Sample records for zambia

  1. Winds of change in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bond, V

    1992-05-01

    Participants at a 2-day workshop on AIDS in Zambia concluded that women must openly discuss high-risk sexual behavior with their partners, if they are to protect themselves and their children. Entitled "Basic facts about AIDS," the workshop identified marital infidelity as the greatest source of risk. Last year, a study revealed that, on average, men and women in Zambia had 2-3 sexual partners outside marriage. Demographic and cultural factors also contribute to the spread of AIDS. Zambia's sexually active population is large, since people marry at a very young age. The traditional practice of "dry sex" -- intercourse that involves male penetration of a tight, dry vagina -- causes internal abrasions, thereby facilitating the transmission of HIV. Even traditional sex education undermines efforts to control the spread of AIDS, since "bamachimbusas" (traditional sex educators) counsel girls to be subservient to their husbands and "never say no." Boys receive no sex education at all. Meanwhile, Zambia faces an alarming HIV and AIDS trend, according to statistics collected by the Society for Women and AIDS (SWAAZ): in 1991, 12.5% of blood donors in Lusaka and 7.5% of donors nationwide were infected with HIV; infection among pregnant urban women ranged from 25-29%; 21% of malnourished children and 32% of children with tuberculosis are infected. Furthermore, it is estimated that by 1990, the AIDS epidemic had already orphaned 80,000 children. By the year 2000, it is believed that 1/2 million children will have lost at least one parent to the disease. PMID:12317434

  2. Bovine babesiosis (Babesia bovis infection) in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Jongejan; J. Lemche; E. T. Mwase; M. M. Kafunda

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of Babesia bovis, a parasite associated with the tick Boophilus microplus, are reported for the first time from the central part of Zambia. It is concluded that infected B. microplus ticks are occasionally introduced into central Zambia by tick?infested cattle from the north?eastern part of the country where B. bovis is endemic. The spread of B. microplus in

  3. Astronomy education: the current status in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyeme, Geoffrey; Kalebwe, Peter C.

    There are many interlocking factors determining the introduction of astronomy education in Zambia. The process of infusing this new subject into an education system so centralised as that of Zambia is extremely complex. At school level the process is more complex than at university level, as all syllabuses are developed by a central body, Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) whose priorities are determined by perceived social and economic needs of the country. The prevailing notion in Zambia is that astronomy has no direct bearing on future employment needs. It is therefore not surprising that astronomy is at the bottom of the priority list among school subjects. The recent upsurge of interest in astronomy at the University of Zambia opens up the necessary background for developing astronomy in both school and university curricula. The University has recently formed the Astronomical Society and the Working Group on Space Science in Zambia. Coupled to this are exchange visits and collaborative work between the Physics Department of the University of Zambia and the South-African Astronomical Observatory. In this paper we present a review of the current activities in space science in Zambia and how they relate to the development of astronomy education.

  4. Zambia moves towards reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Several events in Zambia this year have marked the development of an integrated approach to reproductive health. A team met in March to draw up a national safe motherhood policy, plus strategies and guidelines. These were completed by April and are being distributed for comments. Clinical guidelines for safe motherhood in health centers have also been developed. These aim to reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and infants by helping health workers to provide quality care to women at every stage of pregnancy and delivery. A reproductive health workshop was held in Ngwerere in May to create awareness of the concept of reproductive health, identify reproductive health problems in the area, propose solutions and outline activities. The 75 participants included community health workers, community leaders, teachers, youth leaders, and community members, as well as health workers and policymakers. The workshop was conducted in the local language so that those present were able to participate fully. June 1997 saw the official launch of Zambia's new policy framework, guidelines and strategy on family planning within reproductive health. The country's Minister of Health, Dr. Katele Kalumba, said the family planning guidelines were a sign of the government's commitment to providing a basic health care package for all Zambians. To promote widespread discussion of the whole concept of reproductive health, local newspapers printed feature articles with the headline "Let's talk reproductive health." The articles raised a variety of sensitive issues that ranged from safe sex and adolescent sexuality to safe motherhood and HIV prevention. Plans are going ahead in Zambia for drawing up a national training curriculum for safe motherhood and family planning. The curriculum for health workers will cover both pre-service and in-service training. PMID:12321356

  5. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion. PMID:2219228

  6. Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland.

    The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various cameras, the data from each camera were processed identically. Here, color changes indicate surface texture, and are influenced by terrain, vegetation structure, soil type and soil moisture content. Wet surfaces or areas with standing water appear blue in this display because sun glitter makes smooth, wet surfaces look brighter at the backward camera's view angle. Mostly the landscape appears somewhat purple, indicating that most of the surfaces scatter sunlight in both backward and forward directions. Areas that appear with a slight greenish hue can indicate sparce vegetation, since the nadir camera is more likely to sight the gaps between the trees or shrubs, and since vegetation is darker (in the red band) than the underlying soil surface. Areas which preferentially exhibit a red or pink hue correspond with wetland vegetation. The plateau of the Kafue National Park, to the west of Lukanga Swamp, appears brighter in 2004 compared with 2003, which indicates weaker absorption at the red band. Overall, the 2004 image exhibits a subtle blue hue (preference for forward-scattering) compared with 2003, which indicates overall surface changes that may be a result of enhanced surface wetness.

    The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 19072 and 24421. The panels cover an area of 235 kilometers x 239 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 100 to 103 within World Reference System-2 path 172.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  8. The epidemiology of HIV infection in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Kandala; C. Ji; P. F. Cappuccio; R. W. Stones

    2008-01-01

    Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV-sero-status were collected in the 2001 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made

  9. Fires in Angola, Zambia, and Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows biomass burning in southern Africa in April, May, and June of 2002. The images span a number of different viewpoints of the region, but the country of Angola, with its highly dendritic (carved by rivers) geological formations are common to them all. Many of the images show part of four countries: Angola (usually at left), Zambia (right), Botswana (bottom right), and Namibia (bottom left). In many images, at lower center, the Okavango River creates a green broomstick-shaped delta in Boptwsana.

  10. Pressure to ban "sexual cleansing" in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kunda, A

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups are campaigning in Zambia to criminalize sexual cleansing, a practice in which a widow (usually) or widower must have sexual relations with a relative of the dead spouse in order to be rid of the spouse's ghost. It is believed that future sexual partners of the surviving spouse will go mad or die if this is not done. The National Women's Lobby Group is asking for parliamentary legislation banning the practice. The Family Life Movement is unsupportive of the practice, but believes legislation will not stop this ingrained part of the culture. The Society for Women Against AIDS in Zambia (SWAAZ) agrees that legislation will do nothing; however, education that changes people's attitudes might. Deputy Health Minister, Dr. Kalumba, believes legislation would protect vulnerable groups, but would not make people change their lifestyles. To promote such a change, the Ministry has begun a community project that includes workshops and seminars aimed at traditional leaders, healers, and ordinary people. The YWCA has convinced people to conduct nonsexual cleansing. In this era of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sexual cleansing can be deadly. PMID:12288604

  11. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Zambia.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, as of the end of 1994, 17% of adults in Zambia had been infected with HIV. The Ministry of Health's National AIDS/STD/TB and Leprosy Program's (NASTLP) prevalence estimates concur with those of the WHO. NASTLP surveillance covers women attending antenatal clinics, outpatients, and blood donors. Although available HIV prevalence data for the country are less than reliable, it is clear that HIV prevalence has increased over time to presently high levels and that prevalence is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Very high levels of HIV prevalence have been found among some health care professionals tested at Lusaka University Teaching Hospital. The data on AIDS cases are of poor quality. 42% of urban and 33% of rural households in 1993 contained orphans. Projections of the course of the epidemic are presented along with discussion of the potential impact upon the economy, the agricultural sector, and the private sector. Zambia's background is outlined. Vulnerability is then considered with regard to sexually transmitted diseases, poverty, the loss of formal sector employment and structural adjustment programs, mobility within society, urbanization, social pressure upon girls to have sexual intercourse, and the traditional practice of cleansing surviving spouses through sexual intercourse with an in-law. Government and private sector responses and external assistance from the European Commission are noted. PMID:12292060

  12. Background on Zambia's Labor Market with Cross-National Comparisons 

    E-print Network

    Chester, Alex; Dang, Thao; Edgell, Amanda; Harber, Matthew; Mahaney, Dace; Messer, Matthew; Ramos, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Although Zambia has enjoyed decent economic growth, its employment growth and labor productivity have continued to stagnate. What factors explain the stagnation? This Capstone project aims to answer this question through empirical analysis...

  13. The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, B.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Mapani, B. S. E.; Tembo, F.

    2006-09-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt is a northeast-trending structural province stretching from central Zambia to the Zambia-Tanzania border and northern Malawi. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic transcurrent shear zones within reactivated parts of the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian belt define its northeastern limit. The northwestern margin is defined by the largely undeformed basement lithologies of the Bangweulu block. An intensely folded and sheared zone at the southeastern margin of the Mporokoso Group sedimentary depocentre on the Bangweulu block, interpreted to have developed above a thrust at the basement-cover interface, indicates that far-field effects of the Irumide Orogen also affected the southeastern part of the Bangweulu block sedimentary cover. To the west and southwest, Irumide and basement lithologies were reworked by the Damara-Lufilian-Zambezi Orogen within the Neoproterozoic Zambezi and Lufilian belts. The Choma-Kalomo block, previously regarded as the southwesterly continuation of the Irumide belt, is a distinct Mesoproterozoic province, while a succession of structurally juxtaposed tectonic terranes in eastern Zambia record a deformation event related to the Irumide Orogen. The lithological units identified in the Irumide belt include: (1) limited Neoarchaean rocks emplaced between 2.73 and 2.61 Ga and representing the oldest rocks in the Bangweulu block; (2) ca. 2.05-1.85 Ga volcano-plutonic complexes and gneisses representing the most important components in the Bangweulu block; (3) an extensive quartzite-metapelite succession with minor carbonate forming the Muva Supergroup, and deposited at ca. 1.85 Ga; (4) granitoids emplaced between 1.65 and 1.55 Ga; (5) a minor suite of anorogenic plutons (nepheline syenite and biotite granite) restricted to the far northeastern Irumide belt and emplaced between 1.36 and 1.33 Ga; (6) voluminous syn- to post-kinematic Irumide granitoids emplaced between 1.05 and 0.95 Ga. Crustal shortening and thickening in the Irumide belt are shown by northwestward-directed thrusts and related folds and metamorphic parageneses recording a clockwise medium-pressure/medium-temperature P- T- t path. Metamorphic grades range from greenschist facies in the foreland to the northwest to upper amphibolite facies in the southeast, with local granulites. Peak metamorphism is diachronous across the belt and bracketed between 1.05 in the southeast and 1.02 Ga in the northwest.

  14. Health and agricultural productivity: Evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Masiye, Felix

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the productivity effects of investment in preventive health technology through a randomized controlled trial in rural Zambia. In the experiment, access to subsidized bed nets was randomly assigned at the community level; 516 farmers were followed over a one-year farming period. We find large positive effects of preventative health investment on productivity: among farmers provided with access to free nets, harvest value increased by US$ 76, corresponding to about 14.7% of the average output value. While only limited information was collected on farming inputs, shifts in the extensive and the intensive margins of labor supply appear to be the most likely mechanism underlying the productivity improvements observed. PMID:25966452

  15. 77 FR 29369 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ...Threshold Programs, the MCC Cost Principles for Government Affiliates...purchased using such funds from taxation in Zambia. In terms of income...such income is not subject to taxation in Zambia in accordance with...such income is not subject to taxation in Zambia, in...

  16. The Increased Bandwidth Fallacy: Performance and Usage in Rural Zambia

    E-print Network

    Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

    is in Africa, where the increased fiber- optic capacity [1], coupled with higher-bandwidth, lower- latencyThe Increased Bandwidth Fallacy: Performance and Usage in Rural Zambia Mariya Zheleva, Paul Schmitt and at times unusable. In this paper we study the performance and usage implications of an Internet access

  17. Towards a policy model for community radio broadcasting in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fackson Banda; Pieter J. Fourie

    2004-01-01

    This article, which is based on a focused synthesis of a range of historical, political, policy, regulatory and other factors, proposes a normative policy model for community radio broadcasting in Zambia. It starts with a historical analysis of the factors that have influenced the development of community radio broadcasting in the country, particularly in the period before and after 1991.

  18. Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

  19. Mapping the Geographical Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwase, Enala T.; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Methodology/Principal findings Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. Conclusions/significance LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia. PMID:24587466

  20. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of newly posted Peace Corps Volunteers in the Rural Aquaculture Promotion Project in Zambia 

    E-print Network

    Trant, Clay Allen

    2004-09-30

    The Rural Aquaculture Promotion (RAP) project is a vital development initiative by the Peace Corps in Zambia with the goal of increasing the nutritional and caloric intake of rural Zambian farmers in addition to augmenting income (Peace Corps Zambia...

  1. Sustainable agricultural development using a farming systems approach in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mesfin Bezuneh; Glenn C. W. Ames; Carl C. Mabbs-Zeno

    1995-01-01

    Zambia implemented the Farming Systems Research and Extension approach to development of agricultural technologies during the last decade. The results seem to indicate that the inter-related objectives of increasing productivity, income and short-term food security of small-scale farmers have been addressed, but the achievements may have come at the expense of long-term sustainability in agricultural development. The system relied too

  2. Perinatal transmission of HIV-I in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Hira; J. Kamanga; G. J. Bhat; C. Mwale; G. Tembo; N. Luo; P. L. Perine

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV-I from women positive for the virus and the prognosis for their babies. DESIGN--Women presenting in labour were tested for HIV-I. Their newborn babies were also tested. Women positive for the virus were followed up with their babies for two years. SETTING--Teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. SUBJECTS--1954 Women, of whom 227 were

  3. Theatre for Development: An Appropriate Tool for Extension Communication and Non-Formal Education in Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall, Frank

    1980-01-01

    Describes a workshop held in Zambia in August 1979, to disseminate among performing artists and rural development workers skills for using the performing arts to communicate information on problems related to agriculture, health, and community development. Over 70 participants from the U.S., Canada, Botswana, Lesotho, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zambia

  4. Preferences for hospital quality in Zambia: results from a discrete choice experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kara Hanson; Barbara McPake; Pamela Nakamba; Luke Archard

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the results of a discrete choice experiment undertaken in Zambia to assess the factors influencing the demand for hospital care in Zambia, in particular the role of (perceived) quality and trade-offs between price and quality. Valuations of quality were evaluated for the treatment of two acute medical conditions, cerebral malaria in adults and acute pneumonia in

  5. Zambia: A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Holly A.

    This report on the educational system of Zambia contains information for university admissions officers and registrars in the United States on the credentials and other documentation that would be minimally required for student entry from Zambia to specified levels of study in the United States. A section of general information describes that…

  6. Why Context Matters: Understanding the Material Conditions of School-Based Caring in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized in-depth interviewing, participant observation, and student diaries completed by participants to examine the quality of teacher-student relationships at a low-cost private school in the townships of Ndola, Zambia. Amidst economic decline and the HIV/AIDS epidemic facing Zambia today, teachers and students developed strong…

  7. Pentastomes (Pentastomida, Armillifer armillatus Wyman, 1848) in snakes from Zambia.

    PubMed

    De Meneghi, D

    1999-12-01

    Twenty-three snakes, belonging to eight different species, were collected from rural areas of Zambia and inspected for the presence of pentastomes. Pentastomid parasites were found in four snakes: one African rock python (Python sebae), one puff adder (Bitis arietans) and two Mozambique spitting cobras (Naja mossambica) were infested with a small number of Armillifer armillatus, respectively five, two and one adult parasites. As humans can be incidental/intermediate hosts for reptilian pentastomes, the zoonotic potential of these parasites, especially in tropical countries, is discussed. PMID:10870563

  8. Study of familial Parkinson's disease in Russia, Uzbekistan, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Atadzhanov, M; Zumla, A; Mwaba, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were (A) to determine inheritance patterns of familial Parkinson's disease in three different geographical areas (Russia, Uzbekistan, and Zambia); (B) compare clinical characteristics of familial with sporadic Parkinson's disease; and (C) assess whether there were ethnic differences in clinical manifestations of the disease. Methods: Fifty two index cases of familial Parkinson's disease in Moscow, 55 in Tashkent, and 27 in Lusaka were selected on the basis of the typical clinical features of Parkinson's disease with a familial history. The sex ratio, transmission patterns, and segregation ratio were determined by pedigree analysis. Results: Familial Parkinson's disease was found in all three countries (30 families in Russia, 12 in Uzbekistan, and seven in Zambia), and appeared more common in Russia. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive patterns of inheritance were seen, but autosomal dominance was more common in all countries. Conclusions: In all three countries men have a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease than women and there are ethnic differences in clinical manifestations of the disease. The onset of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease in Zambian patients occurs at a younger age and is associated with slow progression and a benign course, and generally responds well to levodopa treatment. PMID:15701745

  9. Will savannas survive outside the parks? A lesson from Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W.; Merbold, L.; Scholes, B.; Mukelabai, M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  10. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...more than 15 years of water sector reform through...residents. Yet, the water supply and sanitation and drainage system...infrastructure, to Zambia's water sector over the past...approach to water resource management (IWRM), where...

  11. The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronan Van Rossem; Dominique Meekers

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV\\/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV\\/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact

  12. A study of malnourished children in children's hospital Lusaka (Zambia).

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Gupta, B M

    1979-01-01

    The parents of 200 malnourished childred referred and admitted over the July-December 1976 period to the nutrition wing of the Children's University Teaching Hospital, Zambia, were interviewed in an effort to understand the home environment of malnourished children in Lusaka, Zambia. The 1974 incidence of malnutrition in Zambia was about 23% with higher prevalences of marasmus and moderate malnutrition. There were 9.4% severly malnourished children admitted in 1976 as compared with less than 1% in 1971. Many of these children were admitted very late in a hypothermic shocked state which is directly responsible for the increasing incidence of mortality over these years. Plasma or blood transfusion is a standard procedure in all shocked cases of kwashiorkor, yet many of the children still die within 24 hours of admission. Malnutrition incidence was found to be closely linked to the rise in price index. The majority of the children were admitted from the rainy months November to March, the time associated with a higher incidence of gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, and measles. 88% of the children were between 1-3 years old. Marasmus (33.5%) and marasmic kwashiorkor (40.5%) were more frequent. 63% of the malnourished childred had attended the child health clinics in their infancy and were immunized but discontinued attendance one vaccination was completed. The problem of malnutrition was in the toddler age group. 86% of the childred came from urban slums and periurban areas; 83% were from unitary families, living in 1 or 2 bedroom houses with no separate provision for a kitchen. Rural families (14%) were living as joint families. 32% of the children were from large families. 52% of the parents were employed as casual laborers and earning under US $35 per month. There were only 10 families with earnings in excess of US $125 per month and only 8 had good sources of income from farms. As many as 68.5% children were experiencing 1 or more adverse factors which contributed to their present condition. Almost half of the mothers were pregnant or carrying a young child. An alcoholic family, divorce, or separation of parents was frequently observed. Separation from the mother was marked by a deterioration in the health of the children. Only 4 divorced mothers were working to support the family. The remainder were dependent on their parents. 53% of mothers were favorable to family spacing if properly motiavated. A social rehabilitation program should meaningfully involve the family unit. Parental responsibilities must be propagated. Family spacing with health education programs is vital in the improvement of child care. PMID:260744

  13. Filarial infections in domestic dogs in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T; Nejsum, Peter; Simonsen, Paul E

    2015-06-15

    Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott's concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. PCR confirmed that most of these dogs had Acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. Ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen (by DiroCHEK(®) test), but D. immitis microfilariae were not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans. PMID:25944406

  14. Schistosomiasis around Siavonga, on the shores of Lake Kariba, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mungomba, L M; Chandiwana, S K; Madesen, H

    1993-08-01

    A schistosomiasis prevalence survey was carried out at Lake Kariba, Zambia--only the second since the creation of the lake more than 30 years ago. In the 20 or so years since the first study the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni has increased from 16% to 56% while that of S. haematobium has dropped from 69% to 17%. There was variability in the infectivity of contact sites (P < 0.001) and this had an impact on prevalence. In contrast, sex, age (within the range 5-19 years), residential area (distance from the lakeshore) and activity at the contact site had no significant effect on prevalence (P > 0.05). The population at Matinangala was more at risk of infection by both S. haematobium (P < 0.001) and S. mansoni (P < 0.05) than the Siavonga population. Both Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus globosus were present in the area and factors which may be influencing their distribution are discussed. PMID:8250627

  15. Urinary schistosomiasis in the Sichili Health Zone, Western Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, N; van Vliet, N G

    1991-09-01

    The distribution of Schistosoma haematobium in the Sichili Health Zone in the Western Province of Zambia was studied by performing cross-sectional surveys in Mwanalulenga (n = 493), a cluster of rural settlements along the Namakala stream and the Machili river, Mulobezi (n = 114), a semi-urban settlement along the Mulobezi river; and school-based surveys in Mulauli (n = 85), a small rural settlement along the Machili river, and in Sichili (n = 199), along the Namakala stream. The S. haematobium infection was assessed by the urine filtration technique. Prevalences ranged from 20.6 to 87.1%, 23.8% of all people were heavily infected (greater than or equal to 50 eggs per 10 ml of urine). PMID:1801143

  16. Treatment of paediatric malaria during a period of drug transition to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: cross sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dejan Zurovac; Mickey Ndhlovu; Alexander K Rowe; Davidson H Hamer; Donald M Thea; Robert W Snow; Malaria Branch

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate treatment practices for uncomplicated malaria after the policy change from chloroquine to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting Outpatient departments of all government and mission facilities in four districts in Zambia. Participants 944 children with uncomplicated malaria seen by 103 health workers at 94 health facilities. Main outcome measures Antimalarial prescriptions in

  17. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  18. Experiences of the first female physics graduates of the University of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwewa, Chilufya; Namumba, Brenda; Mofya, Mwape

    2013-03-01

    Although the Department of Physics was established together with the University of Zambia in 1966, it has only graduated eight females to date. This calls for concern since the University of Zambia is the only institution that offers a physics degree program in Zambia. In this paper, three of these females discuss their understanding of the factors that have led to members of their gender shunning physics. They outline the way they themselves came to do physics and they discuss the problems they faced as they studied physics and the rewards they received from this. They propose ways and means of motivating other females to take up physics and of making studies easier and more fulfilling for those who opt to do so.

  19. Conceptualization of appropriate technology in Lundazi district of rural Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Tembo, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A sample of 144 people from the Lundazi District of the Eastern Province of rural Zambia in Central Africa responded to a questionnaire. The first objective of the study was to determine how men and women conceptualize and evaluated appropriate technology for food production, processing, preservation, and storage; second, to investigate if participation in modern institutions (COSISOCHINS) was related to conceptualization of appropriate technology. There were no significant gender differences in how men and women viewed appropriate technology. Participation in modern institutions was not significantly related to how people conceptualized and evaluated appropriate technology. There were significant gender differences in participation in modern institutions; men participated more than women. The findings remained the same when age, education, income and marital status held constant. Sex-role task overlap and exclusiveness in gender division of labor account for lack of significant gender differences. Modern institutions can be useful if they are effectively integrated with the social structure, gender division of labor, and social organization of the production process of the rural communities of the Third World.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of eye care services in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery and refractive error/presbyopia correction in Zambia. Methods Primary data on costs and health related quality of life were collected in a prospective cohort study of 170 cataract and 113 refractive error/presbyopia patients recruited from three health facilities. Six months later, follow-up data were available from 77 and 41 patients who had received cataract surgery and spectacles, respectively. Costs were determined from patient interviews and micro-costing at the three health facilities. Utility values were gathered by administering the EQ-5D quality of life instrument immediately before and six months after cataract surgery or acquiring spectacles. A probabilistic state-transition model was used to generate cost-effectiveness estimates with uncertainty ranges. Results Utility values significantly improved across the patient sample after cataract surgery and acquiring spectacles. Incremental costs per Quality Adjusted Life Years gained were US$ 259 for cataract surgery and US$ 375 for refractive error correction. The probabilities of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios being below the Zambian gross national income per capita were 95% for both cataract surgery and refractive error correction. Conclusion In spite of proven cost-effectiveness, severe health system constraints are likely to hamper scaling up of the interventions. PMID:24568593

  1. Integrating mental health into primary health care in Zambia: a care provider's perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lonia Mwape; Alice Sikwese; Augustus Kapungwe; Jason Mwanza; Alan Flisher; Crick Lund; Sara Cooper

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the 1991 reforms of the health system in Zambia, mental health is still given low priority. This is evident from the fragmented manner in which mental health services are provided in the country and the limited budget allocations, with mental health services receiving 0.4% of the total health budget. Most of the mental health services provided are curative

  2. WP 80 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Zambia on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the

  3. Inquiry-Based Science Education: A Scenario on Zambia's High School Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mumba, Frackson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at elucidating the current state of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in Zambia's high school science curriculum. Therefore, we investigated Zambian teachers' conceptions of inquiry; determined inquiry levels in the national high school science curriculum materials, which include syllabi, textbooks and practical exams; and…

  4. Effect of deforestation and subsistence agriculture on runoff of the Kafue River headwaters, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. MUMEKA

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents the observed effects on the streamflow of changing a tropical forest in the high rainfall belt of Zambia to agricultural use based on traditional farming methods. Hydrological observations were carried out on four small catchments under their natural conditions first, and later two of them under agricultural use with accompanying deforestation. Simple linear regression analysis of both

  5. A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascalina Chanda; Felix Masiye; Bona M Chitah; Naawa Sipilanyambe; Moonga Hawela; Patrick Banda; Tuoyo Okorosobo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and

  6. From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naawa Sipilanyambe; Jonathon L Simon; Pascalina Chanda; Peter Olumese; Robert W Snow; Davidson H Hamer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national

  7. Human rights, democracy & the donors: the first MMD government in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Bartlett

    2001-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s the stage appeared set for an era of global democratisation with western attention particularly focused on Africa. After the 1991 election Zambia was praised by western donor countries and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) as a beacon which heralded political transformation across the continent. Yet any exploration of the Movement for Multi?Party Democracy's (MMD)

  8. Effects of the Gama Cuulu Radio Serial Drama on HIV-Related Behavior Change in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Marie Kraft; Zelee Hill; Ian Membe; Yujia Zhang; Elizabeth Onjoro Meassick; Michael Monsour; Mwendalubi Maumbi; Phillimon Ndubani; Joy Masheke Manengu; Alwyn Mwinga

    2012-01-01

    The Gama Cuulu radio serial drama is written and produced in Zambia's Southern Province. It promotes behavior change and service use to prevent HIV transmission. The authors evaluated the effects of Gama Cuulu on intermediate outcomes (e.g., perceived norms), as well as number of sexual partners, condom use, and HIV testing in the past year among adults between 18 and

  9. Characterisation of the Wildlife Reservoir Community for Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil E. Anderson; Joseph Mubanga; Eric M. Fevre; Kim Picozzi; Mark C. Eisler; Robert Thomas; Susan C. Welburn

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAnimal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species) and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study

  10. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Model for Economy-Wide Climate Change Impact Assessment for Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Zhu; J. Thurlow; X. Diao

    2008-01-01

    Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, with a total population of about 11 million and a total area of about 752 thousand square kilometers. Agriculture in the country depends heavily on rainfall as the majority of cultivated land is rain-fed. Significant rainfall variability has been a huge challenge for the country to keep a sustainable agricultural growth, which

  11. Factors Related to Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion: A Case for Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muwana, Florence Chuzu; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a global trend in the provision of services for students with disabilities. In Zambia and other developing nations, international initiatives from UNESCO and other nongovernmental organisations have contributed to the consensus that all children have a right to a free and appropriate education and that all students…

  12. Stigma, HIV\\/AIDS and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia Bond; Elaine Chase; Peter Aggleton

    2002-01-01

    This report evaluates the extent of perceived and enacted HIV\\/AIDS-related stigma in a rural setting in Zambia. Stigmatisation is abundant, ranging from subtle actions to the most extreme degradation, rejection and abandonment. Women with HIV and pregnant women assumed to be HIV positive are repeatedly subjected to extensive forms of stigma, particularly once they become sick or if their child

  13. Predictors of Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Men in Zambia and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a…

  14. Organization of Distance Education at the University of Zambia: An Analysis of the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyirenda, Juma E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of two basic organizational models for distance education systems or institutions focuses on the mixed-mode organization at the University of Zambia. Highlights include the development, production, storage, and distribution of teaching materials; communication channels between students and teachers; and the record-keeping system. (11…

  15. Genome Sequence of a Bacillus anthracis Outbreak Strain from Zambia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Naomi; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogawa, Hirohito; Kachi, Hirokazu; Yamada, Shunsuke; Fujikura, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Hang’ombe, Mudenda B.; Thomas, Yuka; Mweene, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    In August 2011, an anthrax outbreak occurred among Hippopotamus amphibius hippopotamuses and humans in Zambia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Bacillus anthracis outbreak strain CZC5, isolated from tissues of H. amphibius hippopotamuses that had died in the outbreak area. PMID:24604644

  16. Genome Sequence of a Bacillus anthracis Outbreak Strain from Zambia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Naomi; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogawa, Hirohito; Kachi, Hirokazu; Yamada, Shunsuke; Fujikura, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Thomas, Yuka; Mweene, Aaron S; Higashi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    In August 2011, an anthrax outbreak occurred among Hippopotamus amphibius hippopotamuses and humans in Zambia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Bacillus anthracis outbreak strain CZC5, isolated from tissues of H. amphibius hippopotamuses that had died in the outbreak area. PMID:24604644

  17. Education and Zambia's Democratic Development: Reconstituting "Something" from the Predatory Project of Neoliberal Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.; Ellis, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million people, is currently exposed to the nonsubjective forces of globalization, including institutional weaknesses such as high unemployment rated and chronic levels of poverty that ipso facto problematize its governance and social development priorities. The first part of the article focuses on an…

  18. Comparison of the persistent activity of ivermectin, abamectin, doramectin and moxidectin in cattle in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. M. Meeus; J. De Bont; J. Vercruysse

    1997-01-01

    The persistent efficacy of four commercially available macrocyclic lactones (ML) in maintaining reduced faecal egg counts in cattle grazing naturally infested pastures was evaluated in 44 zebu animals aged 1–2 years in Zambia. The study started in February (rainy season) when the strongyle egg output was increasing. Four days before the start of the trial, all animals were treated with

  19. Beyond a Learning Society? It Is All to Be Done Again: Zambia and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the ways in which educators and learning societies in Zambia and Zimbabwe have had to struggle to create independent, democratic and critical curricula in difficult circumstances over the last 50 years in the context of historical shifts in power, a declining British Empire and the re-emergence of reactionary forces at a…

  20. Risk factors for brucellosis in indigenous cattle reared in livestock–wildlife interface areas of Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Muma; K. L. Samui; J. Oloya; M. Munyeme; E. Skjerve

    2007-01-01

    We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate risk factors of Brucella seropositivity in cattle herds reared in livestock–wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar National Parks in Zambia between August 2003 and September 2004. Sera were collected from cattle aged ?2 years from 124 herds. Data on husbandry practices, grazing strategies, and herd structure (sex and age composition) were

  1. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klink van E. G. M

    1994-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of

  2. Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS) exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambia’s NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambia’s NHRS and offer this reflection and process documentation to those engaged in similar initiatives in other settings. We argue that three streams of concurrent activity are critical in developing an NHRS in a resource-constrained setting: developing a legislative framework to determine and define the system’s boundaries and the roles all actors will play within it; creating or strengthening an institution capable of providing coordination, management and guidance to the system; and focusing on networking among institutions and individuals to harmonize, unify and strengthen the overall capacities of the research community. PMID:22672331

  3. DIARRHEA PREVENTION THROUGH HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL WATER DISINFECTION AND SAFE STORAGE IN ZAMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT E. QUICK; AKIKO KIMURA; ANGELICA THEVOS; MATHIAS TEMBO; ISIDORE SHAMPUTA; LORI HUTWAGNER; ERIC MINTZ

    2002-01-01

    A water quality intervention that consists of water treatment, safe storage, and community education was field tested in Kitwe, Zambia. A total of 166 intervention households were randomly selected from one community and 94 control households from another. Baseline surveys were conducted and the intervention was distributed. Weekly active diarrhea surveillance, biweekly water testing, and a follow-up survey were conducted.

  4. Report from the Field: Education under Structural Adjustment in Nigeria and Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Joel B.; Lungwangwa, Geoffrey; Adeyinka, Augustus A.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) on the educational systems in Nigeria and Zambia. Reports that SAP impacted the public expenditure on education, the purchasing power of the incomes earned by both learning institutions and their staff, and on access, equity, and quality indicators in education at all levels. (CMK)

  5. The demographic profile of sero-discordant couples enrolled in clinical research in Rwanda and Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Stephenson; J. Barker; R. Cramer; M. A. Hall; E. Karita; E. Chomba; C. Vwalika; S. Allen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the demographic profile of two cohorts of sero-discordant couples enrolled in research activities at two clinical research sites in Kigali, Rwanda and Lusaka, Zambia and compares their background characteristics by country, gender and sero-status. Differences between the two cohorts represent economic and cultural differences between the two countries. Recruitment procedures appear to be successful in reaching the

  6. Diagnostic approaches to malaria in Zambia, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Mukonka, Victor M; Chanda, Emmanuel; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Elbadry, Maha A; Wamulume, Pauline K; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Lubinda, Jailos; Laytner, Lindsey A; Zhang, Wenyi; Mushinge, Gabriel; Haque, Ubydul

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is an important health burden in Zambia with proper diagnosis remaining as one of the biggest challenges. The need for reliable diagnostics is being addressed through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, without sufficient laboratory amenities in many parts of the country, diagnosis often still relies on non-specific, clinical symptoms. In this study, geographical information systems were used to both visualize and analyze the spatial distribution and the risk factors related to the diagnosis of malaria. The monthly reported, district-level number of malaria cases from January 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the National Malaria Control Center (NMCC). Spatial statistics were used to reveal cluster tendencies that were subsequently linked to possible risk factors, using a non-spatial regression model. Significant, spatio-temporal clusters of malaria were spotted while the introduction of RDTs made the number of clinically diagnosed malaria cases decrease by 33% from 2009 to 2014. The limited access to road network(s) was found to be associated with higher levels of malaria, which can be traced by the expansion of health promotion interventions by the NMCC, indicating enhanced diagnostic capability. The capacity of health facilities has been strengthened with the increased availability of proper diagnostic tools and through retraining of community health workers. To further enhance spatial decision support systems, a multifaceted approach is required to ensure mobilization and availability of human, infrastructural and technological resources. Surveillance based on standardized geospatial or other analytical methods should be used by program managers to design, target, monitor and assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of malaria diagnostic resources country-wide. PMID:26054519

  7. Environmental Impacts of China Outward Foreign Direct Investment: Case Studies in Latin America, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Zambia 

    E-print Network

    Al-Aameri, Nour; Fu, Lingxiao; Garcia, Nicole; Mak, Ryan; McGill, Caitlin; Reynolds, Amanda; Vinze, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    of several countries from varying regions illustrates how investments interact with recipient countries’ regulations. The increase of Chinese investment has affected the environment of South America, Mongolia, Myanmar and Zambia. Chinese investment in South...

  8. The Influence of Orthographic Opacity on Reading Development among Nyanja-English Bilinguals in Zambia: A Cross-Linguistic Study 

    E-print Network

    Kaani, Bestern

    2014-12-15

    proficiency by comparing Zambian bilingual students in a local highly transparent orthography, Nyanja, and English. Equivalent Nyanja and English versions of the Zambia Achievement Test (ZAT) were administered to 240 grades four to six participants drawn from...

  9. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of newly posted Peace Corps Volunteers in the Rural Aquaculture Promotion Project in Zambia

    E-print Network

    Trant, Clay Allen

    2004-09-30

    FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEWLY POSTED PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS IN THE RURAL AQUACULTURE PROMOTION PROJECT IN ZAMBIA A Thesis by CLAY ALLEN TRANT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... POSTED PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS IN THE RURAL AQUACULTURE PROMOTION PROJECT IN ZAMBIA A Thesis by CLAY ALLEN TRANT Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  10. MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SUBHUMID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ZAMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. N. LUNGU

    MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SUB-HUMID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ZAMBIA. Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop\\/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on

  11. Social indicators and physical abuse of women by intimate partners: a study of women in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Okenwa, Leah; Lawoko, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner physical abuse (IPPA) of women is a societal problem with sinister implications on health. IPPA has been integrally linked to social status though the direction of association remains elusive, not the least in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigated the association between IPPA and social status of women in Zambia. Data comprising 3,969 currently partnered women were retrieved from the 2001 Zambian Demographic and Health Survey and analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression. IPPA augmented with low education, income-generating activity, access to information, autonomy over household health issues, and having tolerant attitudes toward IPPA. Tolerant attitude toward IPPA and illiteracy were independent risk factors for IPPA. Educational interventions are recommended to prevent IPPA in Zambia. PMID:20514821

  12. Fitting the HIV Epidemic in Zambia: A Two-Sex MicroSimulation Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline M. Leclerc; Alan P. Matthews; Michel L. Garenne; Nitika Pant Pai

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundIn describing and understanding how the HIV epidemic spreads in African countries, previous studies have not taken into account the detailed periods at risk. This study is based on a micro-simulation model (individual-based) of the spread of the HIV epidemic in the population of Zambia, where women tend to marry early and where divorces are not frequent. The main target

  13. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  14. Individual-Level Predictors for HIV Testing Among Antenatal Attendees in Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Thierman; Benjamin H. Chi; Jens W. Levy; Moses Sinkala; Robert L. Goldenberg; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of antiretroviral pro- phylaxis, roughly one-fifth of public-sector antenatal patients decline HIV testing in Lusaka, Zambia. We administered a survey to determine individual-level pre- dictors of HIV testing. Of 1064 antenatal attendees approached after pretest counseling, 1060 (99%) par- ticipated. Of these, 686 (65%) agreed to HIV testing. On bivariate analysis controlling for clinic of attendance, women

  15. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  16. Environmental self-efficacy, attitude and behavior among small scale farmers in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongjuan Wu; Liberty Mweemba

    2010-01-01

    The rural livelihood system in Zambia is essentially agriculture, and agriculture is the main link between people and their\\u000a environment. Through agricultural activities, people seek to husband the available soil, water and biological resources so\\u000a as to ‘harvest’ a livelihood for themselves. The aim of this study is to examine Zambian farmers’ awareness and attitude toward\\u000a the degradation of the

  17. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.

  18. An analysis of onset date and rainy season duration over Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachigonta, S.; Reason, C. J. C.; Tadross, M.

    2008-02-01

    This study investigates the onset and cessation dates of the main summer rainy season over Zambia, their interannual variability, and potential relationships with ENSO and regional circulation anomalies. Focus is placed on onset and cessation dates because these rainy season characteristics are often of more relevance than seasonal rainfall totals to user groups such as farmers, water resource managers, health and tourism officials. It is found that there is substantial interannual variability in these parameters with some indications of a relationship between anomalies in onset date and those in Niño3.4 SST, particularly over the northern part of the country. A strong gradient exists between the south and the north in terms of rainfall amount, mean onset date and mean cessation date and all areas of the country experience significant variability. Analysis of circulation anomalies for early (late) onset seasons over northern Zambia shows that they are characterised by anomalous ridging (troughing) over and south of South Africa, a weaker (stronger) Angola heat low and enhanced (reduced) low level moisture flux into eastern Zambia from the Indian Ocean. The connection with ENSO during the onset season of austral spring appears to arise both through changes in the amount of subsidence over southern Africa as well as via the so-called Pacific South America pattern that extends across the South Pacific and South Atlantic towards southern Africa.

  19. Genetic perspectives on the origin of clicks in Bantu languages from southwestern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Chiara; Butthof, Anne; Bostoen, Koen; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Some Bantu languages spoken in southwestern Zambia and neighboring regions of Botswana, Namibia, and Angola are characterized by the presence of click consonants, whereas their closest linguistic relatives lack such clicks. As clicks are a typical feature not of the Bantu language family, but of Khoisan languages, it is highly probable that the Bantu languages in question borrowed the clicks from Khoisan languages. In this paper, we combine complete mitochondrial genome sequences from a representative sample of populations from the Western Province of Zambia speaking Bantu languages with and without clicks, with fine-scaled analyses of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats to investigate the prehistoric contact that led to this borrowing of click consonants. Our results reveal complex population-specific histories, with female-biased admixture from Khoisan-speaking groups associated with the incorporation of click sounds in one Bantu-speaking population, while concomitant levels of potential Khoisan admixture did not result in sound change in another. Furthermore, the lack of sequence sharing between the Bantu-speaking groups from southwestern Zambia investigated here and extant Khoisan populations provides an indication that there must have been genetic substructure in the Khoisan-speaking indigenous groups of southern Africa that did not survive until the present or has been substantially reduced. PMID:22929022

  20. Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

  1. Ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in cattle and humans in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Bwalya, John M; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Sinyangwe, Peter G; Banda, Fred; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Anthrax is endemic in Western and North-western Provinces of Zambia. The disease occurs throughout the year and impacts negatively on the economy of the livestock industry and public health in Zambia. During 1989-1995, there were 1626 suspected cases of anthrax in cattle in Western province and of these 51 were confirmed. There were 220 cases of human anthrax cases in 1990 alone and 248 cases during 1991-1998 with 19.1% and 7.7% case fatality rates, respectively. Interplay of the ecology of affected areas and anthropogenic factors seem to trigger anthrax epidemics. Anthrax has drawn considerable attention in recent years due to its potential use as a biological weapon. In this paper, the history, current status and approaches towards the control of the disease in Zambia are discussed. Quarantine measures restrict trade of livestock and exchange of animals for draught power resulting in poor food security at household levels. Challenges of anthrax control are complex and comprise of socio-political, economical, environmental and cultural factors. Inadequate funding, lack of innovative disease control strategies and lack of cooperation from stakeholders are the major constraints to the control of the disease. It is hoped that the information provided here will stimulate continued awareness for the veterinary and medical authorities to maintain their surveillance and capabilities against the disease. This may lead to a culminating positive impact on livestock and human health in the southern African region. PMID:16786974

  2. Geographical patterns and predictors of malaria risk in Zambia: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of the 2006 Zambia national malaria indicator survey (ZMIS)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS) of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i) to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii) to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential) non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a) in categorical scales and (b) in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3%) province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61%) compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia risk together with the prediction error and the population at risk give an important overview of the malaria situation in Zambia. These maps can assist to achieve better resource allocation, health management and to target additional interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Zambia significantly. Repeated surveys will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of on-going interventions. PMID:20122148

  3. Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system. PMID:23298401

  4. Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT), a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. Methods This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs) conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership. Results Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both planning and delivery. Conclusion Poor status of the AFR conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership corresponds well to the differing perceptions of fairness and unfairness among outpatient attendees and decision-makers. This may have been re-enforced by existing disagreements between the two groups regarding who the legitimate stakeholders to involve during service delivery were. Conflicts identified in this study could be resolved by promoting application of approaches such as AFR during priority setting in the district. PMID:21040552

  5. An Audit of Skills and Qualifications in Preservation and Conservation Techniques: The Case of the University of Zambia Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameenda, Kimbo Lemmy; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2012-01-01

    This article establishes the level of skills and experience in preservation and conservation management using a case study methodological approach conducted in the 3 university libraries at the University of Zambia. The findings revealed that 20 (57%) of the library staff had not received formal training in preservation and conservation of library…

  6. Use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Remote Sensing Images in Wetland Change Detection on the Kafue Flats, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Munyati

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of remote sensing images as a method of change detection for the Kafue Flats, an inland wetland system in southern Zambia. The wetland is under human and natural pressures but is also an important wildlife habitat. A combination of Landsat MSS and TM images were used. The images used were

  7. A Library Response to the Massification of Higher Education: The Case of the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the challenges that libraries in Africa face in responding to massification of higher education by discussing the University of Zambia library's response in library and information resources provision. As a result of massification of higher education, libraries have been forced not only to employ new and different strategies to…

  8. Transmission of Theileriosis in the Traditional Farming Sector in the Southern Province of Zambia during 1995–1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mulumba; N. Speybroeck; M. Billiouw; D. L. Berkvens; D. M. Geysen; J. R. A. Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of first contact with the protozoan Theileria parva was determined in three traditional cattle herds in the Southern Province of Zambia in 1995 and 1996. The majority of first contacts occurred during the dry season in June, July and August, at a time of nymphal activity and in the absence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adults, indicating that larva to

  9. Proc. of IEEE Africon'2011, 13-15 Sept., Livingstone, Zambia A Role for Robotics in Sustainable Development?

    E-print Network

    Bugmann, Guido

    Proc. of IEEE Africon'2011, 13-15 Sept., Livingstone, Zambia 1 A Role for Robotics in Sustainable Development? Guido Bugmann Centre for Robotic and Neural Systems University of Plymouth Plymouth, United Kingdom gbugmann@plymouth.ac.uk Mel Siegel and Rachel Burcin Robotic Institute Carnegie Melon University

  10. Factors Associated with School Teachers' Perceived Needs and Level of Adoption of HIV Prevention Education in Lusaka, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Margaret; Chi, Chunheui; Khanna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural variables that may influence teachers' adoption of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education within the school setting and among school types in Zambia's Lusaka Province. Method: Mixed methods were used to collect original data. Using semi-structured interviews (n=11) and a survey…

  11. A qualitative assessment of the risk of introducing peste des petits ruminants into northern zambia from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chazya, R; Muma, J B; Mwacalimba, K K; Karimuribo, E; Mkandawire, E; Simuunza, M

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risk of introducing Peste des petits ruminants virus into northern Zambia from Tanzania via live goat trade. Data was collected during a mission to Tanzania and northern Zambia and also from literature and interviews with experts. The risk of PPRV introduction was evaluated as a function of the probability of hazard (PPRV) release, exposure of susceptible hosts, and the consequences of spread using the following parameters: prevalence of infection, volume of trade, C-ELISA and quarantine screening missing an infected animal, PPRV viability (remaining infective) in transit, and the virus potential for infection. The magnitude of the consequences was derived from the probability of transmission and spread and the impact of PPRV introduction and establishment. Accordingly, the probability of occurrence of PPRV in northern Zambia from Tanzania was rated as "high" and the economic consequences were also rated as "high." Finally, the overall risk of introducing PPRV into northern Zambia from Tanzania at the time of the assessment was rated "high." It was concluded that import of goats and sheep be prohibited until efficient and adequate measures to reduce the risk have been put in place. PMID:24558632

  12. Health Communication in Multilingual Contexts: A Study of Reading Preferences, Practices, and Proficiencies Among Literate Adults in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Underwood; Elizabeth Serlemitsos; Mubiana Macwangi

    2007-01-01

    Comprehension of health materials and messages is a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the development of health literacy; in the case of print materials, reading comprehension is elemental. Assessments of the population's ability to read and comprehend written materials are complex and highly salient in multilingual countries, such as Zambia, particularly when an excolonial language is but one of

  13. Information Processing, Evaluation, and Utilization: The Role of Academic Libraries in Research and Development (R&D) in Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundu, Maurice C.

