in resource-poor settings. The authors analyzed two case studies (early infant diagnosis of HIV and nutrition surveillance) of three projects in Malawi and Zambia using a conceptual framework that assesses the technical complexity of the programs, with and without the use of SMS technology. The authors based their findings on literature and discussions with key informants involved in the programs. For both interventions, introducing SMS reduced barriers to effective and timely delivery of services by simplifying the tracking and analysis of data and improving communication between healthcare providers. However, the primary implementation challenges for both interventions were related to broader program delivery characteristics (e.g., human resource needs and transportation requirements) that are not easily addressed by the addition of SMS. The addition of SMS technology itself introduced new layers of complexity. PMID:25581520

  10. Drinking Water Quality, Feeding Practices, and Diarrhea among Children under 2 Years of HIV-Positive Mothers in Peri-Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Sarenje, Kelvin; Baisley, Kathy; Kelly, Paul; Filteau, Suzanne; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In low-income settings, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers must choose between breastfeeding their infants and risking transmission of HIV or replacement feeding their infants and risking diarrheal disease from contaminated water. We conducted a cross-sectional study of children < 2 years of age of 254 HIV-positive mothers in peri-urban Zambia to assess their exposure to waterborne fecal contamination. Fecal indicators were found in 70% of household drinking water samples. In a multivariable analysis, factors associated with diarrhea prevalence in children < 2 years were mother having diarrhea (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65–16.28), child given water in the past 2 days (aOR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.07–15.52), child never being breastfed (aOR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.06–6.72), and rainy (versus dry) season (aOR = 4.60, 95% CI = 1.29–16.42). Children born to HIV-positive mothers were exposed to contaminated water through direct intake of drinking water, indicating the need for interventions to ensure microbiological water quality. PMID:21813854

  11. The role of Brucella infection in abortions among traditional cattle reared in proximity to wildlife on the Kafue flats of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Godfroid, J; Samui, K L; Skjerve, E

    2007-12-01

    The role of Brucella infections in cattle abortions was investigated in 914 females from 124 herds. Animals were tested for exposure to Brucella species and history of abortion over the past three years. Sera were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Of 886 females tested, 189 were positive on RBT, and 154 (81.5%) were confirmed by c-ELISA. At the individual animal level, 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.6% to 19.8%) of the cows had aborted their foetuses in the last three years, while Brucella seroprevalence was estimated at 23.9% (95% CI: 19.8% to 28.0%), after adjusting for area clustering and weighting according to sampling fraction. At the herd level, abortions were recorded in 50% of the herds (95% CI: 41.2% to 58.8%) and the seroprevalence was 58.1% (95% CI: 49.5% to 66.6%). A multiple logistic regression model identified the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies (odds ratio = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.6 to 7.4) and age as having significant effects on the risk of cattle abortion but no distinct factors could be identified at herd level. These results establish that Brucella infections contribute significantly to cattle abortions in the traditional livestock sector of Zambia. PMID:18293620

  12. Efficiency of Household Reactive Case Detection for Malaria in Rural Southern Zambia: Simulations Based on Cross-Sectional Surveys from Two Epidemiological Settings

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Kelly M.; Shields, Timothy; Hamapumbu, Harry; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E.; Smith, David L.; Glass, Gregory; Moss, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Case detection and treatment are critical to malaria control and elimination as infected individuals who do not seek medical care can serve as persistent reservoirs for transmission. Methods Household malaria surveys were conducted in two study areas within Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted approximately five times throughout the year in each of the two study areas. During study visits, adults and caretakers of children were administered a questionnaire and a blood sample was obtained for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria. These data were used to estimate the proportions of individuals with malaria potentially identified through passive case detection at health care facilities and those potentially identified through reactive case finding. Simulations were performed to extrapolate data from sampled to non-sampled households. Radii of increasing size surrounding households with an index case were examined to determine the proportion of households with an infected individual that would be identified through reactive case detection. Results In the 2007 high transmission setting, with a parasite prevalence of 23%, screening neighboring households within 500 meters of an index case could have identified 89% of all households with an RDT positive resident and 90% of all RDT positive individuals. In the 2008 low transmission setting, with a parasite prevalence of 8%, screening neighboring households within 500 meters of a household with an index case could have identified 77% of all households with an RDT positive resident and 76% of all RDT positive individuals. Conclusions Testing and treating individuals residing within a defined radius from an index case has the potential to be an effective strategy to identify and treat a large proportion of infected individuals who do not seek medical care, although the efficiency of this strategy is likely to decrease with declining parasite prevalence. PMID:23940677

  13. Intimacy versus Isolation: A Qualitative Study of Sexual Practices among Sexually Active HIV-Infected Patients in HIV Care in Brazil, Thailand, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Sherman, Susan G.; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Friedman, Ruth K.; Limbada, Mohammed; Moore, Ayana T.; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Alves, Carla A.; Roberts, Sarah; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Elharrar, Vanessa; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The success of global treatment as prevention (TasP) efforts for individuals living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is dependent on successful implementation, and therefore the appropriate contribution of social and behavioral science to these efforts. Understanding the psychosocial context of condomless sex among PLWHA could shed light on effective points of intervention. HPTN 063 was an observational mixed-methods study of sexually active, in-care PLWHA in Thailand, Zambia, and Brazil as a foundation for integrating secondary HIV prevention into HIV treatment. From 2010–2012, 80 qualitative interviews were conducted with PLWHA receiving HIV care and reported recent sexual risk. Thirty men who have sex with women (MSW) and 30 women who have sex with men (WSM) participated in equal numbers across the sites. Thailand and Brazil also enrolled 20 biologically-born men who have sex with men (MSM). Part of the interview focused on the impact of HIV on sexual practices and relationships. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated into English and examined using qualitative descriptive analysis. The mean age was 25 (SD = 3.2). There were numerous similarities in experiences and attitudes between MSM, MSW and WSM across the three settings. Participants had a high degree of HIV transmission risk awareness and practiced some protective sexual behaviors such as reduced sexual activity, increased use of condoms, and external ejaculation. Themes related to risk behavior can be categorized according to struggles for intimacy and fears of isolation, including: fear of infecting a sex partner, guilt about sex, sexual communication difficulty, HIV-stigma, and worry about sexual partnerships. Emphasizing sexual health, intimacy and protective practices as components of nonjudgmental sex-positive secondary HIV prevention interventions is recommended. For in-care PLWHA, this approach has the potential to support TasP. The overlap of themes across groups and countries indicates that similar intervention content may be effective for a range of settings. PMID:25793283

  14. Can combination prevention strategies reduce HIV transmission in generalized epidemic settings in Africa? The HPTN 071 (PopART) study plan in South Africa and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Vermund, Sten H.; Fidler, Sarah J.; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Hayes, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) is conducting the HPTN 071(PopART) study in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa with support from a consortium of funders. HPTN 071(PopART) is a community-randomized trial of a combination prevention strategy to reduce HIV incidence in the context of the generalized epidemic of southern Africa. The full PopART intervention strategy is anchored in home-based HIV testing and facilitated linkage of HIV-infected persons to care through community health workers, and universal antiretroviral therapy for seropositive persons regardless of CD4+ cell count or HIV viral load. In order to further reduce risk of HIV acquisition among uninfected individuals, the study aims to expand voluntary medical male circumcision, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, behavioral counseling, and condom distribution. The full PopART intervention strategy also incorporates promotion of other interventions designed to reduce HIV and tuberculosis transmission, including optimization of the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission and enhanced individual and public health tuberculosis services. Success for the PopART strategy depends upon the ability to increase coverage for the study interventions whose uptake is a necessary antecedent to a prevention effect. Processes will be measured to assess the degree of penetration of the interventions into the communities. A randomly sampled population cohort from each community will be used to measure the impact of the PopART strategy on HIV incidence over three years. We describe the strategy being tested and progress to date in the HPTN 071(PopART) study. PMID:23764639

  15. Finding a Needle in the Haystack: The Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Syphilis Diagnosis and Treatment during Pregnancy to Prevent Congenital Syphilis in Kalomo District of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Bruce A.; Lembela-Bwalya, Deophine; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hammond, Emily E.; Thea, Donald M.; Herlihy, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Background In March 2012, The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation trained maternal and child health workers in Southern Province of Zambia to use a new rapid syphilis test (RST) during routine antenatal care. A recent study by Bonawitz et al. (2014) evaluated the impact of this roll out in Kalomo District. This paper estimates the costs and cost-effectiveness from the provider's perspective under the actual conditions observed during the first year of the RST roll out. Methods Information on materials used and costs were extracted from program records. A decision-analytic model was used to evaluate the costs (2012 USD) and cost-effectiveness. Basic parameters needed for the model were based on the results from the evaluation study. Results During the evaluation study, 62% of patients received a RST, and 2.8% of patients tested were positive (and 10.4% of these were treated). Even with very high RST sensitivity and specificity (98%), true prevalence of active syphilis would be substantially less (estimated at <0.7%). For 1,000 new ANC patients, costs of screening and treatment were estimated at $2,136, and the cost per avoided disability-adjusted-life year lost (DALY) was estimated at $628. Costs change little if all positives are treated (because prevalence is low and treatment costs are small), but the cost-per-DALY avoided falls to just $66. With full adherence to guidelines, costs increase to $3,174 per 1,000 patients and the cost-per-DALY avoided falls to $60. Conclusions Screening for syphilis is only useful for reducing adverse birth outcomes if patients testing positive are actually treated. Even with very low prevalence of syphilis (a needle in the haystack), cost effectiveness improves dramatically if those found positive are treated; additional treatment costs little but DALYs avoided are substantial. Without treatment, the needle is essentially found and thrown back into the haystack. PMID:25478877

  16. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  17. Modeling the Impact of Integrating HIV and Outpatient Health Services on Patient Waiting Times in an Urban Health Clinic in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Sarang; Topp, Stephanie M.; Garcia, Ariel; Soldner, Mallory; Yagci Sokat, Kezban; Chipukuma, Julien; Wamulume, Chibesa S.; Reid, Stewart E.; Swann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid scale up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa has refueled the long-standing health policy debate regarding the merits and drawbacks of vertical and integrated system. Recent pilots of integrating outpatient and HIV services have shown an improvement in some patient outcomes but deterioration in waiting times, which can lead to worse health outcomes in the long run. Methods A pilot intervention involving integration of outpatient and HIV services in an urban primary care facility in Lusaka, Zambia was studied. Data on waiting time of patients during two seven-day periods before and six months after the integration were collected using a time and motion study. Statistical tests were conducted to investigate whether the two observation periods differed in operational details such as staffing, patient arrival rates, mix of patients etc. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to facilitate a fair comparison of waiting times before and after integration. The simulation model was also used to develop alternative configurations of integration and to estimate the resulting waiting times. Results Comparison of raw data showed that waiting times increased by 32% and 36% after integration for OPD and ART patients respectively (p<0.01). Using simulation modeling, we found that a large portion of this increase could be explained by changes in operational conditions before and after integration such as reduced staff availability (p<0.01) and longer breaks between consecutive patients (p<0.05). Controlling for these differences, integration of services, per se, would have resulted in a significant decrease in waiting times for OPD and a moderate decrease for HIV services. Conclusions Integrating health services has the potential of reducing waiting times due to more efficient use of resources. However, one needs to ensure that other operational factors such as staff availability are not adversely affected due to integration. PMID:22545108

  18. Universal combination antiretroviral regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in rural Zambia: a two-round cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Musonda, Patrick; Lembalemba, Mwila K; Chintu, Namwinga T; Gartland, Matthew G; Mulenga, Saziso N; Bweupe, Maximillian; Turnbull, Eleanor; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey SA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate if a pilot programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was associated with changes in early childhood survival at the population level in rural Zambia. Methods Combination antiretroviral regimens were offered to pregnant and breastfeeding, HIV-infected women, irrespective of immunological status, at four rural health facilities. Twenty-four-month HIV-free survival among children born to HIV-infected mothers was determined before and after PMTCT programme implementation using community surveys. Households were randomly selected and women who had given birth in the previous 24 months were asked to participate. Mothers were tested for HIV antibodies and children born to HIV-infected mothers were tested for viral deoxyribonucleic acid. Multivariable models were used to determine factors associated with child HIV infection or death. Findings In the first survey (2008–2009), 335 of 1778 women (18.8%) tested positive for HIV. In the second (2011), 390 of 2386 (16.3%) tested positive. The 24-month HIV-free survival in HIV-exposed children was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.63–0.76) in the first survey and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83–0.94) in the second. Combination antiretroviral regimen use was associated with a lower risk of HIV infection or death in children (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.15–0.73). Maternal knowledge of HIV status, use of HIV tests and use of combination regimens during pregnancy increased between the surveys. Conclusion The PMTCT programme was associated with an increased HIV-free survival in children born to HIV-infected mothers. Maternal utilization of HIV testing and treatment in the community also increased. PMID:25177073

  19. Clinic-Based Food Assistance is Associated with Increased Medication Adherence among HIV-Infected Adults on Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Koethe, John R; Groot, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been limited research to date on the effects of food assistance provided to HIV-infected adults in resource-constrained settings with a high prevalence of malnutrition and chronic food insecurity. We compare antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, weight gain, and CD4+ lymphocyte count change among HIV-infected adults enrolled in a clinic-based food assistance program in Lusaka, Zambia versus a control group of non-recipients. Methods We conducted a cohort study incorporating interviewer-administered surveys and retrospective clinical data to compare ART patients receiving food assistance with a control group of non-recipients. Medication adherence was assessed using pharmacy dispensation records. We use propensity score matching to assess the effect of food assistance on outcome measures. Results After 6 months, food assistance recipients (n=145) had higher ART adherence compared to non-recipients (n=147, 98.3% versus 88.8%, respectively; p<0.01), but no significant effects were observed for weight or CD4+ lymphocyte count change. The improvement in adherence rates was greater for participants on ART for less than 230 days, and those with BMI<18.5 kg/m2, a higher HIV disease stage, or a CD4+ lymphocyte count ? 350 cells/?l. Conclusions Promoting optimal medication adherence among persons on ART is relevant to public health and the success of HIV control efforts. The provision of food assistance to HIV-infected adults on ART may have an incentivizing effect which can improve medication adherence, particularly among patients recently initiated on treatment and those with poor nutrition or advanced disease. The effects on body weight and immune reconstitution appear minimal. PMID:23227443

  20. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities' Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  1. Application of Balanced Scorecard in the Evaluation of a Complex Health System Intervention: 12 Months Post Intervention Findings from the BHOMA Intervention: A Cluster Randomised Trial in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. Methods The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. Results The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p?=?0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p?=?0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p?=?0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. Conclusion This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful evaluation of such complex health intervention. Trial number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01942278 PMID:24751780

  2. A cost-effective, community-based, mosquito-trapping scheme that captures spatial and temporal heterogeneities of malaria transmission in rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring mosquito population dynamics is essential to guide selection and evaluation of malaria vector control interventions but is typically implemented by mobile, centrally-managed teams who can only visit a limited number of locations frequently enough to capture longitudinal trends. Community-based (CB) mosquito trapping schemes for parallel, continuous monitoring of multiple locations are therefore required that are practical, affordable, effective, and reliable. Methods A CB surveillance scheme, with a monthly sampling and reporting cycle for capturing malaria vectors, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps (LT) and Ifakara Tent Traps (ITT), were conducted by trained community health workers (CHW) in 14 clusters of households immediately surrounding health facilities in rural south-east Zambia. At the end of the study, a controlled quality assurance (QA) survey was conducted by a centrally supervised expert team using human landing catch (HLC), LT and ITT to evaluate accuracy of the CB trapping data. Active surveillance of malaria parasite infection rates amongst humans was conducted by CHWs in the same clusters to determine the epidemiological relevance of these CB entomological surveys. Results CB-LT and CB-ITT exhibited relative sampling efficiencies of 50 and 7%, respectively, compared with QA surveys using the same traps. However, cost per sampling night was lowest for CB-LT ($13.6), followed closely by CB-ITT ($18.0), both of which were far less expensive than any QA survey (HLC: $138, LT: $289, ITT: $269). Cost per specimen of Anopheles funestus captured was lowest for CB-LT ($5.3), followed by potentially hazardous QA-HLC ($10.5) and then CB-ITT ($28.0), all of which were far more cost-effective than QA-LT ($141) and QA-ITT ($168). Time-trends of malaria diagnostic positivity (DP) followed those of An. funestus density with a one-month lag and the wide range of mean DP across clusters was closely associated with mean densities of An. funestus caught by CB-LT (P?

  3. Trace gas emissions from the production and use of domestic biofuels in Zambia measured by open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertschi, Isaac T.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Ward, Darold E.; Christian, Ted J.; Hao, Wei Min

    2003-07-01

    Domestic biomass fuels (biofuels) were recently estimated to be the second largest source of carbon emissions from global biomass burning. Wood and charcoal provide approximately 90% and 10% of domestic energy in tropical Africa. In September 2000, we used open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy to quantify 18 of the most abundant trace gases emitted by wood and charcoal cooking fires and an earthen charcoal-making kiln in Zambia. These are the first in situ measurements of an extensive suite of trace gases emitted by tropical biofuel burning. We report emission ratios (ER) and emission factors (EF) for (in order of abundance) carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), acetic acid (CH3COOH), methanol (CH3OH), formaldehyde (HCHO), ethene (C2H4), ammonia (NH3), acetylene (C2H2), nitric oxide (NO), ethane (C2H6), phenol (C6H5OH), propene (C3H6), formic acid (HCOOH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydroxyacetaldehyde (HOCH2CHO), and furan (C4H4O). Compared to previous work, our emissions of organic acids and NH3 are 3-6.5 times larger. Another significant finding is that reactive oxygenated organic compounds account for 70-80% of the total nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC). For most compounds, the combined emissions from charcoal production and charcoal burning are larger than the emissions from wood fires by factors of 3-10 per unit mass of fuel burned and ˜2 per unit energy released. We estimate that Zambian savanna fires produce more annual CO2, HCOOH, and NOx than Zambian biofuel use by factors of 2.5, 1.7, and 5, respectively. However, biofuels contribute larger annual emissions of CH4, CH3OH, C2H2, CH3COOH, HCHO, and NH3 by factors of 5.1, 3.9, 2.7, 2.4, 2.2, and 2.0, respectively. Annual CO and C2H4 emissions are approximately equal from both sources. Coupling our data with recent estimates of global biofuel consumption implies that global biomass burning emissions for several compounds are significantly larger than previously reported. Biofuel emissions are produced year-round, disperse differently than savanna fire emissions, and could strongly impact the tropical troposphere.

  4. Temporal and spatial patterns of serologic responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Critical to sustaining progress in malaria control is comprehensive surveillance to identify outbreaks and prevent resurgence. Serologic responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens can serve as a marker of recent transmission and serosurveillance may be feasible on a large scale. Methods Satellite images were used to construct a sampling frame for the random selection of households enrolled in prospective longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys in two study areas in Southern Province, Zambia, one in 2007 and the other in 2008 and 2009. Blood was collected and stored as dried spots from participating household members. A malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was used to diagnose malaria. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to detect IgG antibodies to asexual stage P. falciparum whole parasite lysate using serum eluted from dried blood spots. The expected mean annual increase in optical density (OD) value for individuals with a documented prior history of recent malaria was determined using mixed models. SatScan was used to determine the spatial clustering of households with individuals with serological evidence of recent malaria, and these households were plotted on a malaria risk map. Results RDT positivity differed markedly between the study areas and years: 28% of participants for whom serologic data were available were RDT positive in the 2007 study area, compared to 8.1% and 1.4% in the 2008 and 2009 study area, respectively. Baseline antibody levels were measured in 234 participants between April and July 2007, 435 participants between February and December 2008, and 855 participants between January and December 2009. As expected, the proportion of seropositive individuals increased with age in each year. In a subset of participants followed longitudinally, RDT positivity at the prior visit was positively correlated with an increase in EIA OD values after adjusting for age in 2007 (0.261, p = 0.003) and in 2008 (0.116, p = 0.03). RDT positivity at the concurrent visit also was associated with an increase in EIA OD value in 2007 (mean increase 0.177, p = 0.002) but not in 2008 (?0.063, p =0.50). Households comprised of individuals with serologic evidence of recent malaria overlapped areas of high malaria risk for serologic data from 2009, when parasite prevalence was lowest. Conclusions Serological surveys to whole asexual P. falciparum antigens using blood collected as dried blood spots can be used to detect temporal and spatial patterns of malaria transmission in a region of declining malaria burden, and have the potential to identify focal areas of recent transmission. PMID:23276228

  5. Couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing in an antenatal clinic in Lusaka, Zambia: lessons for policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Couple HIV testing has been recognized as critical to increase uptake of HIV testing, facilitate disclosure of HIV status to marital partner, improve access to treatment, care and support, and promote safe sex. The Zambia national protocol on integrated prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) allows for the provision of couple testing in antenatal clinics. This paper examines couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing at a public antenatal clinic and discusses policy and practical lessons. Methods Using a narrative approach, open-ended in-depth interviews were held with couples (n?=?10) who underwent couple HIV testing; women (n?=?5) and men (n?=?2) who had undergone couple HIV testing but were later abandoned by their spouses; and key informant interviews with lay counsellors (n?=?5) and nurses (n?=?2). On-site observations were also conducted at the antenatal clinic and HIV support group meetings. Data collection was conducted between March 2010 and September 2011. Data was organised and managed using Atlas ti, and analysed and interpreted thematically using content analysis approach. Results Health workers sometimes used coercive and subtle strategies to enlist women’s spouses for couple HIV testing resulting in some men feeling ‘trapped’ or ‘forced’ to test as part of their paternal responsibility. Couple testing had some positive outcomes, notably disclosure of HIV status to marital partner, renewed commitment to marital relationship, uptake of and adherence to treatment and formation of new social networks. However, there were also negative repercussions including abandonment, verbal abuse and cessation of sexual relations. Its promotion also did not always lead to safe sex as this was undermined by gendered power relationships and the desires for procreation and sexual intimacy. Conclusions Couple HIV testing provides enormous bio-medical and social benefits and should be encouraged. However, testing strategies need to be non-coercive. Providers of couple HIV testing also need to be mindful of the intimate context of partner relationships including couples’ childbearing aspirations and lived experiences. There is also need to make antenatal clinics more male-friendly and responsive to men’s health needs, as well as being attentive and responsive to gender inequality during couselling sessions. PMID:23496926

  6. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications. PMID:25142148

  7. Self-care practices and experiences of people living with HIV not receiving antiretroviral therapy in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia: implications for HIV treatment programmes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the increasingly wider availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), some people living with HIV (PLHIV) and eligible for treatment have opted to adopt self-care practices thereby risking early AIDS-related mortality. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in urban Zambia to gain insights into PLHIV self-care practices and experiences and explore the implications for successful delivery of ART care. Between March 2010 and September 2011, in-depth interviews were conducted with PLHIV who had dropped out of treatment (n=25) and those that had opted not to initiate medication (n=37). Data was entered into and managed using Atlas ti, and analysed inductively using latent content analysis. Results PHIV used therapeutic and physical health maintenance, psychological well-being and healthy lifestyle self-care practices to maintain physical health and mitigate HIV-related symptoms. Herbal remedies, faith healing and self-prescription of antibiotics and other conventional medicines to treat HIV-related ailments were used for therapeutic and physical health maintenance purposes. Psychological well-being self-care practices used were religiosity/spirituality and positive attitudes towards HIV infection. These practices were modulated by close social network relationships with other PLHIV, family members and peers, who acted as sources of emotional, material and financial support. Cessations of sexual relationships, adoption of safe sex to avoid re-infections and uptake of nutritional supplements were the commonly used risk reduction and healthy lifestyle practices respectively. Conclusions While these self-care practices may promote physical and psychosocial well-being and mitigate AIDS-related symptoms, at least in the short term, they however undermine PLHIV access to ART care thereby putting PLHIV at risk of early AIDS-related mortality. The use of scientifically unproven herbal remedies raises health and safety concerns; faith healing may create fatalism and resignation with death while the reported self-prescription of antibiotics to treat HIV-related infections raises concerns about future development of microbial drug resistance amongst PLHIV. Collectively, these self-care practices undermine efforts to effectively abate the spread and burden of HIV and reduce AIDS-related mortality. Therefore, there is need for sensitization campaigns on the benefits of ART and the risks associated with widespread self-prescription of antibiotics and use of scientifically unproven herbal remedies. PMID:23675734

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and Tuberculin Skin Tests Results in Zambia and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shanaube, Kwame; Hargreaves, James; Fielding, Katherine; Schaap, Ab; Lawrence, Katherine-Anne; Hensen, Bernadette; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Menezes, Angela; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The utility of T-cell based interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection remains unclear in settings with a high burden of tuberculosis. Objectives To determine risk factors associated with positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) results and the level of agreement between the tests; to explore the hypotheses that positivity in QFT-GIT is more related to recent infection and less affected by HIV than the TST. Methods Adult household contacts of tuberculosis patients were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study across 24 communities in Zambia and South Africa. HIV, QFT-GIT and TST tests were done. A questionnaire was used to assess risk factors. Results A total of 2,220 contacts were seen. 1,803 individuals had interpretable results for both tests, 1,147 (63.6%) were QFT-GIT positive while 725 (40.2%) were TST positive. Agreement between the tests was low (kappa?=?0.24). QFT-GIT and TST results were associated with increasing age (adjusted OR [aOR] for each 10 year increase for QFT-GIT 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06–1.25, and for TST aOR: 1.10; 95% CI 1.01–1.20). HIV positivity was less common among those with positive results on QFT-GIT (aOR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.39–0.67) and TST (aOR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46–0.82). Smear positivity of the index case was associated with QFT-GIT (aOR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.90–1.74) and TST (aOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.98–1.98) results. We found little evidence in our data to support our hypotheses. Conclusion QFT-GIT may not be more sensitive than the TST to detect risk factors associated with tuberculous infection. We found little evidence to support the hypotheses that positivity in QFT-GIT is more related to recent infection and less affected by HIV than the TST. PMID:21483746

  9. Finding parasites and finding challenges: improved diagnostic access and trends in reported malaria and anti-malarial drug use in Livingstone district, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, to assess the impact of this programmed on malaria reporting, incidence of mortality and on district anti-malarial consumption. Results Reported malaria declined from 12,186 cases in the quarter prior to RDT introduction in 2007 to an average of 12.25 confirmed and 294 unconfirmed malaria cases per quarter over the year to September 2009. Reported malaria-like fever also declined, with only 4,381 RDTs being consumed per quarter over the same year. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero in the year to September 2009, and all-cause mortality declined. Consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) dropped dramatically, but remained above reported malaria, declining from 12,550 courses dispensed by the district office in the quarter prior to RDT implementation to an average of 822 per quarter over the last year. Quinine consumption in health centres also declined, with the district office ceasing to supply due to low usage, but requests for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) rose to well above previous levels, suggesting substitution of ACT with this drug in RDT-negative cases. Conclusions RDT introduction led to a large decline in reported malaria cases and in ACT consumption in Livingstone district. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero, indicating safety of the new diagnostic regime, although adherence and/or use of RDTs was still incomplete. However, a deficiency is apparent in management of non-malarial fever, with inappropriate use of a low-cost single dose drug, SP, replacing ACT. While large gains have been achieved, the full potential of RDTs will only be realized when strategies can be put in place to better manage RDT-negative cases. PMID:23043557

  10. Population-Level Scale-Up of Cervical Cancer Prevention Services in a Low-Resource Setting: Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Groesbeck P.; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Kapambwe, Sharon; Muwonge, Richard; Bateman, Allen C.; Blevins, Meridith; Chibwesha, Carla J.; Pfaendler, Krista S.; Mudenda, Victor; Shibemba, Aaron L.; Chisele, Samson; Mkumba, Gracilia; Vwalika, Bellington; Hicks, Michael L.; Vermund, Sten H.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Very few efforts have been undertaken to scale-up low-cost approaches to cervical cancer prevention in low-resource countries. Methods In a public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses provided visual-inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in clinics co-housed with HIV/AIDS programs, and referred women with complex lesions for histopathologic evaluation. Low-cost technological adaptations were deployed for improving VIA detection, facilitating expert physician opinion, and ensuring quality assurance. Key process and outcome indicators were derived by analyzing electronic medical records to evaluate program expansion efforts. Findings Between 2006-2013, screening services were expanded from 2 to 12 clinics in Lusaka, the most-populous province in Zambia, through which 102,942 women were screened. The majority (71.7%) were in the target age-range of 25–49 years; 28% were HIV-positive. Out of 101,867 with evaluable data, 20,419 (20%) were VIA positive, of whom 11,508 (56.4%) were treated with cryotherapy, and 8,911 (43.6%) were referred for histopathologic evaluation. Most women (87%, 86,301 of 98,961 evaluable) received same-day services (including 5% undergoing same-visit cryotherapy and 82% screening VIA-negative). The proportion of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+) among those referred for histopathologic evaluation was 44.1% (1,735/3,938 with histopathology results). Detection rates for CIN2+ and invasive cervical cancer were 17 and 7 per 1,000 women screened, respectively. Women with HIV were more likely to screen positive, to be referred for histopathologic evaluation, and to have cervical precancer and cancer than HIV-negative women. Interpretation We creatively disrupted the 'no screening' status quo prevailing in Zambia and addressed the heavy burden of cervical disease among previously unscreened women by establishing and scaling-up public-sector screening and treatment services at a population level. Key determinants for successful expansion included leveraging HIV/AIDS program investments, and context-specific information technology applications for quality assurance and filling human resource gaps. PMID:25885821

  11. Bovine haemoglobin beta A Zebu, beta A43(CD3)Ser----Thr: an intermediate globin type between the beta A and beta D Zambia is present in Indian zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, T; Nagai, A; Takenaka, O; Takenaka, A

    1987-01-01

    Two bovine haemoglobin beta chains, electrophoretically identical with the beta A chain of Herefords, were obtained from Ongole and Banteng, Bos javanicus, cattle. The amino acid residue differences of the two beta chains were compared by electrophoresis, cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, amino acid analyses, and Edman degradation in comparison with beta A chain. The results showed that two beta chains differed from the beta A chain of the Hereford breed by the substitution of serine with threonine at the beta 43 position. No other difference was found between the two chains and beta A. This new beta chain type was termed beta A Zebu, which forms a possible evolutionarily transitional type between the beta A and the rare variant beta D Zambia found previously in African zebu cattle. The beta A Zebu differentiates from the previous beta B by at least four amino acid substitutions involving five codon-base changes. PMID:3662113

  12. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region. In 2011, the CACB accounted for 7.2 percent of the estimated global mine production of copper. Global production of copper is principally derived from porphyry and sediment-hosted copper deposits (57 and 23 percent, respectively). Almost 50 percent of the copper known to exist in sediment-hosted deposits (past production plus identified resources) is contained in the CACB, 25 percent is contained in the Zechstein Basin of northern Europe, and the remainder is contained in an additional 29 sedimentary basins distributed around the globe. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) led an assessment of undiscovered copper resources in the CACB as part of a global mineral resource assessment for undiscovered resources of potash, copper, and platinum-group elements in selected mineral deposit types. As part of the assessment process, available data for the CACB were compiled and evaluated. This report describes the results of that work, including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits. Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.