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes and applies Bettman's information processing theory of consumer choice to information processing, evaluation, and utilization by academic libraries in Zambia to support research and development activities. Certain Zambian cultural and sociopsychological aspects and attitudes that could affect the evaluation and utilization of information…

  14. Quality of Relationship and sexual risk behaviors among HIV couples in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Vamos, Szonja; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Mumbi, Miriam; Weiss, Stephen M.; Jones, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Relationship quality and partner dynamics provide important insights into understanding sexual behavior within HIV sero-positive and -discordant couples. Individuals in long-term partnerships may be vulnerable to HIV/STI infection within their relationships due to misperceptions of their partners risk behaviors and potential concurrent (e.g., extramarital, non-primary) sexual partnerships. This study sought to examine relationship quality among HIV sero-positive and – discordant couples in Zambia, and its association with safer sex behavior. This study utilized data drawn from an ongoing translational study, The Partnership II Project – a couples based sexual risk reduction intervention in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples (n = 240) were assessed on demographics, relationship quality, and sexual risk behavior. Overall, couples perceiving their relationships more positively engaged in less risky sexual behavior (i.e., more condom use (b = .011, t = 3.14, p = .002) and fewer partners (?2 = 11.4, p = .003). Within the dyad, condom use was “actor driven,” indicating that the association between relationship quality and condom use did not depend on the partner’s evaluation of the relationship. Safer sex behavior was positively influenced by communication about condoms. Results support the paradigm shift from prevention strategies with HIV positive and at-risk individuals to concentrated efforts addressing male-female dyads, and suggest that interventions to address the role of couples’ relationship quality, a modifiable target for decreasing sexual risk behavior, are needed. PMID:23336258

  15. Factors affecting the design of a partnership program to facilitate adoption of agricultural practices among small-scale farmers, Mpongwe, Zambia 

    E-print Network

    Musoma, Henry Kasonde

    2002-01-01

    , environmentally friendly agricultural practices by the small-scale farmers in Mpongwe District, Zambia. Eleven separate surveys were conducted to gather descriptive information from four groups: 210 small-scale farmers, traditional chiefs, government departments...

  16. Estimating Loss to Follow-Up in HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: The Effect of the Competing Risk of Death in Zambia and Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franziska Schöni-Affolter; Olivia Keiser; Albert Mwango; Jeffrey Stringer; Bruno Ledergerber; Lloyd Mulenga; Heiner C. Bucher; Andrew O. Westfall; Alexandra Calmy; Andrew Boulle; Namwinga Chintu; Matthias Egger; Benjamin H. Chi

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundLoss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland.Methods and FindingsHIV-infected patients aged ?18 years who started ART 2004–2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included.

  17. Efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, Mansa, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) decreases adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy. Zambia implemented its IPTp-SP programme in 2003. Emergence of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens this strategy. The quintuple mutant haplotype (substitutions in N51I, C59R, S108N in dhfr and A437G and K540E in dhps genes), is associated with SP treatment failure in non-pregnant patients with malaria. This study examined efficacy of IPTp-SP and presence of the quintuple mutant among pregnant women in Mansa, Zambia. Methods In Mansa, an area with high malaria transmission, HIV-negative pregnant women presenting to two antenatal clinics for the 1st dose of IPTp-SP with asymptomatic parasitaemia were enrolled and microscopy for parasitaemia was done weekly for five weeks. Outcomes were parasitological failure and adequate parasitological response (no parasitaemia during follow-up). Polymerase chain reaction assays were employed to distinguish recrudescence from reinfection, and identify molecular markers of SP resistance. Survival analysis included those who had reinfection and incomplete follow-up (missed at least one follow-up). Results Of the 109 women included in the study, 58 (53%) completed all follow-up, 34 (31%) had incomplete follow-up, and 17 (16%) were lost to follow-up after day 0. Of those who had complete follow-up, 15 (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [16–38]) had parasitological failure. For the 92 women included in the survival analysis, median age was 20 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18–22), median gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR range 20–24), and 57% were primigravid. There was no difference in time to failure in primigravid versus multigravid women. Of the 84 women with complete haplotype data for the aforementioned loci of the dhfr and dhps genes, 53 (63%, 95% CI [50–70]) had quintuple mutants (two with an additional mutation in A581G of dhps). Among women with complete follow-up and quintuple mutants, 22% had parasitological failure versus 0% without (p?=?0.44). Conclusions While underpowered, this study found 26% failure rates of SP given the moderate prevalence of the quintuple mutant haplotype. Despite the presence of resistance, SP retained some efficacy in clearing parasites in pregnant women, and may remain a viable option for IPTp in Zambia. PMID:24909578

  18. Intention to use the female condom following a mass-marketing campaign in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Agha, S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report examines intention to use the female condom among men and women in Lusaka, Zambia, who were exposed to mass-marketing of the female condom. METHODS: The study used data from a representative sample of consumers at outlets that sell or distribute the female condom and the male condom. RESULTS: In spite of a high level of awareness of the female condom, use of this method in the last year was considerably lower than use of the male condom. Intention to use the female condom in the future was highest among respondents who had used only the female condom in the last year. CONCLUSIONS: The female condom is likely to be most important for persons who are unable or unwilling to use the male condom. PMID:11211646

  19. How can growth monitoring and special care of underweight children be improved in Zambia?

    PubMed

    Msefula, D

    1993-07-01

    Despite widespread promotion and implementation, very few growth monitoring programmes have been evaluated. Where they have, the findings have often been disappointing and the value of routine growth monitoring has been questioned. There is a concern that the process has become more of a weighing ritual rather than growth promotion. This paper highlights the findings of the evaluation study carried out to assess the performance of the Lusaka urban growth monitoring programme in Zambia. The problems faced and reasons are identified and alternate ways of offering the service are presented. Since the shortfalls are not unique to the Lusaka programme, it is hoped that this paper will stimulate a re-think in the way growth monitoring would be best implemented. PMID:8356736

  20. Translation and sustainability of an HIV prevention intervention in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Szonja; Mumbi, Miriam; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Weiss, Stephen Marshall; Jones, Deborah Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The scale-up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa necessitates creative solutions that do not further burden the health system to meet global initiatives in prevention and care. This study assessed the work environment and impact of providing a behavioral risk reduction intervention in six community health centers (CHCs) in Lusaka, Zambia; opportunities and challenges to long-term program sustainability were identified. CHC staff participants (n?=?82) were assessed on perceived clinic burden, job satisfaction, and burnout before and after implementation of the intervention. High levels of clinic burden were identified; however, no increase in perceived clinic burden or staff burnout was associated with providing the intervention. The intervention was sustained at the majority of CHCs and also adopted at additional clinics. Behavioral interventions can be successfully implemented and maintained in resource-poor settings. Creative strategies to overcome structural and economic challenges should be applied to enhance translation research. PMID:24904697

  1. Follow-up study to assess the use and performance of household filters in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Simunyama, Martin; Sarenje, Kelvin; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Effective household water treatment can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently over time. One year after completion of a randomized controlled study of water filters among households in Zambia with children < 2 years old and mothers who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, we conducted a follow-up study to assess use and performance of new filters distributed at the conclusion of the study; 90% of participating households met the criteria for current users, and 75% of participating households had stored water with lower levels of fecal contamination than source water. Microbiologically, the filters continued to perform well, removing an average of 99.0% of fecal indicator bacteria. Although this study provides some encouraging evidence about the potential to maintain high uptake and filter performance, even in the absence of regular household visits, additional research is necessary to assess whether these results can be achieved over longer periods and with larger populations. PMID:24100635

  2. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  3. Assessing the Consequences of Stigma for Tuberculosis Patients in Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Anne Lia; de Laat, Myrthe Manon; Kapata, Nathan; Gerrets, Rene; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Stigma is one of the many factors hindering tuberculosis (TB) control by negatively affecting hospital delay and treatment compliance. In Zambia, the morbidity and mortality due to TB remains high, despite extended public health attempts to control the epidemic and to diminish stigma. Study Aim To enhance understanding of TB-related stigmatizing perceptions and to describe TB patients’ experiences of stigma in order to point out recommendations to improve TB policy. Methods We conducted a mixed method study at Kanyama clinic and surrounding areas, in Lusaka, Zambia; structured interviews with 300 TB patients, multiple in-depth interviews with 30 TB patients and 10 biomedical health workers, 3 focus group discussions with TB patients and treatment supporters, complemented by participant observation and policy analysis of the TB control program. Predictors of stigma were identified by use of multivariate regression analyses; qualitative analysis of the in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation was used for triangulation of the study findings. Results We focused on the 138/300 patients that described TB-related perceptions and attitudes, of whom 113 (82%) reported stigma. Stigma provoking TB conceptions were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, alleged immoral behaviour, (perceived) incurability, and (traditional) myths about TB aetiology. Consequences of stigma prevailed both among children and adults and included low self-esteem, insults, ridicule, discrimination, social exclusion, and isolation leading to a decreased quality of life and social status, non-disclosure, and/or difficulties with treatment compliance and adherence. Women had significantly more stigma-related problems than men. Conclusions The findings illustrate that many TB patients faced stigma-related issues, often hindering effective TB control and suggesting that current efforts to reduce stigma are not yet optimal. The content and implementation of sensitization programs should be improved and more emphasis needs to be placed on women and children. PMID:25806955

  4. Testing the Validity and Reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among Sexually Abused Girls in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Lynn T. M.; Murray, Laura K.; Kane, Jeremy C.; Skavenski van Wyk, Stephanie; Chomba, Elwyn; Cohen, Judith; Imasiku, Mwiya; Semrau, Katherine; Unick, Jay; Bolton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study is to test the validity and reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among traumatized girls in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods The Shame Questionnaire was validated through both classical test and item response theory methods. Internal reliability, criterion validity and construct validity were examined among a sample of 325 female children living in Zambia. Sub-analyses were conducted to examine differences in construct validity among girls who reported sexual abuse and girls who did not. Results All girls in the sample were sexually abused, but only 61.5% endorsed or reported that sexual abuse had occurred. Internal consistency was very good among the sample with alpha = .87. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a significant difference of mean Shame Questionnaire scores between girls who experienced 0–1 trauma events and more than one traumatic event, with higher mean Shame Questionnaire scores among girls who had more than one traumatic event (p = .004 for 0–1 compared to 2 and 3 events and p = .016 for 0–1 compared to 4+ events). Girls who reported a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse had a significantly higher mean Shame Questionnaire score than girls who did not report a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse (p<.0001). There was no significant difference in mean Shame Questionnaire score between girls who reported a sexual abuse history and girls who did not. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model of the Shame Questionnaire, with an experience of shame dimension and an active outcomes of shame dimension. Item response theory analysis indicated adequate overall item fit. Results also indicate potential differences in construct validity between girls who did and did not endorse sexual abuse. Conclusions This study suggests the general utility of the Shame Questionnaire among Zambian girls and demonstrates the need for more psychometric studies in low and middle income countries. PMID:25879658

  5. Seasonal pattern of bovine fasciolosis in the Kafue and Zambezi catchment areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Siziya, S; Sikasunge, C S; Chembensofu, M; Monrad, J

    2005-11-25

    In order to establish seasonality of bovine fasciolosis in the Southern province of Zambia, 288 cattle were examined at slaughter at Turnpike slaughter slab for 1 year. The examination involved liver inspection and coprological examination. Liver condemnation rates were relatively high at the beginning of both the cold dry season and the rainy season (May/June and December, respectively). All cattle, regardless of age, had higher fluke abundances in the post-rainy season (39.1% young and 42.1% adult) while the lowest rates were in the hot dry season (13.3% young and 14.3% adult). On coprological examination, the highest abundance was in the post-rainy season (45.0%) and the lowest in the cold dry season (24.9%). From November (end of dry season) to February/March (end of rains), more fluke eggs were found than in any other period. The distribution of fluke eggs was significantly different (p<0.001) among the four seasons. Identified associations were: egg counts were highest in post-rainy (mean abundance=146) and lowest in cold dry season (mean abundance=118) at 95% confidence (CI 0.64-1.25). Differences in abundance observed according to origin, sex and age of cattle were not significant on both methods. Based on these results, it may be concluded that Fasciola gigantica was present throughout the year in cattle in Zambia but the abundance was highest in the post-rainy season and lowest in the cold dry season. PMID:16043299

  6. Practicalities and challenges in re-orienting the health system in Zambia for treating chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid evolution in disease burdens in low- and middle income countries is forcing policy makers to re-orient their health system towards a system which has the capability to simultaneously address infectious and non-communicable diseases. This paper draws on two different but overlapping studies which examined how actors in the Zambian health system are re-directing their policies, strategies and service structures to include the provision of health care for people with chronic conditions. Methods Study methods in both studies included semi-structured interviews with government health officials at national level, and governmental and non-governmental health practitioners operating from community-, primary health care to hospital facility level. Focus group discussions were conducted with staff, stakeholders and caregivers of programmes providing care and support at community- and household levels. Study settings included urban and rural sites. Results A series of adaptations transformed the HIV programme from an emergency response into the first large chronic care programme in the country. There are clear indications that the Zambian government is intending to expand this reach to patients with non-communicable diseases. Challenges to do this effectively include a lack of proper NCD prevalence data for planning, a concentration of technology and skills to detect and treat NCDs at secondary and tertiary levels in the health system and limited interest by donor agencies to support this transition. Conclusion The reorientation of Zambia’s health system is in full swing and uses the foundation of a decentralised health system and presence of local models for HIV chronic care which actively involve community partners, patients and their families. There are early warning signs which could cause this transition to stall, one of which is the financial capability to resource this process. PMID:25005125

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Dependence Disorder among TB and HIV Infected Patients in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Rebecca; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Kinyanda, Eugene; Patel, Vikram; Ayles, Helen; Weiss, Helen A.; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorders in persons receiving treatment for HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) at 16 Primary Health Care centres (PHC) across Zambia. Methods 649 adult patients receiving treatment for HIV and/or TB at PHCs in Zambia (363 males, 286 females) were recruited between 1st December 2009 and 31st January 2010. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinical disease features (TB and HIV), and psychopathological status were collected. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to diagnose alcohol dependence disorder. Correlates of alcohol dependence were analyzed for men only, due to low prevalence in women. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using general estimating equations to allow for within-PHC clustering. Results The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 27.2% (95%CI: 17.7-39.5%) for men and 3.9% (95%CI: 1.4-0.1%) for women. Factors associated with alcohol dependence disorder in men included being single, divorced or widowed compared with married (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14) and being unemployed (adjusted OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.67). The highest prevalence of alcohol dependence was among HIV-test unknown TB patients (34.7%), and lowest was among HIV positive patients on treatment but without TB (14.1%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.38). Conclusions Male TB/HIV patients in this population have high prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder, and prevalence differs by HIV/TB status. Further work is needed to explore interventions to reduce harmful drinking in this population. PMID:24069309

  8. The prevalence and factors contributing to domestic violence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lusaka urban clinics in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M D Mwiinga Mtonga

    2010-01-01

    SummaryDomestic violence among pregnant women has many faces in Lusaka, Zambia.Domestic violence among respondents was associated contraction of sexually transmitted infections, loss of pregnancy, bleeding in pregnancy, psychological trauma, divorce and social disharmony.In this study 385 pregnant women were randomly selected and entered into he study.MethodA Cross-sectional Descriptive Study of 385 pregnant women attending six randomly selected Antenatal Clinics in

  9. Paediatric malaria case-management with artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: a repeat cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dejan Zurovac; Mickey Ndhlovu; Nawa Sipilanyambe; Pascalina Chanda; Davidson H Hamer; Jon L Simon; Robert W Snow

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zambia was the first African country to change national antimalarial treatment policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy – artemether-lumefantrine. An evaluation during the early implementation phase revealed low readiness of health facilities and health workers to deliver artemether-lumefantrine, and worryingly suboptimal treatment practices. Improvements in the case-management of uncomplicated malaria two years after the initial evaluation and three years after

  10. Determination of endocrine disruptors in Kafue lechwe ( Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwenga Sichilongo; Nelson Torto

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of serum, whole blood and liver tissue samples from Kafue lechwe in the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia for suspected endocrine disrupting compounds revealed high concentrations for some of the compounds. 45 samples of serum, whole blood and liver tissue were extracted by liquid–liquid extraction followed by an analysis using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD). The following endocrine disruptors

  11. Pesticide residues in adipose tissue from hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) living in and adjacent to the Luangwa River in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Flåøyen, A; Polder, A; Mwase, M; Almli, B; Musonda, M M

    2005-06-01

    The concentration of organochlorines (OCs) such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world. PMID:16137136

  12. Organic petrology, thermal maturity, geology, and petroleum source rock potential of Lower Permian coal, Karoo supersystem, Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Utting, J. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada)); Wielens, H. (Unocal Canada Exploration Ltd., 150 6th Av. SW, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on data concerning organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Karoo coal measures (Lower Permian) which are of considerable importance in determining the hydrocarbon potential of sediments in the rift-valley and half-graben complexes of the Luangwa and Zambezi valleys of eastern and southern Zambia, respectively, and in the extensive sedimentary basin developed on relatively stable Precambrian basement in western Zambia, a total area in excess of 3000 km{sup 2}. Samples from seven outcrop and subsurface localities situated in the northeast (northern Luangwa Valley), east (mid-Luangwa Valley), south (mid-Zambezi Valley), and the Western Province of Zambia were studied. The coal measures are from 9 to 280 m thick, but individual coal seams are generally less than 6 m. The coal macerals contain an average of 60% vitrinite and 9% liptinite, enough to have potential to generate hydrocarbon. A few samples contain twice this amount of liptinite. Reflected-light microscopy and the thermal alteration index of spores were used to determine the thermal maturity. The organic matter in samples studied is within the oil generation zone (thermal alteration index 2{minus} to 2+; %R{sub 0} max = 0.5-0.9). The petrological and palynological data indicate that the organic matter consists of Types II (generally approximately 25% in carbonaceous shale samples), III, and IV, indicating source rock potential. Late Karoo ( ) and post-Karoo fault blocks with differential vertical displacements may have produced structural traps suitable for oil and gas accumulation.

  13. Zambia Wetland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... and are influenced by terrain, vegetation structure, soil type and soil moisture content. Wet surfaces or areas with standing water ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  14. Health Facility Graduation from Donor-Supported Intensive Technical Assistance and Associated Factors in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Koni, Phillip; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kasonde, Prisca; Nsakanya, Richard; Welsh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The FHI360-led Zambia Prevention Care and Treatment partnership II (ZPCT II) with funding from United States Agency for International Development, supports the Zambian Ministry of Health in scaling up HIV/AIDS services. To improve the quality of HIV/AIDS services, ZPCT II provides technical assistance until desired standards are met and districts are weaned-off intensive technical support, a process referred to as district graduation. This study describes the graduation process and determines performance domains associated with district graduation. Methods Data were collected from 275 health facilities in 39 districts in 5 provinces of Zambia between 2008 and 2012. Performance in technical capacity, commodity management, data management and human resources domains were assessed in the following services areas: HIV counselling and testing and prevention of mother to child transmission, antiretroviral therapy/clinical care, pharmacy and laboratory. The overall mean percentage score was calculated by obtaining the mean of mean percentage scores for the four domains. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the domain mean percentage scores in graduated versus non-graduated districts; according to rural-urban, and province strata. Results 24 districts out of 39 graduated from intensive donor supported technical assistance while 15 districts did not graduate. The overall mean percentage score for all four domains was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.2% versus 91.2%, OR = 1.34, 95%CI:1.20–1.49); including rural settings (92.4% versus 89.4%, OR = 1.43,95%CI:1.24–1.65). The mean percentage score in human resource domain was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.6% versus 71.6%, OR = 5.81, 95%CI: 4.29–7.86) and in both rural and urban settings. Conclusions QA/QI tools can be used to assess performance at health facilities and determine readiness for district graduation. Human resources management domain was found to be an important factor associated with district graduation. PMID:26098555

  15. Microbiome frequency and their association with trypanosome infection in male Glossina morsitans centralis of Western Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mbewe, Njelembo J; Mweempwa, Cornelius; Guya, Samuel; Wamwiri, Florence N

    2015-06-30

    Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are considered primary cyclical vectors that transmit pathogenic trypanosomes in Africa. They harbour a variety of microbes including Wolbachia, Sodalis and the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV) which are all vertically transmitted. Knowledge on tsetse microbiome and their interactions may identify novel strategies for tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control. Area-wide application of such strategies requires an understanding of the natural microbiome frequency in the different species and subspecies of Glossina in their geographical populations. Consequently, this study determined the prevalence of Sodalis, Wolbachia, SGHV and trypanosome infections in Glossina morsitanscentralis from two sites of Western Zambia. We also explored possible associations of the microbes with trypanosome infections. Male G. morsitanscentralis samples were collected from two sites (Lyoni and Lusinina) in Western Zambia. The age structure of the flies at each site was determined using the wing fray method. DNA was extracted from the samples and analyzed for Wolbachia, Sodalis, SGHV and trypanosome presence using PCR. Associations and measures of associations between trypanosome infection and microbes in the fly were determined. The flies from the two locations (Lusinina, n=45 and Lyoni, n=24) had a similar age structure with their median fray category not being significantly different (p=0.698). The overall prevalence of Wolbachia was 72.5% (95% CI: 61.6-83.3%), Sodalis was 15.9% (95% CI: 7.1-24.8%), SGHV was 31.9% (95% CI: 20.6-43.2%) and Trypanosoma species was 23.2% (95% CI: 13-33.4%). The prevalence of Wolbachia was significantly higher in Lusinina than Lyoni (p=0.000). However this was not the case for Sodalis, SGHV and Trypanosoma species. Despite the low number of flies that were positive for both trypanosome and Sodalis (6; 8.7%), a statistically significant association (p=0.013; AOR 6.2; 95% CI: 1.5-25.8) was observed in G. morsitanscentralis. The study showed that the prevalence of microbiota may vary within the same species of the tsetse depending on the geographical location as was the case of Wolbachia. Further it showed that infection with Sodalis could affect vector competence. The study concludes that Sodalis could be an ideal candidate for symbiont-mediated trypanosomiasis control interventions in G. morsitanscentralis. PMID:25983231

  16. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p?=?0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p?=?0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the need for further studies on transmission dynamics and impact of the disease on the local people. PMID:22479664

  17. Documenting malaria case management coverage in Zambia: a systems effectiveness approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background National malaria control programmes and their partners must document progress associated with investments in malaria control. While documentation has been achieved through population-based surveys for most interventions, measuring changes in malaria case management has been challenging because the increasing use of diagnostic tests reduces the denominator of febrile children who should receive anti-malarial treatment. Thus the widely used indicator, “proportion of children under five with fever in the last two weeks who received anti-malarial treatment according to national policy within 24 hours from onset of fever” is no longer relevant. Methods An alternative sequence of indicators using a systems effectiveness approach was examined using data from nationally representative surveys in Zambia: the 2012 population-based Malaria Indictor Survey (MIS) and the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS). The MIS measured fever treatment-seeking behaviour among 972 children under five years (CU5) and 1,848 people age five years and above. The HFS assessed management of 435 CU5 and 429 people age five and above with fever/history of fever seeking care at 149 health facilities. Consultation observation and exit interviews measured use of diagnostic tests, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) prescription, and patient comprehension of prescribed regimens. Results Systems effectiveness for malaria case management among CU5 was estimated as follows: [100% ACT efficacy] x [55% fever treatment-seeking from an appropriate provider (MIS)] x [71% malaria blood testing (HFS)] x [86% ACT prescription for positive cases (HFS)] x [73% patient comprehension of prescribed ACT drug regimens (HFS)]?=?25%. Systems effectiveness for malaria case management among people age five and above was estimated at 15%. Conclusions Tracking progress in malaria case management coverage can no longer rely solely on population-based surveys; the way forward likely entails household surveys to track trends in fever treatment-seeking behaviour, and facility/provider data to track appropriate management of febrile patients. Applying health facility and population-based data to the systems effectiveness framework provides a cogent and feasible approach to documenting malaria case management coverage and identifying gaps to direct program action. In Zambia, this approach identified treatment-seeking behaviour as the largest contributor to reduction in systems effectiveness for malaria case management. PMID:24160186

  18. Uptake of WHO Recommendations for First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Duber, Herbert C.; Dansereau, Emily; Masters, Samuel H.; Achan, Jane; Burstein, Roy; DeCenso, Brendan; Gasasira, Anne; Ikilezi, Gloria; Kisia, Caroline; Masiye, Felix; Njuguna, Pamela; Odeny, Thomas; Okiro, Emelda; Roberts, D. Allen; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines were significantly changed by the World Health Organization in 2010. It is largely unknown to what extent these guidelines were adopted into clinical practice. Methods This was a retrospective observational analysis of first-line ART regimens in a sample of health facilities providing ART in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia between 2007-2008 and 2011-2012. Data were analyzed for changes in regimen over time and assessed for key patient- and facility-level determinants of tenofovir (TDF) utilization in Kenya and Uganda using a mixed effects model. Results Data were obtained from 29,507 patients from 146 facilities. The overall percentage of patients initiated on TDF-based therapy increased between 2007-2008 and 2011-2012 from 3% to 37% in Kenya, 2% to 34% in Uganda, and 64% to 87% in Zambia. A simultaneous decrease in stavudine (d4T) utilization was also noted, but its use was not eliminated, and there remained significant variation in facility prescribing patterns. For patients initiating ART in 2011-2012, we found increased odds of TDF use with more advanced disease at initiation in both Kenya (odds ratio [OR]: 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73-4.48) and Uganda (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.46-3.17). Having a CD4 test performed at initiation was also a significant predictor in Uganda (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.16-1.76). No facility-level determinants of TDF utilization were seen in Kenya, but private facilities (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.45-5.66) and those employing a doctor (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.48-5.51) were more likely to initiate patients on TDF in Uganda. Discussion d4T-based ART has largely been phased out over the study period. However, significant in-country and cross-country variation exists. Among the most recently initiated patients, those with more advanced disease at initiation were most likely to start TDF-based treatment. No facility-level determinants were consistent across countries to explain the observed facility-level variation. PMID:25807553

  19. Effects of Early, Abrupt Weaning on HIV-free Survival of Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kasonde, Prisca; Scott, Nancy; Vwalika, Cheswa; Walter, Jan; Bulterys, Marc; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Thea, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    Background In low-resource settings, many programs recommend that women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stop breast-feeding early. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate whether abrupt weaning at 4 months as compared with the standard practice has a net benefit for HIV-free survival of children. Methods We enrolled 958 HIV-infected women and their infants in Lusaka, Zambia. All the women planned to breast-feed exclusively to 4 months; 481 were randomly assigned to a counseling program that encouraged abrupt weaning at 4 months, and 477 to a program that encouraged continued breast-feeding for as long as the women chose. The primary outcome was either HIV infection or death of the child by 24 months. Results In the intervention group, 69.0% of the mothers stopped breast-feeding at 5 months or earlier; 68.8% of these women reported the completion of weaning in less than 2 days. In the control group, the median duration of breast-feeding was 16 months. In the overall cohort, there was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of HIV-free survival among the children; 68.4% and 64.0% survived to 24 months without HIV infection in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P = 0.13). Among infants who were still being breast-fed and were not infected with HIV at 4 months, there was no significant difference between the groups in HIV-free survival at 24 months (83.9% and 80.7% in the intervention and control groups, respectively; P = 0.27). Children who were infected with HIV by 4 months had a higher mortality by 24 months if they had been assigned to the intervention group than if they had been assigned to the control group (73.6% vs. 54.8%, P = 0.007). Conclusions Early, abrupt cessation of breast-feeding by HIV-infected women in a low-resource setting, such as Lusaka, Zambia, does not improve the rate of HIV-free survival among children born to HIV-infected mothers and is harmful to HIV-infected infants. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00310726.) PMID:18525036

  20. The changing burden of malaria and association with vector control interventions in Zambia using district-level surveillance data, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control was strengthened in Zambia over the past decade. The two primary interventions for vector control are indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Using passive malaria surveillance data collected from 2006 to 2011 through the Zambian District Health Information System, the associations between increased coverage with LLINs and IRS and the burden of malaria in Zambia were evaluated. Methods National passive malaria surveillance data from 2006 to 2011 were analysed. A district-level, random-effects model with Poisson regression was used to explore the association between malaria cases and coverage with LLINs and IRS. Malaria cases and LLINs and IRS coverage were mapped to visualize spatiotemporal variation in malaria for each year. Results From 2006–2011, 24.6 million LLINs were distributed and 6.4 million houses were sprayed with insecticide. Coverage with LLINs was not uniformly distributed over the study period and IRS was targeted to central and southern districts where malaria transmission was low. LLIN coverage was associated with a reduction in malaria cases, although an increase in the number of malaria cases was reported in some districts over the study period. A high burden of malaria persisted in north-eastern Zambia, whereas a reduction in the number of reported malaria cases was observed in western and southern Zambia. Conclusion Enhanced and targeted interventions in north-eastern Zambia where the burden of malaria remains high, as well as efforts to sustain low malaria transmission in the south-west, will be necessary for Zambia to achieve the national goal of being malaria free by 2030. PMID:24289177

  1. Re-assessing community-directed treatment: evidence from Mazabuka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Halwindi, H; Magnussen, P; Siziya, S; Meyrowitsch, D W; Olsen, A

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys with carers, health workers, community drug distributors (CDDs) and neighbourhood health committees were conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of community-directed treatment (ComDT) of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 12-59 months in Mazabuka district, Zambia. The surveys took place in December 2006 and December 2007. In addition child treatment records were reviewed. The factors that were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with treatment of children by the CDDs were: (1) the perception of soil-transmitted helminth infections as having significant health importance, (2) the community-based decision to launch and subsequently implement ComDT, (3) the use of the door-to-door method of drug distribution, (4) CDDs being visited by a supervisor, (5) CDDs receiving assistance in mobilizing community members for treatment, (6) CDDs having access to a bicycle and (7) CDDs having received assistance in collecting drugs from the health centre. Despite the effectiveness of ComDT in raising treatment coverage there are factors in the implementation process that will still affect whether children and their carers utilize the ComDT approach. Identification and understanding of these factors is paramount to achieving the desired levels of utilization of such interventions. PMID:24830775

  2. HIV Testing and Tolerance to Gender Based Violence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R. S.; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR?=?2.48 95% CI?=?1.00–6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR?=?2.10 95% CI?=?1.05–4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR?=?1.48 95% CI?=?1.23–1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families. PMID:23991005

  3. Consequences of infections for three-month length increment in young children in rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hautvast, J L; Tolboom, J J; Willems, J L; Mwela, C M; Monnens, L A

    2000-03-01

    It was the aim of this study to describe the relationship of infections with subsequent 3-mo length increment in children below 2 y of age in rural Zambia. Children aged 6-9 mo ('infants'; n = 84) and 14-20 mo ('toddlers'; n = 81) attending Mother-and-Child Health clinics, were included and followed up after 3.0 mo (min-max; 2.1-3.7 mo). Anthropometric measurements were taken at each visit. At baseline, C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), retinol and malaria parasitaemia were assessed. Length increment during the 3.0+/-0.5 mo was 1.0+/-0.5 cm/mo for infants and 0.6+/-0.4 cm/mo for toddlers; 50-71% of the children showed increased acute phase proteins, 79-83% had malaria parasitaemia and 55-64% had low serum retinol concentrations. In the total group of children, serum AGP concentrations (r = -0.18; p = 0.03) and serum CRP concentrations (r = -0.15; p = 0.05) showed a negative relation with length increment. After correcting for micronutrient status, dietary intake and maternal height, results of multiple regression analyses showed that the relation between serum AGP concentration and subsequent length increment remained significant. We conclude that, within the multifactorial model, presence of infections in these Zambian children contributes to the short-term retardation of linear growth. PMID:10772277

  4. Variations in unmet need for contraception in Zambia: does ethnicity play a role?

    PubMed

    Imasiku, Eunice N S; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Adedini, Sunday A; Ononokpono, Dorothy N

    2014-05-01

    Ethnicity has been found to be a significant indicator of social position, and many studies have also established that ethnicity is a significant determinant of contraceptive use. This study aims to examine whether ethnicity is an important predictor of unmet need for contraception. Analysis was based on data for 4343 ever-married women drawn from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive analysis indicates that in all ethnic groups except the Barotse and Tonga, women aged 15-49 years were married at an average age below 18. The highest mean number of children among the ethnic groups was 6.7, among the Bemba; the lowest was 5.9, among the Barotse. The highest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception resided in the Eastern region. Multivariate logistic analyses reveal that children ever-born and region of residence were the most important predictors of unmet need for spacing, whereas for unmet need for limiting predictors were age at first marriage and partner's desire for children. Moreover, unmet need for spacing and limiting among women with secondary or higher education was significantly lower (47% and 50%, respectively) compared with those with no education. Ethnicity was not a significant predictor of unmet need for contraception. The findings stress the need for programmes aimed at enhancing the socioeconomic status of women. PMID:23866105

  5. Making choices between prepayment and user charges in Zambia. What are the results for equity?

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masahide; McPake, Barbara

    2007-12-01

    In many low-income countries, user charges were introduced in the 1990s. As problems emerged of equity of access, interest grew in developing prepayment mechanisms to protect users from risk of out-of-pocket payments. In Zambia, a prepayment scheme did not generate sufficient revenue, due to abuses of its terms. An alternative scheme using discount cards (a set of coupons to cover episodes of care at discount) was devised. We aimed to understand the equity implications of prepayment and discount cards relative to user charges. We proposed models predicting roles of income, perceived health status, perceived quality of care and time preference in choice of payment mechanism and use of health services. We tested these models using three data sets that could be accessed or collected. It is concluded that relative to user charges, prepayment may facilitate access without incurring income-related equity losses. Evidence concerning discount cards was weaker. We concluded that they facilitate access to a lesser extent. Discount cards offer a credible intermediate solution between user charges and prepayment that avoid some problems associated with prepayment. However, since prepayment seems to be associated with the most positive outcomes, finding other solutions to their problems would be preferred. PMID:17330922

  6. Stratigraphy and palynostratigraphy, Karoo Supergroup (Permian and Triassic), mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyambe, Imasiku A.; Utting, John

    1997-05-01

    The Karoo Supergroup outcropst in the mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia. It is underlain by the Sinakumbe Group of Ordovician to Devonian age. The Lower Karoo Group (Late Carboniferous to Permian age) consists of the basal Siankondobo Sandstone Formation, which comprises three facies, overlain by the Gwembe Coal Formation with its economically important coal deposits, in turn overlain by the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation which consists of lacustrine mudstone, calcilutite, sandstone, and concretionary calcareous beds. The Upper Karoo Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic) is sub-divided into the coarsely arenaceous Escarpment Grit, overlain by the fining upwards Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone, Red Sandstone; and Batoka Basalt Formations. Palynomorph assemblages suggest that the Siankondobo Sandstone Formation is Late Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (Asselian to Early Sakmarian) in age, the Gwembe Coal Formation Early Permian (Artinskian to Kungurian), the Madumabisa Mudstone Late Permian (Tatarian), and the Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone Early or Middle Triassic (Late Scythian or Anisian). The marked quantitative variations in the assemblages are due partly to age differences, but they also reflect vegetational differences resulting from different paleoclimates and different facies. The low thermal maturity of the formations (Thermal Alteration Index 2) suggests that the rocks are oil prone. However, the general scarcity of amorphous kerogen, such as the alga Botryococcus sp., and the low proportion of exinous material, indicates a low potential for liquid hydrocarbons. Gas may have been generated, particularly in the coal seams of the Gwembe Coal Formation, that are more deeply buried.

  7. Risk reduction among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples: the Zambia NOW2 intervention.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah; Kashy, Deborah; Chitalu, Ndashi; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mumbi, Mirriam; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Heterosexual HIV transmission remains the leading cause of HIV incidence in adult men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed whether an HIV risk-reduction intervention would be more likely to increase sexual barrier acceptability and decrease risk behavior when delivered to couples in gender concordant groups or in an individual format. This study also examined the mutual impact of couple members as a source of influence on acceptability, and assessed whether product acceptability, intimate partner violence (IPV), and/or partner communication predicted sexual barrier use. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples (n=216) were recruited in Lusaka, Zambia, and randomized to a four session gender-concordant intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Willingness to use barriers (p=0.012), acceptability (p<0.001), and barrier use (p<0.001) increased over time in both conditions, and were influenced by gender preferences. IPV decreased (p=0.040) and positive communication increased (p<0.001) in both conditions. Individual and gender concordant group sessions achieved similar increases in sexual barrier use following the intervention. Results highlight the influence of partners as well as product acceptability as predictors of sexual barrier use among couples in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention studies should consider both product acceptability and partner influence to achieve optimal sexual risk behavior outcomes. PMID:24983201

  8. Resource Utilization and Costs of Care prior to ART Initiation for Pediatric Patients in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Hari S.; Scott, Callie A.; Lembela Bwalya, Deophine; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Moyo, Crispin; Bolton Moore, Carolyn; Larson, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We estimated time to initiation, outpatient resource use, and costs of outpatient care during the 6 months prior to ART initiation for HIV-infected pediatric patients in Zambia. Methods. We enrolled 1,102 children who initiated ART at <15 years of age between 2006 and 2011 at 5 study sites. Of these, 832 initiated ART ?6 months after first presenting to care at the study sites. Data on time in care and resources utilized during the 6 months prior to ART initiation were extracted from patient medical records. Costs were estimated from the provider's perspective and are reported in 2011 USD. Results. For the patients who initiated ART ?6 months after presenting to care, median age at presentation to care was 3.9 years; median CD4 percentage was 13%. Median time to ART initiation was 26 days. Patients made, on average, 2.38 clinic visits prior to ART initiation and received 0.81 CD4 tests, 0.74 full blood count tests, and 0.49 blood chemistry tests. The mean cost of pre-ART care was $20 per patient. Conclusions. Zambian pediatric patients initiating ART ?6 months after presenting to care do so quickly, utilize fewer resources than mandated by national guidelines, and accrue low costs. PMID:24711925

  9. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689

  10. Human-animal anthrax outbreak in the Luangwa valley of Zambia in 2011.

    PubMed

    Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Mwansa, James C L; Muwowo, Sergio; Mulenga, Phillip; Kapina, Muzala; Musenga, Eric; Squarre, David; Mataa, Liywali; Thomas, Suzuki Y; Ogawa, Hirohito; Sawa, Hirofumi; Higashi, Hideaki

    2012-07-01

    There has been a reduction of incidences of anthrax in the developed countries but it is still a public health problem in the developing countries where communities live in interface areas with wildlife. An outbreak of anthrax in Hippopotamus amphibious was observed in Zambia. Following the death of hippopotamuses, suspected human cases were reported. The objective of this study was to isolate and confirm Bacillus anthracis and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility for the management of the disease. Of the specimens collected, 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.4-56.0) were from humans, 42.1% (95% CI, 21.1-66.0) were from hippopotamuses and 20.0% (95% CI, 6.61-44.3) from the soil were found to be positive were for B. anthracis. An antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all the isolates were found to be sensitive to the recommended antibiotics. The disease control was achieved by case management and by explaining to the communities that they should avoid contact with animals that die from unknown causes. PMID:22472314

  11. Implementation of the Zambia Electronic Perinatal Record System for comprehensive prenatal and delivery care

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Benjamin H.; Vwalika, Bellington; Killam, William P.; Wamalume, Chibesa; Giganti, Mark J.; Mbewe, Reuben; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Chintu, Namwinga T.; Putta, Nande B.; Liu, Katherine C.; Chibwesha, Carla J.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize prenatal and delivery care in an urban African setting. Methods The Zambia Electronic Perinatal Record System (ZEPRS) was implemented to record demographic characteristics, past medical and obstetric history, prenatal care, and delivery and newborn care for pregnant women across 25 facilities in the Lusaka public health sector. Results From June 1, 2007, to January 31, 2010, 115 552 pregnant women had prenatal and delivery information recorded in ZEPRS. Median gestation age at first prenatal visit was 23 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 19–26). Syphilis screening was documented in 95 663 (83%) pregnancies: 2449 (2.6%) women tested positive, of whom 1589 (64.9%) were treated appropriately. 111 108 (96%) women agreed to HIV testing, of whom 22% were diagnosed with HIV. Overall, 112 813 (98%) of recorded pregnancies resulted in a live birth, and 2739 (2%) in a stillbirth. The median gestational age was 38 weeks (IQR 35–40) at delivery; the median birth weight of newborns was 3000 g (IQR 2700–3300 g). Conclusion The results demonstrate the feasibility of using a comprehensive electronic medical record in an urban African setting, and highlight its important role in ongoing efforts to improve clinical care. PMID:21315347

  12. Wide needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Patil, P S; Bem, C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To study the value of wide needle (19 gauge) aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lymph node disease in Zambia in the absence of a trained cytologist. METHODS--Patients (n = 304) referred for surgical biopsy of an enlarged peripheral lymph node were studied prospectively. Surgical biopsy was routinely preceded by 19 gauge needle aspiration of the same node; aspirates were stained by haematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl Neelsen stains. RESULTS--Of 232 aspirates, 182 contained sufficient material for cytological characterisation. Tuberculosis was diagnosed or suspected in 122 of 126 aspirates with histologically confirmed tuberculous lymphadenitis; reactive follicular hyperplasia in 31 of 38 patients with primary HIV lymphadenopathy; malignancy in all five patients with malignant nodes; and Kaposi's disease in four of nine patients with this. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was falsely suspected in four patients, as was reactive follicular hyperplasia in four, and Kaposi's disease in four. CONCLUSIONS--Wide needle aspiration cytology is useful in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in Central Africa, with the exception of lymphadenopathic Kaposi's disease. PMID:8227428

  13. Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV-positive in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Njelesani, Janet; Nixon, Stephanie; Cameron, Deb; Parsons, Janet; Menon, Anitha

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on accounts of how having a disability and being HIV-positive influences experiences of work among 21 people (12 women, 9 men) in Lusaka, Zambia. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja, or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Three major themes were generated. The first, a triple burden, describes the burden of having a disability, being HIV-positive, and being unemployed. The second theme, disability and HIV is not inability, describes participants' desire for work and their resistance to being regarded as objects of charity. Finally, how work influences HIV management, describes the practicalities of working and living with HIV. Together these themes highlight the limited options available to persons with disabilities with HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work, but also because of the attendant social stigma of being a person with a disability and HIV-positive. PMID:25920983

  14. Risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease in Zambia, 1981-2012.

    PubMed

    Hamoonga, R; Stevenson, M A; Allepuz, A; Carpenter, T E; Sinkala, Y

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Zambia for the period January 1981-December 2012 and to quantify the association between geographical features (proximity to roads, national parks, wetland areas) and the spatial distribution of FMD using a Poisson point process model. Details of FMD outbreaks retrieved from the Zambian Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development included the date of onset of clinical signs and the name of the ward in which the index case enterprise was located. A total of 62 FMD outbreaks occurred throughout the study period. Outbreaks occurred in the south of the Southern province along the border with Namibia and Botswana (n=5), in the Western province (n=2), in the Southern and Central provinces on the Kafue flood plains (n=44), and in the north east of the country close to the border with Tanzania (n=11). Increases in distance to the nearest major international border crossing, distance to the nearest major road, distance to the wetland area of the Kafue flood plain, wetness index and elevation were all associated with a decrease in FMD-outbreak ward intensity. Our analyses support the hypothesis that in drier areas of the country cattle are more likely to aggregate around communal drinking pools. Aggregation of cattle provides conditions suitable for FMD spread and detection. PMID:24486093

  15. Examining Targets for HIV Prevention: Intravaginal Practices in Urban Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chisembele, Maureen; Mumbi, Miriam; Malupande, Emeria; Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Intravaginal practices (IVP) are the introduction of products inside the vagina for hygienic, health, or sexuality reasons. The influence of men and Alengizis, traditional marriage counselors for girls, in promoting IVP has not been explored. We conducted gender-concordant focus groups and key informant interviews with Alengizis. The responses were conducted grouped into three themes: (1) cultural norms, (2) types and reasons for IVP, and (3) health consequences. We found that IVP were used by all participants in our sample and were taught from generation to generation by friends, relatives, or Alengizis. The reasons for women to engage in IVP were hygienic, though men expect women to engage in IVP to enhance sexual pleasure. Approximately 40% of women are aware that IVP can facilitate genital infections, but felt they would not feel clean discontinuing IVP. All men were unaware of the vaginal damage caused by IVP, and were concerned about the loss of sexual pleasure if women discontinued IVP. Despite the health risks of IVP, IVP continue to be widespread in Zambia and an integral component of hygiene and sexuality. The frequency of IVP mandates exploration into methods to decrease or ameliorate their use as an essential component of HIV prevention. PMID:24568672

  16. High burden of malaria following scale-up of control interventions in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria control interventions have been scaled-up in Zambia in conjunction with a malaria surveillance system. Although substantial progress has been achieved in reducing morbidity and mortality, national and local information demonstrated marked heterogeneity in the impact of malaria control across the country. This study reports the high burden of malaria in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, Zambia from 2006 to 2012 after seven years of control measures. Methods Yearly aggregated information on cases of malaria, malaria deaths, use of malaria diagnostics, and malaria control interventions from 2006 to 2012 were obtained from the Nchelenge District Health Office. Trends in the number of malaria cases, methods of diagnosis, malaria positivity rate among pregnant women, and intervention coverage were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Malaria prevalence remained high, increasing from 38% in 2006 to 53% in 2012. Increasing numbers of cases of severe malaria were reported until 2010. Intense seasonal malaria transmission was observed with seasonal declines in the number of cases between April and August, although malaria transmission continued throughout the year. Clinical diagnosis without accompanying confirmation declined from 95% in 2006 to 35% in 2012. Intervention coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying increased from 2006 to 2012. Conclusions Despite high coverage with vector control interventions, the burden of malaria in Nchelenge District, Zambia remained high. The high parasite prevalence could accurately reflect the true burden, perhaps in part as a consequence of population movement, or improved access to care and case reporting. Quality information at fine spatial scales will be critical for targeting effective interventions and measurement of progress. PMID:24755108

  17. Nutrition and inflammation serum biomarkers are associated with 12-week mortality among malnourished adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R Koethe; Meridith Blevins; Christopher Nyirenda; Edmond K Kabagambe; Bryan E Shepherd; C William Wester; Isaac Zulu; Janelle M Chiasera; Lloyd B Mulenga; Albert Mwango; Douglas C Heimburger

    2011-01-01

    Background  A low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is a strong predictor of mortality among HIV-infected\\u000a adults in resource-constrained settings. The relationship between nutrition and inflammation-related serum biomarkers and\\u000a early treatment outcomes (e.g., less than 90 days) in this population is not well described.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  An observational cohort of 142 HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia, with BMI under

  18. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for the time range 1990 to 2013 to identify the extent of aquatic vegetation in the dry season for all years available within the time range using spectral data. We derived rainfall for the time period from TRMM data and temperature from MODIS LST data. Overall weed coverage tended to increase from 1990 to 2013. There was no significant correlation between rainfall (as measured by TRMM) and water hyacinth coverage. However there was a significant positive correlation between minimum October temperatures (the warmest month of the year) and weed coverage (exponential fit, R2 = 0.81). There was no indication that the release of bio-control agents reduced weed coverage. Water hyacinth is known to be sensitive to temperature, with cooler temperatures retarding growth. In the Kafue River, aquatic plant coverage varies mainly with October low temperatures indicating an overall control of temperature on weed coverage. Increasing low temperatures in the region would be expected to exacerbate problems associated with aquatic weeds.