  13. Engagement of the community, traditional leaders, and public health system in the design and implementation of a large community-based, cluster-randomized trial of umbilical cord care in zambia.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Davidson H; Herlihy, Julie M; Musokotwane, Kebby; Banda, Bowen; Mpamba, Chipo; Mwangelwa, Boyd; Pilingana, Portipher; Thea, Donald M; Simon, Jonathon L; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Grogan, Caroline; Semrau, Katherine E A

    2015-03-01

    Conducting research in areas with diverse cultures requires attention to community sensitization and involvement. The process of community engagement is described for a large community-based, cluster-randomized, controlled trial comparing daily 4% chlorhexidine umbilical cord wash to dry cord care for neonatal mortality prevention in Southern Province, Zambia. Study preparations required baseline formative ethnographic research, substantial community sensitization, and engagement with three levels of stakeholders, each necessitating different strategies. Cluster-specific birth notification systems developed with traditional leadership and community members using community-selected data collectors resulted in a post-natal home visit within 48 hours of birth in 96% of births. Of 39,679 pregnant women enrolled (93% of the target of 42,570), only 3.7% were lost to follow-up or withdrew antenatally; 0.2% live-born neonates were lost by day 28 of follow-up. Conducting this trial in close collaboration with traditional, administrative, political, and community stakeholders facilitated excellent study participation, despite structural and sociocultural challenges. PMID:25646254

  14. Early results of integrated malaria control and implications for the management of fever in under-five children at a peripheral health facility: a case study of Chongwe rural health centre in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Mulenga, Susan; Chalwe, Victor; Msiska, Charles; Chizema-Kawesha, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background Zambia has taken lead in implementing integrated malaria control so as to attain the National Health Strategic Plan goal of "reducing malaria incidence by 75% and under-five mortality due to malaria by 20% by the year 2010". The strategic interventions include the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, improving diagnostic capacity (both microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests), use of intermittent presumptive treatment for pregnant women, research, monitoring and evaluation, and behaviour change communication. Financial barriers to access have been removed by providing free malaria prevention and treatment services. Methods Data involving all under-five children reporting at the health facility in the first quarter of 2008 was evaluated prospectively. Malaria morbidity, causes of non-malaria fever, prescription patterns treatment patterns and referral cases were evaluated Results Malaria infection was found only in 0.7% (10/1378), 1.8% (251378) received anti-malarial treatment, no severe malaria cases and deaths occurred among the under-five children with fever during the three months of the study in the high malaria transmission season. 42.5% (586/1378) of the cases were acute respiratory infections (non-pneumonia), while 5.7% (79/1378) were pneumonia. Amoxicillin was the most prescribed antibiotic followed by septrin. Conclusion Malaria related OPD visits have reduced at Chongwe rural health facility. The reduction in health facility malaria cases has led to an increase in diagnoses of respiratory infections. These findings have implications for the management of non-malaria fevers in children under the age of five years. PMID:19292919

  15. Air-cooling mathematical analysis as inferred from the air-temperature observation during the 1st total occultation of the Sun of the 21st century at Lusaka, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze mathematically air temperature measurements made near the ground by the Williams College expedition to observe the first total occultation of the Sun [TOS (commonly known as a total solar eclipse)] of the 21st century in Lusaka, Zambia, in the afternoon of June 21, 2001. To do so, we have revisited some earlier and contemporary methods to test their usefulness for this analysis. Two of these methods, based on a radiative scheme for solar radiation modeling and that has been originally applied to a morning occultation, have successfully been combined to obtain the delay function for an afternoon occultation, via derivation of the so-called instantaneous temperature profiles. For this purpose, we have followed the suggestion given by the third of these previously applied methods to calculate this function, although by itself it failed to do so at least for this occultation. The analysis has taken into account the limb-darkening, occultation and obscuration functions. The delay function obtained describes quite fairly the lag between the solar radiation variation and the delayed air temperature measured. Also, in this investigation, a statistical study has been carried out to get information on the convection activity produced during this event. For that purpose, the fluctuations generated by turbulence has been studied by analyzing variance and residuals. The results, indicating an irreversible steady decrease of this activity, are consistent with those published by other studies. Finally, the air temperature drop due to this event is well estimated by applying the empirical scheme given by the fourth of the previously applied methods, based on the daily temperature amplitude and the standardized middle time of the occultation. It is demonstrated then that by using a simple set of air temperature measurements obtained during solar occultations, along with some supplementary data, a simple mathematical analysis can be achieved by applying of the four methods reviewed here.

  16. Design of bicycle ambulances for Zambia

    E-print Network

    Vechakul, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, people are dying from treatable diseases because they cannot reach medical care when they need it most. Typical methods of transport, such as wheelbarrows or motorcycles, are too slow, dangerous, ...

  17. Burn prevention in Zambia: a work in progress.

    PubMed

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both burn prevention knowledge and the effectiveness of educational intervention in alleviating the current knowledge deficit in Zambian youth. In one rural Zambian district, a burn prevention program was implemented in June 2011. Children at two elementary schools completed a 10-question survey that aimed to assess knowledge regarding burn injuries. After completing the survey, children received a burn and fire safety presentation and a burn prevention coloring book. Children were reassessed in May 2012 using the same survey to determine program efficacy and knowledge retention. Burn knowledge assessments were also completed for children at other schools who did not receive the burn prevention program in 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used for statistical adjustment for confounding variables. Between June 2011 and May 2012, 2747 children from six schools were assessed for their burn knowledge, with 312 of them resurveyed after educational intervention since initial survey. Reassessed children performed significantly better on three questions after controlling for confounders. They did better on five questions but their performance on these failed to achieve statistical significance. Children performed significantly worse on one concept about first aid treatment of a burn. A majority of the children demonstrated knowledge deficit in three concepts, even after educational intervention. There is a large variation in first burn knowledge survey performance of children from different schools, with inconsistency between concepts. With half the questions, knowledge deficit did not improve with advancement in school grade. Low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs) face the largest burns burden. With the lack of adequate burn care facing LMICs, burn injury prevention is of particular importance in those countries. This study shows that burn educational intervention could be effective in reducing burn knowledge deficit; however, the residual deficit posteducation could still be large and potentially contributing to heightened burn injury incidence. Customized and integrated educational programs may be proposed regarding the epidemiological profile of burn knowledge deficit from various schools. This study represents one of the few reports on the effectiveness of a burn prevention program in an LMIC. Future epidemiological data will be needed from nearby healthcare facilities to determine whether this program decreased burn morbidity and mortality at the hospital level. PMID:24043246

  18. Long-Term Feasibility of Agriculture in Zambia

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    to 2008 1 #12; Methods #12;Evapotranspiration (ET): Plant Water Use Two components: Transpiration from to the length of the drought. By looking at the relative transpiration of the crop (Actual/Potential) P(failure)=1 if the relative transpiration is

  19. 67 FR 41484 - Combating Child Labor in Zambia Through Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-06-18

    ...particular needs current curriculum does not address...review the government curriculum in light of the...effectively tailoring curricula to the learning...often lack the basic education materials they need...cannot complete or study beyond primary school...are not often of high quality, and...

  20. Health and human rights of women imprisoned in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in four Zambian prisons to assess the health and human rights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46 officials from government and non-governmental organizations and a legal and policy review were also conducted. Results Despite special protection under international and regional law, incarcerated women's health needs–including prenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and nutritional support during pregnancy and breastfeeding–are not being adequately met in Zambian prisons. Women are underserved by general healthcare programs including those offering tuberculosis and HIV testing, and reported physical and sexual abuse conducted by police and prison officers that could amount to torture under international law. Conclusions There is an urgent need for women's healthcare services to be expanded, and for general prison health campaigns, including HIV and tuberculosis testing and treatment, to ensure the inclusion of female inmates. Abuses against women in Zambian police and prison custody, which violate their rights and compromise their health, must be halted immediately. PMID:21696625

  1. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  2. Battling AIDS through home care in Uganda and Zambia.

    PubMed

    1992-10-01

    Innovative home care programs, providing a variety of services to persons with HIV infection and their families and reflecting different health, political, cultural, social, and philosophical concepts, have been developed in Africa, starting in 1987. In 1989 the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on AIDS conducted a descriptive study of some of these programs. It is hoped that these experiences will assist planners and health care providers in their decision making and thereby benefit persons with HIV infection and their families. The lessons learned about the context, backgrounds, structure, process, and outcome of the six selected home care programs can be used and adapted by policymakers and program planners in their own settings when deciding on "their" model of home care. PMID:10121240

  3. Women’s Experiences Living with Epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Chomba, Elwyn; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mbewe, Edward; Haworth, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy-associated stigma is a well-recognized phenomenon that adversely impacts the lives of people with epilepsy (PWE). The burden of stigma follows power differentials, with socially and economically disenfranchised groups being particularly susceptible. To guide instrument development for quantitative studies, we conducted a series of focus group discussions among PWE and found that women with epilepsy experienced especially adverse social and economic problems because of epilepsy-associated stigma. The social burden of the disease largely outweighed the medical burden. Women revealed seizure worries related to accidental and intentional injury and the risk of breaking taboos as well as limitations in role fulfillment and extremes of social rejection by family and community. Our findings have implications for access to care and care delivery for vulnerable populations with epilepsy. PMID:18689619

  4. Improved Diagnostic Testing and Malaria Treatment Practices in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davidson H. Hamer; Micky Ndhlovu; Dejan Zurovac; Matthew Fox; Kojo Yeboah-Antwi; Pascalina Chanda; Jonathon L. Simon; Robert W. Snow

    2010-01-01

    positive test results. Of patients with negative blood smear results, 58.4% (95% CI, 36.7%-80.2%) were prescribed an antimalaria drug, as were 35.5% (95% CI, 16.0%- 55.0%) of those with a negative RDT result. Of patients with fever who did not have diagnostic tests done, 65.9% were also prescribed antimalarials. In facilities with ar- temether-lumefantrine in stock, this antimalarial was prescribed

  5. Zambia's food system: multiple sites of power and intersecting governances 

    E-print Network

    Abrahams, Caryn N

    2010-11-26

    on economic restructuring and the way supermarkets and agribusiness firms increasingly transform African food economies. This thesis is an empirically grounded research endeavour that presents insights about key dynamics in the domestic food system in urban...

  6. Pupils' Projects from Zambia. Third World Science. A Collection of Third Form Science Projects from Lubushi Seminary, Kasama, Zambia as Written and Drawn by the Pupils Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. of North Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Education.

    The Third World Science Project (TWSP) is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless facination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere; application of knowledge…

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...inspections. (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter...

  12. Preventive HIV/AIDS education through physical education: reflections from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Njelesani, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development. PMID:21949950

  13. Preservation and Conservation of Information Resources in the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    Preservation and conservation of library materials is an important aspect of library and information management. Their importance and necessity are more paramount in countries where resources are limited and libraries need to balance them with the needs of an ever increasing number of students hoping to use them. This article reports on the…

  14. Encouraging Minerals Investment Using GIS: The establishment of Minerals GIS in Zambia and Mauritania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Mankelow; K. Eden; J. S. Coats; A. K. Liyungu

    Geographical Information Systems provide the ideal tool to help manage and advertise the mineral potential of a country. Information on a particular mineral occurrence which is stored within a database can be displayed and queried spatially through the use of a GIS. It also enables the mineral locality to be placed in context by displaying further information such as local

  15. The Association between Household Socioeconomic Position and Prevalent Tuberculosis in Zambia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Delia; Hargreaves, James; De Stavola, Bianca Lucia; Fielding, Katherine; Schaap, Ab; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Ayles, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background Although historically tuberculosis (TB) has been associated with poverty, few analytical studies from developing countries have tried to: 1. assess the relative impact of poverty on TB after the emergence of HIV; 2. explore the causal mechanism underlying this association; and 3. estimate how many cases of TB could be prevented by improving household socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods and Findings We undertook a case-control study nested within a population-based TB and HIV prevalence survey conducted in 2005–2006 in two Zambian communities. Cases were defined as persons (15+ years of age) culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Controls were randomly drawn from the TB-free participants enrolled in the prevalence survey. We developed a composite index of household SEP combining variables accounting for four different domains of household SEP. The analysis of the mediation pathway between household SEP and TB was driven by a pre-defined conceptual framework. Adjusted Population Attributable Fractions (aPAF) were estimated. Prevalent TB was significantly associated with lower household SEP [aOR?=?6.2, 95%CI: 2.0–19.2 and aOR?=?3.4, 95%CI: 1.8–7.6 respectively for low and medium household SEP compared to high]. Other risk factors for prevalent TB included having a diet poor in proteins [aOR?=?3.1, 95%CI: 1.1–8.7], being HIV positive [aOR?=?3.1, 95%CI: 1.7–5.8], not BCG vaccinated [aOR?=?7.7, 95%CI: 2.8–20.8], and having a history of migration [aOR?=?5.2, 95%CI: 2.7–10.2]. These associations were not confounded by household SEP. The association between household SEP and TB appeared to be mediated by inadequate consumption of protein food. Approximately the same proportion of cases could be attributed to this variable and HIV infection (aPAF?=?42% and 36%, respectively). Conclusions While the fight against HIV remains central for TB control, interventions addressing low household SEP and, especially food availability, may contribute to strengthen our control efforts. PMID:21698146

  16. Spirit possession and healing in modern Zambia: an analysis of letters to Archbishop Milingo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haar ter G; S. D. K. Ellis

    1988-01-01

    This article is based on research into the healing ministry of Monsignor Emmanuel Milingo, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lusaka from 1969 to 1983. On the basis of an analysis of a collection of some 250 letters written to the Archbishop in 1979 and 1980 by people in need of spiritual healing or guidance, it examines the relationship between spirit possession

  17. 77 FR 29369 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ...Added Tax 1. Description The value added tax (``VAT'') is a...tax that is levied in the supply chain at each point where value is added to a good or service...final person or entity in the chain of supply that is not...

  18. Cost escalation and schedule delays in road construction projects in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chabota Kaliba; Mundia Muya; Kanyuka Mumba

    2009-01-01

    The wealth of any nation is gauged by its performance in infrastructure provision through its construction industry. The construction industry is large, volatile, and requires tremendous capital outlays. For developing economies, road construction constitutes a major component of the construction industry. This means that much of the national budget on infrastructure development is channelled to road construction projects. The aim

  19. Investigation into the ecology of trypanosomiasis in the Lungawa Valley, Zambia 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Neil Euan

    2009-01-01

    keeping is almost non-existent due to losses from trypanosomiasis and predation by wild animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecology of trypanosomiasis in this mult-host wildlife community, relatively free from anthropogenic influences...

  20. Improving Validity of Informed Consent for Biomedical Research in Zambia Using a Laboratory Exposure Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Chisenga, Caroline C.; Chomba, Mumba; Simuyandi, Michelo; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Complex biomedical research can lead to disquiet in communities with limited exposure to scientific discussions, leading to rumours or to high drop-out rates. We set out to test an intervention designed to address apprehensions commonly encountered in a community where literacy is uncommon, and where complex biomedical research has been conducted for over a decade. We aimed to determine if it could improve the validity of consent. Methods Data were collected using focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observations. We designed an intervention that exposed participants to a detailed demonstration of laboratory processes. Each group was interviewed twice in a day, before and after exposure to the intervention in order to assess changes in their views. Results Factors that motivated people to participate in invasive biomedical research included a desire to stay healthy because of the screening during the recruitment process, regular advice from doctors, free medical services, and trust in the researchers. Inhibiting factors were limited knowledge about samples taken from their bodies during endoscopic procedures, the impact of endoscopy on the function of internal organs, and concerns about the use of biomedical samples. The belief that blood can be used for Satanic practices also created insecurities about drawing of blood samples. Further inhibiting factors included a fear of being labelled as HIV positive if known to consult heath workers repeatedly, and gender inequality. Concerns about the use and storage of blood and tissue samples were overcome by a laboratory exposure intervention. Conclusion Selecting a group of members from target community and engaging them in a laboratory exposure intervention could be a useful tool for enhancing specific aspects of consent for biomedical research. Further work is needed to determine the extent to which improved understanding permeates beyond the immediate group participating in the intervention. PMID:25254378

  1. Financing smallholder agribusiness in Zambia: an economic analysis of the ZATAC model

    E-print Network

    Mwanamambo, Brian Namushi

    2009-05-15

    on the supply of credit by the lender. Other important factors considered relevant in the lender’s market include availability of contract markets for financed production and the type of borrower (cooperative or investor-owned agribusinesses). The study uses...

  2. Genetic diversity and performance of maize varieties from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi

    E-print Network

    Magorokosho, Cosmos

    2007-04-25

    . The third study revealed high levels of molecular diversity between landraces originating from different growing environments and between landraces and commercially-bred varieties. The Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) data also showed that the genetic diversity...

  3. Working Together to Improve the Lives of People Affected by Epilepsy in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder that results in recurrent, unprovoked seizures. The biomedical burden of epilepsy can be substantial, but for many the social consequences may be just as extreme, with epilepsy victims suffering from social abandonment as well as economic and physical vulnerabilities. Since its founding in 2000, the Chikankata…

  4. Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald W. Shea; Barbara W. Shea; J. Boone Kauffman; Darold E. Ward; Craig I. Haskins; Mary C. Scholes

    1996-01-01

    Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites,

  5. Participatory Appropriation of Health Science by Primary School Students in Rural Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwape, Gertrude; Serpell, Robert

    The Child-to-Child (CtC) project involved school-age African children in monitoring younger children's weight and health (since much of the daily infant care in Africa is performed by preadolescents). CtC emphasizes local autonomy and is based on respect for children as morally responsible community members with a basic right to health and…

  6. Evolution of Cu-Co mineralizing fluids at Nkana Mine, Central African Copperbelt, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Brems, D.; Clara, E.; De Cleyn, A.; Lammens, L.; Boyce, A.; De Muynck, D.; Mukumba, W.; Sikazwe, O.

    2010-10-01

    The Central African Copperbelt hosts numerous world class stratiform Cu-Co deposits in the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup (<880 to ± 500 Ma). These high grade deposits resulted from multiple mineralization and remobilization stages. The Nkana Cu-Co deposit in the Zambian part of the Copperbelt is such a stratiform deposit but the location of the rich ore bodies is structurally controlled, i.e. occurring in the hinge zones of tight to isoclinal folds. Late stage mineralization and/or remobilization caused this enrichment. Three major mineralization/remobilization stages have taken place during the Lufilian orogeny. They are characterized by folded layer parallel veins, highly irregular veins crosscutting the folds, and finally unfolded massive veins. An evolution in the oxygen, carbon and sulphur isotopic composition is present from the layer parallel and irregular to the massive veins. The more negative ? 18O values in the carbonates from the massive veins most likely reflect a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the ambient, metamorphic fluids. The ? 13C values range between -25‰ and -5‰ V-PDB with a trend towards less negative values in the massive veins, possibly reflecting an ongoing oxidation of organic matter in a relatively closed system. Early framboidal and massive pyrites disseminated in the host rock have distinctly negative ? 34S values, i.e. between -16‰ and -9.7‰ V-CDT. The sulphur isotopic composition increases from these early diagenetic pyrites to sulphides in the successive vein generations. The ? 34S values of the massive veins are positive and cluster between 1.3‰ and 2.0‰ V-CDT. This enrichment in heavy sulphur is interpreted as a result of the mixing of S remobilized from early sulphides, with S derived from the thermochemical reduction of sulphate. With time, the sulphur derived from TSR became more important. The Sr isotopic composition of the carbonates in all three vein generations shows a wide range between 0.71672 and 0.75407. All values are significantly more radiogenic than the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (0.7056-0.7087). The radiogenic values indicate interaction of the mineralizing fluid with the basement or the siliciclastic sediments derived from it. All fluid inclusions measured in the different vein generations have a dominant H 2O-NaCl/KCl-MgCl 2 composition with the presence of a gaseous component in some inclusions. Fluid inclusions in the layer parallel veins suggest entrapment around 450 °C at a depth of 8.4 km (2100 bars), i.e. during the main period of metamorphism. Secondary fluid inclusions of unknown origin in the layer parallel, irregular and massive veins have a high salinity (18.1 to >23.2 eq. wt.% NaCl) and homogenization temperatures between 100 and 250 °C. These fluids were trapped after formation of the veins, likely during retrograde metamorphism. The study of the veins, which formed between 580 and 520 Ma, nicely demonstrate the complexity of the metallogenesis of the Cu-Co ore deposits in the Copperbelt. Therefore, geochemical, microthermometric and geochronological analyses need to be carried out on individual generations to fully understand the evolution of ore formation through time.

  7. Management of the invasive Mimosa pigra L. in Lochinvar National Park, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Griffin K. Shanungu

    2009-01-01

    Mimosa pigra L. is a tropical\\/sub-tropical spiny shrub that is becoming invasive in several parts of Asia, Australia and Africa. It is spreading on several floodplains where it can form thick, impenetrable, one-species stands that exclude other plants and most animals - both terrestrial and aquatic. M. pigra has invaded the floodplain of the Kafue River - a significant tributary

  8. Urban Livelihoods under a Changing Climate: Perspectives on Urban Agriculture and Planning in Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Simatele; Tony Binns; Munacinga Simatele

    2012-01-01

    With rapidly deteriorating national and local economies, many urban dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa are resorting to informal sector activities to ameliorate the current food insecurity that poor households face. Among these activities is urban agriculture, which is used both as a source of basic foodstuffs and also for income generation. In many cities, the growing of food crops is considered

  9. 77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ...Business model analysis [cir] Strategic route design and network planning [cir] Port Infrastructure Mining Equipment...5 billion in investment in the sector since the mines were privatized starting in 1998 and annual...

  10. Representative Nature of Scientific Literacy Themes in a High School Chemistry Course: The Case of Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumba, Frackson; Hunter, William J. F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out how the scientific literacy themes are represented in the current Zambian high school chemistry syllabus, textbooks and grade twelve chemistry examination papers in an attempt to find out whether or not the chemistry course has adequate potential to contribute to the preparation of scientifically literate…

  11. En gender ing Agency: The Differentiated Impact of Educational Initiatives in Zambia and India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monisha Bajaj; Meera Pathmarajah

    2011-01-01

    : Efforts to interrupt the reproduction of unequal gender relations in schools involve alternative practices and pedagogies intended to transform students’ notions of gender and gender relations. Beyond the protective environments where such educational initiatives take shape, however, students must rely on their own sense of agency to reenact newly developed gender roles, behaviors, and understandings. This article examines how

  12. En gender ing Agency: The Differentiated Impact of Educational Initiatives in Zambia and India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monisha Bajaj; Meera Pathmarajah

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to interrupt the reproduction of unequal gender relations in schools involve alternative practices and pedagogies intended to transform students’ notions of gender and gender relations. Beyond the protective environments where such educational initiatives take shape, however, students must rely on their own sense of agency to reenact newly developed gender roles, behaviors, and understandings. This article examines how human

  13. Compensation patterns following occupational injuries in Zambia: results from the 2009 Labour Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seter Siziya; Adamson S Muula; Amanda Ryan; Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational injuries have received limited research attention in the Southern African Development Community. Much of the published data come from South Africa and little has been reported elsewhere within the region. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rates of occupational injuries and compensation; and to determine factors associated with occupational injuries and compensation. METHODS: Data were

  14. Acceptability of male circumcision for prevention of HIV infection in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Lukobo; R. C. Bailey

    2007-01-01

    Numerous observational studies and three clinical trials have shown male circumcision (MC) to be partially protective against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. This has led to consideration of introducing circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This study assesses the acceptability of male circumcision as an intervention to improve male genital hygiene and reduce sexually transmitted

  15. Elephants, people, parks and development: the case of the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Abel; Piers Blaikie

    1986-01-01

    New ideas about conserving wildlife are emerging to compete with conventional national park policies. But methods of analyzing wildlife conservation problems in Africa are inadequate for the analysis of complex issues of policy. Much of the analysis of conservation policy attempts to be ‘apolitical’ on issues charged with social conflict. Analyses are too often ahistorical when history can say a

  16. Emplacing Displacement: Cultural Landscapes of Refugee-hosting in Ukwimi, Zambia

    E-print Network

    Gray, Angela M.

    2009-09-15

    over 20,000 Mozambicans for nearly a decade. After the repatriation of Mozambican refugees, Ukwimi evolved into a government-run agricultural resettlement scheme until it's re-opening as a refugee camp for Angolan refugees in 2001. Through theoretically...

  17. Preventive HIV\\/AIDS Education through Physical Education: reflections from Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Njelesani

    2011-01-01

    Governments, UN agencies and international and local ngos have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enrol most

  18. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...2012, to add to the targeted sectors the water sector (i.e., water supply, sanitation, and drainage systems) and architecture, construction and technical assistance services related to development of water sector infrastructure and encourage...

  19. Design and Validation of Assessment Tests for Young Children in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matafwali, Beatrice; Serpell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood education has received unprecedented attention among African policymakers in recent years, recognizing that the early years form an important foundation upon which later development is anchored and noting evidence that various Early Childhood Development (ECD) indicators are predictive of future academic success. Central to the…

  20. Analysis of HIV Early Infant Diagnosis Data to Estimate Rates of Perinatal HIV Transmission in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Torpey, Kwasi; Mandala, Justin; Kasonde, Prisca; Bryan-Mofya, Gail; Bweupe, Maximillian; Mukundu, Jonathan; Zimba, Chilunje; Mwale, Catherine; Lumano, Hilary; Welsh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) remains the most prevalent source of pediatric HIV infection. Most PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV) programs have concentrated monitoring and evaluation efforts on process rather than on outcome indicators. In this paper, we review service data from 28,320 children born to HIV-positive mothers to estimate MTCT rates. Method This study analyzed DNA PCR results and PMTCT data from perinatally exposed children zero to 12 months of age from five Zambian provinces between September 2007 and July 2010. Results The majority of children (58.6%) had a PCR test conducted between age six weeks and six months. Exclusive breastfeeding (56.8%) was the most frequent feeding method. An estimated 45.9% of mothers were below 30 years old and 93.3% had disclosed their HIV status. In terms of ARV regimen for PMTCT, 32.7% received AZT+single dose NVP (sdNVP), 30.9% received highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), 19.6% received sdNVP only and 12.9% received no ARVs. Transmission rates at six weeks when ARVs were received by both mother and baby, mother only, baby only, and none were 5.8%, 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.8% respectively. Transmission rates at six weeks where mother received HAART, AZT+sd NVP, sdNVP, and no intervention were 4.2%, 6.8%, 8.7% and 20.1% respectively. Based on adjusted analysis including ARV exposures and non ARV-related parameters, lower rates of positive PCR results were associated with 1) both mother and infant receiving prophylaxis, 2) children never breastfed and 3) mother being 30 years old or greater. Overall between September 2007 and July 2010, 12.2% of PCR results were HIV positive. Between September 2007 and January 2009, then between February 2009 and July 2010, proportions of positive PCR results were 15.1% and 11% respectively, a significant difference. Conclusion The use of ARV drugs reduces vertical transmission of HIV in a program setting. Non-chemoprophylactic factors also play a significant role in HIV transmission. The overall change in the proportions of positive PCR results over time is more likely an indication of better PMTCT implementation. Determination of the outcomes of PMTCT in program settings is feasible but requires accurate documentation and analysis. PMID:22912752

  1. 76 FR 37055 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...Information Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY...regulations for the importation of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. DATES...regulations for the importation of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia,...

  2. 76 FR 81467 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...Information Collection; Importation of Baby Corn and Baby Carrots From Zambia AGENCY: Animal...regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. DATES...regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia,...

  3. SOCIETY FOR HISTORIANS OF AMERICAN FOREIGN RELATIONS, 2004 CONFERENCE, AUSTIN, TEXAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Kaunda; Andrew DeRoche

    Why focus on Zambia? Bill Clinton might simply respond, 'because I can,' but there are better reasons. First, in this conference about 'borders,' it would be difficult to find a more compelling case than Zambia for their significance. In the 1960s, of Zambia's 8 neighbors, 5 were directly involved in serious conflicts (Rhodesia, Mozambique, Angola, Namibia, and Zaire). Second, Zambia

  4. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    P a g e | 1 ZAMBIA HUMAN RESOURCES FOR TREATING NEW CANCER CASES IN ZAMBIA Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to describe the human resources needed in Zambia to treat new cancer patients. The population of Zambia is approximately

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...been mitigated. (b) Trapping for Dacus spp. fruit flies. Trapping for Dacus bivitattus...this section, collectively, as Dacus spp. fruit flies) is required both inside...at least once every 7 days. If a Dacus spp. fruit fly is found in a trap...