  19. Sexual cleansing ( Kusalazya) and levirate marriage ( Kunjilila mung’anda) in the era of AIDS: changes in perceptions and practices in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. S. Malungo

    2001-01-01

    Since sexual cleansing (kusalazya) and the intertwined ritual of levirate marriage or widow and widower inheritance (kunjilila mung’anda) have come to be implicated in the transmission of HIV\\/AIDS, alternative rituals to sexual cleansing have emerged. Using both quantitative and qualitative data obtained from Zambia in the second half of 1998, this study reveals that the alternative rituals to sexual cleansing

  20. Local community perception of joint forest management and its implications for forest condition: the case of Dambwa Forest Reserve in southern Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Phiri; PW Chirwa; S Watts; S Syampungani

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted at Dambwa Forest Reserve in Livingstone, Zambia, evaluated the perception of local people about joint management of the forest reserve in the area and if there had been improvements to the livelihoods of the community and the ecological condition of the forest following joint forest management (JFM). Generally, more people (68%) participated in joint forestry management meetings

  1. Report to UNESCO on Eleven Weeks as Consultant to the Governments of Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi on Aspects of Biology Teaching, February to April, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rex

    This report describes the activities of a UNESCO consultant who visited Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi for the purpose of assisting local education agencies in the Biology Teaching Pilot Project. The consultant's report briefly summarizes the status of the School Science Project (SSP) in these East African countries. Also listed are the…

  2. "If You Were the Researcher What Would You Research?": Understanding Children's Perspectives on Educational Research in Mongolia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Julia; Sengedorj, Tumendelger

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a project undertaken with children (N?=?72) in Mongolia and Zambia. The research is distinctive in bringing together diverse children, ranging from those living on the street to those in mainstream education and involving them in discussions about educational research. Being conscious of critiques of adult-initiated…

  3. Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the University of Southampton has challenged conventional thinking about. There is great demand for copper throughout the world, particularly to supply fast-growing economies in countries

  4. Behavior change pathways to voluntary medical male circumcision: narrative interviews with circumcision clients in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Price, Jessica E; Phiri, Lyson; Mulenga, Drosin; Hewett, Paul C; Topp, Stephanie M; Shiliya, Nicholas; Hatzold, Karin

    2014-01-01

    As an HIV prevention strategy, the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is underway in 14 countries in Africa. For prevention impact, these countries must perform millions of circumcisions in adolescent and adult men before 2015. Although acceptability of VMMC in the region is well documented and service delivery efforts have proven successful, countries remain behind in meeting circumcision targets. A better understanding of men's VMMC-seeking behaviors and experiences is needed to improve communication and interventions to accelerate uptake. To this end, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 clients waiting for surgical circumcision at clinics in Zambia. Based on Stages of Change behavioral theory, men were asked to recount how they learned about adult circumcision, why they decided it was right for them, what they feared most, how they overcame their fears, and the steps they took to make it to the clinic that day. Thematic analysis across all cases allowed us to identify key behavior change triggers while within-case analysis elucidated variants of one predominant behavior change pattern. Major stages included: awareness and critical belief adjustment, norming pressures and personalization of advantages, a period of fear management and finally VMMC-seeking. Qualitative comparative analysis of ever-married and never-married men revealed important similarities and differences between the two groups. Unprompted, 17 of the men described one to four failed prior attempts to become circumcised. Experienced more frequently by older men, failed VMMC attempts were often due to service-side barriers. Findings highlight intervention opportunities to increase VMMC uptake. Reaching uncircumcised men via close male friends and female sex partners and tailoring messages to stage-specific concerns and needs would help accelerate men's movement through the behavior change process. Expanding service access is also needed to meet current demand. Improving clinic efficiencies and introducing time-saving procedures and advance scheduling options should be considered. PMID:25375790

  5. Prevalence and species distribution of caprine trypanosomosis in Sinazongwe and Kalomo districts of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nyimba, P H; Komba, E V G; Sugimoto, C; Namangala, B

    2015-06-15

    African animal trypanosomosis is one of the key livestock diseases hindering full exploitation of livestock production potential covering 37 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. Many studies have been carried out to investigate the prevalence of the disease in cattle and humans in many tropical African countries but very little attention has been directed towards generating the disease prevalence rates in goats. The current study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to establish the prevalence of caprine trypanosomosis in Sinazongwe and Kalomo districts, southern Zambia. It involved 422 goats which were first examined by palpation for possible enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. Blood samples were then collected from the goats and subjected to laboratory diagnosis using the microscope and Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). None of the examined goats displayed enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. On microscopy only one goat was found to be positive. The results of investigation using the LAMP method showed that 100 goats were infected with trypanosomes giving an overall prevalence rate of 23.7%. The prevalence of infection in Sinazongwe was 22.4% (n=183) while in Kalomo it was 24.7% (n=239); and the difference between the two districts was statistically significant at 95% CL (x(2)=4.4, df=1, p<0.05). Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanasoma vivax and Trypanasoma congolense were detected in 82.0%, 31.0% and 23.0% of the infected goats, respectively. Mixed infections were detected among 33.0% of the positive samples. The high prevalence rate of trypanosomes detected in the study area confirms the earlier reports that trypanosomosis is re-emerging in the areas previously aerial sprayed by Government. The detection of trypanosomes in naturally infected goats outlines the important role goats play in the epidemiology of African animal trypanosomosis. PMID:25913456

  6. The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n?=?226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

  7. An evaluation of a refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in Chongwe District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Msisuka, Charles; Nozaki, Ikuma; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Seko, Motoko; Ulaya, Mercy M S

    2011-01-01

    To address a severe shortage of human resources for health, the Zambian Ministry of Health has begun to make use of lay counsellors for HIV counselling and testing. However, their skills and knowledge rarely have been reviewed or refreshed. We conducted a two-day refresher workshop for lay counsellors to review their performance and refresh their skills and knowledge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in the rural district of Chongwe in Zambia. The two-day refreshertraining workshop was held in November 2009. Twenty-five lay counsellors were selected by District Health Office and participated in the workshop. The workshop included: the opening, a pre-training exercise, lectures on quality assurance with regard to testing and safety precautions, lectures on counselling, filling the gap/Q&A session, and a post-training exercise. In both the pre- and post-training exercise, participants answered 25 true/false questions and tested 10 blood panel samples to demonstrate their knowledge and skill on HIV counselling and testing. The average overall knowledge test score increased from 79% to 95% (p<0.001). At the baseline, knowledge test scores in topic of standard precaution and post-exposure prophylaxis were relatively low (58%) but rose to 95% after the training (p<0.001). The per cent agreement of HIV testing by lay counsellors with reference laboratory was 99.2%. Participants' knowledge was improved during the workshop and skill at HIV testing was found to remain at a high level of accuracy. Relatively weak knowledge of standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis suggests that lay counsellors are at risk of nosocomial infections, particularly in the absence of refresher training interventions. We conclude that the refresher training was effective for improving the knowledge and skills of lay counsellors and provided an opportunity to monitor their performance. PMID:23236962

  8. Attitudes to 'Kaponya Mafumo': the terminators of pregnancy in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Webb, D

    2000-06-01

    As part of a larger study of adolescent sexual and reproductive health in urban Zambia, the issue of unwanted pregnancy and abortion was considered through the examination of the perceptions of both adolescents and adults. Young people rank sexual health as their primary health issue, and sexual behaviour is integrally linked into other aspects of their lives. Pregnancies were deemed to be a common occurrence amongst the adolescents, with an estimated two-thirds of unwanted pregnancies ending in unsafe abortion. The decision to abort is primarily determined by the reaction of the boyfriend and his willingness to accept paternity and the associated financial implications. Other crucial influences are the desire to stay in school and the stigma attached to unwanted pregnancy. The decision-making process regarding the abortion itself is related to the perceived advantages and disadvantages of various service providers. Around 40% of the respondents stated that in the event of an abortion being carried out, it would be performed either by the girl herself or with the assistance of other non-medical personnel. Less popular but still significant are traditional healers and private doctors. Formal health services tend to be rejected due to their poor perception by young people, centred on the lack of privacy and confidentiality, and the de facto illegal nature of abortion itself. The services of nurses are sought, but outside of the clinic setting. The most popular method of self-induced abortion is overdosing on chloroquine. Other methods involve the use of traditional medicines such as various types of roots, as well as more modern methods such as ingesting washing powder. Recommendations for policy-makers concentrate on the improvement of formal, 'youth friendly' health services and the development of appropriate outreach education methods which address specific concerns widely held by young people. PMID:10837042

  9. The Incidence of Human Cysticercosis in a Rural Community of Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n?=?226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

  10. Pediatric Malignancies, Treatment Outcomes and Abandonment of Pediatric Cancer Treatment in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Jeremy S.; Chunda-Liyoka, Catherine; Perez, Marta; Mutalima, Nora; Newton, Robert; Chintu, Chifumbe; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chipeta, James; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Vermund, Sten H.; Friedman, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. Methods Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0–15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. Results Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]?=?0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.97). Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR?=?1.65; 95% CI 1.05–2.58). Conclusions Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection be adapted for pediatric cancer treatment to improve outcome. PMID:24586527

  11. The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits, NW Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernau, Robin; Roberts, Stephen; Richards, Mike; Nisbet, Bruce; Boyce, Adrian; Nowecki, James

    2013-02-01

    The Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits of NW Zambia are large, tabular, disseminated ore bodies, hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome of the Lufilian Arc. The host rocks to the Lumwana deposits are two mineralogically similar but texturally distinct gneisses, a granitic to pegmatitic gneiss and a banded to augen gneiss which both comprise quartz-feldspar ± biotite ± muscovite ± haematite ± amphibole and intervening quartz-feldspar ± biotite schist. The sulphide ore horizons are typically developed within a biotite-muscovite-quartz-kyanite schist, although mineralization locally occurs within internal gneiss units. Contacts between the ore and host rocks are transitional and characterized by a loss of feldspar. Kinematic indicators, such as S-C fabrics and pressure shadows on porphyroblasts, suggest a top to the north shear sense. The sulphides are deformed by a strong shear fabric, enclosed within kyanite or concentrated into low strain zones and pressure shadows around kyanite porphyroblasts. This suggests that the copper mineralization was introduced either syn- or pre-peak metamorphism. In addition to Cu and Co, the ores are also characterized by enrichments in U, V, Ni, Ba and S and small, discrete zones of uranium mineralization, occur adjacent to the hanging wall and footwall of the copper ore bodies or in the immediate footwall to the copper mineralization. Unlike typical Copperbelt mineralization, unmineralized units show very low background copper values. Whole rock geochemical analyses of the interlayered schist and ore schist, compared to the gneiss, show depletions in Ca, Na and Sr and enrichments in Mg and K, consistent with replacement of feldspar by biotite. The mineral chemistry of muscovite, biotite and chlorite reflect changes in the bulk rock chemistry and show consistent increases in X Mg as the schists develop. ?34S for copper sulphides range from +2.3 ‰ to +18.5 ‰, with pyrite typically restricted to values between +3.9 ‰ and +6.2 ‰. These values are atypical of sulphides precipitated by bacteriogenic sulphate reduction. ?34S data for Chimiwungo (Cu + Co) show a broader range and increased ?34S values compared to the Malundwe (Cu) mineralization. The Lumwana deposits show many characteristics which distinguish them from classical Copperbelt mineralization and which suggests that they are formed by metasomatic alteration, mineralization and shearing of pre-Katangan basement. Although this style of mineralization is reported elsewhere in the Copperbelt, sometimes associated with the more widely reported stratiform ores of the Lower Roan, none of the previously reported occurrences have so far developed the tonnages of ore reported at Lumwana.

  12. Measuring governance at health facility level: developing and validation of simple governance tool in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Governance has been cited as a key determinant of economic growth, social advancement and overall development. Achievement of millennium development goals is partly dependant on governance practices. In 2007, Health Systems 20/20 conducted an Internet-based survey on the practice of good governance. The survey posed a set of good practices related to health governance and asked respondents to indicate whether their experience confirmed or disconfirmed those practices. We applied the 17 governance statements in rural health facilities of Zambia. The aim was to establish whether the statements were reliable and valid for assessing governance practices at primary care level. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. We first applied the governance statements developed by the health system 20/20 and then conducted focus group discussion and In-depth interviews to explore some elements of governance including accountability and community participation. The target respondents were the health facility management team and community members. The sample size include 42 health facilities. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 and Nvivo version 9. Results The 95% one-sided confidence interval for Cronbach’s alpha was between 0.69 and 0.74 for the 16 items. The mean score for most of the items was above 3. Factor analysis yielded five principle components: Transparency, community participation, Intelligence & vision, Accountability and Regulation & oversight. Most of the items (6) clustered around the transparency latent factor. Chongwe district performed poorly in overall mean governance score and across the five domains of governance. The overall scores in Chongwe ranged between 51 and 94% with the mean of 80%. Kafue and Luangwa districts had similar overall mean governance scores (88%). Community participation was generally low. Generally, it was noted that community members lacked capacity to hold health workers accountable for drugs and medical supplies. Conclusions The study successfully validated and applied the new tool for evaluating health system governance at health facility level. The results have shown that it is feasible to measure governance practices at health facility level and that the adapted tool is fairly reliable with the 95% one-sided confidence interval for Cronbach’s alpha laying between 0.69 and 0.74 for the 16 items. Caution should be taken when interpreting overall scores as they tended to mask domain specific variations. PMID:23927531

  13. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions Despite the growing body of literature on increased risk of exposure to HIV among HIV-negative PWDs, this is the first published study to examine perceptions of testing, treatment and other HIV services for PWDs who have become HIV-positive. Findings reveal far-reaching opportunities for improving the quality of care for this population. PMID:24763077

  14. Estimating Loss to Follow-Up in HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: The Effect of the Competing Risk of Death in Zambia and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Mwango, Albert; Stringer, Jeffrey; Ledergerber, Bruno; Mulenga, Lloyd; Bucher, Heiner C.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Calmy, Alexandra; Boulle, Andrew; Chintu, Namwinga; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland. Methods and Findings HIV-infected patients aged ?18 years who started ART 2004–2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included. We compared standard Kaplan-Meier curves with CR cumulative incidence. We calculated hazard ratios for LTFU across CD4 cell count strata using cause-specific Cox models, or Fine and Gray subdistribution models, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and clinical stage. 89,339 patients from Zambia and 1,860 patients from Switzerland were included. 12,237 patients (13.7%) in Zambia and 129 patients (6.9%) in Switzerland were LTFU and 8,498 (9.5%) and 29 patients (1.6%), respectively, died. In Zambia, the probability of LTFU was overestimated in Kaplan-Meier curves: estimates at 3.5 years were 29.3% for patients starting ART with CD4 cells <100 cells/µl and 15.4% among patients starting with ?350 cells/µL. The estimates from CR cumulative incidence were 22.9% and 13.6%, respectively. Little difference was found between naïve and CR analyses in Switzerland since only few patients died. The results from Cox and Fine and Gray models were similar: in Zambia the risk of loss to follow-up and death increased with decreasing CD4 counts at the start of ART, whereas in Switzerland there was a trend in the opposite direction, with patients with higher CD4 cell counts more likely to be lost to follow-up. Conclusions In ART programmes in low-income settings the competing risk of death can substantially bias standard analyses of LTFU. The CD4 cell count and other prognostic factors may be differentially associated with LTFU in low-income and high-income settings. PMID:22205933

  15. Rotavirus landscape in Africa-Towards prevention and control: A report of the 8th African rotavirus symposium, Livingstone, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Cheryl; Mwenda, Jason; Chilengi, Roma

    2015-06-26

    The 8th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Livingstone, Zambia from the 12-13 June 2014. Over 130 delegates from 35 countries - 28 from African nations - participated in this symposium, which included scientists, clinicians, immunisation managers, public health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers. The theme for the symposium was Rotavirus Landscape in Africa-Towards Prevention and Control. At the time of the symposium, a total of 21 African countries had introduced the rotavirus vaccine into their national immunisation schedules. This meeting was particularly timely and relevant to review early data on vaccine adoption and impact from these countries. The concluding panel discussion proposed several recommendations for areas of focus moving forward in rotavirus advocacy and research. PMID:25957665

  16. Gender Equality and Education: Increasing the Uptake of HIV Testing among Married Women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision-making and attitudes towards violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages 15–24 and 25–34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women 15–24 (p<0.01). The belief that gender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women 25–34 in all three countries though the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, p<0.00; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, p<0.05) and Zambia (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, p<0.10; among women reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, p< 0.05). High financial decision-making was associated with testing for women 25–34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, p< 0.01). Overall the findings indicate that education and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV. PMID:23438082

  17. The Paris Declaration in practice: challenges of health sector aid coordination at the district level in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sundewall, Jesper; Forsberg, Birger C; Jönsson, Kristina; Chansa, Collins; Tomson, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing resources available for and number of partners providing health sector aid have stimulated innovations, notably, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which aim to improve aid coordination. In this, one of the first studies to analyse implementation of aid coordination below national level, the aim was to investigate the effect of the Paris Declaration on coordination of health sector aid at the district level in Zambia. Methods The study was carried out in three districts of Zambia. Data were collected via interviews with health centre staff, district managers and officials from the Ministry of Health, and from district action plans, financial reports and accounts, and health centre ledger cards. Four indicators of coordination related to external-partner activity, common arrangements used by external partners and predictability of funding were analysed and assessed in relation to the 2010 targets set by the Paris Declaration. Findings While the activity of external partners at the district level has increased, funding and activities provided by these partners are often not included in local plans. HIV/AIDS support show better integration in planning and implementation at the district level than other support. Regarding common arrangements used for fund disbursement, the share of resources provided as programme-based support is not increasing. The predictability of funds coming from outside the government financing mechanism is low. Conclusion Greater efforts to integrate partners in district level planning and implementation are needed. External partners must improve the predictability of their support and be more proactive in informing the districts about their intended contributions. With the deadline for achieving the targets set by the Paris Declaration fast approaching, it is time for the signatories to accelerate its implementation. PMID:19505300

  18. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-10-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  19. Defining the malaria burden in Nchelenge District, northern Zambia using the World Health Organization malaria indicators survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is considered as one of the major public health problems and among the diseases of poverty. In areas of stable and relatively high transmission, pregnant women and their newborn babies are among the higher risk groups. A multicentre trial on the safety and efficacy of several formulations of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) during pregnancy is currently on-going in four African countries, including Zambia, whose study site is in Nchelenge district. As the study outcomes may be influenced by the local malaria endemicity, this needs to be characterized. A cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection among <10 years old was carried out in March-April 2012 in Nchelenge district. Methods The sampling unit was the household where all children?Zambia, despite the reported decline in malaria burden, pockets of high malaria endemicity, such as Nchelenge district, still remain. This is a border area and significant progress can be achieved only by concerted efforts aimed at increasing coverage of current control interventions across the border. PMID:24902708

  20. Local Perceptions, Cultural Beliefs and Practices That Shape Umbilical Cord Care: A Qualitative Study in Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Herlihy, Julie M.; Shaikh, Affan; Mazimba, Arthur; Gagne, Natalie; Grogan, Caroline; Mpamba, Chipo; Sooli, Bernadine; Simamvwa, Grace; Mabeta, Catherine; Shankoti, Peggy; Messersmith, Lisa; Semrau, Katherine; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Methods and Findings This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust), lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil) and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces). Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. Conclusion Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize effectiveness of evidence-based interventions. PMID:24244447

  1. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  2. Making the cut: evidence-based lessons for improving the informed consent process for voluntary medical male circumcision in Swaziland and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Katie D; Friedland, Barbara A; Sheehy, Meredith; Apicella, Louis; Hewett, Paul C

    2014-04-01

    The informed consent (IC) process for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) was evaluated in Zambia and Swaziland as VMMC programs scaled up. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with clients 1 week after surgery to explore understanding of IC and gauge how expectations of MC surgery compared to actual experiences. In Zambia, key opinion leaders (KOLs) were also interviewed. Some clients equated written IC with releasing the clinic from liability. Most clients felt well prepared for the procedure, although many were surprised by the level of pain experienced during anesthesia and postsurgery. Clients were highly motivated to adhere to wound care, but some were overwhelmed by extensive instructions. Adolescents described barriers to accessing follow-up care and the need for support in overcoming adult gatekeepers. KOLs indicated that IC is not well understood in poorly educated communities. Results led to concrete programmatic changes, including revised patient education materials and more effective anesthesia for longer-lasting pain relief. PMID:24694330

  3. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of a paediatric formulation of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartesiane®) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in children in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascalina Chanda; Moonga Hawela; Mabvuto Kango; Naawa Sipilanyambe

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel site surveillance of antimalarials by in-vivo therapeutic efficacy studies in Zambia is one of the key activities ear-marked for monitoring and evaluation. The studies are conducted annually in order to provide timely and reliable information on the status of the recommended regimens for malaria case management. The findings of the therapeutic efficacy of an artemisinin-based combination therapy of

  4. The potential of alley cropping in improvement of cultivation systems in the high rainfall areas of Zambia. III. Effects on soil chemical and physical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dalland; P. I. Våje; R. B. Matthews; B. R. Singh

    1993-01-01

    A detailed study of the soil chemical and physical properties in seven-year-old alley cropping trial containingLeucaena leucocephala andFlemingia congesta in Northern Zambia is described. There was a strong correlation between the maize yield and the total amount of nitrogen applied, both from prunings and fertiliser, suggesting that a major reason for the observed benefit from alley cropping, particularly withLeucaena, was

  5. Adherence to first-line antiretroviral therapy affects non-virologic outcomes among patients on treatment for more than 12 months in Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin H Chi; Ronald A Cantrell; Isaac Zulu; Lloyd B Mulenga; Jens W Levy; Bushimbwa C Tambatamba; Stewart Reid; Albert Mwango; Alwyn Mwinga; Marc Bulterys; Michael S Saag; Jeffrey SA Stringer

    Methods We analysed data from a large programmatic cohort across 18 primary care centres providing ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Patients were stratified into three categories based on MPR-calculated adherence over the first 12 months: optimal (595%), suboptimal (80-94%) and poor (<80%). Results Overall, 27 115 treatment-naõ ¨ve adults initiated and continued ART for 512 months: 17 060 (62.9%) demonstrated optimal

  6. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators. PMID:21050496

  7. Changing individual-level risk factors for malaria with declining transmission in southern Zambia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria elimination will require that both symptomatic- and asymptomatic-infected persons be identified and treated. However, well-characterized, individual-level risk factors for malaria may not be valid in regions with declining malaria transmission. Changes in individual-level correlates of malaria infection were evaluated over three years in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia. Methods Malaria surveys were conducted in two study areas within the catchment area of Macha Hospital, Zambia in 2007 and 2008/2009. A random sample of households was identified from a digitized satellite image of the study areas. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted approximately five times throughout the year in each of the two study areas. During study visits, adults and caretakers of children were administered questionnaires and a blood sample was obtained for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria. Results In the 2007 study area, 330 individuals were surveyed. 40.9% of participants lived in a household with at least one insecticide-treated bed net (ITN); however, only 45.2% reported sleeping under the ITN. 23.9% of participants were RDT positive. Correlates of RDT positivity included younger age, the presence of symptoms, testing during the rainy season, using an open water source, and not sleeping under an ITN. In the 2008 study area, 435 individuals were surveyed. 77.0% of participants lived in a household with at least one ITN; however, only 56.4% reported sleeping under the ITN. 8.1% of participants were RDT positive. RDT positivity was negatively correlated with the presence of symptoms within the last two weeks but positively correlated with documented fever. In 2009, 716 individuals were surveyed in the same area as 2008. 63.7% of participants lived in a household with at least one ITN; however, only 57.7% reported sleeping under the ITN. 1.5% of participants were RDT positive. Only self-reported fever was significantly correlated with RDT positivity. Conclusions With declining malaria prevalence, few individual-level characteristics were correlated with RDT positivity. This lack of correlation with individual characteristics hampers identification of individuals infected with malaria. Strategies based on ecological or environmental risk factors may be needed to target control efforts and achieve further reductions and elimination. PMID:22039751

  8. Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in an Urban Population in Zambia: Strong Association With HIV and Environmental Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Choolwe; Chiluba, Clarance; Phiri, Cynthia; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Chomba, Mumba; Hill, Philip C.; Ijaz, Samreen; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes major epidemics of infectious hepatitis, with high mortality rates in pregnant women. Recent reports indicate that HEV coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a more protracted course. However, the impact of HEV infections in communities heavily affected by HIV remains poorly studied. We set out to examine age-related seroprevalence in a community where we have previously carried out studies on environmental enteropathy. Methods.?Blood samples from 194 children and 106 adults were examined for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies for HEV. HEV data were correlated with HIV status and morphometric analysis of small intestinal biopsies. Results.?Seroprevalence rose throughout childhood, from 8% in children aged 1–4 years, to 36% in children aged 10–14 years. In adults, the overall prevalence was 42%, with 28% in HIV-seronegative adults and 71% in HIV-seropositive adults (odds ratio, 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.2–18; P = .0001). In adults, villous height and crypt depth measurements showed that HEV seropositivity was associated with worse enteropathy (P = .05 and P = .005, respectively). Conclusions.?HEV infection is common in Zambia. In adults it is strongly associated with HIV status, and also with environmental enteropathy. PMID:23926328

  9. Sedimentology of the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation (Late Permian), Lower Karoo Group, mid-Zambezi Valley Basin, southern Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyambe, Imasiku A.; Dixon, Owen

    2000-04-01

    Sediments of the Upper Carboniferous to Lower Jurassic Karoo Supergroup (˜ 4.5 km thick) were deposited in the mid-Zambezi Valley Basin, southern Zambia. The Upper Palæozoic Lower Karoo Group in this area ends with a Late Permian sedimentary unit called the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation. The formation is 700 m thick and comprises four lithofacies grouped into two facies assemblages, collectively interpreted as lacustrine deposits. Sediments of a massive mudrock facies assemblage were deposited from suspension, probably from sediment-laden rivers entering a lake. Concretionary calcilutite beds probably mark the positions of palæosediment-water interfaces where calcite was precipitated. A laminated mudrock facies assemblage is attributed to lacustrine deposition from inflowing rivers at the lake margins and shallow parts of the lake. Repeated thickening-upward cycles are evidence of upward shallowing, interrupted by events of more abrupt deepening. Sandstone interbeds are interpreted as fluvial deposits laid down during low lake stands, with cross-lamination and asymmetrical ripples indicating current rather than wave deposition. A fossil assemblage of ostracods, bivalves, gastropods, fish scales, the alga Botryococcus sp. and fossil burrows is consistent with a lacustrine origin for the formation.

  10. Determination of endocrine disruptors in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sichilongo, Kwenga; Torto, Nelson

    2006-08-01

    Analysis of serum, whole blood and liver tissue samples from Kafue lechwe in the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia for suspected endocrine disrupting compounds revealed high concentrations for some of the compounds. 45 samples of serum, whole blood and liver tissue were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction followed by an analysis using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD). The following endocrine disruptors were analyzed: deltamethrin, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, pp-DDD, heptachlor, d-t-allethrin, pp-DDE, endrin and pp-DDT. For all the samples, dieldrin showed the highest concentration ranging from 1.7 to 44.4 microg/ml in serum and whole blood sample extracts and 0.10-5.1 microg/g wet weight in liver sample extracts. The most frequently detected was deltamethrin in 62% of the samples. Percent recoveries in spiked laboratory blanks ranged between 60% and 100% while calculated detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.21 microg/ml for all the endocrine disruptors evaluated. Where endocrine disruptors were detected, the concentrations of most of them far exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and the extraneous maximum residue limits (EMRLs) set by the Codex Alimentarius of the United Nations (UN), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). PMID:16624410

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nkhama, Emmy; Ndhlovu, Micky; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Siziya, Seter; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15–59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79), 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55)) and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18)) for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory. PMID:25602972

  12. Rights-based services for adolescents living with HIV: adolescent self-efficacy and implications for health systems in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Teltschik, Anja; Ram, Mala; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Bajpai, Divya; Mutali, Beatrice

    2013-05-01

    A rights-based approach in HIV service delivery for adults is increasingly taking root in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of greater availability of antiretroviral therapy. Yet there has been comparatively little progress in strengthening a rights-based approach to adolescent HIV services, which we learned during a qualitative study in 2010 among 111 adolescents living with HIV, 21 parents and 38 health providers in three districts in Zambia. Adolescents in the study expressed a range of information and support needs and wanted locally relevant interventions to meet those needs. They wanted greater access to HIV, sexual and reproductive health information, information on how to protect themselves, privacy and confidentiality in service sites, skills training so as to be able to earn money, and better control over disclosure of their HIV status to others. Both health workers and parents acknowledged that information and services needed to be improved to meet those needs far better. This paper provides examples of successful programmes in Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Botswana and South Africa and calls for adolescent services to be linked to both paediatric and adult services, peer networks to be established to increase adolescents' ability to collectively voice their concerns and support each other, interventions supporting adolescents' control over self-disclosure, and lastly that adolescent health should become a training specialty in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23684200

  13. The impact of consumer awareness of water sector issues on willingness to pay and cost recovery in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The recovery of costs in water utilities is a key element in sustainability of both the provider and of the water resource itself. This paper examines the role played by consumer awareness in their willingness to pay for water supply in two cities in Zambia. Research conducted in Kitwe and Lusaka reveals that level of awareness, willingness to pay and cost recovery all vary directly. Whereas awareness may increase consumers’ willingness to pay, therefore assisting service provider’s cost recovery, the research presented here also reveals that factors such as ability to pay, affordability of bills, quality of water and of the service provided, as well as good business-consumer relations are important factors affecting a utility’s ability to recover its costs. If water utilities are to attain sustainability over the long-term, they will have to embark on and maintain consumer awareness programmes, raise the quality of service (e.g., through improved operation and maintenance), and develop and apply the right water tariff.

  14. Urban and Rural Ozone Collect over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5 S, 28 E) during SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tai; Phalane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, Gert J. R.

    2002-01-01

    In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, broken by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30%. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39-54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). A stable layer of high ozone at 2-5 km was advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia and neighboring countries, making Lusaka a collection point for transboundary pollution. This is confirmed by trajectories that show ozone leaving Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa before heading toward the Indian Ocean and returning to Lusaka via Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Ozone in the mixed layer at Lusaka is heavily influenced by local sources.

  15. Urban and Rural Ozone Pollution Over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5S, 25E) During SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Herman, J. R.; Witte, J. C.; Phahlane, A.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Mukula, C.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka during a six-day period in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, interspersed by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30 percent. Smoke aerosol column variations aloft and total ozone were monitored by a sun photometer. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39- 54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). High ozone concentrations above the mixed and inversion layers were advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia where SAFARI aircraft and ground-based instruments observed intense biomass fires and elevated aerosol and trace gas amounts. TOMS tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols products show the distribution of biomass burning and associated pollution throughout southern Africa in September 2000. Animations of satellite images and trajectories confirm pollutant recirculation over south central African fires, exit of ozone from Mozambique and Tanzania to the Indian Ocean and the characteristic buildup of tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic from western African outflow.

  16. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths and their effects on weight gain in free-range chickens in Central Zambia.

    PubMed

    Phiri, I K; Phiri, A M; Ziela, M; Chota, A; Masuku, M; Monrad, J

    2007-05-01

    Examination of helminths from gastrointestinal tracts of 125 free-range chickens in Zambia revealed a 95.2% prevalence rate. The species and their prevalences were: Allodapa suctoria (85.6%), Tetrameres americana (80.8%), Ascaridia galli (28.8%), Gonglonema ingluvicola (50.4%), Raillietina spp. (81.6%) and Heterakis gallinarum (32.8%). No trematodes or Syngamus trachea were found. Mixed infections accounted for 88.2% as compared to 7.2% of single infections. Effects of helminthoses on weight gain were investigated in 100 growing chickens randomly assigned to treatment (levamisole) and untreated control groups. There was a significant mean (+/- SEM) weight gain (grams) of 812.8 +/- 51.4 in the treatment group and 623 +/- 57.4 in the control group (p < 0.01). The mean (+/- SEM) worm burdens from the control group and the treatment group were 96.3 +/- 5.61 and 22.05 +/- 2.61, respectively. These results confirm the higher risk of helminth infections in free-range systems and may explain the deleterious effects in chickens. PMID:17847826

  17. Comparative fluke burden and pathology in condemned and non-condemned cattle livers from selected abattoirs in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Sikasunge, C S; Chembensofu, M; Monrad, J

    2006-12-01

    After dissecting 70 condemned and 32 non-condemned cattle livers collected from Lusaka, Chisamba, Mongu and Senanga abattoirs and Turnpike slaughter slab, significantly higher numbers of liver flukes (Fasciola gigantica) (P < 0.001) were found in the condemned livers (mean +/- SD = 100.6 +/- 16.7) than in the non-condemned livers (mean +/- SD = 0.7 +/- 0.5). Liver flukes found in 9.4% of the non-condemned livers suggest that abattoir records of liver inspection may underestimate F. gigantica infections. Average faecal fluke egg counts from animals with condemned livers (5 eggs per gram [EPG]) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in animals with non-condemned livers (0.8 EPG). No correlation was found between egg counts and number of flukes. Fibrosis and calcification were common in condemned livers, being severest in the vicinity of the bile ducts. Only two (6.3%) of the non-condemned livers showed pathological changes on the liver edges. The severe liver damage and high worm burden may explain low production levels experienced in cattle in Zambia maintained under traditional systems of management where worm control and good management programmes are rarely practiced. PMID:17283728

  18. A quantitative risk assessment of bovine theileriosis entering Luapula Province from Central Province in Zambia via live cattle imports from traditional and commercial production sectors.

    PubMed

    Makungu, C; Mwacalimba, K K

    2014-09-01

    Theileriosis or East Coast Fever (ECF) is an important livestock disease widespread in Zambia except for some provinces such as Luapula. This freedom status has been achieved due to strict livestock movement regulations that only authorise cattle imports from commercial farms implementing strict ECF control regimens. Recent increases in both the demand and price of beef in Zambia are stimulating a policy change towards a more inclusive inter-provincial trade in live cattle. This may also encourage the introduction of breeding cattle from high production pastoral sectors such as Central Province to stimulate the beef industry in disease free low production areas such as the Luapula Province. To estimate and compare the risks linked with those potential introductions of cattle from the traditional or commercial production sectors of the Central Province, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. This risk comparison was necessary because the traditional livestock production sector accounts for over 79% of breeding cattle trade in Central Province but is characterised by minimalistic tick-borne disease control and a higher prevalence of ECF. We estimate that should the importation of breeding cattle from Central into Luapula Province be permitted, we could expect to import ECF by the introduction of infected animals at a median rate (5th and 95th percentiles) of every 0.44 years (0.12, 2.60), from the traditional sector compared to every 3.57 years (0.37, 103.6) from the commercial sector. Infected ticks would be expected to enter every 3.46 (0.66, 43.8) years via traditional cattle imports. These risks are strongly influenced by the prevalence of infection, performance of pre-transport screening tests, and the effectiveness of pre-transport tick cleansing. This assessment is expected to provide a model for tick borne disease risk assessments in similar settings, as well as inform ECF control, cattle trade, and stock movement policies in Zambia. PMID:24974081

  19. Measuring Health System Strengthening: Application of the Balanced Scorecard Approach to Rank the Baseline Performance of Three Rural Districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. Methodology The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Results Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff ?0.40, p?=?0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p?=?0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p?=?0.03). Conclusion The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery performing poorly in all study districts. This tool could be valuable in monitoring and evaluation of health systems. PMID:23555590

  20. “The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18) and district stakeholders (n= 10) in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6) in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground and accurate costings for sustainable service delivery, building on existing community strengths, are needed before projects commence. This study highlights the importance of enabling and building the capacity of existing CBOs and community structures, rather than creating new mechanisms. PMID:23192013

  1. A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick AD Kaona; Mary Tuba

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications

  2. 18/03/2010 11:46IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Français PlusNews Film & TV Photo Radio free subscription Mobile humanitarian news and analysis a project

  3. 17/03/2010 16:03IRIN Global | GLOBAL: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88437

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Andy

    Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Item Page 1 of 2http: Is humanitarianism genetic? | Asia East Africa ...Zambia Zimbabwe | In Brief Health & Nutrition Aid Policy | News Français PlusNews Film & TV Photo Radio free subscription Mobile humanitarian news and analysis a project

  4. Knowledgeable antenatal care as a pathway to skilled delivery: modelling the interactions between use of services and knowledge in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Tim; Quigley, Paula; Green, Cathy; Razak Badru, Abdul; Kaluba, Dynes; Siziya, Seter

    2014-08-01

    The link between antenatal care (ANC) and facility delivery is a specific example of the effect of early medical contacts on later use of essential services. The role of ANC in improving maternal health remains unclear. High levels of ANC are reported in a number of countries where skilled delivery remains uncommon. ANC may influence the use of services by increasing willingness to use services and educating about maternal health. The objective of this study is to understand the interaction between use of skilled and unskilled ANC, knowledge of obstetric complications and danger signs, and the eventual use of a facility for delivery. The study makes use of data from a survey of around 1700 women who had recently given birth across 11 districts of Zambia in 2011. Multivariate analysis is used to explore the associations between ANC use, knowledge and place of delivery. The results suggest that place of care and number of visits is strongly associated with the eventual use of a facility for delivery; an effect that is stronger in remote areas. Both skilled and unskilled ANC and obstetric knowledge is linked to higher use of facility delivery care while care provided at home appears to have an opposite effect. The research suggests that ANC influences later use of delivery care in two ways: by developing a habit to use formal care services and in increasing maternal knowledge. The work might be generalized to other health seeking behaviour to explore how the quantity and quality of initial contacts influence later use of services. PMID:23894074

  5. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Max O

    2009-01-01

    Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision tree model compared the costs (in year 2008 international dollars) and outcomes of CTC to a hypothetical 'do-nothing' alternative. The primary outcomes were mortality within one year, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) after surviving one year. Outcomes and health service costs of CTC were obtained from the CTC programme, local health services and World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of unit costs. Outcomes of doing nothing were estimated from published African cohort studies. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were done. Results The mean cost of CTC per child was $203 (95% confidence interval (CI) $139–$274), of which ready to use therapeutic food (RUTF) cost 36%, health centre visits cost 13%, hospital admissions cost 17% and technical support while establishing the programme cost 34%. Expected death rates within one year of presentation were 9.2% with CTC and 20.8% with no treatment (risk difference 11.5% (95% CI 0.4–23.0%). CTC cost $1760 (95% CI $592–$10142) per life saved and $ 53 (95% CI $18–$306) per DALY gained. CTC was at least 80% likely to be cost effective if society was willing to pay at least $88 per DALY gained. Analyses were most sensitive to assumptions about mortality rates with no treatment, weeks of CTC per child and costs of purchasing RUTF. Conclusion CTC is relatively cost effective compared to other priority health care interventions in developing countries, for a wide range of assumptions. PMID:19146668

  6. Counselor and client perspectives of Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children in Zambia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Laura K; Skavenski, Stephanie; Michalopoulos, Lynn M; Bolton, Paul A; Bass, Judith K; Familiar, Itziar; Imasiku, Mwiya; Cohen, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian counselors, children, and caregivers' perceptions of an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for trauma (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [TF-CBT]) utilized in Zambia to address mental health problems in children. Semistructured interviews were conducted with local counselors trained in TF-CBT (N = 19; 90% of those trained; 12 female) and children/caregivers who had received TF-CBT in a small feasibility study (N = 18; 86% of the children and N = 16; 76% of the caregivers) who completed TF-CBT (total completed; N = 21). Each client was asked six open-ended questions, and domain analysis was used to explore the data. Counselors were positive about the program, liked the structure and flexibility, reported positive changes in their clients, and discussed the cultural adaptation around activities and language. Counselors stated the training was too short, and the supervision was necessary. Challenges included client engagement and attendance, availability of location, funding, and a lack of community understanding of "therapy." Children and caregivers stated multiple positive changes they attributed to TF-CBT, such as better family communication, reduction of problem behaviors, and ability to speak about the trauma. They recommended continuing the program. This study brings a critical examination of providers' and clients' perspectives of the implementation of an EBT for children in a low-resource setting. Clinical implications include changing implementation methods based on responses. Research implications include future study directions such as an effectiveness trial of TF-CBT and an examination of implementation factors. PMID:24400677

  7. Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific parameters. Post-delivery follow-up was six weeks for mothers and 12 months for live births. Primary outcome was perinatal mortality (stillbirth or neonatal death within seven days after birth). Results Data from 1,001 pregnant women (AL n = 495; SP n = 506) and 933 newborns (AL n = 466; SP n = 467) showed: perinatal mortality (AL 4.2%; SP 5.0%), comprised of early neonatal mortality (each group 2.3%), stillbirths (AL 1.9%; SP 2.7%); preterm deliveries (AL 14.1%; SP 17.4% of foetuses); and gestational age-adjusted low birth weight (AL 9.0%; SP 7.7%). Infant birth defect incidence was 1.8% AL and 1.6% SP, excluding umbilical hernia. Abortions prior to antenatal care could not be determined: abortion occurred in 4.5% of women treated with AL during their first trimester; none were reported in the 133 women exposed to SP and/or quinine during their first trimester. Overall development (including neurological assessment) was similar in both groups. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure to AL in pregnancy, including first trimester, is not associated with particular safety risks in terms of perinatal mortality, malformations, or developmental impairment. However, more data are required on AL use during the first trimester. PMID:20809964

  8. Unintended Pregnancy among HIV Positive Couples Receiving Integrated HIV Counseling, Testing, and Family Planning Services in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kristin M.; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. Design Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. Methods Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. Results The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (p<0.05) with time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users in multivariate analysis included the man wanting more children, the woman being HIV negative versus having stage IV HIV disease, and the woman reporting: younger age, no previous OCP use, missed OCPs, or sex without a condom. Conclusions Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522 PMID:24098692

  9. Estimating average inpatient and outpatient costs and childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea treatment costs in an urban health centre in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chola, Lumbwe; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    Background Millions of children die every year in developing countries, from preventable diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhoea, owing to low levels of investment in child health. Investment efforts are hampered by a general lack of adequate information that is necessary for priority setting in this sector. This paper measures the health system costs of providing inpatient and outpatient services, and also the costs associated with treating pneumonia and diarrhoea in under-five children at a health centre in Zambia. Methods Annual economic and financial cost data were collected in 2005-2006. Data were summarized in a Microsoft excel spreadsheet to obtain total department costs and average disease treatment costs. Results The total annual cost of operating the health centre was US$1,731,661 of which US$1 284 306 and US$447,355 were patient care and overhead departments costs, respectively. The average cost of providing out-patient services was US$3 per visit, while the cost of in-patient treatment was US$18 per bed day. The cost of providing dental services was highest at US$20 per visit, and the cost of VCT services was lowest, with US$1 per visit. The cost per out-patient visit for under-five pneumonia was US$48, while the cost per bed day was US$215. The cost per outpatient visit attributed to under-five diarrhoea was US$26, and the cost per bed day was US$78. Conclusion In the face of insufficient data, a cost analysis exercise is a difficult but feasible undertaking. The study findings are useful and applicable in similar settings, and can be used in cost effectiveness analyses of health interventions. PMID:19845966

  10. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

    2012-01-01

    Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

  11. Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M Bradford

    2014-07-01

    The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5' and 3' region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5' and 3' proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes. PMID:24667303