  6. Sediment accumulation and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus deposition in the large tropical reservoir Lake Kariba (Zambia/Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Manuel J.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Wüest, Alfred; Wehrli, Bernhard; Vollenweider, Adrian; Thüring, Silvan; Senn, David B.

    2011-09-01

    Large dams affect the aquatic continuum from land to ocean by accumulating particles and nutrients in their reservoirs. We examined sediment cores to quantify sediment, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) accumulation, and to examine historic changes and spatial variability in the sedimentation pattern in Lake Kariba, the largest hydropower reservoir in the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Sediment characteristics (concentrations of OC, N, P; ?13C and ?15N; wet bulk density) showed large variability both with sediment depth and between cores. While organic matter (OM) in river deltas was primarily allochthonous in origin, OM characteristics (?13C, C:N) in lacustrine sediments suggest that autochthonous sources account for >45% of the OM that accumulates over large areas of the lake. At the same time, the relative contribution of allochthonous material within individual layers of lacustrine cores varied considerably with depth due to discrete flood deposits. The overall sediment accumulation rate in Lake Kariba is on the order of 4 × 106 t yr-1, and the estimated OC accumulation of 120 × 103 t C yr-1 accounts for ˜1‰ of globally buried OC in reservoirs. In addition, mass balance calculations revealed that approximately 70% and 90% of incoming total N and P, respectively, are eliminated from the water column by sedimentation (N, P) and denitrification (N). Since Lake Kariba attenuates flow from ˜50% of the ZRB, these OC, N, and P removals represent a drastic reduction in nutrient loadings to downstream riparian ecosystems and to the coastal Indian Ocean.

  7. Farmers’ perceptions of tree mortality, pests and pest management practices in agroforestry in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Elias Kuntashula; Patrick Matakala; Philip O. Nkunika

    2008-01-01

    Pest management research within the context of agroforestry is in its infancy, and it is often difficult to say when a particular\\u000a pest justifies investment in research to establish facts. Understanding the potentials and drawbacks of farmers’ indigenous\\u000a ecological knowledge (ethnoecology) may form the basis for constructive collaboration between farmers, agroforestry scientists\\u000a and extension staff. Therefore, the objectives of the

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  12. Proc. of IEEE Africon'2011, 13-15 Sept., Livingstone, Zambia A Role for Robotics in Sustainable Development?

    E-print Network

    Bugmann, Guido

    Pittsburgh, USA mws@cmu.edu, rachel@cmu.edu Abstract-- In a sustainable economic model, energy and material? This paper is an attempt at exploring the concepts for the role for robotics in sustainable development applications and deployment models can be devised that improve sustainability and quality of life. These may

  13. Environmental Impacts of China Outward Foreign Direct Investment: Case Studies in Latin America, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Zambia

    E-print Network

    Al-Aameri, Nour; Fu, Lingxiao; Garcia, Nicole; Mak, Ryan; McGill, Caitlin; Reynolds, Amanda; Vinze, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    any further flooding on the Yangtze River and mudslides in Yunnan Province, which have all resulted from tree felling.14 Due to the ban, national timber import tariffs dropped from 50% to about 5%15, making China a net importer of timber; those...

  14. 'Rumours' and clinical trials: a retrospective examination of a paediatric malnutrition study in Zambia, southern Africa. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Rumors as to the purpose and outcome of research are a common feature of medical research conducted in developing countries. This paper presents a case study of how deep-seated suspicions among trial participants and family members can challenge medical research and public health interventions. The “rumors” are commentaries on social relations, involving and extending beyond scientific medical research. Consequently, rumors are best understood as metaphors representing local concerns and should be considered within this context.

  15. An Assessment of Cost, Quality and Outcomes for Five HIV Prevention Youth Peer Education Programs in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, H. M.; Pedersen, K. F.; Williamson, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    Youth peer education (YPE) programs are a popular strategy for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, research on the effectiveness of YPE programs is scarce and the wide variation in programs makes it difficult to generalize research findings. Measuring quality and comparing program effectiveness require the use of standardized…

  16. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max O Bachmann

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. METHOD: This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health

  17. A pilot study of food supplementation to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among food insecure adults in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Ronald A.; Sinkala, Moses; Megazinni, Karen; Lawson-Marriott, Sibi; Washington, Sierra; Chi, Benjamin H.; Tambatamba-Chapula, Bushimbwa; Levy, Jens; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Mulenga, Lloyd; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The provision of food supplementation to food insecure patients initiating antiretroviral therapy may improve adherence to medications. Methods: A home-based adherence support program at 8 government clinics assessed patients for food insecurity. 4 clinics provided food supplementation and 4 acted as controls. The analysis compared adherence (assessed by medication possession ratio [MPR]), CD4, and weight gain outcomes among food insecure patients enrolled at the food clinics to those of controls. Results: Between May 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005, 636 food insecure adults were enrolled. Food supplementation was associated with better adherence to therapy. 258 of 366 (70%) of patients in the food group achieved an MPR of 95% or greater versus 79 of 166 (48%) among controls (relative risk, RR=1.5; 95%CI:1.2-1.8). This finding was unchanged after adjustment for sex, age, baseline CD4 count, baseline WHO stage, and baseline hemoglobin. We did not observe a significant effect of food supplementation on weight gain or CD4 cell response. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that providing food to food insecure patients initiating ART is feasible and may improve adherence to medication. A large randomized study of the clinical benefits of food supplementation to ART patients is urgently needed to inform international policy. PMID:18769349

  18. Ann. For. Sci. 67 (2010) 802 Available online at: c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010 www.afs-journal.org

    E-print Network

    plantation management in Zambia will require increased and improved training of foresters regarding tree annual forest loss stands at 0.2% and that of Africa at about 0.8%, Malawi and Zambia experience.afs-journal.org DOI: 10.1051/forest/2010039 Review article Plantation forestry diseases in Zambia: Contributing

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk Factors of Infection in Traditional Cattle, Goats and Sheep Reared in Livestock–Wildlife Interface Areas of Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Muma; K. L. Samui; V. M. Siamudaala; J. Oloya; G. Matope; M. K. Omer; M. Munyeme; C. Mubita; E. Skjerve

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock–wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks\\u000a and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds\\u000a and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were

  20. Identification, modification, and implementation of an evidence-based psychotherapy for children in a low-income country: the use of TF-CBT in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The need to address the treatment gap in mental health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is well recognized and particularly neglected among children and adolescents. Recent literature with adult populations suggests that evidence-based mental health treatments are effective, feasible, and cross-culturally modifiable for use in LMIC. This paper addresses a gap in the literature documenting pre-trial processes. We describe the process of selecting an intervention to meet the needs of a particular population and the process of cross-cultural adaptation. Methods Community-based participatory research principles were implemented for intervention selection, including joint meetings with stakeholders, review of qualitative research, and review of the literature. Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) was chosen as the evidence-based practice for modification and feasibility testing. The TF-CBT adaptation process, rooted within an apprenticeship model of training and supervision, is presented. Clinical case notes were reviewed to document modifications. Results Choosing an intervention can work as a collaborative process with community involvement. Results also show that modifications were focused primarily on implementation techniques rather than changes in TF-CBT core elements. Conclusions Studies documenting implementation processes are critical to understanding why intervention choices are made and how the adaptations are generated in global mental health. More articles are needed on how to implement evidence-based treatments in LMIC. PMID:24148551

  1. Design and Process Development for Smart Phone Medication Dosing Support System and Educational Platform in HIV\\/Aids-TB Programs in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Willig; M. Sinkala; Rajani S. Sadasivam; M. Albert; L. Wilson; M. Mugavero; E. Msidi; S. Brande; J. Nikisi; J. Stringer; I. Tami; G. Henostroza; V. Gathibhande; J. Menke; Murat M. Tanik; S. Reid

    2010-01-01

    The widespread adoption of cell phones and other mobile platforms represents an opportunity to extend the benefits of personalized, point-of-care, healthcare applications to providers and patients in the developing world. However, the challenges facing the effective deployment of mobile health care applications are complex, and thus require a scalable, flexible, and configurable approach. A service-oriented-architecture-based conceptual framework is proposed to

  2. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Serranochromis thumbergi), and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and Lake Kariba, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Oroszlany, Balazs; Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2010-08-01

    We measured the level of heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, herbivorous (Oreochromis niloticus) and carnivorous (Serranochromis thumbergi) fish, and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) from Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT) and Lake Kariba. We used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the levels of seven heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni). The sediment and the herbivorous fish O. niloticus accumulated a very high concentration of Cu in Lake ITT, most likely due to the discharge of Cu waste from a mining area 450 km upstream. The aquatic species we sampled in Lake Kariba had higher concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Pb relative to those in Lake ITT. This is most likely due to anthropogenic activities, such as the use of leaded petrol and antifouling agents in marine paints. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between the coefficient of condition (K) and Ni concentration in the crayfish hepatopancreas. Both O. niloticus and the crayfish had much higher biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, and Cd relative to Cr, Co, Pb, and Ni. The rank of BSAF values for O. niloticus (Cu>Cd>Zn) and C. quadricarinatus (Zn>Cd>Cu) differed from the expected ranks based on the general order of affinity of metals (Cd>Zn>Cu). PMID:20162262

  4. Effects of traditional and discovery instructional approaches on learning outcomes for learners of different intellectual development: A study of chemistry students in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moses M. Mulopo; H. Seymour Fowler

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the differential effectiveness of traditional and discovery methods of instruction for the teaching of science concepts, understandings about science, and scientific attitudes, to learners at the concrete and formal level of cognitive development. The dependent variables were achievement, understanding science, and scientific attitude; assessed through the use of the ACS Achievement Test (high school chemistry, Form 1979),

  5. Quantity and quality of organic inputs from coppicing leguminous trees influence abundance of soil macrofauna in maize crops in eastern Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sileshi; P. L. Mafongoya

    2007-01-01

    Soil invertebrates are the major determinants of soil processes such as organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling.\\u000a However, the effect of quantity and quality of organic inputs on soil biota has not been studied in agroforestry systems in\\u000a southern Africa. Variations in soil macrofauna abundance under maize grown in fallows of Gliricidia sepium, Acacia anguistissima, Leucaena collinsii, Leucaena diversifolia, Leucaena

  6. Barriers to initiation of antiretroviral treatment in rural and urban areas of Zambia: a cross-sectional study of cost, stigma, and perceptions about ART

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew P Fox; Arthur Mazimba; Phil Seidenberg; Denise Crooks; Bornwell Sikateyo; Sydney Rosen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While the number of HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings has increased dramatically, some patients eligible for treatment do not initiate ART even when it is available to them. Understanding why patients opt out of care, or are unable to opt in, is important to achieving the goal of universal access. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional

  7. Using 137Cs measurements to quantify soil erosion and redistribution rates for areas under different land use in the Upper Kaleya River basin, southern Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L Collins; D. E Walling; H. M Sichingabula; G. J. L Leeks

    2001-01-01

    Although soil erosion is a serious environmental problem in many African countries, its assessment using traditional techniques is hampered by a range of problems. Reliable information on soil erosion rates is, nevertheless, an essential prerequisite for the design of targeted erosion and sediment control strategies. This contribution reports the use of 137Cs measurements to quantify medium-term (?40 years) soil erosion

  8. River-floodplain exchange and its effects on the fluvial oxygen regime in a large tropical river system (Kafue Flats, Zambia)

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    flood pulse concept poorly describes conditions in the Kafue Flats. Instead, high resolution, and natural flood attenuation [Tockner and Stanford, 2002]. The oscillations between wet and dry conditions productive conditions. The extensive flooding of tropical and subtropical river corridors intensi- fies

  9. $6000 FUNDED INTERNSHIPS GCFSI sponsored internees are expected to work in developing countries on projects

    E-print Network

    organizations (e.g. universities, industries, and NGOs) in Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, India, Vietnam, Nepal States Agency for International Development (USAID) in their Higher Education Solutions Network (HESN

  10. "UD40" Bidrag till SLU inom ramen fr regeringens

    E-print Network

    · Mozambique · Rwanda · Sydafrika · Tajikistan · Tanzania · Uganda · Zambia · Zimbabwe #12;Exempel på Research Institute · SASRI (Sugarcane Research Institute) · SCC-Vi Agroforestry · Seed Services, Harare

  11. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Holden

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this

  12. Distributional Effects of WTO Agricultural Reforms

    E-print Network

    Venez. Vietnam Zambia Farm Poverty Share #12;Poverty Impacts of Full and Doha Scenarios -50 0 50 100 150 200 Bangl Chile Colombia Indonesia Malawi Mexico Mozam Peru Philip Thail Uganda Venez Vietnam Zambia 0 5 R ice S ugar C otton O ther Top 10% Median Bottom 10 % #12;Wealth Effects on Rice Households

  13. 76 FR 79712 - Report on the Selection of Eligible Countries for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ...assistance for FY12: Benin, Cape Verde, El Salvador, Georgia, Ghana, and Zambia. Criteria In accordance with the Act and with...from FY 2012. Two of these countries are in the LIC category: Ghana and Zambia. Two countries, Georgia and Cape Verde, are...

  14. Creating \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binsbergen van W. M. J; P. J. J. Konings; G. S. C. M. Hesseling

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter the author explores how the inhabitants of Lusaka, the capital of Zambia, have used their church organization to create a viable social texture for themselves, serving political, economic and kinship goals way beyond the letter of the gospel. In Zambia, towns only came into being during the colonial period. The author starts with a discussion of the

  15. Water acquisition from rainfall and groundwater by legume crops developing deep rooting systems determined with stable hydrogen isotope compositions of xylem waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sekiya; K. Yano

    2002-01-01

    The deuterium\\/hydrogen isotope ratios (?D) of xylem waters from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and sesbania (Sesbania sesban) plants grown in semi-arid Zambia were investigated to know the seasonal variation in water sources for those crops. The study was conducted at a field site in the Zambia National Irrigation Research Station from November 2000 until April 2001. We measured the ?D

  16. Emissions of CO 2 , CO, and hydrocarbons from fires in diverse African savanna ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Min Hao; Darold E. Ward; Gerald Olbu; Stephen P. Baker

    1996-01-01

    Emissions of CO2, CO, and hydrocarbons from 13 savanna fires (- 7 ha) were investigated in Zambia and South Africa in August and September 1992. The experiments were conducted at two moist woodland savanna sites, a moist grassland savanna site, and a semiarid woodland savanna site in Zambia, and nine semiarid woodland savanna sites in South Africa. The hydrocarbons measured

  17. Taxonomic notes on Polygonaceae from southern tropical Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANTIAGO ORTIZ; JORGE A. R PAIVA

    1999-01-01

    As part of taxonomic studies of the family Polygonaceae for the Flora Zambesiaca project, two new species from southern tropical Africa are described Persicaria nogueirae S. Ortiz & Paiva, from Zambia and Angola, and Oxygonum annuum S. Ortiz & Paiva, from Zambia. In addition, two new combinations are proposed Polygonum glomeratum Dammer is transferred to the genus Persicaria as Persicaria

  18. 76 FR 77475 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Inspection Service Title: Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes from Zambia. OMB...the continental United States of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. As a...additional declaration stating that the baby squash and baby courgette have been...

  19. 18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    -to- door testing 17/Mar/2010 SOUTH AFRICA: HIV testing and mental illness 16/Mar/2010 GLOBAL: Trying SOUTH AFRICA: HIV testing and mental illness SOMALIA: Galgadud villages abandoned as water shortage MADAGASCAR: Timeline - A turbulent political history #12;18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL

  20. 17/03/2010 16:03IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Andy

    -to- door testing 17/Mar/2010 SOUTH AFRICA: HIV testing and mental illness 16/Mar/2010 GLOBAL: Trying history88458\\MALI: Hoping to eradicate guinea worm in two years88459\\AFRICA: Talking about climate change MADAGASCAR: Timeline - A turbulent political history #12;17/03/2010 16:03IRIN Global | GLOBAL

  1. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

  2. Barotropic wind-driven circulation patterns in a closed rectangular basin of variable depth inuenced by a peninsula or an island

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    (Russia), Lake Chudskoe (Russia/Estonia), the Dead Sea (Israel), Lake Dary- acheh/Urmia (Iran), Lake Tanganyika (Burundi/Tanza- nia/Zaire/Zambia) have signi®cant headlands which also divide their areas

  3. AssessmentAssessment ofof IllegalIllegal LLoggingogging RussianRussian FarFar EastEast

    E-print Network

    Peru India Mexico Columbia Bolivia Venesuela Sudan Australia P&NG Argentina Tanzania Zambia CAR Myanma coexist here - unique cedar-broadleved forests is the home of rare and beautiful animals such as Amur

  4. Adult Education and National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African Adult Education Association, Lusaka (Zambia).

    One conference address and two reports on adult education in Zambia are presented. The address is entitled "Adult Education and Industrialization" and the reports are "Adult Education and Industrialisation" and "Adult Education and Rural Development," respectively. (CK)

  5. 24 Guatemala 1 1 COLLEGES (STUDENTS)

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Nepal 9 84 Venezuela 2 17 Eritrea 1 51 New Zealand 4 85 Vietnam 26 18 Estonia 1 52 Nigeria 5 86 Zambia 2 ................................................................................. 152 TN Faculty 6 Veterinary Medicine Intensive American ) Language Center Graduate ............................... 614 Language Center 126

  6. The `Out-of-Africa' hypothesis Peter McCullagh

    E-print Network

    McCullagh, Peter

    NIGERIA NAMIBIA LIBYA CHAD SOUTH AFRICA UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA MOROCCO SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE ZAMBIA. Amirante Is. Zanzibar Pemba Carajos Réunion Tromelin St. Helena Ascension Madeira Is. Canary Is. Principe

  7. International Student and Scholar Enrollment & Statistical Report

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Uzbekistan 1 Jordan 41 Venezuela 14 Kazakhstan 51 Vietnam 33 Kenya 16 Zambia 1 Kuwait 13 Zimbabwe 3 Total 6761 #12;Undergraduate Enrollment by Country Angola 1 Kenya 9 Argentina 3 Kuwait 4 Australia 41 Lebanon

  8. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ...the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to discuss Candidate Country Report for FY2012, the Niger Threshold Program, the Zambia Compact and an update on Malawi. The agenda items are expected to involve the...

  9. 100 years of living science THE SCHISTOSOMIASIS

    E-print Network

    Distribution #12;SCI h i t d 8 t iSCI has assisted 8 countries Niger Mali Burkina Faso Uganda Tanzania Liberia, Niger, Uganda, urkina Faso, Malawi, Niger, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zanzibar We want to reach out

  10. International Projects: Health and Nurtrition Grant value over $250,00

    E-print Network

    NEUROLOGY & OPHTHALMOLOGY COM; EPIDEMIOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF EPILEPSY ASSOCIATED STIGMA IN ZAMBIA: EVIDENCE in Children after Severe Malaria PSYCHIATRY OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE; NEUROLOGY & OPHTHALMOLOGY COM; STATISTICS MEDICINE; NEUROLOGY & OPHTHALMOLOGY COM; STATISTICS & PROBABILITY Africa Uganda In the face of economic

  11. PRESS RELEASE FROM NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP The Macmillan Building 1 November 2007 4 Crinan Street

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    , Venezuela, Brazil, India, South Africa, Argentina, Chile, China, Poland, Mexico, Zambia and Romania. More Asturias Award (PDF), 4 July 2007 and Nature Publishing Group announces NPG/GRC Awards (PDF), 20 June 2006

  12. An association between ethnic diversity and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brodish, Paul Henry

    2013-01-01

    Summary This paper investigates whether ethnic diversity at the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) cluster level predicts HIV serostatus in three sub-Saharan African countries (Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia), using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15–59 collected since 2006.. The analysis relates a binary dependent variable (HIV positive serostatus) and a weighted aggregate predictor variable representing the number of different ethnic groups within a DHS Statistical Enumeration Area (SEA) or cluster, which roughly corresponds to a neighborhood. Multilevel logistic regression is used to predict HIV prevalence within each SEA, controlling for known demographic, social, and behavioral and predictors of HIV serostatus. The key finding was that the cluster-level ethnic diversity measure was a significant predictor of HIV serostatus in Malawi and Zambia but not in Kenya. Additional results reflected the heterogeneity of the epidemics: male gender, marriage (Kenya), number of extramarital partners in the past year (Kenya and Malawi, but likely confounded with younger age), and Muslim religion (Zambia) were associated with lower odds of positive HIV serostatus. Condom use at last intercourse (a spurious result likely reflecting endogeneity), STD in the past year, number of lifetime sexual partners, age (Malawi and Zambia), education (Zambia), urban residence (Malawi and Zambia), and employment (Kenya and Malawi) were associated with higher odds of positive serostatus. Future studies might continue to employ multilevel models and incorporate additional, more robust controls for individual behavioral risk factors and for higher-level social and economic factors, in order to verify and further clarify the association between neighborhood ethnic diversity and HIV serostatus. PMID:24371845

  13. Regulation of money laundering in Africa: the Nigerian and Zambian approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nlerum S. Okogbule

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the regulatory mechanisms adopted by two African countries, Nigeria and Zambia, in dealing with money laundering in their countries and to suggest ways of enhancing the effectiveness of these mechanisms to serve as veritable models for other African states. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The relevant laws enacted by these states in their

  14. Report on the 2001-2002 ringing year H. Dieter Oschadleus

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    in the previons year': Zambia, Malawi and Mauritius. Top ringer is Tim Osborne (Table 2), who was in 5th position species are Red Bishop, Masked Weaver, Redbilled Quelea, European Swal- low and Cape White West Eastern Cape Kevin Mitchell Carl Jones Dirk Heinrich Tim Osborne Anthony van Zyl Zirrbabwe

  15. Isolation and characterization of Chilembwe and Sinda Rock Phosphate solubilizing soil microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to isolate and characterize soil microorganisms capable of solubilizing Chilembwe and Sinda rock phosphates readily available in Zambia. Single isolates were obtained by direct plating and enrichment cultures with succinate, cellulose and glucose as the carbon sources. Isola...

  16. Social Studies in African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Michael B., Ed.

    This collection of essays is organized into two sections: Section 1 deals with general issues in social studies, while Section 2 examines social studies education in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia. Essays in Section One are: (1) "The Historical Context of Education in British Colonial Africa" (L.…

  17. Opportunities for Distance Education in the Commonwealth African Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    INTELECON Research & Consultancy Ltd., Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The geo-demographic, economic, and infrastructural makeup of 12 African countries (Botswana. Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) were compared to determine the potential benefits to them of a Commonwealth of Learning (COL) distance education initiative. Data were collected on…

  18. Health Education by Radio: A Zambian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitanda, Rackson

    Zambia's Health Education News radio program, which was launched in 1982, features 15-minute broadcasts in English and several local languages. The primary objectives of the radio program are to encourage individuals to attend various health clinics and get their children immunized, teach communities to value their health, make people accept…

  19. Competition and Coordination in Liberalized African Cotton Market Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ballard Zulu; Peter Gibbon; Benjamine Hanyani-Mlambo; Jonathan Kydd; Wilbald Maro; Marianne Nylandsted Larsen; Afonso Osorio; David Tschirley

    2004-01-01

    Private operators now dominate input supply, crop buying and ginning activities in many African cotton sectors. Varying levels of competition are observed, but greater levels of competition are not necessarily associated with better system performance. This paper explores this phenomenon, drawing on the liberalization experience of Ghana, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. While the capacity of the state to

  20. Current Statistical Information for International Students for Spring 2014 Total Number of Students 361 Countries Represented 45

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    12 Economics 17 Kenya 1 English 3 Korea South 17 Exercise Science 4 Lebanon 1 French 1 Macedonia 1 Music 1 Nigeria 6 Nursing 1 Norway 1 Physics 4 Pakistan 1 Political Science 4 Saudi Arabia 3 Psychology Kingdom 3 Biology 2 Uzbekistan 2 Music 1 Vietnam 73 Leadership 2 Zambia 3 Gender Female 187 Male 174 #12;

  1. 76 FR 2423 - Report on the Selection of Eligible Countries for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...assistance for FY11: Cape Verde, Georgia, Ghana, Indonesia, Malawi, and Zambia. In...this higher bar to measure eligibility, Ghana and Georgia were selected as eligible for...the Act (22 U.S.C. 7705(a)), Ghana consistently performs well on the MCC...

  2. FIFA 11 for Health Programme: Implementation in Five Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Colin W.; Junge, Astrid; Amaning, Jacob; Kaijage, Rogasian R.; Kaputa, John; Magwende, George; Pambo, Prince; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the FIFA 11 for Health programme in increasing children's knowledge about communicable and non-communicable diseases in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Method: A prospective five-cohort study was implemented in schools in Ghana (17), Malawi (12), Namibia (11), Tanzania (18) and Zambia (11). The…

  3. CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN URBAN ZAMBIAN CHILDREN: AN ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MBIKO NCHITO; PAUL KELLY; SANDIE SIANONGO; NKANDU P. LUO; ROGER FELDMAN; MICHAEL FARTHING; K. SRI BABOO

    1998-01-01

    In four crowded townships of Lusaka, Zambia, the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in 222 children with diarrhea was 18%, with marked temporal and geographic variation over the course of one rainy season. Using data on the finding of oocysts ofCryptosporidium parvumin urban water supplies, the areas under study were categorized as high or low risk. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in children with

  4. Privatisation from Above and from Below: A Comparative Analysis of the Privatisation of Water and Sanitation and Solid Waste Management Services in the City of Kitwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Malama; Barbara Mwila Kazimbaya-Senkwe

    Like most developing countries, Zambia has been going through very difficult times economically. This has seriously affected the capacity of various government agencies to provide public services. As a result the government and its agencies have over the past decade been forced to reassess the way in which publicly provided urban services are delivered. The key policy response has been

  5. Lead-zinc resource prediction in India: An application of Zipf's law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. V. Paliwal; S. N. Bhatnagar; S. K. Haldar

    1986-01-01

    Resource prediction is necessary for allocation of exploration efforts to keep pace with future demand and the growth pattern of a commodity. Zipf's law, a mathematical relationship between size and rank of discrete phenomena, has been used for resource prediction of oil in Western Canada, uranium, gold, tin, and lead-zinc deposits in Australia, and copper deposits in Zambia. The model,

  6. Changing Patterns of Access to Education in Anglophone and Francophone Countries in Sub Saharan Africa: Is Education for All Pro-Poor? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith M.; Sabates, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores patterns of growth in participation in six Anglophone and seven Francophone countries in SSA. The countries are Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Madagascar, Mali, Niger and Senegal. These countries all have large scale Universal Primary Education programmes and all have…

  7. Sediment-hosted Zn–Pb–Cu deposits in the Central African Copperbelt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Kampunzu; J. L. H. Cailteux; A. F. Kamona; M. M. Intiomale; F. Melcher

    2009-01-01

    Stratabound epigenetic sulphide Zn–Pb–Cu ore deposits of the Central African Copperbelt in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia are mostly hosted in deformed shallow marine platform carbonates and associated sedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Economic orebodies, that also contain variable amounts of minor Cd, Co, Ge, Ag, Re, As, Mo, Ga, and V, occur mainly as irregular

  8. Universal Basic Education and the Provision of Quality Mathematics in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazima, Mercy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss Universal Basic Education (UBE) in relation to the teaching and learning of mathematics in Southern Africa. I present the status of UBE for all countries in the region and then use 3 selected examples: Botswana, Malawi, and Zambia, to illustrate the provision of mathematics in the general framework of UBE in the countries.…

  9. ENROLLED WSU GRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS 1 Argentina 2 35 Kyrgyzstan 1 69 Thailand 8

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    ENROLLED WSU GRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS 1 Argentina 2 35 Kyrgyzstan 1 69 Thailand 8 2 Armenia Netherlands 1 79 Zambia 1 12 Colombia 7 46 New Zealand 1 80 Zimbabwe 4 13 Costa Rica 4 47 Nigeria 3 Unknown 1 Sciences ................................................................................. 105 Veterinary

  10. ENROLLED WSU GRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS 1 Algeria 1 35 Kuwait 2 69 Switzerland 1

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    ENROLLED WSU GRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS 1 Algeria 1 35 Kuwait 2 69 Switzerland 1 2 Argentina 1 Colombia 9 46 Netherlands 2 80 Vietnam 9 13 Costa Rica 6 47 New Zealand 1 81 Zambia 1 14 Cyprus 1 48 Sciences ................................................................................. 106 Veterinary

  11. InternatIonal studIes & Programs 207 InternatIonal Center

    E-print Network

    fooD secUrity groUp Having worked for years in Mali, Mozambique, Kenya and Zambia, MSU's Food Security group puts experience to work supporting food security around the world. 48 MsU's global network MSU, helping to ensure shipments of food during crisis arrive safely. 44 africa's shifting lanDscape inspires

  12. The Effectiveness of Teacher Resource Centre Strategy. Education Research Paper. Full Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairhurst, Genevieve; Gibbs, William; Jain, Pankaj; Khatete, David; Knamiller, Gary; Welford, Geoff; Wiegand, Patrick

    During 1997-98, a research team from the University of Leeds investigated the effectiveness of teacher resource centers (TRCs) as a strategy for teacher development in developing nations. The study included a literature review and fieldwork in four countries (India, Kenya, Nepal, and Zambia). The study examined the extent to which TRCs helped…

  13. Distance Education for Health Personnel: New Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwakilasa, Amos

    An intercountry workshop on distance learning (DL) was conducted at the University of Khartoum, Sudan, in November 1991. Individuals involved in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Health Learning Materials network in nine African countries (Sudan, Ethiopia, Guyana, Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) met to share their…

  14. Search for radiative decays of solar neutrinos during a solar eclipse

    E-print Network

    G. Giacomelli; V. Popa

    2001-10-09

    A search for possible radiative decays of solar neutrinos with emission of photons in the visible range may be performed during total solar eclipses. We discuss some results obtained from the digitized images recorded during the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse in Romania, and report on the observations made in June 21, 2001, in Zambia. Added reference for Section 1.