  12. Pre-amplification methods for tracking low-grade Plasmodium falciparum populations during scaled-up interventions in Southern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is receding in many endemic countries with intervention scale -up against the disease. However, this resilient scourge may persist in low-grade submicroscopic infections among semi-immune members of the population, and be poised for possible resurgence, creating challenges for detection and assessment of intervention impact. Parasite genotyping methods, such as the molecular barcode, can identify specific malaria parasite types being transmitted and allow tracking and evaluation of parasite population structure changes as interventions are applied. This current study demonstrates application of pre-amplification methods for successful detection and genotyping of residual Plasmodium falciparum infections during a dramatic malarial decline. Methods The study was a prospective cross-sectional design and based on a 2,000 sq km vicinity of Macha Mission Hospital in southern Zambia. Willing and predominantly asymptomatic residents of all ages were screened for malaria by microscopy during the 2005 and 2008 transmission seasons, with simultaneous collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper, and extraction of Plasmodium falciparum DNA was performed. Plasmodium falciparum infections were genotyped using a 24 SNP-based molecular barcode assay using real-time PCR. Submicroscopic parasitaemia samples were subjected to pre-amplification using TaqMan PreAmp Master Mix following the manufacturer’s instructions before SNP barcode analysis. Results There was a dramatic decline of malaria between 2005 and 2008, and the geometric mean parasite density (95% CI) fell from 704/?L (390–1,271) in 2005 to 39/?L (23–68) in 2008, culminating in a large proportion of submicroscopic infections of which 90% failed to yield ample DNA for standard molecular characterization among 2008 samples. Pre-amplification enabled successful detection and genotyping of 74% of these low-grade reservoir infections, overall, compared to 54% that were detectable before pre-amplification (p <0.0005, n = 84). Furthermore, nine samples negative for parasites by microscopy and standard quantitative PCR amplification were positive after pre-amplification. Conclusions Pre-amplification allows analysis of an otherwise undetectable parasite population and may be instrumental for parasites identification, tracking and assessing the impact of interventions on parasite populations during malaria control and elimination programmes when parasitaemia is expected to decline to submicroscopic levels. PMID:24618119

  13. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable. PMID:23181969

  14. Diarrhea is a Major killer of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Inpatient Set-up in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to December 2009 were followed. Data on nutritional status, socio-demographic factors, and admission medical conditions were collected up on enrollment. T-test and chi-square tests were used to compare difference in mean or percentage values. Logistic regression was used to assess risk of mortality by admission characteristics. Results Majority, 55.3% (238/430) were boys. The median age of the cohort was 17 months (inter-quartile range, IQR 12-22). Among the children, 68.9% (295/428) had edema at admission. The majority of the children, 67.3% (261/388), presented with diarrhea; 38.9% (162/420) tested HIV positive; and 40.5% (174/430) of the children died. The median Length of stay of the cohort was 9 days (IQR, 5-14 days); 30.6% (53/173) of the death occurred within 48 hours of admission. Children with diarrhea on admission had two and half times higher odds of mortality than those without diarrhea; Adjusted OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.50-4.09, P < 0.001). The odds of mortality for children with HIV infection was higher than children without HIV infection; Adjusted OR = 1.6 (95% CI 0.99-2.48 P = 0.5). Conclusion Diarrhea is a major cause of complication in children with severe acute malnutrition. Under the current standard management approach, diarrhea in children with SAM was found to increase their odds of death substantially irrespective of other factors. PMID:21989455

  15. The effect of joint contraceptive decisions on the use of Injectables, Long-Acting and Permanent Methods (ILAPMs) among married female (15–49) contraceptive users in Zambia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zambia’s fertility rate and unmet need for family planning are still high. This is in spite of the progress reported from 1992 to 2007 of the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate from 15% to 41% and use of modern methods of family planning from 9% to 33%. However, partner disapproval of family planning has been cited by many women in many countries including Zambia. Given the effectiveness of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning (ILAPMs) in fertility regulation, this paper sought to examine the relationship between contraceptive decision-making and use of ILAPMs among married women in Zambia. Methods This paper uses data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. The analysis is based on married women (15–49) who reported using a method of family planning at the time of the survey. Out of the 7,146 women interviewed, only 1,630 women were valid for this analysis. Cross-tabulations and binary logistic regressions with Chi-square were used to analyse associations and the predictors of use of ILAPMs of contraception, respectively. A confidence interval of .95 was used in determining relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results Two thirds of women made joint decisions regarding contraception and 29% of the women were using ILAPMs. Women who made joint contraceptive decisions are significantly more likely to use ILAPMs than women who did not involve their husband in contraceptive decisions. However, the most significant predictor is the wealth index. Women from rich households are more likely to use ILAPMs than women from medium rich and poor households. Results also show that women of North Western ethnicities and those from Region 3 had higher odds of using ILAPMs than Tonga women and women from Region 2, respectively. Conclusion Joint contraceptive decision-making between spouses is key to use of ILAPMs in Zambia. Our findings have also shown that the wealth index is actually the strongest factor determining use of these methods. As such, family planning programmes directed at increasing use of LAPMs ought to not only encourage spousal communication but should also consider rolling out interventions that incorporate economic empowerment. PMID:24993034

  16. Hepatic and renal concentrations of copper and other trace elements in hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) living in and adjacent to the Kafue and Luangwa Rivers in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwase, M; Almli, B; Sivertsen, T; Musonda, M M; Flåøyen, A

    2002-09-01

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were studied in samples collected from hippopotami from the Kafue River in the Kafue National Park and the Luangwa River in the Southern Luangwa National Park in Zambia. There were no significant differences between trace element concentrations in the tissues of the hippopotami taken in the Kafue River and the Luangwa River. The concentrations of copper and other essential elements were similar to those reported in normal domestic and wild ruminants. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not led to any accumulation of elements in tissues of the hippopotami in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations observed may serve as reference for similar future studies on hippopotami. PMID:12356167

  17. Multi-Country Analysis of Treatment Costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH): Facility-Level ART Unit Cost Analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Tagar, Elya; Sundaram, Maaya; Condliffe, Kate; Matatiyo, Blackson; Chimbwandira, Frank; Chilima, Ben; Mwanamanga, Robert; Moyo, Crispin; Chitah, Bona Mukosha; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Assefa, Yibeltal; Pillay, Yogan; Mayer, Sam; Shear, Lauren; Dain, Mary; Hurley, Raphael; Kumar, Ritu; McCarthy, Thomas; Batra, Parul; Gwinnell, Dan; Diamond, Samantha; Over, Mead

    2014-01-01

    Background Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. Methods & Findings In 2010–2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy) across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2–8% annual loss to follow-up or death) were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77–95% alive and on treatment). Conclusions This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation. PMID:25389777

  18. Relationships between antenatal and postnatal care and post-partum modern contraceptive use: evidence from population surveys in Kenya and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is often assumed, with little supportive, empirical evidence, that women who use maternal health care are more likely than those who do not to use modern contraceptives. This study aims to add to the existing literature on associations between the use of antenatal (ANC) and post-natal care (PNC) and post-partum modern contraceptives. Methods Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Kenya (2008–09) and Zambia (2007). Study samples include women who had a live birth within five years before the survey (3,667 in Kenya and 3,587 in Zambia). Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to examine the associations between the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and a woman’s adoption of modern contraceptives after a recent live birth. Results Tests of exogeneity confirmed that the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and post-partum modern contraceptive practice were not influenced by common unobserved factors. Cox proportional hazard models showed significant associations between the service intensity of ANC and PNC and post-partum modern contraceptive use in both countries. This relationship is largely due to ANC services; no significant associations were observed between PNC service intensity and post-partum FP practice. Conclusions While the lack of associations between PNC and post-partum FP use may be due to the limited measure of PNC service intensity, the study highlights a window of opportunity to promote the use of modern contraceptives after childbirth through ANC service delivery. Depending on the availability of data, further research should take into account community- and facility-level factors that may influence modern contraceptive use in examining associations between ANC and PNC use and post-partum FP practice. PMID:23289547

  19. Measuring teamwork and taskwork of community-based “teams” delivering life-saving health interventions in rural Zambia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of teams is a well-known approach in a variety of settings, including health care, in both developed and developing countries. Team performance is comprised of teamwork and task work, and ascertaining whether a team is performing as expected to achieve the desired outcome has rarely been done in health care settings in resource-limited countries. Measuring teamwork requires identifying dimensions of teamwork or processes that comprise the teamwork construct, while taskwork requires identifying specific team functions. Since 2008 a community-based project in rural Zambia has teamed community health workers (CHWs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs), supported by Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs), to provide essential newborn and continuous curative care for children 0–59 months. This paper describes the process of developing a measure of teamwork and taskwork for community-based health teams in rural Zambia. Methods Six group discussions and pile-sorting sessions were conducted with three NHCs and three groups of CHW-TBA teams. Each session comprised six individuals. Results We selected 17 factors identified by participants as relevant for measuring teamwork in this rural setting. Participants endorsed seven functions as important to measure taskwork. To explain team performance, we assigned 20 factors into three sub-groups: personal, community-related and service-related. Conclusion Community and culturally relevant processes, functions and factors were used to develop a tool for measuring teamwork and taskwork in this rural community and the tool was quite unique from tools used in developed countries. PMID:23802766

  20. Factors associated with neonatal mortality in the general population: evidence from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS); a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lukonga, Etambuyu; Michelo, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 percent of under-five child mortality globally and this could be associated with a complex chain of factors including but not limited to socio-economic, biological and healthcare-related factors. We examined factors that may be associated with neonatal mortality in Zambia. Methods Using across-sectional design, data were extracted from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey for women using a “Women's Questionnaire” for respondents aged 15-49 years in the selected households. Records of women who reported having given birth to live infants within the five years preceding the survey defined the study population. However only records on those infants who could have lived through the first month (28 days) were assessed (de facto population). Results Overall (n=6 435), there were 3204(49.8%) males and 3231(50.2%)females. There were 219 (3.4%) neonatal deaths recorded. Low birth weight and overweight were reported as the prominent factors. The odds of dying were significantly higher for infants with low birth weight compared to infants born with normal weight, (aOR=2.58, 95%CI 1.02-6.49). The pattern was the same in both rural though insignificant. Over weight born babies showed increased odds of dying (aOR 3.21, 95%CI 1.36-7.59). Compared to infants born from Mothers with no education, infants born from mothers with higher education were associated with increased odds of dying (aOR 3.55, CI 95%, 1.26-9.94). Conclusion Neonatal survival is still a challenge in this population and determinants show varying socio-demographic contrasts. This may suggest limitations in past efforts to improve neonatal health. Future strategies need to continue but should account for varying setting specific epidemiological contrasts.

  1. New constraints on the Pan-African Orogeny in Central Zambia: A structural and geochronological study of the Hook Batholith and the Mwembeshi Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Kalin V.; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Charlesworth, Guy; Frei, Dirk; Rankin, William

    2014-12-01

    In Central Zambia, the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Pan-African Orogen: the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt. To the north of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within Neoproterozoic Katangan metasedimentary rocks. Field mapping and structural studies, microstructural observations, interpretation of airborne geophysical images and U-Pb zircon geochronology constrain a new model for the tectonic evolution of this poorly studied part of the orogen. Two temporarily separated and highly oblique orogenic contraction events are defined. D1 is characterised by a regional low-metamorphic grade E-W shortening that produced strain partitioning between N-S trending pure-shear-dominated and NW trending sinistral simple-shear dominated domains. The emplacement of the batholith between ca. 550 and 533 Ma (U-Pb zircon ages) is syn-tectonic to D1. The D2 N-S shortening event was active after ca. 530, which is indicated by the age of the newly dated, deformed molasse of the Hook Batholith. During D2, the MwZ developed as an E- to ENE-striking zone of pure-shear dominated deformation that localised to the south and within the already exhumed Hook Batholith. At the scale of the Pan-African Orogen in Southern Africa, the D1 is considered to be a far field expression of the E-W collision event in the Mozambique Belt. The following Early Cambrian D2 event corresponds to the high angle collision between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons and the stitching of the Lufilian and Zambezi belts along the MwZ. Therefore, in the Hook area, the MwZ cannot be regarded as a continental-scale wrench structure as widely discussed in the literature. The tectonic events in Central Zambia suggest that the amalgamation of Gondwana was accompanied by suturing along highly oblique orogenic belts during plate reorganization at around 530 Ma.

  2. HIV infection and domestic smoke exposure, but not human papillomavirus, are risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Zambia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kayamba, Violet; Bateman, Allen C; Asombang, Akwi W; Shibemba, Aaron; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Banda, Themba; Soko, Rose; Kelly, Paul

    2015-04-01

    There is emerging evidence that esophageal cancer occurs in younger adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe or North America. The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high in this region. We postulated that HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk. This was a case-control study based at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Cases were patients with confirmed OSCC and controls had completely normal upper endoscopic evaluations. A total of 222 patients were included to analyze the influence of HIV infection; of these, 100 patients were used to analyze the influence of HPV infection, alcohol, smoking, and exposure to wood smoke. The presence of HIV infection was determined using antibody kits, and HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HIV infection on its own conferred increased risk of developing OSCC (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-5.1; P = 0.03). The OR was stronger when only people under 60 years were included (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.5-13.2; P = 0.003). Cooking with charcoal or firewood, and cigarette smoking, both increased the odds of developing OSCC ([OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.4-9.3; P = 0.004] and [OR 9.1; 95% CI 3.0-30.4; P < 0.001], respectively). There was no significant difference in HPV detection or alcohol intake between cases and controls. We conclude that HIV infection and exposure to domestic and cigarette smoke are risk factors for OSCC, and HPV immunization unlikely to reduce OSCC incidence in Zambia. PMID:25641622

  3. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  4. 'No sister, the breast alone is not enough for my baby' a qualitative assessment of potentials and barriers in the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in southern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Fjeld, Eli; Siziya, Seter; Katepa-Bwalya, Mary; Kankasa, Chipepo; Moland, Karen Marie; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2008-01-01

    Background Appropriate feeding practices are of fundamental importance for the survival, growth, development and health of infants and young children. The aim of the present study was to collect baseline information on current infant and young child feeding practices, attitudes and knowledge in Mazabuka, Zambia, using a qualitative approach. Methods The study was conducted in Mazabuka, 130 km south of Lusaka in Zambia in January and February in 2005. Nine focus group discussions with mothers and a total of 18 in-depth interviews with fathers, grandmothers, health staff and traditional birth attendants were performed in both rural and urban areas. Results Breastfeeding was reported to be universal, the use of pre-lacteal feeds appeared to be low, colostrum was rarely discarded, and attitudes to and knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding were generally good. However, few practised exclusive breastfeeding. The barriers revealed were: (1) the perception of insufficient milk, (2) the fear of dying or becoming too sick to be able to breastfeed, (3) convention, (4) the perception of 'bad milk' and (5) lack of knowledge on the subject. The health staff and traditional birth attendants were the most important actors in transmitting knowledge about infant feeding to the mothers. Both categories appeared to have updated knowledge on child health and were well respected in the society. Fathers and grandmothers tended to be less knowledgeable on novel subjects such as exclusive breastfeeding and often showed a negative attitude towards it. At the same time they had considerable authority over mothers and children and infant feeding decisions. The rural population was in general less educated and more prone to conventional non-exclusive feeding practices. Conclusion The message that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is beneficial for child health had reached the health workers and was taught to mothers. However, conventions and expectations from family members in this Zambian community were important barriers in preventing the message of EBF from being translated into practice. The deep-rooted beliefs that prohibit EBF need to be addressed in projects and campaigns promoting EBF. PMID:18986539

  5. Genomic Signature of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates Related to a Massive Outbreak in Zambia between 2010 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Mwaba, John; Kalonda, Annie; Nakazwe, Ruth; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Jensen, Jacob Dyring; Svendsen, Christina A.; Dittmann, Karen K.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Cavaco, Lina M.; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hasman, Henrik; Mwansa, James C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Retrospectively, we investigated the epidemiology of a massive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi outbreak in Zambia during 2010 to 2012. Ninety-four isolates were susceptibility tested by MIC determinations. Whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) of 33 isolates and bioinformatic analysis identified the multilocus sequence type (MLST), haplotype, plasmid replicon, antimicrobial resistance genes, and genetic relatedness by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic deletions. The outbreak affected 2,040 patients, with a fatality rate of 0.5%. Most (83.0%) isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). The isolates belonged to MLST ST1 and a new variant of the haplotype, H58B. Most isolates contained a chromosomally translocated region containing seven antimicrobial resistance genes, catA1, blaTEM-1, dfrA7, sul1, sul2, strA, and strB, and fragments of the incompatibility group Q1 (IncQ1) plasmid replicon, the class 1 integron, and the mer operon. The genomic analysis revealed 415 SNP differences overall and 35 deletions among 33 of the isolates subjected to whole-genome sequencing. In comparison with other genomes of H58, the Zambian isolates separated from genomes from Central Africa and India by 34 and 52 SNPs, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that 32 of the 33 isolates sequenced belonged to a tight clonal group distinct from other H58 genomes included in the study. The small numbers of SNPs identified within this group are consistent with the short-term transmission that can be expected over a period of 2 years. The phylogenetic analysis and deletions suggest that a single MDR clone was responsible for the outbreak, during which occasional other S. Typhi lineages, including sensitive ones, continued to cocirculate. The common view is that the emerging global S. Typhi haplotype, H58B, containing the MDR IncHI1 plasmid is responsible for the majority of typhoid infections in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa; we found that a new variant of the haplotype harboring a chromosomally translocated region containing the MDR islands of IncHI1 plasmid has emerged in Zambia. This could change the perception of the term “classical MDR typhoid” currently being solely associated with the IncHI1 plasmid. It might be more common than presently thought that S. Typhi haplotype H58B harbors the IncHI1 plasmid or a chromosomally translocated MDR region or both. PMID:25392358

  6. Genomic signature of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi isolates related to a massive outbreak in Zambia between 2010 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Mwaba, John; Kalonda, Annie; Nakazwe, Ruth; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Jensen, Jacob Dyring; Svendsen, Christina A; Dittmann, Karen K; Kaas, Rolf S; Cavaco, Lina M; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hasman, Henrik; Mwansa, James C L

    2015-01-01

    Retrospectively, we investigated the epidemiology of a massive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi outbreak in Zambia during 2010 to 2012. Ninety-four isolates were susceptibility tested by MIC determinations. Whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) of 33 isolates and bioinformatic analysis identified the multilocus sequence type (MLST), haplotype, plasmid replicon, antimicrobial resistance genes, and genetic relatedness by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic deletions. The outbreak affected 2,040 patients, with a fatality rate of 0.5%. Most (83.0%) isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). The isolates belonged to MLST ST1 and a new variant of the haplotype, H58B. Most isolates contained a chromosomally translocated region containing seven antimicrobial resistance genes, catA1, blaTEM-1, dfrA7, sul1, sul2, strA, and strB, and fragments of the incompatibility group Q1 (IncQ1) plasmid replicon, the class 1 integron, and the mer operon. The genomic analysis revealed 415 SNP differences overall and 35 deletions among 33 of the isolates subjected to whole-genome sequencing. In comparison with other genomes of H58, the Zambian isolates separated from genomes from Central Africa and India by 34 and 52 SNPs, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that 32 of the 33 isolates sequenced belonged to a tight clonal group distinct from other H58 genomes included in the study. The small numbers of SNPs identified within this group are consistent with the short-term transmission that can be expected over a period of 2 years. The phylogenetic analysis and deletions suggest that a single MDR clone was responsible for the outbreak, during which occasional other S. Typhi lineages, including sensitive ones, continued to cocirculate. The common view is that the emerging global S. Typhi haplotype, H58B, containing the MDR IncHI1 plasmid is responsible for the majority of typhoid infections in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa; we found that a new variant of the haplotype harboring a chromosomally translocated region containing the MDR islands of IncHI1 plasmid has emerged in Zambia. This could change the perception of the term "classical MDR typhoid" currently being solely associated with the IncHI1 plasmid. It might be more common than presently thought that S. Typhi haplotype H58B harbors the IncHI1 plasmid or a chromosomally translocated MDR region or both. PMID:25392358

  7. Taking ART to Scale: Determinants of the Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy in 45 Clinical Sites in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Marseille, Elliot; Giganti, Mark J.; Mwango, Albert; Chisembele-Taylor, Angela; Mulenga, Lloyd; Over, Mead; Kahn, James G.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background We estimated the unit costs and cost-effectiveness of a government ART program in 45 sites in Zambia supported by the Centre for Infectious Disease Research Zambia (CIDRZ). Methods We estimated per person-year costs at the facility level, and support costs incurred above the facility level and used multiple regression to estimate variation in these costs. To estimate ART effectiveness, we compared mortality in this Zambian population to that of a cohort of rural Ugandan HIV patients receiving co-trimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis. We used micro-costing techniques to estimate incremental unit costs, and calculated cost-effectiveness ratios with a computer model which projected results to 10 years. Results The program cost $69.7 million for 125,436 person-years of ART, or $556 per ART-year. Compared to CTX prophylaxis alone, the program averted 33.3 deaths or 244.5 disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 person-years of ART. In the base-case analysis, the net cost per DALY averted was $833 compared to CTX alone. More than two-thirds of the variation in average incremental total and on-site cost per patient-year of treatment is explained by eight determinants, including the complexity of the patient-case load, the degree of adherence among the patients, and institutional characteristics including, experience, scale, scope, setting and sector. Conclusions and Significance The 45 sites exhibited substantial variation in unit costs and cost-effectiveness and are in the mid-range of cost-effectiveness when compared to other ART programs studied in southern Africa. Early treatment initiation, large scale, and hospital setting, are associated with statistically significantly lower costs, while others (rural location, private sector) are associated with shifting cost from on- to off-site. This study shows that ART programs can be significantly less costly or more cost-effective when they exploit economies of scale and scope, and initiate patients at higher CD4 counts. PMID:23284843

  8. ‘Are We Not Human?’ Stories of Stigma, Disability and HIV from Lusaka, Zambia and Their Implications for Access to Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Janet A.; Bond, Virginia A.; Nixon, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The advent of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Southern Africa holds the promise of shifting the experience of HIV toward that of a manageable chronic condition. However, this potential can only be realized when persons living with HIV are able to access services without barriers, which can include stigma. Our qualitative study explored experiences of persons living with disabilities (PWD) in Lusaka, Zambia who became HIV-positive (PWD/HIV+). Methods and Findings We conducted interviews with 32 participants (21 PWD/HIV+ and 11 key informants working in the fields of HIV and/or disability). Inductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts was informed by narrative theory. Participants’ accounts highlighted the central role of stigma experienced by PWD/HIV+, with stigmatizing attitudes closely linked to prevailing societal assumptions that PWD are asexual. Seeking diagnostic and treatment services for HIV was perceived as evidence of PWD being sexually active. Participants recounted that for PWD/HIV+, stigma was enacted in a variety of settings, including the queue for health services, their interactions with healthcare providers, and within their communities. Stigmatizing accounts told about PWD/HIV+ were described as having important consequences. Not only did participants recount stories of internalized stigma (with its damaging effects on self-perception), but also that negative experiences resulted in some PWD preferring to “die quietly at home” rather than being subjected to the stigmatizing gaze of others when attempting to access life-preserving ART. Participants recounted how experiences of stigma also affected their willingness to continue ART, their willingness to disclose their HIV status to others, as well as their social relations. However, participants also offered counter-stories, actively resisting stigmatizing accounts and portraying themselves as resilient and resourceful social actors. Conclusions The study highlights a significant barrier to healthcare experienced by PWD/HIV+, with important implications for the future design and equitable delivery of HIV services in Zambia. Stigma importantly affects the abilities of PWD/HIV+ to manage their health conditions. PMID:26039666

  9. Drinking Water Quality, Feeding Practices, and Diarrhea among Children under 2 Years of HIV-Positive Mothers in Peri-Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Sarenje, Kelvin; Baisley, Kathy; Kelly, Paul; Filteau, Suzanne; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In low-income settings, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers must choose between breastfeeding their infants and risking transmission of HIV or replacement feeding their infants and risking diarrheal disease from contaminated water. We conducted a cross-sectional study of children < 2 years of age of 254 HIV-positive mothers in peri-urban Zambia to assess their exposure to waterborne fecal contamination. Fecal indicators were found in 70% of household drinking water samples. In a multivariable analysis, factors associated with diarrhea prevalence in children < 2 years were mother having diarrhea (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65–16.28), child given water in the past 2 days (aOR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.07–15.52), child never being breastfed (aOR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.06–6.72), and rainy (versus dry) season (aOR = 4.60, 95% CI = 1.29–16.42). Children born to HIV-positive mothers were exposed to contaminated water through direct intake of drinking water, indicating the need for interventions to ensure microbiological water quality. PMID:21813854

  10. Plasmodium falciparum strains harboring dihydrofolate reductase with the I164L mutation are absent in Malawi and Zambia even under antifolate drug pressure.

    PubMed

    Ochong, Edwin; Bell, David J; Johnson, David J; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Mulenga, Modest; Muangnoicharoen, Sant; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Winstanley, Peter A; Bray, Patrick G; Ward, Stephen A; Owen, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) enzyme is the target of pyrimethamine, a component of the antimalarial pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine. Resistance to this drug is associated primarily with mutations in the Pfdhfr gene. The I164L mutant allele is of particular interest, because strains possessing this mutation are highly resistant to pyrimethamine and to chlorproguanil, a component of chlorproguanil-dapsone. A recent study from Malawi reported this mutation at a prevalence of 4.7% in parasites from human immunodeficiency virus-positive pregnant women by using a real-time PCR method. These observations have huge implications for the use of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, chlorproguanil-dapsone, and future antifolate-artemisinin combinations in Africa. It was imperative that this finding be rigorously tested. We identified a number of critical limitations in the original genotyping strategy. Using a refined and validated real-time PCR strategy, we report here that this mutation was absent in 158 isolates from Malawi and 42 isolates from Zambia collected between 2003 and 2005. PMID:18725445

  11. Metal and metalloid levels and bio-accumulation characteristics in soil, sediment, land plants and hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) from the South Luangwa National Park, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; M'kandawire, Ethel; Yasuda, Jun; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-06-01

    Hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) are large semi-aquatic mammals that can be exposed to metals and metalloid from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Therefore, knowledge of metal and metalloid accumulation characteristics in hippopotami living in the national park is important from ecotoxicological point of view. Levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) and metalloid (As) in hippopotami liver from the South Luangwa National Park in Zambia were far lower compared to the established values of toxic levels in cattle. No temporal variations of metal levels in hippopotami were observed, probably because of good management condition and the lack of anthropogenic activities around the national park. However, hippopotami liver accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg compared to soil, sediment and their food (plants), most likely due to a process of biomagnification throughout a trophic chain. Moreover, hippopotami liver and land plants showed significantly higher Cd levels than those of soil. These results strongly suggest that hippopotami liver accumulate higher levels of these metals if surrounding environment is contaminated. Levels of Cr and Ni in hippopotami liver were higher compared to other toxic metals. Since this is the first report to show the Cr and Ni levels and bio-accumulation characteristics of Hg and Cd in hippopotami, we concluded that continuous monitoring and evaluation of toxic effects of these metals on hippopotami should be conducted. PMID:22521811

  12. Trematode infections in freshwater snails and cattle from the Kafue wetlands of Zambia during a period of highest cattle-water contact.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Chota, A; Monrad, J

    2007-03-01

    A total of 984 snails, comprising nine species, were collected from six areas in the Kafue wetlands between August and October 2003 to assess larval trematode infections. Of these, 135 (13.7%) were positive. Most trematode infections were recorded from Lymnaea natalensis (42.8%), which harboured four of the five morphologically different cercariae found. No trematodes were recovered from Bellamya capillata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata, Physa acuta and Cleopatra nswendweensis. One snail (0.2%) of 416 Bulinus snails shed brevifurcate-apharyngeate distome cercariae while three (0.7%) shed amphistomes. Gymnocephalous and longifurcate-pharyngeate distome were the commonest types of cercariae recorded while xiphidiocercaria was the least common. The highest prevalence rates of F. gigantica (68.8%) and amphistomes (50.0%) in cattle (n = 101) were in Chiyasa while those in Kaleya had the lowest (9.1 and 18.2%, respectively). In most habitats, infections were recorded in both cattle and snails. Critical determinants of infection may have been the distance of settlements and/or cattle kraals, the number of animals in nearby homesteads and the presence of susceptible host snails. This study suggests that fascioliasis and amphistomiasis could be major constraints of cattle production in the Kafue wetlands because favourable factors were available to introduce and maintain the infections. It further provides a starting point for some comprehensive studies on snail-related aspects of transmission and snail host ecology in Zambia. PMID:17381873

  13. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  14. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Mumba, Grace Tembo; Gill, Michelle M.; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider’s perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in pilot and national rollout settings, and highlighted important differences in costs that may be observed when moving from pilot to scale-up. PMID:25970443

  15. Intimacy versus Isolation: A Qualitative Study of Sexual Practices among Sexually Active HIV-Infected Patients in HIV Care in Brazil, Thailand, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Sherman, Susan G.; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Friedman, Ruth K.; Limbada, Mohammed; Moore, Ayana T.; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Alves, Carla A.; Roberts, Sarah; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Elharrar, Vanessa; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The success of global treatment as prevention (TasP) efforts for individuals living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is dependent on successful implementation, and therefore the appropriate contribution of social and behavioral science to these efforts. Understanding the psychosocial context of condomless sex among PLWHA could shed light on effective points of intervention. HPTN 063 was an observational mixed-methods study of sexually active, in-care PLWHA in Thailand, Zambia, and Brazil as a foundation for integrating secondary HIV prevention into HIV treatment. From 2010–2012, 80 qualitative interviews were conducted with PLWHA receiving HIV care and reported recent sexual risk. Thirty men who have sex with women (MSW) and 30 women who have sex with men (WSM) participated in equal numbers across the sites. Thailand and Brazil also enrolled 20 biologically-born men who have sex with men (MSM). Part of the interview focused on the impact of HIV on sexual practices and relationships. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated into English and examined using qualitative descriptive analysis. The mean age was 25 (SD = 3.2). There were numerous similarities in experiences and attitudes between MSM, MSW and WSM across the three settings. Participants had a high degree of HIV transmission risk awareness and practiced some protective sexual behaviors such as reduced sexual activity, increased use of condoms, and external ejaculation. Themes related to risk behavior can be categorized according to struggles for intimacy and fears of isolation, including: fear of infecting a sex partner, guilt about sex, sexual communication difficulty, HIV-stigma, and worry about sexual partnerships. Emphasizing sexual health, intimacy and protective practices as components of nonjudgmental sex-positive secondary HIV prevention interventions is recommended. For in-care PLWHA, this approach has the potential to support TasP. The overlap of themes across groups and countries indicates that similar intervention content may be effective for a range of settings. PMID:25793283

  16. Universal combination antiretroviral regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in rural Zambia: a two-round cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Musonda, Patrick; Lembalemba, Mwila K; Chintu, Namwinga T; Gartland, Matthew G; Mulenga, Saziso N; Bweupe, Maximillian; Turnbull, Eleanor; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey SA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate if a pilot programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was associated with changes in early childhood survival at the population level in rural Zambia. Methods Combination antiretroviral regimens were offered to pregnant and breastfeeding, HIV-infected women, irrespective of immunological status, at four rural health facilities. Twenty-four-month HIV-free survival among children born to HIV-infected mothers was determined before and after PMTCT programme implementation using community surveys. Households were randomly selected and women who had given birth in the previous 24 months were asked to participate. Mothers were tested for HIV antibodies and children born to HIV-infected mothers were tested for viral deoxyribonucleic acid. Multivariable models were used to determine factors associated with child HIV infection or death. Findings In the first survey (2008–2009), 335 of 1778 women (18.8%) tested positive for HIV. In the second (2011), 390 of 2386 (16.3%) tested positive. The 24-month HIV-free survival in HIV-exposed children was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.63–0.76) in the first survey and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83–0.94) in the second. Combination antiretroviral regimen use was associated with a lower risk of HIV infection or death in children (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.15–0.73). Maternal knowledge of HIV status, use of HIV tests and use of combination regimens during pregnancy increased between the surveys. Conclusion The PMTCT programme was associated with an increased HIV-free survival in children born to HIV-infected mothers. Maternal utilization of HIV testing and treatment in the community also increased. PMID:25177073

  17. Characterization of HIV Drug Resistance Mutations Among Patients Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy From a Tertiary Referral Center in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Seu, Lillian; Mulenga, Lloyd B.; Siwingwa, Mpanji; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Lambwe, Nason; Guffey, M. Bradford; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2015-01-01

    In settings of resource constraint, an understanding of HIV drug resistance can guide antiretroviral therapy (ART) at switch to second-line therapy. To determine the prevalence of such HIV drug resistance mutations (HIV DRM), we used an in-house sequencing assay in the pol gene (protease and partial reverse transcriptase) in a cohort of patients suspected of failing a first-line regimen, which in Zambia comprises two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Our analysis cohort (n=68) was referred to the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka from November 2009 to October 2012. Median duration on first-line ART to suspected treatment failure was 3.2 years (IQR 1.7–4.7 years). The majority of patients (95%) harbored HIV-1 subtype C virus. Analysis of reverse transcriptase revealed M184V (88%), K103N/S (32%), and Y181C/I/V (41%) DRMs, with the latter conferring reduced susceptibility to the salvage therapy candidates etravirine and rilpivirine. Three patients (5%) had major protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations: all three had the V82A mutation, and one patient (Clade J virus) had a concurrent M46I, Q58E, and L76V DRM. HIV-1 genotyping revealed major and minor DRMs as well as high levels of polymorphisms in subtype C isolates from patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy. Closer monitoring of DRM mutations at first-line failure can inform clinicians about future options for salvage therapy. PMID:25754408

  18. Characterization of HIV drug resistance mutations among patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy from a tertiary referral center in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Seu, Lillian; Mulenga, Lloyd B; Siwingwa, Mpanji; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Lambwe, Nason; Guffey, M Bradford; Chi, Benjamin H

    2015-07-01

    In settings of resource constraint, an understanding of HIV drug resistance can guide antiretroviral therapy (ART) at switch to second-line therapy. To determine the prevalence of such HIV drug resistance mutations (HIV DRM), we used an in-house sequencing assay in the pol gene (protease and partial reverse transcriptase) in a cohort of patients suspected of failing a first-line regimen, which in Zambia comprises two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Our analysis cohort (n?=?68) was referred to the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka from November 2009 to October 2012. Median duration on first-line ART to suspected treatment failure was 3.2 years (IQR 1.7-4.7 years). The majority of patients (95%) harbored HIV-1 subtype C virus. Analysis of reverse transcriptase revealed M184V (88%), K103N/S (32%), and Y181C/I/V (41%) DRMs, with the latter conferring reduced susceptibility to the salvage therapy candidates etravirine and rilpivirine. Three patients (5%) had major protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations: all three had the V82A mutation, and one patient (Clade J virus) had a concurrent M46I, Q58E, and L76V DRM. HIV-1 genotyping revealed major and minor DRMs as well as high levels of polymorphisms in subtype C isolates from patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy. Closer monitoring of DRM mutations at first-line failure can inform clinicians about future options for salvage therapy. J. Med. Virol. 87:1149-1157, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25754408

  19. Short communication: Late refills during the first year of antiretroviral therapy predict mortality and program failure among HIV-infected adults in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Vinikoor, Michael J; Schuttner, Linnaea; Moyo, Crispin; Li, Michelle; Musonda, Patrick; Hachaambwa, Lottie M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the association of the number of late antiretroviral therapy (ART) refills with patient outcomes in a large public-sector human immunodeficiency virus treatment program in Lusaka, Zambia. Using pharmacy data routinely collected during 2004-2010, we calculated the number of late refills during the initial year of ART. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the association between the number of late refills and death or program failure (i.e., death, loss to follow-up, or program withdrawal) >12 months after ART initiation, with and without stratification by the medication possession ratio (MPR) during the initial year of ART. Of 53,015 adults who received ART for ?12 months (median follow-up duration, 86.1 months; interquartile range, 53.2-128.2 months), 26,847 (50.6%) had 0 late refills, 16,762 (31.6%) had 1, 6,505 (12.3%) had 2, and 2,901 (5.5%) had ?3. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that ?3 late refills was associated with a greater mortality risk than 1 and 2 late refills (p<0.001, by the log-rank test). The mortality risk was greater for patients with 2 late refills [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-1.38] or ?3 late refills (adjusted HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.23-1.87), compared with that for patients with 0-1 late refills. Program failure was associated with ?2 late refills. An MPR of <80% was associated with similar increases in mortality risk across late-refill strata. Monitoring late refills during the initial period of ART may help resource- and time-constrained clinics identify patients at risk for program failure. PMID:23924188

  20. Modeling the Impact of Integrating HIV and Outpatient Health Services on Patient Waiting Times in an Urban Health Clinic in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Sarang; Topp, Stephanie M.; Garcia, Ariel; Soldner, Mallory; Yagci Sokat, Kezban; Chipukuma, Julien; Wamulume, Chibesa S.; Reid, Stewart E.; Swann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid scale up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa has refueled the long-standing health policy debate regarding the merits and drawbacks of vertical and integrated system. Recent pilots of integrating outpatient and HIV services have shown an improvement in some patient outcomes but deterioration in waiting times, which can lead to worse health outcomes in the long run. Methods A pilot intervention involving integration of outpatient and HIV services in an urban primary care facility in Lusaka, Zambia was studied. Data on waiting time of patients during two seven-day periods before and six months after the integration were collected using a time and motion study. Statistical tests were conducted to investigate whether the two observation periods differed in operational details such as staffing, patient arrival rates, mix of patients etc. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to facilitate a fair comparison of waiting times before and after integration. The simulation model was also used to develop alternative configurations of integration and to estimate the resulting waiting times. Results Comparison of raw data showed that waiting times increased by 32% and 36% after integration for OPD and ART patients respectively (p<0.01). Using simulation modeling, we found that a large portion of this increase could be explained by changes in operational conditions before and after integration such as reduced staff availability (p<0.01) and longer breaks between consecutive patients (p<0.05). Controlling for these differences, integration of services, per se, would have resulted in a significant decrease in waiting times for OPD and a moderate decrease for HIV services. Conclusions Integrating health services has the potential of reducing waiting times due to more efficient use of resources. However, one needs to ensure that other operational factors such as staff availability are not adversely affected due to integration. PMID:22545108

  1. Trends in all-cause mortality during the scale-up of an antiretroviral therapy programme: a cross-sectional study in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Benjamin H; Kusanthan, Thankian; Chilopa, Batista; Levy, Jens; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Mwaba, Peter; Stringer, Jeffrey SA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To follow the trends in all-cause mortality in Lusaka, Zambia, during the scale-up of a national programme of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Between November 2004 and September 2011, we conducted 12 survey rounds as part of a cross-sectional study in Lusaka, with independent sampling in each round. In each survey, we asked the heads of 3600 households to state the number of deaths in their households in the previous 12 months and the number of orphans aged less than 16 years in their households and investigated the heads’ knowledge, attitudes and practices related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Findings The number of deaths we recorded – per 100 person–years – in each survey ranged from 0.92 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.78–1.09) in September 2011, to 1.94 (95% CI: 1.60–2.35) in March 2007. We found that mortality decreased only modestly each year (mortality rate ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.95–1.00; P?=?0.093). The proportion of households with orphans under the age of 16 years decreased from 17% in 2004 to 7% in 2011. The proportions of respondents who had ever been tested for HIV, had a comprehensive knowledge of HIV, knew where to obtain free ART and reported that a non-pregnant household member was receiving ART gradually increased. Conclusion The expansion of ART services in Lusaka was not associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. Coverage, patient adherence and retention may all have to be increased if ART is to have a robust and lasting impact at population level in Lusaka. PMID:25378727

  2. Conceptual models for Mental Distress among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: A contribution to clinical practice and research in primary-health-care centers in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental distress is common in primary care and overrepresented among Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, but access to effective treatment is limited, particularly in developing countries. Explanatory models (EM) are contextualised explanations of illnesses and treatments framed within a given society and are important in understanding an individual's perspective on the illness. Although individual variations are important in determining help-seeking and treatment behaviour patterns, the ability to cope with an illness and quality of life, the role of explanatory models in shaping treatment preferences is undervalued. The aim was to identify explanatory models employed by HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and to compare them with those employed by local health care providers. Furthermore, we aimed to build a theoretical model linking the perception of mental distress to treatment preferences and coping mechanisms. Methods Qualitative investigation nested in a cross-sectional validation study of 28 (male and female) attendees at four primary care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, between December 2008 and May 2009. Consecutive clinic attendees were sampled on random days and conceptual models of mental distress were examined, using semi-structured interviews, in order to develop a taxonomic model in which each category was associated with a unique pattern of symptoms, treatment preferences and coping strategies. Results Mental distress was expressed primarily as somatic complaints including headaches, perturbed sleep and autonomic symptoms. Economic difficulties and interpersonal relationship problems were the most common causal models among uninfected individuals. Newly diagnosed HIV patients presented with a high degree of hopelessness and did not value seeking help for their symptoms. Patients not receiving anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) questioned their effectiveness and were equivocal about seeking help. Individuals receiving ARV were best adjusted to their status, expressed hope and valued counseling and support groups. Health care providers reported that 40% of mental distress cases were due to HIV infection. Conclusions Patient models concerning mental distress are critical to treatment-seeking decisions and coping mechanisms. Mental health interventions should be further researched and prioritized for HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21219644

  3. Spatio-temporal robustness of fractional cover upscaling: a case study in semi-arid Savannah's of Namibia and Western Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Julian; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Vegetation cover is a key parameter in analyzing the state and dynamics of ecosystems. Africa's semi-arid savanna's are particularly prone to degradation, due to increasing population pressure as well as ongoing climatic changes. In most global land cover classifications inhomogeneous areas are aggregated into few discrete classes, delivering unsatisfying results in highly variable biomes, especially savanna's with their small scale patches of woody and herbaceous vegetation and bare soil. Fractional cover(FC) classifications, which provide an estimate of sub-pixel continuous cover percentages of underlying land cover classes, and are therefore an improved thematic representation, can deliver additional information for monitoring and decision making. Prior research demonstrated that multi-scale approaches are suitable for transferring en-detail information from a small subset to a larger study area via statistical up-scaling (e.g. Random Forest). In this case study the robustness of this up-scaling approach and the limits of the spatial and temporal transferability at the very high and intermediate resolution were analysed in the Caprivi Strip in Namibia and the adjacent Western Province of Zambia. The key research questions were to quantify i) the robustness of the upscaling, ii) the loss of accuracy depending on the lag in image acquisitions, iii) the loss of accuracy dependent on the time of image acquisition in the phenological cycle. To this end 12 Worldview(WV) and all usable Landsat TM and ETM+ images, covering all phases of the vegetation cycle were obtained. The analysis showed that continuous FC mapping is a highly suitable concept for semi-arid ecosystems with gradual transitions. The optimal time for WV acquisition was at the beginning of the dry season. The RMSE was unusable for LS images recorded in the rainy season between November and March, but otherwise it was usable even for larger lags up to a month, with deviations below 15%. As long as the spatial training subset(s) cover the whole occurring range of vegetation densities, comparably small WV scenes are sufficient to reliably scale to regional results.

  4. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications. PMID:25142148

  5. A cost-effective, community-based, mosquito-trapping scheme that captures spatial and temporal heterogeneities of malaria transmission in rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring mosquito population dynamics is essential to guide selection and evaluation of malaria vector control interventions but is typically implemented by mobile, centrally-managed teams who can only visit a limited number of locations frequently enough to capture longitudinal trends. Community-based (CB) mosquito trapping schemes for parallel, continuous monitoring of multiple locations are therefore required that are practical, affordable, effective, and reliable. Methods A CB surveillance scheme, with a monthly sampling and reporting cycle for capturing malaria vectors, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps (LT) and Ifakara Tent Traps (ITT), were conducted by trained community health workers (CHW) in 14 clusters of households immediately surrounding health facilities in rural south-east Zambia. At the end of the study, a controlled quality assurance (QA) survey was conducted by a centrally supervised expert team using human landing catch (HLC), LT and ITT to evaluate accuracy of the CB trapping data. Active surveillance of malaria parasite infection rates amongst humans was conducted by CHWs in the same clusters to determine the epidemiological relevance of these CB entomological surveys. Results CB-LT and CB-ITT exhibited relative sampling efficiencies of 50 and 7%, respectively, compared with QA surveys using the same traps. However, cost per sampling night was lowest for CB-LT ($13.6), followed closely by CB-ITT ($18.0), both of which were far less expensive than any QA survey (HLC: $138, LT: $289, ITT: $269). Cost per specimen of Anopheles funestus captured was lowest for CB-LT ($5.3), followed by potentially hazardous QA-HLC ($10.5) and then CB-ITT ($28.0), all of which were far more cost-effective than QA-LT ($141) and QA-ITT ($168). Time-trends of malaria diagnostic positivity (DP) followed those of An. funestus density with a one-month lag and the wide range of mean DP across clusters was closely associated with mean densities of An. funestus caught by CB-LT (P?