  15. Estimation of tree cover using MODIS data at global, continental and regional\\/local scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Hansen; John R. G. Townshend; Ruth S. DeFries; Mark Carroll

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons of MODIS inputs appropriate to mapping land cover at different scales are made using global training data and a SAFARI 2000 validation database from western Zambia. Multiple single?date images, 40?day composites and multitemporal annual metrics from the MODIS sensor are tested in mapping percent tree cover. While the metrics outperform the composites at the global scale and are comparable

  16. The geopolitics of dependent development in Central Africa: race, class and the reciprocal blockade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Kay

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores dependent development, industrialisation and transitions to the semiperiphery, examining tensions between geopolitics, racial and class conflict that evolved into a ‘reciprocal blockade’ in the Central African Federation (CAF), comprising Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi). The 1923 transfer of power from the chartered British South Africa Company to a semi-autonomous, settler-dominated government in

  17. Television for Development. The African Experience. IDRC Manuscript Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Iain

    Based on visits to and interviews in 14 countries (Senegal, The Gambia, Niger, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Zaire, Congo, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, the United States, France, Italy, and Canada) this report provides a detailed accounting of the present and potential use of television to support development through non-formal educational programming in…

  18. 9. Aka-farmer relations in the northwest Congo Basin1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    production, pottery-making and metal- lurgy. Recent archaeological research in Zambia, Malawi and Zim- babwe of these contacts, dating in some cases ta at least the beginning of the Christian era (Miller 1969; Phillip- son) The spread of i1'on From Nigeria into southern Africa probably started as early aS the Christian era

  19. Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

    This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

  20. International Student Enrollment Report Report based on Active F-1 & J-1 International

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    22 166 31 135 28 288 29 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 Turkey Taiwan South Korea Kazakhstan 6 91 Vietnam 10 45 Kenya 5 92 Yemen 1 46 Korea (South) 80 93 Zambia 1 47 Lebanon 2 Total 1104 75 100 125 150 United Kingdom Saudi Arabia Malaysia Korea, South China Undergraduate Enrollment

  1. Socioeconomic and Reproductive Factors Asso- ciated with Condom Use Within and Outside of Marriage Among Urban Pregnant Women in Zam- bia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chipepo Kankasa; Margaret Siwale; Francis Kasolo; Ayako Nishiyama; Hiroshi Terunuma; Naomi Wakasugi

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 470 pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Multivariate analysis revealed school attendance and child deaths as independently significant variables positively associated with HIV seropositivity. Among women with fidelity, HIV prevalence was not significantly lower, and condom use was much lower than among women who were having extramarital affairs. Factors significantly associated with condom use

  2. Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)

  3. NYASA LOVEBIRD Agapornis lilianae 14cm Smaller than similar A. fischeri, and with green upper tail-coverts;

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    and forecrown reddish brown; lores, throat, and cheeks brownish black; upper breast dull pink; bare white eye (Colophospermum) woodland. DISTRIBUTION southwestern Zambia, sporadically in northwestern Zimbabwe, and rarely Africa, from southern Cameroon to Gabon and east to western Democratic Republic of Congo and southwestern

  4. Farmers' insect pest management practices and pesticidal plant use in the protection of stored maize and beans in Southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Kamanula; Gudeta W. Sileshi; Steven R. Belmain; Phosiso Sola; Brighton M. Mvumi; Greenwell K. C. Nyirenda; Stephen P. Nyirenda; Philip C. Stevenson

    2010-01-01

    Storage losses due to pests threaten livelihoods of farmers across Africa. Synthetic pesticides provide effective control when used correctly but resource-poor farmers cannot afford them. A survey of farmer ethno-ecological knowledge of pests of stored maize and bean, and their pest management practices including pesticidal plant use, was conducted in eastern Zambia and northern Malawi. Almost all respondents reported serious

  5. Mapping agroecological zones and time lag in vegetation growth by means of fourier analysis of time series of NDVI images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Menenti; S. Azzali; W. Verhoef; R. van Swol

    1993-01-01

    Examples are presented of applications of a Fast Fourier transform algorithm to analyse time series of images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The results obtained for a case study on Zambia indicated that differences in vegetation development among map units of an existing agroclimatic map were not significant, while reliable differences were observed among the map units obtained

  6. Time-series validation of MODIS land biophysical products in a Kalahari woodland, Africa

    E-print Network

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    in western Zambia. These data were compared with MODIS NDVI (MOD13, Collection 3) and MODIS LAI and f at approximately monthly intervals were collected along three 750 m transects in a Kalahari woodland near MonguAPAR products (MOD15, Collection 3) over a 2 year period (2000­2002). MODIS and ground-measured LAI values

  7. Zambian Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Views on Chemistry Education Goals and Challenges for Achieving Them in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that…

  8. 77 FR 1665 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0111] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Corn and Baby Carrots From Zambia Correction In notice document 2011-33209 appearing on page 81467 in the issue of Wednesday,...

  9. Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: An assessment of community-based wildlife management programs in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart A. Marks

    1995-01-01

    The failure of conventional wildlife management in Eastern and Southern Africa has led several countries to implement community-based wildlife programs. We examine the assumptions these initiatives make about rural hunters, and describe how the programs attempt to induce individuals away from illegal hunting. Using game theory and a case study from Zambia, we find that these programs misunderstand some of

  10. Resilience and Religion in Children and Youth in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnestad, Arve; Thwala, S'lungile

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between religion and resilience in children and youth in difficult situations. The article builds on two data collections: (a) a retrospective study where preschool teacher students from Zambia and Swaziland wrote about a difficult period in their childhood and what made them to cope; and (b) an interview…

  11. Intergenerational Perspectives on Education and Employment in the Zambian Copperbelt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2010-01-01

    This article explores intergenerational perspectives on the link between secondary schooling and employment held by students, parents, and teachers in Ndola, Zambia. The author argues that the differentiated meanings of schooling must be understood in light of the economic effects of the shift away from a state-controlled economy during the…

  12. AFRICA'S WILDLIFE ON SAFARI in Botswana,

    E-print Network

    Lazar, Aurel A.

    presents AFRICA'S WILDLIFE ON SAFARI in Botswana, Zambia & Victoria Falls May 19-June 1, 2013 by check or credit card. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY RESERVATION FORM: AFRICA'S WILDLIFE Enclosed is my/our deposit, Inc. and mail check (along with completed reservation form) to: Columbia Alumni Travel Study Program

  13. Journal of East African Natural History 101(2): 241250 (2012) THE TAXONOMIC STATUS OF GIANT SENGIS

    E-print Network

    forms the southern-most border of its range. It occurs in forested areas of Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique, and extends east into Uganda nearly to the Victoria Nile River and to the coast in Tanzania & Hanks, 1968). For example, R. c. shirensis Corbet & Hanks, 1968 in the area south of Lake Malawi

  14. Guidelines for the Preparation of General Guides to National Archives: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    Based on a comparative study of guides from the Bahamas, Barbados, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Rhodesia, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States, West Germany, and Zambia, this handbook provides guidelines for the organization and content of a general guide to archives, particularly national archives. It is noted that the handbook is…

  15. International Compilation of Human Research Standards 2014 Edition

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    subjects research in 107 countries, as well as the standards from a number of international and regional, France, Kyrgyzstan, Switzerland, Taiwan, and Turkey. Three new countries are featured in the 2014 edition: Cameroon, Mozambique, and Zambia. ORGANIZATION The Table of Contents is found on page 3. For each country

  16. African mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

  17. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  18. Embedded Filming for Social Change Learning about HIV/AIDS and Rural Development Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witteveen, Loes; Lie, Rico

    2009-01-01

    Rural Development Professionals (RDPs) are key actors in processes of social change for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas. This article reports on the filming of a series of workshops and courses for RDPs in Ghana, India, Tanzania and Zambia. In this article the filming and the films are analyzed as tools for learning and social change…

  19. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    (received for review October 12, 2010) In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present. conservation farming | food security | poaching | carbon | sustainability The Luangwa Valley exhibits many- atively recent shocks such as HIV/AIDS or fluctuations in cotton markets, and the continual shock

  20. Student Politics. Perspectives for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    The status of student political activism in the 1970s and 1980s in such nations as the United States, Britain, India, Japan, Italy, Canada, West Germany, Greece, Zambia and Latin America is examined. The volume consists of 13 chapters written by scholars who all agree that student activism is not now at peak levels of the 1960s, yet student…

  1. The Separation of powers in the WTO: how to avoid judicial activism

    E-print Network

    Bartels, Lorand

    2008-01-17

    ?Communication from Bangladesh, Cuba, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Venezuela, Zambia and Zimbabwe, WT/GC/W/50, 8 July 2003. 26 See Ehlermann and Ehring n 19 above. http://journals.cambridge.org Downloaded: 09 May 2011 IP address: 131...

  2. Thermal tolerance in a south-east African population of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera, Glossinidae): Implications for forecasting climate change impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Terblanche; Susana Clusella-Trullas; Jacques A. Deere; Steven L. Chown

    2008-01-01

    For tsetse (Glossina spp.), the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiases, the physiological mechanisms linking variation in population dynamics with changing weather conditions have not been well established. Here, we investigate high- and low-temperature tolerance in terms of activity limits and survival in a natural population of adult Glossina pallidipes from eastern Zambia. Due to increased interest in chilling flies

  3. Food aid, domestic policy and food security: Contrasting experiences from South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo del Ninno; Paul A. Dorosh; Kalanidhi Subbarao

    2007-01-01

    Food aid, both for short-term emergency relief and as program food aid that helps address medium-term food “deficits”, is often a major component of food security strategies in developing countries. This study reviews the experience with food aid of four major recipients of food aid (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Zambia) regarding food production, trade, markets, consumption and safety nets, as

  4. Curriculum Vitae Personal data

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) 09/2004 - 02/2005 Universidad de C´adiz, Spain (Erasmus) 10/2002 - 07 Diffusion in Lake Kivu at Eawag/ETH Z¨urich, Switzerland 09/2008 - 01/2009 Teaching Geography/2006 Teaching Mathematics and Physics in Zambia (internship) 05/2005 - 05/2006 Research assistant

  5. Curriculum Vitae Personal data

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) 09/2004 - 02/2005 Universidad de C´adiz, Spain (Erasmus) 10/2002 - 07/2004 Albert-Ludwigs-Universit¨at Freiburg, Germany Work experience: 09/2008 - 01/2009 Teaching Geography/2006 Teaching Mathematics and Physics in Zambia (internship) 05/2005 - 05/2006 Research assistant

  6. Economics of Antipoaching Enforcement and the Ivory Trade Ban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin H. Bulte; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    1999-01-01

    A model of elephant conservation that includes illegal poaching, enforcement effort, and legal culling is used to analyze enforcement and elephant populations for alternative policies, with and without legal trade in ivory. Consistent with previous theoretical models, banning trade may increase or decrease equilibrium stocks. As an empirical application, information for Zambia, along with sensitivity analysis, are used to show

  7. A ricardian analysis of the impact of climate change on African cropland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Kurukulasuriya; Robert Mendelsohn

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of climate change on cropland in Africa. It is based on a survey of more than 9,000 farmers in 11 countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Senegal, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study uses a Ricardian cross-sectional approach in which net revenue is regressed on climate, water flow, soil, and economic

  8. Comparative insecticidal efficacy of five raw African diatomaceous earths against three tropical stored grain Coleopteran pests: Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Mvumi; T. E. Stathers; V. Kaparadza; F. Mukoyi; P. Masiiwa; P. Jowah; W. Riwa

    Five raw African diatomaceous earth (DE) samples collected from Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and South Africa were compared in laboratory bioassays at the Natural Resources Institute, UK and the University of Zimbabwe, to determine their potential as locally available grain protectants. A commercially available DE sample, Protect-It®, and an untreated control were included in the study for comparison. In UK, each

  9. Presentation to AHEAD@NUAHEAD@NU

    E-print Network

    to achieve its mission to develop products that address health issues facing underserved communities around Perspective P ti t p Patients National Measles Immunization Campaign Ndola, Zambia Healthcare Workers;Prioritizing and Defining User Requirements The Healthcare Worker Perspective P ti t p Patients Healthcare

  10. Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

  11. First Genetic Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Zambian Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yongjin; Nakao, Ryo; Namangala, Boniface; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium. The investigation of C. burnetii infection in Zambian livestock was carried out using molecular detection techniques. A total of 489 cattle and 53 goat blood samples were collected from Chama, Chongwe, Monze, and Petauke districts in Zambia. Molecular screening by polymerase chain reaction was performed using C. burnetii-species-specific primers. In total, 38 cattle and 4 goat samples were positive. The prevalence of C. burnetii differed among the four sites, with Chama (Eastern province) recording the highest, although Monze (Southern province) did not record any case of the bacteria. This study reports the first genetic detection of C. burnetii in Zambia. PMID:23857023

  12. Prodrugs of peptides and proteins for improved formulation and delivery

    E-print Network

    Stella, Valentino J.; Oliyai, R.

    1993-01-01

    of LY121019, a novel semi- synthetic polypeptide antifungal antibiotic. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 544:294- 301 27. Balkovec, J. M., Black, R. M., Ham- mond, M. L., Heck, J. V., Zambias,R. A., et al. 1992. Synthesis, stability, and biological evaluation of water... and proteins possessing pharmacological efficacy. However, the therapeutic potential of these com- pounds lies in our ability to design and achieve effective and, stable delivery systems. The future challenge in biotechnology may not only be polypeptide cloning...

  13. The uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of eastern Africa from Rayleigh wave tomography: constraints on rift evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J. P.; Adams, A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.

    2013-08-01

    An expanded model of the 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath eastern Africa has been developed using earthquakes recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined data set comprises 331 earthquakes recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this study, data from 149 earthquakes were used to determine fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s using the two-plane wave method, and then combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the uppermost mantle. New features in the model include (1) a low-velocity region in western Zambia, (2) a high-velocity region in eastern Zambia, (3) a low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania and (4) low-velocity regions beneath the Lake Malawi rift. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, these results support a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. We estimate a lithospheric thickness of ˜150-200 km for the substantial fast shear wave anomaly imaged in eastern Zambia, which may be a southward subsurface extension of the Bangweulu Block. The low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. Pronounced velocity lows along the Lake Malawi rift are found beneath the northern and southern ends of the lake, but not beneath the central portion of the lake.

  14. CAPACITIES 2012 annexes 1 -3 WORK PROGRAMME 2012

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    of International Cooperation · Uganda L · Lao People's L · Morocco2,3 LM Partner · Zambia L Democratic Rep. · Palestinian- LM Countries · Zimbabwe L · Malaysia UM administered (ICPC)1 · Maldives LM areas3 - CARIBBEAN · Mongolia L · Syrian Arab Rep.3 LM · Barbados UM · Nepal L · Tunisia2,3 LM · Belize UM · Oman UM ACP

  15. GIS Projects From the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew has added a GIS unit to their Web site that currently includes four projects. Take a virtual tour through the Princess of Wales Conservatory, or view satellite imagery of the deforestation of the Itgi thicket in Zambia. Data on world plant distribution, and vegetation and geology of Madagascar can be downloaded with ArcView software. The use of technology on this site makes it worth checking out, even for those not interested in botany or conservation.

  16. 26 Hong Kong 109 60 Palestine 1 94 Zimbabwe 1 *** 1B1 lty

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    26 Hong Kong 109 60 Palestine 1 94 Zimbabwe 1 *** 1B1 lty Washington State University INTERNATIONAL 36 25 Greece 1 59 Pakistan 2 93 Zambia 3 26 Hong Kong 109 60 Palestine 1 94 Zimbabwe 1 27 India 113 Iraq 1 64 Philippines 13 31 Ireland 2 65 Poland 3 32 Isle of Man 1 66 Portugal 7 33 Israel 1 67 Qatar 3

  17. Differential Effects of Early Weaning for HIV-Free Survival of Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers by Severity of Maternal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Kuhn; Grace M. Aldrovandi; Moses Sinkala; Chipepo Kankasa; Katherine Semrau; Prisca Kasonde; Mwiya Mwiya; Wei-Yann Tsai; Donald M. Thea; Nandi Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundWe previously reported no benefit of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers in intent-to-treat analyses. Since early weaning was poorly accepted, we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate whether beneficial effects may have been hidden.Methods958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized to abrupt weaning at 4 months (intervention) or to continued breastfeeding (control). Children

  18. Concurrent sexual partnerships and HIV prevalence in five urban communities of sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Lagarde; Bertran Auvert; Martin Laourou; Evina Akam; Tom Sukwa; Linda Morison; Bertrand Maury; Jane Chege; Ibrahima N'Doye

    2001-01-01

    Results: A total of 1819 adults aged 15-49 years were interviewed in Dakar (Senegal), 2116 in Cotonou (Benin), 2089 in Yaounde ´ (Cameroon), 1889 in Kisumu (Kenya) and 1730 in Ndola (Zambia). Prevalence rates of HIV infection were 3.4% for Cotonou, 5.9% for Yaounde ´, 25.9% for Kisumu and 28.4% for Ndola, and around 1% for Dakar. The estimated fraction

  19. Evergreen Agriculture: a robust approach to sustainable food security in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Philip Garrity; Festus K. Akinnifesi; Oluyede C. Ajayi; Sileshi G. Weldesemayat; Jeremias G. Mowo; Antoine Kalinganire; Mahamane Larwanou; Jules Bayala

    2010-01-01

    Producing more food for a growing population in the coming decades, while at the same time combating poverty and hunger, is\\u000a a huge challenge facing African agriculture. The risks that come with climate change make this task more daunting. However,\\u000a hundreds of thousands of rain fed smallholder farmers in Zambia, Malawi, Niger, and Burkina Faso have been shifting to farming

  20. Cultural humility and working with marginalized populations in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kools, Susan; Chimwaza, Angela; Macha, Swebby

    2015-03-01

    Population health needs in developing countries are great and countries are scaling up health professional education to meet these needs. Marginalized populations, in particular, are vulnerable to poor health and health care. This paper presents a culturally appropriate diversity training program delivered to Global Health Fellows who are educators and leaders in health professions in Malawi and Zambia. The purpose of this interprofessional education experience was to promote culturally competent and humble care for marginalized populations. PMID:24842988

  1. STUDIES OF A BREEDING POPULATION OF WALLER'S REDWLNGED STARLINGS IN MONTANE FORESTS OF SOUTH-CENTRAL AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dowsett-Lemaire

    1983-01-01

    Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1983. Studies of a breeding population of Waller's Redwinged Starlings in montane forests of south-central Africa. Ostrich. 54:105-112.The breeding biology and behaviour of Waller's Redwinged Starling Onychognuthus walleri was studied for two seasons in forest patches on the Nyika Plateau, 2 200 m ad. (Mala?i-Zambia). In general behaviour (e.g. strong pair bond, fidelity to the nest site), O.

  2. Understanding controls on biotic assemblages and ecological status in Zambian rivers for the development of sustainable monitoring protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael; Gibbins, Chris; Lowe, Steven; Dallas, Helen; Taylor, Jonathan; Lang, Pauline; Saili, Kothelani; Sichingabula, Henry; Murphy, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The water resources of Zambia are likely to experience increasing multiple pressures in the future as a result of very high predicted population growth, industrial development, land use change, and potentially, altered regional rainfall patterns. It is well known that rivers in tropical regions typically have a rich biodiversity, controlled in part by inter-annual variability in climate and discharge, and in part by local catchment conditions. However, till recently little country-wide work had had been carried out on the biota of Zambian rivers, and little was therefore known about the ecological status, or degree of catchment alteration of many of the rivers. To underpin sustainable water management, protocols have been developed to assess the ecological status of Zambian rivers. This paper describes the development of the protocols and their application to provide the first extensive assessment of the ecological status of rivers in the country. The protocols were designed to be simple, and hence rapid, easy and relatively inexpensive to apply. Status scores were derived for individual sites using sensitivity weightings from 3 major groups (macrophytes, diatoms and macroinvertebrates). The general approach was based on schemes used successfully elsewhere, with species and family sensitivity weightings modified so as be appropriate to Zambia. Modifications were based on a survey of 140 Zambian rivers, incorporating data on species distributions, physical habitat conditions and water quality. Analysis of historical data suggests that established Freshwater Ecoregions reflect hydro-climatic variability across Zambia. Survey data indicate that most of the spatial variation in biological assemblages across the country reflects these same hydro-climatic gradients, in addition to hydrochemical differences linked to geology. Site status scores suggest that rivers are generally in good health, although exceptions occur in some large urban areas and a small number of catchments with major industrial activity. Data form an important baseline against which to assess future changes related to population growth and climate change, and will therefore help inform policy within Zambia for sustainable river monitoring and management.

  3. A Red List account of Africa's cycads and implications of considering life-history and threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice S. Golding; P. Johan H. Hurter

    2003-01-01

    The global and national Red List status of cycads known from mainlandAfrica are presented in this study. Seventy-four taxa (including five as yetundescribed taxa) occur in Angola, Benin, Central African Republic, DemocraticRepublic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa,Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. South Africa has thehighest richness of cycad taxa (41). Fifty-two of the continent's

  4. Prevalence and type spectrum of human papillomaviruses in healthy skin samples collected in three continents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika Antonsson; Cornelia Erfurt; Kristina Hazard; Veroniqa Holmgren; Melinda Simon; Akio Kataoka; Shahadat Hossain; Camilla Hakangard; Bengt Goran Hansson

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate whether previous findings of ubiquitous skin papillomavirus infection in Caucasiansapplytopopulationsfromotherpartsoftheworld,skinswabsamplesfromBangladesh, Japan,EthiopiaandZambiawereanalysedinparallelwithSwedishsamples.TheprevalenceofHPV DNA in the material from Bangladesh was 68%, Japan 54%, Ethiopia 52%, Zambia 42% and Sweden 70%. A great multiplicity of genotypes was demonstrated by the finding of 88 HPV types or putative types in 142 HPV DNA-positive samples in total. Double or multiple genotypes

  5. Emissions from Miombo Woodland and Dambo Grassland Savanna Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles over and downwind of two prescribed savanna fires in Zambia are described. The measurements include profiles through the smoke plumes of condensation nucleus concentrations and normalized excess mixing ratios of particles and gases, emission factors for 42 trace gases and seven particulate species, and vertical profiles of ambient conditions. The fires were ignited in plots of miombo woodland savanna, the most prevalent savanna type in southern Africa, and dambo grassland savanna, an important enclave of miombo woodland ecosystems. Emission factors for the two fires are combined with measurements of fuel loading, combustion factors, and burned area (derived from satellite burn scar retrievals) to estimate the emissions of trace gases and particles from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia and southern Africa during the dry season (May-October) of 2000. It is estimated that the emissions of CO2, CO, total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, methyl bromide, total particulate matter, and black carbon from woodland and grassland savanna fires during the dry season of 2000 in southern Africa contributed 12.3%, 12.6%, 5.9%, 10.3%, 7.5%, 24.2%, 2.8%, 17.5%, and 11.1%, respectively, of the average annual emissions from all types of savanna fires worldwide. In 2000 the average annual emissions of methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene, propene, formaldehyde, methanol, and acetic acid from the use of biofuels in Zambia were comparable to or exceeded dry season emissions of these species from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia.

  6. Dimensions of Inclusive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leisa Perch; Gabriel Labbate

    2011-01-01

    Growth, Equity and Sustainability: A Declaration of Interdependence Over one billion of us live without many of the basics that the other six billion take as given. Although 28 countries have moved from low-income status to middle-income status, with Ghana and Zambia among the newest Middle Income Countries, an estimated 800 million people still live in low-income countries. Of these,

  7. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. PMID:24102661

  8. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    PubMed Central

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100?000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere.

  9. The Zambian Wildlife Ranching Industry: Scale, Associated Benefits, and Limitations Affecting Its Development

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Rolfes, Michael t’Sas

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km2 in 1997 to 177 and ?6,000 km2 by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ?91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ?USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ?1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching. PMID:24367493

  10. The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter A; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; t'Sas Rolfes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2) in 1997 to 177 and ?6,000 km(2) by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ?91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ?USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ?1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching. PMID:24367493

  11. Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW) and derive fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Methods/Design This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396. PMID:21936938

  12. HIV-Related Discrimination among Grade Six Students in Nine Southern African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Spaull, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited. Methods We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n?=?39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics are used to compare discrimination by country, gender, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to assess potential determinants of discrimination. Results The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would “avoid or shun” an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%). A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%), Lesotho (37%) and Zimbabwe (42%). The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination. Conclusions Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities. In particular, interventions should focus on correcting misconceptions that HIV can be transmitted via casual contact. PMID:25105728

  13. Building an effective response. International cooperation.

    PubMed

    Msiska, R

    1994-12-01

    The response to the AIDS epidemic in Zambia in 1985 was constrained by 1) a downturn in the economy and 2) denial on the part of government. Finally in 1986 the government recognized AIDS was a major public health problem, but it concentrated on mobilizing support from international organizations. During 1988-89 one local nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Zambia recognized that care for people with AIDS was a necessary condition of modifying sexual ritual cleansing. They have been particularly successful in organizing preventive measures as well as taking care of people with AIDS in the community. The concerns expressed by Zambian NGOs encompass guaranteed donor and government funding for NGOs and for the future; the benefit of innovative strategies for all Zambians; and agreement on the best strategies. The Zambian government since 1990 has moved to develop a health reform policy to ensure leadership by government; accountability towards Zambia's people; and the building of partnership with the public, NGOs, and donors. The government, in collaboration with major donors and NGOs, has articulated a Strategic Health Plan. The major items of the Plan are: a) a coordinator for donors and NGOs has been appointed within the Ministry of Health, b) donors have agreed to standardize the reporting and evaluation of donor-supported programs, c) in order to improve the financial accounting system and consequently accountability at the district level, one major donor has funded a training program for accounts assistants, d) the government has agreed to guarantee the Ministry of Health's funding under an agreement reached with the World Bank, and to implement a multisectoral plan in the fight against AIDS, and e) NGOs are moving to establish an administrative secretariat to assist in coordination of their activities. PMID:12319125

  14. Transportation planning and automated guideways. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The 8 papers in this report deal with the following areas: Green River Valley transportation action plan: the development of a successful interjurisdictional road-improvement plan; public-involvement process for identifying problems and alternative solutions for the Year 2010 transportation plan; Miami-downtown people mover demand analysis model; traffic-modeling techniques for the developing world: case studies; some issues in transport planning for third world cities; use of models by french consultants for urban transport planning in developing countries; stepwise regression model of development at nonmetropolitan interchanges; transport in rural areas of developing countries: empirical findings from Western Province, Zambia.

  15. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Paw?owska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwi?ska-Wyrzychowska, A; M?trak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:24761043

  16. Managing multiple funding streams and agendas to achieve local and global health and research objectives: lessons from the field

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Charles B.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Raelly, Roselyne; Freeman, Bethany; Wambulawae, Inonge; Silwizya, Geoffrey; Topp, Stephanie; Chilengi, Roma; Henostroza, German; Kapambwe, Sharon; Simbeye, Darius; Sibajene, Sheila; Chi, Harmony; Godfrey, Katy; Chi, Benjamin; Moore, Carolyn Bolton

    2014-01-01

    Multiple funding sources provide research and program implementation organizations a broader base of funding and facilitate synergy, but also entail challenges that include varying stakeholder expectations, unaligned grant cycles, and highly variable reporting requirements. Strong governance and strategic planning are essential to ensure alignment of goals and agendas. Systems to track budgets and outputs as well as procurement and human resources are required. A major goal is to transition leadership and operations to local ownership. This article details successful approaches used by the newly independent non-governmental organization, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ). PMID:24321983

  17. Solar Eclipse: Stories form the Path of Totality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium's Solar Eclipse web page posts past solar eclipse dates, webcasts of these eclipses, and resources for understanding and viewing eclipses. Information on eclipses in Turkey, Greece, Zambia, Aruba and the United States are featured. Some of the prominent features include an explanation on the sun-eating dragon theory, the sun-earth connection and eclipse expeditions. There is also a page for users to share their eclipse stories. A world map of future eclipses can be found so you can create your own eclipse experience.

  18. Examining causes of poverty in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Garnett Murphy, II

    2009-06-02

    and internal are discussed by Collier and Gunning (1999). They suggest that Africa?s problems might be rooted in its tropical location. It has been suggested that the climate is one that fosters diseases and creates hostile conditions for agriculture....00 per day. Some of the higher percentage countries are: Mali (90.6 percent), Zambia (87.4 percent), Rwanda (84.6 percent), Mozambique (78.4 percent), and Ethiopia (76.4 percent). Undernourishment. The FAO measure of undernourishment is based...

  19. Heterosis and combining ability in A? and A? cytoplasm lines of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    E-print Network

    Chisi, Medson

    1988-01-01

    (August 1988) Medson Chisi, B. Sc. , University of Zambia Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Frederick R. Miller The agronomic performance of 18 Al and 18 A2 sorghum hybrids, obtained by crossing 3 Al and 3 A2 male sterile lines (A-lines) with 6.... 05) only for Al and A2 females crossed with RTx2737, 800103-12K, RTx430, and RTx432. A2 male-sterile lines A2Tx632, A28602 and A28603 when crossed with R-lines RTx430, RTx435 and RTx2737 produced sterile or partially sterile hybrids. Simple...

  20. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.