  6. Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) at Zambia defence force facilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Zambian Defence Force (ZDF) is working to improve the quality of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) at its health facilities. This study evaluates the impact of an intervention that included provider training, supportive supervision, detailed performance standards, repeated assessments of service quality, and task shifting of group education to lay workers. Methods Four ZDF facilities implementing the intervention were matched with four comparison sites. Assessors visited the sites before and after the intervention and completed checklists while observing 387 antenatal care (ANC) consultations and 41 group education sessions. A checklist was used to observe facilities’ infrastructure and support systems. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted of findings on provider performance during consultations. Results Among 137 women observed during their initial ANC visit, 52% came during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, but 19% waited until the 28th week or later. Overall scores for providers’ PMTCT skills rose from 58% at baseline to 73% at endline (p=0.003) at intervention sites, but remained stable at 52% at comparison sites. Especially large gains were seen at intervention sites in family planning counseling (34% to 75%, p=0.026), HIV testing during return visits (13% to 48%, p=0.034), and HIV/AIDS management during visits that did not include an HIV test (1% to 34%, p=0.004). Overall scores for providers’ ANC skills rose from 67% to 74% at intervention sites, but declined from 65% to 59% at comparison sites; neither change was significant in the multivariate analysis. Overall scores for group education rose from 87% to 91% at intervention sites and declined from 78% to 57% at comparison sites. The overall facility readiness score rose from 73% to 88% at intervention sites and from 75% to 82% at comparison sites. Conclusions These findings are relevant to civilian as well as military health systems in Zambia because the two are closely coordinated. Lessons learned include: the ability of detailed performance standards to draw attention to and strengthen areas of weakness; the benefits of training lay workers to take over non-clinical PMTCT tasks; and the need to encourage pregnant women to seek ANC early. PMID:24011137

  7. A prospective observational description of frequency and timing of antenatal care attendance and coverage of selected interventions from sites in Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research is one of the largest international networks for testing and generating evidence-based recommendations for improvement of maternal-child health in resource-limited settings. Since 2009, Global Network sites in six low and middle-income countries have collected information on antenatal care practices, which are important as indicators of care and have implications for programs to improve maternal and child health. We sought to: (1) describe the quantity of antenatal care attendance over a four-year period; and (2) explore the quality of coverage for selected preventative, screening, and birth preparedness components. Methods The Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) is a prospective, population-based birth and pregnancy outcomes registry in Global Network sites, including: Argentina, Guatemala, India (Belgaum and Nagpur), Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia. MNHR data from these sites were prospectively collected from January 1, 2010 – December 31, 2013 and analyzed for indicators related to quantity and patterns of ANC and coverage of key elements of recommended focused antenatal care. Descriptive statistics were generated overall by global region (Africa, Asia, and Latin America), and for each individual site. Results Overall, 96% of women reported at least one antenatal care visit. Indian sites demonstrated the highest percentage of women who initiated antenatal care during the first trimester. Women from the Latin American and Indian sites reported the highest number of at least 4 visits. Overall, 88% of women received tetanus toxoid. Only about half of all women reported having been screened for syphilis (49%) or anemia (50%). Rates of HIV testing were above 95% in the Argentina, African, and Indian sites. The Pakistan site demonstrated relatively high rates for birth preparation, but for most other preventative and screening interventions, posted lower coverage rates as compared to other Global Network sites. Conclusions Results from our large, prospective, population-based observational study contribute important insight into regional and site-specific patterns for antenatal care access and coverage. Our findings indicate a quality and coverage gap in antenatal care services, particularly in regards to syphilis and hemoglobin screening. We have identified site-specific gaps in access to, and delivery of, antenatal care services that can be targeted for improvement in future research and implementation efforts. Trial registration Registration at Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475) PMID:26063483

  8. Rural health centres, communities and malaria case detection in Zambia using mobile telephones: a means to detect potential reservoirs of infection in unstable transmission conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information is time sensitive, it is difficult to carry out. In Zambia, the rural health services are operating effectively and for the most part are provided with adequate supplies of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as well as effective drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The tests are administered to all prior to treatment and appropriate records are kept. Data are obtained in a timely manner and distribution of this information is important for the effective management of malaria control operations. The work reported here involves combining the process of positive diagnoses in rural health centres (passive case detection) to help detect potential outbreaks of malaria and target interventions to foci where parasite reservoirs are likely to occur. Methods Twelve rural health centres in the Choma and Namwala Districts were recruited to send weekly information of rapid malaria tests used and number of positive diagnoses to the Malaria Institute at Macha using mobile telephone SMS. Data were entered in excel, expressed as number of cases per rural health centre and distributed weekly to interested parties. Results These data from each of the health centres which were mapped using geographical positioning system (GPS) coordinates were used in a time sensitive manner to plot the patterns of malaria case detection in the vicinity of each location. The data were passed on to the appropriate authorities. The seasonal pattern of malaria transmission associated with local ecological conditions can be seen in the distribution of cases diagnosed. Conclusions Adequate supplies of RDT are essential in health centres and the system can be expanded throughout the country to support strategic targeting of interventions by the National Malaria Control Programme. Participation by the health centre staff was excellent. PMID:20398318

  9. Finding parasites and finding challenges: improved diagnostic access and trends in reported malaria and anti-malarial drug use in Livingstone district, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, to assess the impact of this programmed on malaria reporting, incidence of mortality and on district anti-malarial consumption. Results Reported malaria declined from 12,186 cases in the quarter prior to RDT introduction in 2007 to an average of 12.25 confirmed and 294 unconfirmed malaria cases per quarter over the year to September 2009. Reported malaria-like fever also declined, with only 4,381 RDTs being consumed per quarter over the same year. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero in the year to September 2009, and all-cause mortality declined. Consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) dropped dramatically, but remained above reported malaria, declining from 12,550 courses dispensed by the district office in the quarter prior to RDT implementation to an average of 822 per quarter over the last year. Quinine consumption in health centres also declined, with the district office ceasing to supply due to low usage, but requests for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) rose to well above previous levels, suggesting substitution of ACT with this drug in RDT-negative cases. Conclusions RDT introduction led to a large decline in reported malaria cases and in ACT consumption in Livingstone district. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero, indicating safety of the new diagnostic regime, although adherence and/or use of RDTs was still incomplete. However, a deficiency is apparent in management of non-malarial fever, with inappropriate use of a low-cost single dose drug, SP, replacing ACT. While large gains have been achieved, the full potential of RDTs will only be realized when strategies can be put in place to better manage RDT-negative cases. PMID:23043557

  10. Effects of traditional and discovery instructional approaches on learning outcomes for learners of different intellectual development: A study of chemistry students in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulopo, Moses M.; Seymour Fowler, H.

    This study examined the differential effectiveness of traditional and discovery methods of instruction for the teaching of science concepts, understandings about science, and scientific attitudes, to learners at the concrete and formal level of cognitive development. The dependent variables were achievement, understanding science, and scientific attitude; assessed through the use of the ACS Achievement Test (high school chemistry, Form 1979), the Test on Understanding Science (Form W), and the Test on Scientific Attitude, respectively. Mode of instruction and cognitive development were the independent variables. Subjects were 120 Form IV (11th grade) males enrolled in chemistry classes in Lusaka, Zambia. Sixty of these were concrete reasoners (mean age = 18.23) randomly selected from one of the two schools. The remaining 60 subjects were formal reasoners (mean age 18.06) randomly selected from a second boys' school. Each of these two groups was randomly split into two subgroups with 30 subjects. Traditional and discovery approaches were randomly assigned to the two subgroups of concrete reasoners and to the two subgroups of formal reasoners. Prior to instruction, the subjects were pretested using the ACS Achievement Test, the Test on Understanding Science, and the Test on Scientific Attitude. Subjects received instruction covering eight chemistry topics during approximately 10 weeks. Posttests followed using the same standard tests. Two-way analysis of covariance, with pretest scores serving as covariates was used and 0.05 level of significant was accepted. Tukey WSD technique was used as a follow-up test where applicable. It was found that (1) for the formal reasoners, the discovery group earned significantly higher understanding science scores than the traditional group. For the concrete reasoners mode of instruction did not make a difference; (2) overall, formal reasoners earned significantly higher achievement scores than concrete reasoners; (3) in general, subjects taught by the discovery approach earned significantly higher scientific attitude scores than those taught by the traditional approach. The traditional group outperformed the discovery group in achievement scores. It was concluded that the traditional approach might be an efficient instructional mode for the teaching of scientific facts and principles to high school students, while the discovery approach seemed to be more suitable for teaching scientific attitudes and for promoting understanding about science and scientists among formal operational learners.

  11. Population-Level Scale-Up of Cervical Cancer Prevention Services in a Low-Resource Setting: Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Groesbeck P.; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Kapambwe, Sharon; Muwonge, Richard; Bateman, Allen C.; Blevins, Meridith; Chibwesha, Carla J.; Pfaendler, Krista S.; Mudenda, Victor; Shibemba, Aaron L.; Chisele, Samson; Mkumba, Gracilia; Vwalika, Bellington; Hicks, Michael L.; Vermund, Sten H.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Very few efforts have been undertaken to scale-up low-cost approaches to cervical cancer prevention in low-resource countries. Methods In a public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses provided visual-inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in clinics co-housed with HIV/AIDS programs, and referred women with complex lesions for histopathologic evaluation. Low-cost technological adaptations were deployed for improving VIA detection, facilitating expert physician opinion, and ensuring quality assurance. Key process and outcome indicators were derived by analyzing electronic medical records to evaluate program expansion efforts. Findings Between 2006-2013, screening services were expanded from 2 to 12 clinics in Lusaka, the most-populous province in Zambia, through which 102,942 women were screened. The majority (71.7%) were in the target age-range of 25–49 years; 28% were HIV-positive. Out of 101,867 with evaluable data, 20,419 (20%) were VIA positive, of whom 11,508 (56.4%) were treated with cryotherapy, and 8,911 (43.6%) were referred for histopathologic evaluation. Most women (87%, 86,301 of 98,961 evaluable) received same-day services (including 5% undergoing same-visit cryotherapy and 82% screening VIA-negative). The proportion of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+) among those referred for histopathologic evaluation was 44.1% (1,735/3,938 with histopathology results). Detection rates for CIN2+ and invasive cervical cancer were 17 and 7 per 1,000 women screened, respectively. Women with HIV were more likely to screen positive, to be referred for histopathologic evaluation, and to have cervical precancer and cancer than HIV-negative women. Interpretation We creatively disrupted the 'no screening' status quo prevailing in Zambia and addressed the heavy burden of cervical disease among previously unscreened women by establishing and scaling-up public-sector screening and treatment services at a population level. Key determinants for successful expansion included leveraging HIV/AIDS program investments, and context-specific information technology applications for quality assurance and filling human resource gaps. PMID:25885821

  12. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region. In 2011, the CACB accounted for 7.2 percent of the estimated global mine production of copper. Global production of copper is principally derived from porphyry and sediment-hosted copper deposits (57 and 23 percent, respectively). Almost 50 percent of the copper known to exist in sediment-hosted deposits (past production plus identified resources) is contained in the CACB, 25 percent is contained in the Zechstein Basin of northern Europe, and the remainder is contained in an additional 29 sedimentary basins distributed around the globe. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) led an assessment of undiscovered copper resources in the CACB as part of a global mineral resource assessment for undiscovered resources of potash, copper, and platinum-group elements in selected mineral deposit types. As part of the assessment process, available data for the CACB were compiled and evaluated. This report describes the results of that work, including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits. Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.

  13. Engagement of the community, traditional leaders, and public health system in the design and implementation of a large community-based, cluster-randomized trial of umbilical cord care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Davidson H; Herlihy, Julie M; Musokotwane, Kebby; Banda, Bowen; Mpamba, Chipo; Mwangelwa, Boyd; Pilingana, Portipher; Thea, Donald M; Simon, Jonathon L; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Grogan, Caroline; Semrau, Katherine E A

    2015-03-01

    Conducting research in areas with diverse cultures requires attention to community sensitization and involvement. The process of community engagement is described for a large community-based, cluster-randomized, controlled trial comparing daily 4% chlorhexidine umbilical cord wash to dry cord care for neonatal mortality prevention in Southern Province, Zambia. Study preparations required baseline formative ethnographic research, substantial community sensitization, and engagement with three levels of stakeholders, each necessitating different strategies. Cluster-specific birth notification systems developed with traditional leadership and community members using community-selected data collectors resulted in a post-natal home visit within 48 hours of birth in 96% of births. Of 39,679 pregnant women enrolled (93% of the target of 42,570), only 3.7% were lost to follow-up or withdrew antenatally; 0.2% live-born neonates were lost by day 28 of follow-up. Conducting this trial in close collaboration with traditional, administrative, political, and community stakeholders facilitated excellent study participation, despite structural and sociocultural challenges. PMID:25646254

  14. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global Mineral Resource Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  15. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  16. New U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Choma-Kalomo Block (Zambia) and the Dete-Kamativi Inlier (Zimbabwe), with implications for the extent of the Zimbabwe Craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Sarah; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Master, Sharad; Frei, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The Choma-Kalomo Block is a north-east trending, Mesoproterozoic terrane located in southern Zambia. It is composed of as yet undated gneissic basement with a high-grade metamorphosed supracrustal metasedimentary sequence, which is intruded by hornblende granites and gneisses of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith, that is dated between ca. 1.37 and 1.18 Ga. Our new zircon U-Pb age data on metasedimentary rocks of the Choma-Kalomo Block identifies samples of different ages, with slightly different provenances. The oldest metasedimentary rock is a muscovite-biotite schist, which has only Palaeoproterozoic detrital zircons, the two age clusters around 2.03-2.02 Ga and 1.8-1.9 Ga, correspond to the ages of granitic intrusion, and metamorphism, in the Magondi Mobile Belt on the western side of the Archaean Zimbabwe Craton. The second sample is a garnetiferous paragneiss, which contains both Palaeoproterozoic (2.04 Ga), and Mesoproterozoic zircons, ca. 1.36 Ga, derived from the granites of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith. The third sample is a biotite-muscovite schist, in which the detrital zircon ages fall into four separate clusters: ca. 3.39 Ga, ca. 2.7-2.6 Ga, ca. 2.1-1.7 Ga (with a peak at ca. 1.18 Ga), and 1.55 - 1.28 Ga. The Archaean zircons in this sample are derived from the Zimbabwe Craton, while the Palaeoproterozoic samples come from the Magondi belt, and the youngest zircons come from both phases of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith. A possible connection between the Choma-Kalomo Block and the Dete-Kamativi Inlier - some 150 km to the south-east in western Zimbabwe - has been proposed on the basis of similarities in the nature of their Sn-Ta-muscovite pegmatite mineralisation. The Dete-Kamativi Inlier, which is part of the Magondi Mobile Belt, is a window into Palaeoproterozoic north-east trending belts of deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal rocks. By dating localities which we suspect form the basement to the surrounding younger sediments, along with selected pegmatites from within the inlier itself; we have concluded that the Choma-Kalomo Block and Dete-Kamativi Inlier are, in fact, coeval. Preliminary results for a number of these granites and gneisses give ages between 2.05 and 2.02 Ga; correlating well with the 2.03-2.02 Ga ages of detrital zircons from the Choma-Kalomo Block. While these basement rocks are not Archaean in age, we have identified Archaean aged zircons in both the Choma-Kalomo Block and the Dete-Kamativi Inlier, making them the Western most occurrences of Archaean granitoids, implying that the Zimbabwe Craton extends much further west under the Magondi Belt than previously thought.

  17. A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Kaona, Frederick AD; Tuba, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. Methods A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focuss Group Discussions (FGDs) guides to collect information from four (4) villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, tradtional birth attendants, church leaders and black smiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. Results Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29) and participants (69 out of 97) mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants reported that treatment of severe malaria commenced with the family and moved into the community as the illness progressed. Although treatment of severe diarrheal effects, were common among the winamwanga, no rectal medicines to treat severe malaria were identified. Apart from the anti-malarial fansidar, which was mentioned by 23 in IDIs and 40 in FGDs, participants and informants also frequently mentioned indigenous medicines provided by healers and other respectable herbalists for repelling evil spirits, once a child had severe malaria. Mothers were the important arms for administration of ant-malarial drugs in the villages. Referrals began with healers to CHWs, where no CHWs existed healers directly referred sick children to the health facility. Conclusion Our findings showed that there is a precedent for rectal application of traditional medicine for childhood illness. Therefore rectal artesunate may be a well-received intervention in Nakonde District, provided effective sensitisation, to mothers and CHWs is given which will strengthen the health care delivery system at community level. PMID:15792501

  18. Social consequences of introducing donkeys into Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoda Mofya

    The introduction of donkey traction into Zambian small scale farming communities has received a very positive response. The current social and economic difficulties faced by small-scale farmers have made the donkey an important resource in agricultural production. Cattle, which in most areas were the only draft animals, have been affected by many problems in recent years. Many individual households have

  19. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Conzelmann; V. Koritarov; W. Buehring; T. Veselka

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA

  20. Background Paper: Politics and Interactive Media in Zambia

    E-print Network

    Simutanyi, Neo; Fraser, Alastair; Milapo, Nalukui

    2015-06-23

    areas. It was then used during the Second World War for wider educational and administrative purposes. Broadcasting began in Northern Rhodesia through an experiment using low power transmitters at Broken Hill (now Kabwe). The plan initially... strong signal reception across all rural areas. While the national broadcaster had regional repeater transmitter stations in each province, reaching 80 per cent of territory, and installed additional antennae in October 2008, signal reception has...

  1. Teacher Shocks and Student Learning: Evidence from Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila

    2007-01-01

    A large literature examines the link between shocks to households and the educational attainment of children. We use new panel data to estimate the impact of shocks to teachers on student learning in Mathematics and English. Using absenteeism in the 30 days preceding the survey as a measure of these shocks, we find no impact for the full sample,…

  2. Long-Term Feasibility of Agriculture in Zambia

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    to 2008 1 #12; Methods #12;Evapotranspiration (ET): Plant Water Use Two components: Transpiration from the plants Evaporation from the soil Depends on: Crop's development Relative Humidity Pressure Wind to the length of the drought. By looking at the relative transpiration of the crop (Actual/Potential) P

  3. Burn prevention in Zambia: a work in progress.

    PubMed

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both burn prevention knowledge and the effectiveness of educational intervention in alleviating the current knowledge deficit in Zambian youth. In one rural Zambian district, a burn prevention program was implemented in June 2011. Children at two elementary schools completed a 10-question survey that aimed to assess knowledge regarding burn injuries. After completing the survey, children received a burn and fire safety presentation and a burn prevention coloring book. Children were reassessed in May 2012 using the same survey to determine program efficacy and knowledge retention. Burn knowledge assessments were also completed for children at other schools who did not receive the burn prevention program in 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used for statistical adjustment for confounding variables. Between June 2011 and May 2012, 2747 children from six schools were assessed for their burn knowledge, with 312 of them resurveyed after educational intervention since initial survey. Reassessed children performed significantly better on three questions after controlling for confounders. They did better on five questions but their performance on these failed to achieve statistical significance. Children performed significantly worse on one concept about first aid treatment of a burn. A majority of the children demonstrated knowledge deficit in three concepts, even after educational intervention. There is a large variation in first burn knowledge survey performance of children from different schools, with inconsistency between concepts. With half the questions, knowledge deficit did not improve with advancement in school grade. Low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs) face the largest burns burden. With the lack of adequate burn care facing LMICs, burn injury prevention is of particular importance in those countries. This study shows that burn educational intervention could be effective in reducing burn knowledge deficit; however, the residual deficit posteducation could still be large and potentially contributing to heightened burn injury incidence. Customized and integrated educational programs may be proposed regarding the epidemiological profile of burn knowledge deficit from various schools. This study represents one of the few reports on the effectiveness of a burn prevention program in an LMIC. Future epidemiological data will be needed from nearby healthcare facilities to determine whether this program decreased burn morbidity and mortality at the hospital level. PMID:24043246

  4. Zambia's food system: multiple sites of power and intersecting governances 

    E-print Network

    Abrahams, Caryn N

    2010-11-26

    on economic restructuring and the way supermarkets and agribusiness firms increasingly transform African food economies. This thesis is an empirically grounded research endeavour that presents insights about key dynamics in the domestic food system in urban...

  5. Epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Simuunza; William Weir; Emily Courcier; Andy Tait; Brian Shiels

    2011-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a constraint to livestock production in many developing countries as they cause high morbidity and mortality, which results in decreased production of meat, milk and other livestock by-products. The most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa are East Coast fever (caused by Theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by Babesia bigemina and B. bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by

  6. Use of Space Technology in Flood Mitigation (Western Province, Zambia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulando, A.

    2001-05-01

    Disasters, by definition are events that appear suddenly and with little warning. They are usually short lived, with extreme events bringing death, injury and destruction of buildings and communications. Their aftermath can be as damaging as their physical effects through destruction of sanitation and water supplies, destruction of housing and breakdown of transport for food, temporary shelter and emergency services. Since floods are one of the natural disasters which endanger both life and property, it becomes vital to know its extents and where the hazards exists. Flood disasters manifest natural processes on a larger scale and information provided by Remote Sensing is a most appropriate input to analysis of actual events and investigations of potential risks. An analytical and qualitative image processing and interpretation of Remotely Sensed data as well as other data such as rainfall, population, settlements not to mention but a few should be used to derive good mitigation strategies. Since mitigation is the cornerstone of emergency management, it therefore becomes a sustained action that will reduce or eliminate long term risks to people and property from natural hazards such as floods and their effects. This will definitely involve keeping of homes and other sensitive structures away from flood plains. Promotion of sound land use planning based on this known hazard, "FLOODS" is one such form of mitigation that can be applied in flood affected areas within flood plain. Therefore future mitigation technologies and procedures should increasingly be based on the use of flood extent information provided by Remote Sensing Satellites like the NOAA AVHRR as well as information on the designated flood hazard and risk areas.

  7. Burn prevention in Zambia: a targeted epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess primary burn prevention knowledge in a rural Zambian population that is disproportionately burdened by burn injuries. A 10-question survey was completed by youths, and a 15-question survey was completed by adults. The survey was available in both English and Nyanja. The surveys were designed to test their knowledge in common causes, first aid, and emergency measures regarding burn injuries. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between burn knowledge, age, school, and socioeconomic variables. A burn prevention coloring book, based on previous local epidemiological data, was also distributed to 800 school age youths. Five hundred fifty youths and 39 adults completed the survey. The most significant results show knowledge deficits in common causes of burns, first aid treatment of a burn injury, and what to do in the event of clothing catching fire. Younger children were more likely to do worse than older children. The adults performed better than the youths, but still lack fundamental burn prevention and treatment knowledge. Primary burn prevention data from the youths and adults surveyed demonstrate a clear need for burn prevention and treatment education in this population. In a country where effective and sustainable burn care is lacking, burn prevention may be a better investment to reduce burn injury than large investments in healthcare resources. PMID:23292574

  8. Use of Space Technology in Flood Mitigation (Western Province, Zambia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mulando

    2001-01-01

    Disasters, by definition are events that appear suddenly and with little warning. They are usually short lived, with extreme events bringing death, injury and destruction of buildings and communications. Their aftermath can be as damaging as their physical effects through destruction of sanitation and water supplies, destruction of housing and breakdown of transport for food, temporary shelter and emergency services.

  9. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  10. Pupils' Projects from Zambia. Third World Science. A Collection of Third Form Science Projects from Lubushi Seminary, Kasama, Zambia as Written and Drawn by the Pupils Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. of North Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Education.

    The Third World Science Project (TWSP) is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless facination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere; application of knowledge…

  11. Cost escalation and schedule delays in road construction projects in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chabota Kaliba; Mundia Muya; Kanyuka Mumba

    2009-01-01

    The wealth of any nation is gauged by its performance in infrastructure provision through its construction industry. The construction industry is large, volatile, and requires tremendous capital outlays. For developing economies, road construction constitutes a major component of the construction industry. This means that much of the national budget on infrastructure development is channelled to road construction projects. The aim

  12. Gender-based violence against female pupils at a high school in northern Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R E Mtonga

    2010-01-01

    SummaryGender-based violence was commonly directed against female pupils by teachers and male pupils using non-consensual sex, corporal punishment and abusive language. The victims didn't report the matter for fear of reprisals.ResultsThe pupils were aged between 10 and 21 years (with majority between 16 and 20 years old) and equal gender representation. 29 (58%) pupils reported being sexually abused by teachers,

  13. Investigation into the ecology of trypanosomiasis in the Lungawa Valley, Zambia 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Neil Euan

    2009-01-01

    keeping is almost non-existent due to losses from trypanosomiasis and predation by wild animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecology of trypanosomiasis in this mult-host wildlife community, relatively free from anthropogenic influences...

  14. Preservation and Conservation of Information Resources in the University of Zambia Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    Preservation and conservation of library materials is an important aspect of library and information management. Their importance and necessity are more paramount in countries where resources are limited and libraries need to balance them with the needs of an ever increasing number of students hoping to use them. This article reports on the…

  15. Comparative outcomes of tenofovir- and zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy regimens in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Benjamin H.; Mwango, Albert; Giganti, Mark J.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Moyo, Crispin; Schuttner, Linnaea; Mulenga, Lloyd B.; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Chintu, Namwinga T.; Sheneberger, Robert; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although tenofovir (TDF) is a common component of antiretroviral therapy (ART), recent evidence suggests inferior outcomes when it is combined with nevirapine (NVP). Methods We compared outcomes among patients initiating TDF+emtricitabine or lamivudine (XTC)+NVP, TDF+XTC+efavirenz (EFV), zidovudine (ZDV)+lamuvidine (3TC)+NVP, and ZDV+3TC+EFV. We categorized drug exposure by initial ART dispensation, by a time-varying analysis that accounted for drug substitutions, and by predominant exposure (>75% of drug dispensations) during an initial window period. Risks for death and program failure were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. All were regimens were compared to ZDV+3TC+NVP. Results Between July 2007 and November 2010, 18,866 treatment-naïve adults initiated ART: 18.2% on ZDV+3TC+NVP, 1.8% on ZDV+3TC+EFV, 36.2% on TDF+XTC+NVP, and 43.8% on TDF+XTC+EFV. When exposure was categorized by initial prescription, patients on TDF+XTC+NVP (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]:1.45; 95%CI:1.03–2.06) had a higher post-90 day mortality. TDF+XTC+NVP was also associated with an elevated risk for mortality when exposure was categorized as time-varying (AHR:1.51; 95%CI:1.18–1.95) or by predominant exposure over the first 90 days (AHR:1.91, 95%CI:1.09–3.34). However, these findings were not consistently observed across sensitivity analyses or when program failure was used as a secondary outcome. Conclusion TDF+XTC+NVP was associated with higher mortality when compared to ZDV+3TC+NVP, but not consistently across sensitivity analyses. These findings may be explained in part by inherent limitations to our retrospective approach, including residual confounding. Further research is urgently needed to compare the effectiveness of ART regimens in use in resource-constrained settings. PMID:21857354

  16. Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald W. Shea; Barbara W. Shea; J. Boone Kauffman; Darold E. Ward; Craig I. Haskins; Mary C. Scholes

    1996-01-01

    Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites,

  17. Comparing rich and poor: Burn prevention in Wales, Pakistan, India, Botswana and Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hodgins; Tom Potokar; Patricia Price

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundWorldwide, over 95% of fire-related burns occur in ‘low and middle income countries’ (LMIC) [1]. The majority of research, investment and expertise into the prevention and treatment of burns occurs in high income countries (HIC) [2]. Bearing that in mind, this study was conducted in four different LMIC and one HIC, with a view to comparing the knowledge of, and

  18. Participatory Appropriation of Health Science by Primary School Students in Rural Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwape, Gertrude; Serpell, Robert

    The Child-to-Child (CtC) project involved school-age African children in monitoring younger children's weight and health (since much of the daily infant care in Africa is performed by preadolescents). CtC emphasizes local autonomy and is based on respect for children as morally responsible community members with a basic right to health and…

  19. Emplacing Displacement: Cultural Landscapes of Refugee-hosting in Ukwimi, Zambia

    E-print Network

    Gray, Angela M.

    2009-09-15

    and information ? Dominic Minyoi, Eularia Zulu-Syamujaye, Brian Harrigan, Allan Musumali, Jere Getachew, and Maniford Mulongo. When it comes to expressing my gratitude to the people of Ukwimi, I can not even begin to put into words the number and the ways...

  20. Elephants, people, parks and development: the case of the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Abel; Piers Blaikie

    1986-01-01

    New ideas about conserving wildlife are emerging to compete with conventional national park policies. But methods of analyzing wildlife conservation problems in Africa are inadequate for the analysis of complex issues of policy. Much of the analysis of conservation policy attempts to be ‘apolitical’ on issues charged with social conflict. Analyses are too often ahistorical when history can say a

  1. Ecology and productivity of an African wetland system: The Kafue, Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenbroek, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the main ecological processes in African floodplain grasslands. It researches the structure of the various types of grasslands, and their correlation with the environmental factors operating in the floodplain ecosystem. From detailed measurements of structure and biomass it estimates primary production in various habitats. It also surveys the impact of disturbing factors like grazing and fires and discusses the year to year variation in the ecosystems.

  2. The Quality of Science in Participatory Research: A Case Study from Eastern Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abiud C. Mwale; Jennifer S. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    Recent discourse in the development field has been directed to the question of how to maintain and enhance the quality of science in agricultural research using participatory methods. Discussion has also focused on the question of how to combine microlevel research\\/extension efforts using participatory methods with scientific methods employing rigorous and statistical testing techniques. Is there a tradeoff between researchers'

  3. An evaluation of a refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in Chongwe District, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Msisuka; Ikuma Nozaki; Kazuhiro Kakimoto; Motoko Seko; Mercy M S Ulaya

    2011-01-01

    To address a severe shortage of human resources for health, the Zambian Ministry of Health has begun to make use of lay counsellors for HIV counselling and testing. However, their skills and knowledge rarely have been reviewed or refreshed. We conducted a two-day refresher workshop for lay counsellors to review their performance and refresh their skills and knowledge. The objective

  4. Widows' land security in the era of HIV/AIDS: panel survey evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, T S; Mason, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    In areas of Africa hard hit by HIV/AIDS, there are growing concerns that many women lose access to land after the death of their husbands. However, there remains a dearth of quantitative evidence on the proportion of widows who lose access to their deceased husband's land, whether they lose all or part of that land, and whether there are factors specific to the widow, her family, or the broader community that influence her ability to maintain rights to land. This study examines these issues using average treatment effects models with propensity score matching applied to a nationally representative panel data of 5,342 rural households surveyed in 2001 and 2004. Results are highly variable, with roughly a third of households incurring the death of a male household head controlling less than 50% of the land they had prior to their husband's death, while over a quarter actually controlled as much or even more land than while their husbands were alive. Widows who were in relatively wealthy households prior to their husband's death lose proportionately more land than widows in households that were relatively poor. Older widows and widows related to the local headman enjoy greater land security. Women in matrilineal inheritance areas were no less likely to lose land than women in patrilineal areas. PMID:21744545

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (5) The corn may be imported in commercial consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ) for consumption measuring 10 to 18 millimeters (0.39 to 0.71 inches) in diameter and 50 to 105...

  6. An overview of Disability and HIV\\/AIDS Response in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillimon Simwaba

    This study was primarily carried out in order to assess the participation of people with disabilities in HIV and AIDS interventions and policy formulations and to identify barriers that limit the participation of people with disabilities in HIV and AIDS interventions. Therefore, the purpose of the survey was to collect relevant and reliable information that underpins assertions of exclusion of

  7. Genetic diversity and performance of maize varieties from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi 

    E-print Network

    Magorokosho, Cosmos

    2007-04-25

    maize arrived in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with such names as Boone County, Leaming, Golden King, Iowa Silver Mine, Hickory King and Horsetooth (Weinamann, 1972). Many of these varieties were characterized by large... such as Hickory King and Horsetooth that were introduced into the region by the British from the late nineteenth century (Weinamann, 1972). Depending on the farming area, different kernel textures are chosen by different groups of farmers. In Malawi and some...

  8. VILLAGE--A Minimum Structure Simulation Game Developed for Agricultural Extension Training in Central Africa (Zambia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall, Frank

    1984-01-01

    Discusses training needs of agricultural students and the process, activities, and resources utilized by a simulation game designed to encourage development of appropriate conflict resolution and communications skills and to create awareness of agricultural extension needs. Summarizes results of field test evaluation of VILLAGE and deficiencies in…

  9. Seasonal population densities of snails transmitting urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hira, P R

    1975-03-01

    The two molluscan intermediate hosts of S. haematobium schistosomiasis: Bulinus africanus and Bulinus globosus, were found most commonly in habitats that retained water for a substantial part of the year rather than in temporary rain-filled pools. Biomphalaria pfeifferi which transmits S. mansoni were found principally in streams and impoundments like dams but scarce in rivers. In a permanent habitat, the peak density of snails was between the warm, dry months of August and September while in a temporary habitat B. (Physopsis) sp. were most abundant towards the end of the rainy season in March and April. The influence of rainfall and the prevailing the temperature on the fluctuations in the density of snails populations is considered. Further, the low infection rate in snails found in the field is discussed in relation to the critical effect of temperature on this feature. The problem of increasing migration of rural inhabitants to the peri-urban areas and the possible escalation of prevalence rates is considered in relation to the control measures that may be instituted in view of the substantial body of base-line data now available to effect focal control. PMID:1169833

  10. Popularization of Science. Report of a Commonwealth Regional Workshop (Lusaka, Zambia, April 15-19, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    The workshop on the popularization of science was the first of what the organizing institutions hoped would be a series of workshops on this important theme. It was held to complement the efforts of various institutions and organizations in the whole area of technological acculturation so that the benefits of science may be understood by and…

  11. Inductive Reasoning in Zambia, Turkey, and the Netherlands Establishing Cross-Cultural Equivalence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Administered tasks of inductive reasoning to 704 Zambian, 877 Turkish, and 632 Dutch students from the highest 2 grades of primary and the lowest 2 grades of secondary school. Results show strong evidence for structural equivalence and partial evidence for measurement unit equivalence, but did not support full score equivalence. (SLD)

  12. Financing smallholder agribusiness in Zambia: an economic analysis of the ZATAC model 

    E-print Network

    Mwanamambo, Brian Namushi

    2009-05-15

    by the lender and how these have been adapted to suit seasonal agricultural production credit requirements. Econometric models are developed to examine the influence of key economic factors such as nominal and real interest rates, loan fees, and loan term...

  13. Detrital bornite grains in the late precambrian B graywacke of Mufulira, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pier L. Binda

    1975-01-01

    Matrix-rich samples of the Mufulira B graywacke contain discrete grains of bornite of detrital origin, and bornite-bearing rock fragments of igneous, plutonic composition. This finding is consistent with previous reports of copper sulphide concentrations in sedimentary structures of arenites, and poses the question of the relative role of clastic sedimentation as an ore-forming process in the Zambian Copperbelt.

  14. Analysis of the level of comprehension of chemical hazard labels: A case for Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel F. Banda; Kwenga Sichilongo

    2006-01-01

    We have surveyed the impact of chemical hazard label elements on four target sectors, i.e. the agricultural, industrial, transport and the consumer (the general public) sectors, in order to assess the type of reactions the respondents perceive to a given chemical label element such as symbol, hazard phrase, color, and hazard signal word. The survey revealed that the level of

  15. Preventive HIV/AIDS education through physical education: reflections from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Njelesani, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development. PMID:21949950

  16. Poverty, Physical Stature, and Cognitive Skills: Mechanisms Underlying Children's School Enrollment in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Fink, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests robust positive associations between household socioeconomic status and children's early cognitive development in Western countries. Relatively little is known about these relations in low-income country settings characterized by economic adversity, high prevalence of malnutrition and infectious disease, and relatively lower…

  17. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    P a g e | 1 ZAMBIA HUMAN RESOURCES FOR TREATING NEW CANCER CASES IN ZAMBIA Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to describe the human resources needed in Zambia to treat new cancer patients. The population of Zambia is approximately

  18. Evaluation of endocrine disruptor levels in Kafue Lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Blue Lagoon National Park of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sichilongo, Kwenga; Torto, Nelson

    2009-12-01

    The concentrations of endocrine disruptors were determined in 36 liver tissue, serum and whole blood sample extracts drawn from 15 Blue Lagoon National Park Kafue lechwe. Out of 10 analytes evaluated, 89% of the sample extracts showed very high dieldrin concentrations of between 0.08–100 ?g/mL in serum, 0.08–24.8 ?g/mL in whole blood and 0.08–4.6 ?g/g wet weight in liver tissue extracts. pp-DDE was detected in 83% of the sample extracts at 0.006–5.1 ?g/mL in serum, 0.006–8.5 ?g/mL in whole blood and 0.006–0.12 ?g/g wet weight in liver tissue extracts. There was strong correlation between pp-DDE and dieldrin in all the three matrices. Deltamethrin and endosulfan detected at 50% frequency each. Percent recoveries in spiked laboratory blanks ranged between 60–100% while calculated detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.21 ?g/mL for all the endocrine disruptors evaluated. PMID:19669681

  19. Use of task-shifting to rapidly scale-up HIV treatment services: experiences from Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary B Morris; Bushimbwa Tambatamba Chapula; Benjamin H Chi; Albert Mwango; Harmony F Chi; Joyce Mwanza; Handson Manda; Carolyn Bolton; Debra S Pankratz; Jeffrey SA Stringer; Stewart E Reid

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization advocates task-shifting, the process of delegating clinical care functions from more specialized to less specialized health workers, as a strategy to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. However, there is a dearth of literature describing task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, where services for antiretroviral therapy (ART) have scaled up rapidly in the face of generalized

  20. Trade Policy Options for a Food-Security Commodity in Southern Africa: A Case Study of Maize in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Gallagher

    2012-01-01

    We examine the performance of maize import policy options in one of the poorest countries in Southern Africa. The results are shaped by unique features of Zambia’s maize market: production that is limited by risk and highly variable returns, and local marketing margins that increase with imports and limit consumer trade gains. Results suggest that the market-stabilizing protection with the

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO...immediately prohibit that greenhouse from exporting baby...prohibition will remain in effect until the Zambian NPPO... (2) Outside the greenhouse. (i) Approved...

  6. Environmental Impacts of China Outward Foreign Direct Investment: Case Studies in Latin America, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Zambia

    E-print Network

    Al-Aameri, Nour; Fu, Lingxiao; Garcia, Nicole; Mak, Ryan; McGill, Caitlin; Reynolds, Amanda; Vinze, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    ,200 Quadra Metals Copper Chile 2010 July Huawei $480 2Wire TechnologyTelecom USA 2010 August China Railway $790 Transport Rail Angola 2010 August Huawei $1,300 Motorola TechnologyTelecom USA 2010 August CIC $690 Morgan Stanley Finance Banking USA 2010... October China Railway Construction $620 Transport Rail Saudi Arabi 2010 November Huawei and ZTE $5,000 Sprint TechnologyTelecom USA 2011 February CNPC $5,390 EnCana Energy Gas Canada 2011 March China Gezhouba $840 Real Estate Libya 2011 March China Railway...

  7. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of < 10 kbar, while decompression melting of rising asthenospheric mantle ponding at the base of the crust heated, and ultimately melted, crustal material. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat production of the thickened crust, and is in agreement with the high radioactivity of the pluton. A tectono-thermal model where crustal accretion is accompanied by slab retreat and lithospheric mantle thinning, can reconcile coeval orogenic contraction in the crust and A-type magmatism. The emplacement of the Hook Batholith further supports the idea that A-type granites, commonly considered to be restricted to extension-related environments, can also occur in compressional regimes.

  8. Community Health Workers Use Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) Safely and Accurately: Results of a Longitudinal Study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Counihan, Helen; Harvey, Steven A.; Sekeseke-Chinyama, Masela; Hamainza, Busiku; Banda, Rose; Malambo, Thindo; Masaninga, Freddie; Bell, David

    2012-01-01

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could radically improve febrile illness management in remote and low-resource populations. However, reliance upon community health workers (CHWs) remains controversial because of concerns about blood safety and appropriate use of artemisinin combination therapy. This study assessed CHW ability to use RDTs safely and accurately up to 12 months post-training. We trained 65 Zambian CHWs, and then provided RDTs, job-aids, and other necessary supplies for village use. Observers assessed CHW performance at 3, 6, and 12 months post-training. Critical steps performed correctly increased from 87.5% at 3 months to 100% subsequently. However, a few CHWs incorrectly read faint positive or invalid results as negative. Although most indicators improved or remained stable over time, interpretation of faint positives fell to 76.7% correct at 12 months. We conclude that appropriately trained and supervised CHWs can use RDTs safely and accurately in community practice for up to 12 months post-training. PMID:22764292

  9. Sediment accumulation and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus deposition in the large tropical reservoir Lake Kariba (Zambia/Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Manuel J.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Wüest, Alfred; Wehrli, Bernhard; Vollenweider, Adrian; Thüring, Silvan; Senn, David B.

    2011-09-01

    Large dams affect the aquatic continuum from land to ocean by accumulating particles and nutrients in their reservoirs. We examined sediment cores to quantify sediment, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) accumulation, and to examine historic changes and spatial variability in the sedimentation pattern in Lake Kariba, the largest hydropower reservoir in the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Sediment characteristics (concentrations of OC, N, P; ?13C and ?15N; wet bulk density) showed large variability both with sediment depth and between cores. While organic matter (OM) in river deltas was primarily allochthonous in origin, OM characteristics (?13C, C:N) in lacustrine sediments suggest that autochthonous sources account for >45% of the OM that accumulates over large areas of the lake. At the same time, the relative contribution of allochthonous material within individual layers of lacustrine cores varied considerably with depth due to discrete flood deposits. The overall sediment accumulation rate in Lake Kariba is on the order of 4 × 106 t yr-1, and the estimated OC accumulation of 120 × 103 t C yr-1 accounts for ˜1‰ of globally buried OC in reservoirs. In addition, mass balance calculations revealed that approximately 70% and 90% of incoming total N and P, respectively, are eliminated from the water column by sedimentation (N, P) and denitrification (N). Since Lake Kariba attenuates flow from ˜50% of the ZRB, these OC, N, and P removals represent a drastic reduction in nutrient loadings to downstream riparian ecosystems and to the coastal Indian Ocean.

  10. A pilot study of food supplementation to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among food insecure adults in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Ronald A.; Sinkala, Moses; Megazinni, Karen; Lawson-Marriott, Sibi; Washington, Sierra; Chi, Benjamin H.; Tambatamba-Chapula, Bushimbwa; Levy, Jens; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Mulenga, Lloyd; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The provision of food supplementation to food insecure patients initiating antiretroviral therapy may improve adherence to medications. Methods: A home-based adherence support program at 8 government clinics assessed patients for food insecurity. 4 clinics provided food supplementation and 4 acted as controls. The analysis compared adherence (assessed by medication possession ratio [MPR]), CD4, and weight gain outcomes among food insecure patients enrolled at the food clinics to those of controls. Results: Between May 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005, 636 food insecure adults were enrolled. Food supplementation was associated with better adherence to therapy. 258 of 366 (70%) of patients in the food group achieved an MPR of 95% or greater versus 79 of 166 (48%) among controls (relative risk, RR=1.5; 95%CI:1.2-1.8). This finding was unchanged after adjustment for sex, age, baseline CD4 count, baseline WHO stage, and baseline hemoglobin. We did not observe a significant effect of food supplementation on weight gain or CD4 cell response. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that providing food to food insecure patients initiating ART is feasible and may improve adherence to medication. A large randomized study of the clinical benefits of food supplementation to ART patients is urgently needed to inform international policy. PMID:18769349

  11. 76 FR 37055 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...collection associated with regulations for the importation of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. DATES:...

  12. A verbal audit to determine the consequences of domestic violence among 50 women at a shelter for abused women in Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R E Mtonga

    2010-01-01

    Summary50 women were enlisted with ages ranging between 18 and 49 years Verbal threats physical beatings, verbal abuse and non-consensual sexual intercourse were the forms Domestic violence took.MethodA semistructured schedule based on Convenience sampling Method was used. The 50 women were drawn from a drop-in centre for abused women in Lusaka.Results29 out of 50 or 58% were married, 7 or

  13. Efficacy of WHO recommendation for continued breastfeeding and maternal cART for prevention of perinatal and postnatal HIV transmission in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Ngoma, Mary S; Misir, Amita; Mutale, Wilbroad; Rampakakis, Emmanuoil; Sampalis, John S; Elong, Angela; Chisele, Sam; Mwale, Abel; Mwansa, Jonathan K; Mumba, Scholastica; Chandwe, Mula; Pilon, Richard; Sandstrom, Paul; Wu, Samantha; Yee, Kristen; Silverman, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in developing countries, new World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy, throughout breastfeeding for 1 year and then cessation of breastfeeding (COB). The efficacy of this approach during the first six months of exclusive breastfeeding has been demonstrated, but the efficacy of this approach beyond six months is not well documented. Methods A prospective observational cohort study of 279 HIV-positive mothers was started on zidovudine/3TC and lopinavir/ritonavir tablets between 14 and 30 weeks gestation and continued indefinitely thereafter. Women were encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for six months, complementary feed for the next six months and then cease breastfeeding between 12 and 13 months. Infants were followed for transmission to 18 months and for survival to 24 months. Text message reminders and stipends for food and transport were utilized to encourage adherence and follow-up. Results Total MTCT was 9 of 219 live born infants (4.1%; confidence interval (CI) 2.2–7.6%). All breastfeeding transmissions that could be timed (5/5) occurred after six months of age. All mothers who transmitted after six months had a six-month plasma viral load >1,000 copies/ml (p<0.001). Poor adherence to cART as noted by missed dispensary visits was associated with transmission (p=0.04). Infant mortality was lower after six months of age than during the first six months of life (p=0.02). The cumulative rate of infant HIV infection or death at 18 months was 29/226 (12.8% 95 CI: 7.5–20.8%). Conclusions Maternal cART may limit MTCT of HIV to the UNAIDS target of <5% for eradication of paediatric HIV within the context of a clinical study, but poor adherence to cART and follow-up can limit the benefit. Continued breastfeeding can prevent the rise in infant mortality after six months seen in previous studies, which encouraged early COB. PMID:26140453

  14. Monitoring, characterization and control of chronic, symptomatic malaria infections in rural Zambia through monthly household visits by paid community health workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Active, population-wide mass screening and treatment (MSAT) for chronic Plasmodium falciparum carriage to eliminate infectious reservoirs of malaria transmission have proven difficult to apply on large national scales through trained clinicians from central health authorities. Methodology Fourteen population clusters of approximately 1,000 residents centred around health facilities (HF) in two rural Zambian districts were each provided with three modestly remunerated community health workers (CHWs) conducting active monthly household visits to screen and treat all consenting residents for malaria infection with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). Both CHWs and HFs also conducted passive case detection among residents who self-reported for screening and treatment. Results Diagnostic positivity was higher among symptomatic patients self-reporting to CHWs (42.5%) and HFs (24%) than actively screened residents (20.3%), but spatial and temporal variations of diagnostic positivity were highly consistent across all three systems. However, most malaria infections (55.6%) were identified through active home visits by CHWs rather than self-reporting to CHWs or HFs. Most (62%) malaria infections detected actively by CHWs reported one or more symptoms of illness. Most reports of fever and vomiting, plus more than a quarter of history of fever, headache and diarrhoea, were attributable to malaria infection. The minority of residents who participated >12 times had lower rates of malaria infection and associated symptoms in later contacts but most residents were tested <4 times and high malaria diagnostic positivity (32%) in active surveys, as well as incidence (1.7 detected infections per person per year) persisted in the population. Per capita cost for active service delivery by CHWs was US$5.14 but this would rise to US$10.68 with full community compliance with monthly testing at current levels of transmission, and US$6.25 if pre-elimination transmission levels and negligible treatment costs were achieved. Conclusion Monthly active home visits by CHWs equipped with RDTs were insufficient to eliminate the human infection reservoir in this typical African setting, despite reasonably high LLIN/IRS coverage. However, dramatic impact upon infection and morbidity burden might be attainable and cost-effective if community participation in regular testing could be improved and the substantial, but not necessarily prohibitive, costs are affordable to national programmes. PMID:24678631

  15. Impact of the large-scale deployment of artemether\\/lumefantrine on the malaria disease burden in Africa: case studies of South Africa, Zambia and Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen I Barnes; Pascalina Chanda; Gebre Ab Barnabas

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Every year, nearly one million deaths result from malaria infection. Malaria can be controlled in endemic countries by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in combination with indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). At least 40 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa now recommend the use of

  16. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  17. Orphaned and Vulnerable Children in Zambia: The Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on Basic Education for Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Sylvester, Kanyanta Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is an emerging corpus of work on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on education in sub-Saharan Africa. This mainly employs demographic models to make projections of student enrolments and teacher requirements. However, there is a paucity of research in basic schools to examine the experiences of AIDS-affected teachers and…

  18. Trace gas emissions from the production and use of domestic biofuels in Zambia measured by open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac T. Bertschi; Robert J. Yokelson; Darold E. Ward; Ted J. Christian; Wei Min Hao

    2003-01-01

    Domestic biomass fuels (biofuels) were recently estimated to be the second largest source of carbon emissions from global biomass burning. Wood and charcoal provide approximately 90% and 10% of domestic energy in tropical Africa. In September 2000, we used open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy to quantify 18 of the most abundant trace gases emitted by wood and charcoal cooking

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk Factors of Infection in Traditional Cattle, Goats and Sheep Reared in Livestock–Wildlife Interface Areas of Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Muma; K. L. Samui; V. M. Siamudaala; J. Oloya; G. Matope; M. K. Omer; M. Munyeme; C. Mubita; E. Skjerve

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock–wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks\\u000a and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds\\u000a and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were

  20. An overview of industrial wastewater treatment and analysis as means of preventing pollution of surface and underground water bodies—the case of Nkana Mine in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The wastewaters coming from mining operations usually have low pH (acidic) values and high levels of metal pollutants depending on the type of metals being extracted. If unchecked, the acidity and metals will have an impact on the surface water. The organisms and plants can adversely be affected and this renders both surface and underground water unsuitable for use by the communities. The installation of a treatment plant that can handle the wastewaters so that pH and levels of pollutants are reduced to acceptable levels provides a solution to the prevention of polluting surface and underground waters and damage to ecosystems both in water and surrounding soils. The samples were collected at five points and analyzed for acidity, total suspended solids, and metals. It was found that the pH fluctuated between pH 2 when neutralization was forgotten and pH 11 when neutralization took place. The levels of metals that could cause impacts to the water ecosystem were found to be high when the pH was low. High levels of metals interfere with multiplication of microorganisms, which help in the natural purification of water in stream and river bodies. The fish and hyacinth placed in water at the two extremes of pH 2 and pH 11 could not survive indicating that wastewaters from mining areas should be adequately treated and neutralized to pH range 6-9 if life in natural waters is to be sustained.

  1. TEACHING ADULTS BY TELEVISION, A REPORT OF AN EXPERIMENT IN THE TEACHING OF ELEMENTARY ENGLISH AND ARITHMETIC TO ADULT AFRICANS ON THE COPPERBELT, ZAMBIA, 1963-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRIPWELL, KENNETH K.R.

    THREE EXPERIMENTS WERE DESIGNED TO TEACH ADULT MEN WITH LIMITED EDUCATION A CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISIED COURSE IN ENGLISH AND ARITHMETIC, TO BE REINFORCED BY CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL PROCEDURES OF THE EXPERIMENTS ARE DESCRIBED, AND STATISTICAL DATA REPORTED FOR COMPARISONS ON ABILITY BEFORE AND AFTER INSTRUCTION…

  2. Identification, modification, and implementation of an evidence-based psychotherapy for children in a low-income country: the use of TF-CBT in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The need to address the treatment gap in mental health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is well recognized and particularly neglected among children and adolescents. Recent literature with adult populations suggests that evidence-based mental health treatments are effective, feasible, and cross-culturally modifiable for use in LMIC. This paper addresses a gap in the literature documenting pre-trial processes. We describe the process of selecting an intervention to meet the needs of a particular population and the process of cross-cultural adaptation. Methods Community-based participatory research principles were implemented for intervention selection, including joint meetings with stakeholders, review of qualitative research, and review of the literature. Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) was chosen as the evidence-based practice for modification and feasibility testing. The TF-CBT adaptation process, rooted within an apprenticeship model of training and supervision, is presented. Clinical case notes were reviewed to document modifications. Results Choosing an intervention can work as a collaborative process with community involvement. Results also show that modifications were focused primarily on implementation techniques rather than changes in TF-CBT core elements. Conclusions Studies documenting implementation processes are critical to understanding why intervention choices are made and how the adaptations are generated in global mental health. More articles are needed on how to implement evidence-based treatments in LMIC. PMID:24148551

  3. The politics of food production: a comparative study of the agricultural development policies of five African nations. 

    E-print Network

    Wallis, Leslie Jean

    1975-01-01

    Nations. (August 1975) Leslie J Wallis, B. A. ~ Tarkio College Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kwang Ro is study examines ano compares various inputs to increase food production in the Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia... ' AN EXANINATION OF FIVE AFRICAN NATIONS ~ , . ~ ~ ~ 27 The Ivory Coast Kenya. Nigeria Tanzania. Zambia 27 38 54 73 87 CHAPTER II1 PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE 106 The Ivory Coast Kenya. Nigeria. Tanzania Zambia 107 ill 115 118 122 REFERENCES ~ 129...

  4. The Values of Immigrant Students on Citizenship as a Trait of Character Education 

    E-print Network

    Obamehinti, Feyi

    2014-04-17

    of Zambia ............................................................................ 82 xii LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Texas Education Service Centers Showing Number of Character Plus Schools (2009...

  5. International Projects: Health and Nurtrition Grant value over $250,00

    E-print Network

    NEUROLOGY & OPHTHALMOLOGY COM; EPIDEMIOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF EPILEPSY ASSOCIATED STIGMA IN ZAMBIA: EVIDENCE of evidence-based interventions aimed at decreasing epilepsy-associated stigma, improving the socioeconomic

  6. Evaluation of the heterotic potential of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] adapted to the southern Africa region 

    E-print Network

    Mpofu, Leo Thokoza

    2007-04-25

    amid all the problems. My thanks also go to the staff at INTSORMIL Nebraska for the funding and smooth collaboration we have had over the years. In Zambia, I would like to thank Dr. Medson Chisi and his team for hosting my experiment. To Mr. Delroy.......................................................................................22 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION...............................................................27 Zambia......................................................................................................27 Halfway...

  7. Emissions of CO 2 , CO, and hydrocarbons from fires in diverse African savanna ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Min Hao; Darold E. Ward; Gerald Olbu; Stephen P. Baker

    1996-01-01

    Emissions of CO2, CO, and hydrocarbons from 13 savanna fires (- 7 ha) were investigated in Zambia and South Africa in August and September 1992. The experiments were conducted at two moist woodland savanna sites, a moist grassland savanna site, and a semiarid woodland savanna site in Zambia, and nine semiarid woodland savanna sites in South Africa. The hydrocarbons measured

  8. Taxonomic notes on Polygonaceae from southern tropical Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANTIAGO ORTIZ; JORGE A. R PAIVA

    1999-01-01

    As part of taxonomic studies of the family Polygonaceae for the Flora Zambesiaca project, two new species from southern tropical Africa are described Persicaria nogueirae S. Ortiz & Paiva, from Zambia and Angola, and Oxygonum annuum S. Ortiz & Paiva, from Zambia. In addition, two new combinations are proposed Polygonum glomeratum Dammer is transferred to the genus Persicaria as Persicaria

  9. Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1/22

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Clinical Infectious Diseases (in press) NOT FOR DIFFUSION © Inserm, Unit 897, Bordeaux, France 1 Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire 4 Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia 5, 33076 inserm-00409524,version1-10Aug2009 Author manuscript, published in "Clinical Infectious Diseases

  10. Water acquisition from rainfall and groundwater by legume crops developing deep rooting systems determined with stable hydrogen isotope compositions of xylem waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sekiya; K. Yano

    2002-01-01

    The deuterium\\/hydrogen isotope ratios (?D) of xylem waters from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and sesbania (Sesbania sesban) plants grown in semi-arid Zambia were investigated to know the seasonal variation in water sources for those crops. The study was conducted at a field site in the Zambia National Irrigation Research Station from November 2000 until April 2001. We measured the ?D

  11. 76 FR 79712 - Report on the Selection of Eligible Countries for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ...Salvador, Georgia, Ghana, and Zambia. Criteria...commitment to fighting corruption, investments in human...procedures designed to reduce corruption and improve port efficiency...in the LIC category: Ghana and Zambia. Two countries...median on Control of Corruption. Honduras was a...

  12. Zambian Pre-Service Teachers' Voices about Successful Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muwana, Florence C.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    While inclusion has been studied in many parts of the world, there is a dearth of research on this topic in Zambia. This study investigated the perceptions of pre-service teachers about the benefits of inclusion and the resources needed to successfully include students with disabilities in general education settings in Zambia. Participants…

  13. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.

  14. Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Ansbro, Éimhín M.; Gill, Michelle M.; Reynolds, Joanna; Shelley, Katharine D.; Strasser, Susan; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Mabey, David

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis affects 1.4 million pregnant women globally each year. Maternal syphilis causes congenital syphilis in over half of affected pregnancies, leading to early foetal loss, pregnancy complications, stillbirth and neonatal death. Syphilis is under-diagnosed in pregnant women. Point-of-care rapid syphilis tests (RST) allow for same-day treatment and address logistical barriers to testing encountered with standard Rapid Plasma Reagin testing. Recent literature emphasises successful introduction of new health technologies requires healthcare worker (HCW) acceptance, effective training, quality monitoring and robust health systems. Following a successful pilot, the Zambian Ministry of Health (MoH) adopted RST into policy, integrating them into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinics in four underserved Zambian districts. We compare HCW experiences, including challenges encountered in scaling up from a highly supported NGO-led pilot to a large-scale MoH-led national programme. Questionnaires were administered through structured interviews of 16 HCWs in two pilot districts and 24 HCWs in two different rollout districts. Supplementary data were gathered via stakeholder interviews, clinic registers and supervisory visits. Using a conceptual framework adapted from health technology literature, we explored RST acceptance and usability. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Key themes in qualitative data were explored using template analysis. Overall, HCWs accepted RST as learnable, suitable, effective tools to improve antenatal services, which were usable in diverse clinical settings. Changes in training, supervision and quality monitoring models between pilot and rollout may have influenced rollout HCW acceptance and compromised testing quality. While quality monitoring was integrated into national policy and training, implementation was limited during rollout despite financial support and mentorship. We illustrate that new health technology pilot research can rapidly translate into policy change and scale-up. However, training, supervision and quality assurance models should be reviewed and strengthened as rollout of the Zambian RST programme continues. PMID:26030741

  15. The University of Bath carries out extensive research in the eld of social and policy sciences, and is one of the leading centres for social sciences in the UK with an excellent reputation for

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    perpetrators of violence in their intimate relationships as they grow up into adulthood. The research is aimed at Bath are contributing to this programme, working in rural communities in Zambia and India to generate

  16. NCCR North-South Dialogue, no. 47 Comprendiendo las

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Edición general Patricia Suárez Suárez, CIDES-UMSA, JACS SAM (NCCR North-South) Fotos de cubierta Un evento de pesca colectiva entre los Ila en Zambia, África Central. (Fotos por Tobias Haller) Distribución

  17. Energy and the Evolution of World-Systems: Fueling Power and Environmental Degradation, 1800-2008

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Kirk Steven

    2011-01-01

    Zambia Cameroon Morocco Norway Peru Jordan Cote d'IvoireJordan Algeria People's Rep. of China Guatemala Egypt MoroccoJordan Algeria Mahutga & Smith Babones Kentor Modified Tunisia Guatemala Paraguay Morocco

  18. Barotropic wind-driven circulation patterns in a closed rectangular basin of variable depth inuenced by a peninsula or an island

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    (Russia), Lake Chudskoe (Russia/Estonia), the Dead Sea (Israel), Lake Dary- acheh/Urmia (Iran), Lake Tanganyika (Burundi/Tanza- nia/Zaire/Zambia) have signi®cant headlands which also divide their areas

  19. 76 FR 34277 - Sunshine Act; Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. 8. Finance Project--Israel. 9. Finance Project--Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa. 10. Finance Project--Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda. 11. Approval of March 10, 2011...

  20. Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayeghn, Desta

    1982-01-01

    Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

  1. ENROLLED WSU GRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS 1 Algeria 1 35 Kuwait 2 69 Switzerland 1

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Colombia 9 46 Netherlands 2 80 Vietnam 9 13 Costa Rica 6 47 New Zealand 1 81 Zambia 1 14 Cyprus 1 48 2011 International Graduate Student Statistics - All Visa Types, All Campus Locations Communication

  2. Evaluation of F1 Cows Sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli Bulls for Reproductive and Maternal Performance Traits and Cow Longevity 

    E-print Network

    Muntean, Carl

    2011-08-08

    , Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Uganda) and classified them as high- and low-performance environments. He reported that in 16 high production environments, Brahman straightbred cows (446 kg) were heavier than Tuli straightbred cows (400 kg) in Botswana..., and both Brahman and Tuli cow weights in Botswana were heavier than Boran straightbred cows in Zambia (375 kg). In low production environments, Brahman cows evaluated in Zimbabwe (390 kg) were again heavier than both Tuli cows studied in Zimbabwe (369...

  3. Words with Winemiller: Researcher's passion for rivers, fish began early 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    . After graduation and with a Fulbright Scholarship in hand, Winemiller and his new wife, Dr. Leslie Kelso-Winemiller, arrived in Zambia, Africa, in 1989, to begin a year-long study of fish ecology on the Zambezi River and its huge floodplain. ?That... in Zambia, the Winemillers became friends with American Catholic missionaries Bill and Jeannie Ritter, who operated a food distribution and nutrition center in Mongu. The Ritters (Bill is the current governor of Colorado) provided the couple...

  4. International Symposium on Advanced Nanodevices and Nanotechnology

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Sung Woo

    of birds, mammals and amphibians. Colour gradients are linear with respect to species number. (Image yield 1.0 Algeria 0.0 Guatemala 1.4 Hungary 2.9 Japan 2.6 New Zealand 2.5 Zambia 0.3 #12;Country.0 Algeria 0.7 Guatemala 2.9 Hungary 2.0 Japan 2.2 New Zealand 2.5 Zambia 1.5 #12;Country to Country

  5. Management of Spent and Disused Radiation Sources - The Zambian Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Chabala, F.

    2002-02-26

    Zambia like all other countries in the world is faced with environmental problems brought about by a variety of human activities. In Zambia the major environmental issues as identified by Nation Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) of 1994 are water pollution, poor sanitation, land degradation, air pollution, poor waste management, misuse of chemicals, wildlife depletion and deforestation. Zambian has been using a lot of radioactive materials in its various industries. The country has taken several projects with help of external partners. These partners however left these projects in the hands of the Zambians without developing their capacities to manage these radioactive sources. The Government recognized the need to manage these sources and passed legislation governing the management of radioactive materials. The first act of Parliament on Radiation Protection work was passed in 1975 to legislate the use of ionizing radiation. However, because of financial constraints the Country is facing, these regulations have remained unimplemented. Fortunately the international Community has been working in partnership with the Zambian Government in the Management of Radioactive Material. Therefore this paper will present the following aspects of radioactive waste management in Zambia: review Existing Legislation in Zambia regarding management of spent/radioactive sources; capacity building in the field of management of radioactive waste; management of spent and disused radiation sources; existing disposal systems in Zambia regarding spent/orphaned sources; existing stocks of radioactive sources in the Zambian industries.

  6. International flow of Zambian nurses

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This commentary paper highlights changing patterns of outward migration of Zambian nurses. The aim is to discuss these pattern changes in the light of policy developments in Zambia and in receiving countries. Prior to 2000, South Africa was the most important destination for Zambian registered nurses. In 2000, new destination countries, such as the United Kingdom, became available, resulting in a substantial increase in migration from Zambia. This is attributable to the policy of active recruitment by the United Kingdom's National Health Service and Zambia's policy of offering Voluntary Separation Packages: early retirement lump-sum payments promoted by the government, which nurses used towards migration costs. The dramatic decline in migration to the United Kingdom since 2004 is likely to be due to increased difficulties in obtaining United Kingdom registration and work permits. Despite smaller numbers, enrolled nurses are also leaving Zambia for other destination countries, a significant new development. This paper stresses the need for nurse managers and policy-makers to pay more attention to these wider nurse migration trends in Zambia, and argues that the focus of any migration strategy should be on how to retain a motivated workforce through improving working conditions and policy initiatives to encourage nurses to stay within the public sector. PMID:19906301

  7. Heterosis and combining ability in A? and A? cytoplasm lines of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench 

    E-print Network

    Chisi, Medson

    1988-01-01

    (August 1988) Medson Chisi, B. Sc. , University of Zambia Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Frederick R. Miller The agronomic performance of 18 Al and 18 A2 sorghum hybrids, obtained by crossing 3 Al and 3 A2 male sterile lines (A-lines) with 6...& in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America it is used primarily for human food. The uses vary from one country to another (Doggett, 1970; Kent, 1974; ICRISAT, 1981). In most countries in Africa, like Zambia, farmers use local varieties which take...

  8. Examining causes of poverty in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Garnett Murphy, II

    2009-06-02

    .0 percent), Mali (90.6 percent), and Zambia (87.4 percent) (see World Bank Development Report, 2000/2001, Box 1.2, p. 17 and Table 4, pp. 280 - 281). Recently, a new method has become available to take another look at the poverty question using....00 per day. Some of the higher percentage countries are: Mali (90.6 percent), Zambia (87.4 percent), Rwanda (84.6 percent), Mozambique (78.4 percent), and Ethiopia (76.4 percent). Undernourishment. The FAO measure of undernourishment is based...

  9. A customized implementation of the FAO land evaluation framework using GIS: the Avenue approach 

    E-print Network

    Tao, Ran

    1997-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 26 26 27 28 28 28 30 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 IV SYSTEM TEST: THE ZAMBIA EXAMPLE. . . . . 34 I Study Area. . 1. 1 Land Qualities and Their Ratings. . . . . . . . . 1. 2 Gross Margin. . 2 Basic Data Input and Attribute Table... is tested and used in many countries, especially in developing countries. Chinene (1992) used the principles and concepts of the FAO framework to access the University of Zambia farm for selected crops. It indicated that application of the FAO framework...

  10. Characterization of maize testing locations in eastern and southern Africa 

    E-print Network

    Maideni, Francis W.

    2006-08-16

    of improved germplasm is relatively low. Table 1.1 shows the estimate of extent of hybrid use in selected countries of the World. For eastern and southern Africa, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya and Zambia show high percentage use of hybrids at 100... Zambia 65 Benin 0 Rwanda 0 Guatemala 12 Ghana 0 Mozambique 4 Honduras 12 Nigeria 3 Tanzania 6 Mexico 29 Togo 1 Uganda 5 Nicaragua 3 Cameroon 5 Lesotho 80 Venezuela 95 Ethiopia 4 Zimbabwe 100 United States 100 Malawi 24 El Salvador 34 South...

  11. Examining causes of poverty in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Garnett Murphy, II

    2009-06-02

    .00 per day. Some of the higher percentage countries are: Mali (90.6 percent), Zambia (87.4 percent), Rwanda (84.6 percent), Mozambique (78.4 percent), and Ethiopia (76.4 percent). Undernourishment. The FAO measure of undernourishment is based... greater than 40 include: the Central African Republic (50.0 percent), Ethiopia (49.0 percent), Niger (46.0 percent), Zambia (45.0 percent), Sierra Leone (43.0 percent), and Tanzania (41.0 percent). Gini Index. This is the World Bank?s estimate...

  12. MSU at Work in Africa: A Unique Capacity

    E-print Network

    Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. MSU's work in Africa spans a wide range of human needs and opportunities involving expertise in key thematic areas: · Agricultural production, food safety and security, and supply chain development · Education and human capacity development · Local

  13. AIDS: Zambians seem to be getting the message.

    PubMed

    Kapilikisha, M

    1990-01-01

    The 1st phase of the Ministry of Health of Zambia's US$4 million mass education campaign for the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), carried out in 1988-89 with help from Sweden and Norway, appears to have been highly effective. 95% of rural residents are now aware of AIDS, and the majority know the disease has no cure. In urban areas, the "Times of Zambia" and the "Zambia Daily Mail" have presented AIDS educational messages on their front pages. In rural areas, residents have been reached through marketplace performances and use of the existing primary health care infrastructure. In addition, health workers have received extensive training on counseling AIDS patients and their relatives as well as contact tracing. AIDS will soon be part of the science curriculum in Zambian schools and more street performances are being organized. Presumably as a result of the AIDS education campaign, the number of reported cases of other sexually transmitted diseases has declined--in Lusaka, example, reported cases dropped from 109,496 in 1987 to 101,286 in 1988. There has also been a dramatic increase in the demand for condoms, although part of this may reflect family planning program efforts. By July 1989, Zambia had a total of 2104 reported cases of AIDS. PMID:12282845

  14. Field Studies of Subjective Effects on Thermal Comfort in a University Classroom 

    E-print Network

    Wang, J.; Wang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    ,102(2):795~802 [7] S. Sharples, A. Malama. A Thermal Comfort Field Survey in the Cool Season of Zambia. Building and Environment. 1997, 32(3):237-243 ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-6-4 [8] K. Cena, R.J. Dedear...

  15. Using LiDAR and normalized difference vegetation index to remotely determine LAI and percent canopy cover at varying scales 

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Alicia Marie Rutledge

    2009-05-15

    and its change, vital in modeling global biogeochemical and climate cycles (Hansen et al., 2002b). One study performed by Hansen et al. (2002a) in Western Province, Zambia, attempted to validate the MODIS VCF global tree cover map through a process...

  16. Comparison of F1 cows sired by Brahman, Boran and Tuli bulls for reproductive, maternal, and cow longevity traits 

    E-print Network

    Maiga, Assalia Hassimi

    2007-04-25

    and Brahman were evaluated in Botswana, whereas Boran was evaluated in Zambia. 16 McCarter et al. (1991), comparing cow weight in 3-, 4- and 5-year old crossbred cows with different proportions of Brahman out of Angus or Hereford, and Angus- Hereford...

  17. Tectonic controls of sedimentary pathways and depocenters: Canyon conveyor belts and ridge rubbish on the Luiche River Platform Margin, Lake Tanganyika

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah Morgan; Kiram Lezzar

    Lake Tanganyika is an expression of the western branch of the East African rift system, a series of basins formed by overlapping half-grabens (Morley 1988) extending from Uganda to Malawi. Tanganyika, with an estimated age of 9 - 12 Ma, stretches 650 km from Burundi to Zambia, has a mean width of 50 km, a maximum depth of 1470 meters,

  18. Mapping agroecological zones and time lag in vegetation growth by means of Fourier analysis of time series of NDVI images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Verhoef, W.; Van Swol, R.

    1993-01-01

    Examples are presented of applications of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to analyze time series of images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values. The results obtained for a case study on Zambia indicated that differences in vegetation development among map units of an existing agroclimatic map were not significant, while reliable differences were observed among the map units obtained using the Fourier analysis.

  19. Survey of Basic Education in Eastern Africa. UNESCO/UNICEF Co-Operation Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Nairobi (Kenya). Regional Office of Science and Technology for Africa.

    A survey of basic education in 13 Eastern African countries (Madagascar, Burundi, Comores, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, and Somalia) covers basic education programs and UNICEF's supporting role. Basic education is seen as a concept evolved in the region, involving formal school systems and…

  20. The P and S wave velocity structure of the mantle beneath eastern Africa and the African superplume anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-08-01

    P and S relative arrival time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray broadband seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Tanzania, and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 have been inverted, together with relative arrival time residuals from earthquakes recorded by previous deployments, for a tomographic image of mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa. The image shows a low-wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the Cenozoic East African rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths ? 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths ?350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is consistent with a ˜150-300 K thermal perturbation, and its depth extent indicates that the African superplume, originally identified as a lower mantle anomaly, is likely a whole mantle structure. A superplume extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface implies an origin for the Cenozoic extension, volcanism, and plateau uplift in eastern Africa rooted in the dynamics of the lower mantle.

  1. URBAN EXTENTS Congo, Democra

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    URBAN EXTENTS Botswana Congo, Democra Congo Namibia Zambia GRUMPv1 A t l a n t i c O c e a n ´ 0 250 500 Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Urban Extent Administrative Units National Boundaries Note: National boundaries are derived from the population grids and thus may appear coarse. Urban

  2. POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW 33(2): 321365 (JUNE 2007) 321 Longevity Among

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    -Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural Examination MICHAEL GURVEN HILLARD KAPLAN AVERAGE WORLDWIDE HUMAN life expectancy reached 66 years in the first quinquennium of the twenty-first century, with extremes at the country level ranging from 39 years in Zambia to 82 years in Japan (United Nations 2007). Average life expectancy has

  3. The geopolitics of dependent development in Central Africa: race, class and the reciprocal blockade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Kay

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores dependent development, industrialisation and transitions to the semiperiphery, examining tensions between geopolitics, racial and class conflict that evolved into a ‘reciprocal blockade’ in the Central African Federation (CAF), comprising Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi). The 1923 transfer of power from the chartered British South Africa Company to a semi-autonomous, settler-dominated government in

  4. "I Have Big Things Planned for My Future": The Limits and Possibilities of Transformative Agency in Zambian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which participation in alternative human values education affects students' conceptions of agency amidst the economic and HIV/AIDS crises in Ndola, Zambia. Drawing on the concept of transformative agency as developed by critical research in education, this study examines conceptions of agency based on data…

  5. Undergraduate Research at Liberal Arts Colleges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Kramer

    2002-01-01

    I am a senior at Swarthmore College majoring in Astrophysics. My undergraduate research experience comprises a summer internship with Jay Pasachoff at Williams College under the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium's summer exchange program where I had the opportunity to join the Williams College 2001 eclipse expedition to Zambia, and over a year, now, of research with Swarthmore faculty member David

  6. Sky View Cafe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kerry Shetline

    Sky View Cafe is a Java applet for viewing graphical and numerical astronomical information including star charts, a 3-D orrery, displays of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, an astronomical events calendar, and an ephemeris generator. The source code for the Sky View Cafe Java applet is provided. There are also photographs of the 2001 Zambia total solar eclipse.

  7. The Effectiveness of Teacher Resource Centre Strategy. Education Research Paper. Full Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairhurst, Genevieve; Gibbs, William; Jain, Pankaj; Khatete, David; Knamiller, Gary; Welford, Geoff; Wiegand, Patrick

    During 1997-98, a research team from the University of Leeds investigated the effectiveness of teacher resource centers (TRCs) as a strategy for teacher development in developing nations. The study included a literature review and fieldwork in four countries (India, Kenya, Nepal, and Zambia). The study examined the extent to which TRCs helped…

  8. Better Housing Through Self-Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opat, Ellen-Jane

    1976-01-01

    Three case studies describe successful squatter settlements in Panama City, Panama, San Salvador, El Salvador and Lusaka, Zambia and show how governments have improved the condition of squatters by utilizing government loans, sites and services projects, foreign technical and financial aid and private non-profit developers, instead of eliminating…

  9. Making Space for Adult Education in Independent Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Justin

    2004-01-01

    Namibia is a vast and arid African country neighbouring South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola and the Atlantic Ocean, with a population of only two million. Namibia achieved its independence in 1990 after a protracted and brutal struggle, latterly against South African occupation, but rooted in the resistance to German colonisation that…

  10. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D.; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Ito, Kimihito

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  11. Importance of Labor in Adoption of a Modern Farm Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndiaye, Serigne; Sofranko, Andrew J.

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationship between farm technology and labor availability in Africa. Studies introduction of high-yielding maize variety in Zambia and resulting effects on labor availability/mobilization. Shows shift to hybrids requires additional labor, including available children. Illustrates need for adoption research taking broader farming…

  12. PiMA Survey Design and Methodology

    E-print Network

    Mudhai, Okoth Fred; Abreu Lopes, Claudia; Mitullah, Winnie; Fraser, Alastair; Milapo, Nalukui; Mwangi, Sammy; (PI) Srinivasan, Sharath

    2015-06-23

    in the capital city Nairobi, with mixed demographics including one of the city’s major slums; and Seme: a rural constituency settled around Lake Victoria in a largely !sher-agricultural community in the western Kenyan city of Kisumu. In Zambia, the surveys were...

  13. Comparative insecticidal efficacy of five raw African diatomaceous earths against three tropical stored grain Coleopteran pests: Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Mvumi; T. E. Stathers; V. Kaparadza; F. Mukoyi; P. Masiiwa; P. Jowah; W. Riwa

    Five raw African diatomaceous earth (DE) samples collected from Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and South Africa were compared in laboratory bioassays at the Natural Resources Institute, UK and the University of Zimbabwe, to determine their potential as locally available grain protectants. A commercially available DE sample, Protect-It®, and an untreated control were included in the study for comparison. In UK, each

  14. Zambian Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Views on Chemistry Education Goals and Challenges for Achieving Them in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that…

  15. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  16. Implementing Educational Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa--Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Dan S.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews a series of 10 World Bank documents examining policy implementation activity in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Lesotho, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The reports are concise and well documented and show a great conceptualization of education issues (such as deteriorating enrollments contracting educational finances) and policy…

  17. AED in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    For 30 years, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) has worked to support African development. In Uganda, Tanzania, and Botswana AED promoted some of Africa's first AIDS prevention programs. AED is funding research in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and perhaps Zambia that will target stigma and its role in AIDS prevention. Working with governments…

  18. Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooko, Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia

  19. Competitive Labour: Divisions between Zambian and Zimbabwean Workers1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea L. Arrington

    2009-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century, Victoria Falls was a popular travel destination for Europeans, South Africans, and Americans who hoped to find adventure amidst what they deemed a wild physical and cultural landscape. Although a tourism industry was first established on the northern side of the Zambezi (Zambia), the southern side of the Falls (Zimbabwe) quickly joined in commercial development.

  20. International Student and Scholar Enrollment & Statistical Report

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    42 Mauritius 1 Belgium 6 Mexico 60 Belize 1 Mongolia 1 Bolivia 12 Morocco 4 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 Uzbekistan 1 Jordan 41 Venezuela 14 Kazakhstan 51 Vietnam 33 Kenya 16 Zambia 1 Kuwait 13 Zimbabwe 3 Total Morocco 2 Belize 1 Nepal 4 Bolivia 9 Netherlands 5 Brazil 14 New Zealand 9 Burma (Myanmar) 4 Nicaragua 4

  1. International Student and Scholar Enrollment & Statistical Report

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    MAURITIUS 1 BENIN 2 MEXICO 54 BOLIVIA 11 MOROCCO 4 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 1 NEPAL 17 BRAZIL 29 NETHERLANDS ISRAEL 4 VENEZUELA 15 ITALY 14 VIETNAM 26 JAMAICA 11 ZAMBIA 1 JAPAN 68 ZIMBABWE 3 JORDAN 39 Total 5990 1 MOROCCO 2 BENIN 1 NEPAL 4 BOLIVIA 7 NETHERLANDS 6 BRAZIL 7 NEW ZEALAND 5 BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS 1

  2. International Student and Scholar Enrollment & Statistical Report

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    BANGLADESH 39 MALI 1 BELARUS 6 MEXICO 57 BELGIUM 6 MOLDOVA 1 BELIZE 2 MONGOLIA 5 BENIN 1 MOROCCO 4 BOLIVIA 1 VENEZUELA 10 JORDAN 1 IETNAM9 V 8 KAZAKHSTAN 2 ZAMBIA 5 KENYA 16 ZIMBABWE 5 KUWAIT 35 Total 4831 * Hong Kong 16 LIBYA 1 AUSTRIA 1 MACAU* 1 BAHRAIN 1 MALAYSIA 136 BANGLADESH 1 161 MEXICO BELGIUM 1 MOROCCO 2

  3. African species of the Bruchidius centromaculatus group with \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KLAUS-WERNER ANTON; ALEX DELOBEL

    2003-01-01

    The Bruchidius centromaculatus group is defined. Six African species of the group with the female pygidium with eye-like foveae are revised. B. meridionalis from Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Rwanda, South Africa, Zaire, and Zambia, Bruchidius raddianae from Algeria, Burkina Faso, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lybia, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tunisia, and

  4. International Student and Scholar Enrollment & Statistical Report

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Mongolia 3 Benin 2 Morocco 3 Bolivia 12 Mozambique 1 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 Nepal 20 Botswana 2 Vietnam 15 Jordan 38 Zambia 1 Kazakhstan 15 Zimbabwe 5 Total 5479 #12;* Hong Kong and Macau are Special Bahrain 6 Macau* 1 Bangladesh 9 Malawi 1 Belgium 3 Malaysia 129 Belize 1 Mexico 20 Benin 1 Morocco 1

  5. Food aid, domestic policy and food security: Contrasting experiences from South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo del Ninno; Paul A. Dorosh; Kalanidhi Subbarao

    2007-01-01

    Food aid, both for short-term emergency relief and as program food aid that helps address medium-term food “deficits”, is often a major component of food security strategies in developing countries. This study reviews the experience with food aid of four major recipients of food aid (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Zambia) regarding food production, trade, markets, consumption and safety nets, as

  6. IINNTTEERRNNAATTIIOONNAALL SSPPOOTTLLIIGGHHTT

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    of events to allow visiting faculty from the University of Zambia to observe educational models and programs, distance and internationally-based education, models of teaching and teacher training, and use classroom at Hartley Elementary School, a teen parent classroom at Lincoln High School, and a Community

  7. Slavery, Colonialism and the Pursuit of Community Life: Anglican Mission Education in Zanzibar and Northern Rhodesia 1864-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Education became the central focus of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa (UMCA) following a disastrous and unsuccessful attempt to settle in Nyasaland (now Malawi). The aim of this article is to trace the UMCA educational policy from Zanzibar, where the mission became established in 1864, to Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). From their…

  8. Accelerated program training in a developing country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin T. Ryan

    1979-01-01

    Zambia, like many developing countries in Africa, has a small but significant data processing sector; see (Wallace 1977) for a survey. The need for data processing is particularly acute in the copper mining industry which generates practically all of the foreign exchange that enters the country. The copper mines are so important to the national economy that at first the

  9. A prequel to Nollywood: South African photo novels and their pan-African consumption in the late 1960s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Krings

    2010-01-01

    This article interrogates the history of the photo novel in Africa with particular reference to African Film, a magazine of almost pan-African circulation, published between 1968 and 1972 in South Africa. Featuring the adventures of Lance Spearman, an African crime fighter, the magazine was read widely across Anglophone Africa, from Nigeria and Ghana to South Africa, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya and

  10. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  11. The Public Health Leadership Program (PHLP) hosted a first-ever "Gathering" on April 11, 2014, that brought together students, faculty and alumni from around the world in an

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    The Public Health Leadership Program (PHLP) hosted a first-ever "Gathering" on April 11, 2014 School of Global Public Health Alumni Association, the event focused on connectivity, providing at the Gillings School of Global Public Health, led the group from his hotel room in Zambia. (The original plan

  12. Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

    This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

  13. Economics of Antipoaching Enforcement and the Ivory Trade Ban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin H. Bulte; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    1999-01-01

    A model of elephant conservation that includes illegal poaching, enforcement effort, and legal culling is used to analyze enforcement and elephant populations for alternative policies, with and without legal trade in ivory. Consistent with previous theoretical models, banning trade may increase or decrease equilibrium stocks. As an empirical application, information for Zambia, along with sensitivity analysis, are used to show

  14. A Survey of Library Services to Children and Young Adults in Selected Developing Countries in Africa and Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craver, Kathleen W.

    1985-01-01

    Review of developments in children and young adult library services since 1979 discusses three factors that complicate methods used to combat illiteracy problem: population growth, language, and undeveloped readership. Countries studied are Libya, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Nigeria, Gambia, Thailand, Singapore, Philippines,…

  15. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  16. Nurturing property investment by re-engineered systems for land pricing by local authorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred M. Matipa; Ronald Barham

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The research in this paper is aimed at re-engineering existing approaches to the analysis of proposed developments in local authorities – from land pricing to planning permission – hence reducing the loss of revenue in councils, and nurture property development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a case study of seven city councils on the Copperbelt province of Zambia

  17. Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of a Complementary Feeding Trial in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square…

  18. Isolation and characterization of Chilembwe and Sinda Rock Phosphate solubilizing soil microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to isolate and characterize soil microorganisms capable of solubilizing Chilembwe and Sinda rock phosphates readily available in Zambia. Single isolates were obtained by direct plating and enrichment cultures with succinate, cellulose and glucose as the carbon sources. Isola...

  19. Resilience and Religion in Children and Youth in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnestad, Arve; Thwala, S'lungile

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between religion and resilience in children and youth in difficult situations. The article builds on two data collections: (a) a retrospective study where preschool teacher students from Zambia and Swaziland wrote about a difficult period in their childhood and what made them to cope; and (b) an interview…

  20. Universal Basic Education and the Provision of Quality Mathematics in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazima, Mercy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss Universal Basic Education (UBE) in relation to the teaching and learning of mathematics in Southern Africa. I present the status of UBE for all countries in the region and then use 3 selected examples: Botswana, Malawi, and Zambia, to illustrate the provision of mathematics in the general framework of UBE in the countries.…

  1. False Promise or False Premise? The Experience of Food and Input Market Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Chapoto; J. Govereh; A. Mwanaumo; J. K. Nyoro

    2002-01-01

    The literature on the effects of agricultural market reform in Africa is sharply divided and inconsistent. This article attempts to reconcile opposing viewpoints on the effects of food and input market policy reform in eastern and southern Africa. Drawing from studies of Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, we argue that a major source of the controversy stems from assumptions

  2. Early spatial and temporal validation of MODIS LAI product in the Southern Africa Kalahari

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Privette; R. B. Myneni; Y. Knyazikhin; M. Mukelabai; G. Roberts; Y. Tianb; Y. Wang; S. G. Leblanc

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate the operational MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI) product using field-sampled data collected at five sites in southern Africa in March 2000. One site (Mongu, Zambia) was sampled monthly throughout the year. All sites were along the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme's (IGBP) Kalahari Transect, which features progressively lower annual precipitation, and hence, lower vegetation productivity, from north to south.

  3. Terrestrial heat flow in east and southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew A. Nyblade; Henry N. Pollack; D. L. Jones; Francis Podmore; Martin Mushayandebvu

    1990-01-01

    We report 26 new heat production measurements from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania, together with details and some revisions of 18 previous heat flow measurements by other investigtors from Kenya and Tanzania. These measurements come from Archean cratons, Proterozoic mobile belts, and Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts. Heat flow data from eight new sites in the Archean Zimbabwe Craton are consistent with

  4. CANADA-SOUTHERN AFRICA MIGRATION SURVEY INFORMATION What is SAMP?

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    1 CANADA-SOUTHERN AFRICA MIGRATION SURVEY INFORMATION What is SAMP? SAMP is the Southern African in that country. Which countries form part of `Southern Africa'? Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe Is any research being done in Southern Africa? Yes

  5. Attracting Foreign Investment Through Privatization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Rolfe; Douglas P. Woodward

    2004-01-01

    Privatization serves as a potential source of foreign direct investment in Africa. During the Chiluba era (1991–2001), Zambia conducted one of Africa's most sweeping privatization programs. Accordingly, direct investment swelled with the sale of state enterprises. This paper explores foreign and domestic ownership patterns following investor purchases of Zambian state-owned assets. Previous foreign owners of mining and manufacturing companies represent

  6. 10 17 14 21 23,000 100 1,500

    E-print Network

    Takada, Shoji

    Kingdom of Bahrain 1 Islamic Republic of Iran 11 Republic of Iraq 1 State of Israel 4 Hashemite Kingdom Republic of Tunisia 3 Republic of Zambia 3 Republic of Zimbabwe 1 20 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 2 of Jordan 2 State of Kuwait 1 Republic of Lebanon 2 Sultanate of Oman 1 Syrian Arab Republic 2 Kingdom

  7. The Education of Refugees in Africa: The Role of Distance and Open Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Description of education services to refugees in Africa focuses on three case studies: Institute of In-Service Teacher Training (IITT) in Somalia; Sudan Extension Unit (SEU); and Namibian Extension Unit (NEU) in Angola and Zambia. Highlights include refugee problems, the relevance of distance and open learning approaches, and international…

  8. Literacy for Revitalization in the SADCC Countries of Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    The role of literacy in the revitalization of societies is particularly meaningful in the context of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), a group of nine countries (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) surrounding or surrounded by the Republic of South Africa (RSA).…

  9. Namibian Extension Unit. A Brief Account of the Distance Education Programme for Namibians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namibian Extension Unit, Lusaka (Zambia).

    The Namibian Extension Unit (NEU), a distance education program for Namibian refugees in Zambia and Angola, was established in 1981 and began teaching courses in mid-1982. Its purpose is to provide basic education to adult Namibian refugees using the distance education format. The NEU provides courses in study skills, introductory English and…

  10. Distance Education for Health Personnel: New Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwakilasa, Amos

    An intercountry workshop on distance learning (DL) was conducted at the University of Khartoum, Sudan, in November 1991. Individuals involved in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Health Learning Materials network in nine African countries (Sudan, Ethiopia, Guyana, Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) met to share their…

  11. Non-Traditional Students: Perceptions of Problems Which Influence Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, David

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to measure the nature, strength, generality and persistence of students' perceived problems with academic success. Subjects were Black students (N=90) at the University of Witwatersrand (South Africa). The results are compared with a study conducted at the University of Zambia in 1984. (Author/MLW)

  12. In memoriam, Andrew Marston, November 16, 1953 -March 26, 2013

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    Marston as a good colleague and supporter of the science published in this journal. The Honorary Chairman the independence in 1964 Zambia. Andrew studied chemistry at the University College, London, UK, and obtained his and made his PhD on peptide synthesis at Liverpool University. From 1979 to 1983 he worked as a postdoc

  13. The Development of Distance Education in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nage-Sibande, Bogadi

    2005-01-01

    Botswana is a landlocked semi-arid country sharing boundaries with Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Setswana and English are the official languages, with English being the most used as the language of government and business transactions. In comparison to most African countries, Botswana is culturally homogenous, and nearly 80% of the…

  14. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ...a meeting to discuss Candidate Country Report for FY2012, the Niger Threshold Program, the Zambia Compact and an update on Malawi. The agenda items are expected to involve the consideration of classified information and the meeting will be closed to...

  15. Feedback Study on Developing Critical Literacy among Malawian and Zambian Undergraduate University Students Using a Freirean Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkandawire, Matthews Tiwaone; Walubita, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Educators in Malawi and Zambia have always been concerned with their student's abilities to become analytical, logical and proficient readers of texts. This has been due to the fear that there is an increased overemphasis on knowledge of the fundamental literacy skills and other basics at the expense of critical thinking. This scenario has…

  16. HHSIS|SPEECH,LANGUAGE,ANDHEARINGSCIENCES EXCELLENCE

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    by integrating the best ideas and methods from chemistry to culture. Whatever it takes, approaches from many to language and culture -- taught by faculty who have earned many awards recognizing their distinction of SLHS extends through students with study abroad programs in Ireland and Zambia. SLHS is proud of its

  17. Food habits of tilapiine cichlids of the Upper Zambezi River and floodplain during the descending phase of the hydrologic cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. O. W INEMILLER; L. C. K ELSO

    2003-01-01

    Habitat use and diets of five tilapiine populations of the Upper Zambezi River Basin in Zambia, south-central Africa, were examined during the 8 month descending phase of the annual hydrological cycle. All species occurred across a range of habitats, with most individuals captured from lagoons. Tilapia rendalli, a macrophyte feeder, was the only dietary specialist. Ontogenetic diet shifts were not

  18. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... is visible. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission ...

  19. Zambian Student Teachers' Attitudes toward Including Students with Disabilities in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muwana, Florence Chuzu

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a global trend in the provision of services for students with disabilities. In Zambia and other developing nations, international initiatives from UNESCO and other nongovernmental organizations have contributed to the consensus that all children have a right to a free and appropriate education and that all students…

  20. Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: An assessment of community-based wildlife management programs in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart A. Marks

    1995-01-01

    The failure of conventional wildlife management in Eastern and Southern Africa has led several countries to implement community-based wildlife programs. We examine the assumptions these initiatives make about rural hunters, and describe how the programs attempt to induce individuals away from illegal hunting. Using game theory and a case study from Zambia, we find that these programs misunderstand some of

  1. AFRICA'S WILDLIFE ON SAFARI in Botswana,

    E-print Network

    Lazar, Aurel A.

    presents AFRICA'S WILDLIFE ON SAFARI in Botswana, Zambia & Victoria Falls May 19-June 1, 2013 by check or credit card. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY RESERVATION FORM: AFRICA'S WILDLIFE Enclosed is my/our deposit for $______($500 per person) for ____ person/people on Africa's Wildlife departing May 19, 2013. I/we understand

  2. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they do not have the luxury of thinking about the quality of food. Only two policy makers in the semi-structured interviews perceived there to be a possible health problems due to heavy metal contaminated food in Zambia. However, this was from personal experience and not a corporate view. Policy makers did not think that food safety was an issue in Zambia, with several interviewees stating that food security was more of a priority, reflecting the urban agriculture cultivators' views that quantity is the more important issue than quality of food. Risks due to environmental contamination are not high in the public and policy makers' priorities, even when asked directly about the issue. Both urban agriculturalists and policy stakeholders believe that academics have a key role to play in communicating the possible and actual risks to the affected populations and institutional stakeholders.

  3. Curriculum review of an environmental health program: an international nursing experience.

    PubMed

    Profit, Sheila; Bailey, Judy

    2013-06-01

    Two nursing professors from a small Canadian university provided a leadership role in a curriculum review of an environmental health technology program in Zambia. The combined health and education experience of these two professionals was the optimal fit to help guide and facilitate the curriculum review. This review was part of a larger project that had the ultimate goal of improving environmental management in rural and peri-urban communities in order to reduce infant and under-five mortality rates, thereby addressing three of the UN Millennium Development Goals. Participants from two post-secondary educational institutions in Zambia and a non-governmental organization spent five days together reviewing the theoretical and practical components of the program. Theoretical content, practice opportunities and demonstrable student competencies were updated within existing resources. The collegiality and respect among the participants from many disciplines provided the basis for a positive experience in intersectoral collaboration and global health. PMID:23809643

  4. Physics Education: Getting Out of Our Comfort Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhoro, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Zambia, the Real Africa (as they say), land of the legendary African walking safari, earth's biggest waterfall, the wild Zambezi River, breath-taking lakes and wetlands, a profusion of birds, abundant wildlife, and raw, pulsating wilderness, ...all in one friendly country. School attendance has increased substantially since Zambia's independence in 1964. In 2000 some 1.6 million pupils were enrolled in primary schools, representing 78 percent of school-aged children. Only 24 percent of secondary school-aged children were enrolled. Through Hampton University's Center for the Study of Origin and Matter (COSM), a team of high school teachers and two college students held workshops with a theme ``Classical Mechanics'' where high school physics and mathematics teachers attended. The goal of the workshops was to motivate and help the teachers come up with teaching strategies to promote interest in physics and math in the students.

  5. Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

  6. The upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of East Africa derived from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.; Nyblade, A.; Adams, A. N.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.

    2012-12-01

    An expanded model of the three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath East Africa has been developed using data from the latest phases of the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from preceding studies. The combined dataset consists of 331 events recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this latest study, 149 events were used to determine fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 seconds using the two-plane-wave method. These were subsequently combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for an updated upper mantle three-dimensional shear wave velocity model. Newly imaged features include a substantial fast anomaly in eastern Zambia that may have exerted a controlling influence on the evolution of the Western Rift Branch. Furthermore, there is a suggestion that the Eastern Rift Branch trends southeastward offshore eastern Tanzania.

  7. The uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of eastern Africa from Rayleigh wave tomography: constraints on rift evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J. P.; Adams, A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.

    2013-08-01

    An expanded model of the 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath eastern Africa has been developed using earthquakes recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined data set comprises 331 earthquakes recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this study, data from 149 earthquakes were used to determine fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s using the two-plane wave method, and then combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the uppermost mantle. New features in the model include (1) a low-velocity region in western Zambia, (2) a high-velocity region in eastern Zambia, (3) a low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania and (4) low-velocity regions beneath the Lake Malawi rift. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, these results support a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. We estimate a lithospheric thickness of ˜150-200 km for the substantial fast shear wave anomaly imaged in eastern Zambia, which may be a southward subsurface extension of the Bangweulu Block. The low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. Pronounced velocity lows along the Lake Malawi rift are found beneath the northern and southern ends of the lake, but not beneath the central portion of the lake.

  8. GIS Projects From the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew has added a GIS unit to their Web site that currently includes four projects. Take a virtual tour through the Princess of Wales Conservatory, or view satellite imagery of the deforestation of the Itgi thicket in Zambia. Data on world plant distribution, and vegetation and geology of Madagascar can be downloaded with ArcView software. The use of technology on this site makes it worth checking out, even for those not interested in botany or conservation.

  9. A new species and new host records of the quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with sunbirds (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae).

    PubMed

    Klimovi?ová, Miroslava; Smo?ák, Radoslav; Njoroge, Peter; Hromada, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Neoaulonastus cinnyris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitising Cinnyris mediocris (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from Tanzania is described. Additionally, Picobia oritis Skoracki et al. 2009 was recorded on four new hosts belonging to the family Nectariniidae from Ethiopian region: Cinnyris oustaleti (Bocage) from Angola, Cinnyris venustus (Shaw) from West Somalia, Cinnyris talatala Smith from Botswana and Zambia and Cinnyris erythrocercus (Hartlaub) from Uganda. All known quill mite species from family Nectariniidae are summarized in table. PMID:24827094

  10. Understanding controls on biotic assemblages and ecological status in Zambian rivers for the development of sustainable monitoring protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael; Gibbins, Chris; Lowe, Steven; Dallas, Helen; Taylor, Jonathan; Lang, Pauline; Saili, Kothelani; Sichingabula, Henry; Murphy, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The water resources of Zambia are likely to experience increasing multiple pressures in the future as a result of very high predicted population growth, industrial development, land use change, and potentially, altered regional rainfall patterns. It is well known that rivers in tropical regions typically have a rich biodiversity, controlled in part by inter-annual variability in climate and discharge, and in part by local catchment conditions. However, till recently little country-wide work had had been carried out on the biota of Zambian rivers, and little was therefore known about the ecological status, or degree of catchment alteration of many of the rivers. To underpin sustainable water management, protocols have been developed to assess the ecological status of Zambian rivers. This paper describes the development of the protocols and their application to provide the first extensive assessment of the ecological status of rivers in the country. The protocols were designed to be simple, and hence rapid, easy and relatively inexpensive to apply. Status scores were derived for individual sites using sensitivity weightings from 3 major groups (macrophytes, diatoms and macroinvertebrates). The general approach was based on schemes used successfully elsewhere, with species and family sensitivity weightings modified so as be appropriate to Zambia. Modifications were based on a survey of 140 Zambian rivers, incorporating data on species distributions, physical habitat conditions and water quality. Analysis of historical data suggests that established Freshwater Ecoregions reflect hydro-climatic variability across Zambia. Survey data indicate that most of the spatial variation in biological assemblages across the country reflects these same hydro-climatic gradients, in addition to hydrochemical differences linked to geology. Site status scores suggest that rivers are generally in good health, although exceptions occur in some large urban areas and a small number of catchments with major industrial activity. Data form an important baseline against which to assess future changes related to population growth and climate change, and will therefore help inform policy within Zambia for sustainable river monitoring and management.

  11. Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon

    E-print Network

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Boynton, Petra; Atanga, Lem L

    2010-04-19

    Health (SAGE). Primary and secondary prevention has been largely neglected (with the exception of community- based interventions in Mauritius [8], Tanzania [8], and South Africa [9]). This neglect is problematic. Unhealthy diets, physical inactivity... diseases or risk factors (e.g smoking, alcohol) Fiscal Taxes on food, alcohol or tobacco. Subsidies on exercise equipment. South Africa on tobacco; Zambia on soft drinks[1] Industry and private businesses Working with food industry to lower fat or sugar...

  12. Cultural humility and working with marginalized populations in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kools, Susan; Chimwaza, Angela; Macha, Swebby

    2015-03-01

    Population health needs in developing countries are great and countries are scaling up health professional education to meet these needs. Marginalized populations, in particular, are vulnerable to poor health and health care. This paper presents a culturally appropriate diversity training program delivered to Global Health Fellows who are educators and leaders in health professions in Malawi and Zambia. The purpose of this interprofessional education experience was to promote culturally competent and humble care for marginalized populations. PMID:24842988

  13. Emissions from Miombo Woodland and Dambo Grassland Savanna Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles over and downwind of two prescribed savanna fires in Zambia are described. The measurements include profiles through the smoke plumes of condensation nucleus concentrations and normalized excess mixing ratios of particles and gases, emission factors for 42 trace gases and seven particulate species, and vertical profiles of ambient conditions. The fires were ignited in plots of miombo woodland savanna, the most prevalent savanna type in southern Africa, and dambo grassland savanna, an important enclave of miombo woodland ecosystems. Emission factors for the two fires are combined with measurements of fuel loading, combustion factors, and burned area (derived from satellite burn scar retrievals) to estimate the emissions of trace gases and particles from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia and southern Africa during the dry season (May-October) of 2000. It is estimated that the emissions of CO2, CO, total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, methyl bromide, total particulate matter, and black carbon from woodland and grassland savanna fires during the dry season of 2000 in southern Africa contributed 12.3%, 12.6%, 5.9%, 10.3%, 7.5%, 24.2%, 2.8%, 17.5%, and 11.1%, respectively, of the average annual emissions from all types of savanna fires worldwide. In 2000 the average annual emissions of methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene, propene, formaldehyde, methanol, and acetic acid from the use of biofuels in Zambia were comparable to or exceeded dry season emissions of these species from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia.

  14. Armies of east and southern Africa fighting a guerrilla war with AIDS. Special report: AIDS and the military.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R

    1995-12-01

    AIDS prevention and care programs administered by the defense forces of Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe embody information, education, and communication, condom promotion, sexually transmitted disease (STD) control, safe blood supply, pre- and post-test counseling, and support for those afflicted. Rules of the UN peacekeeping operations are also observed: training in HIV prevention, testing prior to deployment, and no deployment of troops infected. The militaries' efforts are linked with the endeavors of national AIDS programs run by civilian government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. The various policies towards HIV-infected personnel usually employ discharge provisions only when the soldier is unable to perform his duties. Health education is part of the militaries' programs. In Malawi each unit in military school is educated about HIV/STD transmission and condom use. In Tanzania HIV-positive troops are counseled and those with symptoms are given a sick leave to prepare for retirement. The Ugandan Army operates nine health education centers that offer training and counseling. AIDS widows and orphans are cared for and their property rights are protected. In Zambia the military have trained HIV/AIDS counselors and HIV-positive persons are counseled and treated for up to seven years. In Zimbabwe, HIV-infected but fit servicemen continue service and are treated until death, while their dependents are cared for. Women are also included in the armies of these seven countries, but Malawi and Kenya restrict in-service marriages. Uganda and Zimbabwe have guidelines against sexual harassment and provide better living conditions for married couples. Only the Malawian Army tests all recruits for HIV prior to officer training. Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe have voluntary testing schemes, but reassessment is underway in Zambia where 25% of recruits are infected with HIV. The impact of HIV/AIDS can be reduced if a higher proportion of public health budgets is allocated to combat this epidemic. PMID:12319957

  15. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. PMID:24102661

  16. Evaluating the potential impact of mass praziquantel administration for HIV prevention in Schistosoma haematobium high-risk communities.

    PubMed

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Gilbert, Jennifer A; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-06-01

    Genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Epidemiological studies have observed that genital schistosomiasis is associated with an increased odd of HIV infection among women. We used mathematical modeling to explore the potential impact of mass preventive chemotherapy against schistosomiasis on HIV transmission in three sub-Saharan Africa countries: Angola, Kenya, and Zambia. We developed a model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) and HIV transmission dynamics, fitting it to data of HIV and S. haematobium prevalences as well as co-infection. We simulated targeted mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel to school-age children and mass treatment of the entire community. We estimated that, in S. haematobium high-risk communities, targeted annual treatment of school-age children could reduce HIV prevalence by 20% (95% CI: 12-31%) in Angola, 16% (95% CI: 10-32%) in Kenya, and 6% (95% CI: 3-18%) in Zambia after the first 20 years of intervention; and would reduce HIV incidence by 15% (95% CI: 13-32%) in Angola, 22% (95% CI: 18-42%) in Kenya, and 9% (95% CI: 3-22%) in Zambia. Extending the intervention to adults could reduce HIV prevalence by an additional 2.2% (95% CI: 0.2-12.0%) in Angola, 1.8% (95% CI: 0.1-5.2%) in Kenya, and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.1-2.1%) in Zambia; and would reduce HIV incidence by an additional 1.8% (95% CI: 0.0-14.4%) in Angola, 6.1% (95% CI: 0.5-12.6%) in Kenya, and 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0-2.7%) in Zambia. We showed that the exacerbation of HIV transmission due to FGS and the probability of developing FGS as a result of childhood infection with S. haematobium, were the most important factors in determining the effectiveness of praziquantel MDA for reducing HIV transmission. Praziquantel MDA may be an innovative measure for reducing schistosomiasis and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, the effectiveness of which varies with HIV prevalence. PMID:24928666

  17. Isolation and characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains from indigenous Zambian cattle using Spacer oligonucleotide typing technique

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has remained a major source of concern to public health officials in Zambia. Previous investigations have used traditional epidemiological methods that are unable to identify the causative agent and from which dynamics of disease dispersion is difficult to discern. The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize and determine the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. bovis from major cattle rearing districts in Zambia by spoligotyping. A total of 695 carcasses were examined and 98 tissues had gross post-mortem lesions compatible with BTB. Results Forty-two out of the ninety-eight suspected tissues examined had culture properties characteristic of mycobacteria from which 31 isolates yielded interpretable spoligotypes. This technique showed good discriminatory power (HGDI = 0.98), revealing 10 different spoligotype patterns. Twenty-seven isolates belonged to one cluster with more than 95% similarity and inside the cluster, one predominant spoligotype was found in 20 (64.5%) of the isolates tested. The highest number of spoligotypes was observed among samples from Namwala district. Spoligotypes from 26 (83.9%) of the isolates belonged to five spoligotypes that have been reported before while the remaining 5 (16.1%) isolates had unique spoligotypes that are being reported for the first time; these have been assigned numbers SB1763 to SB1767. Five of the 6 districts had the predominant spoligotype (SB0120). Conclusion The study has described the dispersion patterns of M. bovis in Zambian cattle for the first time and has identified 5 spoligotype patterns specific to Zambia. The observation of an overlap in the spoligotype pattern SB0120 in 5 of the 6 districts suggests the probability of sharing a common source of infection. PMID:19619309

  18. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries. Data Sources Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions. Study Selection 26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries. Data Extraction Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website. Results Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%). Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6%) and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%). Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents. Conclusion Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority. PMID:26162085

  19. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sandra; Miwanda, Berthe; Sadji, Adodo Yao; Thefenne, Hélène; Jeddi, Fakhri; Rebaudet, Stanislas; de Boeck, Hilde; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Depina, Jean-Jacques; Bompangue, Didier; Abedi, Aaron Aruna; Koivogui, Lamine; Keita, Sakoba; Garnotel, Eric; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Ruimy, Raymond; Thomson, Nicholas; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Background Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis) typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia) formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea) constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates. Conclusions/Significance To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates. PMID:26110870

  20. The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter A; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; t'Sas Rolfes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2) in 1997 to 177 and ?6,000 km(2) by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ?91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ?USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ?1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching. PMID:24367493

  1. Fires and Smoke in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This year's fire season in central Africa may have been the most severe ever. This true-color image also shows the location of fires (red dots) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, and Zambia. The image was taken by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA 's Terra spacecraft on August 23, 2000, and was produced using the MODIS Active Fire Detection product. NASA scientists studied these fires during the SAFARI 2000 field campaign. Image By Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Team

  2. Fires in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows biomass burning in southern Africa in April, May, and June of 2002. The images span a number of different viewpoints of the region, but the country of Angola, with its highly dendritic (carved by rivers) geological formations are common to them all. Many of the images show part of four countries: Angola (usually at left), Zambia (right), Botswana (bottom right), and Namibia (bottom left). In many images, at lower center, the Okavango River creates a green broomstick-shaped delta in Boptwsana.

  3. Solar Eclipse: Stories form the Path of Totality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium's Solar Eclipse web page posts past solar eclipse dates, webcasts of these eclipses, and resources for understanding and viewing eclipses. Information on eclipses in Turkey, Greece, Zambia, Aruba and the United States are featured. Some of the prominent features include an explanation on the sun-eating dragon theory, the sun-earth connection and eclipse expeditions. There is also a page for users to share their eclipse stories. A world map of future eclipses can be found so you can create your own eclipse experience.

  4. Is Foreign Aid Paternalistic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Breman; Ola Granström; Felix Masiye

    Abstract We experimentally,investigate whether,donors,are paternalistically al- truistic when contributing to foreign aid. In a double-blind experiment, a subject chooses whether,to make,a monetary,or a tied transfer (mosquito nets) to an anonymous,household,in Zambia. Recipients have,revealed preferences,for money,as their willingness to pay for mosquito,nets is pos- itive but below,the market,price. A monetary,transfer will therefore pre- serve the household’s preferences,while a tied transfer is

  5. Quality of STD care in an urban Zambian setting: the providers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Faxelid, E; Ahlberg, B M; Maimbolwa, M; Krantz, I

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse obstacles to optimal STD care in an urban setting in Zambia. Eight-two health professionals answered a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions. More than 50% were not satisfied with their working conditions, due to heavy workload, lack of equipment/drugs, poor salary, and lack of continuing education. Negative opinions about STD patients were common. Treatment and preventive activities were considered important but most respondents found patient compliance poor--especially for partner notification. To improve the quality of STD care, training in STD management should be combined with improved working conditions. PMID:9559384

  6. Energy resources in southern Africa: a select bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Cavan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The aims, progress, and possibilities involved in Southern Africa's energy development are the subject of this 473-item bibliography. The primary items of information described in this document are relatively recent (1975-81), originate from both indigenous and international sources, and are mostly in English, although a few are in French and Portuguese. The presented information focuses on the African continent, the Southern African region, and the nations of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The energy source topics include alcohol, coal, gas, oil, solar, uranium, water, wind, and wood; as well as a general energy-development category.

  7. Increasing the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in a resource-limited setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As in other resource limited settings, the Ministry of Health in Zambia is challenged to make affordable and acceptable PMTCT interventions accessible and available. With a 14.3% HIV prevalence, the MOH estimates over one million people are HIV positive in Zambia. Approximately 500,000 children are born annually in Zambia and 40,000 acquire the infection vertically each year if no intervention is offered. This study sought to review uptake of prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) services in a resource-limited setting following the introduction of context-specific interventions. Methods Interventions to improve PMTCT uptake were introduced into 38 sites providing PMTCT services in Zambia in July 2005. Baseline and follow up service data were collected on a monthly basis through September 2008. Data was checked for internal and external consistency using logic built into databases used for data management. Data audits were conducted to determine accuracy and reliability. Trends were analyzed pre- and post- intervention. Results Uptake among pregnant women increased across the 13 quarters (39 months) of observation, particularly in the case of acceptance of counseling and HIV testing from 45% to 90% (p value = 0.00) in the first year and 99% by year 3 (p value = 0.00). Receipt of complete course of antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis increased from 29% to 66% (p = 0.00) in the first year and 97% by year 3 (p value = 0.00). There was also significant improvement in the percentage of HIV positive pregnant women referred for clinical care. Conclusions Uptake of PMTCT services in resource-limited settings can be improved by utilizing innovative alternatives to mitigate the effects of human resource shortage such as by providing technical assistance and mentorship beyond regular training courses, integrating PMTCT services into existing maternal and child health structures, addressing information gaps, mobilizing traditional and opinion leaders and building strong relationships with the government. These health system based approaches provide a sustainable improvement in the capacity and uptake of services. PMID:20109210

  8. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Paw?owska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwi?ska-Wyrzychowska, A; M?trak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:24761043

  9. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives. PMID:20873031

  10. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  11. HLA-G 14bp deletion/insertion polymorphism and mother-to-child transmission of HIV

    PubMed Central

    SEGAT, Ludovica; ZUPIN, Luisa; KIM, Hae-Young; CATAMO, Eulalia; THEA, Donald M.; KANKASA, Chipepo; ALDROVANDI, Grace M.; KUHN, Louise; CROVELLA, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen HLA-G, highly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, has a pivotal role in mediating immune tolerance. In this study we investigated the influence of HLA-G 14 bp insertion polymorphism in HIV-1 mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. The 14 bp insertion polymorphism was analyzed among 99 HIV-1 positive mothers and 329 infants born to HIV-positive mothers in Zambia, among whom vertical transmission status and timing had been determined. HLA-G 14bp insertion polymorphism was detected using a custom TaqMan SNPs genotyping assay. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between HLA-G alleles and the risk of HIV transmission. The 14bp insertion allele was more frequent in HIV exposed-uninfected infants than in infected infants, and was associated with reduced risk of both in utero and intrapartum HIV transmission, after adjusting for maternal CD4 cell count and plasma viral load. Maternal HLA-G 14bp insertion genotype and HLA-G concordance between mother and child were not associated with the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. The presence of the 14 bp insertion associates with protection towards in utero and intrapartum HIV infection in children from Zambia, suggesting that HLA-G could be involved in the vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:24571474

  12. HLA-G 14?bp deletion/insertion polymorphism and mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Segat, L; Zupin, L; Kim, H-Y; Catamo, E; Thea, D M; Kankasa, C; Aldrovandi, G M; Kuhn, L; Crovella, S

    2014-03-01

    The human leukocyte antigen HLA-G, highly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, has a pivotal role in mediating immune tolerance. In this study we investigated the influence of HLA-G 14?bp insertion polymorphism in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. The 14?bp insertion polymorphism was analyzed among 99 HIV-1 positive mothers and 329 infants born to HIV-positive mothers in Zambia, among whom vertical transmission status and timing had been determined. HLA-G 14?bp insertion polymorphism was detected using a custom TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping assay. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between HLA-G alleles and the risk of HIV transmission. The 14?bp insertion allele was more frequent in HIV exposed-uninfected (EU) infants than in infected infants, and was associated with reduced risk of both in utero (IU) and intrapartum (IP) HIV transmission, after adjusting for maternal cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count and plasma viral load. Maternal HLA-G 14?bp insertion genotype and HLA-G concordance between mother and child were not associated with the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. The presence of the 14?bp insertion associates with protection toward IU and IP HIV infection in children from Zambia, suggesting that HLA-G could be involved in the vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:24571474

  13. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo Woddlands and the Energy Demands of People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Mukelabai, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  14. Challenges and Economic Implications in the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from the Zambian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sinkala, Y.; Simuunza, M.; Pfeiffer, D. U.; Munang'andu, H. M.; Mulumba, M.; Kasanga, C. J.; Muma, J. B.; Mweene, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is one of the world's most important livestock diseases for trade. FMD infections are complex in nature and there are many epidemiological factors needing clarification. Key questions relate to the control challenges and economic impact of the disease for resource-poor FMD endemic countries like Zambia. A review of the control challenges and economic impact of FMD outbreaks in Zambia was made. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journals articles, conference proceedings, unpublished scientific reports, and personal communication with scientists and personal field experiences. The challenges of controlling FMD using mainly vaccination and movement control are discussed. Impacts include losses in income of over US$ 1.6 billion from exports of beef and sable antelopes and an annual cost of over US$ 2.7 million on preventive measures. Further impacts included unquantified losses in production and low investment in agriculture resulting in slow economic growth. FMD persistence may be a result of inadequate epidemiological understanding of the disease and ineffectiveness of the control measures that are being applied. The identified gaps may be considered in the annual appraisal of the FMD national control strategy in order to advance on the progressive control pathway. PMID:25276472

  15. Willingness to pay, borrow, and work for rural water service improvements in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Adam; Becker, Nir; Garb, Yaakov; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2011-11-01

    In many least developed countries, inadequate user willingness to pay (WTP) to achieve cost recovery for improvements to substandard rural water services is a major barrier to reaching targets such as the Millennium Development Goals. A meta-analysis of 21 contingent valuation studies conducted in least developed countries reveals that cost recovery from user demand is infeasible in most cases, and that rural areas are especially unwilling to pay enough to finance water service improvements. We argue that this is largely due to inability to pay cash rather than an absence of demand and propose two alternative financing approaches that may enable capital deficient communities to afford improvements. A discrete choice experiment, conducted in a rural catchment of Zambia, compares conventional cash-based WTP for different water service attributes with two alternative measures. (1) Willingness to borrow: Monthly payments in cash, with a no-interest loan given to the user. (2) Willingness to work: Instead of cash, payment in the form of contributing time devoted to unskilled labor. To different degrees, these alternatives elicit higher demand and enable cost recovery, providing evidence that demand-driven, economically sustainable water development efforts, as described here for Simango, Zambia, may be implemented for rural, resource-poor communities.

  16. Validation, Replication, and Sensitivity Testing of Heckman-Type Selection Models to Adjust Estimates of HIV Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Samuel J.; Houle, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A recent study using Heckman-type selection models to adjust for non-response in the Zambia 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) found a large correction in HIV prevalence for males. We aim to validate this finding, replicate the adjustment approach in other DHSs, apply the adjustment approach in an external empirical context, and assess the robustness of the technique to different adjustment approaches. We used 6 DHSs, and an HIV prevalence study from rural South Africa to validate and replicate the adjustment approach. We also developed an alternative, systematic model of selection processes and applied it to all surveys. We decomposed corrections from both approaches into rate change and age-structure change components. We are able to reproduce the adjustment approach for the 2007 Zambia DHS and derive results comparable with the original findings. We are able to replicate applying the approach in several other DHSs. The approach also yields reasonable adjustments for a survey in rural South Africa. The technique is relatively robust to how the adjustment approach is specified. The Heckman selection model is a useful tool for assessing the possibility and extent of selection bias in HIV prevalence estimates from sample surveys. PMID:25402333

  17. GIS and multiple-criteria evaluation for the optimisation of tsetse fly eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    Symeonakis, Elias; Robinson, Tim; Drake, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the vectors of trypanosomes, the causal agent of trypanosomiasis, a widespread disease of livestock and people in Africa. Control of tsetse may open vast areas of land to livestock-keeping, with the associated benefits of developing mixed crop-livestock production systems. However, as well as possible positive impacts there are also risks: bush clearing would accelerate and cattle numbers would rise, leading to a reduction of vegetation cover, and an increase in runoff and erosion; there may also be increased pressure on conserved areas and reductions in biodiversity. The objective of this study is to show how remotely sensed and other environmental data can be combined in a decision support system to help inform tsetse control programmes in a manner that could be used to limit possible detrimental effects of tsetse control. For Zambia, a methodology is developed that combines a tree-based decision-support approach with the use of Multiple-Criteria Evaluation (MCE), within a Geographical Information System (GIS), in order to target areas for tsetse control. The results show clear differentiation of priority areas under a series of hypothetical scenarios, and some areas (e.g. northwest of Petauke in the Eastern Province of Zambia) are consistently flagged as high priority for control. It is also demonstrated that priority areas do not comprise isolated tsetse populations, meaning that disease control using an integrated approach is likely to be more economically viable than local eradication. PMID:17058018

  18. Prevalence of amphistomiasis and its association with Fasciola gigantica infections in Zambian cattle from communal grazing areas.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Monrad, J

    2006-03-01

    To estimate prevalence of amphistomiasis and its association with bovine Fasciola gigantica infections in Zambia, 709 faeces of cattle presented for slaughter from three major cattle rearing areas of Central, Southern and Western provinces were analysed. The prevalence rate of amphistomes was 51.6%. Egg counts per gram (EPG) of faeces ranged from 0 to 385 with a mean (+/- SEM) of 11.96 +/- 1.07. The origin of the cattle had a significant influence (P < 0.001) on the prevalence rate. Fasciola gigantica infections accounted for 46.7% of the cattle examined. The mean EPG count (+/- SEM) was 6.3 +/- 0.66 with a range of 0 to 223. A total of 34.6% were mixed infections while single Fasciola and amphistome infections represented 12.1% and 17.1%, respectively. Significantly more cattle (63.8%) were infected with either single or both trematode infections (P < 0.0001) than not. Mixed trematode infections were highest in the Southern province (80.0%) while the lowest were recorded in Central province (16.3%). A positive correlation (r(2) = 0.0428) was present in mixed infections. In order to minimize losses, epidemiology and cross-resistance of amphistomiasis and fascioliasis should be studied in different ecological regions of Zambia to formulate efficient control programmes. PMID:16469175

  19. Cenozoic extension, volcanism and plateau uplift in eastern Africa and the African Superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; O'Donnell, J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Adams, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Recent body and surface wave studies combine to image mantle velocity structure to a depth of 1200 km beneath eastern Africa using teleseismic earthquake data recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined network spans Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. The 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle was imaged using fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities measured at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s, subsequently inverted for shear velocity structure. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, the shear velocity model supports a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. In eastern Tanzania a low-velocity region suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. The results suggest that existing lithospheric structures exert a significant governing influence on rift development. Sub-lithospheric mantle wave speed variations extending to a depth of 1200 km were tomographically imaged from the inversion of P and S wave relative arrival time residuals. The images shows a low wave speed anomaly (LWA) well developed at shallow depths (100-200 km) beneath the Eastern and Western branches of the rift system and northwestern Zambia, and a fast wave speed anomaly at depths greater than 350 km beneath the central and northern parts of the East African Plateau and the eastern and central parts of Zambia. At depths below 350 km the LWA is most prominent under the central and southern parts of the East African Plateau and dips to the southwest beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The amplitude of the LWA is consistent with a 150-300 K thermal perturbation, and its depth extent indicates that the African superplume, originally identified as a lower mantle anomaly, is likely a whole mantle structure. A mantle transition zone about 30-40 km thinner than the global average in a region 200-400 km wide extending in a SW-NE direction from central Zambia, across Tanzania and into Kenya was inferred from P to S conversions from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities observed in receiver function stacks. The thinning of the transition zone indicates a 190-300 K thermal anomaly in the same location where the P and S wave tomography models suggest that the lower mantle African superplume structure connects to thermally perturbed upper mantle beneath eastern Africa. These findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of a continuous thermal structure extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface associated with the African superplume, implying an origin for the Cenozoic extension, volcanism and plateau uplift in eastern Africa rooted in the dynamics of the lower mantle.

  20. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every child is charged. Because folk are so poor, the fees have to be very low and the resources bought are consequently minimal. Apparatus for physics lessons? Very rarely. Electricity, gas and water services to the labs? Sometimes. Physics textbooks? Very few, old and battered through much use. I visited the David Kuanda School in Lusaka, a high status technical school, and there met some very impressive teachers. Were they doing technical subjects like electronics and car maintenance? No, they could not afford to buy the required equipment, and thus did the academic subjects, physics, chemistry and maths etc, which were cheaper as they could be taught with 'chalk and talk'! Were their students bright, resourceful and keen to learn? They certainly were. Despite all these difficulties the teachers were seeking to teach, and help their students enjoy, the same physics that is common around the world—and prepare them for very similar exams at GCE and A-level, in English. If anyone would like to help a Zambian secondary school, perhaps by sending a set of physics texts no longer used here, or by providing some other resources, perhaps by forming a personal link with a school in Zambia, please contact me and I would be happy to help with arrangements. I could guarantee that you, and your students, would gain an enormous amount from such links—as well as making a real contribution to the development of a less favoured country. Brian E Woolnough Oxford University, UK brian.woolnough@edstud.ox.ac.uk Pedantry or compromise I write in response to S Wynchank's letter in the May issue entitled 'Grammar and Gender'. Many have been using 'They' as common-sex third-person pronoun for years, in order to avoid the irritating and clumsy 'Him or Her'. This commonsense compromise is logically compatible with the universal use of 'They' to include the singular... OF EITHER SEX! For example, in 'Those who ignore this instruction may lose their right to compensation.', both 'Those' and 'their' include the possibility of the singular, of either sex. On the other hand, in 'Anyone who ign

  1. Building on safety, feasibility, and acceptability: the impact and cost of community health worker provision of injectable contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Bratt, John; Malkin, Morrisa; Nduna, Mavis Mwale; Otterness, Conrad; Jumbe, Lydia; Mbewe, Reuben Kamoto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A critical shortage of doctors, nurses, and midwives in many sub-Saharan African countries inhibits efforts to expand access to family planning services, especially in rural areas. One way to fill this gap is for community health workers (CHWs) to provide injectable contraceptives, an intervention for which there is growing evidence and international support. In 2009, with approval from the Government of Zambia (GoZ), FHI 360 collaborated with ChildFund Zambia to design and implement such an intervention as part of its existing CHW family planning program. Methods: The safety of CHW provision of injectable DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) was measured by client reports and by a 21-item structured observation checklist. Feasibility and acceptability were measured by interviews with CHWs and a subset of DMPA clients. The impact of adding DMPA to pill and condom provision was assessed by family planning uptake among the clients of trained CHWs from February 2010 to February 2011. Costs were documented using spreadsheets over the period November 2009 to February 2011. Results: Scores were high on all measures of safety, feasibility, and acceptability. Couple-years of protection (CYP, protection from pregnancy for 1 year) was provided to 51 condom clients, 391 pill clients, and 2,206 DMPA clients. Of the 1,739 clients new to family planning, 85% chose injectable DMPA, while 13% chose pills and 2% chose condoms. Continuation rates were also high, at 63% after 1 year as compared with 47% for pill users. Incremental costs per couple-year were US$21.24 if 50% of users continue with CHW-provided DMPA. Conclusion: The study affirms that the provision of injectable contraceptives by CHWs is safe, acceptable, and feasible in the Zambian context, with very high rates of uptake in hard-to-reach areas. High continuation rates among clients mean that costs of the intervention can be low when added to an existing community-based distribution program—a finding that is relevant to program replication (now underway in Zambia). PMID:25276547

  2. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-01-01

    Background New WHO guidelines recommend ART initiation for HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts ?500 cells/µL, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers must consider whether to further expand ART eligibility accordingly. Methods We used multiple independent mathematical models in four settings—South Africa, Zambia, India, and Vietnam—to evaluate the potential health impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of different adult ART eligibility criteria under scenarios of current and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses considered extending eligibility to include individuals with CD4 ?500 cells/µL or all HIV-positive adults, compared to the previous recommendation of initiation with CD4 ?350 cells/µL. We assessed costs from a health system perspective, and calculated the incremental cost per DALY averted ($/DALY) to compare competing strategies. Strategies were considered ‘very cost-effective’ if the $/DALY was less than the country’s per capita gross domestic product (GDP; South Africa: $8040, Zambia: $1425, India: $1489, Vietnam: $1407) and ‘cost-effective’ if $/DALY was less than three times per capita GDP. Findings In South Africa, the cost per DALY averted of extending ART eligibility to CD4 ?500 cells/µL ranged from $237 to $1691/DALY compared to 2010 guidelines; in Zambia, expanded eligibility ranged from improving health outcomes while reducing costs (i.e. dominating current guidelines) to $749/DALY. Results were similar in scenarios with substantially expanded treatment access and for expanding eligibility to all HIV-positive adults. Expanding treatment coverage in the general population was therefore found to be cost-effective. In India, eligibility for all HIV-positive persons ranged from $131 to $241/DALY and in Vietnam eligibility for CD4 ?500 cells/µL cost $290/DALY. In concentrated epidemics, expanded access among key populations was also cost-effective. Interpretation Earlier ART eligibility is estimated to be very cost-effective in low- and middle-income settings, although these questions should be revisited as further information becomes available. Scaling-up ART should be considered among other high-priority health interventions competing for health budgets. Funding The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and World Health Organization PMID:25083415

  3. Temporal relationships between heavy-metal concentrations in water and food crops at a Zambian urban agriculture site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer A.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Chishala, Benson H.; Kapungwe, Evaristo; Volk, John; Harpp, Karen S.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, for a suite of 17 elements, we examine the temporal relationships between heavy-metal concentrations in water and food crops, and between different elements, at Chunga, Zambia, August 2004 to July 2005. In many locations in the developing world, the water source used for urban agriculture is often wastewater from industrial sources, and is potentially contaminated with heavy metals. In Zambia, the location of this study, the wastewater source for irrigation use in some urban areas has been called 'a sink for sewage, mining and industrial effluents' all of which potentially contain heavy metals. We present field research results examining relationships between heavy-metal concentrations in both the water and the foodcrops from an urban agriculture location in northwest Lusaka (Chunga), the capital of Zambia. Monthly monitoring of water and food crops irrigated by the water was carried out at the study site, August 2004 to July 2005, for n = 39 water samples and n = 17 food crop samples. Heavy-metal concentrations were examined for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, U (17 elements) using ICP-MS. We find that both water and food-crop samples have peak concentrations for many elements in the wet season (October to February). When examining temporal relationships, we find some positive and negative statistically significant correlations between elements for both [water]:[food crop] and [food crop]:[food crop]. For the concentrations of [water]:[food crop] we find particularly strong positive correlations for V:Se and (V, Cr, Co, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, U):Tl; strong negative correlations are observed for V:Zn, Ni:Cu, Cd:Cu. For [food crop]:[food crop] particularly strong positive relationships are observed for Al:V, Al:Cr, Cr:V, and Cd:U. Theoretically, concentrations of heavy-metals in plant samples normally should reflect the heavy-metal contamination in the water used to irrigate the plants throughout the growth cycle (typically six weeks). A time-lag correlation between [water] and [food crop] was found for individual elements (Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Hg).

  4. Clade C HIV-1 isolates circulating in Southern Africa exhibit a greater frequency of dicysteine motif-containing Tat variants than those in Southeast Asia and cause increased neurovirulence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 Clade C (Subtype C; HIV-1C) is responsible for greater than 50% of infections worldwide. Unlike clade B HIV-1 (Subtype B; HIV-1B), which is known to cause HIV associated dementia (HAD) in approximately 15% to 30% of the infected individuals, HIV-1C has been linked with lower prevalence of HAD (0 to 6%) in India and Ethiopia. However, recent studies report a higher prevalence of HAD in South Africa, Zambia and Botswana, where HIV-1C infections predominate. Therefore, we examined whether Southern African HIV-1C is genetically distinct and investigated its neurovirulence. HIV-1 Tat protein is a viral determinant of neurocognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we focused our study on the variations seen in tat gene and its contribution to HIV associated neuropathogenesis. Results A phylogenetic analysis of tat sequences of Southern African (South Africa and Zambia) HIV isolates with those from the geographically distant Southeast Asian (India and Bangladesh) isolates revealed that Southern African tat sequences are distinct from Southeast Asian isolates. The proportion of HIV???1C variants with an intact dicysteine motif in Tat protein (C30C31) was significantly higher in the Southern African countries compared to Southeast Asia and broadly paralleled the high incidence of HAD in these countries. Neuropathogenic potential of a Southern African HIV-1C isolate (from Zambia; HIV-1C1084i), a HIV-1C isolate (HIV-1IndieC1) from Southeast Asia and a HIV-1B isolate (HIV-1ADA) from the US were tested using in vitro assays to measure neurovirulence and a SCID mouse HIV encephalitis model to measure cognitive deficits. In vitro assays revealed that the Southern African isolate, HIV-1C1084i exhibited increased monocyte chemotaxis and greater neurotoxicity compared to Southeast Asian HIV-1C. In neurocognitive tests, SCID mice injected with MDM infected with Southern African HIV-1C1084i showed greater cognitive dysfunction similar to HIV-1B but much higher than those exposed to Southeast Asian HIV???1C. Conclusions We report here, for the first time, that HIV-1C from Southern African countries is genetically distinct from Southeast Asian HIV-1C and that it exhibits a high frequency of variants with dicysteine motif in a key neurotoxic HIV protein, Tat. Our results indicate that Tat dicysteine motif determines neurovirulence. If confirmed in population studies, it may be possible to predict neurocognitive outcomes of individuals infected with HIV-1C by genotyping Tat. PMID:23758766

  5. Existing apathy.

    PubMed

    Sayila, A K

    1992-06-01

    The Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) faces many challenges: inadequate programs for youth and at risk groups, inadequate trained personnel and resources to implement population-related programs, and adverse publicity regarding modern methods of family planning (FP). The Family Life Movement and Profile Movement of Zambia have accused PPAZ of promoting abortions through its FP campaigns. Some Christian organizations have promoted the idea of pill and condom use as encouraging promiscuity and immorality. The majority see the pill and condoms as a clever plot to sterilize women. Culturally, many people still believe in uncontrolled childbearing and that it gives high social standing to a man according to the number of children he has. Many avoid condom use because of a preference for skin-to-skin contact. Funding is erratic and program specific. To meet these many challenges, the government intervened and was able to form an agreement with the family life proponents and PPAZ to assist the government in population efforts. The population is growing at a rate of 3.8%/year is currently numbers 8,452 million people. There is population pressure because of diminishing resources. Infant mortality is high at 72/1000 children. Ministries and PPAZ have launched campaigns in urban and rural areas to educate the people about issues such as child spacing health care, and sexual disease prevention. PPAZ acceptors increased from 175,428 in 1989 to 188,357 in 1990. The Family Life Movement is counseling on natural and traditional methods. Traditional practices include abstinence withdrawal, and use of a medicinal belt (mpimpi), which has no scientific support. Ministry of Health research reports 40% effectiveness with modern methods and 10% effectiveness with traditional ones. PPAZ has scattered delivery sites. The Ministry of Health provides contraceptives through hospitals, missions, local councils, and the Zambia Flying Doctor Services. FP is also available through pharmacies, private physicians, and company clinics PPAZ in 1990 is training industrial nurses to run FP clinics in the workplace. PPAZ has also been involved in training of trainers. A collaborative effort between PPAZ, the Ministry of Health, and the General Nursing Council is targeted to allow medically qualified field officers to prescribe contraceptives. A recent survey reported that only 25.3% knew or used modern methods. PMID:12285555

  6. Distributions of Trace Gases and Aerosols during the Dry Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Vertical profiles in the lower troposphere of temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), condensation nuclei (CN), and carbon monoxide (CO), and horizontal distributions of twenty gaseous and particulate species, are presented for five regions of southern Africa during the dry biomass burning season of 2000. The regions are the semiarid savannas of northeast South Africa and northern Botswana, the savanna-forest mosaic of coastal Mozambique, the humid savanna of southern Zambia, and the desert of western Namibia. The highest average concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), CO, methane (CH4), O3, black particulate carbon, and total particulate carbon were in the Botswana and Zambia sectors (388 and 392 ppmv, 369 and 453 ppbv, 1753 and 1758 ppbv, 79 and 88 ppbv, 2.6 and 5.5 micrograms /cubic meter and 13.2 and 14.3 micrograms/cubic meter). This was due to intense biomass burning in Zambia and surrounding regions. The South Africa sector had the highest average concentrations of SO2, sulfate particles, and CN (5.1 ppbv, 8.3 micrograms/cubic meter, and per 6400 cubic meter , respectively), which derived from biomass burning and electric generation plants and mining operations within this sector. Air quality in the Mozambique sector was similar to the neighboring South Africa sector. Over the arid Namibia sector there were polluted layers aloft, in which average SO2, O3, and CO mixing ratios (1.2 ppbv, 76 ppbv, and 3 10 ppbv, respectively) were similar to those measured over the other more polluted sectors. This was due to transport of biomass smoke from regions of widespread savanna burning in southern Angola. Average concentrations over all sectors of CO2 (386 +/- 8 ppmv), CO (261 +/- 81 ppbv), SO2 (2.5 +/- 1.6 ppbv), O3 (64 +/- 13 ppbv), black particulate carbon (2.3 +/- 1.9 microgram/cubic meter), organic particulate carbon (6.2 +/- 5.2 microgram/cubic meter), total particle mass (26.0 +/- 4.7 microgram/cubic meter), and potassium particles (0.4 +- 0.1 microgram/cubic meter) were comparable to those in polluted, urban air. Since the majority of the measurements in this study were obtained in locations well removed from industrial sources of pollution, the high average concentrations of pollutants reflect the effects of widespread biomass burning. On occasions, relatively thin (-0.5 km) layers of remarkably clean air were located at -3 km above mean sea level, sandwiched between heavily polluted air. The data presented here can be used for inputs to and validation of regional and global atmospheric chemical models.

  7. Mantle transition zone thinning beneath eastern Africa: Evidence for a whole-mantle superplume structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-07-01

    to S conversions from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities observed in receiver function stacks reveal a mantle transition zone that is ~30-40 km thinner than the global average in a region ~200-400 km wide extending in a SW-NE direction from central Zambia, across Tanzania and into Kenya. The thinning of the transition zone indicates a ~190-300 K thermal anomaly in the same location where seismic tomography models suggest that the lower mantle African superplume structure connects to thermally perturbed upper mantle beneath eastern Africa. This finding provides compelling evidence for the existence of a continuous thermal structure extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface associated with the African superplume.

  8. Use of an acidophilic yeast strain to enable the growth of leaching bacteria on solid media.

    PubMed

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Yi; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a Candida digboiensis strain was isolated from a heap leaching plant in Zambia and used in double-layer agar plate to efficiently isolate and purify leaching bacteria. Unlike Acidiphilium sp., the yeast strain was tetrathionate tolerant and could metabolize a great range of organic compounds including organic acids. These properties allowed the yeast strain to enable and fasten the growth of iron and sulfur oxidizers on double-layer agar plate. The isolates were identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans FOX1, Leptospirillun ferriphilum BN, and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZMB. These three leaching bacteria were inhibited by organic acids such as acetic and propionic acids; however, their activities were enhanced by Candida digboiensis NB under dissolved organic matter stress. PMID:25347960

  9. Birds of a feather: homophily and sexual network structure in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, C; Colebunders, R

    2013-03-01

    Sexual partner homophily is the tendency of individuals to choose partners similar to themselves. The extent and nature of partner homophily influences the structure of sexual networks and hence the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this paper, we compare homophily by ethnicity, age and educational status in representative populations from five African cities in Benin (Cotonou), Cameroon (Yaounde), Kenya (Kisumu), Zambia (Ndola) and South Africa (Carletonville). We find low rates of homophily by age and high rates for educational status throughout the region. There is a large variation in homophily by ethnicity between these five cities, with rates lowest in Ndola. In Carletonville, there is a gendered difference in homophily by ethnicity. We discuss the possible implications these variations in the extent and type of homophily may have for STI transmission in the region. PMID:23535354

  10. Malaria is associated with reduced serum retinol levels in rural Zambian children.

    PubMed

    Hautvast, J L; Tolboom, J J; West, C E; Kafwembe, E M; Sauerwein, R W; van Staveren, W A

    1998-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of illness, while infections impair vitamin A status. Malaria is highly prevalent in rural Zambia. We describe the relationship between malaria and vitamin A status. We examined dietary vitamin A intake, malaria parasitaemia and serum concentrations of retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in 210 children under the age of 2. Vitamin A intake was low. Serum retinol was negatively correlated with malaria parasite count and to serum levels of CRP and AGP. Increased malaria parasite density resulted in raised CRP and AGP levels, which were negatively associated with serum retinol. We conclude that improvement of dietary vitamin A intake and prevention of infectious diseases, especially malaria, could alleviate vitamin A deficiency in this population. PMID:9857266

  11. Infectivity of Echinostoma friedi miracidia to different snail species under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J G

    2006-09-01

    The infectivity of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) miracidia was studied experimentally in a range of laboratory-reared snails that coexist in the same natural locality, namely Radix peregra, Lymnaea fuscus, L. truncatula (Lymnaeidae), Gyraulus chinensis, Helisoma duryi (Planorbidae) and Physella acuta (Physidae), and snails from different geographical origins acting naturally or experimentally as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma spp., namely Planorbarius metidjensis (from Málaga, Spain), Biomphalaria glabrata (Guadeloupe), B. alexandrina (Egypt) (Planorbidae), Bulinus cernicus (Mauritius), B. globosus (Zambia), B. natalensis (South Africa) and B. truncatus (Niger) (Bulinidae). Six species of snails were found to be susceptible, with the rate of infection ranging from 0 to 36.7%. The highest infection was detected in R. peregra. The low host specificity of E. friedi might have an epidemiological significance as a requisite for a recent establishment in a new geographical area. PMID:16923279

  12. In real time: exploring nursing students' learning during an international experience.

    PubMed

    Afriyie Asenso, Barbara; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Astle, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nursing education has increasingly turned to international learning experiences to educate students who are globally minded and aware of social injustices in local and global communities. To date, research with international learning experiences has focused on the benefits for the students participating, after they have completed the international experience. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how nursing students learn during the international experience. The sample consisted of eight nursing students who enrolled in an international learning experience, and data were collected in "real time" in Zambia. The students were observed during learning activities and were interviewed three times. Three major themes emerged from the thematic analysis: expectations shaped students' learning, engagement facilitated learning, and critical reflection enhanced learning. Implications are discussed, related to disrupting media representations of Africa that shape students' expectations, and educational strategies for transformative learning and global citizenship. PMID:24150212

  13. Mate choice and genetic monogamy in a biparental, colonial fish

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Wouter F.D.; Wagner, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, in which both sexes provide essential parental care, males as well as females are expected to be choosy. Whereas hundreds of studies have examined monogamy in biparental birds, only several such studies exist in fish. We examined mate choice in the biparental, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus caudopunctatus in Lake Tanganyika, Zambia. We genotyped more than 350 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci to investigate their mating system. We found no extrapair paternity, identifying this biparental fish as genetically monogamous. Breeders paired randomly according to their genetic similarity, suggesting a lack of selection against inbreeding avoidance. We further found that breeders paired assortatively by body size, a criterion of quality in fish, suggesting mutual mate choice. In a subsequent mate preference test in an aquarium setup, females showed a strong preference for male size by laying eggs near the larger of 2 males in 13 of 14 trials. PMID:26023276

  14. SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-02-08

    The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

  15. Premarital fertility and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Garenne, Michel; Zwang, Julien

    2008-08-01

    The paper investigates the complex relationships between premarital fertility and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries. The DHS surveys provided data to compute the prevalence of premarital fertility, defined as any birth before the first marriage. The UNAIDS database provided data to compute the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women. Results indicate a moderate association between the prevalence of premarital fertility and the prevalence of HIV infection (correlation coefficient = 0.64, P < 0.0001), and similar geographical patterns. Compared with the average pattern, outlier countries had either high levels of premarital fertility and relatively low HIV prevalence (Liberia, Madagascar, Gabon, Congo), or high levels of HIV prevalence despite low levels of premarital fertility (Lesotho, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The overall relationship is discussed in light of the relationships between age at marriage, permissiveness and lack of protection during intercourse and their impact on premarital fertility and HIV infection among women. PMID:20695042

  16. A taxonomic revision of Otomantis Bolivar, 1890 (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae, Acromantinae) with description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Francesco; Stiewe, Martin B D; Ippolito, Salvatrice; Marletta, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The African genus Otomantis Bolivar, 1890, is taxonomically treated via the re-description of its species on the basis of new morphological features (pronotum and male genitalia). Five new species, O. centralis sp. n. from D. R. of Congo and Angola, O. gracilis sp. n. from D. R. of Congo, O. trimacula sp. n. from Zambia and Malawi, O. bolivari sp. n. from Kenya and Tanzania and O. minima sp. n. from South Africa are described. The taxonomic position of the syntypes of O. capirica Giglio-Tos is revised. A lectotype is designated for the female of O. capirica. The female of O. rendalli (Kirby) and the male of O. aurita (Saussure & Zehntner) are described for the first time. Also provided are many new localities for all nominal species.  A key to the species of Otomantis is included for both male and female, each key fully illustrated. Finally, observations on species distributions and relationships are presented. PMID:24870863

  17. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial-temporal models.

    PubMed

    Alegana, Victor A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wright, Jim A; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2013-12-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

  18. An investigation of the thermal comfort adaptive model in a tropical upland climate

    SciTech Connect

    Malama, A.; Jitkhajornwanich, K.; Sharples, S.; Pitts, A.C. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). School of Architectural Studies

    1998-10-01

    The results of two thermal comfort surveys performed in Zambia, which has a tropical upland climate, are presented and analyzed with special reference to the adaptive model. The main forms of adaptation and adjustment analyzed are: clothing, skin moisture, activity level, and environmental controls. Results show that in the cool season the main methods of adaptation used by the subjects were clothing and environmental controls, while in the warm season only environmental controls were used. It proved difficult to establish the impact of the various levels of adaptivity on thermal comfort standards. It would be useful if the adaptive model could be factored into thermal comfort to produce adaptive thermal comfort standards that would allow for differences in culture and climate across the globe.

  19. Combustion efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions from charcoal production kilns in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.; Babbitt, R.E. [Intermountain Research Station, Missoula, MT (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Charcoal is one of the major energy resources in tropical countries. We investigate the combustion processes in charcoal production kilns in Zambia and Brazil. The Zambian kilns were made of earth and there was sufficient air for combustion inside the kilns. The Brazilian kilns were made of bricks which limited the available oxygen. The combustion efficiency and the concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6} alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic compounds produced were monitored throughout the combustion processes. The contributions of charcoal production processes to the atmospheric sources of these gases were estimated. The strategies for improving charcoal yield and reducing emissions of carbon-containing compounds are discussed.

  20. Vulnerability and sexual and reproductive health among Zambian secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Warenius, Linnéa; Pettersson, Karen O; Nissen, Eva; Höjer, Bengt; Chishimba, Petronella; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore secondary school students' needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of health services available to young people. The study involved data collection from 716 11-22-year-old students in four secondary schools in an urban area in Zambia. Students completed a questionnaire and were invited to write down any inquiries they had regarding sexuality and reproduction. Findings revealed that boys and girls lack adequate information about human reproduction and STIs, including HIV. To avoid misconceptions and myths, they also need clear information on contraceptives and masturbation. Responses indicate that young people would welcome guidance and support related to contraception, pregnancy, abortion and STIs/HIV, but also on love and relationships. Culture, religion and gender are important factors influencing sexuality and sexual abuse. These issues need to be taken into consideration when developing youth-friendly programmes for young people. PMID:17687677

  1. Cross-reactivity of secondary antibodies against African rodents and application for sero-surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ichiro; Hang'ombe, Bernard Mudenda; Sawa, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Orba, Yasuko; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Isozumi, Rie; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Arikawa, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    A total of 466 rodents were captured in the Republic of Zambia from 2006 to 2010. Based on morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial gene sequences, rodents were divided into 10 groups consisting of 39 Rattus rodents, 263 multimammate rats, 18 other Murinae rodents, 95 gerbils, 11 pouched mice, 1 giant-pouched rat, 38 fat mice and 1 dormouse. Rodent antibodies except that from Rattus were examined for their cross-reactivity to commercially available antibody detection reagents. Anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) was most cross-reactive to heterologous antibodies including multimammate rat, gerbil, pouched mouse and fat mouse. Thus, anti-mouse IgG would be a useful detection tool in serological examination of the Zambian rodent population. Preliminary sero-surveillance for plague, leptospirosis and hantavirus infection was performed by ELISA. PMID:23386359

  2. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  3. Energy Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Kathleen B.

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest rates of electrification and some of the worst education statistics worldwide. In the absence of strong infrastructure for a reliable grid system and quality universal primary schooling, the poor suffer significantly. Though substantial research has been done on both issues separately, the relationship between the two has yet to be explored. This thesis uses social justice theories to introduce the connections between energy poverty and an individual's education capabilities through a case study in Zambia. Case study research was carried out in the urban low-resource settlements of Lusaka, Zambia over a period of two months with Lifeline Energy, using methods of participant observation. Drawing on trends discovered in survey responses, interviews and feedback from a distribution of renewable technologies, this study demonstrates that a lack of modern forms of energy detracts from education. By synthesizing the data with Martha Nussbaum's capabilities approach and Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir's scarcity theory, the research reveals that energy poverty hinders an individual's ability to study and gain a quality education and diminishes their available cognitive capacity to learn by tunneling attention to the resource deficit. Furthermore, it supports the claim that energy poverty is not gender neutral. The research concludes that the scarcity caused by energy poverty can be lessened by the investment in and use of small-scale renewable technologies which alleviates some of the daily stress and grind of poverty. This thesis lays the groundwork to recognize energy poverty as an injustice. Keywords: Energy Poverty, Education, Gender, Sub-Saharan Africa, Scarcity, Capabilities Approach..

  4. New synonymies and new records of Afrotropical and Madagascan Pentatominae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Kment, Petr; Jindra, Zden?k; Rider, David A

    2014-01-01

    The following new synonymies within the family Pentatomidae, subfamily Pentatominae, are established: Aesula Stål, 1876 = Pseudacrosternum Day, 1965, syn. nov. (Nezarini), Aesula viridissima (Signoret, 1861) = Aesula signoretiana Kirkaldy, 1909, syn. nov. = Pseudacrosternum cachani Day, 1965, syn. nov. = Pseudacrosternum cachani var. scutellatum Day, 1965, syn. nov., and Andocides vittaticeps (Stål, 1858) = Andocides vittaticeps var. viridescens Schumacher, 1913, syn. nov. Afrania brachyptera (Schaum, 1853), stat. restit., is restored as the oldest available name for that species, with Afrania wahlbergi Stål, 1854, syn. restit., being its junior synonym. Lectotype of Pentatoma viridissima Signoret, 1861 is designated, and lectotype designation of Pseudolerida incerta (Schouteden, 1909) is commented. The following new or confirmed state records are provided: Cappaeini: Leridella kenyensis Jeannel, 1913 (Cameroon), Paralerida bolivari (Schouteden, 1904) (Republic of the Congo, Uganda), P. niokana Linnavuori, 1982 (Uganda), Tripanda (Tripanda) dispar Schouteden, 1964 (Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia), T. (T.) horacekorum Kment & Jindra, 2009 (Cameroon, Guinea), T. (T.) jurickorum Kment & Jindra, 2009 (Gabon, Ivory Coast), T. (T.) longiceps (Villiers, 1967) (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon), T. (T.) signitenens (Distant, 1898) (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique), T. (Tenerva)       decorata (Jensen-Haarup, 1937) (Kenya, Oman, Tanzania); Carpocorini: Andocides vittaticeps (Angola); Diploxyini: Acoloba lanceolata (Fabricius, 1803) (Angola, Central African Republic, Zambia, Zimbabwe); Eysarcorini: Pseudolerida bitalensis Schouteden, 1958 (Cameroon), Pseudolerida incerta (Equatorial Guinea: Bioko Island, Tanzania, Uganda); Myrocheini: Humria bimaculicollis Linnavuori, 1975 (Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe); Strachiini: Afrania brachyptera (Schaum, 1853) (Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Tanzania: Tanganyika, Zanzibar; Uganda). Variability of Tripanda jurickorum, Pseudolerida incerta and Humria bimaculicollis is discussed. PMID:25283665

  5. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of Africa. We recommended adoption of the proven technologies to improve disease surveillance, particularly in the developing countries. PMID:25005126

  6. Linking the SASSCAL WeatherNet and data management/rescue activities to provide consistent information for climate change assessments in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmschrot, J.; Kaspar, F.; Muche, G.; Hillmann, T.; Kanyanga, J.; Butale, M.; Nascimento, D.; Josenhans, K.; Falanga, E.; Neto, F. O. S.; Kruger, S.; Juergens, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many countries of Southern Africa face inadequate weather monitoring networks to provide reliable and consistent information for the development of efficient management strategies for sustainable water and land resources management, drought and flood risk analysis and forecasts as well as climate change impacts assessments. In addition, some existing networks are characterized by station data showing notable gaps in long-term observations. On the other hand, useful climate information is saved in historical documents and archives, but only barely explored up to now. Such documents are also available in archives of European meteorological services, partly also not yet in digital format. A main aim of the SASSCAL Initiative (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management; www.sasscal.org) is to improve the availability of reliable meteorological baseline data along with a set of analytical methods to strengthen the research capacities in the SASSCAL region including Angola, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia, and therewith to support and integrate information of existing national monitoring networks of the Southern African region. In close cooperation with the national weather authorities and various research institutions of the SASSCAL region, the above mentioned deficits are specifically addressed by i) extending the existing national monitoring networks through additional automatic weather stations and their integration in the SASSCAL WeatherNet which in near future hosts about 130 stations, ii) contributing to the development of Climate Data Management Systems (CDMS) at the national weather authorities in Angola, Botswana and Zambia and iii) the provision of additional time series of climate data based on the historic documents from various archives in all countries. The paper presents first results and shows how these efforts are linked to provide consistent climate information for Southern Africa in order to support research and decision-making activities conducted in SASSCAL and beyond.

  7. Interaction of dipole eddies with the western continental slope of the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Ternon, Jean-François; Morris, Tamaryn

    2014-02-01

    Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) data were used to track a southward propagating eddy dipole along the western slope of the Mozambique Channel over some 6 months. In April 2005, this dipole (with the cyclone to the south) was close to the continental slope off southern Mozambique. The contact zone between the contra-rotating vortices and the slope was surveyed by ship using onboard (S-)ADCP and CTD lines. The data showed strong (>1.4 m s-1) southward (geostrophic) currents over the slope adjacent to the anticyclone with horizontal divergence over the shelf edge. Significant slope upwelling between the dipole and the shelf was evident, concomitant with enhanced nutrient and chlorophyll levels enriching shelf near-surface waters. Satellite observations depicted a 300 km long surface chlorophyll filament extending offshore in the frontal zone between the contra-rotating vortices. A satellite-tracked drifter deployed at the coastal base of this filament confirmed the offshore advection of chlorophyll-enriched shelf water, which ultimately wrapped around the cyclone and filling its centre. The slope upwelling was also clearly evident in hourly temperature data collected by a recorder deployed on a nearby reef (Zambia Reef) in a depth of 18 m. According to the SLA data, the dipole took several weeks to pass Zambia Reef causing prolonged bouts of upwelling that finally ceased when it left the continental slope and moved southwards into the open ocean. Further analysis showed that lone anticyclones and cyclones against the Mozambique continental shelf also induce slope upwelling as a result of horizontal divergence created by the radial circulation of the vortex. In the case of cyclones, the divergence occurs north of the contact zone. Overall, this case study confirms that eddies moving southwards along the western side of the Mozambique Channel are the main mechanism for pumping nutrients into the otherwise oligotrophic surface waters, and moreover, provide a vigorous mechanism for shelf-open ocean exchange.

  8. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  9. The 'Fish Trader+' model: reducing female fish traders' vulnerability to HIV.

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Saskia Mc; Heck, Simon

    2012-03-01

    Analysis from research and practice in Africa shows that fishing communities are hardly reached by HIV-related services, education, and business services, partly because of the efforts and costs involved and a lack of good practice in reaching out to these often remote areas. At the same time, fish traders, especially women, travel regularly to remote fishing camps to purchase fish. Although female fish traders may be exposed to HIV, violence and abuse in their interactions and relationships with fishermen, economic necessity keeps them in this trade. Good health among fisherfolk is a basic mainstay of productive and sustainable fisheries, providing food and income to fishing communities and the nation at large. However, these benefits are severely at risk as per-capita fish supplies in several African countries are declining, and fisherfolk are among the populations most vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. Under the regional programme 'Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in sustainable solutions,' the WorldFish Center conducted a socioeconomic assessment in the Kafue Flats fishery in Zambia to identify factors related to HIV/AIDS vulnerability among people in the fishing communities, particularly female fish traders. The study identified a variety of factors, hence the 'Fish Trader+' model of intervention was developed to reduce female fish traders' vulnerability to HIV by building on their economic rationale through the formation of savings groups. This article outlines the implementation of the Fish Trader+ model in Zambia and examines its potential to empower female fish traders so as to reduce poverty and vulnerability to HIV in fishing communities. PMID:25870894

  10. Creating supportive environments for AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) argues that AIDS prevention requires a supportive environment, but that discriminatory laws make marginalized people even more vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A country's legal, economic, and social environments can influence the pandemic. A short-term measure could be prostitutes collectively insisting that their clients wear condoms. Long-term measures of AIDS prevention require the improvement of the legal status of women and their access to education. Societies repress or tolerate drug use, prostitution, homosexuality, and casual sex, but often ministries forbid condom advertising, and condom possession by women can be used as evidence of prostitution. Fear of mandatory testing and detention prevents sex workers and drug users from accepting condoms and needles. A recent review of policies in 22 locations around the world found low seroprevalence of HIV among IV drug users in only 5 countries -- exactly the same countries where IV drug users had legal access to sterile needles. In Zambia a national condom promotion campaign was launched only after a 2-year debate, while free condoms had been distributed surreptitiously by a nongovernmental organization. Sex discrimination in many countries forces women to trade sex for money to make a living, and women in sex work are very vulnerable to HIV infection. Overcoming the subordination of women is a long-term undertaking, but an example of successful short-term empowerment of women is a credit scheme operated by a bank for rural women in Bangladesh. Socially, culturally, and economically male infidelity is often condoned, creating the risk of HIV infection and of passing the infection on to wives. Information campaigns stressing shared responsibility can be effective in changing social norms. Some traditional practices, e.g., ritual cleansing in Uganda and Zambia, also expose participants to the risk of HIV infection. PMID:12346161

  11. The High Burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a Large Zambian Prison: A Public Health Alert

    PubMed Central

    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M.; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R.; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B.; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Methods Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. Results A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n?=?22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Conclusion Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required. PMID:23967048

  12. Integrating reproductive health: myth and ideology.

    PubMed Central

    Lush, L.; Cleland, J.; Walt, G.; Mayhew, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1994, integrating human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) services with primary health care, as part of reproductive health, has been advocated to address two major public health problems: to control the spread of HIV; and to improve women's reproductive health. However, integration is unlikely to succeed because primary health care and the political context within which this approach is taking place are unsuited to the task. In this paper, a historical comparison is made between the health systems of Ghana, Kenya and Zambia and that of South Africa, to examine progress on integration of HIV/STD services since 1994. Our findings indicate that primary health care in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia has been used mainly by women and children and that integration has meant adding new activities to these services. For the vertical programmes which support these services, integration implies enhanced collaboration rather than merged responsibility. This compromise between comprehensive rhetoric and selective reality has resulted in little change to existing structures and processes; problems with integration have been exacerbated by the activities of external donors. By comparison, in South Africa integration has been achieved through political commitment to primary health care rather than expanding vertical programmes (top-down management systems). The rhetoric of integration has been widely used in reproductive health despite lack of evidence for its feasibility, as a result of the convergence of four agendas: improving family planning quality; the need to improve women's health; the rapid spread of HIV; and conceptual shifts in primary health care. International reproductive health actors, however, have taken little account of political, financial and managerial constraints to implementation in low-income countries. PMID:10534902

  13. Imprisoned and imperiled: access to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and denial of human rights, in Zambian prisons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although HIV and tuberculosis (TB) prevalence are high in prisons throughout sub-Saharan Africa, little research has been conducted on factors related to prevention, testing and treatment services. Methods To better understand the relationship between prison conditions, the criminal justice system, and HIV and TB in Zambian prisons, we conducted a mixed-method study, including: facility assessments and in-depth interviews with 246 prisoners and 30 prison officers at six Zambian prisons; a review of Zambian legislation and policy governing prisons and the criminal justice system; and 46 key informant interviews with government and non-governmental organization officials and representatives of international agencies and donors. Results The facility assessments, in-depth interviews and key informant interviews found serious barriers to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and extended pre-trial detention that contributed to overcrowded conditions. Disparities both between prisons and among different categories of prisoners within prisons were noted, with juveniles, women, pre-trial detainees and immigration detainees significantly less likely to access health services. Conclusions Current conditions and the lack of available medical care in Zambia's prisons violate human rights protections and threaten prisoners' health. In order to protect the health of prisoners, prison-based health services, linkages to community-based health care, general prison conditions and failures of the criminal justice system that exacerbate overcrowding must be immediately improved. International donors should work with the Zambian government to support prison and justice system reform and ensure that their provision of funding in such areas as health services respect human rights standards, including non-discrimination. Human rights protections against torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and criminal justice system rights, are essential to curbing the spread of HIV and TB in Zambian prisons, and to achieving broader goals to reduce HIV and TB in Zambia. PMID:21314929

  14. Endangered edible orchids and vulnerable gatherers in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tanzania is a wild orchid biodiversity hotspot and has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The wild orchids in the study are endemic and protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Every year, however, between 2.2 and 4.1 million orchid plants consumed in Zambia are estimated as originating from Tanzania. This research examines the differences between HIV/AIDS wild edible orchid gatherers and non-HIV/AIDS gatherers with regards to the frequency of gathering, salience in naming the various orchids, gathering knowledge acquisition and perceptions regarding the current state of abundance of the edible species. Methods Data was collected through interviews with 224 individuals in the Makete District of Tanzania close to the boarder of Zambia. Free-listings were conducted and Sutrup's Cultural Significance Index (CSI) constructed. The independent t-test was used to compare the differences in gathering frequencies between affected and non-affected gatherers. A multiple comparison of the 4 subgroups (affected adults and children, and non-affected adults and children) in gathering frequencies was done with a one way ANOVA test and its post hoc test. To examine the difference between affected and non-affected gatherers difference in source of gathering knowledge, a chi square test was run. Results Forty two vernacular names of gathered orchid species were mentioned corresponding to 7 botanical species belongs to genera Disa, Satyrium, Habenaria, Eulophia and Roeperocharis. Ninety-seven percent of HIV/AIDS affected households state that orchid gathering is their primary economic activity compared to non-HIV/AIDS affected households at 9.7 percent. The HIV/AIDS affected gathered significantly more often than the non-affected. AIDS orphans, however, gathered most frequently. Gatherers perceive a decreasing trend of abundance of 6 of the 7 species. Gathering activities were mainly performed in age based peer groups. The results revealed a significant difference between affected and non-affected individuals in terms of their source of gathering knowledge. Conclusions HIV/AIDS is related to increased reliance on the natural environment. This appears even more so for the most vulnerable, the AIDS orphaned children followed by HIV/AIDS widows. PMID:20021656

  15. Using new luminescence methods to date the Palaeolithic: the example of Kalambo Falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duller, Geoff; Tooth, Stephen; Barham, Larry

    2013-04-01

    The Palaeolithic site of Kalambo Falls in the north of Zambia was the subject of detailed study by J.D. Clark in the 1950s with 4 excavations being located within 1 km of each other in a basin upstream of the falls. A rich palaeolithic tool record was recovered, but the value of this record was limited by the lack of chronological information available. In 2006, one of the excavation sites was re-investigated (Barham et al., 2009), including examination of the stratigraphic context and collection of samples for luminescence dating. Many of the sediments in the Kalambo basin were deposited by fluvial activity. Dose distributions in the single grain quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements of the youngest sediments are consistent with incomplete bleaching. However, the residual doses obtained are typically less than 10 Gy, and so for older sediments the impact of incomplete bleaching becomes insignificant. The oldest samples are affected by a different problem, namely saturation of the OSL signal, and many grains are saturated. However in all cases some grains give finite equivalent dose values, making it feasible to calculate single grain quartz OSL ages, but it is difficult to assess whether these ages are reliable or not. Thermally transferred OSL (TT-OSL) from quartz is able to date much older samples due to the high saturation dose of this signal (Duller and Wintle, 2012). Comparison of the TT-OSL and OSL demonstrates that the OSL signal yields age underestimates as samples near saturation. Only by using the two luminescence methods is it possible to create an absolute chronology for this key site stretching back over half a million years. This study demonstrates the potential of using these two luminescence signals together for dating Palaeolithic sites throughout Africa and beyond. Barham, L., Duller, G. A. T., Plater, A. J., Tooth, S. and Turner, S. (2009). Recent excavations at Kalambo Falls, Zambia. Antiquity 83(322). Duller, G. A. T. and Wintle, A. G. (2012). The potential of the thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence signal from quartz for dating sediments. Quaternary Geochronology 7: 6-20.

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease in Tanzania from 2001 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Picado, A; Speybroeck, N; Kivaria, F; Mosha, R M; Sumaye, R D; Casal, J; Berkvens, D

    2011-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Tanzania, with outbreaks occurring almost each year in different parts of the country. There is now a strong political desire to control animal diseases as part of national poverty alleviation strategies. However, FMD control requires improving the current knowledge on the disease dynamics and factors related to FMD occurrence so control measures can be implemented more efficiently. The objectives of this study were to describe the FMD dynamics in Tanzania from 2001 to 2006 and investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of transmission. Extraction maps, the space-time K-function and space-time permutation models based on scan statistics were calculated for each year to evaluate the spatial distribution, the spatiotemporal interaction and the spatiotemporal clustering of FMD-affected villages. From 2001 to 2006, 878 FMD outbreaks were reported in 605 different villages of 5815 populated places included in the database. The spatial distribution of FMD outbreaks was concentrated along the Tanzania-Kenya, Tanzania-Zambia borders, and the Kagera basin bordering Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania. The spatiotemporal interaction among FMD-affected villages was statistically significant (P?0.01) and 12 local spatiotemporal clusters were detected; however, the extent and intensity varied across the study period. Dividing the country in zones according to their epidemiological status will allow improving the control of FMD and delimiting potential FMD-free areas. PMID:21078082

  17. Community Influences on Married Men's Uptake of HIV Testing in Eight African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Winter, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15–54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Multilevel models were fitted in each country for the outcome of ever receiving an HIV test. After controlling for individual and household level factors, community level factors of demographics, economics, and behavior and knowledge remain significantly associated with HIV testing among men. The results of this analysis highlight the need to recognize the impact of community influences on men's HIV test seeking behavior, and to harness these community factors in the design of programs aimed at encouraging the uptake of HIV testing among men in Africa. PMID:22677974

  18. Alcohol Marketing, Drunkenness, and Problem Drinking among Zambian Youth: Findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Monica H.; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B.; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09–2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06–1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:21647354

  19. An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairncross, B.

    2001-08-01

    The coal deposits of southern Africa (Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) are reviewed. The coal seams formed during two periods, the Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) and the Late Permian (Ufimian-Kazanian). The coals are associated with non-marine terrestrial clastic sedimentary sequences, most commonly mudrock and sandstones, assigned to the Karoo Supergroup. The Early Permian coals are most commonly sandstone-hosted while the younger coals typically occur interbedded with mudstones. The sediments were deposited in varying tectono-sedimentary basins such as foreland, intracratonic rifts and intercratonic grabens and half-grabens. The depositional environments that produced the coal-bearing successions were primarily deltaic and fluvial, with some minor shoreline and lacustrine settings. Coals vary in rank from high-volatile bituminous to anthracite and characteristically have a relatively high inertinite component, and medium- to high-ash content. In countries where coal is mined, it is used for power generation, coking coal, synfuel generation, gasification and for (local) domestic household consumption.

  20. Host genetics and immune control of HIV-1 infection: Fine mapping for the extended human MHC region in an African cohort

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Heather A.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; He, Dongning; Zhang, Kui; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric; Kaslow, Richard A.; Tang, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Multiple MHC loci encoding human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have allelic variants unequivocally associated with differential immune control of HIV-1 infection. Fine mapping based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the extended MHC (xMHC) region is expected to reveal causal or novel factors and to justify a search for functional mechanisms. We have tested the utility of a custom fine-mapping platform (the ImmunoChip) for 172 HIV-1 seroconverters (SCs) and 449 seroprevalent individuals (SPs) from Lusaka, Zambia, with a focus on more than 6,400 informative xMHC SNPs. When conditioned on HLA and non-genetic factors previously associated with HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the study cohort, penalized approaches (HyperLasso models) identified an intergenic SNP (rs3094626 between RPP21 and HLA-E) and an intronic SNP (rs3134931 in NOTCH4) as novel correlates of early set-point VL in SCs. The minor allele of rs2857114 (downstream from HLA-DOB) was an unfavorable factor in SPs. Joint models based on demographic features, HLA alleles and the newly identified SNP variants could explain 29% and 15% of VL variance in SCs and SPs, respectively. These findings and bioinformatics strongly suggest that both classic and non-classic MHC genes deserve further investigation, especially in Africans with relatively short haplotype blocks. PMID:24784026

  1. Open Budget Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Around the world different governments provide different levels of information about their national budgets, and for some parties, this is a real area of concern. For those interested in this timely subject, the Center of Budget and Policy Priorities has created the Open Budget Index. Released in October 2006, this index rates countries on how open their budget books are to their citizens. As the site notes, this information can help a variety of groups "identify meaningful budget reforms needed in specific countries to combat corruption and strengthen basic services to improve people's lives." A great way to start on the site is by looking through country profiles from Uganda, Mexico, and India that will let concerned parties know specifically how budget transparency improves people's lives. After that, visitors can scroll down through a complete list of country summaries and questionnaires from Albania to Zambia. Visitors should also be aware that many of the materials on the site are available in a number of languages, including Arabic, French, Russian, and Spanish.

  2. Educational Outreach That Any Project Can Implement on a Limited Budget: Lessons From the KT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.

    2005-12-01

    When projects are faced with a limited budget, providing an educational component can be difficult and often overlooked. The Kalahari Transect (KT) project of 2005, a NASA-funded investigation of hydrologic and nutrient controls on savanna ecosystem productivity, operated under such constraints. Yet with the assistance of in-country contacts in Botswana and Zambia and with interest from US high school teachers, the KT project implemented several successful educational outreach activities. The broad scientific coverage of the wet season field campaign in southern Africa lent itself to a diversity of educational opportunities for students and teachers, including participation in soil and vegetation sampling, spectral measurements, and surveying. Post-campaign educational efforts took advantage of the field experience gained by University of Virginia graduate students and postdocs and allowed for the establishment of a 'Graduate Student Lecture Series' for area high school science classes. Here we present the successes and challenges of 1) preparing and funding US graduate students on international field campaigns, 2) integrating undergraduate students in the host country and in the USA, 3) collaborating with US high school teachers, and 4) planning future collaborations with Batswana and Zambian high school teachers.

  3. Country watch: Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D

    1993-01-01

    The Bulawayo City Council Health Services Department launched a peer education program for sex workers in 1990. It consisted of formal meetings, informal outreach, condom distribution, and strengthening of sexually transmitted diseases services. Assessment was built in from the start in the form of monitoring, process ethnography, and outcome evaluation. 153 female prostitutes and 74 male sex clients were interviewed at baseline; follow-up interviews were held 1 year later with 48 prostitutes and 58 clients. These interviews revealed that 90% of women and 50% of men had attended program health education meetings; 96% of women and 69% of men had received condoms from the program; and condom use increased significantly among both men and women, although potential errors in the outcome data and their interpretation are acknowledged. The younger, better-educated women fluent in English initially recruited as peer educators were resented by older, less-educated women from rural areas. Attrition was also problematic among younger women as they left the business to enter other forms of employment and marriage. The most effective training proved to be practical, field-oriented, job-related, and frequently repeated and reinforced; regular field supervision was important. Further, the program found that interventions must discourage dependency among participants and instead promote cohesive, self-reliant groups. All people who are even remotely involved in such programs must be sensitized. This program is being replicated in other areas of Zimbabwe as well as in Siavonga, Zambia. PMID:12287482

  4. Provincialization of terrestrial faunas following the end-Permian mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sidor, Christian A.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Peecook, Brandon R.; Steyer, J. Sébastien; Smith, Roger M. H.; Tsuji, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to their devastating effects on global biodiversity, mass extinctions have had a long-term influence on the history of life by eliminating dominant lineages that suppressed ecological change. Here, we test whether the end-Permian mass extinction (252.3 Ma) affected the distribution of tetrapod faunas within the southern hemisphere and apply quantitative methods to analyze four components of biogeographic structure: connectedness, clustering, range size, and endemism. For all four components, we detected increased provincialism between our Permian and Triassic datasets. In southern Pangea, a more homogeneous and broadly distributed fauna in the Late Permian (Wuchiapingian, ?257 Ma) was replaced by a provincial and biogeographically fragmented fauna by Middle Triassic times (Anisian, ?242 Ma). Importantly in the Triassic, lower latitude basins in Tanzania and Zambia included dinosaur predecessors and other archosaurs unknown elsewhere. The recognition of heterogeneous tetrapod communities in the Triassic implies that the end-Permian mass extinction afforded ecologically marginalized lineages the ecospace to diversify, and that biotic controls (i.e., evolutionary incumbency) were fundamentally reset. Archosaurs, which began diversifying in the Early Triassic, were likely beneficiaries of this ecological release and remained dominant for much of the later Mesozoic. PMID:23630295

  5. Statistical modeling of global geogenic arsenic contamination in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Amini, Manouchehr; Abbaspour, Karim C; Berg, Michael; Winkel, Lenny; Hug, Stephan J; Hoehn, Eduard; Yang, Hong; Johnson, C Annette

    2008-05-15

    Contamination of groundwaters with geogenic arsenic poses a major health risk to millions of people. Although the main geochemical mechanisms of arsenic mobilization are well understood, the worldwide scale of affected regions is still unknown. In this study we used a large database of measured arsenic concentration in groundwaters (around 20,000 data points) from around the world as well as digital maps of physical characteristics such as soil, geology, climate, and elevation to model probability maps of global arsenic contamination. A novel rule-based statistical procedure was used to combine the physical data and expert knowledge to delineate two process regions for arsenic mobilization: "reducing" and "high-pH/ oxidizing". Arsenic concentrations were modeled in each region using regression analysis and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inferencing followed by Latin hypercube sampling for uncertainty propagation to produce probability maps. The derived global arsenic models could benefit from more accurate geologic information and aquifer chemical/physical information. Using some proxy surface information, however, the models explained 77% of arsenic variation in reducing regions and 68% of arsenic variation in high-pH/oxidizing regions. The probability maps based on the above models correspond well with the known contaminated regions around the world and delineate new untested areas that have a high probability of arsenic contamination. Notable among these regions are South East and North West of China in Asia, Central Australia, New Zealand, Northern Afghanistan, and Northern Mali and Zambia in Africa. PMID:18546706

  6. Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nyirenda, Christopher K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Koethe, John R.; Kiage, James N.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Musonda, Patrick; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire N.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether 24?hr dietary recalls (DR) are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24?hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 (p < 0.01) for eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.21 (p = 0.005) for docosahexaenoic acid. While there were no significant associations (p > 0.05) between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP) or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin (p < 0.05). Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) were positively associated with CRP (? = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, p = 0.003) and triglycerides (? = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, p < 0.01). Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk. PMID:26161268

  7. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  8. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  9. Using mid-level cadres as substitutes for internationally mobile health professionals in Africa. A desk review

    PubMed Central

    Dovlo, Delanyo

    2004-01-01

    Background Substitute health workers are cadres who take on some of the functions and roles normally reserved for internationally recognized health professionals such as doctors, pharmacists and nurses but who usually receive shorter pre-service training and possess lower qualifications. Methods A desk review is conducted on the education, regulation, scopes of practice, specialization, nomenclature, retention and cost-effectiveness of substitute health workers in terms of their utilization in countries such as Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Ghana etc., using curricula, evaluations and key-informant questionnaires. Results The cost-effectiveness of using substitutes and their relative retention within countries and in rural communities underlies their advantages to African health systems. Some studies comparing clinical officers and doctors show minimal differences in outcomes to patients. Specialized substitutes provide services in disciplines such as surgery, ophthalmology, orthopedics, radiology, dermatology, anesthesiology and dentistry, demonstrating a general bias of use for clinical services. Conclusions The findings raise interest in expanding the use of substitute cadres, as the demands of expanding access to services such as antiretroviral treatment requires substantial human resources capacity. Understanding the roles and conditions under which such cadres best function, and managing the skepticism and professional turf protection that restricts their potential, will assist in effective utilization of substitutes. PMID:15207010

  10. How predictable are water resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P.

    2010-10-01

    Peter Mason, technical director of international dams and hydropower at MWH, explains how some water resources might be more predictable than generally supposed. Some years ago the writer examined the levels of Lake Victoria in east Africa as part of a major refurbishment project. This revealed a clear cyclic behavior in lake level and hence in discharges from the lake down the Nile system and up into Egypt. A recent study by the writer demonstrated that 20-year mean flows in the Kafue River in Zambia corresponded well to reconstructed rainfall records based on regional tree ring records. The Rio Parana has a catchment area of 3,100,000km 2 and a mean stream flow of 21,300m 3/sec. In the wider context an improved understanding of apparent periodicities in the natural record would seem to offer at least one planning scenario to be considered in terms of investment and even for the long term planning of aid and famine relief.

  11. Remote Sensing of Smoke, Land and Clouds from the NASA ER-2 during SAFARI 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Moeller, Christopher C.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Chu, D. Allen

    2002-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft was deployed to southern Africa between August 17 and September 25, 2000 as part of the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000. This aircraft carried a sophisticated array of multispectral scanners, multiangle spectroradiometers, a monostatic lidar, a gas correlation radiometer, upward and downward spectral flux radiometers, and two metric mapping cameras. These observations were obtained over a 3200 x 2800 km region of savanna, woody savanna, open shrubland, and grassland ecosystems throughout southern Africa, and were quite often coordinated with overflights by NASA's Terra and Landsat 7 satellites. The primary purpose of this sophisticated high altitude observing platform was to obtain independent observations of smoke, clouds, and land surfaces that could be used to check the validity of various remote sensing measurements derived by Earth-orbiting satellites. These include such things as the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) cloud mask for distinguishing clouds and heavy aerosol from land and ocean surfaces, and Terra analyses of cloud optical and micro-physical properties, aerosol properties, leaf area index, vegetation index, fire occurrence, carbon monoxide, and surface radiation budget. In addition to coordination with Terra and Landsat 7 satellites, numerous flights were conducted over surface AERONET sites, flux towers in South Africa, Botswana, and Zambia, and in situ aircraft from the University of Washington, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.

  12. SPACES Project ARS AfricaE – Adaptive Resilience of Southern African ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falge, Eva; Brümmer, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane; Hüttich, Christian; Scholes, Robert John; Midgley, Guy; Hickler, Thomas; Scheiter, Simon; Twine, Wayne; Bradshaw, Karen; Lück, Wolfgang; Thiel-Clemen, Thomas; Lenfers, Ulfia; Mukelabai, Mukufute; Kutsch, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, many semi-arid ecosystems are affected by at least two different kinds of disturbances: land use (change) and climate change. Based on this, it can be hypothesized that even very resilient ecosystems may not return to their initial state after disturbance, but will rather adapt to a new steady-state. We name this phenomenon "Adaptive Resilience of Ecosystems" and use it as base for the research concept of ARS AfricaE. This project wants to go beyond older approaches that only describe structural changes in savannas and their drivers. It employs functional aspects, such as the investigation of biogeochemical cycles, but also targets a deeper understanding of the functional consequences of ecosystem changes caused by multiple disturbances, and defines "degradation" as a sustained loss in the broad set of ecosystem services, i.e. a decrease in natural capital. To achieve this goal, the project will • create a network of research clusters (with natural and altered vegetation) along an aridity gradient in the Greater Karoo, Kruger National Park in South Africa, and Kataba Forest Reserve in Zambia • link biogeochemical functions with ecosystem structure, diversity of species and eco-physiological properties • describe ecosystem disturbance (and recovery) in terms of ecosystem function such as carbon balance components and water use efficiency • build an individual-based model to predict ecosystem dynamics under (post) disturbance managements • combine this model with long-term landscape dynamic information derived from remote sensing and aerial photography • develop sustainable management strategies for disturbed ecosystems and land use change

  13. Using mid-level cadres as substitutes for internationally mobile health professionals in Africa. A desk review.

    PubMed

    Dovlo, Delanyo

    2004-06-18

    BACKGROUND: Substitute health workers are cadres who take on some of the functions and roles normally reserved for internationally recognized health professionals such as doctors, pharmacists and nurses but who usually receive shorter pre-service training and possess lower qualifications. METHODS: A desk review is conducted on the education, regulation, scopes of practice, specialization, nomenclature, retention and cost-effectiveness of substitute health workers in terms of their utilization in countries such as Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Ghana etc., using curricula, evaluations and key-informant questionnaires. RESULTS: The cost-effectiveness of using substitutes and their relative retention within countries and in rural communities underlies their advantages to African health systems. Some studies comparing clinical officers and doctors show minimal differences in outcomes to patients. Specialized substitutes provide services in disciplines such as surgery, ophthalmology, orthopedics, radiology, dermatology, anesthesiology and dentistry, demonstrating a general bias of use for clinical services. CONCLUSIONS: The findings raise interest in expanding the use of substitute cadres, as the demands of expanding access to services such as antiretroviral treatment requires substantial human resources capacity. Understanding the roles and conditions under which such cadres best function, and managing the skepticism and professional turf protection that restricts their potential, will assist in effective utilization of substitutes. PMID:15207010

  14. The Nursing Education Partnership Initiative (NEPI): innovations in nursing and midwifery education.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn; Howard, Andrea A; Dohrn, Jennifer; Von Zinkernagel, Deborah; Parham Hopson, Deborah; Aranda-Naranjo, Barbara; Hall, Carolyn; Malata, Address; Bvumbwe, Thokozani; Chabela, Adeline; Molise, Nthabiseng; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2014-08-01

    The nursing and midwifery workforce is key to improving the performance of the health system overall. Health workforce shortages are significantly influenced by the productive capacity of health professions education institutions. Long-standing underinvestment in preservice nursing and midwifery education severely limits the capacity of institutions to educate nurses and midwives in sufficient numbers, and with the necessary clinical skills, for current and anticipated population health needs. The Nursing Education Partnership Initiative (NEPI) was established in 2011 by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in response to key capacity-building challenges facing preservice nursing and midwifery education in Sub-Saharan Africa. NEPI has formed partnerships with governments and key stakeholders in Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, and Zambia and supports 19 nursing and midwifery education institutions and 1 nursing council. NEPI has been informed by activities that strengthen education systems, institutions, and organizations as well as faculty capacity building. Ministry of health-led advisory groups were established to provide strategic direction and oversight for the work, fostering intersectoral dialogue and ensuring country ownership and sustainability. Three illustrative examples of innovations at the system, institution, and workforce levels describe approaches for country ownership, for addressing the shortage of highly qualified faculty, and for remedying the inadequate teaching and learning infrastructure. PMID:25072571

  15. Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Rojkoff, Sébastien; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetonia dominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis), is proposed for Elaphinis simillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinis vermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophora rhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinis deplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphinis kwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym) and Anelaphinis sternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bomboesbergica sp. n. from South Africa; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bjornstadi sp. n. from Tanzania; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) garnieri sp. n. from south–east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe); and Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) deplanata minettii ssp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres. PMID:25709532

  16. GraphoGame – a catalyst for multi-level promotion of literacy in diverse contexts

    PubMed Central

    Ojanen, Emma; Ronimus, Miia; Ahonen, Timo; Chansa-Kabali, Tamara; February, Pamela; Jere-Folotiya, Jacqueline; Kauppinen, Karri-Pekka; Ketonen, Ritva; Ngorosho, Damaris; Pitkänen, Mikko; Puhakka, Suzanne; Sampa, Francis; Walubita, Gabriel; Yalukanda, Christopher; Pugh, Ken; Richardson, Ulla; Serpell, Robert; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    GraphoGame (GG) is originally a technology-based intervention method for supporting children with reading difficulties. It is now known that children who face problems in reading acquisition have difficulties in learning to differentiate and manipulate speech sounds and consequently, in connecting these sounds to corresponding letters. GG was developed to provide intensive training in matching speech sounds and larger units of speech to their written counterparts. GG has been shown to benefit children with reading difficulties and the game is now available for all Finnish school children for literacy support. Presently millions of children in Africa fail to learn to read despite years of primary school education. As many African languages have transparent writing systems similar in structure to Finnish, it was hypothesized that GG-based training of letter-sound correspondences could also be effective in supporting children’s learning in African countries. In this article we will describe how GG has been developed from a Finnish dyslexia prevention game to an intervention method that can be used not only to improve children’s reading performance but also to raise teachers’ and parents’ awareness of the development of reading skill and effective reading instruction methods. We will also provide an overview of the GG activities in Zambia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Namibia, and the potential to promote education for all with a combination of scientific research and mobile learning. PMID:26113825

  17. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W.; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean–Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  18. Adapting enzyme-based microbial water quality analysis to remote areas in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Adam; Benami, Maya; Weisbrod, Noam

    2013-09-17

    Enzyme-substrate microbial water tests, originally developed for efficiency gains in laboratory settings, are potentially useful for on-site analysis in remote settings. This is especially relevant in developing countries where water quality is a pressing concern and qualified laboratories are rare. We investigated one such method, Colisure, first for sensitivity to incubation temperatures in order to explore alternative incubation techniques appropriate for remote areas, and then in a remote community of Zambia for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking-water samples. We sampled and analyzed 352 water samples from source, transport containers and point-of-use from 164 random households. Both internal validity (96-100%) and laboratory trials (zero false negatives or positives at incubation between 30 and 40 °C) established reliability under field conditions. We therefore recommend the use of this and other enzyme-based methods for remote applications. We also found that most water samples from wells accessing groundwater were free of E. coli whereas most samples from surface sources were fecally contaminated. We further found very low awareness among the population of the high levels of recontamination in household storage containers, suggesting the need for monitoring and treatment beyond the water source itself. PMID:23952711

  19. Inter-country consultation.

    PubMed

    Reid, E

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, the UN Development Program (UNDP) organized the African Informal Consultation on Behavior Change as it relates to the HIV pandemic. Community-based organization and government representatives attended from Australia, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Malawi, Malaysia, Norway, Senegal, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, the United Kingdom, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Participants strongly endorsed the possibility for individuals and communities to change their attitudes and behaviors in response to HIV and AIDS, and stressed the importance of evaluating and documenting these changes and sharing lessons learned. The group concluded that research in the field of HIV should be action-oriented and participatory; new research methods and ways of presenting data are called for. Participants in the 2nd consultation held in the Asia/Pacific region in November 1992 also stressed the importance of developing community-based monitoring, evaluation, and program development methodologies. The UNDP responded by launching a number of initiatives in Africa, Asia and Central America to explore ways in which communities may be helped to document ongoing changes, assess their impact and efficacy, and share them with others. New approaches to evaluation are also being explored based upon processes of assessment and redesign already occurring in the communities. PMID:12287485

  20. Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the southern African subcontinent with implications for secular variation in crustal genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-? stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the southern African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ?4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.